WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperature zero k

  1. Elements of non-equilibrium (ℎ, k)-dynamics at zero and finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubeva, O.N.; Sukhanov, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a method which allows developing some elements of non-equilibrium (ℎ, k)-dynamics without use of Schroedinger equation. It is based on the generalization pf Fokker-Planck and Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Sequential considering of stochastic influence of vacuum is realized in the quantum heat bath model. We show that at the presence of quantum-thermal diffusion non-equilibrium wave functions describe the process of nearing to generalized state of thermal equilibrium at zero and finite temperatures. They can be used as a ground for universal description of transport phenomena

  2. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsnyai, B. F.

    2002-01-01

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the

  3. Kinetics of ikaite precipitation and dissolution in seawater-derived brines at sub-zero temperatures to 265 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Stathys; Kennedy, Hilary; Kennedy, Paul; Thomas, David N.

    2014-09-01

    The kinetics of calcium carbonate hexahydrate (ikaite) precipitation and dissolution were investigated in seawater and seawater-derived brines at sub-zero temperatures using the constant addition experimental technique. The steady state rate of these two processes was found to be a function of the deviation of the solution from equilibrium with respect to ikaite and conformed to the same empirical rate law as the anhydrous CaCO3 polymorphs, calcite and aragonite. In addition to the saturation state of the brine with respect to ikaite, the salinity of the brine and the temperature of the reaction evidently exerted some control on the ikaite precipitation kinetics, while the dissolution kinetics of the polymorph were not noticeably influenced by these two parameters. The experimental salinity and temperature conditions were equivalent to those at thermal equilibrium between brine and ice in the sea ice cover of polar seas. Simple modelling of the CO2 system by extrapolation of the oceanic equivalent to sea ice brines showed that the physical concentration of seawater ions and the changes in ikaite solubility as a function of salinity and temperature, both inherent in the sea ice system, would be insufficient to drive the emergent brines to ikaite supersaturation and precipitation in sea ice down to -8 °C. The loss of dissolved inorganic carbon to the gas phase of sea ice and to sympagic autotrophs are two independent mechanisms which, in nature, could prompt the brine CO2 system towards ikaite supersaturation and precipitation. Under these conditions, the steady state precipitation rate of ikaite was found to be fast enough for rapid formation within short time scales (days to weeks) in sea ice. The observed ikaite dissolution kinetics were also found conducive to short turn-over time scales of a few hours to a few days in corrosive solutions, such as surface seawater.

  4. Ikaite solubility in seawater-derived brines at 1 atm and sub-zero temperatures to 265 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Stathys; Kennedy, Hilary; Kennedy, Paul; Thomas, David N.

    2013-05-01

    The concentration-based (stoichiometric) equilibrium solubility product of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in seawater and cryogenic seawater-derived brines was determined at 1 atm total pressure over the temperature range from -1.1 to -7.5 °C and the salinity range from 34 to 124 in temperature-salinity pairs representative of sea ice brines. The solubility measurements were obtained in solutions that were undersaturated and supersaturated with respect to ikaite by equilibration with CO2/N2 gas mixtures of known pCO2 (20-400 μatm). The solutions were then equilibrated with synthetic ikaite (seed) for up to 3 months in a closed system. Arrival of the solid-solution system at a long-term chemical equilibrium was indicated by attainment of constant chemical solution composition with respect to total dissolved calcium, total dissolved inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity. Using these measurements, the stoichiometric equilibrium solubility product of ikaite (Ksp,ikaite∗=[Ca][CO32-], in molkgsolution-2) was determined, with the carbonate ion concentration computed from the measured total alkalinity and total dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations. The computed carbonate ion concentration and, by extension, the Ksp,ikaite∗ are both contingent on solving the system of equations that describe the parameters of the CO2 system in seawater by extrapolation to the experimental salinity and temperature conditions. The results show that the pKsp,ikaite∗=-logKsp,ikaite∗ in seawater of salinity 34 at -1.1 °C was 5.362 ± 0.004 and that the pKsp,ikaite∗ in sea ice at the freezing point of brines of salinity greater than 34 can be described as a function of temperature (T, in K) by the equation, pKsp,ikaite∗=-15489.09608+623443.70216T-1+2355.14596lnT, in the temperature range of 265.15 K 1 month) approach to chemical equilibrium when incubated without seeding ikaite crystals. Simple modeling indicated that ikaite should not precipitate from sea ice brines evolving under

  5. Zero temperature dissipation and holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Pinaki; Sathiapalan, B. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences,CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2016-04-14

    We use holographic techniques to study the zero-temperature limit of dissipation for a Brownian particle moving in a strongly coupled CFT at finite temperature in various space-time dimensions. The dissipative term in the boundary theory for ω→0, T→0 with ω/T held small and fixed, does not match the same at T=0, ω→0. Thus the T→0 limit is not smooth for ω

  6. Zero Thermal Noise in Resistors at Zero Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2016-06-01

    The bandwidth of transistors in logic devices approaches the quantum limit, where Johnson noise and associated error rates are supposed to be strongly enhanced. However, the related theory — asserting a temperature-independent quantum zero-point (ZP) contribution to Johnson noise, which dominates the quantum regime — is controversial and resolution of the controversy is essential to determine the real error rate and fundamental energy dissipation limits of logic gates in the quantum limit. The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise for a resistance is the sum of Nyquist’s classical Johnson noise equation and a quantum ZP term with a power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. The classical Johnson-Nyquist formula vanishes at the approach of zero temperature, but the quantum ZP term still predicts non-zero noise voltage and current. Here, we show that this noise cannot be reconciled with the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. Consequently, Johnson noise must be nil at zero temperature, and non-zero noise found for certain experimental arrangements may be a measurement artifact, such as the one mentioned in Kleen’s uncertainty relation argument.

  7. Quantum Field Theory at non zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.

    1989-01-01

    The formulations of the Φ 4 Quantum Field Theory and of Quantum Electrodynamics in I+d dimensions (d spatial dimensions) at non-zero temperature are reviewed. The behaviours of all those theories in the regime of large distances and high temperatures are surveyed. Only results are reported, all technicalities being omitted. The leading high-temperature contributions to correlation functions, to all perturbative orders, in those theories turn out to be also given by simpler theories, having much milder (superrenormalizable) ultraviolet behaviour and special mass renormalizations. In particular, the triviality/non-triviality issue for the Φ 4 theory in 1+3 dimensions is discussed briefly. (Author)

  8. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan

    2012-01-01

    , quenched in oil, and thereafter investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry, which allows a quantitative assessment of the fraction of retained austenite as a function of the sub-zero temperature and time. Isothermal martensite formation was observed on interrupting the continuous cooling (5 K...... with a continuation of the martensitic transformation. On prolonged isothermal holding, a volume reduction was observed for AISI 52100, but not for AISI 1070. Copyright © 2011 by ASTM International....

  9. Ising ferromagnet: zero-temperature dynamic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P M C de; Newman, C M; Sidoravicious, V; Stein, D L

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic evolution at zero temperature of a uniform Ising ferromagnet on a square lattice is followed by Monte Carlo computer simulations. The system always eventually reaches a final, absorbing state, which sometimes coincides with a ground state (all spins parallel), and sometimes does not (parallel stripes of spins up and down). We initiate here the numerical study of 'chaotic time dependence' (CTD) by seeing how much information about the final state is predictable from the randomly generated quenched initial state. CTD was originally proposed to explain how nonequilibrium spin glasses could manifest an equilibrium pure state structure, but in simpler systems such as homogeneous ferromagnets it is closely related to long-term predictability and our results suggest that CTD might indeed occur in the infinite volume limit

  10. Phase shift and zeros in K/sup +/p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, M [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-22

    A specific example--K/sup +/p elastic scattering--is used to show some drawbacks of the classical phase shift analysis (PSA). The recently introduced method of zeros is used to obtain new results concerning K/sup +/p elastic and to prove that PSA are not well fit to the study of this interaction.

  11. Technical Feasibility Study for Zero Energy K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldwasser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Studer, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This technical feasibility study provides documentation and research results supporting a possible set of strategies to achieve source zero energy K-12 school buildings as defined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) zero energy building (ZEB) definition (DOE 2015a). Under this definition, a ZEB is an energy-efficient building in which, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy.

  12. Zero Energy Schools: Designing for the Future: Zero Energy Ready K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Designing, building, and operating zero energy ready K-12 schools provides benefits for districts, students, and teachers. Optimizing energy efficiency is important in any building, but it's particularly important in K-12 schools. Many U.S. school districts struggle for funding, and improving a school building's energy efficiency can free up operational funds that may then be available for educational and other purposes.

  13. A Kohn-Sham system at zero temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Hoke, K.; Neidhardt, H.

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional Kohn-Sham system for spin particles is considered which effectively describes semiconductor nanostructures, and which is investigated at zero temperature. We prove the existence of solutions and derive a priori estimates. For this purpose we find estimates for eigenvalues...... by monotonicity arguments. Finally, we investigate the behavior of the system if the temperature approaches zero....

  14. Describing gluons at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Any description of gluons requires a well-defined gauge. This is complicated non-perturbatively by Gribov copies. A possible method-independent gauge definition to resolve this problem is presented and afterwards used to study the properties of gluons at any temperature. It is found that only chromo-electric properties reflect the phase transition. From these the gauge-invariant phase transition temperature is determined for SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theory independently. (author)

  15. A Kohn-Sham system at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornean, H; Hoke, K; Neidhardt, H; Racec, P N; Rehberg, J

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional Kohn-Sham system for spin particles is considered which effectively describes semiconductor nanostructures, and which is investigated at zero temperature. We prove the existence of solutions and derive a priori estimates. For this purpose we find estimates for eigenvalues of the Schroedinger operator with effective Kohn-Sham potential and obtain W 1,2 -bounds of the associated particle density operator. Afterwards, compactness and continuity results allow us to apply Schauder's fixed point theorem. In the case of vanishing exchange-correlation potential uniqueness is shown by monotonicity arguments. Finally, we investigate the behavior of the system if the temperature approaches zero

  16. Quantum and classical vacuum forces at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niekerken, Ole

    2009-06-01

    In this diploma thesis the Casimir-Polder force at zero temperature and at finite temperatures is calculated by using a well-defined quantum field theory (formulated in position space) and the method of image charges. For the calculations at finite temperature KMS-states are used. The so defined temperature describes the temperature of the electromagnetic background. A one oscillator model for inhomogeneous dispersive absorbing dielectric material is introduced and canonically quantized to calculate the Casimir-Polder force at a dielectric interface at finite temperature. The model fulfils causal commutation relations and the dielectric function of the model fulfils the Kramer-Kronig relations. We then use the same methods to calculate the van der Waals force between two neutral atoms at zero temperature and at finite temperatures. It is shown that the high temperature behaviour of the Casimir-Polder force and the van der Waals force are independent of ℎ. This means that they have to be understood classically, what is then shown in an algebraic statistical theory by using classical KMS states. (orig.)

  17. Zero sound velocity in π, ρ mesons at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Dey, M.; Tomio, L.; Araujo, C.F. de Jr.

    1994-07-01

    Sharp transitions are perhaps absent in QCD, so that one looks for physical quantities which may reflect the phase change. One such quantity is the sound velocity which was shown in lattice theory to become zero at the transition point for pure glue. We show that even in a simple bag model the sound velocity goes to zero at temperature T=T ν ≠ 0 and that the numerical value of this T ν depends on the nature of the meson. The average thermal energy of mesons go linearly with T near T ν , with much smaller slope for the pion. The T ν - s can be connected with the Boltzmann temperatures obtained from transverse momentum spectrum of these mesons in heavy ion collision at mid-rapidity. It would be interesting to check the presence of different T ν - s in present day finite T lattice theory. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Deconstructing scalar QED at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, N.; Sakamoto, K.; Shiraishi, K.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the effective potential for the WLPNGB in a world with a circular latticized extra dimension. The mass of the Wilson line pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (WLPNGB) is calculated from the one-loop quantum effect of scalar fields at zero and finite temperature. We show that a series expansion by the modified Bessel functions is useful to calculate the one-loop effective potentials. (orig.)

  19. Pycnonuclear 12C+12C reaction at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasques, L R; Beard, M; Chamon, L C; Wiescher, M

    2005-01-01

    We present pycnonuclear reaction calculations for a one-component ionic crystal at zero temperature considering different theoretical approaches. The rates depend directly on the determination of the astrophysical S-factor at low energies, which has been obtained through the barrier penetration formalism. A totally parameter-free model for the real part of the nuclear interaction has been employed in the calculation of 12 C+ 12 C fusion cross sections

  20. Repulsive Casimir force at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Teo, L P

    2009-01-01

    We study the zero and finite temperature Casimir force acting on a perfectly conducting piston with arbitrary cross section moving inside a closed cylinder with infinitely permeable walls. We show that at any temperature, the Casimir force always tends to move the piston away from the walls and toward its equilibrium position. In the case of a rectangular piston, exact expressions for the Casimir force are derived. In the high-temperature regime, we show that the leading term of the Casimir force is linear in temperature and therefore the Casimir force has a classical limit. Due to duality, all these results also hold for an infinitely permeable piston moving inside a closed cylinder with perfectly conducting walls.

  1. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-11-22

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) is the preferred tool for obtaining non-perturbative results from QCD in the low-energy regime. It has by now entered the era in which high precision calculations for a number of phenomenologically relevant observables at the physical point, with dynamical quark degrees of freedom and controlled systematics, become feasible. Despite these successes there are still quantities where control of systematic effects is insufficient. The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the potential of todays state-of-the-art simulation algorithms for non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions to produce reliable results in the chiral regime and at the physical point both for zero and non-zero temperature. Important in this context is the control over the chiral extrapolation. This thesis is concerned with two particular topics, namely the computation of hadronic form factors at zero temperature, and the properties of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD. The electromagnetic iso-vector form factor of the pion provides a platform to study systematic effects and the chiral extrapolation for observables connected to the structure of mesons (and baryons). Mesonic form factors are computationally simpler than their baryonic counterparts but share most of the systematic effects. This thesis contains a comprehensive study of the form factor in the regime of low momentum transfer q{sup 2}, where the form factor is connected to the charge radius of the pion. A particular emphasis is on the region very close to q{sup 2}=0 which has not been explored so far, neither in experiment nor in LQCD. The results for the form factor close the gap between the smallest spacelike q{sup 2}-value available so far and q{sup 2}=0, and reach an unprecedented accuracy at full control over the main systematic effects. This enables the model-independent extraction of the pion charge radius. The results for the form factor and the charge

  2. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) is the preferred tool for obtaining non-perturbative results from QCD in the low-energy regime. It has by now entered the era in which high precision calculations for a number of phenomenologically relevant observables at the physical point, with dynamical quark degrees of freedom and controlled systematics, become feasible. Despite these successes there are still quantities where control of systematic effects is insufficient. The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the potential of todays state-of-the-art simulation algorithms for non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions to produce reliable results in the chiral regime and at the physical point both for zero and non-zero temperature. Important in this context is the control over the chiral extrapolation. This thesis is concerned with two particular topics, namely the computation of hadronic form factors at zero temperature, and the properties of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD. The electromagnetic iso-vector form factor of the pion provides a platform to study systematic effects and the chiral extrapolation for observables connected to the structure of mesons (and baryons). Mesonic form factors are computationally simpler than their baryonic counterparts but share most of the systematic effects. This thesis contains a comprehensive study of the form factor in the regime of low momentum transfer q 2 , where the form factor is connected to the charge radius of the pion. A particular emphasis is on the region very close to q 2 =0 which has not been explored so far, neither in experiment nor in LQCD. The results for the form factor close the gap between the smallest spacelike q 2 -value available so far and q 2 =0, and reach an unprecedented accuracy at full control over the main systematic effects. This enables the model-independent extraction of the pion charge radius. The results for the form factor and the charge radius are used to

  3. Zero temperature landscape of the random sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.; Bishop, A.R.; Cai, D.

    1997-01-01

    We present a preliminary summary of the zero temperature properties of the two-dimensional random sine-Gordon model of surface growth on disordered substrates. We found that the properties of this model can be accurately computed by using lattices of moderate size as the behavior of the model turns out to be independent of the size above certain length (∼ 128 x 128 lattices). Subsequently, we show that the behavior of the height difference correlation function is of (log r) 2 type up to a certain correlation length (ξ ∼ 20), which rules out predictions of log r behavior for all temperatures obtained by replica-variational techniques. Our results open the way to a better understanding of the complex landscape presented by this system, which has been the subject of very many (contradictory) analysis

  4. Tolerance of Coffea arabica L. seeds to sub zero temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vilas Boas Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preservation of the quality of coffee seeds is hindered by their intermediate behavior in storage. However, long-term storage at sub zero temperatures may be achieved by adjusting the water content of the seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of coffee seeds to freezing, in relation to physiological and enzymatic modifications. Coffee seeds were dried in two manners, rapid and slow, to water contents of interest, 0.67, 0.43, 0.25, 0.18, 0.11, and 0.05 g H2O g-¹ dw (dry basis. After drying, the seeds were stored at a temperature of -20 ºC and of 86 ºC for 24 hours and for 12 months, and then compared to seeds in cold storage at 10 ºC. The seeds were evaluated through calculation of percentage of normal seedlings, percentage of seedlings with expanded cotyledonary leaves, dry matter of roots and of hypocotyls, and viability of embryos in the tetrazolium test. Expression of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were evaluated by means of electrophoretic analysis. Only seeds dried more slowly to 0.18 g H2O g-1 dw present relative tolerance to storing at -20 °C for 12 months. Coffee seeds do not tolerate storage at a temperature of -86 ºC for 12 months. Water contents below 0.11g H2O g-¹ dw and above 0.43 g H2O g-¹ dw hurt the physiological quality of coffee seeds, regardless of the type of drying, temperature, and storage period. Coffee seed embryos are more tolerant to desiccation and to freezing compared to whole seeds, especially when the seeds are dried to 0.05 g H2O g-¹ dw. The catalase enzyme can be used as a biochemical marker to study tolerance to freezing in coffee seeds.

  5. Filtrated K-theory for real rank zero C*-algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arklint, Sara Esther; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2012-01-01

    The smallest primitive ideal spaces for which there exist counterexamples to the classification of non-simple, purely infinite, nuclear, separable C*-algebras using filtrated K-theory, are four-point spaces. In this article, we therefore restrict to real rank zero C*-algebras with four-point prim...

  6. Equilibrium shape of (4)He crystal under zero gravity below 200 mK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Ohuchi, Haruka; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi

    2015-10-01

    Equilibrium crystal shape is the lowest energy crystal shape that is hardly realized in ordinary crystals because of their slow relaxation. (4)He quantum crystals in a superfluid have been expected as unique exceptions that grow extremely fast at very low temperatures. However, on the ground, gravity considerably deforms the crystals and conceals the equilibrium crystal shape, and thus, gravity-free environment is needed to observe the equilibrium shape of (4)He. We report the relaxation processes of macroscopic (4)He crystals in a superfluid below 200 mK under zero gravity using a parabolic flight of a jet plane. When gravity was removed from a gravity-flattened (4)He crystal, the crystal rapidly transformed into a shape with flat surfaces. Although the relaxation processes were highly dependent on the initial condition, the crystals relaxed to a nearly homothetic shape in the end, indicating that they were truly in an equilibrium shape minimizing the interfacial free energy. Thanks to the equilibrium shape, we were able to determine the Wulff's origin and the size of the c-facet together with the vicinal surface profile next to the c-facet. The c-facet size was extremely small in the quantum crystals, and the facet-like flat surfaces were found to be the vicinal surfaces. At the same time, the interfacial free energy of the a-facet and s-facet was also obtained.

  7. High temperature fluidized bed zero valent iron process for flue gas nitrogen monoxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chen, S.S.; Tang, C.H.; Chang, Y.M.; Cheng, H.H.; Liu, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are generated from a variety of sources, and are critical components of photochemical smog. Zero valent iron (ZVI) has been used to remove NO x in a number of studies. The ZVI process requires no extra chemicals or catalysts. In this study, a fluidized ZVI process for removing NO x from flue gases was proposed. The study examined the effects of temperature, ZVI dosage and influent NO concentrations, and observed the kinetic effects between the fluidized ZVI and NO x . A life cycle analysis of the process was also provided. The parametric analysis was conducted in a series of column studies using a continuous emissions monitoring system. Minimum fluidization velocity equations were provided, and the drag coefficient was determined. Capacities of ZVI for NO removal at different temperatures were calculated. Results of the study suggested that temperature, influent concentrations, and flow rates all influenced kinetic coefficients. Different temperatures resulted in different rates of NO removal. It was concluded that between 673 K and 773 K, almost complete NO removals were achieved. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  8. Statistical physics when the minimum temperature is not absolute zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the nonzero minimum temperature is considered based on the third law of thermodynamics and existence of the minimal momentum. From the assumption of nonzero positive minimum temperature in nature, we deform the definitions of some thermodynamical quantities and investigate nonzero minimum temperature correction to the well-known thermodynamical problems.

  9. A 20mK temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, N.; Sadoulet, B.; Shutt, T.

    1987-11-01

    We are developing a 20mK temperature sensor made of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) germanium for use as a phonon detector in a dark matter search. We find that NTD germanium thermistors around 20mK have resistances which are a strong function of temperature, and have sufficient sensitivity to eventually reach a base line rms energy fluctuation of 6eV at 25mK. Further work is needed to understand the extreme sensitivity of the thermistors to bias power. 13 refs., 18 figs

  10. Fast, Computer Supported Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast experimental method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented. Air gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and data acquisition system COACH is applied in a wide range of temperature. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air under constant volume it is possible to obtain--by extrapolation to zero…

  11. The SU(3) topological susceptibility at zero and finite temperature: A lattice Monte Carlo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.; Oxford Univ.

    1988-01-01

    We extend previous calculations of the zero-temperature topological susceptibility, Χ t , to larger lattices (up to 20 4 ) and smaller lattice spacings (up to β = 6.2). Using a new technique we are able to achieve a precise control of finite size corrections. We confirm, with much greater systematic and statistical precision, that the dimensionless ratio Χ t /K 2 is independent of β for β ≥ 5.7. This enables us to extract Χ t in physical units and we find Χ t = (179 ± 4 MeV) 4 - statistical error only - which is in striking agreement with the Witten-Veneziano calculation. We also investigate the previously observed fact that Χ t is suppressed as the temperature is raised through the deconfining transition. We find that Χ t is in fact discontinuous at the place transition and that its temperature dependence is otherwise weak as long as it remains in a single well-defined phase. (orig.)

  12. Thermodynamic analogy for quantum phase transitions at zero temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cejnar, P.; Heinze, S.; Dobeš, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2005), 011304 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK1048102; GA MŠk LA 080 Grant - others:GA ČR GA202/02/0939 Program:GA Keywords : interacting-Boson model * finite fermi systems Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.610, year: 2005

  13. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan

    2010-01-01

    austenitized and quenched in oil and thereafter investigated with vibrating sample agnetometry, which allows a quantitative assessment of the fraction of retained austenite as a function of the subzero temperature and time. Isothermal martensite formation was observed on interrupting the continuous cooling (5...... with a continuation of the martensitic transformation. On prolonged isothermal holding a volume reduction was observed for AISI 52100, but not for AISI 1070. A mechanism is proposed that explains the occurrence of isothermal martensite formation....

  14. Lattice fermions at non-zero temperature and chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, I.

    1993-01-01

    We study the free fermion gas at finite temperature and chemical potential in the lattice regularized version proposed by Hasenfratz and Karsch. Special emphasis is placed on the identification of the particle and antiparticle contributions to the partition function. In the case of naive fermions we show that the partition function no longer separates into particle-antiparticle contributions in the way familiar from the continuum formulation. The use of Wilson fermions, on the other hand, eliminates this unpleasant feature, and leads, after subtracting the vacuum contributions, to the familiar expressions for the average energy and charge densities. (orig.)

  15. Energy and contact of the one-dimensional Fermi polaron at zero and finite temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggen, E V H; Kinnunen, J J

    2013-07-12

    We use the T-matrix approach for studying highly polarized homogeneous Fermi gases in one dimension with repulsive or attractive contact interactions. Using this approach, we compute ground state energies and values for the contact parameter that show excellent agreement with exact and other numerical methods at zero temperature, even in the strongly interacting regime. Furthermore, we derive an exact expression for the value of the contact parameter in one dimension at zero temperature. The model is then extended and used for studying the temperature dependence of ground state energies and the contact parameter.

  16. Constraining the Natural MSSM through tunneling to color-breaking vacua at zero and non-zero temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Camargo-Molina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We re-evaluate the constraints on the parameter space of the minimal supersymmetric standard model from tunneling to charge- and/or color-breaking minima, taking into account thermal corrections. We pay particular attention to the region known as the Natural MSSM, where the masses of the scalar partners of the top quarks are within an order of magnitude or so of the electroweak scale. These constraints arise from the interaction between these scalar tops and the Higgs fields, which allows the possibility of parameter points having deep charge- and color-breaking true vacua. In addition to requiring that our electroweak-symmetry-breaking, yet QCD- and electromagnetism-preserving vacuum has a sufficiently long lifetime at zero temperature, also demanding stability against thermal tunneling further restricts the allowed parameter space.

  17. Population dynamics of excited atoms in non-Markovian environments at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Hong-Mei; Fang Mao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    The population dynamics of a two-atom system, which is in two independent Lorentzian reservoirs or in two independent Ohmic reservoirs respectively, where the reservoirs are at zero temperature or finite temperature, is studied by using the time-convolutionless master-equation method. The influences of the characteristics and temperature of a non-Markovian environment on the population of the excited atoms are analyzed. We find that the population trapping of the excited atoms is related to the characteristics and the temperature of the non-Markovian environment. The results show that, at zero temperature, the two atoms can be effectively trapped in the excited state both in the Lorentzian reservoirs and in the Ohmic reservoirs. At finite temperature, the population of the excited atoms will quickly decay to a nonzero value. (paper)

  18. S-parameter at Non-Zero Temperature and Chemical Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Ulrik Ishøj; Sannino, Francesco; Pica, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We compute the finite-temperature and matter density corrections to the S-parameter at the one loop level. At non-zero temperature T and matter density Lorentz symmetry breaks and therefore we suggest a suitable generalization of the S-parameter. By computing the plasma correction, we discover...... a reduction of the S-parameter in the physically relevant region of small external momenta for any non-zero chemical potential and T. In particular, the S-parameter vanishes at small m/T, where m is the mass of the fermions, due to the finite extent of the temporal direction. Our results are directly...

  19. Compressibility, zero sound, and effective mass of a fermionic dipolar gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.

    2010-01-01

    The compressibility, zero-sound dispersion, and effective mass of a gas of fermionic dipolar molecules is calculated at finite temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional uniform systems, and in a multilayer quasi-two-dimensional system. The compressibility is nonmonotonic in the reduced temperature, T/T F , exhibiting a maximum at finite temperature. This effect might be visible in a quasi-low-dimensional experiment, providing a clear signature of the onset of many-body quantum degeneracy effects. The collective mode dispersion and effective mass show similar nontrivial temperature and density dependence. In a quasi-low-dimensional system, the zero-sound mode may propagate at experimentally attainable temperatures.

  20. Statistics of energy levels and zero temperature dynamics for deterministic spin models with glassy behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degli Esposti, M.; Giardinà, C.; Graffi, S.; Isola, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the zero-temperature dynamics for the infinite-range, non translation invariant one-dimensional spin model introduced by Marinari, Parisi and Ritort to generate glassy behaviour out of a deterministic interaction. It is argued that there can be a large number of metastable (i.e.,

  1. Zero-temperature renormalization of the 2D transverse Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamieniarz, G.

    1982-08-01

    A zero-temperature real-space renormalization-group method is applied to the transverse Ising model on planar hexagonal, triangular and quadratic lattices. The critical fields and the critical exponents describing low-field large-field transition are calculated. (author)

  2. Quantum Quench Dynamics in the Transverse Field Ising Model at Non-zero Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeling, Nils; Kehrein, Stefan

    The recently discovered Dynamical Phase Transition denotes non-analytic behavior in the real time evolution of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit and has been shown to occur in different systems at zero temperature [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. In this talk we present the extension of the analysis to non-zero temperature by studying a generalized form of the Loschmidt echo, the work distribution function, of a quantum quench in the transverse field Ising model. Although the quantitative behavior at non-zero temperatures still displays features derived from the zero temperature non-analyticities, it is shown that in this model dynamical phase transitions do not exist if T > 0 . This is a consequence of the system being initialized in a thermal state. Moreover, we elucidate how the Tasaki-Crooks-Jarzynski relation can be exploited as a symmetry relation for a global quench or to obtain the change of the equilibrium free energy density. This work was supported through CRC SFB 1073 (Project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  3. Novel Zero-Heat-Flux Deep Body Temperature Measurement in Lower Extremity Vascular and Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Topological properties of function spaces $C_k(X,2)$ over zero-dimensional metric spaces $X$

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Let $X$ be a zero-dimensional metric space and $X'$ its derived set. We prove the following assertions: (1) the space $C_k(X,2)$ is an Ascoli space iff $C_k(X,2)$ is $k_\\mathbb{R}$-space iff either $X$ is locally compact or $X$ is not locally compact but $X'$ is compact, (2) $C_k(X,2)$ is a $k$-space iff either $X$ is a topological sum of a Polish locally compact space and a discrete space or $X$ is not locally compact but $X'$ is compact, (3) $C_k(X,2)$ is a sequential space iff $X$ is a Pol...

  5. A review of TLD's zero-count based on temperature and radiation history of them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçel, Nina; Karakuş, İsmail; Dündar, Ertuğrul; Toykan Çiflikçi, Özlem

    2017-09-01

    In order to review the background value of a group of TLD-100, the zero-count values were collected from the first reading and after seven years after using them in experimental irradiations. The zero-counts for these two conditions were collected, as well as the dependence of temperature and radiation history of this group was evaluated. This study recommended that after frequently irradiation of TLDs the rearrangement for obtaining zero-count value must be performed before using TLDs in a new irradiation examination. Regarding on memory of radiation and thermal history, the sensitivity can change after receiving a large dose of radiation and undergoing readout. Additional annealing would be necessary to restore the original sensitivity. TLDs must be used under reproducible conditions to obtain consistent results.

  6. Direct writing of room temperature and zero field skyrmion lattices by a scanning local magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Senfu; Zhang, Junwei; Zhang, Qiang; Barton, Craig; Neu, Volker; Zhao, Yuelei; Hou, Zhipeng; Wen, Yan; Gong, Chen; Kazakova, Olga; Wang, Wenhong; Peng, Yong; Garanin, Dmitry A.; Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected nanoscale spin textures exhibiting fascinating physical behaviors. Recent observations of room temperature skyrmions in sputtered multilayer films are an important step towards their use in ultra-low power devices. Such practical applications prefer skyrmions to be stable at zero magnetic fields and room temperature. Here, we report the creation of skyrmion lattices in Pt/Co/Ta multilayers by a scanning local field using magnetic force microscopy tips. We also show that those newly created skyrmion lattices are stable at both room temperature and zero fields. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that the skyrmions in our films are of Néel-type. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the creation of a skyrmion lattice by the scanning of local fields, we perform micromagnetic simulations and find the experimental results to be in agreement with our simulation data. This study opens another avenue for the creation of skyrmion lattices in thin films.

  7. Direct writing of room temperature and zero field skyrmion lattices by a scanning local magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Senfu; Zhang, Junwei; Zhang, Qiang; Barton, Craig; Neu, Volker; Zhao, Yuelei; Hou, Zhipeng; Wen, Yan; Gong, Chen; Kazakova, Olga; Wang, Wenhong; Peng, Yong; Garanin, Dmitry A.; Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected nanoscale spin textures exhibiting fascinating physical behaviors. Recent observations of room temperature skyrmions in sputtered multilayer films are an important step towards their use in ultra-low power devices. Such practical applications prefer skyrmions to be stable at zero magnetic fields and room temperature. Here, we report the creation of skyrmion lattices in Pt/Co/Ta multilayers by a scanning local field using magnetic force microscopy tips. We also show that those newly created skyrmion lattices are stable at both room temperature and zero fields. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that the skyrmions in our films are of Néel-type. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the creation of a skyrmion lattice by the scanning of local fields, we perform micromagnetic simulations and find the experimental results to be in agreement with our simulation data. This study opens another avenue for the creation of skyrmion lattices in thin films.

  8. Direct writing of room temperature and zero field skyrmion lattices by a scanning local magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Senfu

    2018-03-29

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected nanoscale spin textures exhibiting fascinating physical behaviors. Recent observations of room temperature skyrmions in sputtered multilayer films are an important step towards their use in ultra-low power devices. Such practical applications prefer skyrmions to be stable at zero magnetic fields and room temperature. Here, we report the creation of skyrmion lattices in Pt/Co/Ta multilayers by a scanning local field using magnetic force microscopy tips. We also show that those newly created skyrmion lattices are stable at both room temperature and zero fields. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that the skyrmions in our films are of Néel-type. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the creation of a skyrmion lattice by the scanning of local fields, we perform micromagnetic simulations and find the experimental results to be in agreement with our simulation data. This study opens another avenue for the creation of skyrmion lattices in thin films.

  9. Non-zero temperature two-mode squeezing for time-dependent two-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, J.; Gruver, J.L.; Proto, A.N.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    A Maximum Entropy Principle density matrix method, valid for systems with temperature different from zero, is presented making it possible two-mode squeezed states in two-level systems with relevant operators and Hamiltonian connected with O(3,2). A method which allows one to relate the appearance of squeezing to the relevant operators, included in order to define the density matrix of the system is given. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  10. Mass current in 3He - A: Some exact representations and their London limit near zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, C.

    1995-09-01

    New representations for normal Green's function of the superfluid A-phase of helium-3 are obtained by an exact solution of the Dyson-Gor'kov equation. These representations result in new formulae for the mass current j-vector near zero temperature. Specific limiting cases for j-vector such ast the limit of lowest order in gradients, following the limit of zero temperature, and vice versa, are investigated. It is shown that the mass current previously known as j-vector = j-vector 0 , where j-vector 0 is an expression of first order in gradients, should be treated as a ''quasiclassical'' object in view of the approximations chosen. The parameter 1/χ implying the ''quasiclassics'', is a small quantity, as the London limit condition holds. Expansion of j-vector in powers of 1/χ is considered and first corrections to j-vector 0 are obtained at zero temperature, for two gauges of the order parameter. (author). 26 refs

  11. NdFeB magnets with zero temperature coefficient of induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, B.M.; Narasimhan, K.S.V.L.; Hurt, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature compensation for the induction of NdFeB type magnets has been investigated. A computer assisted alloy selection method was adopted to identify composition of zero temperature coefficient of induction over -50 to 200 0 C. Selected alloys were processed into magnet by the conventional powder metallurgy method. The experimental temperature coefficient on the sintered magnet correlated with the prediction satisfactory. Holmium is an essential ingredient required for temperature compensation of NdFeB magnets. A magnet, (Nd/sub 0.23/Ho/sub 0.64/Dy/sub 0.13/)/sub 15/Fe/sub 79/B/sub 6/ with B/sub r/ of 7,700 Gauss, H/sub c/ of 7,700 Oe, H/sub ci/ of 20,600 Oe, Bh/sub max/ of 14.8 MGOe and temperature coefficient of -0.029% per 0 C over -50 to +150 was obtained

  12. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. S.; Han, Z.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.

    2014-02-01

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

  13. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.; Han, Z.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature

  14. The drift velocity of electrons in carbon dioxide at temperatures between 193 and 573 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elford, M.T.; Haddad, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    The drift velocity of electrons in carbon dioxide has been measured at gas temperatures ranging from 193 to 573 K and at E/N values up to 20 Td at 193 K, 50 Td at 293 K and 40 Td at 573 K. The measured drift velocities were found to decrease linearly with increasing gas number density at a given value of E/N for gas temperatures less than 293 K. This dependence has been attributed to multiple scattering and the data have been extrapolated to zero number density to correct for this effect. Comparisons are made with previous measurements where available. The present data for the variation of μN(thermal) with temperature agree to within the experimental error with the data of Pact et al. (1962)

  15. On the zero temperature limit of the Kubo-transformed quantum time correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández de la Peña, Lisandro

    2014-04-01

    The zero temperature limit of several quantum time correlation functions is analysed. It is shown that while the canonical quantum time correlation function retains the full dynamical information as temperature approaches zero, the Kubo-transformed and the thermally symmetrised quantum time correlation functions lose all dynamical information at this limit. This is shown to be a consequence of the projection onto the ground state, via the limiting process of the quantities ? and ?, either together as a product, or separately. Although these findings would seem to suggest that finite-temperature methods commonly used to estimate Kubo correlation functions would be incapable of retaining any ground state dynamics, we propose a route for recovering in principle all dynamical information at the ground state. It is first shown that the usual frequency space relation between canonical and Kubo correlation functions also holds for microcanonical time correlation functions. Since the Kubo-transformed microcanonical correlation function can be obtained from the usual finite-temperature function by including a projection onto the corresponding microcanonical ensemble, finite-temperature methods, properly modified to incorporate such a constraint, can be used to capture full quantum dynamics at any arbitrary energy state, including the ground state. This approach is illustrated with the application of centroid dynamics to the ground state dynamics of the harmonic oscillator.

  16. Corium Oxidation at Temperatures Above 2000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagrman, Donald L.; Rempe, Joy L.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanistic model, based on a quasi-equilibrium analysis of oxidation reactions, is proposed for predicting high-temperature corium oxidation. The analysis suggests that oxide forming on the surface of corium containing uranium, zirconium, and iron is similar to the oxides formed on zirconium and uranium as long as there is a small percentage of unoxidized zirconium or uranium in the metallic phase. This is because of the higher affinity of zirconium and uranium for oxygen. Hence, oxidation rates and heat production rates are similar to (U,Zr) compounds until nearly all the uranium and zirconium in the corium oxidizes. Oxidation rates after this point are predicted to be similar to those implied by the oxide thickness present when the forming oxide ceases to be protective, and heat generation rates should be similar to those implied by iron oxidation, i.e., ∼4% of the zirconium oxidation heating rate.The maximum atomic ratio of unoxidized iron to unoxidized liquid zirconium plus uranium for the formation of a solid protective oxide below 2800 K is estimated for a temperature, T (in Kelvin), as follows:(unoxidized iron)/(unoxidized zirconium + turanium) = (1/28){5.7/exp[-(147 061 + 12.08T log(T) - 61.03T - 0.000555T 2 /1.986T)]} 1/2 .As long as this limit is not exceeded, either zirconium or uranium metal oxidation rates and heating describe the corium oxidation rate. If this limit is exceeded, diffusion of steam to the corium surface will limit the oxidation rate, and linear time-dependent growth of a nonprotective, mostly FeO, layer will occur below the protective (Zr,U) O 2 scale. When this happens, the oxidation should be at the constant rate given by the thickness of the protective layer. Heat generation should be similar to that of iron oxidation

  17. Corium Oxidation at Temperatures Above 2000 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, Donald Lee; Rempe, Joy Lynn

    2001-02-01

    A mechanistic model, based on a quasi-equilibrium analysis of oxidation reactions, is proposed for predicting high-temperature corium oxidation. The analysis suggests that oxide forming on the surface of corium containing uranium, zirconium, and iron is similar to the oxides formed on zirconium and uranium as long as there is a small percentage of unoxidized zirconium or uranium in the metallic phase. This is because of the higher affinity of zirconium and uranium for oxygen. Hence, oxidation rates and heat production rates are similar to (U,Zr) compounds until nearly all the uranium and zirconium in the corium oxidizes. Oxidation rates after this point are predicted to be similar to those implied by the oxide thickness present when the forming oxide ceases to be protective, and heat generation rates should be similar to those implied by iron oxidation, i.e., ~4% of the zirconium oxidation heating rate. The maximum atomic ratio of unoxidized iron to unoxidized liquid zirconium plus uranium for the formation of a solid protective oxide below 2800 K is estimated for a temperature, T (in Kelvin), as follows: (unoxidized iron)/(unoxidized zirconium + turanium) = (1/28){5.7/exp[-(147 061 + 12.08T log(T) - 61.03T - 0.000555T2/1.986T)]}1/2. As long as this limit is not exceeded, either zirconium or uranium metal oxidation rates and heating describe the corium oxidation rate. If this limit is exceeded, diffusion of steam to the corium surface will limit the oxidation rate, and linear time-dependent growth of a nonprotective, mostly FeO, layer will occur below the protective (Zr,U) O2 scale. When this happens, the oxidation should be at the constant rate given by the thickness of the protective layer. Heat generation should be similar to that of iron oxidation.

  18. Photon polarization tensor in the light front field theory at zero and finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Charles da Rocha; Perez, Silvana; Strauss, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, light front quantized field theories have been successfully generalized to finite temperature. The light front frame was introduced by Dirac , and the quantization of field theories on the null-plane has found applications in many branches of physics. In order to obtain the thermal contribution, we consider the hard thermal loop approximation. This technique was developed by Braaten and Pisarski for the thermal quantum field theory at equal times and is particularly useful to extract the leading thermal contributions to the amplitudes in perturbative quantum field theories. In this work, we consider the light front quantum electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions and evaluate the photon polarization tensor at one loop for both zero and finite temperatures. In the first case, we apply the dimensional regularization method to extract the finite contribution and find the transverse structure for the amplitude in terms of the light front coordinates. The result agrees with one-loop covariant calculation. For the thermal corrections, we generalize the hard thermal loop approximation to the light front and calculate the dominant temperature contribution to the polarization tensor, consistent with the Ward identity. In both zero as well as finite temperature calculations, we use the oblique light front coordinates. (author)

  19. Non-zero intercept frequency : an accurate method to determine the integral temperature of li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, L.H.J.; Danilov, D.L.; van Lammeren, J.; Lammers, T.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2016-01-01

    A new impedance-based approach is introduced in which the integral battery temperature is related to other frequencies than the recently developed zero-intercept frequency (ZIF). The advantage of the proposed non-zero-intercept frequency (NZIF) method is that measurement interferences, resulting

  20. A dual-unit pressure sensor for on-chip self-compensation of zero-point temperature drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiachou; Li, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    A novel dual-unit piezoresistive pressure sensor, consisting of a sensing unit and a dummy unit, is proposed and developed for on-chip self-compensation for zero-point temperature drift. With an MIS (microholes inter-etch and sealing) process implemented only from the front side of single (1 1 1) silicon wafers, a pressure sensitive unit and another identically structured pressure insensitive dummy unit are compactly integrated on-chip to eliminate unbalance factors induced zero-point temperature-drift by mutual compensation between the two units. Besides, both units are physically suspended from silicon substrate to further suppress packaging-stress induced temperature drift. A simultaneously processes ventilation hole-channel structure is connected with the pressure reference cavity of the dummy unit to make it insensitive to detected pressure. In spite of the additional dummy unit, the sensor chip dimensions are still as small as 1.2 mm × 1.2 mm × 0.4 mm. The proposed dual-unit sensor is fabricated and tested, with the tested sensitivity being 0.104 mV kPa −1 3.3 V −1 , nonlinearity of less than 0.08% · FSO and overall accuracy error of ± 0.18% · FSO. Without using any extra compensation method, the sensor features an ultra-low temperature coefficient of offset (TCO) of 0.002% °C −1 · FSO that is much better than the performance of conventional pressure sensors. The highly stable and small-sized sensors are promising for low cost production and applications. (paper)

  1. Zero-temperature entropy of fully frustrated generalized Sierpiński gaskets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Hui, P. M.; Yu, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Ising model with antiferromagnetic couplings on a family of generalized Sierpiński gaskets is studied using an exact technique developed recently by Stinchcombe [Phys. Rev. B 41 (1990) 2510]. A general expression of the zero-temperature entropy per spin, SAFMb(0), is given for general b, where b is a rescaling factor characterizing the fractals. Exact expressions for SAFMb (0) are derived for the cases b = 2,3,4,5,6. These expressions are evaluated numerically and results are compared to those obtained previously by numerical iterations of renormalization-group equations. The asymptotic behavior of SAFMb(0) in the limit of large b is discussed.

  2. Towards a comprehensive theory for He II: I. A zero-temperature hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghassib, H.B.; Khudeir, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    A simple hybrid approach based on a gauge theory as well as a Hartree formalism, is presented for He II at zero temperature. Although this is intended to be merely a first step in an all-embracing theory, it already resolves quite neatly several old inconsistencies and corrects a few errors. As an illustration of its feasibility, a crude but instructive calculation is performed for the static structure factor of the system at low momentum transfers. A number of planned extensions and generalizations are outlined. (author)

  3. Study of instantaneous unsteady heat transfer in a rapid compression-expansion machine using zero dimensional k- ε turbulence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshan, Y.; Karim, G. A.; Mansouri, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation, the instantaneous unsteady heat transfer within a pneumatically driven rapid compression-expansion machine that offers simple, well-controlled and known boundary conditions was studied. Values of the instantaneous apparent overall heat flux from the cylinder gas to the wall surfaces were calculated using a thermodynamics analysis of the experimentally measured pressure and volume temporal development. Corresponding heat flux values were also calculated through the application of a zero-dimensional k- ε turbulence model the characteristic velocity is a contribution of turbulence kinetic energy, mean kinetic energy of charged air into cylinder and piston motion for the calculation of Reynolds, Nusselt and Prandtl numbers. Comparison of the zero-dimensional k- ε turbulence model prediction with experimental data shows good agreement for all compression ratios

  4. Spin critical opalescence in zero-temperature Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamore, D. H.; Timmermans, E.

    2012-02-01

    Cold-atom developments suggest the prospect of measuring scaling properties and long-range fluctuations of continuous phase transitions at zero temperature. We discuss the conditions for characterizing the phase separation of Bose-Einstein condensates of boson atoms in two distinct hyperfine spin states. The mean-field description breaks down as the system approaches the transition from the miscible side. An effective spin description clarifies the ferromagnetic nature of the transition. We show that a difference in the scattering lengths for the bosons in the same spin state leads to an effective internal magnetic field. The point at which the internal magnetic field vanishes (i.e., equal values of the like-boson scattering lengths) is a special point. We show that the long-range density fluctuations are suppressed near that point, while the effective spin exhibits the long-range fluctuations that characterize critical points. The zero-temperature system exhibits critical opalescence with respect to long-wavelength waves of impurity atoms that interact with the bosons in a spin-dependent manner.

  5. PLA and single component silicone rubber blends for sub-zero temperature blown film packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, Utai; Khiansanoi, Apichart

    2018-06-01

    The poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blend with single component silicone rubber in the presence of reactive amino silane coupling agent and polyester polyols plasticizer were studied. The manufacturing of film packaging for sub-zero temperature applications from the PLA blend was the main objective. The mechanical properties, especially the impact strengths, of PLA/silicone blends were significantly depended on the silicone loading. The outstanding impact strengths, tested at sub-zero temperature, of the blend having silicone content of 8.0 phr was achieved. It was chosen as the best candidate for the processability improvement. Adding the talc filler into the PLA/silicone blend to enhance the rheological properties was investigated. The ductility of the talc filled blends were decreased with increasing the filler contents. However, the shear viscosity of the blend was raised with talc loading. The blend loaded with 40 phr of talc filler was justified as the optimal formula for the blown film process testing and it was successfully performed with a few difficulties. The obtained blown film showed relative good flexibility in comparison with LDPE but it has low transparency.

  6. Superconducting Mercury-Based Cuprate Films with a Zero-Resistance Transition Temperature of 124 Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuei, C. C.; Gupta, A.; Trafas, G.; Mitzi, D.

    1994-03-01

    The synthesis of high-quality films of the recently discovered mercury-based cuprate films with high transition temperatures has been plagued by problems such as the air sensitivity of the cuprate precursor and the volatility of Hg and HgO. These processing difficulties have been circumvented by a technique of atomic-scale mixing of the HgO and cuprate precursors, use of a protective cap layer, and annealing in an appropriate Hg and O_2 environment. With this procedure, a zero-resistance transition temperature as high as 124 kelvin in c axis-oriented epitaxial HgBa_2CaCu_2O6+δ films has been achieved.

  7. Superconducting mercury-based cuprate films with a zero-resistance transition temperature of 124 Kelvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuei, C C; Gupta, A; Trafas, G; Mitzi, D

    1994-03-04

    The synthesis of high-quality films of the recently discovered mercury-based cuprate films with high transition temperatures has been plagued by problems such as the air sensitivity of the cuprate precursor and the volatility of Hg and HgO. These processing difficulties have been circumvented by a technique of atomic-scale mixing of the HgO and cuprate precursors, use of a protective cap layer, and annealing in an appropriate Hg and O(2) environment. With this procedure, a zero-resistance transition temperature as high as 124 kelvin in c axis-oriented epitaxial HgBa(2)CaCu(2)O(6+delta) films has been achieved.

  8. The zero-action hypothesis and high-temperature thermodynamics in the heterotic superstring theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M. D.

    2005-07-01

    The effective action S for the Einstein theory of gravity coupled to massless scalar fields phi, spinor fields ψ and gauge vector fields Fij describing radiation, so that FijFij = 0, vanishes identically after substitution from the classical equations of motion, thus allowing a perfect fluid for which the energy density ρ and pressure p = (γ - 1)ρ are related by values of the adiabatic index throughout the range 4/3 high-temperature limit T Gt TH, after Euclideanizing the time coordinate, where TH is the Hagedorn temperature. The response of the action to the operators T, C and P is also discussed, T-invariance requiring γ = 2 and hence S = 0, and P-invariance requiring S = 0, showing that the zero-action hypothesis can be understood in terms of these discrete symmetries.

  9. Model of discontinuous plastic flow at temperature close to absolute zero

    CERN Document Server

    Marcinek, Dawid Jarosław; Sgobba, Stefano

    In the present study cryogenic tensile tests performed on different materials (316LN, JK2LB) were used. The discontinuous plastic flow phenomenon was analysed, in order to develop a constitutive model of serrated yielding as a support for analysis of structural materials at low temperatures. Devices and structures, cooled be means of liquid helium, operate at the temperatures equal or lower than 4.2 K, which for the examined materials is below the transition threshold between screw and edge dislocations. It is considered a threshold for the appearance of DPF consisting in cyclic drop of load followed by deformation jumps and generation of heat. Temperature oscillations resulting from the thermodynamic instability in stainless steel can be of the order of dT = 40 K, which is exceptionally dangerous for superconducting cables. Suitably calibrated numerical algorithm allows prediction of the behaviour of the material subjected to deformation at low temperatures. The issues presented in the present study are curr...

  10. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Keith F.; McMahon, Andrew M.; Ely, Kim S.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Rogers, Alistair

    2017-09-01

    Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. However, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by ˜ 1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be ˜ 2-3 °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW) chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. The approach we describe is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming approaches is desired.

  11. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Lewin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. However, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by  ∼  1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be  ∼  2–3 °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. The approach we describe is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming

  12. Quantum and classical vacuum forces at zero and finite temperature; Quantentheoretische und klassische Vakuum-Kraefte bei Temperatur Null und bei endlicher Temperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niekerken, Ole

    2009-06-15

    In this diploma thesis the Casimir-Polder force at zero temperature and at finite temperatures is calculated by using a well-defined quantum field theory (formulated in position space) and the method of image charges. For the calculations at finite temperature KMS-states are used. The so defined temperature describes the temperature of the electromagnetic background. A one oscillator model for inhomogeneous dispersive absorbing dielectric material is introduced and canonically quantized to calculate the Casimir-Polder force at a dielectric interface at finite temperature. The model fulfils causal commutation relations and the dielectric function of the model fulfils the Kramer-Kronig relations. We then use the same methods to calculate the van der Waals force between two neutral atoms at zero temperature and at finite temperatures. It is shown that the high temperature behaviour of the Casimir-Polder force and the van der Waals force are independent of {Dirac_h}. This means that they have to be understood classically, what is then shown in an algebraic statistical theory by using classical KMS states. (orig.)

  13. Exceptional curves on smooth rational surfaces with -K not nef and of self-intersection zero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahyane, Mustapha

    2001-08-01

    We prove that a smooth rational surface X defined over the field of complex numbers having an anti-canonical divisor not nef and of self-intersection zero has a finite number of (-1)-curves. A (-1)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-interaction -1. By giving an example, we also show that X may have no (-2)-curves, a (-2)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-intersection -2. (author)

  14. Integrals over products of distributions and coordinate independence of zero-temperature path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    2003-01-01

    In perturbative calculations of quantum-statistical zero-temperature path integrals in curvilinear coordinates one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions, which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac δ-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We give simple rules for integrating products of distributions in such a way that the results ensure coordinate independence of the path integrals. The rules are derived by using equations of motion and partial integration, while keeping track of certain minimal features originating in the unique definition of all singular integrals in 1-ε dimensions. Our rules yield the same results as the much more cumbersome calculations in 1-ε dimensions where the limit ε→0 is taken at the end. They also agree with the rules found in an independent treatment on a finite time interval

  15. Critical behavior of 3D Z(N) lattice gauge theories at zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisenko, O., E-mail: oleg@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Chelnokov, V., E-mail: chelnokov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Cortese, G., E-mail: cortese@unizar.es [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gravina, M., E-mail: gravina@cs.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Papa, A., E-mail: papa@cs.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Surzhikov, I., E-mail: i_van_go@inbox.ru [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-02-15

    Three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at zero temperature are studied for various values of N. Using a modified phenomenological renormalization group, we explore the critical behavior of the generalized Z(N) model for N=2,3,4,5,6,8. Numerical computations are used to simulate vector models for N=2,3,4,5,6,8,13,20 for lattices with linear extension up to L=96. We locate the critical points of phase transitions and establish their scaling with N. The values of the critical indices indicate that the models with N>4 belong to the universality class of the three-dimensional XY model. However, the exponent α derived from the heat capacity is consistent with the Ising universality class. We discuss a possible resolution of this puzzle.

  16. Floating potential in electronegative plasmas for non-zero ion temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regodón, Guillermo Fernando; Fernández Palop, José Ignacio; Tejero-del-Caz, Antonio; Díaz-Cabrera, Juan Manuel; Carmona-Cabezas, Rafael; Ballesteros, Jerónimo

    2018-02-01

    The floating potential of a Langmuir probe immersed in an electronegative plasma is studied theoretically under the assumption of radial positive ion fluid movement for non-zero positive ion temperature: both cylindrical and spherical geometries are studied. The model is solvable exactly. The special characteristics of the electronegative pre-sheath are found and the influence of the stratified electronegative pre-sheath is shown to be very small in practical applications. It is suggested that the use of the floating potential in the measurement of negative ions population density is convenient, in view of the numerical results obtained. The differences between the two radial geometries, which become very important for small probe radii of the order of magnitude of the Debye length, are studied.

  17. Zero-temperature Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in a two-dimensional quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelnovo, Claudio; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher; Pujol, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    We construct a local interacting quantum dimer model on the square lattice, whose zero-temperature phase diagram is characterized by a line of critical points separating two ordered phases of the valence bond crystal type. On one side, the line of critical points terminates in a quantum transition inherited from a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in an associated classical model. We also discuss the effect of a longer-range dimer interaction that can be used to suppress the line of critical points by gradually shrinking it to a single point. Finally, we propose a way to generalize the quantum Hamiltonian to a dilute dimer model in presence of monomers and we qualitatively discuss the phase diagram

  18. Critical behavior of 3D Z(N) lattice gauge theories at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, O.; Chelnokov, V.; Cortese, G.; Gravina, M.; Papa, A.; Surzhikov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at zero temperature are studied for various values of N. Using a modified phenomenological renormalization group, we explore the critical behavior of the generalized Z(N) model for N=2,3,4,5,6,8. Numerical computations are used to simulate vector models for N=2,3,4,5,6,8,13,20 for lattices with linear extension up to L=96. We locate the critical points of phase transitions and establish their scaling with N. The values of the critical indices indicate that the models with N>4 belong to the universality class of the three-dimensional XY model. However, the exponent α derived from the heat capacity is consistent with the Ising universality class. We discuss a possible resolution of this puzzle

  19. Decay of the vortex tangle at zero temperature and quasiclassical turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskii, Sergej K.

    2013-01-01

    We review and analyze a series of works, both experimental and numerical and theoretical, dealing with the decay of quantum turbulence at zero temperature. Free decay of the vortex tangle is a key argument in favor of the idea that a chaotic set of quantum vortices can mimic classical turbulence, or at least reproduce many of the basic features. The corresponding topic is referred as the quasiclassical turbulence. Appreciating significance of the challenging problem of classical turbulence it can be expressed that the idea to study it in terms of quantized line is indeed very important and may be regarded as a breakthrough. For this reason, the whole theory, together with the supporting experimental results and numerical simulations should be carefully scrutinized. One of the main arguments, supporting the idea of quasiclassical turbulence is the fact that vortex tangle decays at zero temperature, when the mutual friction is absent. Since all other possible mechanisms of dissipation of the vortex energy, discussed in literature, are related to the small scales, it is natural to suggest that the Kolmogorov cascade takes place with the flow of the energy in space of scales, just like as in the classical turbulence. In the present work we discuss an alternative mechanism of decay of the vortex tangle, which is not associated with dissipation at small scales. This mechanism is a diffusive-like spreading of the vortex tangle due to evaporation of small vortex loops. We discuss a number of experiments and numerical simulations, considering them from the point of view of alternative mechanism.

  20. A new estimate of the Khirzhnits corrections to the zero temperature Thomas-Fermi equation-of-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szichman, H.; Krumbein, A.D.; Eliezer, S.

    1984-09-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the zero temperature limit of the Khirzhnits corrections to the Thomas-Fermi equation-of-state by extrapolation of the finite-temperature results. The cold curves so obtained for Ti, Fe, Cu and Ta are compared with experimental results as well as with those calculated using other variations of the Thomas-Fermi model

  1. In-situ investigation of martensite formation in AISI 52100 bearing steel at sub-zero Celsius temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Pantleon, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Martensite formation in AISI 52100 bearing steel at sub-zero Celsius temperature was investigated with Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. The investigation reports the stabilization of retained austenite in quenched samples during storage at room temperature and reveals the thermally activated nature...

  2. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  3. Chiral density wave versus pion condensation at finite density and zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Kneschke, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The quark-meson model is often used as a low-energy effective model for QCD to study the chiral transition at finite temperature T , baryon chemical potential μB , and isospin chemical potential μI . We determine the parameters of the model by matching the meson and quark masses, as well as the pion decay constant to their physical values using the on shell (OS) and modified minimal subtraction (MS ¯ ) schemes. In this paper, the existence of different phases at zero temperature is studied. In particular, we investigate the competition between an inhomogeneous chiral condensate and a homogeneous pion condensate. For the inhomogeneity, we use a chiral-density wave ansatz. For a sigma mass of 600 MeV, we find that an inhomogeneous chiral condensate exists only for pion masses below approximately 37 MeV. We also show that due to our parameter fixing, the onset of pion condensation takes place exactly at μIc=1/2 mπ in accordance with exact results.

  4. Germanium thermometers in the temperature range .1000K to 4.20K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Sanchez, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity characteristics of two germanium thermometers that proved to be convenient sensors in the temperature range from .100 0 K to 4.2 0 K, are described. Their resistances change from about 8 x 10 5 ohms at .100 0 K to about 100 ohms at 4.2 0 K. The calibration curves were fitted to natural spline functions of order 3 in the whole range of temperatures. These functions give less than half millidegree standard dispersion against 15 millidegree standard dispersion when usual polynomial interpolations are used. It is discussed what spline functions are, and compare the goodness of spline interpolation with polynomial methods [pt

  5. Application of hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) to time dependent quantum transport at zero and finite temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Heng; Chen, GuanHua

    2013-10-01

    Going beyond the limitations of our earlier works [X. Zheng, F. Wang, C.Y. Yam, Y. Mo, G.H. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 75, 195127 (2007); X. Zheng, G.H. Chen, Y. Mo, S.K. Koo, H. Tian, C.Y. Yam, Y.J. Yan, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 114101 (2010)], we propose, in this manuscript, a new alternative approach to simulate time-dependent quantum transport phenomenon from first-principles. This new practical approach, still retaining the formal exactness of HEOM framework, does not rely on any intractable parametrization scheme and the pole structure of Fermi distribution function, thus, can seamlessly incorporated into first-principles simulation and treat transient response of an open electronic systems to an external bias voltage at both zero and finite temperatures on the equal footing. The salient feature of this approach is surveyed, and its time complexity is analysed. As a proof-of-principle of this approach, simulation of the transient current of one dimensional tight-binding chain, driven by some direct external voltages, is demonstrated.

  6. In situ synthesis of zero-valent silver nanoparticles in polymethylmethacrylate under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yuanlu; Luo Guoqiang; Chen Cheng; Yuan Huan; Shen Qiang; Li Meijuan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix under high temperature with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additional stabilizer and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as reaction medium. The UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were adopted to investigate the growth and shape conversion of Ag nanoparticles with the lacking of additional Ag source. The results showed that the stable zero-valent Ag in PMMA was obtained successfully. Two types of Ag nanoparticles, single-crystal and twinned ones, could form in the initial period. While the twinned ones will gradually disappear along with the reaction processed, the single-crystal ones could survive and slowly grow by consuming the Ag atoms which were etched form twinned ones. The single-crystal ones will take shape conversion from sphere to nanocube with nearly the same particle size after the total disappearance of twinned ones. The size and shape of Ag nanoparticles can be well controlled by reaction time. The high viscosity PMMA matrix plays the important role of controlling the growth of the Ag nanoparticles, and the PVP takes the responsibility of the shape conversion.

  7. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Wang, Cong, E-mail: congwang@buaa.edu.cn [Center for Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wu, Hui; Huang, Qingzhen [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  8. Zero-Bias Offsets in the Low-Temperature Dark Current of Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Anjali

    1999-01-01

    .... In this environment, the detector arrays may need to be operated at temperatures lower then 77 K. At these temperatures, tunneling mechanisms such as Fowler-Nordheim and trap-assisted tunneling could dominate the dark current...

  9. Thermodynamic properties of molybdenum borides at temperatures above 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolgar, A.S.; Blinder, A.V.; Serbova, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    Enthalpy of Mo 2 B, MoB, Mo 2 B 5 borides within the range of temperatures above 300 K has been experimentally studied. Parameters of temperature dependences of enthalpy, heat capacity, entropy and the reduced Gibbs energy of the studied substances are calculated within a wide range. It is stated that high-temperature heat capacity of the studied borides can be presented as a sum of the electron component, a harmonic part of the lattice component and a contribution caused by anharmonic oscillations of lattice atoms. Values of coefficients of isothermal compressibility of Mo 2 , MoB, Mo 2 B 5 within the high temperature range are estimated

  10. Temperature dependence of thermal expansion of cadmium sulfide in the temperature range 20 - 820 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskotskij, V.S.; Kobyakov, I.B.; Solodukhin, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion of cadmium sulfide is measured perpendicularly (α 1 ) and parallelly (α 2 ) to the hexagonal axis in the temperature range from 20 to 820 K. Anisotropy is low at up to 80 K; rises at higher temperatures; at 3OO K α 1 /α 3 ratio is 1.8; at 820 K, 2.4. Heat expansion is negative at temperatures lower than 104.5 K(α 1 ) and 126.0 K(α 2 ). It achieves the minimum at 43.6 K (α 1 ) and 52.5K (α 3 ). The theory of heat expansion is plotted in the Debue, approximation and cadmium sulfide is considered as an isotope crystal with average elastic constants. Two parameters of the theory are determined by the position and value of the minimum of volumetric thermal expansion of the model isotope crystal. The theoretic curve agrees well with the experimental one at temperatures up to 160 K, i.e in the range of applicability of the Debue approximation and the isotropic model

  11. The refrigeration of high temperature superconductors between 25K and 65K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.N.; Scurlock, R.G.; Tavner, A.C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The present state of the art indicates that acceptable j - H characteristics for power applications of the new high Tc superconductors will only be achieved using materials at temperatures below liquid nitrogen temperature. A boiling point of 27.1K and high specific cooling capacity make neon an eminently suitable choice of refrigerant at these temperatures. A cryostat has been constructed which employs a two stage Gifford-McMahon cooler to liquefy neon gas. The cryostat contains up to 5 litres of liquid neon which can be used for open-quote in-situ close-quote experiments or transfer to another cryostat. Another set of cryostats are being used with liquid nitrogen/oxygen mixtures at reduced pressure for temperatures down to 50K. All these cryostats provide a core facility for characterising and operating high T c superconductors at Southampton

  12. Magnetic Levitation Force Measurement System at Any Low Temperatures From 20 K To 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sukru; Guner, S. Baris; Coskun, Elvan

    2015-03-01

    Most of the magnetic levitation force measurements in previous studies were performed at liquid nitrogen temperatures. For the levitation force of MgB2 and iron based superconducting samples, magnetic levitation force measurement system is needed. In this study, magnetic levitation force measurement system was designed. In this system, beside vertical force versus vertical motion, lateral and vertical force versus lateral motion measurements, the vertical force versus temperature at the fixed distance between permanent magnet PM - superconducting sample SS and the vertical force versus time measurements were performed at any temperatures from 20 K to 300 K. Thanks to these measurements, the temperature dependence, time dependence, and the distance (magnetic field) and temperature dependences of SS can be investigated. On the other hand, the magnetic stiffness MS measurements can be performed in this system. Using the measurement of MS at different temperature in the range, MS dependence on temperature can be investigated. These measurements at any temperatures in the range help to the superconductivity properties to be characterized. This work was supported by TUBTAK-the Scientific and technological research council of Turkey under project of MFAG - 110T622. This system was applied to the Turkish patent institute with the Application Number of 2013/13638 on 22/11/2013.

  13. Zero-leakage shut-off butterflies for high-temperature applications; Dichtschliessende Absperrklappen fuer die Hochtemperaturtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, N. [Krombach Armaturen, Kreuztal (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    Over many years, zero-leakage butterfly valves have eminently proven their capabilities in a large range of elevated-temperature and elevated-pressure processes. This article examines the basic design differences between various butterfly valves. These differences are, among other factors, important indicators of the suitability of the various valve types for their use in industry. (orig.) [German] Dichtschliessende Absperrklappen haben sich ueber Jahre in vielen Prozessen, die unter hoeherem Druck und hoeherer Temperatur ablaufen, bestens bewaehrt. Der Beitrag zeigt die grundsaetzlichen konstruktiven Unterschiede dichtschliessender Absperrklappen. Diese Unterschiede sind unter anderem Indikatoren fuer die Prozesstauglichkeit von Absperrklappen in der Industrie. (orig.)

  14. Thermodynamic Temperatures of the Triple Points of Mercury and Gallium and in the Interval 217 K to 303 K

    OpenAIRE

    Moldover, M. R.; Boyes, S. J.; Meyer, C. W.; Goodwin, A. R. H.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the acoustic resonance frequencies of an argon-filled spherical cavity and the microwave resonance frequencies of the same cavity when evacuated. The microwave data were used to deduce the thermal expansion of the cavity and the acoustic data were fitted to a temperature-pressure surface to deduce zero-pressure speed-of-sound ratios. The ratios determine (T?T 90), the difference between the Kelvin thermodynamic temperature T and the temperature on the International Temperature Sca...

  15. Zero temperature renormalisation group study of the random systems: The Ising model in a transverse field in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamieniarz, G.

    1984-12-01

    A zero temperature real space renormalization group block method is applied to the random quantum Ising model with a transverse field on the planar honeycomb and square lattices. For the bond diluted system the magnetisation and the separation of the ground state energy level (in the paramagnetic phase) are presented for several bond concentrations p. The critical exponents extracted both from the fixed-points and from direct numerical computations preserve some scaling relations, and the critical curve displays a characteristic discontinuity at the percolation concentration. For the McCoy and Wu distribution the random fields and bonds are found to introduce a strong relevant disorder. The order parameter still falls off continuously to zero for well-defined values of the parameters, but a new fixed point yields a slight change in the critical exponents. (author)

  16. The effective temperatures and colours of G and K stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.A.; Gustafsson, B.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature scales are found for G and K dwarf and giant stars, using new tables of synthetic infrared colours as well as the infrared flux ratio method. The temperatures of 95 individual stars are given. The colours are presented for grids of flux constant, line blanketed models. One grid has been published previously, as have some colours for the visible region of the spectrum. The models of this grid are in the range 4000 K eff < 6000 K, 0.75 < log g < 3.00, - 3.0 < [A/H] < 0.0. A grid of dwarf models, with the same temperature and abundance range but with 3.75 < log g < 4.5 is also used. The colours are computed from two series of overlapping synthetic spectra, which have been calculated with a resolution of 0.1 A between 3000 and 12 000 A and 1.0 A between 0.9 and 6.0 μm. (author)

  17. Temperature dependence of muonium spin exchange with O2 in the range 88 K to 478 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, M.; Garner, D.M.; Arseneau, D.J.; Fleming, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have extended an earlier study of the spin exchange reactions of Mu with O 2 in the range 295 K to 478 K, to a low temperature region down to 88 K. From 135 K to 296 K, the spin depolarization rate constant was found to vary according to the relative velocity of the colliding species, which indicates that the spin exchange cross section of Mu-O 2 is temperature independent in this range. However, it was found that below 105 K and above 400 K, the spin depolarization rate constant tends to have stronger temperature dependences. (Auth.)

  18. Zero-temperature renormalization method for quantum systems. I. Ising model in a transverse field in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien, R.; Pfeuty, P.; Fields, J.N.; Doniach, S.

    1978-01-01

    A zero-temperature real-space renormalization-group method is presented and applied to the quantum Ising model with a transverse field in one dimension. The transition between the low-field and high-field regimes is studied. Magnetization components, spin correlation functions, and critical exponents are derived and checked against the exact results. It is shown that increasing the size of the blocks in the iterative procedure yields more accurate results, especially for the critical ''magnetic'' exponents near the transition

  19. Zero thermal expansion and ferromagnetism in cubic Sc(1-x)M(x)F3 (M = Ga, Fe) over a wide temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Rong, Yangchun; Pan, Zhao; Deng, Jinxia; Yu, Ranbo; Xing, Xianran

    2014-10-01

    The rare physical property of zero thermal expansion (ZTE) is intriguing because neither expansion nor contraction occurs with temperature fluctuations. Most ZTE, however, occurs below room temperature. It is a great challenge to achieve isotropic ZTE at high temperatures. Here we report the unconventional isotropic ZTE in the cubic (Sc1-xMx)F3 (M = Ga, Fe) over a wide temperature range (linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), αl = 2.34 × 10(-7) K(-1), 300-900 K). Such a broad temperature range with a considerably negligible CTE has rarely been documented. The present ZTE property has been designed using the introduction of local distortions in the macroscopic cubic lattice by heterogeneous cation substitution for the Sc site. Even though the macroscopic crystallographic structure of (Sc0.85Ga0.05Fe0.1)F3 adheres to the cubic system (Pm3̅m) according to the results of X-ray diffraction, the local structure exhibits a slight rhombohedral distortion. This is confirmed by pair distribution function analysis of synchrotron radiation X-ray total scattering. This local distortion may weaken the contribution from the transverse thermal vibration of fluorine atoms to negative thermal expansion, and thus may presumably be responsible for the ZTE. In addition, the present ZTE compounds of (Sc1-xMx)F3 can be functionalized to exhibit high-Tc ferromagnetism and a narrow-gap semiconductor feature. The present study shows the possibility of obtaining ZTE materials with multifunctionality in future work.

  20. Equation of state calculations for two-dimensional dust coulomb crystal at near zero temperature by molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouder, M., E-mail: djouder-madjid@ummto.dz; Kermoun, F.; Mitiche, M. D.; Lamrous, O. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri Tizi-Ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2016-01-15

    Dust particles observed in universe as well as in laboratory and technological plasma devices are still under investigation. At low temperature, these particles are strongly negatively charged and are able to form a 2D or 3D coulomb crystal. In this work, our aim was to check the ideal gas law validity for a 2D single-layer dust crystal recently reported in the literature. For this purpose, we have simulated, using the molecular dynamics method, its thermodynamic properties for different values of dust particles number and confinement parameters. The obtained results have allowed us to invalidate the ideal gas behaviour and to propose an effective equation of state which assumes a near zero dust temperature. Furthermore, the value of the calculated sound velocity was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data published elsewhere.

  1. Equation of state calculations for two-dimensional dust coulomb crystal at near zero temperature by molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouder, M.; Kermoun, F.; Mitiche, M. D.; Lamrous, O.

    2016-01-01

    Dust particles observed in universe as well as in laboratory and technological plasma devices are still under investigation. At low temperature, these particles are strongly negatively charged and are able to form a 2D or 3D coulomb crystal. In this work, our aim was to check the ideal gas law validity for a 2D single-layer dust crystal recently reported in the literature. For this purpose, we have simulated, using the molecular dynamics method, its thermodynamic properties for different values of dust particles number and confinement parameters. The obtained results have allowed us to invalidate the ideal gas behaviour and to propose an effective equation of state which assumes a near zero dust temperature. Furthermore, the value of the calculated sound velocity was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data published elsewhere

  2. Dispersion forces in micromechanics: Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces affected by geometry and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Aadnoey

    2011-01-15

    The present thesis focuses on several topics within three separate but related branches of the overall field of dispersion forces. The three branches are: temperature corrections to the Casimir force between real materials (Part 1), explicit calculation of Casimir energy in wedge geometries (Part 2), and Casimir-Polder forces on particles out of thermal equilibrium (Part 3). Part 1 deals primarily with analysis of a previously purported thermodynamic inconsistency in the Casimir-Lifshitz free energy of the interaction of two plane mirrors - violation of the third law of thermodynamics - when the latter's dielectric response is described with dissipative models. It is shown analytically and numerically that the Casimir entropy of the interaction between two metallic mirrors described by the Drude model does tend to zero at zero temperature, provided electronic relaxation does not vanish. The leading order terms at low temperature are found. A similar calculation is carried out for the interaction of semiconductors with small but non-zero DC conductivity. In a generalisation, it is shown that a violation of the third law can only occur for permittivities whose low-frequency behaviour is temperature dependent near zero temperature. A calculation using path integral methods shows that the low temperature behaviour of the interaction of fluctuating Foucault currents in two mirrors of Drude metal is identical to that of the full Casimir-Lifshitz free energy, reasserting a previous finding by Intravaia and Henkel that such fluctuating bulk currents are the physical reason for the anomalous entropy behaviour. In a related effort, an analysis of the frequency dependence of the Casimir force by Ford is generalised to imperfectly reflecting mirrors. A paradox is pointed out, in that the effects of a perturbation of the reflecting properties of the mirrors in a finite frequency window can be calculated in two ways giving different results. It is concluded that optimistic

  3. Electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1314 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=763 K), from 551 K to temperature as high as 1314 K, that is, 391 above the boiling point of the salt. The specific electrical conductance was found to reach its maximum at 1143 K, after that it decreases with the temperature rising.

  4. Electrical conductivity of molten SnCl2 at temperature as high as 1314 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten SnCl 2 was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=763 K), from 551 K to temperature as high as 1314 K, that is, 391 above the boiling point of the salt. The specific electrical conductance was found to reach its maximum at 1143 K, after that it decreases with the temperature rising.

  5. Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge at zero and finite temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhardt H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on recent results obtained within the Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge. By relating the Gribov confinement scenario to the center vortex picture of confinement it is shown that the Coulomb string tension is tied to the spatial string tension. For the quark sector a vacuum wave functional is used which results in variational equations which are free of ultraviolet divergences. The variational approach is extended to finite temperatures by compactifying a spatial dimension. For the chiral and deconfinement phase transition pseudo-critical temperatures of 170MeV and 198 MeV, respectively, are obtained.

  6. Solitons in proteins at non-zero temperatures with allowance for the fluctuations of polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, E.; Caputo, J.G.

    2007-06-01

    A model for the nonlinear transfer of vibrational energy in molecular chains is derived at temperatures of realistic interest for transport in proteins. The study includes the influence of the fluctuations of polarization in the chain. This theory exhibits a new form of temperature-dependence in intrinsic parameters of alpha-helix, and consequently in the coefficients of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation governing the system and in the solitons' parameters. Thermal fluctuations are analysed in the basis of the non-Gaussian approximation and the total free-energy of the alpha-helix is determined to elucidate the denaturation process of the protein. (author)

  7. A rapid method for measuring maximum density temperatures in water and aqueous solutions for the study of quantum zero point energy effects in these liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, F A; O'Leary, J P

    2008-01-01

    The connection between quantum zero point fluctuations and a density maximum in water and in liquid He 4 has recently been established. Here we present a description of a simple and rapid method of determining the temperatures at which maximum densities in water and aqueous solutions occur. The technique is such as to allow experiments to be carried out in one session of an undergraduate laboratory thereby introducing students to the concept of quantum zero point energy

  8. A thermodynamically consistent quasi-particle model without temperature-dependent infinity of the vacuum zero point energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jing; Jiang Yu; Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, an improved quasi-particle model is presented. Unlike the previous approach of establishing quasi-particle model, we introduce a classical background field (it is allowed to depend on the temperature) to deal with the infinity of thermal vacuum energy which exists in previous quasi-particle models. After taking into account the effect of this classical background field, the partition function of quasi-particle system can be made well-defined. Based on this and following the standard ensemble theory, we construct a thermodynamically consistent quasi-particle model without the need of any reformulation of statistical mechanics or thermodynamical consistency relation. As an application of our model, we employ it to the case of (2+1) flavor QGP at zero chemical potential and finite temperature and obtain a good fit to the recent lattice simulation results of Borsányi et al. A comparison of the result of our model with early calculations using other models is also presented. It is shown that our method is general and can be generalized to the case where the effective mass depends not only on the temperature but also on the chemical potential.

  9. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part One: Zero-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Casseau

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrational-electronic temperatures. hy2Foam has the capability to model vibrational-translational and vibrational-vibrational energy exchanges in an eleven-species air mixture. It makes use of either the Park TTv model or the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV model to handle chemistry-vibration coupling and it can simulate flows with or without electronic energy. Verification of the code for various zero-dimensional adiabatic heat baths of progressive complexity has been carried out. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with those given by the CFD code LeMANS (The Michigan Aerothermodynamic Navier-Stokes solver and previously published data. A comparison is also performed with the open-source DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code dsmcFoam. It has been demonstrated that the use of the CVDV model and rates derived from Quantum-Kinetic theory promote a satisfactory consistency between the CFD and DSMC chemistry modules.

  10. Effect of cooling to different sub-zero temperatures on boar sperm cryosurvival

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica Garcia-Olivares; Cesar Garzon-Perez; Oscar Gutierrez-Perez; Alfredo Medrano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare different cooling temperatures before ice formation on pig sperm quality, before and after cryopreservation. Methods: Semen diluted in BF5 was cooled from 23 °C to 5 °C (1% glycerol, 200 × 106 cells/mL). Sperm were packaged in plastic straws, and maintained at +5 °C per 16 h. 1. Freezing point of diluted spermatozoa was determined by exposing straws to nitrogen vapors. 2. Straws (at +5 °C) were further cooled to −3 °C, −5 °C, and −7 °C, and rewarmed. 3. Straws (at +5 ...

  11. Theory of tunneling in metal--superconductor devices: Supercurrents in the superconductor gap at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, N.; Flores, F.; Guinea, F.

    1988-01-01

    Tunneling experiments in metal-oxide superconductor have shown the existence of ''leakage'' currents for applied voltages V smaller than one-half of the superconductor gap Δ. These currents are independent of temperature T. Recently experiments with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and squeezable tunnel junctions have shown that the observation of the superconductor gap depends strongly on the resistance in the junction. In fact only for resistances larger than ∼10 6 Ω the gap is clearly observable. These experiments have been explained in terms of the perturbative Hamiltonian formalism of Bardeen. However, it may happen that this theory while applicable for very large resistances may not be so for small tunnel resistances. We present here a nonperturbative theory in all orders of the transmitivity chemical bondTochemical bond 2 and show the existence of supercurrents for values of V 2 . We believe that experiments in STM and other junctions should be interpreted in the frame of this theory

  12. A density variational approach to nuclear giant resonances at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleissl, P.; Brack, M.; Quentin, P.; Meyer, J.

    1989-02-01

    We present a density functional approach to the description of nuclear giant resonances (GR), using Skyrme type effective interactions. We exploit hereby the theorems of Thouless and others, relating RPA sum rules to static (constrained) Hartree-Fock expectation values. The latter are calculated both microscopically and, where shell effects are small enough to allow it, semiclassically by a density variational method employing the gradient-expanded density functionals of the extended Thomas-Fermi model. We obtain an excellent overall description of both systematics and detailed isotopic dependence of GR energies, in particular with the Skyrme force SkM. For the breathing modes (isoscalar and isovector giant monopole modes), and to some extent also for the isovector dipole mode, the A-dependence of the experimental peak energies is better described by coupling two different modes (corresponding to two different excitation operators) of the same spin and parity and evaluating the eigenmodes of the coupled system. Our calculations are also extended to highly excited nuclei (without angular momentum) and the temperature dependence of the various GR energies is discussed

  13. Conservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm at sub-zero temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2012-01-01

    Protocols are proposed for the low (-20 degree C) and ultra-low (-80 degree C) temperature storage of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) embryos. A tissue dehydration step prior to storage, and a rapid warming step upon recovery optimized the protocol. The thermal properties of water located within embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the most efficient version of the protocol, embryos were dehydrated under a sterile air flow in a dehydration solution containing glucose (3.33 M) and glycerol (15 percent) for 16 hours. This protocol decreased the embryo water content from 77 to 29 percent FW and at the same time reduced the amount of freezable water down to 0.03 percent. The dehydrated embryos could be stored for up to 3 weeks at -20 degree C (12 percent producing normal plants upon recovery) or 26 weeks at -80 degree C (28 percent producing normal plants upon recovery). These results indicate that it is possible to store coconut germplasm on a medium term basis using an ultra-deep freezer unit. However for more efficient, long term storage, cryopreservation remains the preferred option.

  14. Cold-hearted bats: uncoupling of heart rate and metabolism during torpor at sub-zero temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Shannon E; Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2018-01-04

    Many hibernating animals thermoregulate during torpor and defend their body temperature ( T b ) near 0°C by an increase in metabolic rate. Above a critical temperature ( T crit ), animals usually thermoconform. We investigated the physiological responses above and below T crit for a small tree-dwelling bat ( Chalinolobus gouldii , ∼14 g) that is often exposed to sub-zero temperatures during winter. Through simultaneous measurement of heart rate ( f H ) and oxygen consumption ( V̇ O 2 ), we show that the relationship between oxygen transport and cardiac function is substantially altered in thermoregulating torpid bats between 1 and -2°C, compared with thermoconforming torpid bats at mild ambient temperatures ( T a 5-20°C). T crit for this species was at a T a of 0.7±0.4°C, with a corresponding T b of 1.8±1.2°C. Below T crit , animals began to thermoregulate, as indicated by a considerable but disproportionate increase in both f H and V̇ O 2 The maximum increase in f H was only 4-fold greater than the average thermoconforming minimum, compared with a 46-fold increase in V̇ O 2 The differential response of f H and V̇ O 2  to low T a was reflected in a 15-fold increase in oxygen delivery per heart beat (cardiac oxygen pulse). During torpor at low T a , thermoregulating bats maintained a relatively slow f H and compensated for increased metabolic demands by significantly increasing stroke volume and tissue oxygen extraction. Our study provides new information on the relationship between metabolism and f H in an unstudied physiological state that may occur frequently in the wild and can be extremely costly for heterothermic animals. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Low-temperature, low-loss zero level packaging techniques for RF applications by using a photopatternable dry film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J; Seok, S; Rolland, N; Rolland, P-A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low-temperature zero-level packaging technique using a dry film type of PerMX polymer for RF devices. Silicon cap packaging with PerMX sealing ring and PerMX cap packaging through multilayer lamination have been implemented. All of the fabrication process has been performed at temperature less than 150 °C. The influence of each packaging cap on the packaged coplanar waveguide was first investigated using the HFSS electromagnetic simulation. The RF measurement results showed that both packaging caps did not have significant influence on the performance of transmission lines. The insertion loss changes before and after packaging were almost negligible up to 30 GHz, and the return losses were better than 20 dB. Also, the deformation of PerMX structures concerning the packaging processes has been studied. For silicon capping, the volumetric compression of PerMX sealing ring by the bonding process has been observed. For PerMX cap packaging, the deflection of the polymer cap has been investigated as a function of sealing ring width for the different cap size. Measured results had good agreement with the ANSYS simulated ones. (paper)

  16. Approach To Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    more and more difficult to remove heat as one approaches absolute zero. This is the ... A new and active branch of engineering ... This temperature is called the critical temperature, Te' For sulfur dioxide the critical ..... adsorbent charcoal.

  17. Integration of auto analysis program of gamma spectrum and software and determination of element content in sample by k-zero method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Quang Vinh; Truong Thi Hong Loan; Mai Van Nhon; Huynh Truc Phuong

    2014-01-01

    Integrating the gamma spectrum auto-analysis program with elemental analysis software by k-zero method is the objective for many researchers. This work is the first stepin building an auto analysis program of gamma spectrum, which includes modules of reading spectrum, displaying spectrum, calibrating energy of peak, smoothing spectrum, calculating peak area and determining content of elements in sample. Then, the results from the measurements of standard samples by a low level spectrometer using HPGe detector are compared to those of other gamma spectrum auto-analysis programs. (author)

  18. Dynamical equations for time-ordered Green’s functions: from the Keldysh time-loop contour to equilibrium at finite and zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ness, H; Dash, L K

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamical equation of the time-ordered Green’s function at finite temperature. We show that the time-ordered Green’s function obeys a conventional Dyson equation only at equilibrium and in the limit of zero temperature. In all other cases, i.e. finite temperature at equilibrium or non-equilibrium, the time-ordered Green’s function obeys instead a modified Dyson equation. The derivation of this result is obtained from the general formalism of the non-equilibrium Green’s functions on the Keldysh time-loop contour. At equilibrium, our result is fully consistent with the Matsubara temperature Green’s function formalism and also justifies rigorously the correction terms introduced in an ad hoc way with Hedin and Lundqvist. Our results show that one should use the appropriate dynamical equation for the time-ordered Green’s function when working beyond the equilibrium zero-temperature limit.

  19. Effect of three-body interactions on the zero-temperature equation of state of HCP solid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have pointed to the importance of three-body interactions in high density 4He solids. However the computational cost often makes it unfeasible to incorporate these interactions into the simulation of large systems. We report the implementation and evaluation of a computationally efficient perturbative treatment of three-body interactions in hexagonal close packed solid 4He utilizing the recently developed nonadditive three-body potential of Cencek et al. This study represents the first application of the Cencek three-body potential to condensed phase 4He systems. Ground state energies from quantum Monte Carlo simulations, with either fully incorporated or perturbatively treated three-body interactions, are calculated in systems with molar volumes ranging from 21.3 cm3/mol down to 2.5 cm3/mol. These energies are used to derive the zero-temperature equation of state for comparison against existing experimental and theoretical data. The equations of state derived from both perturbative and fully incorporated three-body interactions are found to be in very good agreement with one another, and reproduce the experimental pressure-volume data with significantly better accuracy than is obtained when only two-body interactions are considered. At molar volumes below approximately 4.0 cm3/mol, neither two-body nor three-body equations of state are able to accurately reproduce the experimental pressure-volume data, suggesting that below this molar volume four-body and higher many-body interactions are becoming important.

  20. Benchmark Evaluation of Start-Up and Zero-Power Measurements at the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.; Fujimoto, Nozomu

    2014-01-01

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate six cold-critical and two warm-critical, zero-power measurements of the HTTR. Additional measurements of a fully-loaded subcritical configuration, core excess reactivity, shutdown margins, six isothermal temperature coefficients, and axial reaction-rate distributions were also evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments. Insufficient information is publicly available to develop finely-detailed models of the HTTR as much of the design information is still proprietary. However, the uncertainties in the benchmark models are judged to be of sufficient magnitude to encompass any biases and bias uncertainties incurred through the simplification process used to develop the benchmark models. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the impurity content of the various graphite blocks that comprise the HTTR. Monte Carlo calculations of keff are between approximately 0.9 % and 2.7 % greater than the benchmark values. Reevaluation of the HTTR models as additional information becomes available could improve the quality of this benchmark and possibly reduce the computational biases. High-quality characterization of graphite impurities would significantly improve the quality of the HTTR benchmark assessment. Simulation of the other reactor physics measurements are in good agreement with the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments

  1. Electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1421 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg. (Russian Federation) Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=863 K) to a temperature as high as 1421 K that is 417 degrees above the boiling point of the salt. At the temperature maximum of the own vapor pressure of the salt reached several megapascals.

  2. Electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl2 at temperature as high as 1421 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl 2 was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=863 K) to a temperature as high as 1421 K that is 417 degrees above the boiling point of the salt. At the temperature maximum of the own vapor pressure of the salt reached several megapascals.

  3. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  4. Electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} at temperatures as high as 1474 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} was measured across a wide temperature range (ΔT=628 K), from 846 K to as high as 1474 K, i.e. 241 above the normal boiling point of the salt. In previous studies, a maximum temperature of 1201 K was reached, this being 273 lower than in the present work. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  5. Electrical conductivity of molten CdCl2 at temperatures as high as 1474 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M.

    2016-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten CdCl 2 was measured across a wide temperature range (ΔT=628 K), from 846 K to as high as 1474 K, i.e. 241 above the normal boiling point of the salt. In previous studies, a maximum temperature of 1201 K was reached, this being 273 lower than in the present work. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  6. Common rectifier diodes in temperature measurement applications below 50 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervelae, J; Stenvall, A; Mikkonen, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we studied the use of common electronic semiconductor diodes in temperature measurements at cryogenic atmosphere. The motivation for this is the high price of calibrated cryogenic temperature sensors since there are some applications, like quench detection, in which a cheaper and a less accurate sensor would suffice. We measured the forward voltage as a function of temperature, V f (T), of several silicon rectifier diodes to determine the accuracy and interchangeability of the diodes. The experimental results confirmed that V f (T) of common rectifier diodes are similar to cryogenic sensor diodes, but the variability between two samples is much larger. The interchangeability of the diodes proved to be poor if absolute temperatures are to be measured. However for sensing changes in temperature they proved to be adequate and thus can be used to measure e.g. quench propagation or sense quench ignition at multiple locations with cheap price.

  7. Coarsening in 3D nonconserved Ising model at zero temperature: Anomaly in structure and slow relaxation of order-parameter autocorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Saikat; Das, Subir K.

    2017-09-01

    Via Monte Carlo simulations we study pattern and aging during coarsening in a nonconserved nearest-neighbor Ising model, following quenches from infinite to zero temperature, in space dimension d = 3. The decay of the order-parameter autocorrelation function appears to obey a power-law behavior, as a function of the ratio between the observation and waiting times, in the large ratio limit. However, the exponent of the power law, estimated accurately via a state-of-the-art method, violates a well-known lower bound. This surprising fact has been discussed in connection with a quantitative picture of the structural anomaly that the 3D Ising model exhibits during coarsening at zero temperature. These results are compared with those for quenches to a temperature above that of the roughening transition.

  8. An automated thermal relaxation calorimeter for operation at low temperature (0.5KK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Prins, M.W.J.; Rajeev, K.P.; Raychaudhuri, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    An automated calorimeter for measurement of specific heat in the temperature range 10K>T>0.5K. It uses sample of moderate size (100-1000 mg), has a moderate precision and accuracy (2%-5%) is easy to operate and the measurements can be done quickly with 3 He economy is described. The accuracy of this calorimeter was checked by measurement of specific heat of copper and that of aluminium near its superconducting transition temperature. (author). 12 refs., 11 figs

  9. In-situ temperature calibration below 1 K using the μ+ Knight shift in CMN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, R.H.; Le, L.P.; Amato, A.; Baines, C.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present μ + paramagnetic shift measurements between 12 K and about 65 mK in cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) to investigate its utility as an in-situ temperature calibration source for low temperature μSR experiments. CMN is a salt which exhibits Curie-law susceptibility to temperatures as low as 5 mK. The μ + Knight shift is measured to be (1.46 ± 0.03) x 10 -3 /T + (0.004 ± 0.02) x 10 -3 , corresponding to a transferred hyperfine field of -28.5 kOe/μ B

  10. Additional 5 kWe thermoelectric system temperature transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfen, F.J.

    1972-01-01

    Several additional system transients have been calculated for the 5 kW(e) TE system and are reported in this document. They include a startup transient with a reactivity rate of 0.005 cents/sec, several startup accidents, a step reactivity insertion at full power and a loss of electrical load. These data are intended for input to system design analyses and for possible use in the protected accident section of the safety report. (U.S.)

  11. Testing program for concrete at temperatures to 8940K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Robinson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    A test program was conducted to define the variations in mechanical properties of a limestone aggregate concrete and a lightweight insulating concrete exposed to elevated temperatures. Four test series were conducted: (1) unconfined compression; (2) shear; (3) rebar bond; and (4) sustained loading (creep). Tests results are presented

  12. Mean colors and effective temperatures of K and M dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    A new compilation of the mean colors of K3 - M6 dwarfs obtained largely from the photometry of Johnson (1965) by sorting the stars he observed according to their new spectral classifications from the eight-color photometry is given in table form. For each color index, a plot was made of color vs. spectral type and a smooth curve was drawn through the data. With the new spectral types, these curves are well determined, the author claims. He recommends the use of the new tabulation of mean colors whenever classifications on the MK system are employed, in view of the substantial systematic differences with Johnson's. (G.J.P.)

  13. Effective temperatures of late-type stars: The field giants from K0 to M6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgway, S.T.; Joyce, R.R.; White, N.M.; Wing, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Angular diameters from lunar occultation are combined with infrared photometry to determine effective temperatures, T/sub eff/, for K0--M6 giants. The relation between T/sub eff/ and color temperature, MK spectral type, V--K color, and I (104) --L color are derived. The principal result is a general increase in T/sub eff/ for the cooler spectral types compared to previous calibrations. Throughout the temperature range studied, we obtain excellent agreement with recent model atmosphere computations

  14. Radiation measurements by pn junction InSb detector at the temperature from 4.2 K to 115 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nouchi, Ryo; Sugiura, Osamu; Murase, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Katagiri, Masaki

    2003-01-01

    We fabricated the pn junction-type detectors on a p-type InSb substrate. Both sides of the InSb substrate were etched using a mixture of nitric and lactic acids. On the top side surface, Sn and Al were deposited by heat evaporation and then the Sn was diffused into the p-type InSb by lamp annealing and resulted in the n-type layer. Based on the confirmation of the performance of the InSb detector at temperatures of 0.5 K and 4.2 K, we concentrated on the measurement of alpha particles by the pm junction-type InSb detectors at higher operating temperatures of up to 115 K. The InSb detector showed a wide temperature operating range. We can conclude that all of the voltage was induced slowly by the holes at 4.2 K and mainly as a result of electrons at 77 K. (T. Tanaka)

  15. The Paris Agreement zero-emissions goal is not always consistent with the 1.5 °C and 2 °C temperature targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; O'Neill, Brian C.

    2018-04-01

    The Paris Agreement stipulates that global warming be stabilized at well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, with aims to further constrain this warming to 1.5 °C. However, it also calls for reducing net anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to zero during the second half of this century. Here, we use a reduced-form integrated assessment model to examine the consistency between temperature- and emission-based targets. We find that net zero GHG emissions are not necessarily required to remain below 1.5 °C or 2 °C, assuming either target can be achieved without overshoot. With overshoot, however, the emissions goal is consistent with the temperature targets, and substantial negative emissions are associated with reducing warming after it peaks. Temperature targets are put at risk by late achievement of emissions goals and the use of some GHG emission metrics. Refinement of Paris Agreement emissions goals should include a focus on net zero CO2—not GHG—emissions, achieved early in the second half of the century.

  16. The bimolecular reaction of radiolysis product of hydrated electron at temperature up to 473K; Reaksi bimolekular antar produk radiolisis elektron terhidrasi pada temperatur hingga 473K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaryo, G R [Reactor Safety Technology Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1996-06-01

    Rate constant from the bimolecular reaction of hydrated electron was determined by using radiolysis method. The methanol solution with concentration of 5 x 10{sup -2} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} was used as a scavenger of H and OH radicals. The pH was kept by adding the buffer solution of 1.0 x 10{sup -3} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} + 1.0 x 10{sup 4} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The irradiation was done by using the electron beam which come from linear accelerator 28 MeV with pulse width 10ns and dose of 80 Gy per pulse. The absorbance of hydrated electron was observed at wavelength of 824 nm. By using the kinetic equation the rate reaction constants were obtained. The bimolecular reaction of hydrated electron increase with temperature up to 423K. The activation energy was 19.3 kJ mol{sup -1} and the 2 k (298K) was 1.1 x 10{sup 10} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1}. Then this bimolecular reaction decrease at temperature higher than 423K and the rate reaction constant at 473K almost similar with that at 298K. (author)

  17. Experimental (155 K) and predicted (151 K) Curie temperature (Tc) of K2ZnBr4: structural confirmation of ferroelectric state below Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The temperature T c at which K 2 ZnBr 4 is predicted to transform from the paraelectric to the ferroelectric phase is 151 (19) K, based on the crystal structure determinations at 291 and 144 K by Fabry, Breczewski, Zuniga and Arnaiz and the Abrahams-Kurtz-Jamieson relationship. A dielectric and heat-capacity anomaly in this material at 155 K has been reported elsewhere. The locations reported for the ZnBr 2- 4 and K + ions fulfill the requirements of mirror plane symmetry above T c ; ionic displacements along the polar direction that approach but do not exceed 0.1 A and that violate the mirror symmetry on cooling through T c form the basis of the prediction and satisfy the structural criteria for ferroelectricity in the phase below the transition. (orig.)

  18. Plastic behaviour of Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range 77-1000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derep, J.L.; Ibrahim, S.; Rouby, D.; Fantozzi, G.; Gobin, P.

    1979-01-01

    Tensile tests were carried out on Zircaloy-4 over a temperature range 77-1000 K. So, we have determined the flow stress variations as a function of temperature and strain rate. Two thermally activated zones were observed between about 77 and 600 K, a plateau stress between 600 and 700 K and an other thermally activated zone above 700 K. The various mechanisms which can be responsible for the thermally activated and athermal zones are discussed in the light of experimental results. The mechanical behaviour of Zircaloy-4 appears similar to the zirconium-oxygen alloys one. (orig.) [de

  19. Density of Liquid Steel over Temperature Range of 1 803-1 873 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; FANG Liang

    2004-01-01

    The density of three kinds of liquid steel was measured by a modified sessile drop method over the temperature range of 1 803-1 873 K. It is found that the density of liquid steels decreases with increasing temperature and carbon content in steel. Both of the density and its absolute temperature coefficient of studied steels are smaller than the literature values of pure iron. The molar volume of the steels increases with increasing temperature.

  20. Absence of zero-temperature transmission rate of a double-chain tight-binding model for DNA with random sequence of nucleotides in thermodynamic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Gang; Wang, X.R.

    2005-01-01

    The zero-temperature transmission rate spectrum of a double-chain tight-binding model for real DNA is calculated. It is shown that a band of extended-like states exists only for finite chain length with strong inter-chain coupling. While the whole spectrum tends to zero in thermodynamic limit, regardless of the strength of inter-chain coupling. It is also shown that a more faithful model for real DNA with periodic sugar-phosphate chains in backbone structures can be mapped into the above simple double-chain tight-binding model. Combined with above results, the transmission rate of real DNA with long random sequence of nucleotides is expected to be poor

  1. Bilateral Comparison Between NIM and NMC Over the Temperature Range from 83.8058 K to 692.677 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianping; Ye, Shaochun; Kho, Haoyuan; Zhang, Jintao; Wang, Li

    2015-08-01

    A bilateral comparison of local realization of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 between the National Institute of Metrology (NIM) and National Metrology Centre (NMC) was carried out over the temperature range from 83.8058 K to 692.677 K. It involved six fixed points including the argon triple point, the mercury triple point, the triple point of water, the melting point of gallium, the freezing point of tin, and the freezing point of zinc. In 2009, NMC asked NIM to participate in a bilateral comparison to link the NMC results to the Consultative Committee for Thermometry Key Comparison 3 (CCT-K3) and facilitate the NMC's calibration and measurement capabilities submission. This comparison was agreed by NIM and Asia Pacific Metrology Programme in 2009, and registered in the Key Comparison Database in 2010 as CCT-K3.2. NMC supplied two fused silica sheath standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) as traveling standards. One of them was used at the Ga, Sn, and Zn fixed points, while the other one was used at the Ar and Hg fixed points. NMC measured them before and after NIM measured them. During the comparison, a criterion for the SPRT was set as the stability at the triple point of water to be less than 0.3 mK. The results for both laboratories are summarized. A proposal for linking the NMC's comparison results to CCT-K3 is presented. The difference between NMC and NIM and the difference between NMC and the CCT-K3 average reference value using NIM as a link are reported with expanded uncertainties at each measured fixed point.

  2. Evaluation of a novel noninvasive continuous core temperature measurement system with a zero heat flux sensor using a manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Ivo F; Perl, Thorsten; Bauer, Martin; Bräuer, Anselm

    2015-02-01

    Reliable continuous perioperative core temperature measurement is of major importance. The pulmonary artery catheter is currently the gold standard for measuring core temperature but is invasive and expensive. Using a manikin, we evaluated the new, noninvasive SpotOn™ temperature monitoring system (SOT). With a sensor placed on the lateral forehead, SOT uses zero heat flux technology to noninvasively measure core temperature; and because the forehead is devoid of thermoregulatory arteriovenous shunts, a piece of bone cement served as a model of the frontal bone in this study. Bias, limits of agreements, long-term measurement stability, and the lowest measurable temperature of the device were investigated. Bias and limits of agreement of the temperature data of two SOTs and of the thermistor placed on the manikin's surface were calculated. Measurements obtained from SOTs were similar to thermistor values. The bias and limits of agreement lay within a predefined clinically acceptable range. Repeat measurements differed only slightly, and stayed stable for hours. Because of its temperature range, the SOT cannot be used to monitor temperatures below 28°C. In conclusion, the new SOT could provide a reliable, less invasive and cheaper alternative for measuring perioperative core temperature in routine clinical practice. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate these results.

  3. Thermophysical properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube bundles at elevated temperatures up to 830 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xinwei; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Eres, Gyula

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of thermal transport measurements in multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundles at elevated temperatures. A novel generalized electrothermal technique (GET) was developed for measuring the thermal diffusivity ( ) and conductivity (k) of MWCNT bundles. The results show that the feeding current has a negligible effect on the thermal properties. The measured k is larger than the reported values for unaligned bundles, and is comparable to that of typical aligned arrays. Compared with experimental and theoretical data for individual CNTs, k of the MWCNT bundles is two to three orders of magnitude lower, suggesting that the thermal transport in CNT bundles is dominated by the thermal contact resistance of tube-to-tube junctions. The effective density for the two MWCNT bundles, which is difficult to measure using other techniques, was determined to be 116 kg/m3 and 234 kg/m3, respectively. The temperature dependences of and k at temperatures up to 830 K was obtained. slightly decreases with temperature while k exhibits a small increase with temperature up to 500 K and then decreases. For the first time, the behavior of specific heat cp(T) for CNTs above room temperature was determined. The specific heat is close to graphite at 300-400 K but is lower than that for graphite above 400 K, indicating that the behavior of phonons in MWCNT bundles is dominated by boundary scattering rather than by the three-phonon Umklapp process. The length of the mean curvature between two adjacent tube contact points in these bundles is estimated to be on the order of micrometer to millimeter. The analysis of the radiation heat loss suggests that it needs to be considered when measuring the thermophysical properties of micro/nano wires of high aspect ratios at elevated temperatures, especially for individual CNTs due to their extremely small diameter.

  4. Reaction rate constants of HO2 + O3 in the temperature range 233-400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyan; Suto, Masako; Lee, L. C.

    1988-01-01

    The reaction rate constants of HO2 + O3 were measured in the temperature range 233-400 K using a discharge flow system with photofragment emission detection. In the range 233-253 K, the constants are approximately a constant value, and then increase with increasing temperature. This result suggests that the reaction may have two different channels. An expression representing the reaction rate constants is presented.

  5. Phase Transformations and Phase Equilibria in the Fe-N System at Temperatures below 573 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinov, S.; Böttger, A.J.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    The phase transformations of homogeneous Fe-N alloys of nitrogen contents from 10 to 26 at. pct were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis upon aging in the temperature range from 373 to 473 K. It was found that precipitation of alpha double prime-Fe16N2 below 443 K does not only oc...

  6. Semiconductor resistance thermometer for the temperature range 300-0.3 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'eva, K.N.; Zarubin, L.I.; Nemish, I.Yu.; Vorobkalo, F.M.; Boldarev, S.T.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Poluprovodnikov)

    1979-01-01

    Thermometric characteristics of semiconductor resistor thermometers for the temperature range from 300 to 0.3 K and from 77 to 0.3 K are given. Temperature dependence of thermometer resistances in the 300-1.3 K range was measured in cryostats with pumping-out of N 2 , H 2 and 4 He. For measurements below 1.3 K use was made of a 3 H- 4 He dissolving cryostat. The accuracy of measuring temperatures in the 1.3-0.3 K range is not below +-0.003 K, the error in determining thermometer resistances does not exceed 1%. The analysis of obtained thermometric characteristics of several series of semiconductor resistance thermometers showed that observed insignificant spread of resistances of thermometers in one series and identity of characteristics allows them to be used without preliminary calibration for relatively coarse measurements in the range from 3O0 to 0.3 K. Besides, it has been found that in the 4.2-0.3 K range the thermometric characteristics represent a straight line in the lgR-Tsup(-n) coordinates, where R is the thermometer resistance, T is the temperature and n=0.5. Thus, the thermometers of the same series can be calibrated only in 2 or 3 reference point measurements

  7. Collecting the Missing Piece of the Puzzle: The Wind Temperatures of Arcturus (K2 III) and Aldeberan (K5 III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Graham

    2017-08-01

    Unravelling the poorly understood processes that drive mass loss from red giant stars requires that we empirically constrain the intimately coupled momentum and energy balance. Hubble high spectral resolution observations of wind scattered line profiles, from neutral and singly ionized species, have provided measures of wind acceleration, turbulence, terminal speeds, and mass-loss rates. These wind properties inform us about the force-momentum balance, however, the spectra have not yielded measures of the much needed wind temperatures, which constrain the energy balance.We proposed to remedy this omission with STIS E140H observations of the Si III 1206 Ang. resonance emission line for two of the best studied red giants: Arcturus (alpha Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (alpha Tau: K5 III), both of which have detailed semi-empirical wind velocity models. The relative optical depths of wind scattered absorption in Si III 1206 Ang., O I 1303 Ang. triplet., C II 1335 Ang., and existing Mg II h & k and Fe II profiles give the wind temperatures through the thermally controlled ionization balance. The new temperature constraints will be used to test existing semi-empirical models by comparision with multi-frequency JVLA radio fluxes, and also to constrain the flux-tube geometry and wave energy spectrum of magnetic wave-driven winds.

  8. Magnetic resonance of field-frozen and zero-field-frozen magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.R.; Pelegrini, F.; Neto, K. Skeff; Buske, N.; Morais, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this study magnetic resonance was used to investigate magnetic fluid samples frozen under zero and non-zero (15 kG) external fields. The magnetite-based sample containing 2x10 17 particle/cm 3 was investigated from 100 to 400 K. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the resonance field revealed bigger magnetic structures in the frozen state than in the liquid phase. Also, differences in the mesoscopic organization in the frozen state may explain the data obtained from samples frozen under zero and non-zero fields

  9. Electric resistance of nickel and niobium in the temperature range of 300-1300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.I.; Roshchupkin, V.V.; Mozgovoj, A.G.; Semashko, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation of nickel and niobium electric resistance on the wire samples by the potentiometric method in the temperature range of 300-1300 K are presented. Experimental data processing by the least square method is carried out; approximating equations of temperature dependence of the nickel and niobium electric resistance are prepared

  10. Phase transitions in the hard-core Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model at non-zero temperatures in the heavy-fermion limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasyuk, I.V.; Krasnov, V.O., E-mail: krasnoff@icmp.lviv.ua

    2017-04-15

    Phase transitions at non-zero temperatures in ultracold Bose- and Fermi-particles mixture in optical lattices using the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model in the mean field and hard-core boson approximations are investigated. The case of infinitely small fermion transfer and the repulsive on-site boson-fermion interaction is considered. The possibility of change of order (from the 2nd to the 1st one) of the phase transition to the superfluid phase in the regime of fixed values of the chemical potentials of Bose- and Fermi-particles is established. The relevant phase diagrams determining the conditions at which such a change takes place, are built.

  11. Thermoelectric Properties of High-Doped Silicon from Room Temperature to 900 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranz, A.; Kähler, J.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.

    2013-07-01

    Silicon is investigated as a low-cost, Earth-abundant thermoelectric material for high-temperature applications up to 900 K. For the calculation of module design the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical as well as thermal properties of silicon in the high-temperature range are of great importance. In this study, we evaluate the thermoelectric properties of low-, medium-, and high-doped silicon from room temperature to 900 K. In so doing, the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities, as well as the resulting figure of merit ZT of silicon are determined.

  12. Thermal properties of Permian Basin evaporites to 493 K temperature and 30 MPa confining pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, W.B.; Heard, H.C.; Boro, C.O.; Keller, K.T.; Ralph, W.E.; Trimmer, D.A.

    1987-03-01

    Laboratory measurements of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas, were made in conditions ranging from 303 to 473 K in temperature and 0.1 to 31.0 MPa in hydrostatic confining pressure. Within the +-5% measurement resolution neither conductivity nor diffusivity showed a dependence upon pressure in any of the rocks. Conductivity and diffusivity in all rocks had a negative temperature dependence. For the Cycle 4 salt samples, conductivity fell from 5.5 to 3.75 W/m . K, and diffusivity fell from about 2.7 to 1.7 x 10 -6 m 2 /s. One Cycle 5 salt was a single crystal with anomalous results, but the other had a low conductivity with very weak temperature dependence and a high diffusivity. In the nonsalts, conductivity and diffusivity decreased 10 to 20% over the temperature range explored. In measurements of the coefficient of thermal linear expansion for Cycle 5 salt and nonsalts, the coefficient typically varied from about 12 x 10 -6 K -1 at P = 3.0 MPa to 4 x 10 -6 K -1 at P = 30 MPa for both nonsalt rocks. In anhydrite, it decreased with increasing temperature. In dolomite, the coefficient increased at roughly the same rate. Expansion of the salt ranged from 33 to 38 x 10 -6 K -1 and was independent of pressure and temperature

  13. Reply to "On Vaporization of liquid Pb-Li eutectic alloy from 1000 K to 1200 K- A high temperature mass spectrometric study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Uttam; Mukherjee, Abhishek

    2018-03-01

    This communication is in response to a letter to editor commenting on the authors' earlier paper "Vaporization of liquid Pb-Li eutectic alloy from 1000 K to 1200 K - A high temperature mass spectrometric study".

  14. Two-stage high frequency pulse tube refrigerator with base temperature below 10 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liubiao; Wu, Xianlin; Liu, Sixue; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Pan, Changzhao; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces our recent experimental results of pulse tube refrigerator driven by linear compressor. The working frequency is 23-30 Hz, which is much higher than the G-M type cooler (the developed cryocooler will be called high frequency pulse tube refrigerator in this paper). To achieve a temperature below 10 K, two types of two-stage configuration, gas coupled and thermal coupled, have been designed, built and tested. At present, both types can achieve a no-load temperature below 10 K by using only one compressor. As to gas-coupled HPTR, the second stage can achieve a cooling power of 16 mW/10K when the first stage applied a 400 mW heat load at 60 K with a total input power of 400 W. As to thermal-coupled HPTR, the designed cooling power of the first stage is 10W/80K, and then the temperature of the second stage can get a temperature below 10 K with a total input power of 300 W. In the current preliminary experiment, liquid nitrogen is used to replace the first coaxial configuration as the precooling stage, and a no-load temperature 9.6 K can be achieved with a stainless steel mesh regenerator. Using Er3Ni sphere with a diameter about 50-60 micron, the simulation results show it is possible to achieve a temperature below 8 K. The configuration, the phase shifters and the regenerative materials of the developed two types of two-stage high frequency pulse tube refrigerator will be discussed, and some typical experimental results and considerations for achieving a better performance will also be presented in this paper.

  15. Vaporization of liquid Pb-Li eutectic alloy from 1000K to 1200K - A high temperature mass spectrometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, U.; Mukherjee, A.; Dey, G. K.

    2017-09-01

    Liquid lead-lithium eutectic will be used as a coolant in fusion reactor blanket loop. Vapor pressure of the eutectic is an important parameter to accurately predict its in-loop behavior. Past measurements of vapor pressure of the eutectic relied on indirect methods. In this paper, we report for the first time the in-situ vaporization behavior of the liquid alloy between 1042 and 1176 K by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). It was seen that the vaporization occurred by independent evaporation of lead and lithium. No complex intermetallic vapor was seen in the mass spectra. The partial pressures and enthalpy of vaporization of Pb and Li were evaluated directly from the measured ion intensities formed from the equilibrium vapor over the alloy. The activity of Li over a temperature range of 1042-1176 K was found to be 4.8 × 10-5 to that of pure Li, indicating its very low activity in the alloy.

  16. Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 1366 K flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas; Seiner, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Water cooled supersonic probes are developed to investigate total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature in high-temperature jet plumes and thereby determine the mean flow properties. Two probe concepts, designed for operation at up to 1366 K in a Mach 2 flow, are tested on a water cooled nozzle. The two probe designs - the unsymmetric four-tube cooling configuration and the symmetric annular cooling design - take measurements at 755, 1089, and 1366 K of the three parameters. The cooled total and static pressure readings are found to agree with previous test results with uncooled configurations. The total-temperature probe, however, is affected by the introduction of water coolant, and effect which is explained by the increased heat transfer across the thermocouple-bead surface. Further investigation of the effect of coolant on the temperature probe is proposed to mitigate the effect and calculate more accurate temperatures in jet plumes.

  17. A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

  18. The development of a cryogenic integrated system with the working temperature of 100K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, En'guang; Wu, Yi'nong; Wang, Yueming; Wen, Jiajia; Lv, Gang; Li, Chunlai; Hou, Jia; Yuan, Liyin

    2016-05-01

    In the infrared system, cooling down the optic components' temperature is a better choice to decrease the background radiation and maximize the sensitivity. This paper presented a 100K cryogenic optical system, for which an integrated designation of mechanical cooler, flexible thermal link and optical bench was developed. The whole infrared optic components which were assembled in a vacuum box were cooled down to 100K by two mechanical coolers. Low thermal conductivity supports and low emissivity multi-layers were used to reduce the cryogenic optical system's heat loss. The experiment results showed that in about eight hours, the temperature of the optical components reached 100K from room temperature, and the vibration from the mechanical coolers nearly have no affection to the imaging process by using of thermal links. Some experimental results of this cryogenic system will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Effect of the Solvent Temperatures on Dynamics of Serine Protease Proteinase K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To obtain detailed information about the effect of the solvent temperatures on protein dynamics, multiple long molecular dynamics (MD simulations of serine protease proteinase K with the solute and solvent coupled to different temperatures (either 300 or 180 K have been performed. Comparative analyses demonstrate that the internal flexibility and mobility of proteinase K are strongly dependent on the solvent temperatures but weakly on the protein temperatures. The constructed free energy landscapes (FELs at the high solvent temperatures exhibit a more rugged surface, broader spanning range, and higher minimum free energy level than do those at the low solvent temperatures. Comparison between the dynamic hydrogen bond (HB numbers reveals that the high solvent temperatures intensify the competitive HB interactions between water molecules and protein surface atoms, and this in turn exacerbates the competitive HB interactions between protein internal atoms, thus enhancing the conformational flexibility and facilitating the collective motions of the protein. A refined FEL model was proposed to explain the role of the solvent mobility in facilitating the cascade amplification of microscopic motions of atoms and atomic groups into the global collective motions of the protein.

  20. W-Band InP Wideband MMIC LNA with 30K Noise Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, S.; Lai, R.; Erickson, N.; Gaier, T.; Wielgus, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describe a millimeter wave low noise amplifier with extraordinary low noise, low consumption, and wide frequency range. These results are achieved utilizing state-of-the-art InP HEMT transistors coupled with CPW circuit design. The paper describes the transistor models, modeled and measured on-wafer and in-module results at both 300K am 24K operating temperatures for many samples of the device.

  1. The structure factor and the pair potential of liquid rubidium at temperatures between 450 K and 1,400 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block de Priego, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The structure factor S(Q) of liquid rubidium has been measured for temperatures between 450 K and 1400 K and pressures up to 200 atm. The corresponding densities varied between 1.42 and 0.98 g cm -3 . The incident energy of the neutrons was 3.4 MeV, the momentum transfer Q being 0.2 - 2.5 A -1 . A significant change in the order of the liquid has been registrated. Compressibility and electrical conductivity were derived from the structure factors and compared with the direct measured quantities, showing a good agreement. Further interpretation of the data was done by means of a hard core and a square well potential. Using these models it was already possible to get some information about the interactions between the rubidium atoms. A more exact calculation with a modified STLS model and a pseudopotential leads to a good description of the measured S(Q). In order to describe at high temperatures S(Q) for smaller values a new term had to be added to the pseudopotential. (orig.) [de

  2. Acoustic resonator providing fixed points of temperature between 0.1 and 2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmela, Anssi; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Sebedash, Alexander; Rysti, Juho

    2009-01-01

    Below 2 K the speed of second sound in mixtures of liquid 3 He and 4 He first increases to a maximum of 30-40 m/s at about 1 K and then decreases again at lower temperatures to values below 15 m/s. The exact values depend on the concentration and pressure of the mixture. This can be exploited to provide fixed points in temperature by utilizing a resonator with appropriate dimensions and frequency to excite standing waves in the resonator cavity filled with helium mixture. We demonstrate that commercially mass produced quartz tuning forks can be used for this purpose. They are meant for frequency standards operating at 32 kHz. Their dimensions are typically of order 1 mm matching the wavelength of the second sound in helium mixtures at certain values of temperature. Due to the complicated geometry, we observe some 20 sharp acoustic resonances in the range 0.1l 2 K having temperature resolution of order 1 μK. The quartz resonators are cheap, compact, simple to implement, easy to measure with great accuracy, and, above all, they are not sensitive to magnetic field, which is a great advantage compared to fixed point devices based on superconductivity transitions. The reproducibility of the resonance pattern upon thermal cycling remains to be verified.

  3. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part One: Zero-Dimensional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Casseau; Rodrigo C. Palharini; Thomas J. Scanlon; Richard E. Brown

    2016-01-01

    A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrat...

  4. PdMn and PdFe: New Materials for Temperature Measurement Near 2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriaans, M.J.; Aselage, T.L.; Day, P.K.; Duncan, R.V.; Klemme, B.J.; Sergatskov, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Interest in the critical dynamics of superfluid 4 He in microgravity conditions has motivated the development of new high resolution thermometry technol- ogy for use in space experiments near 2K. The current material commonly used as the temperature sensing element for high resolution thermometers (HRTs) is copper ammonium bromide [Cu(NH 4 ) 2 Br 4 2H 2 0) or ''CAB'', which undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition at 1.8K1. HRTs made from CAB have demonstrated low drift ( -13 K/s

  5. A study of phase separation in peptide-loaded HPMC films using T(zero)-modulated temperature DSC, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Samana; Grandy, David B; Reading, Mike; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2004-07-01

    Despite the widespread use of drug-loaded polymeric systems, there is still considerable uncertainty with regard to the nature of the distribution of the drug within the polymer matrix. The aim of this investigation was to develop thermal and microscopic techniques whereby the miscibility and spatial distribution of a model peptide, cyclosporin A (CyA), in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films may be studied. The new technique of T(zero)-modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (T(zero) MTDSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and pulse force mode atomic force microscopy (PFM-AFM) were used in conjunction to study films prepared using a solvent evaporation process, with a solvent extraction study performed to elucidate the nature of the observed phases. T(zero) MTDSC studies showed glass transitions for both the HPMC and CycA, with the T(g) for the HPMC and CycA seen for the mixed systems. SEM showed two spherical phases of differing electron density. PFM-AFM also showed spheres of differing adhesion that increased in size on addition of drug. Pixel intensity analysis indicated that the smaller spheres corresponded to CycA. Exposure of the films to dichloromethane, in which CycA is soluble but HPMC is not, resulted in the presence of voids that corresponded well to the spheres suggested to correspond to the drug. It was concluded that the system had undergone extensive or complete phase separation, and that the thermal and microscopic techniques outlined above are an effective means by which this issue may be studied. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93:1672-1681, 2004

  6. Apparatus to measure emissivities of metallic films between 90K and room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekeris, V I [Nunez Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Faculdad de Ciencias Exactas Y Naturales; Ramos, E D [Santa Rosa Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Y Naturales; Sanchez, D H [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche

    1975-09-01

    The development of multilayer insulations is aerospace and cryogenic required to know the emissivity of the metallic films used as reflective layers. This work describes an emissometer that measures the total hemispherical emissivity of metallic films evaporated on polyester substrates. The apparatus works at liquid oxigen temperatures and permits to get emissivities from 90K to room temperatures within a 15% precision. The emissometer construction and operation are described in detail. Results of measurements done on Single Aluminized Mylar are presented.

  7. Apparatus to measure emissivities of metallic films between 90K and room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekeris, V.I.; Ramos, E.D.; Sanchez, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    The development of multilayer insulations is aerospace and cryogenic required to know the emissivity of the metallic films used as reflective layers. This work describes an emissometer that measures the total hemispherical emissivity of metallic films evaporated on polyester substrates. The apparatus works at liquid oxigen temperatures and permits to get emissivities from 90K to room temperatures within a 15% precision. The emissometer construction and operation are described in detail. Results of measurements done on Single Aluminized Mylar are presented [pt

  8. A low-temperature (4-300K) constant volume gas thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A constant volume gas thermometer was built to calibrate the various secondary thermometers used at low temperature. This gas thermometer is placed in a cryostat where any stable temperature between 4 and 300K may be obtained. The principle is outlined, then the gas thermometer and its auxiliary equipment are briefly described; the corrections to be applied to the results are given and a table shows the values obtained [fr

  9. Simultaneous temperature measurement of ionospheric plasma and neutral atmosphere with K-10-11 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murasato, Yukio; Kaneko, Osamu; Sasaki, Susumu; Kawashima, Nobuki; Kibune, Tadashi.

    1976-01-01

    Ion temperature and neutral atmospheric temperature in lower ionospheric layer were measured by the ''Shadow Method'', which has been developed and improved by the authors. The principle of the method, which utilizes the fact that the shadow due to the reduction of density of medium behind on obstacle depends upon the flow velocity and the temperature of the medium, is briefly explained together with the apparatus used for the measurement. A pair of the Langmuir probes with the interval of 44 mm was used for the measurement of ion temperature. For the measurement of the neutral atmospheric temperature, its density was measured with the ionization gauge. The measuring system was mounted on the K-10-11 rocket, and launched from KSC at 2 p.m., September 24, 1975. Although the rocket itself reached its highest altitude of 196 km, the temperature measurement was performed between the altitude of 80 km and 140 km. The measured temperatures of ions, neutral atmosphere, and electrons are presented as the functions of altitude. It is confirmed that the temperatures of ions and neutral atmosphere are lower than that of electrons in that range of altitude. (Aoki, K.)

  10. High-capacity NO2 denuder systems operated at various temperatures (298-473 K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Niessner, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated several coatings for high-temperature, high-capacity, and high-efficiency denuder-based NO(2) removal, with the scope to face the harsh conditions and requirements of automotive exhaust gas sampling. As first coating, we propose a potassium iodide (KI)/polyethylene glycol coating with a high removal efficiency (ε > 98%) for about 2 h and 50 ppm NO(2) at room temperature (298 K). At elevated temperatures (423 K), the initial capacity (100 ppmh) is decreased to 15 ppmh. Furthermore, this is the first proposal of the ionic liquid methyl-butyl-imidazolium iodide ([BMIm(+)][I(-)]) as denuder coating material. At room temperature, this ionic liquid exhibits far greater capacity (300 ppmh) and NO(2) removal efficiency (ε > 99.9%) than KI. Nevertheless, KI exhibits a slightly (~10%) higher capacity at elevated temperatures than [BMIm(+)][I(-)]. Both coatings presented are suitable for applications requiring selective denuding of NO(2) at temperatures up to 423 K.

  11. Gravity and Zero Point Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, U. W.

    When Planck introduced the 1/2 hv term to his 1911 black body equation he showed that there is a residual energy remaining at zero degree K after all thermal energy ceased. Other investigators, including Lamb, Casimir, and Dirac added to this information. Today zero point energy (ZPE) is accepted as an established condition. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the density of the ZPE is given by the gravity constant (G) and the characteristics of its particles are revealed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Eddies of ZPE particles created by flow around mass bodies reduce the pressure normal to the eddy flow and are responsible for the force of gravity. Helium atoms resonate with ZPE particles at low temperature to produce superfluid helium. High velocity micro vortices of ZPE particles about a basic particle or particles are responsible for electromagnetic forces. The speed of light is the speed of the wave front in the ZPE and its value is a function of the temperature and density of the ZPE.

  12. Zero-field quantum critical point in CeCoIn5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Y; Bauer, E D; Gegenwart, P

    2013-09-06

    Quantum criticality in the normal and superconducting states of the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn5 is studied by measurements of the magnetic Grüneisen ratio ΓH and specific heat in different field orientations and temperatures down to 50 mK. A universal temperature over magnetic field scaling of ΓH in the normal state indicates a hidden quantum critical point at zero field. Within the superconducting state, the quasiparticle entropy at constant temperature increases upon reducing the field towards zero, providing additional evidence for zero-field quantum criticality.

  13. Development of an experimental variable temperature set-up for a temperature range from 2.2 K to 325 K for cost-effective temperature sensor calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sandip; Kar, Ranjan; Mandal, Anupam; Das, Ananda; Saha, Subrata

    2017-05-01

    A prototype of a variable temperature insert has been developed in-house as a cryogenic thermometer calibration facility. It was commissioned in fulfilment of the very stringent requirements of the temperature control of the cryogenic system. The calibration facility is designed for calibrating industrial cryogenic thermometers that include a temperature sensor and the wires heat-intercept in the 2.2 K-325 K temperature range. The isothermal section of the calibration block onto which the thermometers are mounted is weakly linked with the temperature control zone mounted with cooling capillary coil and cryogenic heater. The connecting wires of the thermometer are thermally anchored with the support of the temperature insert. The calibration procedure begins once the temperature of the support is stabilized. Homogeneity of the calibration block’s temperature is established both by simulation and by cross-comparison of two calibrated sensors. The absolute uncertainty present in temperature measurement is calculated and found comparable with the measured uncertainty at different temperature points. Measured data is presented in comparison to the standard thermometers at fixed points and it is possible to infer that the absolute accuracy achieved is better than  ±0.5% of the reading in comparison to the fixed point temperature. The design and development of simpler, low cost equipment, and approach to analysis of the calibration results are discussed further in this paper, so that it can be easily devised by other researchers.

  14. Micromechanical properties of C70 single crystals in the temperature range 77-350 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenets, S.V.; Natsik, V.D.; Fomenko, L.S.; Rusakova, A.V.; Natsik, V.D.; Osip'yan, Yu.A.; Orlov, V.I.; Sidorov, N.S.; Izotov, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Hexagonal single crystals of C 70 up to a size down to 1-2 mm were grown which allowed for the first time to investigate their low-temperature mechanical properties. Morphology, microplasticity anisotropy and the temperature dependence of Vickers microhardness HV (T) of the C 70 crystals in the temperature range 77-350 K involving all known phase transitions have been studied with the aid of optical microscopy and microindentation. The association of the features of HV (T) dependence with orientation phase transformations has been analyzed. It is suggested that anisotropy of microplasticity in the C 70 crystals correlates with the active slip systems.

  15. Temperature Measurements Using Type K Thermocouples and the Fluke Helios Plus 2287A Datalogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Vonbank, R.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    the circuit creates a circuit in which the two legs generate different voltages, leaving a small difference in voltage available for measurement (Figure 1). That difference increases with temperature, and can typically be between one and seventy micro-volts per Kelvin (μV/K) for the modern range of available...

  16. Temperature control for liquid-helium cryostats below 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escorne, M.; Mauger, A.

    1983-01-01

    We report the operational characteristics of a membrane type of manostat and of a throttle valve system which we have constructed to regulate the pressure P above the liquid-helium bath. The choice of the manostat rather than the other device depends on the nature of the experiments to be performed: in the membrane type of manostat, the temperature is determined with an accuracy limited by the fluctuations ΔT around the mean value T. With throttle valves, the accuracy is limited by the drift of T in time. The performance of both devices prove to be sufficiently good as they stand, since the departure from T in the course of the experiments is lower than 10 -2 K in the whole range 1.4< T<4.2 K, being well inside this limit below 2 K. The need for expensive and complex electronic regulations to improve the temperature control is thus exceptional

  17. Wide temperature range (T = 295 K and 770-1305 K) study of the kinetics of the reactions HCO + NO and HCO + NO2 using frequency modulation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeier, J; Colberg, M; Friedrichs, G

    2007-08-21

    The rate constants for , HCO + NO --> HNO + CO, and , HCO + NO(2)--> products, have been measured at temperatures between 770 K modulation (FM) absorption spectroscopy. Kinetic simulations based on a comprehensive reaction mechanism showed that the rate constants for the title reactions could be sensitively extracted from the measured HCO profiles. The determined high temperature rate constants are k(1)(769-1307 K) = (7.1 +/- 2.7) x 10(12) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) and k(2)(804-1186 K) = (3.3 +/- 1.8) x 10(13) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1). The room temperature values were found to be in very good agreement with existing literature data and show that both reactions are essentially temperature independent. The weak temperature dependence of can be explained by the interplay of a dominating direct abstraction pathway and a complex-forming mechanism. Both pathways yield the products HNO + CO. In contrast to , no evidence for a significant contribution of a direct high temperature abstraction channel was found for . Here, the observed temperature independent overall rate constant can be described by a complex-forming mechanism with several product channels. Detailed information on the strongly temperature dependent channel branching ratios is provided. Moreover, the high temperature rate constant of , OH + (CHO)(2), has been determined to be k(7) approximately 1.1 x 10(13) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1).

  18. From coherent motion to localization: II. Dynamics of the spin-boson model with sub-Ohmic spectral density at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haobin; Thoss, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: □□□ - Abstract: The dynamics of the spin-boson model at zero temperature is studied for a bath characterized by a sub-Ohmic spectral density. Using the numerically exact multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method, the population dynamics of the two-level subsystem has been investigated in a broad range of parameter space. The results show the transition of the dynamics from weakly damped coherent motion to localization upon increase of the system-bath coupling strength. Comparison of the exact ML-MCTDH simulations with the non-interacting blip approximation (NIBA) shows that the latter performs rather poorly in the weak coupling regime with small Kondo parameters. However, NIBA improves significantly upon increase in the coupling strength and is quantitatively correct in the strong coupling, nonadiabatic limit. The transition from coherent motion to localization as a function of the different parameters of the model is analyzed in some detail.

  19. Dislocation mechanisms for plastic flow of nickel in the temperature range 4.2-1200K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, D.H.; Tangri, K.

    1975-01-01

    The temperature ranges of thermal and athermal deformation behaviour of nickel are identified by employing the temperature-dependence of flow-stress and strain-rate cycling data. The results are used to present a unified view of dislocation mechanisms of glide encompassing the two thermally activated and the intermediate athermal regimes of plastic flow. In the low-temperature thermally activated region (<250K) the strain rate is found to be controlled by the repulsive intersection of glide and forest dislocations, in accordance with current ideas. The athermal stress in this region can be attributed mainly to the presence of strong attractive junctions which are overcome by means of Orowan bowing, a small contribution also coming from the elastic interactions between dislocations. The values of activation area and activation energy obtained in the high-temperature region (<750K) negate the operation of a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Instead, the data support a thermal activation model involving unzipping of the attractive junctions. The internal (long-range) stress contribution here results solely from the elastic interactions between dislocations. This view concerning the high-temperature plastic flow is further supported by the observation that the Cottrell-Stokes law is obeyed over large strains in the range 750-1200K. (author)

  20. Dusty plasma in a glow discharge in helium in temperature range of 5–300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoilov, I. S.; Baev, V. P.; Timofeev, A. V., E-mail: timofeevalvl@gmail.com; Amirov, R. Kh.; Kirillin, A. V.; Nikolaev, V. S.; Bedran, Z. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Dusty plasma structures in glow discharge in helium in the temperature range of 5–300 K are investigated experimentally. We have described the experimental setup that makes it possible to continuously vary the temperature regime. The method for experimental data processing has been described. We have measured interparticle distances in the temperature range of 9–295 K and compared them with the Debye radius. We indicate the ranges of variations in experimental parameters in which plasma–dust structures are formed and various types of their behavior are manifested (rotation, vibrations of structures, formation of vertical linear chains, etc.). The applicability of the Yukawa potential to the description of the structural properties of a dusty plasma in the experimental conditions is discussed.

  1. Zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, E. B.; Utari; Purnama, B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discussed about zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal (TAMR). Appearance of reversal probability in zero field investigated through micromagnetic simulation by solving stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gibert (LLG). The perpendicularly anisotropy magnetic dot of 50×50×20 nm3 is considered as single cell magnetic storage of magnetic random acces memory (MRAM). Thermally assisted magnetization reversal was performed by cooling writing process from near/almost Curie point to room temperature on 20 times runs for different randomly magnetized state. The results show that the probability reversal under zero magnetic field decreased with the increase of the energy barrier. The zero-field probability switching of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T and the reversal probability become zero noted at energy barrier of 2348 k B T. The higest zero-field switching probability of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T which corespond to magnetif field of 150 Oe for switching.

  2. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. II. MAIN-SEQUENCE K- AND M-STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; McAlister, Harold A.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; Henry, Todd; Gies, Douglas; Jao, Wei-Chun; Parks, J. Robert [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Van Belle, Gerard [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Schaefer, Gail; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit [The CHARA Array, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lopez-Morales, Mercedes [Institut de Ciencies de L' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ridgway, Stephen [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Rojas-Ayala, Barbara [Department of Astrophysics, Division of Physical Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); and others

    2012-10-01

    We present interferometric angular diameter measurements of 21 low-mass, K- and M-dwarfs made with the CHARA Array. This sample is enhanced by adding a collection of radius measurements published in the literature to form a total data set of 33 K-M-dwarfs with diameters measured to better than 5%. We use these data in combination with the Hipparcos parallax and new measurements of the star's bolometric flux to compute absolute luminosities, linear radii, and effective temperatures for the stars. We develop empirical relations for {approx}K0 to M4 main-sequence stars that link the stellar temperature, radius, and luminosity to the observed (B - V), (V - R), (V - I), (V - J), (V - H), and (V - K) broadband color index and stellar metallicity [Fe/H]. These relations are valid for metallicities ranging from [Fe/H] = -0.5 to +0.1 dex and are accurate to {approx}2%, {approx}5%, and {approx}4% for temperature, radius, and luminosity, respectively. Our results show that it is necessary to use metallicity-dependent transformations in order to properly convert colors into stellar temperatures, radii, and luminosities. Alternatively, we find no sensitivity to metallicity on relations we construct to the global properties of a star omitting color information, e.g., temperature-radius and temperature-luminosity. Thus, we are able to empirically quantify to what order the star's observed color index is impacted by the stellar iron abundance. In addition to the empirical relations, we also provide a representative look-up table via stellar spectral classifications using this collection of data. Robust examinations of single star temperatures and radii compared to evolutionary model predictions on the luminosity-temperature and luminosity-radius planes reveal that models overestimate the temperatures of stars with surface temperatures <5000 K by {approx}3%, and underestimate the radii of stars with radii <0.7 R{sub Sun} by {approx}5%. These conclusions additionally

  3. Experimental study of the density and derived volumetric (excess, apparent, and partial molar volumes) properties of aqueous 1-propanol mixtures at temperatures from 298 K to 582 K and pressures up to 40 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulagatov, I.M.; Azizov, N.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Density of (water + 1-propanol) mixtures. • Excess molar volumes of (water + 1-propanol) mixtures. • Apparent molar volumes of (water + 1-propanol) mixtures. -- Abstract: Densities of (water + 1-propanol) mixtures have been measured over the temperature range from 298 K to 582 K and at pressures up to 40 MPa using the constant-volume piezometer immersed in a precision liquid thermostat. The measurements were made for six compositions of (0.869, 2.465, 2.531, 7.407, 14.377, and 56.348) mol · kg −1 of 1-propanol. The expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and concentration measurements at the 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k = 2 is estimated to be 0.06%, 0.05%, 15 mK, and 0.015%, respectively. The derived volumetric properties such as excess (V m E ), apparent (V Φ ), and partial (V ¯ 2 ∞ ) molar volumes were calculated using the measured values of density for the mixture and for pure components (water and 1-propanol). The concentration dependences of the apparent molar volumes were extrapolated to zero concentration to yield the partial molar volumes of 1-propanol at infinite dilution (V ¯ 2 ∞ ). The temperature, pressure, and concentration dependence of density and derived properties of the mixture were studied. All experimental and derived properties (excess, apparent, and partial molar volumes) were compared with the reported data by other authors. The small and negative values of excess molar volume for the mixtures were found at all experimental temperatures, pressures, and over the entire concentration range. The excess molar volume minimum is found at concentration about 0.4 mole fraction of 1-propanol. The concentration minimum of the derived apparent molar volumes V Φ near the 2.5 mol · kg −1 (dilute mixture) was observed

  4. X-ray and neutron powder investigations of pure and yttrium doped CeO2 at temperatures up to 1600 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berber, K.; Martin, U.; Mursic, Z.; Schneider, J.; Boysen, H.; Frey, F.

    1991-01-01

    Ceria, CeO 2 powders and sintermaterials with different amounts of yttria, Y 2 O 3 , (0-10 mole %) were investigated up to 1600 K by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. In the sample with 3 mole % yttria the onset of a solid-state reaction or a kind of phase change at 900 K is indicated by a change of the lattice expansion coefficient and by an increase of the slope of the B iso (T) curve. Microstrains are present in the sintered material above 900 K. Anharmonic contributions to the temperature factor of the oxygens become significant at higher temperatures. We deduce from a non-zero part B T ≠0 some static disorder within the O-sublattice. Pdf-maps of the oxygens show clearly deformations of the 'normal' isotropic behaviour, but exceptional smearing out or even closed pathways are not observed. Thus, the superior anionic conductivity of this material is not reflected by the features of the averaged structure. It is most likely due to a disordered 'interface-structure' between ordered domains. A temperature dependent 'structured' background scattering supports this conclusion. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  5. Thermodynamic constants of N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-amino]propanesulfonic acid (Taps) from the temperatures 278.15 K to 328.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Rabindra N.; Roy, Lakshmi N.; LeNoue, Sean R.; Denton, Cole E.; Simon, Ashley N.; Richards, Sarah J.; Moore, Andrew C.; Roy, Chandra N.; Redmond, R. Ryan; Bryant, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    Values of the second thermodynamic dissociation constant pK 2 of N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-amino]propanesulfonic acid (Taps) have been determined at twelve temperatures from 278.15 K to 328.15 K including 310.15 K by measurements of the electromotive-force for cells without liquid junction of the type: Pt|H 2 (g, p - bar =101.325 kPa)|Taps (m 1 ), NaTapsate (m 2 ), NaCl (m 3 )|AgCl|Ag, where m denotes molality. The pK 2 values for the dissociation of Taps are represented by the equation: pK 2 =2969.61.(K/T) - 17.05052+2.73697.ln(T/K). The values of pK 2 for Taps were found to be (8.502+/-0.0007) at T=298.15 K and (8.225+/-0.0009) at T=310.15 K, respectively, indicating thereby to be useful as buffer solutions for pH control in the region 7.4 to 8.5. The thermodynamic quantities, ΔG - bar , ΔH - bar , ΔS - bar , and ΔC p - bar dissociation process of Taps have been derived from the temperature coefficients of the pK 2

  6. Thermodynamic constants of N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-amino]propanesulfonic acid (Taps) from the temperatures 278.15 K to 328.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Rabindra N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States)]. E-mail: rroy@drury.edu; Roy, Lakshmi N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); LeNoue, Sean R. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Denton, Cole E. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Simon, Ashley N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Richards, Sarah J. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Moore, Andrew C. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Roy, Chandra N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Redmond, R. Ryan [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Bryant, Paul A. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Values of the second thermodynamic dissociation constant pK{sub 2} of N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-amino]propanesulfonic acid (Taps) have been determined at twelve temperatures from 278.15 K to 328.15 K including 310.15 K by measurements of the electromotive-force for cells without liquid junction of the type: Pt|H{sub 2} (g, p{sup -}bar =101.325 kPa)|Taps (m{sub 1}), NaTapsate (m{sub 2}), NaCl (m{sub 3})|AgCl|Ag, where m denotes molality. The pK{sub 2} values for the dissociation of Taps are represented by the equation: pK{sub 2}=2969.61.(K/T) - 17.05052+2.73697.ln(T/K). The values of pK{sub 2} for Taps were found to be (8.502+/-0.0007) at T=298.15 K and (8.225+/-0.0009) at T=310.15 K, respectively, indicating thereby to be useful as buffer solutions for pH control in the region 7.4 to 8.5. The thermodynamic quantities, {delta}G{sup -}bar , {delta}H{sup -}bar , {delta}S{sup -}bar , and {delta}C{sub p}{sup -}bar dissociation process of Taps have been derived from the temperature coefficients of the pK{sub 2}.

  7. Experimental investigation on tritium release from lithium titanate pebble under high temperature of 1073 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, Kentaro, E-mail: howartre@onid.oregonstate.edu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Edao, Yuki; Kawamura, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan); Ohta, Masayuki; Sato, Satoshi; Konno, Chikara [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We have performed the tritium recovery experiment with the DT neutron source at 1073 K. • The tritium recovery corresponded with the calculated tritium production. • The chemical form of recovered tritium is affected by the temperature and kind of sweep gas. • The recovered HT increases at higher temperature and dry hydrogen circumstance. - Abstract: The temperature of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble breeder in a fusion DEMO blanket is assumed to be more than 1000 K. For the investigation of tritium release from a Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble breeder blanket at such a high temperature, we have carried out a tritium release experiment with the DT neutron source at the JAEA-FNS. The Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble (1.0–1.2 mm in diameter) of 70 g was put into a stainless steel container and installed into an assembly stratified with beryllium and Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} layers. During the DT neutron irradiation, the temperature was kept at 1073 K with wire heaters in the blanket container. Helium gas including 1% hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}/He) mainly flowed inside the container as the purge gas. Two chemical forms, HT and HTO, of extracted tritium were separately collected during the DT neutron irradiation by using water bubblers and CuO bed. The tritium activity in the water bubbler was measured by a liquid scintillation counter. To investigate the effect of moisture in the purge gas, we also performed the same experiments with H{sub 2}O/He gas (H{sub 2}O content: 1%) or pure helium gas. From our experiment at 1073 K, in the case of the purge gas includes H{sub 2}, it is indicated that the increasing tendency of HT release is similar to that of the dry H{sub 2}/He.

  8. Thermal Stability of Austempered Ductile Iron Evaluated in a Temperature Range of 20-300K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid MYSZKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to determine through changes in magnetic properties the stability of the austempered ductile iron (ADI microstructure during temperature changes in a range of 20 – 300 K. The measurements were taken in a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM using Fe27Ni2TiMoAlNb austenitic stainless steel and four types of austempered ductile iron obtained under various heat treatment conditions. The plotted curves showing changes in the magnetisation degree as a function of temperature had a number of characteristic points illustrating changes taking place in the microstructure. For each of the materials examined, the martensite start temperature Ms and the temperature range within which the martensitic transformation takes place were identified.

  9. A real time zero-dimensional diagnostic model for the calculation of in-cylinder temperatures, HRR and nitrogen oxides in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Real-time zero-dimensional three-zone diagnostic combustion model. • Capable of evaluating in-cylinder temperatures, HRR and NOx in DI diesel engines. • Able to be integrated in the engine ECU for control applications. • Able to be integrated in the test bed acquisition software for calibration tasks. • Tested under both steady state and fast transient conditions. - Abstract: A real-time zero-dimensional diagnostic combustion model has been developed and assessed to evaluate in-cylinder temperatures, HRR (heat release rate) and NOx (nitrogen oxides) in DI (Direct Injection) diesel engines under steady state and transient conditions. The approach requires very little computational time, that is, of the order of a few milliseconds, and is therefore suitable for real-time applications. It could, for example, be implemented in an ECU (Engine Control Unit) for the on-board diagnostics of combustion and emission formation processes, or it could be integrated in acquisition software installed on an engine test bench for indicated analysis. The model could also be used for post-processing analysis of previously acquired experimental data. The methodology is based on a three-zone thermodynamic model: the combustion chamber is divided into a fuel zone, an unburned gas zone and a stoichiometric burned gas zone, to which the energy and mass conservation equations are applied. The main novelty of the proposed method is that the equations can be solved in closed form, thus making the approach suitable for real-time applications. The evaluation of the temperature of burned gases allows the in-cylinder NOx concentration to be calculated, on the basis of prompt and Zeldovich thermal mechanisms. The procedure also takes into account the NOx level in the intake charge, and is therefore suitable for engines equipped with traditional short-route EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) systems, and engines equipped with SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and long

  10. Conceptual design of a forced-flow-cooled 20-kA current lead using Ag-alloy-sheathed Bi-2223 high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, R.

    1994-11-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors in current leads to reduce refrigeration power has been investigated by many groups in the past. Most used YBCO and Bi-2212 bulk superconductors, although their critical current density is not very high. In this paper, BI-2223 HTSC tapes sheathed with Ag alloys are used in the design of a 20-kA current lead because of their higher critical current in medium magnetic fields. The lead current of 20 kA is related to the coil current of the planned stellarator WENDELSTEIN 7-X. Forced-now helium cooling has been used in the design, allowing position-independent and well-controlled operation. The design characteristics of the lead are presented and 4-K helium cooling of the whole lead, as well as 60-K helium cooling of the copper part of the lead, is discussed. The power consumption at zero current, and the lead's behaviour in case of loss of coolant flow, are given, The results of the design allow extrapolation to current leads of the 50-kA range

  11. K-band spectroscopic metallicities and temperatures of M-dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Ayala Bárbara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I present the metallicity and effective temperature techniques developed for M dwarf stars by Rojas-Ayala et al. (2010, 2012. These techniques are based on absorption features present in the modest resolution K-band spectra (R∼2700 of M dwarfs and have been calibrated using FGK+M dwarf pairs and synthetic atmosphere models. The H2O-K2 index seems to overestimate the effective temperatures of M dwarfs when compared to interferometric measurements. The metallicity distribution of the M dwarf host candidates by the Kepler Mission hints that jovian-size planets form preferentially around solar and super-solar metallicity environments, while small rocky planet host exhibit a wide range of metallicities, just like in their solar-type counterparts.

  12. Low-temperature synthesis and structural properties of ferroelectric K 3WO 3F 3 elpasolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Kesler, V. G.; Molokeev, M. S.; Aleksandrov, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    Low-temperature ferroelectric G2 polymorph of K 3WO 3F 3 has been prepared by chemical synthesis. Structural and chemical properties of the final product have been evaluated with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Structure parameters of G2-K 3WO 3F 3 are refined by the Rietveld method from XRD data measured at room temperature (space group Cm, Z = 2, a = 8.7350(3) Å, b = 8.6808(5) Å, c = 6.1581(3) Å, β = 135.124(3) Å, V = 329.46(3) Å 3; RB = 2.47%). Partial ordering of oxygen and fluorine atoms has been found over anion positions. Mechanism of ferroelectric phase transition in A 2BMO 3F 3 oxyfluorides is discussed.

  13. Neutron diffraction study of high temperature phase of K2SeO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yutaka; Koyano, Nobumitsu; Shibuya, Iwao; Hidaka, Masanori; Okazaki, Atsushi.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal structure of high-temperature phase of K 2 SeO 4 has been determined by means of single crystal neutron diffraction. The space group is P6 3 /mmc of hexagonal system with two formula units per unit cell. The structure is characterized by an averaged dispositions of SeO 4 tetrahedra with one of its Se-O bonds pointing parallel and antiparallel to the hexagonal c-axis in addition to the split distribution of potassium atoms. Heavily distorted distribution of oxygen atoms in SeO 4 is observed in Fourier maps corrersponding to split positions and reorientational motion of tetrahedra. This disordered arrangement is found to have close relation with the room temperature orthorhombic structure. The hexagonal-orthorhombic phase transition of K 2 SeO 4 at 472 0 C is grouped to an order-disorder type. (author)

  14. Temperature and pressure distributions in a 400 kW{sub t} fluidized bed straw gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erguedenler, A.; Ghaly, A.E.; Hamdullahpur, F. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The temperature and pressure distribution characteristics of a 400 kW (thermal) dual-distributor type fluidized bed straw gasifier were investigated. The effects of the bed height, equivalence ratio (actual air-fuel ratio:stoichiometric air-fuel ratio) and fluidization velocity on the temperature and pressure variations in the gasifier were studied. Generally, the bed temperature reached the steady state condition within 15--20 minutes. The average temperature of the dense bed ranged from 649{degrees}C to 875{degrees}C depending on the levels of operating parameters used. The bed temperature increased linearly with increases in the equivalence ratio, higher bed temperatures were observed with lower bed height and no clear trend for the bed temperature with respect to variations in fluidization velocity was observed. The bed height, equivalence ratio and fluidization velocity affected the pressure drop in the fluidized bed gasifier. Increasing the fluidization velocity and/or decreasing the equivalence ratio resulted in higher pressure drops in the dense bed and the freeboard regions whereas increasing the bed height increased the pressure drop only in the dense bed.

  15. Experimental determination of the Koo fuel temperature coefficient for an HTGR lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, P.; Benedetti, F.; Brighenti, G.; Chiodi, P. L.; Dell' Oro, P.; Giuliani, C.; Tassan, S.

    1974-10-15

    This paper describes temperature-dependent k-infinity measurements conducted using an assembly of loose HTGR coated particles in the BR-2 reactor by means of null reactivity oscillating method comparing the effect of poisoned and unpoisoned lattices like tests performed in the Physical Constants Test Reactor (PCTR) at Hanford. The RB-2 reactor was the property of the Italian firm AGIP NUCLEARE and operated at the Montecuccolino Center in Bologna.

  16. Progress report on the k{sub infinity} measurements of HTGR type lattices with the oscillation technique at zero reactivity; Rapport d'advancement sur les mesures de K {sub infinite} des reseaux du type HTGR avec la technique de l'oscillateur a'reactivite' nulle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-01-15

    The principles of measuring k {sub infinity} for a HTGR lattice using the oscillation technique with zero reactivity were already presented at the ''9th reactor physics meeting of countries participating in the Dragon project''. A brief summary of the essential characteristics of the experiment is followed by a status report on present work.

  17. Bimetallic strip for low temperature use. [4-300/sup 0/K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussiee, J.F.; Welch, D.O.; Suenaga, M.

    A class of mechanically pre-stressed structures is provided suitably bi-layer strips, consisting of a layer of group 5 transition metals in intimate contact with a layer of an intermetallic compound of transition metals with certain group 3A, 4A or 5A metals or metalloids such as Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn, As or Sb. The changes of Young's modulus of these bi-layered combinations at temperatures in the region of somewhat above absolute zero provides a useful means of sensing temperature changes. Such bi-metallic strips may be used as control strips in thermostats, or in direct dial reading instruments. The structures are made by preparing a sandwich of a group 5B transition metal strip between the substantially thicker strips of an alloy between copper and a predetermined group 3A, 4A or 5A metal or metalloid, holding the three layers are heated, cooled the copper alloys and is removed. Removing one of the two formed interlayer alloys between the transition metal and the metal previously alloyed with copper remain.

  18. Interconnection between zero resistance and magnetic irreversibility temperatures in the hole doped Y0.9Ca0.1Ba2Cu3O7-δ single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, D G; Vieira, V N; Dias, F T; Silva, D L da; Jaeckel, S; Pureur, P; Schaf, J

    2014-01-01

    We report on ac magnetoresistance, R(T,H) and ZFC [M ZFC (T)] and FCC [M FCC (T)] dc magnetizations measurements of the a hole doped Y 0.9 Ca 0.1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ single crystal with the propose of to disclose the correlation between the zero resistance, T R0 (H) and the magnetic irreversibility, T irr (H) temperatures. The R(T,H) measurements were performed with a PPMS with the measurement current density applied parallel to the sample ab plane. The M ZFC (T) and M FCC (T) measurements were performed with a commercial SQUID magnetometer. For the both measurements H ≤ 50kOe were applied parallel to the c axis of the sample. The contrasting of the T irr (H) and T R0 (H) data profile at H-T diagram shows that for H ≤ 5kOe the T R0 (H) data falls systematically underneath of the T irr (H) data and for H > 5kOe the T R0 (H) data matches to the T irr (H) data. We attributed to the establishment of a superconducting granular scenario provided for Ca doping as responsible for the observation of these features. At this scenario, T irr (H) and T R0 (H) do not depend of the same parts of the sample. While the T irr (H) depends on well coupled grain clusters the T R0 (H) depends on grain arrays traversing the whole sample. The granular aspect of this result is discussed at the light of the superconducting glass theories

  19. Test results of full-scale high temperature superconductors cable models destined for a 36 kV, 2 kA(rms) utility demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daumling, M.; Rasmussen, C.N.; Hansen, F.

    2001-01-01

    Power cable systems using high temperature superconductors (HTS) are nearing technical feasibility. This presentation summarises the advancements and status of a project aimed at demonstrating a 36 kV, 2 kA(rms) AC cable system by installing a 30 m long full-scale functional model in a power...

  20. Measurements of (p, ρ, T) properties for isobutane in the temperature range from 280 K to 440 K at pressures up to 200 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of (p, ρ, T) properties for isobutane in the compressed liquid phase have been obtained by means of a metal-bellows variable volumometer in the temperature range from 280 K to 440 K at pressures up to 200 MPa. The volume-fraction purity of isobutane used was 0.9999. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) of temperature, pressure, and density measurements have been estimated to be less than 3 mK, 1.5 kPa (p ≤ 7 MPa), 0.06% (7 MPa 150 MPa), and 0.11%, respectively. In region more than 100 MPa at 280 K and 440 K, the uncertainty in density measurements rise up to 0.15% and 0.23%, respectively. The differences of the present density values at the same temperature between two series of measurements, in which the sample fillings are different, are within the maximum deviation of 0.09% in density, which is enough lower than the expanded uncertainty in density. Eight (p, ρ, T) measurements at the same temperatures and pressures as the literature values have been conducted for comparison. In addition, vapour pressures were measured at T = (280, 300) K. Moreover, the comparisons of the available equations of state with the present measurements are reported

  1. Development of the active magnetic regenerative refrigerator operating between 77 K and 20 K with the conduction cooled high temperature superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inmyong; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2017-12-01

    The experimental investigation of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) operating between 77 K and 20 K is discussed in this paper, with detailed energy transfer analysis. A multi-layered active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is used, which consists of four different rare earth intermetallic compounds in the form of irregular powder. Numerical simulation confirms that the AMR can attain its target operating temperature range. Magnetic field alternation throughout the AMR is generated by a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet. The HTS magnet is cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler. Helium gas was employed as a working fluid and its oscillating flow in the AMR is controlled in accordance with the magnetic field variation. The AMR is divided into two stages and each stage has a different mass flow rate as needed to achieve the desired cooling performance. The temperature variation of the AMR during the experiment is monitored by temperature sensors installed inside the AMR. The experimental results show that the AMRR is capable of achieving no-load temperature of 25.4 K while the warm end temperature is 77 K. The performance of the AMRR is analyzed by observing internal temperature variations at cyclic steady state. Furthermore, numerical estimation of the cooling capacity and the temperature variation of the AMR are examined and compared with the experimental results.

  2. Continental-Scale Temperature Reconstructions from the PAGES 2k Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a major new synthesis of seven regional temperature reconstructions to elucidate the global pattern of variations and their association with climate-forcing mechanisms over the past two millennia. To coordinate the integration of new and existing data of all proxy types, the Past Global Changes (PAGES) project developed the 2k Network. It comprises nine working groups representing eight continental-scale regions and the oceans. The PAGES 2k Consortium, authoring this paper, presently includes 79 representatives from 25 countries. For this synthesis, each of the PAGES 2k working groups identified the proxy climate records for reconstructing past temperature and associated uncertainty using the data and methodologies that they deemed most appropriate for their region. The datasets are from 973 sites where tree rings, pollen, corals, lake and marine sediment, glacier ice, speleothems, and historical documents record changes in biologically and physically mediated processes that are sensitive to temperature change, among other climatic factors. The proxy records used for this synthesis are available through the NOAA World Data Center for Paleoclimatology. On long time scales, the temperature reconstructions display similarities among regions, and a large part of this common behavior can be explained by known climate forcings. Reconstructed temperatures in all regions show an overall long-term cooling trend until around 1900 C.E., followed by strong warming during the 20th century. On the multi-decadal time scale, we assessed the variability among the temperature reconstructions using principal component (PC) analysis of the standardized decadal mean temperatures over the period of overlap among the reconstructions (1200 to 1980 C.E.). PC1 explains 35% of the total variability and is strongly correlated with temperature reconstructions from the four Northern Hemisphere regions, and with the sum of external forcings including solar, volcanic, and greenhouse

  3. The effect of temperature on pulsed positive streamer discharges in air over the range 292 K–1438 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yuta

    2018-05-01

    The effect of temperature on pulsed positive streamer discharges in air is measured by comparing atmospheric-pressure, high-temperature discharges with low-pressure, room-temperature discharges at the same air densities n and discharge voltages. Both discharges have the same reduced electric field E/n, so the differences between the two discharges only depend on the temperature, which is varied from 292 K to 1438 K. Temperature affects the discharge pulse energy most significantly; at 1438 K, the energy of an atmospheric-pressure discharge pulse is approximately 30 times larger than that of the corresponding 20.5 kPa, room-temperature discharge. Temperature also affects the shapes of the streamers when K, but no significant effect is observed for K. There is also no significant temperature effect on the spatially integrated intensity of N2(C–B) emission. However, temperature strongly affects the ratio of the integrated emission intensity to the discharge energy. No effect of the temperature is observed on the propagation velocity of the primary streamer or on the length of the secondary streamer.

  4. Trajectory dynamics study of the Ar + CH4 dissociation reaction at high temperatures: the importance of zero-point-energy effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, J M C; Martínez-Núñez, E; Fernandez-Ramos, A; Vazquez, S A

    2005-06-23

    Large-scale classical trajectory calculations have been performed to study the reaction Ar + CH4--> CH3 +H + Ar in the temperature range 2500 energy surface used for ArCH4 is the sum of the nonbonding pairwise potentials of Hase and collaborators (J. Chem. Phys. 2001, 114, 535) that models the intermolecular interaction and the CH4 intramolecular potential of Duchovic et al. (J. Phys. Chem. 1984, 88, 1339), which has been modified to account for the H-H repulsion at small bending angles. The thermal rate coefficient has been calculated, and the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the CH3 product molecule has been taken into account in the analysis of the results; also, two approaches have been applied for discarding predissociative trajectories. In both cases, good agreement is observed between the experimental and trajectory results after imposing the ZPE of CH3. The energy-transfer parameters have also been obtained from trajectory calculations and compared with available values estimated from experiment using the master equation formalism; in general, the agreement is good.

  5. TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN 3013 CONTAINERS IN K AREA MATERIAL STORAGE (KAMS) FACILITY USING REGRESSION METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N

    2008-01-01

    3013 containers are designed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3013-2004. These containers are qualified to store plutonium (Pu) bearing materials such as PuO2 for 50 years. DOT shipping packages such as the 9975 are used to store the 3013 containers in the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE-STD-3013-2004 requires that a comprehensive surveillance program be set up to ensure that the 3013 container design parameters are not violated during the long term storage. To ensure structural integrity of the 3013 containers, thermal analyses using finite element models were performed to predict the contents and component temperatures for different but well defined parameters such as storage ambient temperature, PuO 2 density, fill heights, weights, and thermal loading. Interpolation is normally used to calculate temperatures if the actual parameter values are different from the analyzed values. A statistical analysis technique using regression methods is proposed to develop simple polynomial relations to predict temperatures for the actual parameter values found in the containers. The analysis shows that regression analysis is a powerful tool to develop simple relations to assess component temperatures

  6. Solvent Effects in the Electroreduction of Ferrocene at Pt in the Temperature Range 200-300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-20

    been obtained at iow temperatures downto 92 K ata P ulramcroeectode(dimete, 2 pm inthree alcohol solvents, namely, methanol, ethanol , and n-propanol. In...In this aree.-doutee-eace&4 Kinetic parameters for the electrooxidation of ferrocene have been obtained at low temperatures down to 193 ’K at a Pt...with solvent nature. tnsvetsiky of~aitm Davis, CA 95616 Kinetic data obtained in mteehanol, ethanol . and I1- propanol as a function of temperature

  7. Test results of a 20 kA high temperature superconductor current lead using REBCO tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R.; Fietz, W. H.; Gröner, F.; Heiduk, M.; Hollik, M.; Lange, C.; Lietzow, R.

    2018-05-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology has developed a 20 kA high temperature superconductor (HTS) current lead (CL) using the second generation material REBCO, as industry worldwide concentrate on the production of this material. The aim was to demonstrate the possibility of replacing the Bi-2223/AgAu tapes by REBCO tapes, while for easy comparison of results, all other components are copies of the 20 kA HTS CL manufactured for the satellite tokamak JT-60SA. After the manufacture of all CL components including the newly developed REBCO module, the assembly of the CL has been executed at KIT and an experiment has been carried out in the CuLTKa test facility where the REBCO CL was installed and connected to a JT-60SA CL via a superconducting bus bar. The experiment covers steady state operation up to 20 kA, pulsed operation, measurement of the heat load at 4.5 K end, loss-of-flow-accident simulations, and quench performance studies. Here the results of these tests are reported and directly compared to those of the JT-60SA CL.

  8. Phonon Anharmonicity of Germanium in the Temperature Range 80-880 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelin, G; Nilsson, G

    1974-06-15

    Phonon frequency shifts and line widths in germanium have been studied in the temperature range 80 - 880 K by means of thermal neutron spectrometry. The results cannot be described in terms of the quasiharmonic approximation in which phonon frequencies are solely volume dependent. Theoretical calculations are found to be more satisfactory for the Raman frequency than for most other modes. A good account of the observed shifts is given by a proposal due to Barron according to which the relative frequency renormalization of a crystal is proportional to the total harmonic vibrational energy. An analysis of the gradients of measured dispersion relations in the principal symmetry directions at 80 K is presented. It is shown that accidental degeneracies may influence the dispersion

  9. Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor system with critical temperatures of 80 and 107 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugimiya, K.; Kawashima, S.; Inoue, O.; Adachi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Critical temperatures (T/sub c/) of 80 and 107 K are confirmed by resistivity and inductance measurements and also by the Meissner effect. X-rayelectron diffraction and electron microscopy analyses on a single phase material of 80 K show that its structure is orthorhombic with a unit cell of a = 5.407 A, b = 27.011 A, c = 30.588 A composed of a pseudotetragonal cell of a = b = 5.41 A. The pseudotetragonal cell size and cleavage behavior to very thin flakes strongly indicate that the oxide is basically a lamellar oxide of the Aurivillius phase type, i.e., a stacked layer structure of (Bi 2 O 2 ) 2+ sheets and distorted perovskite cell sheets

  10. Vapour pressure of D2O - Ice at temperatures below 237 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, J.M.; Asensio, M.C.; Estiu, G.; Viscido, L.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate measurements of heavy water ice vapour pressures between 193 and 253 K have been carried out and an equation based on thermodynamic data has been derived in order to calculate the D 2 O-ice vapour pressures between 173 and 273 K. The agreement between our calculated vapour pressures and the available experimental data including those in this paper, is very good. The comparison between the theoretical calculations of H 2 O-ice and D 2 O-ice vapour pressures confirms the experimental evidence that H 2 O-ice is more volatile than D 2 O-ice at all temperatures in agreement with the vapour isotopic effect theory (VPIE).(author)

  11. Microwave absorption properties of flake-shaped Co particles composites at elevated temperature (293-673 K) in X band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guowu; Li, Xiling; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Junming; Wang, Dian; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Li, Fashen

    2018-06-01

    The complex permeability and permittivity of the easy-plane anisotropic Co/polyimide composite at high temperature (293-673 K) in X band were measured. The results show that both the complex permeability and permittivity increase with the increase of temperature in the measured temperature range. The calculated absorption properties display that the intensity of the reflection loss (RL) peak first increases and then decreases with the increase of temperature, and reaches the maximum (-52 dB) at 523 K. At each temperature, the composite can achieve the RL exceeding -10 dB in the whole X band. The composite can even work stably for more than 20 min with the excellent absorption performance under 673 K. In addition, the RL performance of the composite at high temperature is better than that at room temperature.

  12. Spin trapping of radicals formed in gamma-irradiated methanol: effect of the irradiation temperature from 77K to 300K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlick, S.; Kevan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The neutral radicals formed in gamma-irradiated methanol were studied by spin trapping with phenyl-t-butylnitrone (PBN) in an attempt to probe the primary neutral radicals formed. In the temperature range from approximately 157 K to 300 K both CH 2 OH and CH 3 O spin adducts are observed and their limiting ratio at high PBN concentrations is CH 2 OH/CH 3 O=1.5 over this temperature range. Below approximately 157 K this ratio increases exponentially with decreasing temperature with an apparent activation energy of 5.8 kJ/mole (1.4 kcal/mole); this is consistent with the finding that only CH 2 OH radicals are formed by gamma radiolysis at 77 K. Several possible models for the primary neutral radicals formed in gamma-irradiated methanol and their subsequent reactions as a function of irradiation temperature are discussed. It is suggested that the primary radical formation mechanisms are similar in the gas and liquid phases and become temperature dependent when molecular motion is arrested in the solid. (Auth.)

  13. Laser parameters of a Fe : ZnSe crystal in the 85-255-K temperature range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronov, AA; Kozlovskii, [No Value; Korostelin, YV; Podmar'kov, YP; Frolov, MP

    The temperature dependence of the efficiency of a laser based on a Fe:ZnSe crystal grown from the vapour phase by the free-growth method is studied in the 85-255-K temperature range. As the temperature was increased, the slope efficiency of the laser with respect to absorbed energy decreased from

  14. Maglev system concept using 20-K high-temperature superconductors and hyperconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.; He, Jianliang

    A magnetically levitated high-speed ground transportation concept is proposed that uses high-temperature superconductors or hyperconductors, cooled by liquid hydrogen at 20 K, to provide levitation. An on-board hydrogen-powered turbine/generator provides electricity for propulsion by linear induction motors. The liquid hydrogen is used to cool the superconductors and the windings of the generator and motors before combusting in the turbine. The principal advantage of this system is the potential to greatly reduce the cost of the guideway, which is completely passive.

  15. The density of molten indium at temperatures up to 600 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alchagirov, B.B.; Khatsukov, A.M.; Mozgovoj, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid indium density measurement is carried out through the pycnometric method within the temperature range of 434-600 K both by heating and cooling. The totality of the obtained results was processed through the approximating equation. The root-mean-square deviation of the experimental data from the approximating equation does not exceed ±0.01%. The high accuracy of the obtained results is noted. The deviation of the existing data on the liquid indium density from the approximating equation is shown graphically [ru

  16. (p, ρ, T) Properties for n-butane in the temperature range from 280 K to 380 K at pressures up to 200 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2007-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T) properties for n-butane in the compressed liquid phase were measured by means of a metal-bellows variable volumometer in the temperature range from 280 K to 380 K at pressures up to 200 MPa. The mole fraction purity of the n-butane used in the measurements was 0.9997. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in temperature, pressure, and density measurements have been estimated to be less than ±3 mK; 1.4 kPa (p ≤ 7 MPa), 0.06% (7 MPa 150 MPa); and 0.09%, respectively. In the region above100 MPa at T = 280 K and T = 440 K, the uncertainty in density measurements increases from 0.09% to 0.13% and 0.22%, respectively. Eight (p, ρ, T) measurements at the same temperatures and pressures as the literature values have been conducted for comparisons. In addition, comparisons of the available equations of state with the present measurements are reported

  17. The enthalpy of solid scandium in the temperature range 406 - 1812 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyapunov, K.M.; Baginskij, A.V.; Stankus, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Enthalpy of pure scandium was measured on massive calorimeter in the range from 406 to 1812 K by mixing method. The enthalpy of face centered close cubic lattice - body centered cubic lattice transformation is equal to ΔH t 4068 J/mol. Obtained value within the limits of error is compatible with the results given earlier (4009 J/mol). The dependence of the middle specific heat of scandium C p (T) on the temperature was shown in correlation with the results of other works. The results of the conducted experiments reinforce the conclusion made earlier about an absence (or a little) in the decomposition of an anharmonic component of the oscillation specific heat of scandium C p a (T) members proportional to the first or the second degrees of temperature [ru

  18. Determination of toxic and trace elements in human hair and sediment samples by reactor neutron activation analysis technique based-on the k-zero method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Nguyen Mong Sinh; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Si

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of human hair can evaluate the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to human body, intakes of food and metabolism. Also, the analysis of sediment can aid in reconstructing the history of changes, understanding human impact on the ecosystem, and suggesting possible remedial strategies. The k o -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k o -NAA) on research reactor is capable to play an important role as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multielement and routine for the sample object. Therefore, the project's aim is to build the k o -NAA procedures on the Dalat research reactor for the analysis of human hair and sediment samples. The K o -NAA procedure on the Dalat research reactor is able to determine of multielement: Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in The human hair; and of multielement: As, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na Rb, Sb, Sc, Yb and Zn in the sediment. (author)

  19. Zero Gravity Research Facility (Zero-G)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Zero Gravity Research Facility (Zero-G) provides a near weightless or microgravity environment for a duration of 5.18 seconds. This is accomplished by allowing...

  20. Densities and apparent molar volumes of aqueous LiI solutions at temperatures from (296 to 600) K and at pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulagatov, I.M.; Azizov, N.D.

    2004-01-01

    Densities of five aqueous LiI solutions (0.0906, 0.2832, 0.6621, 1.6046, and 3.0886) mol . kg -1 H 2 O were measured in the liquid phase with a constant-volume piezometer immersed in a precision liquid thermostat. Measurements were made along various isotherms between (296.95 and 600.25) K. The range of pressure was (0.1 to 30) MPa. The total uncertainty of density, pressure, temperature, and concentration measurements was estimated to be less than 0.06%, 0.05%, 15 mK, and 0.014%, respectively. To check and confirm the accuracy of the measurements, (p,V m ,T,x) data were taken for pure water at selected temperatures and pressures. Experimental and calculated (IAPWS formulation) densities for pure water show excellent agreement within their experimental uncertainties (average absolute deviation is 0.02%). Values of saturated densities were determined by extrapolating experimental p - ρ data to the vapour pressure at fixed temperature and composition using a linear interpolating equation. Apparent molar volumes were derived using measured values of density for solutions and pure water. The apparent molar volumes were extrapolated to zero concentration (m → 0) to yield partial molar volumes of electrolyte (LiI) at infinite dilution. The temperature, pressure, and concentration dependence of apparent and partial molar volumes was studied. The measured values of density, apparent and partial molar volume were compared with data reported in the literature by other authors. A polynomial type of equation of state for specific volume was obtained as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition by a least-squares method using the experimental data. The average absolute deviation (AAD) between measured and calculated values from this polynomial equation for density was 0.065%

  1. Thermometry using 1/8 W carbon resistors in a temperature region around 10 mK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayasi, S.; Shinohara, M.; Ono, K.

    1976-01-01

    The resistance-temperature characteristics of 1/8 W carbon resistors of grade ERC-18SG, manufactured by Matsushita, with the nominal values of 48, 82, 100, 220 and 330 Ω have been measured in the region 4.2 K to 25 mK and their application as thermometers in this region is confirmed. For the 82 Ω resistor, measurements were taken at temperatures below 10mK. The temperature dependence of the resistance was found to be linear on the log-log plot over a wide range below 50 mK. The sensitivity remains finite even at 6 mK, but below 10 mK rapid measurements were prevented by a considerable increase in the thermal relaxation time. Measurement of the characteristics of several 100 Ω resistors from two different sets showed that resistors from the same set separate into two groups with different characteristics. This become appreciable at temperatures below 4.2 K, so it is difficult to predict the behaviour of Matsushite resistors below 4.2 K from the characteristics at higher temperatures. (author)

  2. Correlation of irradiation-induced transition temperature increases from C sub v and K sub Jc /K sub Ic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiser, A.L. (Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance capsules contain Charpy-V (C{sub v}) specimens, but many do not contain fracture toughness specimens; accordingly, the radiation-induced shift (increase) in the brittle-to-ductile transition region ({Delta}T) is based upon the {Delta}T determined from notch ductility (C{sub v}) tests. Since the ASME K{sub Ic} and K{sub IR} reference fracture toughness curves are shifted by the {Delta}T from C{sub v}, assurance that this {Delta}T does not underestimate {Delta}T associated with the actual irradiated fracture toughness is required to provide confidence that safety margins do not fall below assumed levels. To assess this behavior, comparisons of {Delta}T's defined by elastic-plastic fracture toughness and C{sub v} tests have been made using data from RPV base and weld metals in which irradiations were made under test reactor conditions. Using as-measure'' fracture toughness values (K{sub Jc}), average comparisons between {Delta}T(C{sub v}) and {Delta}T(K{sub Jc}) are: (a) All data: {Delta}T(K{sub Jc} 100 MPa{radical}{bar m}) = {Delta}T(C{sub v} 41 J) +10{degree}C; (b) Plates only: {Delta}T(K{sub Jc} 100 MPa{radical}{bar m}) = {Delta}T(C{sub v} 41 J) +15{degree}C; and (c) Welds only: {Delta}T(K{sub Jc} 100 MPa{radical}{bar m}) = {Delta}T(C{sub v} 41 J) {minus}1{degree}C. Fluence rate is found to have no significant effect on the relationship between {Delta}T(C{sub v}) and {Delta}T(K{sub Jc}). 12 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Isobaric specific heat capacity of water and aqueous cesium chloride solutions for temperatures between 298 K and 370 K at p = 0.1 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, M.J.V.; Santos, F.J.V.; Ramires, M.L.V.; Nieto de Castro, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    There has been some controversy regarding the uncertainty of measurements of thermal properties using differential scanning calorimeters, namely heat capacity of liquids. A differential scanning calorimeter calibrated in enthalpy and temperature was used to measure the isobaric specific heat capacity of water and aqueous solutions of cesium chloride, in the temperature range 298 K to 370 K, for molalities up 3.2 mol . kg -1 , at p = 0.1 MPa, with an estimated uncertainty (ISO definition) better than 1.1%, at a 95% confidence level. The measurements are completely traceable to SI units of energy and temperature. The results obtained were correlated as a function of temperature and molality and compared with other authors, obtained by different methods and permit to conclude that a DSC calibrated by Joule effect is capable of very accurate measurements of the isobaric heat capacity of liquids, traceable to SI units of measurement

  4. Temperature dependence of the Schottky-barrier heights of n-type semiconductors in the temperature range of 7 to 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.P.; Lee, T.C.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    In this note we present the results of the temperature dependence of the SBH in Au/n-Si, Ag/n-GaAs, and Au/n-GaAs in the temperature range of 7 to 300 K from our internal photoemission measurements. (orig.)

  5. Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 15,500 tons of geologic mill tailings at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The geologic mill tailings are residues from the processing of pitchlende ore during 1949-1958. These waste residues are contained in silos in Operable Unit 4 (OU4) at the FEMP facility. Operable Unit 4 is one of five operable units at the FEMP. Operating Unit 4 consists of four concrete storage silos and their contents. Silos 1 and 2 contain K-65 mill tailing residues and a bentonite cap, Silo 3 contains non-radioactive metal oxides, and Silo 4 is empty. The K-65 residues contain radium, uranium, uranium daughter products, and heavy metals such as lead and barium.The K-65 waste leaches lead at greater than 100 times the allowable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) concentration limits when tested by the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Vitrification was chosen by FEMP as the preferred technology for the Silos 1, 2, 3 wastes because the final waste form met the following criteria: controls radon emanation, eliminates the potential for hazardous or radioactive constituents to migrate to the aquifer below FEMP, controls the spread of radioactive particulates, reduces leachability of metals and radiological constituents, reduces volume of final wasteform for disposal, silo waste composition is favorable to vitrification, will meet current and proposed RCRA TCLP leaching criteria Glasses that melt at 1350 degrees C were developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and glasses that melt between 1150-1350 degrees C were developed by the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for the K-65 silo wastes. Both crucible studies and pilot scale vitrification studies were conducted by PNNL and VSL. Subsequently, a Vitrification Pilot Plant (VPP) was constructed at FEMP capable of operating at temperatures up to 1450

  6. Radiometric measurements of wall temperatures in the 800 K to 1150 K range for a quartz radiant heating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, L.G.; Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Shahien, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many industrial applications require heat transfer to a load in an inert environment, which can be achieved by using gas-fired radiant tubes. A radiant tube consists of a flame confined in a cylindrical metal or ceramic chamber. The flame heats the tube wall, which in turn radiates to the load. One important characteristic of radiant heating tubes is wall temperature uniformity. Numerical models of radiant tubes have been used to predict wall temperatures, but there is a lack of experimental data for validation. Recently, Namazian et al., Singh and Gorski, and Peters et al. have measured wall temperature profiles of radiant tubes using thermocouples. 13 refs., 3 figs

  7. Thermal properties of KUO3(s) and K2U2O7 - by high temperature Calvet calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, K.; Iyer, V.S.; Venugopal, V.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal properties of KUO 3 (s) and K 2 U 2 O 7 (s) were determined using a high temperature Calvet calorimeter by drop method. The enthalpy increments, (H T o - H 298.15 0 ), in kJ/mol for KUO 3 (s) and K 2 U 2 O 7 (s) can be represented by, H T o - H 298.15 0 KUO 3 (s) kJ/mol ± 0.7 = -39.15 + 0.129T + 0.1005x10 -4 T 2 (369-714K) and H T o -H 298.15 0 K 2 U 2 O 7 (s) kJ/mol ± 0.7 = -52.99 + 0.1361T + 0.146x10 -3 T 2 (391 - 683K). (author)

  8. Results of Koo measurements of HTGR lattice by oscillated zero reactivity technique using the AGIP-NUCLEARE RB-2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, F; Brighenti, G.; Chiodi, P. L.; Ghilardotti, G.; Giuliani, C.

    1974-10-15

    This paper describes k-infinity measurements conducted using an assembly of loose HTGR coated particles in the BR-2 reactor by means of null reactivity oscillating method comparing the effect of poisoned and unpoisoned lattices like tests performed in the Physical Constants Test Reactor (PCTR) at Hanford. The RB-2 reactor was the property of the Italian firm AGIP NUCLEARE and operated at the Montecuccolino Center in Bologna.

  9. Magnetic ordering of quasi-1 D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu benzoate at sub-mK temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Y.; Masutomi, R.; Kubota, M.; Ishimoto, H.; Asano, T.; Ajiro, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the AC susceptibility of quasi-1D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu benzoate at temperatures down to 0.2 mK. A sharp susceptibility peak is observed at 0.8 mK under an earth field. This fact indicates a 3D ordering of linear chains coupled by a weak magnetic interaction between chains

  10. Experimental study of the density and viscosity of polyethylene glycols and their mixtures at temperatures from 293 K to 473 K and at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, D.I.; Fomina, M.G.; Mukhamedzyanov, G.Kh.; Abdulagatov, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Viscosity and density of polyethylene glycols. → Combined experimental apparatus for density and viscosity measurements. → Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher model for viscosity. - Abstract: A new apparatus to measure simultaneously the density and viscosity of liquids has been designed and constructed based on the hydrostatic weighing and falling-body principles. The density and viscosity of monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) and their binary, (50%MEG + 50%DEG), (50%MEG + 50%TEG), (50%DEG + 50%TEG), and ternary (33.33%MEG + 33.33%DEG + 33.34%TEG) mixtures have been measured over the temperature range from 293 K to 473 K and at atmospheric pressure. The expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and viscosity measurements at the 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k = 2 is estimated to be 0.15% to 0.30%, 0.05%, 0.06 K, and 1.5% to 2.0% (depending on temperature and pressure ranges), respectively. The theoretically based Arrhenius-Andrade and Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher type equations were used to describe the temperature dependence of measured viscosities for pure polyethylene glycols and their mixtures.

  11. Zero thermal expansion in NaZn13-type La(Fe,Si)13 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Wen; Tan, Jie; Zhao, Yuqiang; Li, Shaopeng; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

    2015-01-28

    A zero thermal expansion material in a pure form of NaZn13-type La(Fe,Si)13 was fabricated. Through optimizing the chemical composition, an isotropic zero thermal expansion material is achieved. The obtained materials exhibit a low expansion of |α| linear thermal expansion) over a broad temperature range (15-150 K). The present study indicates that the thermal expansion behavior of the NaZn13-type La(Fe,Si)13 compounds depends mainly on the content of Si element. This new material is desirable in many fields of industry as a reliable and low-cost zero thermal expansion material.

  12. Design and construction of an adiabatic calorimeter for samples of less than 1 cm3 in the temperature range T = 15 K to T = 350 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Brian E.; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Woodfield, Brian F.

    2006-01-01

    A small-scale adiabatic calorimeter has been constructed as part of a larger project to study the thermodynamics of nanomaterials and to facilitate heat capacity measurements on samples of insufficient quantity to run on our current large-scale adiabatic apparatus. This calorimeter is designed to measure the heat capacity of samples whose volume is less than 0.8 cm 3 over a temperature range of T = 13 K to T = 350 K. Heat capacity results on copper, sapphire, and benzoic acid show the accuracy of the measurements to be better than ±0.4% for temperatures higher than T = 50 K. The reproducibility of these measurements is generally better than ±0.25%

  13. CRESU studies of electron attachment and Penning ionization at temperatures down to 48 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Garrec, J.L.; Mitchell, J.B.A.; Rowe, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    The object of the present report is to present results obtained for electron attachment and Penning ionization, obtained with the addition of a Langmuir probe to the measurement apparatus. Measurements of the rate coefficients for electron attachment and Penning ionization are performed using the standard techniques for the flow reactors. Rate coefficients for the Penning ionisation of argon, nitrogen molecule, oxygen molecule by helium metastable are presented. The results obtained concerning the attachment of electrons to SF 6 (non-dissociative), CCl 2 F 2 (producing Cl - ), and CF 3 Br as a function of temperature are presented. The differences observed, and the variation of the value of β below 100 K, provides evidence of the strong influence of the internal state (probably vibrational) of the CF 3 Br molecule on its dissociative attachment

  14. Sample environment for neutron scattering measurements of internal stresses in engineering materials in the temperature range of 6 K to 300 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichek, O; Timms, J D; Kelleher, J F; Down, R B E; Offer, C D; Kabra, S; Zhang, S Y

    2017-02-01

    Internal stresses in materials have a considerable effect on material properties including strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue resistance. The ENGIN-X beamline is an engineering science facility at ISIS optimized for the measurement of strain and stress using the atomic lattice planes as a strain gauge. Nowadays, the rapidly rising interest in the mechanical properties of engineering materials at low temperatures has been stimulated by the dynamic development of the cryogenic industry and the advanced applications of the superconductor technology. Here we present the design and discuss the test results of a new cryogenic sample environment system for neutron scattering measurements of internal stresses in engineering materials under a load of up to 100 kN and in the temperature range of 6 K to 300 K. Complete cooling of the system starting from the room temperature down to the base temperature takes around 90 min. Understanding of internal stresses in engineering materials at cryogenic temperatures is vital for the modelling and designing of cutting-edge superconducting magnets and other superconductor based applications.

  15. Towards a 20 kA high temperature superconductor current lead module using REBCO tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R.; Bagrets, N.; Fietz, W. H.; Gröner, F.; Kienzler, A.; Lange, C.; Wolf, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Most of the large fusion devices presently under construction or in operation consisting of superconducting magnets like EAST, Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), JT-60SA, and ITER, use high temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) to reduce the cryogenic load and operational cost. In all cases, the 1st generation HTS material Bi-2223 is used which is embedded in a low-conductivity matrix of AgAu. In the meantime, industry worldwide concentrates on the production of the 2nd generation HTS REBCO material because of the better field performance in particular at higher temperature. As the new material can only be produced in a multilayer thin-film structure rather than as a multi-filamentary tape, the technology developed for Bi-2223-based current leads cannot be transferred directly to REBCO. Therefore, several laboratories are presently investigating the design of high current HTS current leads made of REBCO. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is developing a 20 kA HTS current lead using brass-stabilized REBCO tapes—as a further development to the Bi-2223 design used in the JT-60SA current leads. The same copper heat exchanger module as in the 20 kA JT-60SA current lead will be used for simplicity, which will allow a comparison of the newly developed REBCO CL with the earlier produced and investigated CL for JT-60SA. The present paper discusses the design and accompanying test of single tape and stack REBCO mock-ups. Finally, the fabrication of the HTS module using REBCO stacks is described.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of deep eutectic solvent and ionic liquid mixtures at temperatures from 293.15 K to 343.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achsah, R. S.; Shyam, S.; Mayuri, N.; Anantharaj, R.

    2018-04-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) and ionic liquids (ILs) have their applications in various fields of research and in industries due to their attractive physiochemical properties. In this study, the combined thermodynamic properties of DES (choline chloride-glycerol) + IL1 (1-butyl-3-methylimiazolium acetate) and DES(choline chloride-glycerol) + IL2 (1-ethyl-3-methylimadzolium ethyl sulphate) have been studied. The thermodynamic properties such as excess molar volume, partial molar volume, excess partial molar volume and apparent molar volume were calculated for different mole fractions ranging from 0 to 1 and varying temperatures from 293.15 K to 343.15 K. In order to know the solvent properties of DESs and ILs mixtures at different temperatures and their molecular interactions to enhance the solvent performance and process efficiency at fixed composition and temperature the thermodynamic properties were analyzed.

  17. Structure of spinel at high temperature using in-situ XANES study at the Al and Mg K-edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligny, D de [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, LPCML, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Neuville, D R [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, Geochimie-Cosmochimie, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Flank, A-M; Lagarde, P, E-mail: deligny@pcml.univ-lyon1.f [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 France (France)

    2009-11-15

    We present structural information obtained on spinel at high temperature (298-2400 K) using in situ XANES at the Mg and Al K-edge. Spinel, {sup [4]}(Al{sub x},Mg{sub 1-x}){sup [6]}(Al{sub 2-x},Mg{sub x})O{sub 4}, with increasing temperature, show a substitution of Mg by Al and Al by Mg in their respective sites. This substitution corresponds to an inversion of the Mg and Al sites. Furthermore, both experiments at the Al and Mg K-edges are in good agreement with XANES calculation made using FDMNES code.

  18. Recombination in deuterium plasma at cryogenic temperatures (down to 130 K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, O.; Glosik, J.; Pysanenko, A.; Zakouril, P.; Plasil, R.; Tichy, M. [Prague Charles Univ., Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    The ions H{sub 3}{sup +} and D{sub 3}{sup +} play an important role in the kinetics of media of astrophysical interest but also in laboratory produced plasmas (discharges, fusion plasmas). In the presented study variable temperature flowing afterglow with Langmuir probe (VT-FALP) was used to study plasma decay in D{sub 2}/He mixture at temperatures down to 130 K and total pressure up to 10 Torr. Large extend of partial number densities of D{sub 2} (10{sup 12} - 3 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) were used in the experiments. Langmuir probes and mass spectrometers were applied to monitor decay of the plasma during the afterglow. The study is a continuation of our previous measurements of recombination rate coefficients of D{sub 3}{sup +} and D{sub 5}{sup +} ions. In these studies we observed dependence of the recombination rate coefficient on partial pressure of deuterium indicating that third-body assisted recombination is efficient and significantly contributes to recombination in decaying deuterium-containing plasma. (authors)

  19. Testing the potential of an elevated temperature IRSL signal from K-feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2009-01-01

    on laboratory tests (recycling ratio, recuperation, dose recovery) we show that our SAR protocol is suitable for these samples. The observed post-IR IR fading rates (mean g2days = 1.62 ± 0.06%/decade, n = 24; assuming logarithmic fading) are significantly lower than those measured at 50 °C (mean g2days = 3...... the conventional IRSL signal stimulated at 50 °C and detected in the blue–violet region of the spectrum. One of these was the post-IR IR signal in which first an IR bleach is carried out at a low temperature (e.g. 100 s at 50 °C) and a remaining IRSL signal is measured at an elevated temperature (100 s at 225 °C......; detection in the blue–violet region). It is the latter signal that is of interest in this paper. We test such a post-IR IR dating protocol on K-feldspar extracts from a variety of locations and depositional environments and compare the results with those from the conventional IR at 50 °C protocol. Based...

  20. The Single Transmembrane Segment of Minimal Sensor DesK Senses Temperature via a Membrane-Thickness Caliper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Maria E; Oliveira, Rafael G; de Mendoza, Diego; Cybulski, Larisa E

    2016-11-01

    Thermosensors detect temperature changes and trigger cellular responses crucial for survival at different temperatures. The thermosensor DesK is a transmembrane (TM) histidine kinase which detects a decrease in temperature through its TM segments (TMS). Here, we address a key issue: how a physical stimulus such as temperature can be converted into a cellular response. We show that the thickness of Bacillus lipid membranes varies with temperature and that such variations can be detected by DesK with great precision. On the basis of genetic studies and measurements of in vitro activity of a DesK construct with a single TMS (minimal sensor DesK [MS-DesK]), reconstituted in liposomes, we propose an interplay mechanism directed by a conserved dyad, phenylalanine 8-lysine 10. This dyad is critical to anchor the only transmembrane segment of the MS-DesK construct to the extracellular water-lipid interphase and is required for the transmembrane segment of MS-DesK to function as a caliper for precise measurement of membrane thickness. The data suggest that positively charged lysine 10, which is located in the hydrophobic core of the membrane but is close to the water-lipid interface, pulls the transmembrane region toward the water phase to localize its charge at the interface. Nevertheless, the hydrophobic residue phenylalanine 8, located at the N-terminal extreme of the TMS, has a strong tendency to remain in the lipid phase, impairing access of lysine 10 to the water phase. The outcome of this interplay is a fine-tuned sensitivity to membrane thickness that elicits conformational changes that favor different signaling states of the protein. The ability to sense and respond to extracellular signals is essential for cell survival. One example is the cellular response to temperature variation. How do cells "sense" temperature changes? It has been proposed that the bacterial thermosensor DesK acts as a molecular caliper measuring membrane thickness variations that would occur

  1. dK/da effects on the SCC growth rates of nickel base alloys in high-temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Jiamei; Du, Donghai; Andresen, Peter L.; Zhang, Lefu

    2018-05-01

    The effect of dK/da on crack growth behavior of nickel base alloys has been studied by conducting stress corrosion cracking tests under positive and negative dK/da loading conditions on Alloys 690, 600 and X-750 in high temperature water. Results indicate that positive dK/da accelerates the SCC growth rates, and the accelerating effect increases with dK/da and the initial CGR. The FRI model was found to underestimate the dK/da effect by ∼100X, especially for strain hardening materials, and this underscores the need for improved insight and models for crack tip strain rate. The effect of crack tip strain rate and dK/dt in particular can explain the dK/da accelerating effect.

  2. Magic angle spinning NMR below 6 K with a computational fluid dynamics analysis of fluid flow and temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti, Erika L.; Alaniva, Nicholas; Rand, Peter W.; Choi, Eric J.; Albert, Brice J.; Saliba, Edward P.; Scott, Faith J.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2018-01-01

    We report magic angle spinning (MAS) up to 8.5 kHz with a sample temperature below 6 K using liquid helium as a variable temperature fluid. Cross polarization 13C NMR spectra exhibit exquisite sensitivity with a single transient. Remarkably, 1H saturation recovery experiments show a 1H T1 of 21 s with MAS below 6 K in the presence of trityl radicals in a glassy matrix. Leveraging the thermal spin polarization available at 4.2 K versus 298 K should result in 71 times higher signal intensity. Taking the 1H longitudinal relaxation into account, signal averaging times are therefore predicted to be expedited by a factor of >500. Computer assisted design (CAD) and finite element analysis were employed in both the design and diagnostic stages of this cryogenic MAS technology development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models describing temperature gradients and fluid flow are presented. The CFD models bearing and drive gas maintained at 100 K, while a colder helium variable temperature fluid stream cools the center of a zirconia rotor. Results from the CFD were used to optimize the helium exhaust path and determine the sample temperature. This novel cryogenic experimental platform will be integrated with pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization and electron decoupling to interrogate biomolecular structure within intact human cells.

  3. The Trouble with Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The history of the number zero is an interesting one. In early times, zero was not used as a number at all, but instead was used as a place holder to indicate the position of hundreds and tens. This article briefly discusses the history of zero and challenges the thinking where divisions using zero are used.

  4. Zero-Sum Flows in Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, S.; Khosrovshahi, G.B.; Mofidi, A.

    2010-07-01

    Let D be a t-(v, k, λ) design and let N i (D), for 1 ≤ i ≤ t, be the higher incidence matrix of D, a (0, 1)-matrix of size (v/i) x b, where b is the number of blocks of D. A zero-sum flow of D is a nowhere-zero real vector in the null space of N 1 (D). A zero-sum k-flow of D is a zero-sum flow with values in {±,...,±(k-1)}. In this paper we show that every non-symmetric design admits an integral zero-sum flow, and consequently we conjecture that every non-symmetric design admits a zero-sum 5-flow. Similarly, the definition of zero-sum flow can be extended to N i (D), 1 ≤ i ≤ t. Let D = t-(v,k, (v-t/k-t)) be the complete design. We conjecture that N t (D) admits a zero-sum 3-flow and prove this conjecture for t = 2. (author)

  5. Low-temperature thermometry. Use of a gas thermometer as a calibration standard between 4 and 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, A. de

    1978-01-01

    A constant volume gas thermometer was built to calibrate the various secondary thermometers used at low temperature. This gas thermometer is placed in a cryostat where any stable temperature between 4 and 300 K may be obtained. After some words about low temperature thermometry, the gas thermometer and its auxiliary equipment are described briefly; the corrections to be applied to the results are given and the article ends with a table showing the values obtained [fr

  6. Thermodynamic investigation of methyl salicylate/1-pentanol binary system in the temperature range from 278.15K to 303.15K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsierkezos, Nikos G. [Institut fuer Chemie, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Strasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: tsierkezos@chemie.hu-berlin.de; Molinou, Ioanna E. [Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15771 (Greece)]. E-mail: imolinou@chem.uoa.gr

    2007-08-15

    Densities ({rho}), speeds of sound (u), isentropic compressibilities (k{sub s}), refractive indices (n{sub D}), and surface tensions ({sigma}) of binary mixtures of methyl salicylate (MSL) with 1-pentanol (PEN) have been measured over the entire composition range at the temperatures of 278.15K, 288.15K, and 303.15K. The excess molar volumes (V{sup E}), excess surface tensions ({sigma}{sup E}), deviations in speed of sound ({delta}u), deviations in isentropic compressibility ({delta}k{sub s}), and deviations in molar refraction ({delta}R) have been calculated. The excess thermodynamic properties V{sup E}, {sigma}{sup E}, {delta}u, {delta}k{sub s}, and {delta}R were fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation and the A{sub k} coefficients as well as the standard deviations (d) between the calculated and experimental values have been derived. The surface tension ({sigma}) values have been further used for the calculation of the surface entropy (S{sup S}) and the surface enthalpy (H{sup S}) per unit surface area. The lyophobicity ({beta}) and the surface mole fraction (x{sub 2}{sup S}) of the surfactant component PEN have been also derived using the extended Langmuir model. The results provide information on the molecular interactions between the unlike molecules that take place at the surface and the bulk.

  7. Thermodynamic investigation of methyl salicylate/1-pentanol binary system in the temperature range from 278.15K to 303.15K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsierkezos, Nikos G.; Molinou, Ioanna E.

    2007-01-01

    Densities (ρ), speeds of sound (u), isentropic compressibilities (k s ), refractive indices (n D ), and surface tensions (σ) of binary mixtures of methyl salicylate (MSL) with 1-pentanol (PEN) have been measured over the entire composition range at the temperatures of 278.15K, 288.15K, and 303.15K. The excess molar volumes (V E ), excess surface tensions (σ E ), deviations in speed of sound (Δu), deviations in isentropic compressibility (Δk s ), and deviations in molar refraction (ΔR) have been calculated. The excess thermodynamic properties V E , σ E , Δu, Δk s , and ΔR were fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation and the A k coefficients as well as the standard deviations (d) between the calculated and experimental values have been derived. The surface tension (σ) values have been further used for the calculation of the surface entropy (S S ) and the surface enthalpy (H S ) per unit surface area. The lyophobicity (β) and the surface mole fraction (x 2 S ) of the surfactant component PEN have been also derived using the extended Langmuir model. The results provide information on the molecular interactions between the unlike molecules that take place at the surface and the bulk

  8. Accelerated test techniques for micro-circuits: Evaluation of high temperature (473 k - 573 K) accelerated life test techniques as effective microcircuit screening methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The application of high temperature accelerated test techniques was shown to be an effective method of microcircuit defect screening. Comprehensive microcircuit evaluations and a series of high temperature (473 K to 573 K) life tests demonstrated that a freak or early failure population of surface contaminated devices could be completely screened in thirty two hours of test at an ambient temperature of 523 K. Equivalent screening at 398 K, as prescribed by current Military and NASA specifications, would have required in excess of 1,500 hours of test. All testing was accomplished with a Texas Instruments' 54L10, low power triple-3 input NAND gate manufactured with a titanium- tungsten (Ti-W), Gold (Au) metallization system. A number of design and/or manufacturing anomalies were also noted with the Ti-W, Au metallization system. Further study of the exact nature and cause(s) of these anomalies is recommended prior to the use of microcircuits with Ti-W, Au metallization in long life/high reliability applications. Photomicrographs of tested circuits are included.

  9. An in situ Raman spectroscopy system for long-term corrosion experiments in high temperature water up to 673 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domae, Masafumi; Tani, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    A Raman spectroscopy system has been developed, in order to identify oxides formed on the surfaces of metals and steels in high temperature water up to 673 K. A supercritical water loop system including a Raman cell was installed. The design of the loop system is up to 673 K and 40 MPa. The Raman cell has a diamond window without window-to-metal packing. Raman spectrum of alumina plate was measured at room temperature, at 523 and at 673 K under pressure of 25 MPa. A long-term measurement was also performed at 523 K and 25 MPa for 117.5 h. In all cases intense Raman peaks attributed to alumina were observed. Raman spectrum of anatase particles in suspension was measured at 673 K and 25 MPa. The results show that the Raman spectroscopy system developed in the present study works well not only for plate sample but also for suspension. Raman spectra observed for titanium plate in high temperature water of 673 K and 25 MPa show growth of several Raman peaks with time up to 257 h. The peaks disappeared after cooled down to room temperature. The experimental results have demonstrated importance of in situ Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  10. Driving Curie temperature towards room temperature in the half-metallic ferromagnet K2Cr8O16 by soft redox chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrotta, I; Fernández-Sanjulián, J; Moran, E; Alario-Franco, M A; Gonzalo, E; Kuhn, A; García-Alvarado, F

    2012-02-14

    The half-metallic ferromagnet K(2)Cr(8)O(16) with the hollandite structure has been chemically modified using soft chemistry methods to increase the average oxidation state of chromium. The synthesis of the parent material has been performed under high pressure/high temperature conditions. Following this, different redox reactions have been carried out on K(2)Cr(8)O(16). Oxidation to obtain potassium-de-inserted derivatives, K(2-x)Cr(8)O(16) (0 ≤x≤ 1), has been investigated with electrochemical methods, while the synthesis of sizeable amounts was achieved chemically by using nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate as a highly oxidizing agent. The maximum amount of extracted K ions corresponds to x = 0.8. Upon oxidation the hollandite structure is maintained and the products keep high crystallinity. The de-insertion of potassium changes the Cr(3+)/Cr(4+) ratio, and therefore the magnetic properties. Interestingly, the Curie temperature increases from ca. 175 K to 250 K, getting therefore closer to room temperature.

  11. Home-made temperature monitoring system from four-channel K-type thermocouples via internet of thing technology platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detmod, Thitaporn; Özmen, Yiǧiter; Songkaitiwong, Kittiphot; Saenyot, Khanuengchat; Locharoenrat, Kitsakorn; Lekchaum, Sarai

    2018-06-01

    This paper is aimed to design and construct the home-made temperature monitoring system from four-channel K-type thermocouples in order to improve the temperature measurement based on standard evaluation measurements guidance. The temperature monitoring system was capable to record the temperature on SD card and to display the realtime temperature on Internet of Thing Technology platform. The temperature monitoring system was tested in terms of the temperature measurement accuracy and delay response time. It was found that a standard deviation was acceptable as compared to the Instrument Society of America. The response time of the microcontroller to SD card was 2 sec faster than that of the microcontroller to Thingspeak.

  12. Densities and derived thermodynamic properties of 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 22 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1er piso, UPALM Zacatenco, 07738 Lindavista, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galicia-Luna, Luis A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1er piso, UPALM Zacatenco, 07738 Lindavista, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: lgalicial@ipn.mx; Betancourt-Cardenas, Felix F. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1er piso, UPALM Zacatenco, 07738 Lindavista, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Experimental densities were determined in liquid phase for 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 22 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. Water and nitrogen were used as reference fluids for the calibration of the vibrating tube densimeter. The uncertainties of the experimental measurements in the whole range of reported data are estimated to be {+-}0.03 K for temperature, {+-}0.008 MPa for pressure, and {+-}0.20 kg . m{sup -3} for density. The experimental data are correlated using a short empirical equation of six parameters and the 11-parameter Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation of state (BWRS EoS) using a least square optimization. Statistical values to evaluate the different correlations are reported. Published density data of 1-heptanol are compared with values calculated with the 6-parameter equation using the parameters obtained in this work. The experimental data determined here are also compared with an available correlation for 1-heptanol. Densities of 2-heptanol at high pressure were not found in the literature and the data reported here represent the first set of data reported in the literature. Isothermal compressibilities and isobaric thermal expansivity are calculated using the 6-parameter equation for both alcohols within uncertainties estimated to be {+-}0.025 Gpa{sup -1} and {+-}4 x 10{sup -7} K{sup -1}, respectively.

  13. Densities and derived thermodynamic properties of 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 22 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Betancourt-Cardenas, Felix F.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental densities were determined in liquid phase for 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 22 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. Water and nitrogen were used as reference fluids for the calibration of the vibrating tube densimeter. The uncertainties of the experimental measurements in the whole range of reported data are estimated to be ±0.03 K for temperature, ±0.008 MPa for pressure, and ±0.20 kg . m -3 for density. The experimental data are correlated using a short empirical equation of six parameters and the 11-parameter Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation of state (BWRS EoS) using a least square optimization. Statistical values to evaluate the different correlations are reported. Published density data of 1-heptanol are compared with values calculated with the 6-parameter equation using the parameters obtained in this work. The experimental data determined here are also compared with an available correlation for 1-heptanol. Densities of 2-heptanol at high pressure were not found in the literature and the data reported here represent the first set of data reported in the literature. Isothermal compressibilities and isobaric thermal expansivity are calculated using the 6-parameter equation for both alcohols within uncertainties estimated to be ±0.025 Gpa -1 and ±4 x 10 -7 K -1 , respectively

  14. Experimental determination of cesium saturated vapor pressure in the 483/642 deg K temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushchin, G I; Subbotin, V A; Khachaturov, Eh Kh [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Obninsk. Fiziko-Ehnergeticheskij Inst.

    1975-07-01

    Test results of saturated cesium vapour pressure in the temperature range of 483.13-642 deg K and pressure range of 15.77-1.389 N/m/sup 2/ by direct static method are presented. The testing system comprises a differential bellows-type pressure sensor, a thermostatic unit and a gas system with V-shaped oil manometer used for argon-assisted sensor calibration. The static sensor characteristic approaches linearity in the pressure range of 10-600 N/m/sup 2/. The greatest non-linearity is observed at low pressures (10-40 N/m/sup 2/) and does not exceed 3-4%. Sensor sensitivity is 0.39 mV/N/m/sup 2/ in this pressure range. The characteristic hysteresis is 0.5% and below. With pressures greater than 600 N/m/sup 2/, the sensor sensitivity gradually decreases by 12% while the characteristic hysteresis increases to 2-3%. A brief description of the experimental procedure is offered. The present results are compared with other authors' data.

  15. Enhanced temperature-independent magnetoresistance below the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The film exhibits a large nearly temperature-independent magnetoresistance around 99% in the temperature regime below p. The zero field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization data at 50 Oe shows irreversibility between the ZFC and FC close to the ferromagnetic transition temperature c = 250 K. The ZFC ...

  16. Global IP6K1 deletion enhances temperature modulated energy expenditure which reduces carbohydrate and fat induced weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: IP6 kinases (IP6Ks regulate cell metabolism and survival. Mice with global (IP6K1-KO or adipocyte-specific (AdKO deletion of IP6K1 are protected from diet induced obesity (DIO at ambient (23 °C temperature. AdKO mice are lean primarily due to increased AMPK mediated thermogenic energy expenditure (EE. Thus, at thermoneutral (30 °C temperature, high fat diet (HFD-fed AdKO mice expend energy and gain body weight, similar to control mice. IP6K1 is ubiquitously expressed; thus, it is critical to determine to what extent the lean phenotype of global IP6K1-KO mice depends on environmental temperature. Furthermore, it is not known whether IP6K1 regulates AMPK mediated EE in cells, which do not express UCP1. Methods: Q-NMR, GTT, food intake, EE, QRT-PCR, histology, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR, fatty acid metabolism assays, and immunoblot studies were conducted in IP6K1-KO and WT mice or cells. Results: Global IP6K1 deletion mediated enhancement in EE is impaired albeit not abolished at 30 °C. As a result, IP6K1-KO mice are protected from DIO, insulin resistance, and fatty liver even at 30 °C. Like AdKO, IP6K1-KO mice display enhanced adipose tissue browning. However, unlike AdKO mice, thermoneutrality only partly abolishes browning in IP6K1-KO mice. Cold (5 °C exposure enhances carbohydrate expenditure, whereas 23 °C and 30 °C promote fat oxidation in HFD-KO mice. Furthermore, IP6K1 deletion diminishes cellular fat accumulation via activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. Conclusions: Global deletion of IP6K1 ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance irrespective of the environmental temperature conditions, which strengthens its validity as an anti-obesity target. Keywords: IP6K, Obesity, Diabetes, Energy expenditure, β-oxidation

  17. Full-dimensional quantum calculations of the dissociation energy, zero-point, and 10 K properties of H7+/D7+ clusters using an ab initio potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Patricia; Pérez de Tudela, Ricardo; Qu, Chen; Prosmiti, Rita; Bowman, Joel M

    2013-07-14

    Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and path-integral Monte Carlo computations of the vibrational ground state and 10 K equilibrium state properties of the H7 (+)/D7 (+) cations are presented, using an ab initio full-dimensional potential energy surface. The DMC zero-point energies of dissociated fragments H5 (+)(D5 (+))+H2(D2) are also calculated and from these results and the electronic dissociation energy, dissociation energies, D0, of 752 ± 15 and 980 ± 14 cm(-1) are reported for H7 (+) and D7 (+), respectively. Due to the known error in the electronic dissociation energy of the potential surface, these quantities are underestimated by roughly 65 cm(-1). These values are rigorously determined for first time, and compared with previous theoretical estimates from electronic structure calculations using standard harmonic analysis, and available experimental measurements. Probability density distributions are also computed for the ground vibrational and 10 K state of H7 (+) and D7 (+). These are qualitatively described as a central H3 (+)/D3 (+) core surrounded by "solvent" H2/D2 molecules that nearly freely rotate.

  18. Observing electron spin resonance between 0.1 and 67 GHz at temperatures between 50 mK and 300 K using broadband metallic coplanar waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemann, Yvonne; Simmendinger, Julian; Clauss, Conrad; Bogani, Lapo; Bothner, Daniel; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc

    2015-05-01

    We describe a fully broadband approach for electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments, where it is possible to tune not only the magnetic field but also the frequency continuously over wide ranges. Here, a metallic coplanar transmission line acts as compact and versatile microwave probe that can easily be implemented in different cryogenic setups. We perform ESR measurements at frequencies between 0.1 and 67 GHz and at temperatures between 50 mK and room temperature. Three different types of samples (Cr3+ ions in ruby, organic radicals of the nitronyl-nitroxide family, and the doped semiconductor Si:P) represent different possible fields of application for the technique. We demonstrate that an extremely large phase space in temperature, magnetic field, and frequency for ESR measurements, substantially exceeding the range of conventional ESR setups, is accessible with metallic coplanar lines.

  19. Mechanical behaviour of substitutional body centered cubic Fe-Ti solid solutions at temperatures between 77 and 900 K; Plasticite des solutions solides cubiques centrees substitutionnelles fer-titane aux temperatures comprises entre 77 et 900 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubots, Patrick

    1976-05-11

    Plastic behavior of body-centered cubic, interstitial free, Fe-Ti substitutional solid solutions has been characterised. We obtained the following results: at temperatures below 500 K, the thermal component τ* of the critical resolved shear stress τ greatly increases. Solute additions (c >0.12 wt pc) results in: softening at temperatures below 200 K, hardening at temperatures between 200 and 500 K. Results are discussed on Peierls mechanism. At temperatures below 200 K, screw dislocation motion is controlled.by the nucleation of dislocation pairs over the Peierls'hill. Substitutional solute favoring this process gives account of the softening. At temperatures above 200 K, edge dislocation motion controls the strain. The observed hardening is explained by the interaction occurring between edge-dislocations and foreign atoms. At temperatures between 500 and 800 K, a Portevin-Le Chatelier effect is observed. This effect is characterised by two types of serrations. The activation energy of the PLC effect has been determined (E = 1,4 eV). The origin of this phenomenon is the diffusion of solute towards dislocation by a vacancy-mechanism. Two maxima have been observed on the (σ{sub ε} - T) curves. These are due to superposition of overstraining (hardening) and creation of dislocations (softening). The athermal component τ{sub μ} is increased by titanium additions. This hardening has been explained by modulus and size effects. (author) [French] La caracterisation des mecanismes controlant la deformation plastique des solutions solides cubiques centrees substitutionnelles fer-titane, libres d'interstitiels pour les teneurs en solute superieures a 0,12pc pds, a donne les resultats suivants: aux temperatures inferieures a 500 K, la composante thermique τ* de la contrainte critique de cisaillement resolue τ augmente fortement. L'introduction du solute se traduit (pour c>0,12 pc pds): par un adoucissement pour θ < 200 K; par un durcissement pour 200 K< θ < 500 K. Le

  20. Densities and volumetric properties of a (xylene + dimethyl sulfoxide) at temperature from (293.15 to 353.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; Liu Wei; Huang Jihou

    2004-01-01

    The densities of (o-xylene, or m-xylene, or p-xylene + dimethyl sulfoxide) were measured at temperatures (293.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, 333.15, 343.15, 353.15) K and atmospheric pressure by means of a vibrating-tube densimeter. The excess molar volume V m E calculated from the density data provide the temperature dependence of V m E in the temperature range of (293.15 to 353.15) K. The V m E results were correlated using the fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation, with the maximum likelihood principle being applied for the determination of the adjustable parameters. Also we have calculated partial molar volume and excess partial molar volumes of two components. It was found that the V m E in the systems studied increase with rising temperature

  1. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  2. Melting-pressure and density equations of 3He at temperatures from 0.001 to 30 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yonghua; Chen Guobang

    2005-01-01

    Nonsegmented equations for melting pressure and density at temperatures from 0.001 K to 30 K have been developed to fit the reference data. The maximum and average deviations between the melting pressure equation and the totaling 298 reference data are 2.17% and 0.218%, respectively. For the density equations, the average deviations are 0.236% for the liquid side and 0.218% for the solid side. Both the melting pressure curve and melting density curves predicted by the submitted equations approach their minimums at about 0.315 K

  3. Temperature behavior of electrical properties of high-k lead-magnesium-niobium titanate thin-films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wenbin, E-mail: cwb0201@163.com [Electromechanical Engineering College, Guilin University of Electronic Technology (China); McCarthy, Kevin G. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Copuroglu, Mehmet; O' Brien, Shane; Winfield, Richard; Mathewson, Alan [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports on the temperature dependence of the electrical properties of high-k lead-magnesium-niobium titanate thin films processed with different compositions (with and without nanoparticles) and with different annealing temperatures (450 Degree-Sign C and 750 Degree-Sign C). These characterization results support the ongoing investigation of the material's electrical properties which are necessary before the dielectric can be used in silicon-based IC applications.

  4. Comparison of thermal properties of fish collagen and bovine collagen in the temperature range 298-670K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauza-Włodarczyk, Marlena; Kubisz, Leszek; Mielcarek, Sławomir; Włodarczyk, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The increased interest in fish collagen is a consequence of the risk of exposure to Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD) and the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), whose occurrence is associated with prions carried by bovine collagen. Collagen is the main biopolymer in living organisms and the main component of the skin and bones. Until the discovery of the BSE, bovine collagen had been widely used. The BSE epidemic increased the interest in new sources of collagen such as fish skin collagen (FSC) and its properties. Although the thermal properties of collagen originating from mammals have been well described, less attention has been paid to the thermal properties of FSC. Denaturation temperature is a particularly important parameter, depending on the collagen origin and hydration level. In the reported experiment, the free water and bound water release processes along with thermal denaturation process were studied by means of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Measurements were carried out using a DSC 7 instrument (Elmer-Perkin), in the temperature range 298-670K. The study material was FSC derived by acidic hydration method. The bovine Achilles tendon (BAT) collagen type I was used as the control material. The thermograms recorded revealed both, exothermic and endothermic peaks. For both materials, the peaks in the temperature range of 330-360K were assigned to the release of free water and bound water. The denaturation temperatures of FSC and BAT collagen were determined as 420K and 493K, respectively. Thermal decomposition process was observed at about 500K for FSC and at about 510K for BAT collagen. These results show that FSC is less resistant to high temperature than BAT collagen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal properties of Na2MoO4(s) and Na2Mo2O7(s) by high-temperature Calvet calorimetry in the temperature range 335 K to 760 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, V.S.; Agarwal, Renu; Roy, K.N.; Venkateswaran, R.S.; Venugopal, V.; Sood, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Enthalpy increment measurements were made on Na 2 MoO 4 and Na 2 Mo 2 O 7 in the temperature range 335 K to 760 K by the drop method using a high-temperature Calvet calorimeter. The calorimeter was calibrated using an electrical method and synthetic sapphire SRM-720(Al 2 O 3 ). An on-line computer was used for acquiring and processing results from the calorimeter. The enthalpy increments for Na 2 MoO 4 and Na 2 Mo 2 O 7 were least-squares fitted to a polynomial with temperature and are given. The thermal properties of Na 2 MoO 4 and Na 2 Mo 2 O 7 were obtained using the above experimental values. These are the first experimental results on the thermal properties of these compounds. (author)

  6. Evaporation of Cu, Sn, and S from Fe-C-Cu-Sn-S Liquid Alloys in the Temperature Range from 1513 K to 1873 K (1240 °C to 1600 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafwidli, Fahmi; Choi, Moo-Eob; Yi, Sang-Ho; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2018-06-01

    Evaporation of Cu or Sn from liquid iron alloys containing C and S was experimentally investigated. The initial C concentration, [pct C]0, in the liquid alloy was varied from zero to C saturation, and the evaporation temperature was varied from 1513 K to 1773 K (1240 °C to 1500 °C). Along with the report by one of the present authors, the evaporation mechanism of Cu and Sn from liquid Fe-C-S alloy is proposed, after a modification from the previous mechanism. It was proposed that Cu and Sn evaporate as Cu(g) and Sn(g) and also evaporate as CuS(g) and SnS(g), which are more volatile species. Therefore, availability of S in the alloy affects the overall evaporation rate of Cu and Sn. At the same time, C in the alloy also forms volatile carbosulfides CS(g) and CS2(g), thereby competing with Cu and Sn. Moreover, C increases the activity coefficients of Cu, Sn, and S. This increases the thermodynamic driving force for the formation of CuS(g) and SnS(g). Therefore, increasing [pct C] partly accelerates the evaporation rate of Cu and Sn by increasing the activity coefficient but partly decelerates the evaporation rate by lowering the available S content. S partly accelerates the evaporation rate by increasing the available S for the sulfide gas species but partly decelerates the evaporation rate due to the surface poisoning effect. Increasing the reaction temperature increases the overall evaporation rate. All these facts were taken into account in order to develop an evaporation rate model. This model was extended from the present authors' previous one by taking into account (1) CS(g), S(g), and CS2(g) (therefore, the following species were considered as dominant evaporating species: Cu(g), CuS(g), Sn(g), SnS(g), S(g), CS(g), and CS2(g)); (2) the effect of C and temperature on the activity coefficients of Cu, Sn, and S; (3) the effect of C and temperature on the density of the liquid alloy; and (4) the effect of temperature on the S adsorption coefficient. This revised

  7. Evaporation of Cu, Sn, and S from Fe-C-Cu-Sn-S Liquid Alloys in the Temperature Range from 1513 K to 1873 K (1240 °C to 1600 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafwidli, Fahmi; Choi, Moo-Eob; Yi, Sang-Ho; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2018-02-01

    Evaporation of Cu or Sn from liquid iron alloys containing C and S was experimentally investigated. The initial C concentration, [pct C]0, in the liquid alloy was varied from zero to C saturation, and the evaporation temperature was varied from 1513 K to 1773 K (1240 °C to 1500 °C). Along with the report by one of the present authors, the evaporation mechanism of Cu and Sn from liquid Fe-C-S alloy is proposed, after a modification from the previous mechanism. It was proposed that Cu and Sn evaporate as Cu(g) and Sn(g) and also evaporate as CuS(g) and SnS(g), which are more volatile species. Therefore, availability of S in the alloy affects the overall evaporation rate of Cu and Sn. At the same time, C in the alloy also forms volatile carbosulfides CS(g) and CS2(g), thereby competing with Cu and Sn. Moreover, C increases the activity coefficients of Cu, Sn, and S. This increases the thermodynamic driving force for the formation of CuS(g) and SnS(g). Therefore, increasing [pct C] partly accelerates the evaporation rate of Cu and Sn by increasing the activity coefficient but partly decelerates the evaporation rate by lowering the available S content. S partly accelerates the evaporation rate by increasing the available S for the sulfide gas species but partly decelerates the evaporation rate due to the surface poisoning effect. Increasing the reaction temperature increases the overall evaporation rate. All these facts were taken into account in order to develop an evaporation rate model. This model was extended from the present authors' previous one by taking into account (1) CS(g), S(g), and CS2(g) (therefore, the following species were considered as dominant evaporating species: Cu(g), CuS(g), Sn(g), SnS(g), S(g), CS(g), and CS2(g)); (2) the effect of C and temperature on the activity coefficients of Cu, Sn, and S; (3) the effect of C and temperature on the density of the liquid alloy; and (4) the effect of temperature on the S adsorption coefficient. This revised

  8. Research of resonant losses of ultrasonic sound in the deformed single crystals in temperature range 77...300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchenko, A.M.; Petchenko, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The damped dislocation resonance in preliminary deformed up to 1 % single crystals KBr was investigated. The measurements of a frequency dependence of a dislocation damping decrement of ultrasonic sound were conducted in range of frequencies 7,5...217,5 MHz and temperature range 77...300 K. From the analysis of frequency spectrums the temperature course of a coefficient of phonon viscosity B was determined, which is agreed both with the theory and experimental literary data. The influencing temperature changes of length of a dislocation segment on parameters of a resonant maximum and dynamic drag of dislocations by phonons was revealed and analyzed

  9. Thermochemical transformations of hard-coal pitches at the stage of raising the softening temperature to 358-363 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekin, N.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.; Gordienko, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Using high-resolution NMR together with infra-red spectroscopy, data were obtained characterising changes in hydrogen content in various groups of compounds dissolved in fractions of the original pitch and its thermal product when raising the softening temperature to 358-363 K.

  10. GHRSST Level 4 K10_SST Global 1 meter Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Naval...

  11. Phase diagram of Ti-B-C system in the temperature range of 300-3500 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    Calculation of phase equilibrium in the ternary system Ti-B-C in the areas of the TiC y -TiB 2 and B 4 C y -TiB 2 cross sections as well as partial construction of three-dimensional (spatial)diagram of the Ti-B-C system within the temperature range of 300-3500 K is carried out. The form of the isothermal cross section of the ternary system remains almost unchanged up to 1900 K. The most essential change is related to disordering of the low-temperature ordered phases Ti 2 C, Ti 3 C and Ti 6 C 5 of the titanium carbide at T > 950 K [ru

  12. Compressed liquid densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galicia-Luna, Luis A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lgalicial@ipn.mx; Camacho-Camacho, Luis E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-02-15

    (p, {rho}, T) properties were determined in liquid phase for 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. The uncertainty is estimated to be lower than {+-}0.2 kg . m{sup -3} for the experimental densities. Nitrogen and water were used as reference fluids for the calibration of the vibrating tube densimeter. Experimental densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol were correlated with a short empirical equation and the 11-parameter Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation of state (BWRS EoS) using a least square optimization. Statistical values to evaluate the different correlations were reported. Published densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol are compared with values calculated with the BWRS EoS using the parameters obtained in this work. The experimental data determined here are also compared with available correlations for 1-butanol and 2-butanol.

  13. Compressed liquid densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Camacho-Camacho, Luis E.

    2007-01-01

    (p, ρ, T) properties were determined in liquid phase for 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. The uncertainty is estimated to be lower than ±0.2 kg . m -3 for the experimental densities. Nitrogen and water were used as reference fluids for the calibration of the vibrating tube densimeter. Experimental densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol were correlated with a short empirical equation and the 11-parameter Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation of state (BWRS EoS) using a least square optimization. Statistical values to evaluate the different correlations were reported. Published densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol are compared with values calculated with the BWRS EoS using the parameters obtained in this work. The experimental data determined here are also compared with available correlations for 1-butanol and 2-butanol

  14. Fatigue-induced dislocation structure of titanium alloy VT5-1ct at temperatures of 293-11 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinberg, N.M. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Aleksenko, E.N. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Moskalenko, V.A. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Smirnov, A.R.N. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Yakovenko, L.F. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Mozhaev, A.V. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Arinushkin, I.A. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine))

    1993-07-05

    The dislocation structure formed during the final stage of fatigue at high- and low-amplitude stresses at T=293 K in air and T=293, 93 and 11 K in high vacuum is studied on the Ti alloy VT5-1ct which has been prepared by two processing methods. The [sigma]-N curves are plotted for corresponding experimental conditions. It is shown that slip alone is responsible for the plastic deformation. The characteristic features of the dislocation structure formed are reported. The morphology of the a phase does not influence the character of the dislocation structure. At lower temperatures, the substructure remains practically unaltered, although the likelihood of uniformly distributed dislocations is lower. The lifetime is essentially dependent on the environment, temperature and the alloy microstructure, the latter being especially important at low temperatures in the high-amplitude region. (orig.)

  15. The Wilson-Bappu effect of the MgII k line - dependence on stellar temperature, activity and metallicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaroy, O.; Engvold, O.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    widths around the regression lines. The sample contains slowly rotating stars of different activity levels and is suitable for investigations of a possible relation between line width and stellar activity. A difference in behavior between dwarfs and giants (and supergiants) of spectral class K seems......The Wilson-Bappu effect is investigated using accurate absolute magnitudes of 65 stars obtained through early release of data from the Hipparcos satellite together with MgII k fine widths determined from high resolution spectra observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observatory....... Stars of spectral classes F, G, K and M and luminosity classes I-V are represented in the sample. Wilson-Bappu relations for the Mg II k line for stars of different temperatures i.e. spectral classes are determined. The relation varies with spectral class and there is a significant scatter of the line...

  16. Measuring the microwave response of superconducting Nb:STO and Ti at mK temperatures using superconducting resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiemann, Markus; Beutel, Manfred; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Fillis-Tsirakis, Evangelos; Boschker, Hans; Mannhart, Jochen [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Niobium doped SrTiO{sub 3} is a superconductor, with the lowest charge carrier density among all superconductors. It shows a dome in the transition temperature as a function of doping concentration with a maximum T{sub c} ∼ 0.3 K. The superconducting dome may originate from the different bands being occupied depending on the doping level. The low energy scales of the system, as indicated by the low T{sub c} are within the GHz-regime. Therefore microwave measurements are a powerful technique to reveal the electronic properties of these superconductors. We preformed microwave measurements on Nb:STO of different doping levels in a dilution refrigerator, using superconducting stripline resonators. Measurements were done in a temperature and frequency range from 40-400 mK and 1-20 GHz, covering the normal and superconducting states. For comparison we also measured the temperature dependence of the surface impedance of superconducting titanium (T{sub c} ∼ 0.5 K), which can be well described by the Mattis-Bardeen equations with a ratio (2Δ)/(k{sub B}T{sub c}) = 3.56. Therefore titanium is an ideal reference sample representing a conventional BCS-superconductor.

  17. Opposite temperature effect on transport activity of KCC2/KCC4 and N(K)CCs in HEK-293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2011-12-09

    Cation chloride cotransporters play essential roles in many physiological processes such as volume regulation, transepithelial salt transport and setting the intracellular chloride concentration in neurons. They consist mainly of the inward transporters NCC, NKCC1, and NKCC2, and the outward transporters KCC1 to KCC4. To gain insight into regulatory and structure-function relationships, precise determination of their activity is required. Frequently, these analyses are performed in HEK-293 cells. Recently the activity of the inward transporters NKCC1 and NCC was shown to increase with temperature in these cells. However, the temperature effect on KCCs remains largely unknown. Here, we determined the temperature effect on KCC2 and KCC4 transport activity in HEK-293 cells. Both transporters demonstrated significantly higher transport activity (2.5 fold for KCC2 and 3.3 fold for KCC4) after pre-incubation at room temperature compared to 37°C. These data identify a reciprocal temperature dependence of cation chloride inward and outward cotransporters in HEK-293 cells. Thus, lower temperature should be used for functional characterization of KCC2 and KCC4 and higher temperatures for N(K)CCs in heterologous mammalian expression systems. Furthermore, if this reciprocal effect also applies to neurons, the action of inhibitory neurotransmitters might be more affected by changes in temperature than previously thought.

  18. A model for the operation of helium-filled proportional counter at low temperatures near 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaoka, Sei; Katano, Rintaro; Kishimoto, Shunji; Isozumi, Yasuhito

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the operation of helium-filled proportional counter (HFPC) from the standpoint of fundamental atomic and molecular processes, we have surveyed previous works on collision processes in discharged helium gas. By analyzing gas gain curve, after-pulses and discharge current experimentally observed at 4.2 K, the electron avalanche and the secondary electron emission from cathode have been related to the collision processes in helium. A simplified model for the HFPC operation at low temperatures near 4.2 K has been constructed with the related processes

  19. Approximation of the thermometric characteristics of n- and p-GaAs thermodiodes in the 4.2-300 K temperature range and p-GaAs resistance thermometers in the 4.2-100 K temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvinenko, S.P.; Derbysheva, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation results are reported of various methods for approximating the calibration characteristics of technical resistance thermometers made from p-GaAs and of thermodiodes from n- p-GaAs. The following methods may by used for approximating thermometric characteristics and obtaining calibration tables: method of approximating function describing a physical model (P); method of power polynoms (PP); and the spline method (S). Studies of thermometric characteristics have been achieved in the 4.2-300 K temperature range for thermodiodes, and at 4.2-100 K for thermoresistances. The obtained data show that the use of the S and PP methods for describing monotonous thermometric characteristics of thermodiodes and thermoresistances is equivalent and leads to satisfactory results. Method S affords the best results for describing thermometric characteristics with specific features. The error in approximating thermometric characteristics by method S does not exceed 0.01 K

  20. Investigation of the antiferromagnetic - ferromagnetic dimer chain compound BaCu{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} at zero and finite temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyushina, Ekaterina; Lake, Bella [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Tiegel, Alexander; Manmana, Salvatore [Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Islam, Nazmul; Klemke, Bastian [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (Germany); Park, Jitae [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Honecker, Andreas [Universite de Cergy-Pontoise (France)

    2016-07-01

    Highly dimerized quantum magnets have attracted a great deal of attention in the recently due to the unconventional temperature behavior of their magnetic excitations. Here we present our investigations of the highly dimerized antiferromagnet-ferromagnetic 1D chain BaCu{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} both at base and at finite temperatures. The single crystal inelastic neutron scattering measurements at base temperature reveal that there are two excitation branches which disperse along the L direction over the energy range of 36-46 meV. The comparison with DMRG simulations indicates that the antiferromagnetic dimers are coupled ferromagnetically along the c axis. The line shape of the excitations at the dispersion minima was found to become asymmetry with increasing temperature. Thus unconventional thermal behavior also exists in dimer compounds with ferromagnetic interdimer coupling.

  1. Volumetric properties of glucose in aqueous HCI solutions at temperatures from 278.15 to 318.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Kelei; ZHANG Qiufen; XUAN Xiaopeng; ZHANG Hucheng; WANG Jianji

    2007-01-01

    Densities have been measured for Glucose+HC1 +Water at 10-degree intervals from 278.15 to 318.15 K.The apparent molar volumes (Vφ,G) and standard partial molar volumes (V0φ,G) for Glucose in aqueous solution of 0.2,0.4,0.7,1.1,1.6,2.1 mol.kg-1 HCI have been calculated as well as volumetric interaction parameters (VEG) for Glucose-HC1 in water and standard partial molar expansion coefficients ((e)V0φ,G/(e)T)p.Results show that (1) the apparent molar volume for Glucose in aqueous HC1 solutions increases lineally with increasing molality of Glucose and HC1; (2) V0φ,Gfor Glucose in aqueous HC1 solutions increases lineally with increasing molality of HC1; (3) the volumetric interaction parameters for Glucose-HC1 pair in water are small positive and vary slightly with temperature; (4) the relation between V0φ,G and temperature exists as V0φ,G =α0+α1(T-273.15 K)2/3;(5)values of((e)V0φ,G/(e)T)p are positive and increase as temperatures rise,and at given temperatures decrease slightly with increasing molalities of HC1,indicating that the hydration of glucose decreases with increasing temperature and molality of HCI.These phenomena are interpreted successfully by the structure interaction model.

  2. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-05-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority of our experiments showed smooth monotonic increases in MgO sound speed and shock temperature with pressure from 197 to 243 GPa. The measured temperatures as well as the slopes of the pressure dependences for both temperature and sound speed were in good agreement with those calculated numerically for the solid phase at our peak shock compression conditions. Most observed sound speeds, however, were ~800 m/s higher than those predicted by the model. A single unconfirmed data point at 239 GPa showed anomalously low temperature and sound speed, which could both be explained by partial melting in this experiment and could suggest that the Hugoniot of MgO preheated to 2300 K crosses its melting line just slightly above 240 GPa.

  3. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat'yanov, O V; Asimow, P D

    2014-01-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority of our experiments showed smooth monotonic increases in MgO sound speed and shock temperature with pressure from 197 to 243 GPa. The measured temperatures as well as the slopes of the pressure dependences for both temperature and sound speed were in good agreement with those calculated numerically for the solid phase at our peak shock compression conditions. Most observed sound speeds, however, were ∼800 m/s higher than those predicted by the model. A single unconfirmed data point at 239 GPa showed anomalously low temperature and sound speed, which could both be explained by partial melting in this experiment and could suggest that the Hugoniot of MgO preheated to 2300 K crosses its melting line just slightly above 240 GPa.

  4. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell Na+/K+ ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz continuous wave microwave radiation to confirm and extend a report of Na+ transport inhibition under certain conditions of temperature and exposure. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 degrees C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersect between 23 and 24 degrees C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 degrees C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to electromagnetic radiation, at a dose rate of 6 W/kg and at five temperatures between 23 and 27 degrees C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 degrees C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. A possible explanation for the unusual temperature/microwave interaction is proposed.

  5. 1-D thermal-hydraulic analysis of the high temperature superconducting current leads for the ITER magnet system from 5 K to 300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.rizzo@kit.edu [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bauer, Pierre [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Heller, Reinhard [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Richard, Laura Savoldi; Zanino, Roberto [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A global, predictive picture of the ITER HTS current lead is not yet available. • A predictive 1-D, steady state thermal-hydraulic analysis of the full length HTS current leads has been performed. • For the heat exchanger, correlations previously derived by the same authors have been used. • The results have been compared with the ITER relevant requirements. • According to our results, the ITER HTS current leads will fulfill the requirements. -- Abstract: The magnet system of ITER includes high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads with a maximum current of 68 kA for the toroidal field (TF) coils, 55 kA for the poloidal field (PF)/central solenoid (CS) coils and 10 kA for the control coils (CC), respectively. Although different in terms of size and operative conditions, the ITER HTS current leads have been all designed on the basis of an established concept, which was successfully developed for the LHC at CERN and proven by the so-called 70 kA “demonstrator” lead made by KIT and by the ITER pre-prototypes made by ASIPP in China. A broad R and D campaign has been undertaken by ASIPP and CERN in order to find optimized designs for each component of the leads. Nevertheless, a comprehensive picture of the performance of the entire HTS current leads is not yet available. In this paper, a steady state, full length, thermal-hydraulic 1-D modeling is applied to the study of the three types (TF, PF/CS, CC) of ITER HTS current leads. The results of this predictive analysis are then compared with relevant ITER requirements. It was found that the present design of the HTS current leads will fulfill these specifications.

  6. Creep and swelling of Type 348 stainless steel at temperatures up to 700 K and comparison with fast reactor data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.; Thomas, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    In-reactor creep and swelling of Type 248 stainless steel from ATR SN-5 and ETR H-10 in-pile tube measurements were investigated to identify and characterize their mechanistic relationships at temperatures less than 723 0 K. The principal creep mechanism appears to be diffusion along high conductivity paths related to interstitial loops. The irradiation creep is a function of temperature and is presented as an empirical equation. The swelling in the ATR in-pile tubes is also presented as an empirical equation

  7. Thermal conduction and linear expansion of sintered rhenium and tungsten-rhenium alloys at a temperature up to 1000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyak, N.Z.; Belyaev, R.A.; Vavilov, Yu.V.; Vinogradov, Yu.G.; Serykh, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Preparation technology (by powder metallurgy methods) of sintered rhenium and tungsten-rhenium VR-5, VR-10, and VR-20 alloys is described. Thermal conduction of rhenium and VR-20 alloy has been measured in the temperature range from 300 to 1000 K. The value obtained turned out to be considerably less than those published elsewhere, this testifies to the great thermal contact resistance between the material grains. Also measured is the mean linear expansion coefficient for the mentioned above materials in the same temperature range. Linear expansion increases with rhenium content increase

  8. Densities and volumetric properties of (acetonitrile+an amide) binary mixtures at temperatures between 293.15K and 318.15K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nain, Anil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The densities of binary mixtures of acetonitrile (ACN) with formamide (FA), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methylacetamide (NMA), and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), including those of pure liquids, over the entire composition range were measured at temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K and atmospheric pressure. From the experimental data, the excess molar volume, V m E , and partial molar volumes, V-bar m,1 and V-bar m,2 , were calculated over whole composition range. The variation of these parameters with composition and temperature of the mixtures has been discussed in terms of molecular interaction in these mixtures. The V m E values were found negative for all the mixtures and at each temperature studied, indicating the presence of specific interactions between ACN and amide molecules. The extent of negative deviations in V m E values follows the order: FA>NMA>DMA>DMF. It is observed that the V m E values depend upon the positions of methyl groups in these amide molecules

  9. Measurement of the Thermal Expansion Coefficient for Ultra-High Temperatures up to 3000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompan, T. A.; Kondratiev, S. V.; Korenev, A. S.; Puhov, N. F.; Inochkin, F. M.; Kruglov, S. K.; Bronshtein, I. G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to a new high-temperature dilatometer, a part of the State Primary Standard of the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) unit. The dilatometer is designed for investigation and certification of materials for TEC standards in the range of extremely high temperatures. The critical review of existing methods of TEC measurements is given. Also, the design, principles of operation and metrological parameters of the new device are described. The main attention is paid to the system of machine vision that allows accurate measurement of elongation at high temperatures. The results of TEC measurements for graphite GIP-4, single crystal Al2O3, and some other materials are also presented.

  10. In situ XRD study of C60 polymerisation above pressures of 9 GPa and temperatures up to 830K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talyzin, A.V.; Jansson, U.; Dubrovinsky, L.S.; Oden, M.; Le Bihan, T.

    2002-01-01

    The C60 polymerization was studied by X-ray diffraction in situ in the pressure range 13-18 GPa and at temperatures up to 830 K. The results of the high pressure high temperature treatment are strongly dependent from the history of the sample and stress. At certain conditions no elliptical diffraction patterns were observed at 13 GPa and 830K. Samples with a relatively low internal stress showed a transformation to new phase. It is suggested that this phase is three-dimensional polymer with each C60 molecule bonded to eight neighbors. This phase showed an increased hardness (about 37 GPa) and a Raman spectrum distinctly different from previously known polymeric phases

  11. Reaction OH + OH studied over the 298-834 K temperature and 1-100 bar pressure ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Manuvesh; Chesnokov, Evgeni N; Krasnoperov, Lev N

    2012-06-21

    Self-reaction of hydroxyl radicals, OH + OH → H(2)O + O (1a) and OH + OH → H(2)O(2) (1b), was studied using pulsed laser photolysis coupled to transient UV-vis absorption spectroscopy over the 298-834 K temperature and 1-100 bar pressure ranges (bath gas He). A heatable high-pressure flow reactor was employed. Hydroxyl radicals were prepared using reaction of electronically excited oxygen atoms, O((1)D), produced in photolysis of N(2)O at 193 nm, with H(2)O. The temporal behavior of OH radicals was monitored via transient absorption of light from a dc discharge in H(2)O/Ar low-pressure resonance lamp at ca. 308 nm. The absolute intensity of the photolysis light was determined by accurate in situ actinometry based on the ozone formation in the presence of molecular oxygen. The results of this study combined with the literature data indicate that the rate constant of reaction 1a, associated with the pressure independent component, decreases with temperature within the temperature range 298-414 K and increases above 555 K. The pressure dependent rate constant for (1b) was parametrized using the Troe expression as k(1b,inf) = (2.4 ± 0.6) × 10(-11)(T/300)(-0.5) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(1b,0) = [He] (9.0 ± 2.2) × 10(-31)(T/300)(-3.5±0.5) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), F(c) = 0.37.

  12. Excess enthalpies of binary mixtures of 1-hexene with some branched alkanes at the temperature 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Benson, George C.; Lu, Benjamin C.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of excess molar enthalpies at the temperature 298.15 K in a flow microcalorimeter are reported for the five binary mixtures formed by mixing 1-hexene with the branched alkanes: 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane. Smooth Redlich-Kister representations of the results are described. It was found that the Liebermann-Fried model also provided good representations of the results

  13. Density dependence of a positron annihilation and positronium formation in H2 gas at temperatures between 77 and 297 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laricchia, G.; Charlton, M.; Beling, C.D.; Griffith, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Positron lifetime experiments have been performed on H 2 gas at temperatures between 77 and 297 K and in the density range from 12-160 Amagat. The extracted parameters are discussed in terms of current models. In the case of the positronium fraction it has been found that the observed density dependence can, in part, be interpreted using a combined Ore and spur model. (author)

  14. Density measurements of liquid 2-propanol at temperatures between (280 and 393) K and at pressures up to 10 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringari, Paolo; Scalabrin, Giancarlo; Valtz, A.; Richon, D.

    2009-01-01

    Liquid densities for 2-propanol have been measured at T = (280, 300, 325, 350, 375, and 393) K from about atmospheric pressure up to 10 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. The period of vibration has been converted into density using the Forced Path Mechanical Calibration method. The R134a has been used as reference fluid for T ≤ 350 K and water for T > 350 K. The uncertainty of the measurements is lower than ±0.05%. The measured liquid densities have been correlated with a Starling BWR equation with an overall AAD of 0.025%. The same BWR equation agrees within an AAD lower than 0.2% with the experimental values available in the literature over the same temperature and pressure range

  15. Critical Temperature of Randomly Diluted Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Ferromagnet, K2CuxZn(1-x)F4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yuichi; Tohi, Yasuto; Yamada, Isao; Haseda, Taiichiro

    1980-09-01

    The susceptibility of randomly diluted two-dimensional Heisenberg-like ferromagnet K2CuxZn(1-x)F4 was measured down to 50 mK, using the 3He-4He dilution refrigerator and a SQUID magnetometer. The ferromagnetic critical temperature Tc(x) was obtained for x{=}0.98, 0.94, 0.85, 0.82, 0.68, 0.60, 0.54, 0.50 and 0.42. The value of [1/Tc(1)][(d/dx)Tc(x)]x=1 was approximately 3.0. The critical temperature versus x curve exhibits a noticeable tail near the critical concentration, which may stem from the second nearest-neighbor interaction. The critical concentration xc, below which concentration there is no long range order down to T{=}0 K, was estimated to be 0.45˜0.50. The susceptibility of sample with x{=}0.42 behaves as if it obeys the Curie law down to 50 mK.

  16. Yang-Lee zeros for a Potts model of helix-coil transition with nontrivial topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananikian, N.; Ananikyan, L.; Artuso, R.; Sargsyan, K.

    2007-07-01

    The Yang-Lee partition function zeros of the Q-state Potts model on a zigzag ladder are studied by a transfer-matrix approach. This Q-state model has a non-trivial topology induced by three-site interactions on a zigzag ladder and is proposed as a description of helix-coil transition in homo-polymers. The Yang-Lee zeros are associated to complex values of the solvent-related coupling constant K (magnetic field) and they are exactly derived for arbitrary values of the system parameters: Q, J (coupling constant of hydrogen binding) and temperature. It is shown that there is only a quasi-phase transition for all temperatures. The densities of the Yang-Lee zeros are singular at the edge singularity points and the critical exponent σ = -1/2. (author)

  17. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  18. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  19. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  20. Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  1. The effects of physical aging at elevated temperatures on the viscoelastic creep on IM7/K3B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Feldman, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Physical aging at elevated temperature of the advanced composite IM7/K3B was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short term isothermal, creep/recovery with the creep segments performed at constant load. The matrix dominated transverse tensile and in-plane shear behavior were measured at temperatures ranging from 200 to 230 C. Through the use of time based shifting procedures, the aging shift factors, shift rates and momentary master curve parameters were found at each temperature. These material parameters were used as input to a predictive methodology, which was based upon effective time theory and linear viscoelasticity combined with classical lamination theory. Long term creep compliance test data was compared to predictions to verify the method. The model was then used to predict the long term creep behavior for several general laminates.

  2. Phase transition temperatures of 405-725 K in superfluid ultra-dense hydrogen clusters on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmlid, Leif, E-mail: holmlid@chem.gu.se [Atmospheric Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kotzias, Bernhard [Airbus DS, Department Mechanical Engineering, D28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) with its typical H-H bond distance of 2.3 pm is superfluid at room temperature as expected for quantum fluids. It also shows a Meissner effect at room temperature, which indicates that a transition point to a non-superfluid state should exist above room temperature. This transition point is given by a disappearance of the superfluid long-chain clusters H{sub 2N}(0). This transition point is now measured for several metal carrier surfaces at 405 - 725 K, using both ultra-dense protium p(0) and deuterium D(0). Clusters of ordinary Rydberg matter H(l) as well as small symmetric clusters H{sub 4}(0) and H{sub 3}(0) (which do not give a superfluid or superconductive phase) all still exist on the surface at high temperature. This shows directly that desorption or diffusion processes do not remove the long superfluid H{sub 2N}(0) clusters. The two ultra-dense forms p(0) and D(0) have different transition temperatures under otherwise identical conditions. The transition point for p(0) is higher in temperature, which is unexpected.

  3. Phase transition temperatures of 405-725 K in superfluid ultra-dense hydrogen clusters on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlid, Leif; Kotzias, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) with its typical H-H bond distance of 2.3 pm is superfluid at room temperature as expected for quantum fluids. It also shows a Meissner effect at room temperature, which indicates that a transition point to a non-superfluid state should exist above room temperature. This transition point is given by a disappearance of the superfluid long-chain clusters H_2_N(0). This transition point is now measured for several metal carrier surfaces at 405 - 725 K, using both ultra-dense protium p(0) and deuterium D(0). Clusters of ordinary Rydberg matter H(l) as well as small symmetric clusters H_4(0) and H_3(0) (which do not give a superfluid or superconductive phase) all still exist on the surface at high temperature. This shows directly that desorption or diffusion processes do not remove the long superfluid H_2_N(0) clusters. The two ultra-dense forms p(0) and D(0) have different transition temperatures under otherwise identical conditions. The transition point for p(0) is higher in temperature, which is unexpected.

  4. Comparison between IEEE and CIGRE Thermal Behaviour Standards and Measured Temperature on a 132-kV Overhead Power Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arroyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the steady and dynamic thermal balances of an overhead power line proposed by CIGRE (Technical Brochure 601, 2014 and IEEE (Std.738, 2012 standards. The estimated temperatures calculated by the standards are compared with the averaged conductor temperature obtained every 8 min during a year. The conductor is a LA 280 Hawk type, used in a 132-kV overhead line. The steady and dynamic state comparison shows that the number of cases with deviations to conductor temperatures higher than 5 ∘ C decreases from around 20% to 15% when the dynamic analysis is used. As some of the most critical variables are magnitude and direction of the wind speed, ambient temperature and solar radiation, their influence on the conductor temperature is studied. Both standards give similar results with slight differences due to the different way to calculate the solar radiation and convection. Considering the wind, both standards provide better results for the estimated conductor temperature as the wind speed increases and the angle with the line is closer to 90 ∘ . In addition, if the theoretical radiation is replaced by that measured with the pyranometer, the number of samples with deviations higher than 5 ∘ C is reduced from around 15% to 5%.

  5. Spin glass: thermal properties and characterization of the ± J Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model partition function zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, A.C. de.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study of the S-K model through the analysis of the zeros of the partition function in the complex temperature plane is performed. By the exact way, the notable thermodynamical properties of the system to a variety of the length (N=5→25 spins) are calculated, using only standards concepts (without the use of tricks like that of replicas). Dilute models had been also considered. The principal result of this work is the characterization of the zeros of the partition function of the S-K model. (author)

  6. Shock Tube/Laser Absorption Studies of Jet Fuels at Low Temperatures (600-1200K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    Davidson, Ronald K. Hanson. A second-generation aerosol shock tube and its use in studying ignition delay times of large biodiesel surrogates, 28th... Biodiesel Surrogate behind Reflected Shock Waves,” 8th US National Combustion Meeting, Paper 070RK-0008 Park City, UT 5/2013.   These  studies provide...www.elsevier .com/locate / fuel 1. Introduction Normal alkanes have been widely used as fuels and are major components of many commercial transportation fuels

  7. Thermal conductivity measurements of impregnated Nb3Sn coil samples in the temperature range of 3.5 K to 100 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koettig, T.; Maciocha, W.; Bermudez, S.; Rysti, J.; Tavares, S.; Cacherat, F.; Bremer, J.

    2017-02-01

    In the framework of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, high-field magnets are under development. Magnetic flux densities of up to 13 T require the use of Nb3Sn superconducting coils. Quench protection becomes challenging due to the high stored energy density and the low stabilizer fraction. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the combination of insulating layers and Nb3Sn based cables are an important thermodynamic input parameter for quench protection systems and superfluid helium cooling studies. A two-stage cryocooler based test stand is used to measure the thermal conductance of the coil sample in two different heat flow directions with respect to the coil package geometry. Variable base temperatures of the experimental platform at the cryocooler allow for a steady-state heat flux method up to 100 K. The heat is applied at wedges style copper interfaces of the Rutherford cables. The respective temperature difference represents the absolute value of thermal conductance of the sample arrangement. We report about the measurement methodology applied to this kind of non-uniform sample composition and the evaluation of the used resin composite materials.

  8. Vibrational zero point energy for H-doped silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazhanov, S. Zh.; Ganchenkova, M.; Marstein, E. S.

    2014-05-01

    Most of the studies addressed to computations of hydrogen parameters in semiconductor systems, such as silicon, are performed at zero temperature T = 0 K and do not account for contribution of vibrational zero point energy (ZPE). For light weight atoms such as hydrogen (H), however, magnitude of this parameter might be not negligible. This Letter is devoted to clarify the importance of accounting the zero-point vibrations when analyzing hydrogen behavior in silicon and its effect on silicon electronic properties. For this, we estimate the ZPE for different locations and charge states of H in Si. We show that the main contribution to the ZPE is coming from vibrations along the Si-H bonds whereas contributions from other Si atoms apart from the direct Si-H bonds play no role. It is demonstrated that accounting the ZPE reduces the hydrogen formation energy by ˜0.17 eV meaning that neglecting ZPE at low temperatures one can underestimate hydrogen solubility by few orders of magnitude. In contrast, the effect of the ZPE on the ionization energy of H in Si is negligible. The results can have important implications for characterization of vibrational properties of Si by inelastic neutron scattering, as well as for theoretical estimations of H concentration in Si.

  9. Determination of temperature dependent parameters of zero-phonon line in photo-luminescence spectrum of silicon-vacancy centre in CVD diamond thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dragounová, Kateřina; Potůček, Z.; Potocký, Štěpán; Bryknar, Z.; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2017), s. 74-78 ISSN 1335-3632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon-vacancy centres * photoluminescence * low temperature * diamond * CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2016

  10. Mechano-chemical synthesis K2MF6 (M = Mn, Ni) by cation-exchange reaction at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Pooja; Nagarajan, Rajamani

    2018-02-01

    In order to establish the power of mechanochemistry to produce industrially important phosphors, synthesis of K2MnF6 has been attempted by the successive grinding reactions of manganese (II) acetate with ammonium fluoride and potassium fluoride. The progress of reaction was followed by ex-situ characterization after periodic intervals of time. Cubic symmetry of K2MnF6 was evident from its powder X-ray diffraction pattern which was refined successfully in cubic space group (Fm-3m) with a = 8.4658 (20) Å. Stretching and bending vibration modes of MnF62- octahedral units appeared at 740 and 482 cm-1 in the fourier transformed infrared spectrum. Bands at 405 and 652 cm-1 appeared in the Raman spectrum and they were finger-print positions of cubic K2MnF6. Other than the ligand to metal charge transfer transition at 242 nm, transitions from 4A2g to 4T1g, 4T2g and 2T2g of Mn4+-ion appeared at 352, 429, 474 and 569 nm in the UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum of the sample. Red emission due to Mn4+ was observed in the photoluminescence spectrum with a decay time of 0.22 ms. Following the success in forming cubic K2MnF6, this approach has been extended to synthesize cubic K2NiF6 at room temperature. All these results confirmed the susceptibility of acetate salts of transition metals belonging to first-row of the periodic table to facile fluorination at room temperature aided by mechanical forces.

  11. Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the 500-1150 K temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Risueno, E. [CIC Energigune, Parque Tecnologico, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava, Spain. (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First heating cycle acts as a annealing, relieving the surface stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress relieving occurs mainly above 900 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity decreases between 0.35 and 0.10 in the 2.5-22 {mu}m spectral range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity increases linearly with temperature, with the same slope for {lambda} > 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between resistivity and emissivity by means of Hagen-Rubens relation. - Abstract: Thermal radiative emissivity is related to the optical and electrical properties of materials, and it is a key parameter required in a large number of industrial applications. In the case of Ti-6Al-4V, spectral emissivity experimental data are not available for the range of temperatures between 400 and 1200 K, where almost all industrial applications take place. The experimental results in this paper show that the normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength from a value of about 0.35 at 2.5 {mu}m to about 0.10 at 22 {mu}m. At the same time, the spectral emissivity shows a slight linear increase with temperature between 500 and 1150 K, with approximately the same slope for all wavelengths. Additionally, the influence of the samples thermal history on the emissivity is studied. A strong decrease in the emissivity values appears due to the effect of surface stress relaxation processes. This means that the radiative properties of this alloy strongly depend on the surface stress state. A thermal treatment to relieve the surface stress should be carried out to achieve a steady state of the radiative properties. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is found between the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity obtained using conventional measurements and the one obtained from the emissivity experimental results by using the Hagen-Rubens equation.

  12. Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in the 500–1150 K temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Fernández, L.; Risueño, E.; Pérez-Sáez, R.B.; Tello, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First heating cycle acts as a annealing, relieving the surface stresses. ► Stress relieving occurs mainly above 900 K. ► Emissivity decreases between 0.35 and 0.10 in the 2.5–22 μm spectral range. ► Emissivity increases linearly with temperature, with the same slope for λ > 10 μm. ► Good agreement between resistivity and emissivity by means of Hagen–Rubens relation. - Abstract: Thermal radiative emissivity is related to the optical and electrical properties of materials, and it is a key parameter required in a large number of industrial applications. In the case of Ti–6Al–4V, spectral emissivity experimental data are not available for the range of temperatures between 400 and 1200 K, where almost all industrial applications take place. The experimental results in this paper show that the normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength from a value of about 0.35 at 2.5 μm to about 0.10 at 22 μm. At the same time, the spectral emissivity shows a slight linear increase with temperature between 500 and 1150 K, with approximately the same slope for all wavelengths. Additionally, the influence of the samples thermal history on the emissivity is studied. A strong decrease in the emissivity values appears due to the effect of surface stress relaxation processes. This means that the radiative properties of this alloy strongly depend on the surface stress state. A thermal treatment to relieve the surface stress should be carried out to achieve a steady state of the radiative properties. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is found between the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity obtained using conventional measurements and the one obtained from the emissivity experimental results by using the Hagen–Rubens equation.

  13. Interlacing of zeros of quasi-orthogonal meixner polynomials | Driver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... interlacing of zeros of quasi-orthogonal Meixner polynomials Mn(x;β; c) with the zeros of their nearest orthogonal counterparts Mt(x;β + k; c), l; n ∈ ℕ, k ∈ {1; 2}; is also discussed. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 33C45, 42C05. Key words: Discrete orthogonal polynomials, quasi-orthogonal polynomials, Meixner

  14. Pusat Tenaga Malaysia's Zero Energy Office (ZEO) Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, C.K.; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    Technical Review of the Zero Energy Office building in Malaysia. The building, which has an energy index of 50 kWh/m2/year, reaches a net annual energy of zero through the use of building integrated photovoltaic panels. For reference, ordinary offices in Malaysia consume 200 - 300 kWh/m2/year...

  15. Mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites at 77 K and at room temperature after irradiation with 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusa, S.; Hagiwara, M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten different polymer matrix composites were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays at room temperature, and were examined with regard to the mechanical properties at 77 K and at room temperature. The radiation resistance of these composites depends primarily on the radiation resistance of matrix resins, which increases in the order diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A < tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane < Kerimid 601. Comparison of the mechanical properties tested at 77 K and at room temperature demonstrates that the extent of radiation-induced decrease in the composite strength is appreciably greater in the 77 K test than in the room temperature test. (author)

  16. Zero-field spin relaxation of the positive muon in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, C.W.

    1982-07-01

    The spin relaxation of the μ + in high purity single crystal and polycrystalline copper has been measured at temperatures between 0.5 0 K and 5.2 0 K by the zero-field μ + SR technique. In both types of sample the experiments show a temperature independent dipolar width Δ/sub z/ = 0.389 +- 0.003 μs -1 and a hopping rate decreasing from approx. 0.5 μs -1 at 0.5 0 K to approx. 0.05 μs -1 above 5 0 K. This is the first direct proof of a dynamic effect in the low temperature μ + spin relaxation in copper. The relationship between the zero-field and transverse-field dipolar widths is discussed, and the measured zero-field width is found to be approx. 10% larger than expected based on the known transverse-field widths. A new μ + SR spectrometer has been constructed and used in this work. The spectrometer and the associated beam lines and data acquisition facilities are discussed

  17. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  18. Partial molar volumes of (acetonitrile + water) mixtures over the temperature range (273.15 to 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeow, Y. Leong; Leong, Yee-Kwong

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal molar volume data of (acetonitrile + water) mixtures, between T = 273.15 K and T = 318.15 K, extracted from different sources are combined and treated as a single set to even out minor differences between sources and to increase the number of data points for each temperature. Tikhonov regularization is applied to compute the isothermal first and second derivatives of these data with respect to molar composition. For the reference temperature of 298.15 K, this computation is extended to the third derivative. Generalized Cross Validation is used to guide the selection of the regularization parameter that keeps noise amplification under control. The resulting first derivatives are used to construct the partial molar volume curves which are then checked against published results. Properties of the partial molar volumes are analysed by examining their derivatives. Finally the general shape of the second derivative curve of molar volume is explained qualitatively in terms of tripartite segmentation of the molar composition interval but quantitative comparisons are required to confirm this explanation

  19. A high-temperature high-pressure calorimeter for determining heats of solution up to 623 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamali, Essmaiil; Turner, Peter J; Murray, Richard C; Cobble, James W

    2010-07-01

    A high-temperature high-pressure isoperibol calorimeter for determining the heats of solution and reaction of very dilute substances in water (10(-4) m) at temperatures up to 623 K is described. The energies of vaporization of water at steam saturation pressure were measured as a function of temperature and the results agree with the corresponding values from steam tables to better than 0.08+/-0.18%. The novelties of the present instrument relative to flow type heat capacity calorimeters are that measurements can be made at orders of magnitude lower concentrations and that measurement of heat of reaction involving solids or gases or in the presence of high concentrations of supporting electrolytes, acids, and bases is possible. Furthermore, the advantage of using enthalpy data over heat capacity data for calculations of the standard state Gibbs free energies of electrolytes is that the experimental heat data of this research need only be integrated once to derive higher temperature free energy data from lower temperatures. The derived heat capacities can be used mathematically to obtain free energies by double integration. However, the resulting errors are much smaller than if experimental aqueous heat capacities were used for the integrations.

  20. Cryosorption pumping of deuterium by MS-5A at temperatures above 4.2 K for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Watson, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    An Excalibur CVR-1106 cryosorption pump was fitted with a special cooling system to permit measurement of deuterium pumping speeds at temperatures between 6 and 20 0 K. Pumping speeds were found to be a function of feed rate, loading prior to each run, loading during runs, and thermal treatment between runs. At feed rates -4 Torr-l s -1 cm -2 , speeds were near 1 l s -1 cm -2 initially and declined monotonically with loading. At high feed rates, speeds reached a higher maximum (approx. 3 l s -1 cm -2 ) but also generally declined with loading; however, after 50 to 100 Torr l had accumulated, the pump underwent a spontaneous transition which effected a return to the original (high) pumping speed. This transition was accompanied by pressure spikes in the test chamber and temperature spikes in the sieve panel. Initial speeds for each consecutive run equaled the final speed for the preceding run if the pump was maintained at operating temperature; however, if it was warmed to 77 0 K and recooled, a restoration to the maximum speed was observed at the beginning of the next run

  1. Reaction CH3 + OH studied over the 294-714 K temperature and 1-100 bar pressure ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Manuvesh; Chesnokov, Evgeni N; Krasnoperov, Lev N

    2012-08-30

    Reaction of methyl radicals with hydroxyl radicals, CH(3) + OH → products (1) was studied using pulsed laser photolysis coupled to transient UV-vis absorption spectroscopy over the 294-714 K temperature and 1-100 bar pressure ranges (bath gas He). Methyl radicals were produced by photolysis of acetone at 193.3 nm. Hydroxyl radicals were generated in reaction of electronically excited oxygen atoms O((1)D), produced in the photolysis of N(2)O at 193.3 nm, with H(2)O. Temporal profiles of CH(3) were recorded via absorption at 216.4 nm using xenon arc lamp and a spectrograph; OH radicals were monitored via transient absorption of light from a dc discharge H(2)O/Ar low pressure resonance lamp at ca. 308 nm. The absolute intensity of the photolysis light inside the reactor was determined by an accurate in situ actinometry based on the ozone formation in the presence of molecular oxygen. The results of this study indicate that the rate constant of reaction 1 is pressure independent within the studied pressure and temperature ranges and has slight negative temperature dependence, k(1) = (1.20 ± 0.20) × 10(-10)(T/300)(-0.49) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  2. Starting From Ground Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, William B.; Stauffer, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    Erie County Community College (New York) has developed a zero-based program budgeting system to meet current fiscal problems and diminished resources. The system allocates resources on the basis of program effectiveness and market potential. (LH)

  3. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-04

    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  4. First principles simulation on the K0.8Fe2Se2 high-temperature structural superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rui; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim; Zhao, Guang-Lin; Bagayoko, Diola

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The superconductor K 0.8 Fe 2 Se 2 super cell size, shape, and atomic positions are fully optimized using first principles density functional theory method. • Each K atom donates 0.8 |e| with K vacancies in the supercell, each Fe atom donates 0.4 |e|, while each Se atom gains 0.7 |e| ∼ 0.8 |e|. • Fe atoms show magnetic moment fluctuation and possible strong spin-orbital coupling. -- Abstract: Since the synthesis of the first ones in 2008, iron-based high temperature superconductors have been the subject of many studies. This great interest is partly due to their higher, upper magnetic field, smaller Fermi surface around the Γ point, and a larger coherence length. This work is focused on A x Fe 2 Se 2 structural superconductor (FeSe, 11 hierarchy; A = K, Cs) as recently observed. ARPES data show novel, electronic structure and a hole-free Fermi surface which is different from previously observed Fermi surface images. We use ab initio density functional theory method to simulate the electronic structure of the novel superconductor A x Fe 2 Se 2 . We compare this electronic structure with those of other Fe-based superconductors

  5. Complex magnetic differentiation of cobalts in Na x CoO2 with 22 K Néel temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedshin, I. R.; Gilmutdinov, I. F.; Salosin, M. A.; Alloul, H.

    2014-06-01

    Single crystals of sodium cobaltates Na x CoO2 with x ≈ 0.8 were grown by the floating zone technique. Using electrochemical Na de-intercalation method we reduced the sodium content in the as-grown crystals down to pure phase with 22 K Néel temperature and x ≈ 0.77. The 59Co NMR study in the paramagnetic state of the T N = 22 K phase permitted us to evidence that at least 6 Co sites are differentiated. They could be separated by their magnetic behavior into three types: a single site with cobalt close to non-magnetic Co3+, two sites with the most magnetic cobalts in the system, and the remaining three sites displaying an intermediate behavior. This unusual magnetic differentiation calls for more detailed NMR experiments on our well characterized samples.

  6. Deficient by oxygen perovskites and superconductor with transition temperature 93 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, N.L.; Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.; Hazen, R.M.; Prewitt, K.T.

    1988-01-01

    Structural changes in some perovskites deficient by oxygen is reviewd. The structure of the high-temperature YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor is shown to develop usual for perovskites properties and at the same time to possess specific features. The specific feature includes the fact that ordering of vacancies and oxygen atoms is the consequence of Ba 2+ and Y 3+ ordering in positions A. Such ordering causes the removal of oxygen atoms plane from the structure and accurrence of pyramidal-coordinated atoms Cu2 in positions B. 22 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. A high-resolution combined scanning laser and widefield polarizing microscope for imaging at temperatures from 4 K to 300 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M; Guénon, S; Lever, F; Kleiner, R; Koelle, D

    2017-12-01

    Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved. The sample is mounted on a 4 He continuous flow cryostat providing a temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, and electromagnets are used to apply magnetic fields of up to 800 mT with variable in-plane orientation and 20 mT with out-of-plane orientation. Typical applications of the polarizing microscope are the imaging of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization via the longitudinal and polar MOKE, imaging of magnetic flux structures in superconductors covered with a magneto-optical indicator film via the Faraday effect, or imaging of structural features, such as twin-walls in tetragonal SrTiO 3 . The scanning laser microscope furthermore offers the possibility to gain local information on electric transport properties of a sample by detecting the beam-induced voltage change across a current-biased sample. This combination of magnetic, structural, and electric imaging capabilities makes the microscope a viable tool for research in the fields of oxide electronics, spintronics, magnetism, and superconductivity.

  8. A high-resolution combined scanning laser and widefield polarizing microscope for imaging at temperatures from 4 K to 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M.; Guénon, S.; Lever, F.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.

    2017-12-01

    Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved. The sample is mounted on a 4He continuous flow cryostat providing a temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, and electromagnets are used to apply magnetic fields of up to 800 mT with variable in-plane orientation and 20 mT with out-of-plane orientation. Typical applications of the polarizing microscope are the imaging of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization via the longitudinal and polar MOKE, imaging of magnetic flux structures in superconductors covered with a magneto-optical indicator film via the Faraday effect, or imaging of structural features, such as twin-walls in tetragonal SrTiO3. The scanning laser microscope furthermore offers the possibility to gain local information on electric transport properties of a sample by detecting the beam-induced voltage change across a current-biased sample. This combination of magnetic, structural, and electric imaging capabilities makes the microscope a viable tool for research in the fields of oxide electronics, spintronics, magnetism, and superconductivity.

  9. Exact low-temperature series expansion for the partition function of the zero-field Ising model on the infinite square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudem, Grzegorz; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we provide the exact expression for the coefficients in the low-temperature series expansion of the partition function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the infinite square lattice. This is equivalent to exact determination of the number of spin configurations at a given energy. With these coefficients, we show that the ferromagnetic–to–paramagnetic phase transition in the square lattice Ising model can be explained through equivalence between the model and the perfect gas of energy clusters model, in which the passage through the critical point is related to the complete change in the thermodynamic preferences on the size of clusters. The combinatorial approach reported in this article is very general and can be easily applied to other lattice models. PMID:27721435

  10. The effect of feeding frequency, water temperature, and stocking density on the growth of river puffer Takifugu obscurus reared in a zero-exchange water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Yeol Yoo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of daily feeding frequency (Exp I, water temperature (Exp II, and stocking density (Exp III on the growth of river puffer, Takifugu obscurus, juvenile fish of 10 and 40 g in body weight were examined to develop effective techniques to produce river puffer in a non-exchange water system. In Exp I, fish were fed commercial floating feed with 45 % protein one to five times per day to apparent satiation each by hand daily for 8 weeks at 25 °C. In both the 10- and 40-g size groups, the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain of fish fed one meal per day were significantly lower than those of fish fed five meals per day (P < 0.05. However, there were no significant differences in the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain among fish fed two, three, and five meals per day. Feed efficiency showed decreasing tendency with increasing size of fish. In Exp II, fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight were reared with the commercial feed at 15–30 °C for 8 weeks. The weight gain of fish increased with raising water temperature up to 25 °C and decreased drastically at 30 °C for both sizes. The Q10 of specific growth rate was decreased with raising water temperature from 5.04 (temperature interval, 15–20 °C to 0.66 (25–30 °C for the 10-g fish and from 4.98 to 0.31 for the 40-g fish. In Exp III, the effect of stocking density on growth was examined with fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight. The final body weight for initial stocking densities of 4, 8, and 12 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 20 kg/m3 for the 10-g fish, and the final stocking density reached 10.1, 19.2, 28.7, and 39.9 kg/m3, respectively. For the 40-g fish, the final body weight for initial stocking densities of 3 and 6 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 9 and 15 kg/m3 and the final stocking density reached 7.38, 13.5, 17.1, and 27.5 kg/m3, respectively (P < 0.05. In both

  11. Operation experiences with a 30 kV/100 MVA high temperature superconducting cable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennesen, Ole; Daeumling, Manfred; Jensen, Kim H; Kvorning, Svend; Olsen, Soeren K; Traeholt, Chresten; Veje, Erling; Willen, Dag; Oestergaard, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    A superconducting cable based on Bi-2223 tape technology has been developed, installed and operated in the public network of Copenhagen Energy in a two-year period between May 2001 and May 2003. This paper gives a brief overview of the system and analyses some of the operation experiences. The aim of this demonstration project is to gain experience with HTS cables under realistic conditions in a live distribution network. Approximately 50 000 utility customers have their electric power supplied through the HTS cable. The cable system has delivered 226 GW h of energy and reached a maximum operating current of 1157 A. The operation experiences include over-currents of 6 kA due to faults on peripheral lines, commissioning, servicing and failure responses on the cooling system, continuous 24 h, 7 day per week monitoring and performance of the alarm system. The implications of these experiences for the future applications of HTS cable systems are analysed

  12. Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 18,000 tons of geologic mill tailings at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The geologic mill tailings are residues from the processing of pitchlende ore during 1949-1958. These waste residues are contained in silos in Operable Unit 4 (OU4) at the FEMP facility. Operable Unit 4 is one of five operable units at the FEMP. Operable Unit 4 is one of five operable units at the FEMP. Operating Unit 4 consists of four concrete storage silos and their contents. Silos 1 and 2 contain K-65 mill tailing residues and a bentonite cap, Silo 3 contains non-radioactive metal oxides, and Silo 4 is empty

  13. Excess enthalpies of the ternary mixtures: {tetrahydrofuran + 3-methylpentane + (octane or decane)} at the temperature 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohui; Benson, George C.; Lu, Benjamin C.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of excess molar enthalpies at the temperature 298.15 K in a flow microcalorimeter, are reported for the two ternary mixtures {X 1 C 4 H 8 O + X 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH(CH 3 )CH 2 CH 3 + (1-X 1 -X 2 )CH 3 (CH 2 ) v-2 CH 3 } with v=8 and 10. Smooth representations of the results are described and used to construct constant-enthalpy contours on Roozeboom diagrams. It is shown that useful estimates of the ternary enthalpies can be obtained from the Liebermann-Fried model, using only the physical properties of the components and their binary mixtures

  14. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    OpenAIRE

    Fat'yanov, Oleg V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority ...

  15. Phase equilibria in the Cs-U-O system in the temperature range from 873 to 1273 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fee, D.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Portions of the cesium-uranium-oxygen system have been investigated between 873 and 1273 K and a phase diagram has been constructed using these data and the data of other workers in the field. A consistent set of measured and estimated thermodynamic data for cesium uranates has been used to calculate the equilibrium cesium partial pressure and the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure over two and three phase regions in the Cs-U-O system. For a given temperature, the equilibrium cesium partial pressure in a two phase region decreases as the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure increases. (author)

  16. System model development for a methanol reformed 5 kW high temperature PEM fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the system performance when reforming methanol in an oil heated reformer system for a 5 kW fuel cell system. A dynamic model of the system is created and evaluated. The system is divided into 4 separate components. These components are the fuel cell, reformer, burner...... and evaporator, which are connected by two separate oil circuits, one with a burner and reformer and one with a fuel cell and evaporator. Experiments were made on the reformer and measured oil and bed temperatures are presented in multiple working points. The system is examined at loads from 0 to 5000 W electric...

  17. Effects of Novel Fin Shape of High Temperature Heat Exchanger on 1 kW Class Stirling Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joon; Kim, Seok Yeon [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In this research, numerical analysis was carried out on novel and existing fins, adjusted in terms of factors such as length, spacing, and angle, of a high-temperature heat exchanger for a 1 kW class Stirling engine, designed as a prime mover for a domestic cogeneration system. The performance improvement as a result of shape optimization was confirmed with numerical analysis by including the air preheater, which was not considered during optimization. However, a negative heat flux was observed in the cylinder head portion. This phenomenon was clarified by analyzing the exhaust gas and wall surface temperature of the combustion chamber. Furthermore, assuming an ideal cycle, the effects of heat transfer enhancement on the thermodynamic cycle and system performance were predicted.

  18. Pyroelectric Properties of Potassium and Rubidium Titanyl-Arsenate Single Crystals in the Temperature Range of 4.2-300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaldin, Yu. V.; Matyjasik, S.; Novikova, N. E.; Tseitlin, M.; Mozhaev, E.; Roth, M.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the pyroelectric coefficients of KTiOAsO 4 and RbTiOAsO 4 single crystals grown by flux crystallization have been investigated in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K. With an increase in temperature, superionic conductivity first arises in KTiOAsO4 (at T > 200 K) and then (at T > 270 K) in RbTiOAsO 4 . This conductivity is much higher in the samples polarized at T = 4.2 K. An exponential change in the crystal resistivity along the polar direction is simultaneously observed. The results of measurements in the range of 4.2-200 K indicate larger values of pyroelectric coefficients when compared with potassium and rubidium titanyl-phosphate crystals. A correlation between the pyroelectric coefficients and a change in the lattice constants at isomorphic substitutions of K atoms for Rb and P atoms for As has been revealed within the symmetry approach.

  19. Robust zero resistance in a superconducting high-entropy alloy at pressures up to 190 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Wang, Honghong; von Rohr, Fabian; Wang, Zhe; Cai, Shu; Zhou, Yazhou; Yang, Ke; Li, Aiguo; Jiang, Sheng; Wu, Qi; Cava, Robert J.; Sun, Liling

    2017-12-01

    We report the observation of extraordinarily robust zero-resistance superconductivity in the pressurized (TaNb)0.67(HfZrTi)0.33 high-entropy alloy--a material with a body-centered-cubic crystal structure made from five randomly distributed transition-metal elements. The transition to superconductivity (TC) increases from an initial temperature of 7.7 K at ambient pressure to 10 K at ˜60 GPa, and then slowly decreases to 9 K by 190.6 GPa, a pressure that falls within that of the outer core of the earth. We infer that the continuous existence of the zero-resistance superconductivity from 1 atm up to such a high pressure requires a special combination of electronic and mechanical characteristics. This high-entropy alloy superconductor thus may have a bright future for applications under extreme conditions, and also poses a challenge for understanding the underlying quantum physics.

  20. Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2) in the temperature range 4.2-40K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowski, K.; Ratalowicz, J.; Zdanowicz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Results on electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity measured in the temperature range 4.2-40 K are presented for single-crystal and polycrystalline samples of Cd 3 As 2 . Hall effect has been studied at temperatures of 4.2, 77, and 300K. The calculated value of the conduction electron concentration was in the range 1.87-1.95 10 24 m -3 . Electrical resistivity of all investigated samples was independent of temperature up to about 10K and increased slowsly at higher temperatures. The thermal conductivity shows a maximum in the region in which the lattice component of thermal conductivity dominates. The strong anistropy of the lattice component determines the anisotropy of the total thermal conductivity. The electronic component of thermal conductivity does not exhibit any anisotropy and shows a maximum at a temperature of about 300 K

  1. Measurement and Analysis of Normal Zone Propagation in a ReBCO Coated Conductor at Temperatures Below 50K

    CERN Document Server

    van Nugteren, J; Wessel, S; Krooshoop, E; Nijhuis, A; ten Kate, H

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the quasi-adiabatic normal zone propagation velocity and quench energies of a Superpower SCS4050 copper stabilised ReBCO superconducting tape are presented over a temperature range of 23 − 47 K; in parallel applied magnetic fields of 6, 10 and 14 T; and over a current range from 50% to 100% of Ic. The data are compared to results of analytic predictions and to one-dimensional numerical simulations. The availability of long lengths of ReBCO coated conductor makes the material interesting for many HTS applications operating well below the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, such as magnets and motors. One of the main issues in the design of such devices is quench detection and protection. At higher temperatures, the quench velocities in these materials are known to be about two orders of magnitude lower compared to low temperature superconductors, resulting in significantly smaller normal zones and the risk of higher peak temperatures. To investigate whether the same also holds for lower tempera...

  2. Studies of Interactions of Positive Helium Ions with Small Neutrals at Temperatures Below 50K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Martin Michael

    1990-01-01

    Interactions of He^+ ions with small neutrals are important because of their fundamental nature and applicability to other areas of research. In the past, very little work has been done on such systems at very low temperatures (T Boehringer and Arnold (1986) and Johnsen, Chen, and Biondi (1980). A new method of detecting the ions in the trap was also developed and implemented. The Fourier Transform Ion Z-resonance (FTIZR) technique took advantage of an induced coherence in the oscillations of the ions in the trap. This method allowed for measurement of faster ion -neutral reactions. This method was demonstrated by studying the non -resonant charge transfer process ^3He ^+{+}^4He{toatop >=ts}^3He{+}^4He^+. These measurements confirmed that the forward reaction is endothermic by about 1.1 meV.

  3. Photophysics of α-furil at room temperature and 77 K: Spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Pronab; Chattopadhyay, Nitin, E-mail: nitin.chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-06-21

    Steady state and time resolved spectroscopic measurements have been exploited to assign the emissions from different conformations of α-furil (2, 2′-furil) in solution phase at room temperature as well as cryogen (liquid nitrogen, LN{sub 2}) frozen matrices of ethanol and methylcyclohexane. Room temperature studies reveal a single fluorescence from the trans-planar conformer of the fluorophore or two fluorescence bands coming from the trans-planar and the relaxed skew forms depending on excitation at the nπ{sup ∗} or the ππ{sup ∗} absorption band, respectively. Together with the fluorescence bands, the LN{sub 2} studies in both the solvents unambiguously ascertain two phosphorescence emissions with lifetimes 5 ± 0.3 ms (trans-planar triplet) and 81 ± 3 ms (relaxed skew triplet). Quantum chemical calculations have been performed using density functional theory at CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G{sup ∗∗} level to prop up the spectroscopic surveillance. The simulated potential energy curves (PECs) illustrate that α-furil is capable of giving two emissions from each of the S{sub 1} and the T{sub 1} states—one corresponding to the trans-planar and the other to the relaxed skew conformation. Contrary to the other 1,2-dicarbonyl molecular systems like benzil and α-naphthil, α-furil does not exhibit any fluorescence from its second excited singlet (S{sub 2}) state. This is ascribed to the proximity of the minimum of the PEC of the S{sub 2} state and the hill-top of the PEC of the S{sub 1} state.

  4. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, S. W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH{sup −}) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  5. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell (Na/sup +//K/sup +/) ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwave radiation. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersected between 23 and 24 C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to a 6 W/kg dose rate at 1 C intervals between 23 and 27 C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. An hypothesis based on the interaction of microwave radiation with enzyme structure during a conformational rearrangement is proposed as an explanation for the effect.

  6. Gas phase kinetics of the OH + CH3CH2OH reaction at temperatures of the interstellar medium (T = 21-107 K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, A J; Blázquez, S; Ballesteros, B; Canosa, A; Antiñolo, M; Albaladejo, J; Jiménez, E

    2018-02-21

    Ethanol, CH 3 CH 2 OH, has been unveiled in the interstellar medium (ISM) by radioastronomy and it is thought to be released into the gas phase after the warm-up phase of the grain surface, where it is formed. Once in the gas phase, it can be destroyed by different reactions with atomic and radical species, such as hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The knowledge of the rate coefficients of all these processes at temperatures of the ISM is essential in the accurate interpretation of the observed abundances. In this work, we have determined the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with CH 3 CH 2 OH (k(T)) between 21 and 107 K by employing the pulsed and continuous CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, which means Reaction Kinetics in a Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique. The pulsed laser photolysis technique was used for generating OH radicals, whose time evolution was monitored by laser induced fluorescence. An increase of approximately 4 times was observed for k(21 K) with respect to k(107 K). With respect to k(300 K), the OH-reactivity at 21 K is enhanced by two orders of magnitude. The obtained T-expression in the investigated temperature range is k(T) = (2.1 ± 0.5) × 10 -11 (T/300 K) -(0.71±0.10) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . In addition, the pressure dependence of k(T) has been investigated at several temperatures between 21 K and 90 K. No pressure dependence of k(T) was observed in the investigated ranges. This may imply that this reaction is purely bimolecular or that the high-pressure limit is reached at the lowest total pressure experimentally accessible in our system. From our results, k(T) at usual IS temperatures (∼10-100 K) is confirmed to be very fast. Typical rate coefficients can be considered to range within about 4 × 10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 100 K and around 1 × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 20 K. The extrapolation of k at the lowest temperatures of the dense molecular clouds of ISM is also discussed in this paper.

  7. Gas phase kinetics of the OH + CH3CH2OH reaction at temperatures of the interstellar medium (T = 21-10^7 K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, A. J.; Blázquez, S.; Ballesteros, B.; Canosa, A.; Antiñolo, M.; Albaladejoab, J.; Jiménez, E.

    2018-02-01

    Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, has been unveiled in the interstellar medium (ISM) by radioastronomy and it is thought to be released into the gas phase after the warm-up phase of the grain surface, where it is formed. Once in the gas phase, it can be destroyed by different reactions with atomic and radical species, such as hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The knowledge of the rate coefficients of all these processes at temperatures of the ISM is essential in the accurate interpretation of the observed abundances. In this work, we have determined the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with CH3CH2OH (k(T)) between 21 and 10^7 K by employing the pulsed and continuous CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, which means Reaction Kinetics in a Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique. The pulsed laser photolysis technique was used for generating OH radicals, whose time evolution was monitored by laser induced fluorescence. An increase of approximately 4 times was observed for k(21 K) with respect to k(10^7 K). With respect to k(300 K), the OH-reactivity at 21 K is enhanced by two orders of magnitude. The obtained T-expression in the investigated temperature range is k(T) = (2.1 ± 0.5) × 10^-11 (T/300 K)-(0.71±0.10) cm^3 molecule^-1 s^-1. In addition, the pressure dependence of k(T) has been investigated at several temperatures between 21 K and 90 K. No pressure dependence of k(T) was observed in the investigated ranges. This may imply that this reaction is purely bimolecular or that the high-pressure limit is reached at the lowest total pressure experimentally accessible in our system. From our results, k(T) at usual IS temperatures (˜10-100 K) is confirmed to be very fast. Typical rate coefficients can be considered to range within about 4 × 10^-11 cm^3 molecule^-1 s^-1 at 100 K and around 1 × 10^-10 cm^3 molecule^-1 s^-1 at 20 K. The extrapolation of k at the lowest temperatures of the dense molecular clouds of ISM is also discussed in this paper.

  8. Fluoride salts as phase change materials for thermal energy storage in the temperature range 1000-1400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1988-01-01

    Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermediate compounds in binary and ternary fluoride salt systems were characterized for potential use as latent heat of fusion phase change materials to store thermal energy in the temperature range 1000-1400 K. The melting points and eutectic compositions for many systems with published phase diagrams were experimentally verified and new eutectic compositions having melting points between 1000 and 1400 K were identified. Heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting compounds were experimentally measured by differential scanning calorimetry. For a few systems in which heats of mixing in the melts have been measured, heats of fusion of the eutectics were calculated from thermodynamic considerations and good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated values. Several combinations of salts with high heats of fusion per unit mass (greater than 0.7 kJ/g) have been identified for possible use as phase change materials in advanced solar dynamic space power applications.

  9. Forced convection of ammonia. 2. part.: gaseous ammonia - very high wall temperatures (1000 to 3000 K); Convection forcee de l'ammoniac. 2. partie: ammoniac gazeux - cas de tres hautes temperatures de paroi (1000 a 3000{sup 0} K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P.; Rebiere, J.; Strittmatter, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop of gaseous ammonia in forced convection are experimentally determined. The fluid flows (mass flow rate 0.6 to 2.4 g/s) in a long tungsten tube (d{sub i} = 2.8 mm, d{sub e} = 5.1 mm, L = 700 mm) electrically heated. The temperature of the wall reaches 3000 deg. K and the fluid 2500 deg. K; maximum heat flux 530 w/cm{sup 2}. Ammonia is completely dissociated and the power necessary for dissociation reaches 30 per cent of the total power exchanged. Inlet pressure varies between 6 and 16 bars and the maximum pressure drop in the tube reaches 15 bars. Two regimes of dissociation have been shown: catalytic and homogeneous and the variation of dissociation along the length of the tube is studied. The measured heat transfer coefficients may be about 10 times these calculated by the means of classical formulae. A correlation of experimental results using enthalpy as a driving force for heat transmission is presented. Pressure drops may be calculated by the means of a classical friction factor. (authors) [French] On determine experimentalement les coefficients d'echange thermique et les pertes de charge de l'ammoniac gazeux en convection forcee. Le fluide circule avec un debit en masse compris entre 0.6 et 2.4 g/s (G = 10 a 40 g/cm{sup 2}.s) dans un tube long en tungstene (d{sub i} = 2.8 mm, d{sub e} = 5.1 mm, L = 700 mm), chauffe electriquement. La temperature de paroi atteint 3000 deg. K, celle du fluide 2500 deg. K et le flux de chaleur maximal est de 530 W/cm{sup 2}. L'ammoniac se dissocie completement, la puissance correspondant a la dissociation atteint 30 pour cent de la puissance totale echangee. La pression d'entree varie entre 6 et 16 bars et la chute de pression maximale dans le canal est de 15 bars. On distingue deux regimes de dissociation, catalytique et homogene, et on etudie la variation du taux de dissociation en fonction de la longueur du tube. Les coefficients d'echange thermique mesures

  10. Forced convection of ammonia. 2. part.: gaseous ammonia - very high wall temperatures (1000 to 3000 K); Convection forcee de l'ammoniac. 2. partie: ammoniac gazeux - cas de tres hautes temperatures de paroi (1000 a 3000{sup 0} K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P; Rebiere, J; Strittmatter, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop of gaseous ammonia in forced convection are experimentally determined. The fluid flows (mass flow rate 0.6 to 2.4 g/s) in a long tungsten tube (d{sub i} = 2.8 mm, d{sub e} = 5.1 mm, L = 700 mm) electrically heated. The temperature of the wall reaches 3000 deg. K and the fluid 2500 deg. K; maximum heat flux 530 w/cm{sup 2}. Ammonia is completely dissociated and the power necessary for dissociation reaches 30 per cent of the total power exchanged. Inlet pressure varies between 6 and 16 bars and the maximum pressure drop in the tube reaches 15 bars. Two regimes of dissociation have been shown: catalytic and homogeneous and the variation of dissociation along the length of the tube is studied. The measured heat transfer coefficients may be about 10 times these calculated by the means of classical formulae. A correlation of experimental results using enthalpy as a driving force for heat transmission is presented. Pressure drops may be calculated by the means of a classical friction factor. (authors) [French] On determine experimentalement les coefficients d'echange thermique et les pertes de charge de l'ammoniac gazeux en convection forcee. Le fluide circule avec un debit en masse compris entre 0.6 et 2.4 g/s (G = 10 a 40 g/cm{sup 2}.s) dans un tube long en tungstene (d{sub i} = 2.8 mm, d{sub e} = 5.1 mm, L = 700 mm), chauffe electriquement. La temperature de paroi atteint 3000 deg. K, celle du fluide 2500 deg. K et le flux de chaleur maximal est de 530 W/cm{sup 2}. L'ammoniac se dissocie completement, la puissance correspondant a la dissociation atteint 30 pour cent de la puissance totale echangee. La pression d'entree varie entre 6 et 16 bars et la chute de pression maximale dans le canal est de 15 bars. On distingue deux regimes de dissociation, catalytique et homogene, et on etudie la variation du taux de dissociation en fonction de la longueur du tube. Les coefficients d'echange thermique mesures peuvent etre environ 10

  11. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  12. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  13. Deposition temperature effect on electrical properties and interface of high-k ZrO{sub 2} capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo-Hyung; Ignatova, Velislava A [Fraunhofer Institute, Center of Nanoelectronic Technologies (CNT), Koenigsbruecker Str., 01099 Dresden (Germany); Heitmann, Johannes; Oberbeck, Lars [Qimonda Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG, Koenigsbruecker Str. 180, 01099 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: joo-hyung.kim@inha.ac.kr

    2008-09-07

    The electrical characteristics, i.e. leakage current and capacitance, of ZrO{sub 2} based metal-insulator-metal structures, grown at 225, 250 and 275 deg, C by atomic layer deposition, were studied. The lowest leakage current was obtained at 250 deg. C deposition temperature, while the highest dielectric constant (k {approx} 43) was measured for the samples grown at 275 {sup 0}C, most probably due to the formation of tetragonal/cubic phases in the ZrO{sub 2} layer. We have shown that the main leakage current of these ZrO{sub 2} capacitors is governed by the Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. It was observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling that at 275 {sup 0}C deposition temperature the oxygen content at and beyond the ZrO{sub 2}/TiN interface is higher than at lower deposition temperatures, most probably due to oxygen inter-diffusion towards the electrode layer, forming a mixed TiN-TiO{sub x}N{sub y} interface layer. At and above 275 deg. C the ZrO{sub 2} layer changes its structure and becomes crystalline as proven by XRD analysis. (fast track communication)

  14. Orientation effect on sign and magnitude of excess thermodynamic functions of non electrolyte solutions at different temperatures (303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Jareena; Sankar, Manukonda Gowri; Ramachandran, Dittakavi; Rambabu, Chintala [Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur (India)

    2014-08-15

    Experimental values of the density and viscosity have been measured for binary mixtures of N-ethylaniline with isomeric butanols (1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol) at 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K over the entire mole fraction range. These data, the excess molar volumes, and deviation viscosity for the binary systems at the above-mentioned temperatures were calculated and fitted to Redlich-Kister equation to determine the fitting parameters and the root-mean-square deviations. The excess molar volumes, deviation viscosity and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow have been analyzed in terms of acid-base interactions, hydrogen bond, and dipole-dipole interaction between unlike molecules. The results obtained for dynamic viscosity of binary mixtures were used to test the semi-empirical relations of Grunberg-Nissan, Katti-Chaudhri, and Hind et al. equations.

  15. Orientation effect on sign and magnitude of excess thermodynamic functions of non electrolyte solutions at different temperatures (303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik, Jareena; Sankar, Manukonda Gowri; Ramachandran, Dittakavi; Rambabu, Chintala

    2014-01-01

    Experimental values of the density and viscosity have been measured for binary mixtures of N-ethylaniline with isomeric butanols (1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol) at 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K over the entire mole fraction range. These data, the excess molar volumes, and deviation viscosity for the binary systems at the above-mentioned temperatures were calculated and fitted to Redlich-Kister equation to determine the fitting parameters and the root-mean-square deviations. The excess molar volumes, deviation viscosity and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow have been analyzed in terms of acid-base interactions, hydrogen bond, and dipole-dipole interaction between unlike molecules. The results obtained for dynamic viscosity of binary mixtures were used to test the semi-empirical relations of Grunberg-Nissan, Katti-Chaudhri, and Hind et al. equations

  16. Viscosity of aqueous Ni(NO3)2 solutions at temperatures from (297 to 475) K and at pressures up to 30 MPa and concentration between (0.050 and 2.246) mol . kg-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulagatov, I.M.; Zeinalova, A.B.; Azizov, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Viscosity of nine aqueous Ni(NO 3 ) 2 solutions (0.050, 0.153, 0.218, 0.288, 0.608, 0.951, 1.368, 1.824, and 2.246) mol . kg -1 was measured in the temperature range from (297 to 475) K and at pressures (0.1, 10, 20, and 30) MPa. The measurements were carried out with a capillary flow technique. The total experimental uncertainty of viscosity, pressure, temperature, and composition measurements were estimated to be less than 1.6%, 0.05%, 15 mK, and 0.02%, respectively. All experimental and derived results are compared with experimental and calculated values reported in the literature. Extrapolation of the solution viscosity measurements to zero concentration (pure water values) for the given temperature and pressure are in excellent agreement (average absolute deviation, AAD = 0.13%) with the values of pure water viscosity from IAPWS formulation [J. Kestin, J.V. Sengers, B. Kamgar-Parsi, J.M.H. Levelt Sengers, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13 (1984) 175-189]. The viscosity data for the solutions as a function of concentration have been interpreted in terms of the extended Jones-Dole equation for strong electrolytes. The values of viscosity A-, B-, and D-coefficients of the extended Jones-Dole equation for the relative viscosity (η/η ) of aqueous Ni(NO 3 ) 2 solutions as a function of temperature are studied. The derived values of the viscosity A- and B-coefficients were compared with the results predicted by Falkenhagen-Dole theory (limiting law) of electrolyte solutions and the values calculated with the ionic B-coefficient data. The measured values of viscosity for the solutions were also used to calculate the effective rigid molar volumes in the extended Einstein relation for the relative viscosity (η/η )

  17. Measurement of the ( p, , T) Properties for Pure Hydrocarbons at Temperatures up to 600 K and Pressures up to 200 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Nagata, Y.; Miyamoto, H.

    2014-10-01

    The data available for the thermodynamic properties of propane, -butane, and isobutane at temperatures above 440 K are outdated and show significant discrepancies with each other. The ambiguity associated with these data could be limiting to the development of any understanding related to the effects of mixing of these substances with other materials such as , ammonia, and non-flammable or lower-flammable HFC refrigerants. In this study, the ( p, , T) properties of propane, -butane, and isobutane were measured at temperatures ranging from (360 to 600) K and pressures ranging from (50 to 200) MPa. Precise measurements were carried out using a metal-bellows variable volumometer with a thermostatted air bath. The expanded uncertainties in the temperature, pressure, and density measurements were estimated to be 5 mK, 0.02 MPa, and 0.88 kg m ( K, MPa), 0.76 kg ( K, MPa), 0.76 kg ( K, MPa), and 2.94 kg ( K, MPa), respectively. The data obtained throughout this study were systematically compared with the calculated values derived from the available equations of state. These models agree well with the measured data at higher temperatures up to 600 K, demonstrating their suitability for an effective and precise examination of the mixing effects of potential alternative mixtures.

  18. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  19. Openings for Zero Rating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Preta (Augusto); P. Peng (Peng)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractZero rating (toll-free data) is the practice of internet service providers (ISPs) and mobile operators not charging end users for data usage of specific internet content and applications of content providers through their network. On one hand it may benefit consumers from using the

  20. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  1. Conceptual design of a 20-kA current lead using forced-flow cooling and Ag-alloy-sheathed Bi-2223 high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, R.; Hull, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTSs), consisting of Bi-2223 HTS tapes sheathed with Ag alloys are proposed for a 20-kA current lead for the planned stellarator WENDELSTEIN 7-X. Forced-flow He cooling is used, and 4-K He cooling of the whole lead as well as 60-K He cooling of the copper part of the lead, is discussed. Power consumption and behavior in case of loss of He flow are given

  2. Zeros of Wronskians of Hermite polynomials and Young diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, G.; Hemery, A. D.; Veselov, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    For a certain class of partitions, a simple qualitative relation is observed between the shape of the Young diagram and the pattern of zeros of the Wronskian of the corresponding Hermite polynomials. In the case of the two-term Wronskian W(Hn,Hn+k), we give an explicit formula for the asymptotic shape of the zero set as n→∞. Some empirical asymptotic formulas are given for the zero sets of three-term and four-term Wronskians.

  3. Investigation of electrophysical properties of allotropic modifications of carbon in the range of temperatures 140-400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshev, A. A.; Eseev, M. K.; Volkov, A. S.; Lyah, N. L.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of allotropic modifications of carbon (coal, graphite, fullerenes, CNTs. Dependences of conductivity on the field frequency in the temperature range 140-400 K are presented. The characteristic features associated with the structure and types of hybridization are revealed. Calculation of the activation energy of carriers was performed. As well article presents experimental study of electrical properties of polymeric composites, reinforced different types of allotropic modifications of carbon (CNTs, graphite, fullerenes, coal) in alternating electrical field in frequency band from 0.01 Hz to 10 MHz. The threshold of percolation of polymer composites with various types of additives and their influence for conduction properties was estimated.

  4. The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of lithium manganese oxides at the temperatures of (680, 740 and 800) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rog, G.; Kucza, W.; Kozlowska-Rog, A.

    2004-01-01

    The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of LiMnO 2 and LiMn 2 O 4 at the temperatures of (680, 740 and 800) K has been determined with the help of the solid-state galvanic cells involving lithium-β-alumina electrolyte. The equilibrium electrical potentials of cathode containing Li x Mn 2 O 4 spinel, in the composition ranges 0≤x≤1 and 1≤x≤2, vs. metallic lithium in the reversible intercalation galvanic cell have been calculated. The existence of two-voltage plateaus which appeared during charging and discharging processes in reversible intercalation of lithium into Li x Mn 2 O 4 spinel, has been discussed

  5. High pressure phase equilibrium of ternary and multicomponent alkane mixtures in the temperature range from (283–473) K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regueira Muñiz, Teresa; Liu, Yiqun; Wibowo, Ahmad A.

    2017-01-01

    /n-butane/n-octane/n-dodecane/n-hexadecane/n-eicosane as model reservoir fluids and measured their phase equilibrium in the temperature range from (283–473) K by using a variable volume cell with full visibility. Their phase envelopes and liquid volume fractions below the saturation pressure have been measured. Four equations of state, including Soave......-Redlich-Kwong (SRK), Peng-Robinson (PR), Perturbed Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT), and Soave-Benedict-Webb-Rubin (Soave-BWR), have been used to predict phase equilibrium of the measured systems. PR and PC-SAFT give better results than others and Soave-BWR gives poor phase envelope predictions...

  6. Studies of Mn0.5Cr0.5Fe2O4 ferrite by neutron diffraction at different temperatures in the range 768K ≥ T ≥ 13K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.K.M.; Ahmed, F.U.; Azad, A.K.; Yunus, S.M.; Asgar, M.A.; Paranjpe, S.K.; Das, A.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of a polycrystalline manganese-chromium- ferrite with composition Mn 0.5 Cr 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 have been performed at a number of temperatures in the range 768K ≥ T ≥ 13K. The cation distributions, oxygen position parameter (u) and lattice constant (a o ) have been determined from the analysis of the higher angle neutron diffraction data. The temperature response of the lattice constant has also been investigated and a slight anomalous expansion has been found around the magnetic transition temperature. Sublattice as well as net ferrimagnetic moments of the specimen have been found out from the analysis of the neutron diffraction data at different temperatures. A randomly canted ordering of spins has been observed in the B sublattice, while the A sublattice moments appear to exhibit collinear Neel type ordering at all temperatures. (author)

  7. My objective: zero contempt, not zero risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delevoye, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    With technology, scientific research and dissemination of knowledge, medical practice has improved thereby achieving an efficient health care system. However, it would be appropriate to consider the human dimension of medicine as a key development. There are two major challenges in risk management: organizational management of risk on one hand and the management of human relationship with the patient especially when problems arise, on the other. It is therefore a question of achieving awareness, managing a culture change in the medical circle i.e. moving from a culture of guilt to a culture of error and finally relaxing the atmosphere of mutual distrust that exists between health professionals and patients. Indeed, the relation 'health professional-patient' has deteriorated over time due to poor risk management. An educational effort must be done to avoid frustration of the patient and contribute to zero contempt. On reflection, this means that the quality of a system is due to the individual quality of its members, the quality of methods and the organization in place. (author)

  8. Effects of grain refinement on cast structure and tensile properties of superalloy K4169 at high pouring temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-qi Jie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the filling ability of large complex thin wall castings, the pouring temperature should be increased, but this will result in the grain coarsening. To overcome this problem, two kinds of grain refiners of Co-Fe-Nb and Cr-Fe-Nb ternary alloys, which contain high stability compound particles, were prepared. The effects of the refiners on the as-cast structures and tensile properties of the K4169 superalloy with different casting conditions were studied by analyzing specimens 110 mm long and 20 mm in diameter. Results showed that the mixture addition of the two refiners in the melt of K4169 can reduce the columnar grain region and decrease the equiaxed grain size greatly. After refinement, the amount of Laves phase decreases and its morphology changes from island to blocky structure. The carbides in the fine grain samples are fine and dispersive. Meanwhile, the porosity in specimens is decreased due to grain refinement. As a result, the yield strength, ultimate strength and the elongation of the specimens are increased. The grain refinement mechanisms are also discussed.

  9. Demonstration of a 100-kWth high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor pilot plant for ZnO dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, E.; Villasmil, W.; Meier, A.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermochemical H2O and CO2 splitting is a viable pathway towards sustainable and large-scale production of synthetic fuels. A reactor pilot plant for the solar-driven thermal dissociation of ZnO into metallic Zn has been successfully developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Promising experimental results from the 100-kWth ZnO pilot plant were obtained in 2014 during two prolonged experimental campaigns in a high flux solar simulator at PSI and a 1-MW solar furnace in Odeillo, France. Between March and June the pilot plant was mounted in the solar simulator and in-situ flow-visualization experiments were conducted in order to prevent particle-laden fluid flows near the window from attenuating transparency by blocking incoming radiation. Window flow patterns were successfully characterized, and it was demonstrated that particle transport could be controlled and suppressed completely. These results enabled the successful operation of the reactor between August and October when on-sun experiments were conducted in the solar furnace in order to demonstrate the pilot plant technology and characterize its performance. The reactor was operated for over 97 hours at temperatures as high as 2064 K; over 28 kg of ZnO was dissociated at reaction rates as high as 28 g/min.

  10. Reaction F + C2H4: Rate Constant and Yields of the Reaction Products as a Function of Temperature over 298-950 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedjanian, Yuri

    2018-03-29

    The kinetics and products of the reaction of F + C 2 H 4 have been studied in a discharge flow reactor combined with an electron impact ionization mass spectrometer at nearly 2 Torr total pressure of helium in the temperature range 298-950 K. The total rate constant of the reaction, k 1 = (1.78 ± 0.30) × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , determined under pseudo-first-order conditions, monitoring the kinetics of F atom consumption in excess of C 2 H 4 , was found to be temperature independent in the temperature range used. H, C 2 H 3 F, and HF were identified as the reaction products. Absolute measurements of the yields of these species allowed to determine the branching ratios, k 1b / k 1 = (0.73 ± 0.07) exp(-(425 ± 45)/ T) and k 1a / k 1 = 1 - (0.73 ± 0.07) exp(-(425 ± 45)/ T) and partial rate constants for addition-elimination (H + C 2 H 3 F) and H atom abstraction (HF + C 2 H 3 ) pathways of the title reaction: k 1a = (0.80 ± 0.07) × 10 -10 exp(189 ± 37/ T) and k 1b = (1.26 ± 0.13) × 10 -10 exp(-414 ± 45/ T) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , respectively, at T = 298-950 K and with 2σ quoted uncertainties. The overall reaction rate constant can be adequately described by both the temperature independent value and as a sum of k 1a and k 1b . The kinetic and mechanistic data from the present study are discussed in comparison with previous absolute and relative measurements and theoretical calculations.

  11. Physical properties of {anisole + n-alkanes} at temperatures between (293.15 and 303.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jimaz, Adel S.; Al-Kandary, Jasem A.; Abdul-latif, Abdul-Haq M.; Al-Zanki, Adnan M.

    2005-01-01

    Density ρ, viscosity η, and refractive index n D , values of {anisole + hexane, or heptane, or octane, or nonane, or decane, or dodecane} binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fraction at temperatures (293.15, 298.15, and 303.15) K, have been investigated at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volume V E , has been calculated from the experimental measurements. These results were fitted to Redlich and Kister polynomial equation to estimate the binary interaction parameters. The viscosity data were correlated with equations of Grunberg and Nissan, and McAllister. The refractive indices data were used to calculate the specific refractivity R 12 , and also correlated with Lorentz-Lorenz equation. While the excess molar volumes of {anisole + hexane} are negative, and {anisole + heptane} are sigmoidal S-shaped, the remaining binary mixtures are positive. The effects of n-alkanes chain length as well as the temperature on the excess molar volume have been studied. The calculated values have been qualitatively used to explain the intermolecular interaction between the mixing components

  12. Measurement of density and electron temperature of a decaying plasma in 4.2 K helium gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Minami, K.

    1986-01-01

    As is well known, the coupling constant Γ of a plasma is defined as the ratio of the average Coulomb energy to the average kinetic energy. Plasmas with Γ not much less than unity are called strongly coupled plasmas or non-ideal plasmas. Such plasmas, high density or low temperature, can be produced by laser implosion, shock waves etc. In the present report, the authors' attempt to generate a non-ideal plasma in a different way from previous ones. They observe a late period of a decaying plasma in helium gases at a temperature less than 4.2 K. An afterglow in cryogenic helium gases was studied previously. In that study, the authors measured the density of the order of 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ by the method of transmission of X-band microwaves. In the present case, plasma is observed in a cylindrical cavity of TE/sub 011/ mode at 2.83 GHz immersed in liquid helium. The size of the cavity is 166 mm inner diameter and 83 mm length. One end wall is made by thin mesh through which plasmas produced by pulse discharge of 750 A, 1 μsec are fed. The loaded Q without plasma is 5300. The pressure of helium gas is changed from 0.03 to 1.3 Torr

  13. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 - 1400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  14. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 to 1400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  15. Exchange of Na+ and K+ between water vapor and feldspar phases at high temperature and low vapor pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    In order to determine whether gas (steam) containing a small amount of dissolved alkali chloride is effective in promoting base exchange of Na+ and K+ among alkali feldspars and coexisting brine or brine plus solid salt, experiments were carried out at 400-700??C and steam densities ranging down to less than 0.05. For bulk compositions rich in potassium, the low pressure results are close to previous high-pressure results in composition of the fluid and coexisting solid phase. However, when the bulk composition is more sodic, alkali feldspars are relatively richer in potassium at low pressure than at high pressure. This behaviour corresponds to enrichment of potassium in the gas phase relative to coexisting brine and precipitation of solid NaCl when the brine plus gas composition becomes moderately sodic. The gas phase is very effective in promoting base exchange between coexisting alkali feldspars at high temperature and low water pressure. This suggests that those igneous rocks which contain coexisting alkali feldspars out of chemical equilibrium either remained very dry during the high-temperature part of their cooling history or that the pore fluid was a gas containing very little potassium relative to sodium. ?? 1976.

  16. Investigation of oxygen disorder, thermal parameters, lattice vibrations and elastic constants of UO2 and ThO2 at temperatures up to 2 930 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Hayes, W; Hutchings, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    temperatures has been unanswered until now. A new high temperature furnace has been purchased by Harwell for work at temperatures in this region, and a series of experiments has been carried out involving diffraction, quasielastic diffuse and inelastic neutron scattering from single crystals of UO2 and ThO2....... These have been backed by experiments in the lower temperature range to 2 500 K at I.L.L. Details of the Harwell furnace, and methods used for temperature measurement and encapsulation of the crystal samples are given, together with some examples of the principal results. These results show unambiguously...

  17. Solid strong base K-Pt/NaY zeolite nano-catalytic system for completed elimination of formaldehyde at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaoqing; Wu, Xi; Lu, Changhai; Wen, Meicheng; Le, Zhanggao; Jiang, Shujuan

    2018-06-01

    Solid strong base nano-catalytic system of K-modification NaY zeolite supported 0.08% Pt (K-Pt/NaY) were constructed for eliminating HCHO at room temperature. In the catalytic process, activation energy over K-Pt/NaY nano-catalytic system was greatly decreased along with the enhanced reaction rate. Characterization and catalytic tests revealed the surface electron structure of K-Pt/NaY was improved, as reflected by the enhanced HCHO adsorption capability, high sbnd OH concentration, and low-temperature reducibility. Therefore, the optimal K-Pt/NaY showed high catalytic efficiency and strong H2O tolerance for HCHO elimination by directly promoting the reaction between active sbnd OH and formate species. These results may suggest a new way for probing the advanced solid strong base nano-catalytic system for the catalytic elimination of indoor HCHO.

  18. Heat capacity and thermodynamics of solid and liquid pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid) over the temperature range 296 K to 531 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Abhinav; Bernardes, Carlos E.S.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determined the heat capacity of solid and liquid nicotinic acid by DSC. ► We determined Δ 357.8K 305.6K H m o (NA,crII) by Calvet microcalorimetry. ► We studied the thermodynamics of the cr II → cr I phase transition. ► We determined the Δ f G m o –T diagram of nicotinic acid for T = (296 to 531) K. - Abstract: The molar heat capacity of pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid) for T = (296 to 531) K was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Calvet-drop microcalorimetry. The measurements extended up to the liquid range and also covered the interval where a reversible and fast solid-solid (cr II → cr I) phase transition occurs. The molar enthalpies and entropies of that phase transition and of fusion were obtained as T trs = (455.0 ± 0.2) K, Δ trs H m o = (0.90 ± 0.10) kJ ⋅ mol −1 , Δ trs S m o = (1.98 ± 0.22) J ⋅ K −1 ⋅ mol −1 , T fus = (509.91 ± 0.04) K, Δ fus H m o = (28.2 ± 0.1) kJ ⋅ mol −1 , and Δ fus S m o = (55.30 ± 0.16) J ⋅ K −1 ⋅ mol −1 . By combining these experimental results with the previously reported Δ sub H m (NA,cr II) at T = 366.5 K, the corresponding entropy in the gaseous state calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, and Δ f H m o (NA),cr II) at T = 298.15 K, it was possible to estimate the standard molar Gibbs energy of formation functions necessary for the construction of the Δ f G m ∘ vs. T diagram illustrating the enantiotropic nature of this system.

  19. Zero energy reactor 'RB'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D; Takac, S; Markovic, H; Raisic, N; Zdravkovic, Z; Radanovic, Lj [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1959-03-15

    In 1958 the zero energy reactor RB was built with the purpose of enabling critical experiments with various reactor systems to be carried out. The first core assembly built in this reactor consists of heavy water as moderator and natural uranium metal as fuel. In order to be able to obtain very accurate results when measuring the main characteristics of the assembly the reactor was built as a completely bare system. (author)

  20. Boosting Majorana Zero Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Karzig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional topological superconductors are known to host Majorana zero modes at domain walls terminating the topological phase. Their non-Abelian nature allows for processing quantum information by braiding operations that are insensitive to local perturbations, making Majorana zero modes a promising platform for topological quantum computation. Motivated by the ultimate goal of executing quantum-information processing on a finite time scale, we study domain walls moving at a constant velocity. We exploit an effective Lorentz invariance of the Hamiltonian to obtain an exact solution of the associated quasiparticle spectrum and wave functions for arbitrary velocities. Essential features of the solution have a natural interpretation in terms of the familiar relativistic effects of Lorentz contraction and time dilation. We find that the Majorana zero modes remain stable as long as the domain wall moves at subluminal velocities with respect to the effective speed of light of the system. However, the Majorana bound state dissolves into a continuous quasiparticle spectrum after the domain wall propagates at luminal or even superluminal velocities. This relativistic catastrophe implies that there is an upper limit for possible braiding frequencies even in a perfectly clean system with an arbitrarily large topological gap. We also exploit our exact solution to consider domain walls moving past static impurities present in the system.

  1. Volumetric properties of binary mixtures of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate with water or propanol in the temperature range of 278.15K to 328.15K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchilles, A. Vicent; Gonzalez-Alfaro, Vicenta; Miguel, Pablo J.; Vercher, Ernesto; Martinez-Andreu, Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Densities of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate ([bmim][OcOSO 3 ]) solutions in water and 1-propanol have been measured with an oscillating-tube densimeter at temperatures from 278.15K to 328.15K. From these densities, apparent molar volumes V φ of [bmim][OcOSO 3 ] in both solvents have been calculated, and its dependence on the molality has been treated with the Redlich and Meyer equation. Debye-Huckel limiting slopes for 1-propanol at working temperatures have been calculated, and apparent molar volumes of [bmim][OcOSO 3 ] at infinite dilution V φ o in both solvents have been evaluated. The partial molar volume at infinite dilution of [bmim][OcOSO 3 ] in water is higher than in 1-propanol and augments when the temperature augments. On the other hand, the partial molar volume at infinite dilution of [bmim][OcOSO 3 ] in 1-propanol decreases when the temperature augments

  2. Vitamin K 3 family members - Part II: Single crystal X-ray structures, temperature-induced packing polymorphism, magneto-structural correlations and probable anti-oncogenic candidature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Sandhya; Ahmed, Khursheed; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Zaware, Santosh B.; Srinivas, D.; Gonnade, Rajesh; Bhadbhade, Mohan

    2008-12-01

    Temperature-induced packing polymorphism is observed for vitamin K 3 (menadione, 3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1). Form 1a crystallizes at 300 K and 1b at 277 K both in the same space group P2 1/ c. Form 1b contains one molecule per asymmetric unit, performing anisotropy in g-factor viz. g z = 2.0082, g y = 2.0055 and g x = 2.0025, whereas form 1a contains two molecules in its asymmetric unit. Vitamin K 3 family members 2, [2-hydroxy vitamin K 3] and 3, [2-hydroxy-1-oximino vitamin K 3] also perform intrinsic neutral active naphthosemiquinone valence tautomers even in dark having spin concentrations due to hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions which are compared to vitamin K 3. The significant lateral C-H⋯O and O-H⋯π bifurcated or π-π ∗ interactions are discussed for molecular associations and radical formations. X-ray structure of 3 revealed π-π ∗ stack dimers as radicals signatured in EPR as triplet with five hyperfine splits [ Ā( 14N) = 11.9 G]. The centrosymmetric biradicals in 3 show diamagnetism at high temperature but below 10 K it shows paramagnetism with μeff as 0.19 B.M. Vitamin K 3 and its family members inhibit biological activities of acid phosphatase ( APase), which are proportional to their spin concentrations. This may relate to their probable anti-oncogenic candidature in future.

  3. THE BINARITY OF MILKY WAY F,G,K STARS AS A FUNCTION OF EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE AND METALLICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shuang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Xiaobin; Justham, Stephen; Deng, Licai; Yang, Ming [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-06-20

    We estimate the fraction of F,G,K stars with close binary companions by analysing multi-epoch stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and LAMOST for radial velocity variations. We employ a Bayesian method to infer the maximum likelihood of the fraction of binary stars with orbital periods of 1000 days or shorter, assuming a simple model distribution for a binary population with circular orbits. The overall inferred fraction of stars with such a close binary companion is 43.0% ± 2.0% for a sample of F,G,K stars from SDSS SEGUE, and 30% ± 8.0% in a similar sample from LAMOST. The apparent close binary fraction decreases with the stellar effective temperature. We divide the SEGUE and LEGUE data into three subsamples with different metallicity ([Fe/H] < –1.1; –1.1 < [Fe/H] < –0.6; –0.6 < [Fe/H]), for which the inferred close binary fractions are 56 ± 5.0%, 56.0 ± 3%, and 30 ± 5.7%. The metal-rich stars from our sample are therefore substantially less likely to possess a close binary companion than otherwise similar stars drawn from metal-poor populations. The different ages and formation environments of the Milky Way's thin disk, thick disk, and halo may contribute to explaining these observations. Alternatively, metallicity may have a significant effect on the formation and/or evolution of binary stars.

  4. Further properties of the zeros of Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Giordano

    1987-11-01

    Full Text Available New monotonicity and convexity properties for the zerosk  (k=1,2,... of the Bessel functions are proved. New inequalities for cνk are also given. These inequalities are useful for small values of ν.

  5. Cooling of high temperature superconductors below 60 K by means of a two-stage cryogenic mixed refrigerant cascade; Kuehlung von Hochtemperatursupraleitern unterhalb von 60 K mittels einer zweistufigen Gemischkaeltekaskade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochenburger, T.M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Kaeltetechnik (ITTK); Grohmann, S. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Kaeltetechnik (ITTK); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Physik (ITEP)

    2015-07-01

    High temperature superconductors enable the efficient transmission of electrical energy in urban and industrial networks. It is the availability of simple, reliable and at the same time efficient cooling methods prerequisite for the application of this technology. At operating temperatures 65-80 K is the cooling currently mostly implemented by liquid nitrogen, large-scale turbo-Brayton plants or batteries of regenerative cryocooler; however, all these options for applications in the range of a few kW of required cooling capacity have thermodynamic, economic and practical limitations. In addition, a further lowering the cooling temperature below 60 K is desirable to increase the current density in the superconductors. Two-stage cryogenic mixed refrigerant cascade offer the potential for a reliable and easily scalable alternative for refrigeration in this temperature range. The first stage of the considered process consists of a classic mixture refrigeration cycle to pre-cool to 120 K. The second stage operates in the low temperature range up to 55 K with a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and neon at high pressures. This paper compares on the basis of experimental data, the performance of combustible and non-combustible mixtures in the precooling level. The applicability of various equations of state for modeling of phase behavior of mixtures is discussed. [German] Hochtemperatursupraleiter ermoeglichen den effizienten Transport elektrischer Energie in urbanen und industriellen Netzen. Dabei ist die Verfuegbarkeit von einfachen, zuverlaessigen und gleichzeitig effizienten Kuehlmethoden Voraussetzung fuer die Anwendung dieser Technologie. Bei Betriebstemperaturen von 65 - 80 K wird die Kuehlung derzeit meist durch Fluessigstickstoff, grossskalige Turbo-Brayton-Anlagen oder Batterien regenerativer Kleinkuehler realisiert; jedoch haben alle diese Optionen fuer Anwendungen im Bereich von einigen kW an erforderlicher Kaelteleistung thermodynamische, oekonomische und

  6. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropeza, S.; Corea, M.; Gómez-Yáñez, C.; Cruz-Rivera, J.J.; Navarro-Clemente, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH 3 ) 3 ) 2 ] 2 ] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. Highlights: ► Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH 3 ) 3 ) 2 ] 2 ]. ► The conditions of reaction were at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. ► The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. -- Abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH 3 ) 3 ) 2 ] 2 ] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. To monitor the reaction, a stainless steel pressure reactor lined with PTFE and mechanically stirred was designed. This design allowed the extraction of samples at different times, minimizing the perturbation in the system. In this way, the shape and the diameter of the nanoparticles produced during the reaction were also monitored. The results showed the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles that were approximately 5 nm in diameter arranged in agglomerates. The agglomerates grew to 900 nm when the reaction time increased up to 12 h; however, the diameter of the individual nanoparticles remained almost the same. During the reaction, some byproducts constituted by amino species acted as surfactants; therefore, no other surfactants were necessary.

  7. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropeza, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Corea, M., E-mail: mcoreat@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Gómez-Yáñez, C. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Rivera, J.J. [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Instituto de Metalurgia, Sierra Leona 550, San Luis Potosí, C.P. 78210 (Mexico); Navarro-Clemente, M.E., E-mail: mnavarroc@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. Highlights: ► Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}]. ► The conditions of reaction were at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. ► The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. -- Abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. To monitor the reaction, a stainless steel pressure reactor lined with PTFE and mechanically stirred was designed. This design allowed the extraction of samples at different times, minimizing the perturbation in the system. In this way, the shape and the diameter of the nanoparticles produced during the reaction were also monitored. The results showed the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles that were approximately 5 nm in diameter arranged in agglomerates. The agglomerates grew to 900 nm when the reaction time increased up to 12 h; however, the diameter of the individual nanoparticles remained almost the same. During the reaction, some byproducts constituted by amino species acted as surfactants; therefore, no other surfactants were necessary.

  8. Ground State of Quasi-One Dimensional Competing Spin Chain Cs2Cu2Mo3O12 at zero and Finite Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kazuki; Goto, Takayuki; Angel, Julia; Watanabe, Isao; Sasaki, Takahiko; Hase, Masashi

    The ground state of competing-spin-chain Cs2Cu2Mo3O12 with the ferromagnetic exchange interaction J1 = -93 K on nearest-neighboring spins and the antiferromagnetic one J2 = +33 K on next-nearest-neighboring spins was investigated by ZF/LF-μSR and 133Cs-NMR in the 3He temperature range. The zero-field μSR relaxation rate λ shows a significant increase below 1.85 K, suggesting the existence of magnetic order, which is consistent with the recent report on the specific heat. However, LF decoupling data at the lowest temperature 0.3 K indicate that the spins fluctuate dynamically, suggesting that the system is in a quasi-static ordered state under zero field. This idea is further supported by the fact that the broadening in NMR spectra below TN is weakened at low field below 2 T.

  9. The 77 K operation of a multi-resonant power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Biswajit; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard L.; Myers, Ira T.

    1995-01-01

    The liquid-nitrogen temperature (77 K) operation of a 55 W, 200 kHz, 48/28 V zero-voltage switching multi-resonant dc/dc converter designed with commercially available components is reported. Upon dipping the complete converter (power and control circuits) into liquid-nitrogen, the converter performance improved as compared to the room-temperature operation. The switching frequency, resonant frequency, and the characteristic impedance did not change significantly. Accordingly, the zero-voltage switching was maintained from no-load to full-load for the specified line variations. Cryoelectronics can provide high density power converters, especially for high power applications.

  10. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires......, (4) the type of energy balance, (5) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (6) the connection to the energy infrastructure and (7) the requirements for the energy efficiency, the indoor climate and in case of gird connected ZEB for the building–grid interaction. This paper focuses...

  11. Effect of nanostructure on thermoelectric properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 in 300–600 K temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Srivastav, Simant Kumar; Patel, Ashutosh; Chatterjee, Ratnamala; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2018-05-01

    In oxide materials, nanostructuring effect has been found a very promising approach for the enhancement of figure-of-merit, ZT. In the present work, we have synthesized La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) compound using sol-gel method and samples of crystallite size of ∼20, ∼41, and ∼49 nm were obtained by giving different heat treatment. Seebeck coefficient (α), electrical resistivity (ρ), and thermal conductivity (κ) measurements were carried out in 300–600 K temperature range. The systematic change in the values of α from ∼‑19 μV/K to ∼‑24 μV/K and drastic reduction in the values of κ from ∼0.88 W/mK to ∼0.23 W/mK are observed as crystallite size is reduced from 49 nm to 20 nm at ∼600 K. Also, fall in the values of ρ in the paramagnetic (PM) insulator phase (400–600 K) are effectively responsible for the increasing trend in the values of ZT at high temperature. For the crystallite size of 41 nm, the value of ZT at 600 K was found to be ∼0.017.

  12. Experimental investigation of thermodynamic properties of binary mixture of acetic acid + n-butanol and acetic acid + water at temperature from 293.15 K to 343.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M. Danish John; Shruthi, N.; Anantharaj, R.

    2018-04-01

    The derived thermodynamic properties like excess molar volume, partial molar volume, excess partial molar volume and apparent volume of binary mixture of acetic acid + n-butanolandacetic acid + water has been investigated using measured density of mixtures at temperatures from 293.15 K to 343.15.

  13. Stiffness Evaluation of High Temperature Superconductor Bearing Stiffness for 10 kWh Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Lee, J. P.; Park, B. C.; Kim, C. H.; Han, S. C.; Du, S. G.; Han, Y. H.; Sung, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    A superconductor flywheel energy storage(SFES) system is mainly act an electro-mechanical battery which transfers mechanical energy into electrical form and vice versa. SFES system consists of a pair of non-contacting High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) bearings with a very low frictional loss. But it is essential to design an efficient HTS bearing considering with rotor dynamic properties through correct calculation of stiffness in order to support a huge composite flywheel rotor with high energy storage density. Static properties of HTS bearings provide data to solve problems which may occur easily in a running system. Since stiffness to counter vibration is the main parameter in designing an HTS bearing system, we investigate HTS bearing magnetic force through static properties between the Permanent Magnet(PM) and HTS. We measured axial / radial stiffness and found bearing stiffness can be easily changed by activated vibration direction between PM and HTS bulk. These results are used to determine the optimal design for a 10 kWh SFES.

  14. Absolute rate constants for the reaction of O(3P) atoms with ethylene, propylene, and propylene-d6 over the temperature range 258--861 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of O( 3 P) with ethylene, propylene, and propylene-d6 were determined over the temperature range 258--861 K using a laser photolysis-chemiluminescence technique. The following empirical expressions are the best fits to the data: k/sub ethylene/ = 2.12 x 10 -13 T -63 e -1370 /sup ///sup R//sup T/, k/sub propylene/ = 3.40 x 10 -19 T/sup 2.56/e/sup 1130/RT/, and k/sub propylene-d/6 = 3.40 x 10 -19 T/sup 2.53/ e/sup 1210/R/T cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . A simple transition state theory model is shown to provide a reasonable explanation for non-Arrhenius temperature behavior

  15. Design of a self-aligned, wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with 10 nm magnetic force microscope resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcı, Özgür [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - İvedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Dede, Münir [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - İvedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Oral, Ahmet, E-mail: orahmet@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-10-01

    We describe the design of a wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with a self-aligned fibre-cantilever mechanism. An alignment chip with alignment groves and a special mechanical design are used to eliminate tedious and time consuming fibre-cantilever alignment procedure for the entire temperature range. A low noise, Michelson fibre interferometer was integrated into the system for measuring deflection of the cantilever. The spectral noise density of the system was measured to be ~12 fm/√Hz at 4.2 K at 3 mW incident optical power. Abrikosov vortices in BSCCO(2212) single crystal sample and a high density hard disk sample were imaged at 10 nm resolution to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  16. Design of a self-aligned, wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with 10 nm magnetic force microscope resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karcı, Özgür; Dede, Münir; Oral, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design of a wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with a self-aligned fibre-cantilever mechanism. An alignment chip with alignment groves and a special mechanical design are used to eliminate tedious and time consuming fibre-cantilever alignment procedure for the entire temperature range. A low noise, Michelson fibre interferometer was integrated into the system for measuring deflection of the cantilever. The spectral noise density of the system was measured to be ∼12 fm/√Hz at 4.2 K at 3 mW incident optical power. Abrikosov vortices in BSCCO(2212) single crystal sample and a high density hard disk sample were imaged at 10 nm resolution to demonstrate the performance of the system

  17. Risk Mitigaion for HTS Motors: Intermediate Temperature (27 K) Strain Effects in Reinforced Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Superconductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Justin

    2004-01-01

    High temperature superconductors , known for their high critical temperatures, also have very high upper critical fields and thus have received significant attention for superconducting magnets (SCMs...

  18. Partial molar volumes of organic solutes in water. XXIV. Selected alkane-α,ω-diols at temperatures T = 298 K to 573 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibulka, Ivan; Hnědkovský, Lubomír

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Standard molar volumes of three alkane-α,ω-diols (C 5 , C 8 , C 9 ) in water are presented. • Data were obtained in the range T from (298 to 573) K and p up to 30 MPa. • Dependences on carbon atom number, temperature, and pressure are analysed. -- Abstract: Density data for dilute aqueous solutions of three alkane-α,ω-diols (pentane-1,5-diol, octane-1,8-diol, nonane-1,9-diol) are presented together with standard molar volumes (partial molar volumes at infinite dilution) calculated from the experimental data. The measurements were performed at temperatures from T = 298 K up to T = 573 K. Experimental pressures were slightly above the saturation vapour pressure of water, and (15 and 30) MPa. The data were obtained using a high-temperature high-pressure flow vibrating-tube densimeter. Measured standard molar volumes were combined with data previously published for other members of the homologous series and discussed. Experimental standard molar volumes were correlated as a function of temperature and pressure using an empirical polynomial function. Dependences of standard molar volumes on temperature and pressure were analysed. Contributions of the methylene group to the standard molar volume were also evaluated and discussed

  19. Referential Zero Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  20. Pyroelectric Properties of Potassium and Rubidium Titanyl-Arsenate Single Crystals in the Temperature Range of 4.2-300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaldin, Yu. V., E-mail: yuri1999@rambler.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Matyjasik, S. [International Laboratory of Strong Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures (Poland); Novikova, N. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tseitlin, M.; Mozhaev, E. [Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel); Roth, M. [Hebrew University, School of Applied Sciences (Israel)

    2010-11-15

    The temperature dependences of the pyroelectric coefficients of KTiOAsO{sub 4} and RbTiOAsO{sub 4} single crystals grown by flux crystallization have been investigated in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K. With an increase in temperature, superionic conductivity first arises in KTiOAsO4 (at T > 200 K) and then (at T > 270 K) in RbTiOAsO{sub 4}. This conductivity is much higher in the samples polarized at T = 4.2 K. An exponential change in the crystal resistivity along the polar direction is simultaneously observed. The results of measurements in the range of 4.2-200 K indicate larger values of pyroelectric coefficients when compared with potassium and rubidium titanyl-phosphate crystals. A correlation between the pyroelectric coefficients and a change in the lattice constants at isomorphic substitutions of K atoms for Rb and P atoms for As has been revealed within the symmetry approach.

  1. Effect of Low Temperature on a 4 W/60 K Pulse-Tube Cryocooler for Cooling HgCdTe Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Liu, Shaoshuai; Wu, Yinong

    2018-04-01

    Temperature is an extremely important parameter for the material of the space-borne infrared detector. To cool an HgCdTe-infrared detector, a Stirling-type pulse-tube cryocooler (PTC) has been developed based on a great deal of numerical simulations, which are performed to investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the PTC. The effects of different low temperatures are presented to analyze different energy flows, losses, phase shifts, and impedance matching of the PTC at a temperature range of 40-120 K, where woven wire screens are used. Finally, a high-efficiency coaxial PTC has been designed, built, and tested, operating around 60 K after a number of theoretical and experimental studies. The PTC can offer a no-load refrigeration temperature of 40 K with an input electric power of 150 W, and a cooling power of 4 W at 60 K is obtained with Carnot efficiency of 12%. In addition, a comparative study of simulation and experiment has been carried out, and some studies on reject temperatures have been presented for a thorough understanding of the PTC system.

  2. Attachment to the REh-1301 spectrometer for study on substances in the temperature range 120-350 K at pressure 1-1O4 atm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    A design of an attachment for an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer is described, which allows investigations of substances over the 120-350 K temperature range at the pressures of 1 to 10 4 atm. To create a required pressure the high-pressure bomb is screwed by means of a special nut into the low-pressure system. The high-pressure vessel is made of a single piece of beryllium bronze. The temperature is measured with the help of a thermocouple, and the pressure - by a manganine manometer. Temperature isolation of the high-thermal insulation of the high-pressure bomb make it possible to adjust the temperature with an accuracy of +-1 K or better

  3. Raman scattering of 2H-MoS2 at simultaneous high temperature and high pressure (up to 600 K and 18.5 GPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianJun Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Raman spectroscopy of natural molybdenite powder was investigated at simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high pressure in a heatable diamond anvil cell (DAC, to obtain the temperature and pressure dependence of the main Raman vibrational modes (E1g, E 2 g 1 ,A1g, and 2LA(M. Over our experimental temperature and pressure range (300–600 K and 1 atm−18.5 GPa, the Raman modes follow a systematic blue shift with increasing pressure, and red shift with increasing temperature. The results were calculated by three-variable linear fitting. The mutual correlation index of temperature and pressure indicates that the pressure may reduce the temperature dependence of Raman modes. New Raman bands due to structural changes emerged at about 3–4 GPa lower than seen in previous studies; this may be caused by differences in the pressure hydrostaticity and shear stress in the sample cell that promote the interlayer sliding.

  4. Raman scattering of 2H-MoS2 at simultaneous high temperature and high pressure (up to 600 K and 18.5 GPa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, JianJun; Li, HePing; Dai, LiDong; Hu, HaiYing; Zhao, ChaoShuai

    2016-03-01

    The Raman spectroscopy of natural molybdenite powder was investigated at simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high pressure in a heatable diamond anvil cell (DAC), to obtain the temperature and pressure dependence of the main Raman vibrational modes (E1g, E2 g 1 ,A1g, and 2LA(M)). Over our experimental temperature and pressure range (300-600 K and 1 atm-18.5 GPa), the Raman modes follow a systematic blue shift with increasing pressure, and red shift with increasing temperature. The results were calculated by three-variable linear fitting. The mutual correlation index of temperature and pressure indicates that the pressure may reduce the temperature dependence of Raman modes. New Raman bands due to structural changes emerged at about 3-4 GPa lower than seen in previous studies; this may be caused by differences in the pressure hydrostaticity and shear stress in the sample cell that promote the interlayer sliding.

  5. (Vapour+liquid) equilibria of {xCH3Cl+(1-x)HCl} at temperatures (159.01 and 182.33) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senra, A.M.P.; Fonseca, I.M.A.; Lobo, L.Q.

    2005-01-01

    VLE for (CH 3 Cl+HCl) has been experimentally determined at temperatures (159.01 and 182.33) K, using a static; method. The data were used to calculate the molar excess Gibbs energy at the two temperatures. The excess molar enthalpy estimated from the G m E values for the equimolar mixture is relatively large and negative: H m E =-(1011+/-318) J.mol -1 . The results have been compared with estimates from the chemical theory of solutions

  6. Excess Molar Volumes of (Propiophenone + Benzene, or Toluene, or Ethylbenzene, or Butylbenzene) at Temperatures 298.15 K and 328.15 K

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Lenka; Linek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 9 (2005), s. 1023-1028 ISSN 0021-9614 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/1098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : density * excess volume * temperature dependence Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2005

  7. (P, Vm, T) Measurements of (Toluene + Propiophenone) at Temperatures from 298.15 K to 328.15 K and at Pressures Up to 40 MPa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Lenka; Wagner, Zdeněk; Linek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2005), s. 658-666 ISSN 0021-9614 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/1098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : density * high pressure * elevated temperature Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2005

  8. Vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle at room temperature: picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujj, L.; Jäger, F.; Popp, A.; Atkinson, G. H.

    1996-12-01

    The vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate, thought to contribute significantly to the energy storage and transduction mechanism in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, is measured at room temperature using picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (PTR/CARS). The room-temperature BR photocycle is initiated by the 3 ps, 570 nm excitation of the ground-state species, BR-570, prepared in both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR. PTR/CARS data, recorded 50 ps after BR-570 excitation, at which time only BR-570 and K-590 are present, have an excellent S/N which provides a significantly more detailed view of the K-590 vibrational degrees of freedom than previously available. Two picosecond (6 ps FWHM) laser pulses, ω1 (633.4 nm) and ωS (675-700 nm), are used to record PTR/CARS data via electronic resonance enhancement in both BR-570 and K-590, each of which contains a distinct retinal structure (assigned as 13- rans, 15- anti, 13- cis, respectively). To obtain the vibrational spectrum of K-590 separately, the PTR/CARS spectra from the mixture of isomeric retinals is quantitatively analyzed in terms of third-order susceptibility ( η(3)) relationships. PTR/CARS spectra of K-590 recorded from both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR are compared with the analogous vibrational data obtained via spontaneous resonance Raman (RR) scattering at both low (77 K) and room temperature. Analyses of these vibrational spectra identify temperature-dependent effects and changes assignable to the substitution of deuterium at the Schiff-base nitrogen not previously reported.

  9. Oxygen plasma effects on zero resistance behavior of Yb,Er-doped YBCO (123) based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Helmut; Rathmann, Dirk [Department of Physics, Biophysics, and Photosynthesis, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Banko, Franziska; Steinhart, Martin [Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Nordmann, Joerg; Voss, Benjamin [Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Walder, Lorenz [Organic Chemistry, Molecular Electrochemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Rare-earth doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} samples were synthesized starting from the corresponding oxides Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO as well as Ba(OH){sub 2} by heating to 950 C under air. The doping concentrations were adjusted to 15 % Yb, 7 % Er and 20 % Yb, 15 % Er, respectively, with respect to the yttrium content. The orthogonal phased (123) YBCO ceramics were exposed to an oxygen plasma for 140 and 380 min. Zero resistance temperature (T{sub c,0}) was determined by measuring the resistivity-temperature dependence using a classical four point measurement approach. Under optimal conditions with respect to the material composition and the oxygen treatment an unusual high zero resistance temperature of 97.5 K (T{sub c,onset} ∼ 101 K) was achieved. This represents an increase of T{sub c,0} by 7.5 K. The oxygen treatment could not be monitored by IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The results showed good reproducibility. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. High-temperature Brillouin scattering study of haplogranitic glasses and liquids: Effects of F, K, Na and Li on Tg and elastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghnani, M. H.; Hushur, A.; Williams, Q. C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The density, compressibility and viscosity of silicate melts are important in understanding the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties of magmatic systems. Knowledge of the compressibility of silicate melts at 1 bar is an important component in the construction of accurate pressure-volume-temperature equations of state. In light of this, the velocity (nVp, Vp, Vs) and refractive index n of four anhydrous haplogranitic glasses and liquids with similar alkali abundances, but different cations, are measured at high temperature by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy through the glass transition temperature (Tg) in both platelet and back scattering geometry. The compositions of four haplogranites are 5 wt% of the components Li2O, Na2O, K2O and F each added to a base of haplogranitic (HPG8) composition. The glass transition temperature Tg of different haplogranite samples at the GHz frequency of the Brillouin probe are determined from the change in slope of the temperature-dependent longitudinal or transverse sound velocity. HPG8-Li5 has the lowest glass transition temperature (466°C), while HPG8-K5 has the highest glass transition temperature (575°C). Our Brillouin results, when compared with DSC measurements, show lower Tg values. This raises the possibility of a role of either heating rates or a frequency dependence of the glass transition in explaining the discrepancies in Tg values derived from the two methods. The sound velocity (nVp, Vp, Vs) shows markedly different temperature dependences (including differences in sign) below Tg depending on their different alkali contents. The unrelaxed elastic moduli of three haplogranitic glasses with added Li2O, Na2O and F components have been obtained as a function of temperature. The unrelaxed bulk modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio show strong compositional dependences at ambient temperature. On heating, The K initially decreases with increasing temperature up to ~ 135°C, then increases up to Tg, and then

  11. The resistance to deformation and facture of magnesium ma2-1 under shock-wave loading at 293 k and 823 k of the temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkushin, Gennady; Kanel, Gennady I.; Razorenov, Sergey V.

    2012-03-01

    The Hugoniot elastic limit and spall strength of Ma2-1 magnesium deformable alloy were measured at the sample thickness varied from 0.25 mm to 10 mm at room and elevated temperatures. By means of analysis of decay of an elastic precursor wave it is found that initial plastic strain rate decreases from 2×105 s-1 at distance of 0.25 mm to 103 s-1 at distance of 10 mm. The strain rate in plastic shock wave is by order of magnitude higher at the same value of the shear stress. The spall strength of the alloy grows with increasing the strain rate and decreases with approach to the solidus temperature.

  12. Comparison of zero-sequence injection methods in cascaded H-bridge multilevel converters for large-scale photovoltaic integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yifan; Konstantinou, Georgios; Townsend, Christopher David

    2017-01-01

    to maintain three-phase balanced grid currents with unbalanced power generation. This study theoretically compares power balance capabilities of various zero-sequence injection methods based on two metrics which can be easily generalised for all CHB applications to PV systems. Experimental results based......Photovoltaic (PV) power generation levels in the three phases of a multilevel cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter can be significantly unbalanced, owing to different irradiance levels and ambient temperatures over a large-scale solar PV power plant. Injection of a zero-sequence voltage is required...... on a 430 V, 10 kW, three-phase, seven-level cascaded H-bridge converter prototype confirm superior performance of the optimal zero-sequence injection technique....

  13. Measurement and modeling of density and viscosity of n-octanol-kerosene-phosphoric acid solutions in a temperature range 293.15-333.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changwen; Pei, Xiangjun; Liu, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Densities and viscosities have been measured for the n-octanol + aviation kerosene (AK) + phosphoric acid (H3PO4) system with the mass fraction of H3PO4 in the range from w = 0 to 0.26 and in the temperature of 293.15-333.15 K. According to the experimental data, the measured viscosities were found well correlated with the temperature and mass fraction of H3PO4, which were fitted to regression equations. The result shows that the dilution effect of AK is obvious under the same temperature and mass fraction of H3PO4.

  14. Measurement of the specific heat of small vanadium particles in the normal- and superconducting state in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Garcia, O.

    1982-01-01

    The specific heat of small crystalline vanadium particles in form of polyeders with diameters between 2.9 and 13.2 mm was measured in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K. Quantum effects are interpreted in the frame of theoretical models. (BEF)

  15. Measurement and Analysis of Normal Zone Propagation in a ReBCO Coated at Temperatures Below 50 K (Proc. 25th ICEC & ICMC2014 conference)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Nijhuis, Arend; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the quasi-adiabatic normal zone propagation velocity and quench energies of a Superpower SCS4050 copper stabilised ReBCO superconducting tape are presented over a temperature range of 23 − 47 K; in parallel applied magnetic fields of 6, 10 and 14 T; and over a current range from 50%

  16. Spontaneous ignition in afterburner segment tests at an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.; Branstetter, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A brief testing program was undertaken to determine if spontaneous ignition and stable combustion could be obtained in a jet engine afterburning operating with an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM Jet-A fuel. Spontaneous ignition with 100-percent combustion efficiency and stable burning was obtained using water-cooled fuel spraybars as flameholders.

  17. The thermochemical transformations of hard-coal pitches at the stage of raising the softening temperature to 358-363K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekin, N.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Gordienko, V.G.; Stepanenko, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    By using the PMR method in association with IR spectroscopy, information has been obtained on the nature of the change in the amount of hydrogen in various groups of substances of the soluble fraction of the initial pitch and its thermal product at the stage of raising the softening temperature to 358-363K.

  18. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. III. MAIN-SEQUENCE A, F, G, AND K STARS: ADDITIONAL HIGH-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS AND EMPIRICAL RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; McAlister, Harold A.; Gies, Douglas; Von Braun, Kaspar; Van Belle, Gerard; Farrington, Chris; Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Vargas, Norm; Ridgway, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Based on CHARA Array measurements, we present the angular diameters of 23 nearby, main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral types A7 to K0, 5 of which are exoplanet host stars. We derive linear radii, effective temperatures, and absolute luminosities of the stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and measured bolometric fluxes. The new data are combined with previously published values to create an Angular Diameter Anthology of measured angular diameters to main-sequence stars (luminosity classes V and IV). This compilation consists of 125 stars with diameter uncertainties of less than 5%, ranging in spectral types from A to M. The large quantity of empirical data is used to derive color-temperature relations to an assortment of color indices in the Johnson (BVR J I J JHK), Cousins (R C I C ), Kron (R K I K ), Sloan (griz), and WISE (W 3 W 4 ) photometric systems. These relations have an average standard deviation of ∼3% and are valid for stars with spectral types A0-M4. To derive even more accurate relations for Sun-like stars, we also determined these temperature relations omitting early-type stars (T eff > 6750 K) that may have biased luminosity estimates because of rapid rotation; for this subset the dispersion is only ∼2.5%. We find effective temperatures in agreement within a couple of percent for the interferometrically characterized sample of main-sequence stars compared to those derived via the infrared flux method and spectroscopic analysis.

  19. Study of L-aspartic acid for its possible use as a dosimeter in the interval of 3.4-20 kGy at different irradiation temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-López, Adriana; Negrón-Mendoza, Alicia; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Uribe, Roberto M.; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio

    2014-11-01

    Certain commercial applications of radiation processing increase the efficiency of chemical reactions at low temperatures to decrease the free radicals in the bulk material and avoid the synergistic effects of heat. Such applications have motivated the search for a reliable, low-temperature dosimeter for use under the conditions of the irradiation process. For this purpose, polycrystalline samples of L-aspartic acid (2-aminobutanedioic acid) were irradiated with gamma rays at low temperatures and doses in the kiloGray range (3.4-64 kGy). The potential use of the aspartic acid system as a chemical dosimeter is based on the formation of stable free radicals when the amino acid is exposed to ionizing radiation. These radicals can be studied and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR). The response curves at different temperatures show that the intensity of the ESR spectra (the five characteristic lines) depends on the dose received. The response of the dosimeter increases with increasing temperature, and this relationship is linear up to 20 kGy at 298 K. The decay characteristics show that the change in the ESR signal over time is low and reproducible. In addition, the L-aspartic acid dosimeter is easy to handle and has low cost.

  20. The volumetric properties of (1,2-propanediol carbonate+benzene, or toluene, or styrene) binary mixtures at temperatures from T=293.15 K to T=353.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; Wu Yonghua; Huang Jihou

    2006-01-01

    The densities and excess molar volumes V m E for binary liquid mixtures of (1,2-propanediol carbonate+benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, or styrene) have been measured as a function of compositions using a vibrating-tube densimeter in the temperature range of (293.15 to 353.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. The V m E results were correlated using the fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation. It was found that the V m E in these systems studied increases with rising temperature

  1. Phase equilibrium measurements of (methane + benzene) and (methane + methylbenzene) at temperatures from (188 to 348) K and pressures to 13 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Thomas J.; Kandil, Mohamed E.; Graham, Brendan F.; Marsh, Kenneth N.; Huang, Stanley H.; May, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • VLE data for (CH 4 (1) + C 6 H 6 (2)) and (CH 4 (1) + C 6 H 5 CH 3 (3)) were measured. • LLE was observed at T = 198.15 K, a T higher than expected, for (CH 4 + C 6 H 5 CH 3 ) . • Inconsistences in the literature data were identified and assessed. • More data at x 1 > 0.3 for both systems are needed to investigate discrepancies. - Abstract: New isothermal pTxy data are reported for (methane + benzene) and (methane + methylbenzene (toluene)) at pressures up to 13 MPa over the temperature range (188 to 313) K using a custom-built (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) apparatus. The aim of this work was to investigate literature data inconsistencies and to extend the measurements to lower temperatures. For (methane (1) + benzene (2)), measurements were made along six isotherms from (233 to 348) K at pressures to 9.6 MPa. At temperatures below 279 K there was evidence of a solid phase, and thus only vapor phase samples were analyzed at these temperatures. For the (methane (1) + methylbenzene (3)) system, measurements were made along seven isotherms from T = (188 to 313) K at pressures up to 13 MPa. Along the 198 K isotherm, a significant change in the data’s p,x slope was observed indicating (liquid + liquid) equilibria at higher pressures. The data were compared with literature data and with calculations made using the Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). For both binary systems our data agree with much of the literature data that also deviate from the EOS in a similar manner. However, the data of Elbishlawi and Spencer (1951) for both binary systems, which appear to have received an equal weighting to other data in the EOS development, are inconsistent with the results of our measurements and data from other literature sources

  2. Measurement of Thermal Conductivities of Two Cryoprotective Agent Solutions for Vitreous Cryopreservation of Organs at the Temperature Range of 77 K-300 K Using a Thermal Sensor Made of Microscale Enamel Copper Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufang; Zhao, Gang; Hossain, S M Chapal; Panhwar, Fazil; Sun, Wenyu; Kong, Fei; Zang, Chuanbao; Jiang, Zhendong

    2017-06-01

    Biobanking of organs by cryopreservation is an enabling technology for organ transplantation. Compared with the conventional slow freezing method, vitreous cryopreservation has been regarded to be a more promising approach for long-term storage of organs. The major challenges to vitrification are devitrification and recrystallization during the warming process, and high concentrations of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) induced metabolic and osmotic injuries. For a theoretical model based optimization of vitrification, thermal properties of CPA solutions are indispensable. In this study, the thermal conductivities of M22 and vitrification solution containing ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (two commonly used vitrification solutions) were measured using a self-made microscaled hot probe with enameled copper wire at the temperature range of 77 K-300 K. The data obtained by this study will further enrich knowledge of the thermal properties for CPA solutions at low temperatures, as is of primary importance for optimization of vitrification.

  3. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  4. Design, Fabrication, Test Report of the Material Capsule(08M-10K) with Double Thermal Media for High-temperature Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, K. N.; Kang, Y. H.; Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Kim, B. G.; Oh, S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    To overcome the restriction of the irradiation test at a high temperature of the existing material capsule with Al thermal media, a capsule suitable for the irradiation at the high temperature was developed and the performance test was undertaken. The 08M-10K capsule was designed and fabricated as that with double thermal media to verify the structural and external integrity in the high-temperature irradiation higher than 500 .deg. C. The thermal performance test was undertaken at the out-pile test facility, and the soundness of the double thermal media was confirmed with the naked eye after disassembling the capsule. Though the temperatures of the specimens reach 500±20 .deg. C as a result maintaining the capsule during 5 hours after setting the specimens temperatures in the target range, the high-temperature thermal media with double structure was confirmed to maintain the soundness. And the specimens and the thermal media were heated to 600 .deg. C for about 3 minutes, but the thermal media were maintained sound. Especially, the Al thermal media were heated for 5 hours in range of 500±20 .deg. C and for 3 minutes at the temperature of 600 .deg. C. However, the thermal media were confirmed to maintain the soundness. Whether a capsule has only Al thermal media or the high-temperature thermal media with double structure, any capsule can be used in the range of 500±20 .deg. C as the result of this experiment maintaining the specimens high-temperature

  5. K Srinivasan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. K Srinivasan. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 1 February 2000 pp 35-37 Metallic Materials. Impact toughness of ternary Al–Zn–Mg alloys in as cast and homogenized condition measured in the temperature range 263–673 K · Harish Kundar ...

  6. Measurement of the (pressure, density, temperature) relation of two (methane + nitrogen) gas mixtures at temperatures between 240 and 400 K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an accurate single-sinker densimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: cescha@eis.uva.es; Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Comprehensive (p, {rho}, T) measurements on two gas mixtures of (0.9CH{sub 4} + 0.1N{sub 2}) and (0.8CH{sub 4} + 0.2N{sub 2}) have been carried out at six temperatures between 240 and 400 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. A total of 108 (p, {rho}, T) data for the first mixture and 134 for the second one are given. These measurements were performed using a compact single-sinker densimeter based on Archimedes' buoyancy principle. The overall uncertainty in density {rho} is estimated to be (1.5 . 10{sup -4} . {rho} + 2 . 10{sup -3} kg . m{sup -3}) (coverage factor k = 2), the uncertainty in temperature T is estimated to be 0.006 K (coverage factor k = 2), and the uncertainty in pressure p is estimated to be 1 . 10{sup -4}.p (coverage factor k = 2). The equipment has been previously checked with pure nitrogen over the whole temperature and pressure working ranges and experimental results (35 values) are given and a comparison with the reference equation of state for nitrogen is presented.

  7. Measurement of the (pressure, density, temperature) relation of two (methane + nitrogen) gas mixtures at temperatures between 240 and 400 K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an accurate single-sinker densimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, C.R.; Segovia, J.J.; Martin, M.C.; Villamanan, M.A.; Estela-Uribe, J.F.; Trusler, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive (p, ρ, T) measurements on two gas mixtures of (0.9CH 4 + 0.1N 2 ) and (0.8CH 4 + 0.2N 2 ) have been carried out at six temperatures between 240 and 400 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. A total of 108 (p, ρ, T) data for the first mixture and 134 for the second one are given. These measurements were performed using a compact single-sinker densimeter based on Archimedes' buoyancy principle. The overall uncertainty in density ρ is estimated to be (1.5 . 10 -4 . ρ + 2 . 10 -3 kg . m -3 ) (coverage factor k = 2), the uncertainty in temperature T is estimated to be 0.006 K (coverage factor k = 2), and the uncertainty in pressure p is estimated to be 1 . 10 -4 .p (coverage factor k = 2). The equipment has been previously checked with pure nitrogen over the whole temperature and pressure working ranges and experimental results (35 values) are given and a comparison with the reference equation of state for nitrogen is presented

  8. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modeling of aqueous solutions of polyamines CO_2 absorbents: 3-aminopropylmethylamine, 3-aminopropyldimethylamine and N,N-diethyl 1,3-propanediamine at temperatures from 273 K to 363 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzina, Zahida; Mokbel, Ilham; Negadi, Amina; Jose, Jacques; Negadi, Latifa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental vapor pressures of pure MAPA, DMAPA, DEAPA and their aqueous solutions are reported. • The investigated temperatures are 273 K through 363 K. • The MAPA binary system exhibits negative deviations in G"E values. • The DMAPA and DEAPA systems exhibit negative, sinusoidal and positive deviations in G"E values. • The 3rd order Redlich–Kister, and NRTL or UNIQUAC models have been used to correlate the (P-x-y) data. - Abstract: The vapor pressures of the pure components 3-aminopropylmethylamine (MAPA), 3-aminopropyldimethylamine (DMAPA) and N,N-diethyl 1,3-propanediamine (DEAPA) along with the binary mixtures (MAPA + water), (DMAPA + water) and (DEAPA + water) were measured by means of a static apparatus at temperatures between (273 and 363) K. The data were correlated with the Antoine equation. From these data, excess Gibbs functions (G"E) were calculated for several constant temperatures, and fitted to a three parameters Redlich–Kister equation using the Barker’s method. Additionally, the NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been used for the correlation of the total pressure.

  9. The Crucial Role of the K+-Aluminium Oxide Interaction in K+-Promoted Alumina- and Hydrotalcite-Based Materials for CO2 Sorption at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walspurger, S.; Boels, L.; Cobden, P.D.; Elzinga, G.D.; Haije, W.G.; Van den Brink, R.W. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Westerduinweg 3, 1755LE, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    CO2-free hydrogen can be produced from coal gasification power plants by pre-combustion decarbonisation and carbon dioxide capture. Potassium carbonate promoted hydrotalcite-based and alumina-based materials are cheap and excellent materials for high-temperature (300-500C) adsorption of CO2, and particularly promising in the sorption-enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) reaction. Alkaline promotion significantly improves CO2 reversible sorption capacity at 300-500C for both materials. Hydrotalcites and promoted hydrotalcites, promoted magnesium oxide and promoted -alumina were investigated by in situ analytical methods (IR spectroscopy, sorption experiments, X-ray diffraction) to identify structural and surface rearrangements. All experimental results show that potassium ions actually strongly interact with aluminium oxide centres in the aluminium-containing materials. This study unambiguously shows that potassium promotion of aluminium oxide centres in hydrotalcite generates basic sites which reversibly adsorb CO2 at 400C.

  10. ZERO-FIELD NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE FOR STUDY OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF FeF3 MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. F. Suwandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR has been used as a research tool in many fields. In this study, the magnetic properties, especially anti-ferromagnetic properties of FeF3 materials were investigated. Zero-field custom-built NMR method was used to investigate the anti-ferromagnetic properties in the materials. Experiments have been carried out by varying the sample temperatures from 8 K to 220 K. Ordinary spin echo pulse sequence 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF were used. Using Fast Fourier Transform, the signals in NMR spectrum were analyzed and the peak showed the resonance frequency. The result showed that resonance frequencies decrease with increasing in temperature. The frequency of the spectrum was around 85.41 MHz in the zero-temperature limit, and this corresponds with Fe hyperfine field at zero-temperature limit was 2.14 T. The temperature dependence of the local magnetization does not fit T2 Bloch’s Law very well. Instead, it fits the exponential form having an energy gap in the dispersion relation of the spin wave. It is obtained from the result that FeF3 is antiferromagnetic materials with energy gap of 11.466 meV and anisotropy energy of 1.045 meV.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR telah banyak digunakan sebagai “research tool” pada berbagai bidang kajian di fisika. Pada studi ini, akan dilakukan eksperimen untuk menguji sifat magnetik, khususnya antiferromagnetik pada material FeF3. Telah dilakukan eksperimen dengan memvariasikan temperatur pada sampel dari 8 K hingga 220 K. Pulse sequence yang digunakan adalah 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF. Dengan memanfaatkan Fast Fourier Transform, sinyal echo ini dapat dianalisis dalam bentuk spektrum NMR dengan puncak spektrum menunjukkan frekuensi resonansinya. Diperoleh bahwa frekuensi resonansi akan menurun seiring dengan kenaikan temperatur. Posisi frekuensi pada temperatur 0 K adalah sebesar 85,41 MHz, hal ini memperlihatkan bahwa medan hyperfine dari Fe sebesar 2,14 T pada temperatur 0 K. Kurva

  11. Flux mapping at 77 K and local measurement at lower temperature of thin-wall YBaCuO single-domain samples oxygenated under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaud, X., E-mail: Xavier.chaud@grenoble.cnrs.f [CRETA, CNRS, 25, Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Noudem, J. [CRISMAT/ENSICAEN, CNRS, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Prikhna, T.; Savchuk, Y. [ISM, National Acad. of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Avtozavodskaya Street, Kiev, 04074 (Ukraine); Haanappel, E. [LNCMP, UMR 5147, 143 avenue de Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse (France); Diko, P. [IEP, Slovak Acad. of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53, Kosice (Slovakia); Zhang, C.P. [SMRC, NIN, 96 Weiyang Road, Xi' an 710016 (China)

    2009-10-15

    YBCO single-domain samples are suitable for the production of high trapped fields in the range 20-77 K using a cryocooler or liquid nitrogen. But the oxygenation process required to actually transform the single domains into superconductors induces an extensive crack network that is limiting the material performances. Thin-wall geometry has been introduced to reduce the diffusion paths and to enable a progressive oxygenation strategy. As a consequence cracks are drastically reduced. In addition the use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) speeds up further the process by displacing the oxygen-temperature equilibrium towards the higher temperature of the phase diagram. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample. Remarkable results are obtained without any doping by the combination of thin walls and oxygen high pressure. While classical plain samples yield 300-400 mT, a trapped field of 840 mT has been measured at 77 K on a 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain sample with an annealing time as short as 3 days. Local measurements with a fixed Hall probe on top of the sample were performed at lower temperature after magnetization either in a static field or in a pulse field. The trapped field is significantly higher at lower temperature. Cryocoolers become the key to compromise between performances and cryogenic cost around 40 K.

  12. Observing electron spin resonance between 0.1 and 67 GHz at temperatures between 50 mK and 300 K using broadband metallic coplanar waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemann, Yvonne; Simmendinger, Julian; Clauss, Conrad; Bogani, Lapo; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc; Bothner, Daniel; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    We describe a fully broadband approach for electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments, where it is possible to tune not only the magnetic field but also the frequency continuously over wide ranges. Here, a metallic coplanar transmission line acts as compact and versatile microwave probe that can easily be implemented in different cryogenic setups. We perform ESR measurements at frequencies between 0.1 and 67 GHz and at temperatures between 50 mK and room temperature. Three different types of samples (Cr 3+ ions in ruby, organic radicals of the nitronyl-nitroxide family, and the doped semiconductor Si:P) represent different possible fields of application for the technique. We demonstrate that an extremely large phase space in temperature, magnetic field, and frequency for ESR measurements, substantially exceeding the range of conventional ESR setups, is accessible with metallic coplanar lines

  13. Observing electron spin resonance between 0.1 and 67 GHz at temperatures between 50 mK and 300 K using broadband metallic coplanar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemann, Yvonne; Simmendinger, Julian; Clauss, Conrad; Bogani, Lapo; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bothner, Daniel; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena in LISA+, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-05-11

    We describe a fully broadband approach for electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments, where it is possible to tune not only the magnetic field but also the frequency continuously over wide ranges. Here, a metallic coplanar transmission line acts as compact and versatile microwave probe that can easily be implemented in different cryogenic setups. We perform ESR measurements at frequencies between 0.1 and 67 GHz and at temperatures between 50 mK and room temperature. Three different types of samples (Cr{sup 3+} ions in ruby, organic radicals of the nitronyl-nitroxide family, and the doped semiconductor Si:P) represent different possible fields of application for the technique. We demonstrate that an extremely large phase space in temperature, magnetic field, and frequency for ESR measurements, substantially exceeding the range of conventional ESR setups, is accessible with metallic coplanar lines.

  14. Zero energy Tunnel-concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzhusupova, R.

    2012-01-01

    Creating a zero energy environment is a hot topic. The developments in this field are based on the concept of the "Trias Energetica": reducing energy consumption, using renewable energy sources, and efficiently using fossil fuels. A zero energy concept can also be applied to road tunnels to improve

  15. Variable-Temperature IR Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies on CO2 Adsorbed in Zeolite K-FER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Areán, C. O.; Delgado, M. R.; Bibiloni, G. F.; Bludský, Ota; Nachtigall, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2011), s. 1435-1443 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10032; GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA203/09/0143 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adsorption * carbon dioxide * density functional calculations * IR spectroscopy * zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.412, year: 2011

  16. Liquid Nitrogen Zero Boiloff Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, David; Feller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Wesley; Robinson, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are a part of NASAs future space exploration due to their high specific impulse for rocket motors of upper stages suitable for transporting 10s to 100s of metric tons of payload mass to destinations outside of low earth orbit and for their return. However, the low storage temperatures of LH2 and LO2 cause substantial boil-off losses for missions with durations greater than several months. These losses can be eliminated by incorporating high performance cryocooler technology to intercept heat load to the propellant tanks and modulating the cryocooler to control tank pressure. The active thermal control technology being developed by NASA is the reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocooler and its integration to the propellant tank through a distributed cooling tubing network coupled to the tank wall. This configuration was recently tested at NASA Glenn Research Center, in a vacuum chamber and cryo-shroud that simulated the essential thermal aspects of low Earth orbit, its vacuum and temperature. Testing consisted of three passive tests with the active cryo-cooler system off, and 7 active tests, with the cryocooler powered up. The test matrix included zero boil-off tests performed at 90 full and 25 full, and several demonstrations at excess cooling capacity and reduced cooling capacity. From this, the tank pressure response with varied cryocooler power inputs was determined. This test series established that the active cooling system integrated with the propellant tank eliminated boil-off and robustly controlled tank pressure.

  17. Self-diffusion and molecular association of acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate in methanol- d4 in the temperature range 278-318 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, V. A.; Kumeev, R. S.; Gurina, D. L.; Nikiforov, M. Yu.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of concentration on the self-diffusion coefficients of acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate in methanol- d4 is investigated in the temperature range of 278-318 K using NMR. It is found that the self-diffusion coefficients increase along with temperature and fall as concentration rises. Within the limit of an infinitely dilute solution, the effective radii of solute molecules, calculated using the Stokes-Einstein equation shrink as the temperature grows. It is shown that the observed reduction of effective radii is associated with an increase in the fraction of solute monomers as the temperature rises. The physicochemical parameters of heteroassociation of acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate with methanol are determined.

  18. A zero-dimensional EXTRAP computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, P.

    1982-10-01

    A zero-dimensional computer code has been designed for the EXTRAP experiment to predict the density and the temperature and their dependence upon paramenters such as the plasma current and the filling pressure of neutral gas. EXTRAP is a Z-pinch immersed in a vacuum octupole field and could be either linear or toroidal. In this code the density and temperature are assumed to be constant from the axis up to a breaking point from where they decrease linearly in the radial direction out to the plasma radius. All quantities, however, are averaged over the plasma volume thus giving the zero-dimensional character of the code. The particle, momentum and energy one-fluid equations are solved including the effects of the surrounding neutral gas and oxygen impurities. The code shows that the temperature and density are very sensitive to the shape of the plasma, flatter profiles giving higher temperatures and densities. The temperature, however, is not strongly affected for oxygen concentration less than 2% and is well above the radiation barrier even for higher concentrations. (Author)

  19. Sum-rate analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems with zero-forcing and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2013-06-01

    This paper considers a multiuser spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with zero-forcing (ZF) operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. We provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different parameters on the multiuser diversity gain. For a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system with scheduling, the asymptotic sum-rate scales like Nt log2(Q(Nt Np√K - 1)/N t), where Np denotes the number of antennas of primary receiver, Q is the interference temperature, and K represents the number of secondary transmitters. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. P, ρ, T and heat capacity measurements of (α-pinene + β-pinene) mixtures over the temperature range 283.15 K to 358.15 K and pressures up to 40 MPa: Experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langa, Elisa; Palavra, Antonio M.F.; Lourenço, Maria J.V.; Nieto de Castro, Carlos A.; Mainar, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Density as a function of P, T and composition was measured for pinene mixtures. ► Isothermal compressibility and coefficients of cubic expansion were also calculated. ► Isobaric heat capacity was also determined as function of temperature and composition. ► Usual behaviour of these properties was found. ► SAFT and PC-SAFT were used as predictive models, showing PC-SAFT the best predictions. - Abstract: The density and isobaric heat capacity of the binary system {α-pinene (4,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-ene (1), CAS Number 7785-26-4) + β-pinene (6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene-bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane (2), CAS Number 127-91-3)} has been measured for eleven different compositions. The density was determined at five pressures from (20 MPa to 40 MPa) and temperatures from (283.15 K to 358.15 K) and the isobaric heat capacity at atmospheric pressure and temperatures from (313.15 K to 418.15 K). Density was measured with an experimental uncertainty estimated to be ± 0.5 kg·m −3 . The isothermal compressibility and isobaric thermal expansion were derived from the experimental density data. The isobaric heat capacity was determined with a DSC calorimeter being the experimental uncertainty lower than 1.5%. Isobaric heat capacity behaviour was as expected for both pure compounds and for mixtures. Two different equations of state, conventional SAFT and PC-SAFT, were applied to calculate the densities of the mixture, being the best predictions achieved with PC-SAFT equation.

  1. Investigation of the accumulation kinetics of free radicals under irradiation of some polymethylmethacrylate co-polymers in the 270-400 K temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovarov, S P; Poljakov, A I; Rjabikin, Y A; Philippov, N L; Bitenbaev, M I [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1982-02-01

    In the present work, anomalous shapes of free radical (FR) accumulation curves found under PMMA copolymers irradiation in the T >= 300/sup 0/ K temperature range have been studied. With the irradiation dose increase the FR concentration in PMMA increases up to a definite maximal value and then starts falling. It is stated that appearance of slopes on the FR accumulation curves is not associated with possible changes of the FR relaxation characteristics. The second order of the FR decay reactions is estimated with the activation energy E = 8.3 kcal/mol. It is suggested that the FR decay processes in the irradiation temperature range T >= 300/sup 0/ K are due to the fast decay of macrochains according to the 'unzipping' mechanism.

  2. Investigation of the accumulation kinetics of free radicals under irradiation of some polymethylmethacrylate co-polymers in the 270-400 K temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, S.P.; Poljakov, A.I.; Rjabikin, Y.A.; Philippov, N.L.; Bitenbaev, M.I.

    1982-01-01

    In the present work, anomalous shapes of free radical (FR) accumulation curves found under PMMA copolymers irradiation in the T >= 300 0 K temperature range have been studied. With the irradiation dose increase the FR concentration in PMMA increases up to a definite maximal value and then starts falling. It is stated that appearance of slopes on the FR accumulation curves is not associated with possible changes of the FR relaxation characteristics. The second order of the FR decay reactions is estimated with the activation energy E = 8.3 kcal/mol. It is suggested that the FR decay processes in the irradiation temperature range T >= 300 0 K are due to the fast decay of macrochains according to the 'unzipping' mechanism. (author)

  3. Measurements of the viscosity of carbon dioxide at temperatures from (253.15 to 473.15) K with pressures up to 1.2 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Michael; Richter, Markus; Span, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new rotating-body viscometer for the low-pressure region was presented. • A viscosity dependent offset was compensated by calibrating the viscometer. • The viscosity of carbon dioxide was measured at low pressures. • Measurements were carried out from T = (253.15 to 473.15) K with p ≤ 1.2 MPa. • The relative expanded combined uncertainty (k = 2) was U r,c (η) = (0.20 to 0.41)%. - Abstract: The viscosity of carbon dioxide was measured over the temperature range T = (253.15 to 473.15) K with pressures up to 1.2 MPa utilizing a new rotating-body viscometer. The relative expanded combined uncertainty (k = 2) in viscosity (including uncertainties of temperature and pressure) was (0.20 to 0.41)%. The instrument was specifically designed for measurements at low gas densities and enables measurements of the dynamic viscosity at temperatures between T = 253.15 K and T = 473.15 K with pressures up to 2 MPa. For carbon dioxide, the fluid specific measuring range with regard to pressure was limited to 1.2 MPa due to the formation of disturbing vortices inside the measuring cell at higher pressures. The model function for the viscosity measurement was extended in such a way that the dynamic viscosity was measured relative to helium. Therefore, the influence of the geometry of the concentric cylindrical system inside the measuring cell became almost negligible. Moreover, a systematic offset resulting from a small but inevitable eccentricity of the cylindrical system was compensated for. The residual damping, usually measured in vacuum, was calibrated in the entire temperature range using viscosity values of helium, neon and argon calculated ab initio; at T = 298.15 K recommended reference values were used. A viscosity dependent offset of the measured viscosities, which was observed in previously published data, did not occur when using the calibrated residual damping. The new carbon dioxide results were compared to other experimental literature data

  4. Zero boil-off methods for large-scale liquid hydrogen tanks using integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; E Fesmire, J.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has completed a series of tests at the Kennedy Space Center to demonstrate the capability of using integrated refrigeration and storage (IRAS) to remove energy from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and control the state of the propellant. A primary test objective was the keeping and storing of the liquid in a zero boil-off state, so that the total heat leak entering the tank is removed by a cryogenic refrigerator with an internal heat exchanger. The LH2 is therefore stored and kept with zero losses for an indefinite period of time. The LH2 tank is a horizontal cylindrical geometry with a vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulation system and a capacity of 125,000 liters. The closed-loop helium refrigeration system was a Linde LR1620 capable of 390W cooling at 20K (without any liquid nitrogen pre-cooling). Three different control methods were used to obtain zero boil-off: temperature control of the helium refrigerant, refrigerator control using the tank pressure sensor, and duty cycling (on/off) of the refrigerator as needed. Summarized are the IRAS design approach, zero boil-off control methods, and results of the series of zero boil-off tests.

  5. Stress-strain behavior under static loading in Gd123 high-temperature superconductors at 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Akira; Teshima, Hidekazu; Morita, Mitsuru

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical properties of melt-growth GdBa2Cu3Ox (Gd123) superconducting samples with 10 wt.% Ag2O and 0.5 wt.% Pt were evaluated at 77 K through flexural tests for specimens cut from the samples in order to estimate the mechanical properties of the Gd123 material without metal substrates, buffer layers or stabilization layers. We discuss the mechanical properties; the Young's modulus and flexural strength with stress-strain behavior at 77 K. The results show that the flexural strength and fracture strain of Gd123 at 77 K are approximately 100 MPa and 0.1%, respectively, and that the origin of the fracture is defects such as pores, impurities and non-superconducting compounds. We also show that the Young's modulus of Gd123 is estimated to be 160-165 GPa.

  6. Linear thermal expansion coefficient (at temperatures from 130 to 800 K) of borosilicate glasses applicable for coupling with silicon in microelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Sinev, Leonid S.; Petrov, Ivan D.

    2017-01-01

    Processing results of measurements of linear thermal expansion coefficients and linear thermal expansion of two brands of borosilicate glasses --- LK5 and Borofloat 33 --- are presented. The linear thermal expansion of glass samples have been determined in the temperature range 130 to 800 K (minus 143 to 526 $\\deg$C) using thermomechanical analyzer TMA7100. Relative imprecision of indirectly measured linear thermal expansion coefficients and linear thermal expansion of both glass brands is le...

  7. Excess molar volumes of (an alkanol plus a branched chain ether) at the temperature 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letcher, TM

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase Equilibria 140 (1997) 207-220 The excess molar the temperature volumes of (an alkanol + a branched chain ether) at 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model Trevor M. Letcher * , Penny U. Govender ? Drpartnwnt... V,,? results presented here, together with the previously reported data for the molar excess enthalpy Hi, has been used to test the Extended Real Associated Solution (ERAS) model. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. Ke...

  8. High-Temperature Heat Capacity of Germanates Pr2Ge2O7 and Nd2Ge2O7 within 350-1000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. T.; Irtyugo, L. A.; Beletskii, V. V.; Belousova, N. V.; Denisov, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Pr2Ge2O7 and Nd2Ge2O7 were obtained via solid-phase synthesis from Pr2O3 ( Nd2O3) and GeO2 with multistage firing in air within 1273-1473 K. A temperature effect on molar heat capacity of the oxide compounds was measured with a differential scanning calorimetry. Their thermodynamic properties were calculated from the C P = f( T) dependences.

  9. Emanation-thermal characteristics of Ba-salts of some aromatic acids in the temperature range between 298 and 373 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balek, V; Prachar, M [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu, Rez (Czechoslovakia); Kroupa, J [Vyzkumny Ustav Syntetickych Pryskyric a Laku, Pardubice (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the emanation-thermal characteristics of Ba salts of some monocarboxylic acids (phtalic, isophtalic and terephtalic) and dicarboxylic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 1,4-aminobenzoic, 1,2-Cl-benzoic and 1,2-I-benzoic). It is shown that the emanation thermal characteristics measured in the temperature range between 298 and 373 K are suitable for estimating diffusion properties of studied organic solids. An apparatus for determining emanation-thermal characteristics is proposed.

  10. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. III. MAIN-SEQUENCE A, F, G, AND K STARS: ADDITIONAL HIGH-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS AND EMPIRICAL RELATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; McAlister, Harold A.; Gies, Douglas [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Von Braun, Kaspar [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Van Belle, Gerard [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Farrington, Chris; Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Vargas, Norm [CHARA Array, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Ridgway, Stephen [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Based on CHARA Array measurements, we present the angular diameters of 23 nearby, main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral types A7 to K0, 5 of which are exoplanet host stars. We derive linear radii, effective temperatures, and absolute luminosities of the stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and measured bolometric fluxes. The new data are combined with previously published values to create an Angular Diameter Anthology of measured angular diameters to main-sequence stars (luminosity classes V and IV). This compilation consists of 125 stars with diameter uncertainties of less than 5%, ranging in spectral types from A to M. The large quantity of empirical data is used to derive color-temperature relations to an assortment of color indices in the Johnson (BVR{sub J} I{sub J} JHK), Cousins (R{sub C} I{sub C}), Kron (R{sub K} I{sub K}), Sloan (griz), and WISE (W{sub 3} W{sub 4}) photometric systems. These relations have an average standard deviation of {approx}3% and are valid for stars with spectral types A0-M4. To derive even more accurate relations for Sun-like stars, we also determined these temperature relations omitting early-type stars (T{sub eff} > 6750 K) that may have biased luminosity estimates because of rapid rotation; for this subset the dispersion is only {approx}2.5%. We find effective temperatures in agreement within a couple of percent for the interferometrically characterized sample of main-sequence stars compared to those derived via the infrared flux method and spectroscopic analysis.

  11. Neutron-diffraction study of cubic ErC/sub 0.6/ in the temperature range 1.6--296 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoji, M.

    1981-01-01

    Neutron-diffraction measurements have shown that the form of ErC/sub 0.6/ that has a cubic, NaCl-type structure is paramagnetic above 90 K, exhibiting a free Er 3+ moment. Below 90 K, ErC/sub 0.6/ becomes a ferromagnet with a saturation moment of 2.5 Bohr magnetons (only 28% of the maximum free-ion moment), indicating a large crystal-field effect. By measuring the preferential crystallite orientation induced by the applied magnetic field, the direction of the ferromagnetically ordered moment was found to be parallel to the axis. A ferromagnetic, short-range ordering coexists with the ferromagnetic long-range ordering at temperatures down to 1.6 K

  12. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol at temperatures from 278.15 K to 393.15 K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Origlia-Luster, M.L.; Woolley, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes V phi and apparent molar heat capacities C p,phi have been determined for dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol at temperatures from 278.15 K to 393.15 K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa. The molalities investigated ranged from 0.05 mol·kg -1 to 1.0 mol·kg -1 . We used a vibrating tube densimeter (DMA 512P, Anton PAAR, Austria) to determine the densities and volumetric properties. Heat capacities were obtained using a twin fixed-cell, power-compensation, differential-output, temperature-scanning calorimeter (NanoDSC 6100, Calorimetry Sciences Corporation, American Fork, UT, USA). The results were fit by regression to equations that describe the surfaces (V phi ,T,m) and (C p,phi ,T,m). Infinite dilution partial molar volumes V 2 0 and heat capacities C 0 p,2 were obtained over the range of temperatures by extrapolation of these surfaces to m=0 mol·kg -1

  13. Thermodynamic properties and equation of state of liquid di-isodecyl phthalate at temperature between (273 and 423) K and at pressures up to 140 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peleties, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Trusler, J.P.M., E-mail: m.trusler@imperial.ac.u [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vega-Maza, D. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    We report measurements of the thermodynamic properties of liquid di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and an equation of state determined therefrom. The speed of sound in DIDP was measured at temperatures between (293.15 and 413.15) K and a pressures between (0.1 and 140) MPa with a relative uncertainty of 0.1%. In addition, the isobaric specific heat capacity was measured at temperatures between (293.15 and 423.15) K at a pressure of 0.1 MPa with a relative uncertainty of 1%, and the density was measured at temperatures between (273.15 and 413.15) K at a pressure of 0.1 MPa with a relative uncertainty of 0.015%. The thermodynamic properties of DIDP were obtained from the measured speeds of sound by thermodynamic integration starting from the initial values of density and isobaric specific heat capacity obtained experimentally. The results have been represented by a new equation of state containing nine parameters with an uncertainty in density not worse than 0.025%. Comparisons with literature data are made.

  14. Thermodynamic properties and equation of state of liquid di-isodecyl phthalate at temperature between (273 and 423) K and at pressures up to 140 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peleties, F.; Segovia, J.J.; Trusler, J.P.M.; Vega-Maza, D.

    2010-01-01

    We report measurements of the thermodynamic properties of liquid di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and an equation of state determined therefrom. The speed of sound in DIDP was measured at temperatures between (293.15 and 413.15) K and a pressures between (0.1 and 140) MPa with a relative uncertainty of 0.1%. In addition, the isobaric specific heat capacity was measured at temperatures between (293.15 and 423.15) K at a pressure of 0.1 MPa with a relative uncertainty of 1%, and the density was measured at temperatures between (273.15 and 413.15) K at a pressure of 0.1 MPa with a relative uncertainty of 0.015%. The thermodynamic properties of DIDP were obtained from the measured speeds of sound by thermodynamic integration starting from the initial values of density and isobaric specific heat capacity obtained experimentally. The results have been represented by a new equation of state containing nine parameters with an uncertainty in density not worse than 0.025%. Comparisons with literature data are made.

  15. Partial molar volumes of organic solutes in water. XXVII. Two aliphatic polyethers (triglyme, tetraglyme) at temperatures T = 298–573 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibulka, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Standard molar volumes of two linear aliphatic polyethers in water are presented. • Data were obtained in the range T from (298 to 573) K and p up to 30 MPa. • Data combined with those obtained previously are analyzed and compared with standard molar volumes of cyclic ethers. - Abstract: Densities of dilute aqueous solutions of two linear aliphatic polyethers: 2,5,8,11-tetraoxadodecane (triethylene glycol dimethyl ether, triglyme) and 2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxapentadecane (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, tetraglyme), measured in the temperature range from (298 to 573) K and at pressures up to 30 MPa using an automated flow vibrating-tube densimeter are reported. Standard molar volumes were evaluated from the measured data. The present values complement previous measurements performed for the title polyethers at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range from (278 to 343) K and extend the knowledge to temperature and pressure ranges in which the data on standard molar volumes for lower members of the homologous series (monoglyme, diglyme) are already available.

  16. Superhigh Temperatures and Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, V B; Miller, M B; Sermyagin, A V; Topolnikov, A S

    2003-01-01

    The experimental results on thermonuclear synthesis under acoustic cavitation have been analyzed with the account of the latest data and their discussion. The analysis testifies that this avenue of research is a very promising one. The numerical calculations of the D(d, n)^{3}He reaction rate in the deuterated acetone (C_{3}D_{6}O) under the influence of ultrasound depending on T environment temperature within the range T=249-295 K have been carried out within the framework of hydrodynamic model. The results show that it is possible to improve substantially the effect/background relationship in experiments by decreasing the fluid temperature twenty-thirty degrees below zero.

  17. Method for measurement of emissivity and absorptivity of highly reflective surfaces from 20 K to room temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králík, Tomáš; Musilová, Věra; Hanzelka, Pavel; Frolec, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2016), s. 743-753 ISSN 0026-1394 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07397S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : absorptivity * emissivity * radiative heat transfer * metallic surfaces * cryogenics * uncertainty evaluation Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  18. Measurement of Refractive Indices of CdSiP2 at Temperatures from 90 to 450 K (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject...crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1127–1132 (2010). 4. P. Brand , B. Boulanger, P. Segonds, V. Kemlin, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, B. Ménaert

  19. A high sensitivity SQUID-method for the measurement of magnetic susceptibility of small samples in the temperature range 1.5 K-40 K and application on small palladium particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Nguyen Quang.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper a method is developed for magnetic susceptibility measurements which is superior to the common methods. The method is based on the SQUID-principle (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) using the tunnel effect of a superconducting point contact and magnetic flux quantization for measuring electric and magnetic quantities. Due to this refined method susceptibility changes of very small palladium particles could be detected in the temperature range 1.5 K-40 K with respect to the bulk. In addition susceptibility differences of particle distributions with different means diameters (81 Angstroem and 65 Angstroem) have been measured for the first time. A quantitative comparison of the measurements with theoretical results shows satisfactory agreement. (orig./WBU) [de

  20. Discrete breathers in graphane: Effect of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimova, J. A., E-mail: julia.a.baimova@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Murzaev, R. T.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Dmitriev, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems (Russian Federation); Zhou, Kun [Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Singapore)

    2016-05-15

    The discrete breathers in graphane in thermodynamic equilibrium in the temperature range 50–600 K are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. A discrete breather is a hydrogen atom vibrating along the normal to a sheet of graphane at a high amplitude. As was found earlier, the lifetime of a discrete breather at zero temperature corresponds to several tens of thousands of vibrations. The effect of temperature on the decay time of discrete breathers and the probability of their detachment from a sheet of graphane are studied in this work. It is shown that closely spaced breathers can exchange energy with each other at zero temperature. The data obtained suggest that thermally activated discrete breathers can be involved in the dehydrogenation of graphane, which is important for hydrogen energetics.

  1. Thermodynamic and transport properties of (1-Butanol + 1,4-Butanediol) at temperatures from (298.15 to 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorebski, Edward; Geppert-Rybczynska, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for (1-butanol + 1,4-butanediol) over the temperature range from (298.15 to 318.15) K. The speeds of sound within the temperature range from (293.15 to 318.15) K have been measured as well. Using these results and literature values of isobaric heat capacities, the molar volumes, isentropic and isothermal compressibility coefficients, molar isentropic and isothermal compressibilities, isochoric heat capacities as well as internal pressures were calculated. Also the corresponding excess and deviation values (excess molar volumes, excess isentropic and isothermal compressibility coefficients, excess molar isentropic and isothermal compressibilities, different defined deviation speed of sound and dynamic viscosity deviations) were calculated. The excess values are negative over the whole concentration and temperature range. The excess and deviation values are expressed by Redlich-Kister polynomials and discussed in terms of the variations of the structure of the system caused by the participation of the two different alcohol molecules in the dynamic intermolecular association process through hydrogen bonding at various temperatures. The predictive abilities of Grunberg-Nissan and McAllister equations for viscosities of mixtures have also been examined.

  2. Solubility of methane and carbon dioxide in ethylene glycol at pressures up to 14 MPa and temperatures ranging from (303 to 423) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, A.C.; Francesconi, A.Z.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports solubility data of methane and carbon dioxide in ethylene glycol and the Henry's law constant of each solute in the studied solvent at saturation pressure. The measurements were performed at (303, 323, 373, 398, and 423.15) K and pressures up to 6.3 MPa for mixtures containing carbon dioxide and pressures up to 13.7 MPa for mixtures containing methane. The experiments were performed in an autoclave type phase equilibrium apparatus using the total pressure method (synthetic method). All investigated systems show an increase of gas solubility with the increase of pressure. A decrease of carbon dioxide solubility with the increase of temperature and an increase of methane solubility with the increase of temperature was observed. From the variation of solubility with temperature, the partial molar enthalpy, and entropy change are calculated.

  3. Quadrupole lamp furnace for high temperature (up to 2050 K) synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction studies in air in reflection geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, P.; Yoon, W.; Jurkschat, K.; Zschack, P.; Kriven, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    A four-lamp thermal image furnace has been developed to conduct high temperature x-ray diffraction in reflection geometry on oxide ceramic powder samples in air at temperatures ≤2050 K using synchrotron radiation. A refractory crucible made of Pt20%Rh alloy was used as a specimen holder. A material with well characterized lattice expansion properties was used as an internal crystallographic thermometer to determine the specimen temperature and displacement. The performance of the apparatus was verified by measurement of the thermal expansion properties of CeO 2 , MgO, and Pt which were found to be within ±3% of the acceptable values. The advantages, limitations, and important considerations of the instrument developed are discussed

  4. Thermodynamic studies on the ferroelectric phase transition in neutron irradiated (LixK1-x)2SO4 crystals at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Ammar, E.A.; Denton, M.M.

    1989-05-01

    Thermodynamic studies of (Li x K 1-x ) 2 SO 4 , LKS, mixed crystals have been made in the concentration range (x=0.1,0.2,...,x=0.5). The thermal behavior has been investigated by differential thermal analysis, DTA, and differential scanning calorimeter, DSC, in the vicinity of high temperature phases. Also, the effect of the mixed neutron field of fast and thermal neutrons (10% of the reactor neutron pile is fast neutrons) on the thermal properties of mixed crystals was studied. The results showed a change in the transition temperature Tc, as well as the value of specific heat Cp at transition temperature, due to the change of stoichiometric ratio and radiation doses. The change of enthalpy and entropy of mixed crystals have been estimated numerically. The obtained small values of ΔS/R is characteristic of incommensurate phase transition as previously confirmed by the results of neutron diffraction technique. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  5. Estimation of Hydrazine Decomposition on Measuring the High-Temperature pH in Hydrazine/ETA Solutions at 553 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae Sik; Yeon, Jei Won; Yun, Myung Hee; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Sang Ill

    2010-01-01

    Hydrazine is one of the most excellent oxygen scavengers used in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, in some pants, the hydrazine is used as a source of hydrogen required to suppress radiolysis of the coolant water in the primary loop. When hydrazine was exposed in the high temperature and high pressure water, it can be decomposed into the various products such as NH 3 , N 2 , H 2 , and NO 3 ions. As the result, the pH of solution containing hydrazine in the condition of the high temperature and high pressure can be changed by those decomposed products. In the present work, we investigated the decomposition behavior of hydrazine in ETA (ethanol amine) solution. In addition, we measured the high temperature pH at 553 K on the various hydrazine/ETA solutions for confirming the applicability of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)- based pH electrode in secondary circuit of the nuclear power plants

  6. Recovery behavior of high purity cubic SiC polycrystals by post-irradiation annealing up to 1673 K after low temperature neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Mohd Idzat, E-mail: idzat.i.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); The National University of Malaysia, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia); Yamazaki, Saishun; Yoshida, Katsumi; Yano, Toyohiko [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Two kinds of high purity cubic (β) SiC polycrystals, PureBeta-SiC and CVD-SiC, were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (Belgium) up to a fluence of 2.0–2.5 × 10{sup 24} (E > 0.1 MeV) at 333–363 K. Changes in macroscopic lengths were examined by post-irradiation thermal annealing using a precision dilatometer up to 1673 K with a step-heating method. The specimen was held at each temperature step for 6 h and the change in length of the specimen was recorded during each isothermal annealing step from 373 K to 1673 K with 50 K increments. The recovery curves were analyzed with the first order model, and rate constants at each annealing step were obtained. Recovery of defects, induced by neutron irradiation in high purity β-SiC, has four stages of different activation energies. At 373–573 K, the activation energy of PureBeta-SiC and CVD-SiC was in the range of 0.17–0.24 eV and 0.12–0.14 eV; 0.002–0.04 eV and 0.006–0.04 eV at 723–923 K; 0.20–0.27 eV and 0.26–0.31 eV at 923–1223 K; and 1.37–1.38 eV and 1.26–1.29 eV at 1323–1523 K, respectively. Below ∼1223 K the recombination occurred possibly for closely positioned C and Si Frenkel pairs, and no long range migration is deemed essential. Nearly three-fourths of recovery, induced by neutron irradiation, occur by this mechanism. In addition, at 1323–1523 K, recombination of slightly separated C Frenkel pairs and more long-range migration of Si interstitials may have occurred for PureBeta-SiC and CVD-SiC specimens. Migration of both vacancies may be restricted up to ∼1523 K. Comparing to hexagonal α-SiC, high purity β-SiC recovered more quickly in the lower annealing temperature range of less than 873 K, in particular less than 573 K. - Highlights: • Two kinds of high purity cubic (β) SiC polycrystals were irradiated. • Macroscopic lengths were examined by post-irradiation thermal annealing. • The recovery curves were analyzed with first order model.

  7. Application of approximations for joint cumulative k-distributions for mixtures to FSK radiation heat transfer in multi-component high temperature non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurente, André; França, Francis H.R.; Miki, Kenji; Howell, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Approximations for joint cumulative k-distribution for mixtures are efficient for full spectrum k-distribution (FSK) computations. These approximations provide reduction of the database that is necessary to perform FSK computation when compared to the direct approach, which uses cumulative k-distributions computed from the spectrum of the mixture, and also less computational expensive when compared to techniques in which RTE's are required to be solved for each component of the mixture. The aim of the present paper is to extend the approximations for joint cumulative k-distributions for non-LTE media. For doing that, a FSK to non-LTE media formulation well-suited to be applied along with approximations for joint cumulative k-distributions is presented. The application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by solving the radiation heat transfer in non-LTE high temperature plasmas composed of N, O, N 2 , NO, N 2 + and mixtures of these species. The two more efficient approximations, that is, the superposition and multiplication are employed and analyzed.

  8. Kinetics of the Reaction of CH3O2 Radicals with OH Studied over the 292-526 K Temperature Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Kocevska, Stefani; Krasnoperov, Lev N

    2016-08-11

    Reaction of methyl peroxy radicals with hydroxyl radicals, CH3O2 + OH → CH3O + HO2 (1a) and CH3O2 + OH → CH2OO + H2O (1b) was studied using pulsed laser photolysis coupled to transient UV-vis absorption spectroscopy over the 292-526 K temperature range and pressure 1 bar (bath gas He). Hydroxyl radicals were generated in the reaction of electronically excited oxygen atoms O((1)D), produced in the photolysis of N2O at 193.3 nm, with H2O. Methyl peroxy radicals were generated in the reaction of methyl radicals, CH3, produced in the photolysis of acetone at 193.3 nm, and subsequent reaction of CH3 with O2. Temporal profiles of OH were monitored via transient absorption of light from a DC discharge H2O/Ar low-pressure resonance lamp at ca. 308 nm. The absolute intensity of the photolysis light was determined by accurate in situ actinometry based on the ozone formation in the presence of molecular oxygen. The overall rate constant of the reaction is k1a+1b = (8.4 ± 1.7) × 10(-11)(T/298 K)(-0.81) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (292-526 K). The branching ratio of channel 1b at 298 K is less than 5%.

  9. Zero-gravity movement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  10. Enthalpy increment measurements of NaCrO2 using a high temperature Calvet calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, V.S.; Jayanthi, K.; Ramarao, G.A.; Venugopal, V.; Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Enthalpy increment measurements on NaCrO 2 (s) were carried out in the temperature range 323 to 839 K using a high temperature Calvet micro calorimeter. The enthalpy increment values were least-squares fitted with temperature with the constraint that (Hdeg T - Hdeg 298 ) at 298.18 K equals zero, and can be given by: (Hdeg T - Hdeg 298 ) J/mol) ± 336 = -23515 + 75.364T(K) + 0.01256T 2 (K) (323 to 839 K). The first differential of the above equation with temperature gives the constant pressure molar heat capacity of NaCrO 2 (s), which is given by: Cdeg p (NaCrO 2 , s, T) (J/K mol) = 75.364 + 0.02512T(K). The thermal properties of NaCrO 2 (s) were calculated using the molar heat capacities from the present study and Sdeg(298 K) from the literature. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of the U.K. measurements of temperature effects in tubular loose coated particle fuels in HECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, A J

    1972-06-15

    A series of measurements of reaction rates and reactivity changes with temperature were made in teh central region of HECTOR, using loose coated particle fuel provided by the Dragon project under the collaborative agrement between the Project and the UKAEA. A DP report giving the results of these experiments was issued in 1970 and an interim statement given at the 10th DCPM. Since that time, analysis of the reactivity changes with temperature in uranium fuelled cores has indicated significant discrepancies, which were not apparent from the earlier analysis of reaction rate measurements. This report documents the current analysis.

  12. Use of the gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana nanica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoel, Luciana; Vieites, Rogerio Lopes

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the use of gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana 'Nanica'. The bananas 'Nanica' were harvested in the Arm Taperao, Brotas (SP) town, and sent to CBE (Companhia Brasileira de Esterilizacao-Cotia-SP) for irradiation and constitution of the following treatments: T1 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 16 ±1 deg C); T2 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 14 ±1 deg C); T3 (fruit irradiated ata 0,4 kGy and stored at 12±1 deg C); T4 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 16±1 deg C); T5 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 14±1 deg C) and T6 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 12±1 deg C). The fruits were stored in B.O.Ds. of the Agroindustrial Management and Technology Department, with a relative humidity of 80±5%. The experiment was divided in two groups: control group (post harvest conservation and disease incidence) and parcel group (soluble solids and pulp/peel). The analyses were performed in intervals of five days during a period of 25 days. The experimental design employed was completely randomized (DIC) by applying a factor of 2 x 3 x 6 (irradiation x temperature x time). The Tukey test with 5% of probability was used for comparison between means. The storage temperature of the bananas 'Nanica' was not reduce by irradiation. (author)

  13. Low-Temperature Synchrotron Photoionization Study of 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) Oxidation Initiated by O(3P) Atoms in the 298-650 K Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasmin; Price, Chelsea; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-04-20

    This work studies the oxidation of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol initiated by O( 3 P) atoms. The oxidation was investigated at room temperature, 550, and 650 K. Using the synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, reaction intermediates and products were studied by multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry. Mass-to-charge ratios, kinetic time traces, photoionization spectra, and adiabatic ionization energies for each primary reaction species were obtained and used to characterize their identity. Using electronic structure calculations, potential energy surface scans of the different species produced throughout the oxidation were examined and presented in this paper to further validate the primary chemistry occurring. Branching fractions of primary products at all three temperatures were also provided. At room temperature only three primary products formed: ethenol (26.6%), acetaldehyde (4.2%), and acetone (53.4%). At 550 and 650 K the same primary products were observed in addition to propene (5.1%, 11.2%), ethenol (18.1%, 2.8%), acetaldehyde (8.9%, 5.7%), cyclobutene (1.6%, 10.8%), 1-butene (2.0%, 10.9%), trans-2-butene (3.2%, 23.1%), acetone (50.4%, 16.8%), 3-penten-2-one (1.0%, 11.5%), and 3-methyl-2-butenal (0.9%, 2.5%), where the first branching fraction value in parentheses corresponds to the 550 K data. At the highest temperature, a small amount of propyne (1.0%) was also observed.

  14. Partial molar volumes of organic solutes in water. XXVIII. Three aliphatic poly(ethylene glycols) at temperatures T = 298 K–573 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibulka, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Standard molar volumes of three poly(ethylene glycols) in water are presented. • Data were obtained in the range T from (298 to 573) K and p up to 30 MPa. • Data are analyzed and compared with those of similar solutes. - Abstract: Densities of dilute aqueous solutions of three poly(ethylene glycols): 3-oxapentane-1,5-diol (diethylene glycol), 3,6-dioxaoctane-1,8-diol (triethylene glycol), and 3,5,9-trioxaundecane-1,11-diol (tetraethylene glycol) measured in the temperature range from (298 to 573) K and at pressures up to 30 MPa using an automated flow vibrating-tube densimeter are reported. Standard molar volumes were evaluated from the measured data. Present data complement both the previous measurements performed at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range from (278 to 343) K and the data already available for the first member of the homologous series (ethylene glycol). A comparison with data previously measured for the homologous series of linear aliphatic polyethers (poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ethers, glymes), diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (3,6-dioxaheptan-1-ol), and selected alkane-α,ω-diols is presented.

  15. Design and test of a 5 kWe high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell system operated with diesel and kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Pasel, Joachim; Janßen, Holger; Lehnert, Werner; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A fuel cell system for application as auxiliary power unit was developed. • Key components were a high-temperature PEFC stack and an autothermal reformer. • The system was tested with GTL kerosene, BTL diesel and premium diesel fuel. • The target electrical power of 5 kW was achieved with all fuels used. • Self-sustaining system operation was demonstrated with the integrated system design. - Abstract: A high-temperature PEFC system, developed with the aim of delivering 5 kW electrical power from the chemical energy stored in diesel and kerosene fuels for application as an auxiliary power unit, was simulated and tested. The key components of the system were an autothermal reformer, a water–gas shift reactor, a catalytic burner, and the HT-PEFC stack. The targeted power level of 5 kW was achieved using different fuels, namely GTL kerosene, BTL diesel and premium diesel. Using an integrated system approach, operation without external heat input was demonstrated. The overall analysis showed slight but non-continuous performance loss for 250 h operation time

  16. Charge transfer reactions between gas-phase hydrated electrons, molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide at temperatures of 80-300 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgarnusch, Amou; Tang, Wai Kit; Zhang, Han; Siu, Chi-Kit; Beyer, Martin K

    2016-09-14

    The recombination reactions of gas-phase hydrated electrons (H2O)n˙(-) with CO2 and O2, as well as the charge exchange reaction of CO2˙(-)(H2O)n with O2, were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry in the temperature range T = 80-300 K. Comparison of the rate constants with collision models shows that CO2 reacts with 50% collision efficiency, while O2 reacts considerably slower. Nanocalorimetry yields internally consistent results for the three reactions. Converted to room temperature condensed phase, this yields hydration enthalpies of CO2˙(-) and O2˙(-), ΔHhyd(CO2˙(-)) = -334 ± 44 kJ mol(-1) and ΔHhyd(O2˙(-)) = -404 ± 28 kJ mol(-1). Quantum chemical calculations show that the charge exchange reaction proceeds via a CO4˙(-) intermediate, which is consistent with a fully ergodic reaction and also with the small efficiency. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations corroborate this picture and indicate that the CO4˙(-) intermediate has a lifetime significantly above the ps regime.

  17. Zeros of smallest modulus of functions resembling exp(z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth B. Stolarsky

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine (in various senses the zeros of the Laplace transform of a signed mass distribution is of great importance for many problems in classical analysis and number theory. For example, if the mass consists of finitely many atoms, the transform is an exponential polynomial. This survey studies what is known when the distribution is a probability density function of small variance, and examines in what sense the zeros must have large moduli. In particular, classical results on Bessel function zeros, of Szegö on zeros of partial sums of the exponential, of I. J. Schoenberg on k-times positive functions, and a result stemming from Graeffe's method, are all presented from a unified probabilistic point of view.

  18. Transmission of Helium Isotopes through Graphdiyne Pores: Tunneling versus Zero Point Energy Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Marta I; Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Campos-Martínez, José

    2015-10-29

    Recent progress in the production of new two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous materials is attracting considerable interest for applications to isotope separation in gases. In this paper we report a computational study of the transmission of (4)He and (3)He through the (subnanometer) pores of graphdiyne, a recently synthesized 2D carbon material. The He-graphdiyne interaction is represented by a force field parametrized upon ab initio calculations, and the (4)He/(3)He selectivity is analyzed by tunneling-corrected transition state theory. We have found that both zero point energy (of the in-pore degrees of freedom) and tunneling effects play an extraordinary role at low temperatures (≈20-30 K). However, both quantum features work in opposite directions in such a way that the selectivity ratio does not reach an acceptable value. Nevertheless, the efficiency of zero point energy is in general larger, so that (4)He tends to diffuse faster than (3)He through the graphdiyne membrane, with a maximum performance at 23 K. Moreover, it is found that the transmission rates are too small in the studied temperature range, precluding practical applications. It is concluded that the role of the in-pore degrees of freedom should be included in computations of the transmission probabilities of molecules through nanoporous materials.

  19. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    comprehensive expression analyses or imaging data. This is an important area of research, since it promises to enable the exploration of targets for drug discovery and the identification of new biomarkers to efficiently detect glaucoma progression by applying new analysis strategies to the complex mass data. The project not only depends on the collaborative efforts of various types of clinical settings including private practices, medical centers and university hospitals, but also contributions of the pharmaceutical and the medical device industries. Thus, uniting a wide range of Japanese interests and resources is the key for success. In summary, in order to aim for ZERO BLINDNESS, a drastic improvement in the quality of our patient care, drug development research for unmet medical demands, and a strategic collaboration of various professionals in the ophthalmic industry are essential. With the deep appreciation we fell towards the selfless support extended during the earthquake disaster, we wish to translate our "gratitude" into "power" from Tohoku. In doing so, we as academicians are determined to keep on contributing to the society by making progress in the medicine.

  20. Development and testing of a high temperature (673-1273K), high pressure regenerative desulphurization process for IGCC concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Meijer, R. (KEMA Fossil Power Plants, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1994-01-01

    In the period 1990-1993 a European Community (EC) subsidized international project on the subject of high-temperature and high-pressure desulfurization of coal gas has been carried out within the framework of the JOULE 1 program. This report is a summary of the final report, in which an overview is given of the developed and tested absorbents and the results of a feasibility study for a 100 MWe Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) in combination with a high-temperature desulfurization process. The Utrecht University in Utrecht, Netherlands, developed absorbents in cooperation with The Dutch Centre for Gas Technology GASTEC in Apeldoorn, Netherlands. The absorbents are tested by KEMA and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation in Petten, Netherlands. Foster Wheeler in Livingston, New Jersey, USA, executed the feasibility study. The combination of iron oxide/molybdenum oxide on aluminium phosphate appears to be the most promising absorbent. The preparation method has been patented. From the feasibility study it appeared that by means of a high-temperature desulfurization process the investment and operational costs can be reduced considerably. Further development of the absorbent and the accompanying reactor concept already has started in a new EC project within the framework of the JOULE 1 program

  1. Volumetric properties of binary mixtures of {difluoromethane (R32) + trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R1234ze(E))} at temperatures from 283.15 K to 363.15 K and pressures up to 100 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Tao; Bi, Shengshan; Hu, Xiaozhen; Meng, Xianyang; Wu, Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities of R32+R1234ze(E) mixtures were measured with a vibrating-tube densimeter. • Densities of mixtures were conducted from (283 to 363) K, at pressures up to 100 MPa. • Excess molar volumes were correlated with the Redlich–Kister equation. - Abstract: Values of experimental density of difluoromethane (R32) and five compositions of {R32 + trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R1234ze(E))} binary mixtures are reported over the temperature range from 283 K to 363 K and at pressures up to 100 MPa with a vibrating-tube densimeter. The excess molar volumes were calculated from experimental results and fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The maximum standard deviation and average standard deviations of the experimental and calculated values of excess molar volume from Redlich–Kister equation are 0.07789 cm"3·mol"−"1 and 0.01645 cm"3·mol"−"1, respectively.

  2. The conversion of a room temperature NaK loop to a high temperature MHD facility for Li/V blanket testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E.; Nasiatka, J.R.; Kirillov, I.R.; Ogorodnikov, A.P.; Preslitski, G.V.; Goloubovitch, G.P.; Xu, Zeng Yu

    1996-01-01

    The Vanadium/Lithium system has been the recent focus of ANL's Blanket Technology Pro-ram, and for the last several years, ANL's Liquid Metal Blanket activities have been carried out in direct support of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) breeding blanket task area. A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the Near the development of insulator coatings. Design calculations, Hua and Gohar, show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the current ITER design. Consequently, the decision was made to convert Argonne's Liquid Metal EXperiment (ALEX) from a 200 degrees C NaK facility to a 350 degrees C lithium facility. The upgraded facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups at Hartmann numbers (M) and interaction parameters (N) in the range of 10 3 to 10 5 in lithium at 350 degrees C. Following completion of the upgrade work, a short performance test was conducted, followed by two longer multiple-hour, MHD tests, all at 230 degrees C. The modified ALEX facility performed up to expectations in the testing. MHD pressure drop and test section voltage distributions were collected at Hartmann numbers of 1000

  3. Thermodynamic and transport properties of (1,2-ethanediol + 1-nonanol) at temperatures from (298.15 to 313.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorebski, Edward; Lubowiecka-Kostka, Beata

    2009-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for (1,2-ethanediol + 1-nonanol) over the temperature range from (298.15 to 313.15) K. The speeds of sound in those mixtures within the temperature range from (293.15 to 313.15) K have been measured as well. Using the measurement results, the molar volumes, isentropic compressibility coefficients, molar isentropic compressibilities, and the corresponding excess and deviation values (excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibility coefficients, excess molar isentropic compressibilities, differently defined deviations of the speed of sound, and dynamic viscosity deviations) were calculated. The excess Gibbs free energies estimated by the use of the UNIQUAC model are also reported. The excess molar volumes and Gibbs free energies are positive, whereas the compressibility excesses are s-shaped. The excess and deviation values are expressed by Redlich-Kister polynomials and discussed in terms of variations of the structure of the system caused by the participation of two different alcohol molecules in the dynamic intermolecular association process through hydrogen bonding. The effect of temperature is discussed. The predictive abilities of the McAllister equation for viscosities of the mixtures under test have also been examined

  4. Direct measurements of methoxy removal rate constants for collisions with CH4, Ar, N2, Xe, and CF4 in the temperature range 673--973K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wantuck, P.J.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Baugchum, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Removal rate constants for CH 3 O by CH 4 , Ar, N 2 , Xe, and CF 4 were measured over a 400K temperature range using a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence technique. Rapid methoxy removal rates are observed for the non-reactive collision partners (Ar, N 2 , Xe, and CF 4 ) at elevated temperatures showing that the dissociation and isomerization channels for CH 3 O are indeed important. The total removal rate constant (reaction /plus/ dissociation and/or isomerization) for CH 4 exhibits a linear dependence on temperature and has a removal rate constant, k/sub r/ /equals/ (1.2 +- 0.6) /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/exp[(/minus/101070 +- 350)/T]cm 3 molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. Assuming that the removal rate constant due to dissociation and/or isomerization are similar for CH 4 and CF 4 , the reaction rate constant for CH 3 O /plus/ CH 4 is equal to (1.7 +- 1.0) /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/exp[(/minus/7480 +- 1100)/T]cm 3 molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 4 figs

  5. Determination and correlation of pyridoxine hydrochloride solubility in different binary mixtures at temperatures from (278.15 to 313.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dandan; Li, Xiaona; Wang, Haisheng; Wang, Yan; Du, Shichao; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yumin; Xu, Shijie; Gong, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of pyridoxine hydrochloride in three binary mixtures was determined. • Experimental solubility of pyridoxine hydrochloride was correlated by four models. • Mixing thermodynamics of pyridoxine hydrochloride were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of pyridoxine hydrochloride in binary solvent mixtures, including (acetone + water), (methanol + water) and (ethanol + water), was measured over temperature range from (278.15 to 313.15) K by a gravimetric method at atmospheric pressure (P = 0.1 MPa). The solubility increased with increasing temperature in binary solvent mixtures at constant solvent composition. Besides, the dissolving capacity of pyridoxine hydrochloride in the three binary solvent mixtures at constant temperature ranked as (methanol + water > ethanol + water > acetone + water) in general, partly depending on the polarity of the solvents. Additionally, the modified Apelblat equation, van’t Hoff equation, CNIBS/R–K model and Jouyban–Acree model were used to correlate the solubility data in binary mixtures, it turned out that all the selected thermodynamic models could give satisfactory results. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamic properties of pyridoxine hydrochloride in different binary solvent mixtures were also calculated and discussed. The results indicate that the mixing process of pyridoxine hydrochloride in the selected solvents is exothermic.

  6. Thermophysical Properties of Acetophenone with Ethylchloroacetate at Temperatures of 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanakumar, K. [Sathyabama Univ., Chennai (India); Baskaran, R. [St.Joseph' s College of Engineering, Chennai (India); Kubendran, T. R. [Anna Univ., Chennai (India)

    2012-08-15

    Densities, viscosities, refractive indices and speed of sounds of the binary mixtures of Acetophenone with Ethylchloroacetate were measured over the entire mole fractions at (303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K. From these experimental results, excess molar volume V{sup E}, viscosity deviation Δη, refractive index deviation Δn{sub D}, deviations in speed of sound Δu, deviations in isentropic compressibility Δk{sub s} and excess intermolecular free length ΔL{sub f} were calculated. The viscosity data have been correlated with the equations of Grunberg and Nissan, Hind et al., Tamura and Kurata, Katti and Chaudri, Sedgwick, Krishnan-Laddha and McAllister. The thermo physical properties under study were fit to the Jouyban-Acree model. The excess values were correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to obtain their coefficients and standard deviations. It was found that in all cases, the data obtained fitted with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions occurring in the solution.

  7. Thermophysical Properties of Acetophenone with Ethylchloroacetate at Temperatures of 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanakumar, K.; Baskaran, R.; Kubendran, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Densities, viscosities, refractive indices and speed of sounds of the binary mixtures of Acetophenone with Ethylchloroacetate were measured over the entire mole fractions at (303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K. From these experimental results, excess molar volume V E , viscosity deviation Δη, refractive index deviation Δn D , deviations in speed of sound Δu, deviations in isentropic compressibility Δk s and excess intermolecular free length ΔL f were calculated. The viscosity data have been correlated with the equations of Grunberg and Nissan, Hind et al., Tamura and Kurata, Katti and Chaudri, Sedgwick, Krishnan-Laddha and McAllister. The thermo physical properties under study were fit to the Jouyban-Acree model. The excess values were correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to obtain their coefficients and standard deviations. It was found that in all cases, the data obtained fitted with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions occurring in the solution

  8. Experimental determination of line strengths for selected carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide absorption lines at temperatures between 295 and 1250 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvecz, P.J.; Nichols, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used for the determination of the line strengths of 41 CO and CO 2 absorption lines at temperatures between 295 and 1250 K. The CO vibrational-rotational lines were from the P branch of the fundamental absorption band (2150--1950 cm -1 ) while the CO 2 vibrational-rotational lines were from the far wing of the R branch of the ν 3 fundamental band (2395--2380 cm -1 ). The intensities of the lines were measured from absorption spectra recorded in a high-temperature gas cell containing known concentrations of CO/CO 2 /N 2 gas mixtures at atmospheric pressure. Absorption spectra were recorded through the cell with the use of a moderate-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The absorption spectra were mathematically corrected for distortions resulting from the finite resolution of the spectrometer and for peak overlap. Line strength measurements were made from the corrected peaks by using the Bouguer-Lambert law and assuming a Lorentzian line profile. The experimentally obtained line strengths were evaluated by statistical calculations, by consideration of the validity of the Bouguer-Lambert assumption for these data, by comparison with existing room-temperature and high-temperature data, and by comparison with theoretical calculations. For CO, the statistical analysis suggests that the reported values have an uncertainty of ±10--12%, which is similar to the observed discrepancies with other reported values at room temperature. At high temperatures, the difference between these data and previously reported data and theoretical predictions is less than 10%. For CO 2 , the statistical uncertainty associated with the line strength calculations is less than 5%, which is also the approximate level of agreement with existing room-temperature data

  9. Fault of the correction factor for pressure and temperature kPT in the atmospheric conditions of Dosimetric Calibration Lab. - LSCD of ININ - Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, Jose T.; Jesus Cejudo, A.; La Cruz H., Daniel de; Tovar M, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    The realization of the operational quantities H*, Hp y/0 H'(0.07) for estimating the effective dose E, usually is done by measuring the air kerma Ka air within the field of ionizing radiation of interest and was subsequently applied appropriate conversion factors for both the quality of radiation and the operational quantity of interest. However, the SSDL in performing the Ka to environmental conditions of ININ (3000 m above sea level, P ∼ 710 hPa) with ionization chambers has found that the pressure correction factor and kPT temperature is not sufficient to correct the change in air density. Indeed, in the case of 60 Co the discrepancy between the measurement of a primary standard graphite walls Ka (BEV CC01 be 131) and a side of the plastic walls (Exradin A12) is on the order of 0.4% for the case of the RX BIPM qualities to 100,135, 180 and 250 kV. It was found that for a camera model 30001 PTW (PMMA graphite wall) is needed an additional correction factor k PT ranging from 0.4% to 1.5%, correction factor calculated by MC simulation. For Sk of 125 I brachytherapy sources was given an additional correction lower in 11% compared to conventional k PT value measured with a well chamber Standard Imaging HDR 1000 plus. Finally, it is in the process of studying the behavior of this additional correction factor to the case of 137 Cs

  10. Logic circuits from zero forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael

    We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.

  11. Operational performance of the development of a 15 kW parabolic trough mid-temperature solar receiver/reactor for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hui; Liu, Qibin; Jin, Hongguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A 15 kW solar chemical receiver/reactor for hydrogen production was developed. ► The solar thermochemical efficiency of the receiver/reactor was in the range of 20–28%. ► Hydrogen production exceeding 80% was achieved. ► The research results extend the application of mid-temperature solar thermal energy. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report the operational performance and energy conversion efficiency of a developed 15 kW solar chemical receiver/reactor for hydrogen production. A concentrated solar heat of around 200–300 °C was utilized to provide process heat to drive methanol steam reforming. A modified 15 kW direct-irradiation solar reactor coupled with a linear receiver positioned along the focal line of a one-axis parabolic trough concentrator was used. The experiments were conducted from 200 to 300 °C under a mean solar flux of 300–800 W/m 2 and a reactant feeding rate of 6 kg/h. Reactants were continuously fed, and the attained conversion rate of methanol was more than 70% at 700 W/m 2 . The typical solar thermochemical efficiency of solar thermal energy converted into chemical energy was in the 20–28% range. The overall energy efficiency of input solar power conversion into chemical energy reached up to 17% and may be further increased by improving solar field efficiency. Hydrogen production exceeding 80% was achieved. In addition, preliminary economic evaluation was performed, and methods for further improvement were proposed. This paper proves that solar hydrogen production is feasible by combining solar thermal energy with alternative fuel at around 200–300 °C, which is much lower than the temperature of other solar thermochemical processes. This may offer an economic approach to solar fuel production and extend the application of mid-temperature solar thermal energy.

  12. Water activities of ternary mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol), NaCl and water over the temperature range of 293.15 K to 313.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Ziamajidi, Fatemeh

    2006-01-01

    The improved isopiestic method has been used to obtain activities of water for aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) 400/NaCl at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. From these measurements, values of the vapour pressure of solutions were determined. The effect of temperature on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of {poly(ethylene glycol) + NaCl + H 2 O} systems has been studied. It was found that the slope of the constant activity lines for water increased with increasing temperature. The results have been discussed on the basis of the effect of temperature on the hydrophobicity of the polymer. Also it was found that the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEG + NaCl) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the segment-based local composition Wilson model has been used for the correlation of the experimental water activity data. The agreement between the correlation and the experimental data are good

  13. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the properties of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samin, Adib; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsuo [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Mariani, R. D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    For liquid-sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor systems, it is crucial to understand the behavior of lanthanides and other potential fission products in liquid sodium or other liquid metal solutions such as liquid cesium-sodium. In this study, we focus on lanthanide behavior in liquid sodium. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, we found that the solubility of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K was less than 0.78 at. %, and the diffusion coefficient of cerium in liquid sodium was calculated to be 5.57 × 10{sup −9} m{sup 2}/s. Furthermore, it was found that cerium in small amounts may significantly alter the heat capacity of the liquid sodium system. Our results are consistent with the experimental results for similar materials under similar conditions.

  14. Partial molar volume of mefenamic acid in alcohol at temperatures between T=293.15 and T=313.15 K

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Muhammad J.; Siddiquah, Mahrukh

    2006-01-01

    Apparent molar volume (Vphi), partial molar volume (V), solute-solute interaction parameter (Sv), partial molar expansivity (E(0)2) and isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (alpha2) of mefenamic acid in six different organic solvents namely, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol, have been calculated from the measured solution densities over a temperature range of T=293.15 and T=313.15±0.1K. The solution densities were measured by an automated vibrating tube de...

  15. Studies on thermo-acoustic parameters in binary liquid mixtures of phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) with different diluents at temperature 303.15 K: an ultrasonic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamila, Susmita; Jena, Satyaban; Swain, Bipin Bihari

    2005-01-01

    Acoustical investigations for the binary mixtures of phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), used as liquid-liquid extractant, have been made in various diluents such as benzene, toluene, and xylene from ultrasonic velocity and density measurements at temperature 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. This study involves evaluation of different thermo-acoustic parameters along with the excess properties, which are interpreted in the light of molecular interaction between a polar extractant, Cyanex 272 with non-polar diluent, benzene and weakly polar diluents, toluene and xylene. The excess values are correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation, and corresponding adjustable parameters are derived

  16. Nanosecond retinal structure changes in K-590 during the room-temperature bacteriorhodopsin photocycle: picosecond time-resolved coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Weidlich, O.; Ujj, L.; Jäger, F.; Atkinson, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved vibrational spectra are used to elucidate the structural changes in the retinal chromophore within the K-590 intermediate that precedes the formation of the L-550 intermediate in the room-temperature (RT) bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle. Measured by picosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (PTR/CARS), these vibrational data are recorded within the 750 cm-1 to 1720 cm-1 spectral region and with time delays of 50-260 ns after the RT/BR photocycle is optical...

  17. Characteristics of ZnO Wafers Implanted with 60 keV Sn+ Ions at Room Temperature and at 110 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Giang T.; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Hirao, Takashi; Nitta, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    ZnO wafers implanted with 60 keV Sn + ions at room temperature (RT) and at 110 K are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The effect of implantation temperature is evident in the XRD and PL data. A yellow-orange (YO) band near 600 nm appears in the PL spectra of the ZnO wafers implanted to the doses of 4x10 14 and 8x10 14 ions/cm 2 at RT. The intensity of this band increases and the peak position blue-shifts after illumination of the samples with the 325 nm line of a He-Cd laser. The PL data suggests that the CB (conduction band)→V O + and Zn i + →V Zn - transitions contribute to the photoemission of the YO band.

  18. Volumetric studies and thermodynamics of viscous flow of hydroxamic acids in acetone + water solvent at temperatures 303.15 and 313.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Vaishali; Pande, Rama

    2006-01-01

    Densities ρ and viscosities η of two hydroxamic acids, N-phenyl-2-chlorobenzo- and N-o-tolyl-4-chlorobenzo-, have been determined as a function of their concentration in aqueous acetone solution at temperatures 303.15 and 313.15 K. Apparent molar volumes, standard-state partial molar volumes and relative viscosities have been calculated. The viscosity data have been analyzed using Jones-Dole equation. The activation thermodynamic parameters of viscous flow have been evaluated using Feakins equation. These were obtained to throw light on the mechanism of viscous flow. Thermodynamic interactions in solutions have been studied in terms of a number of excess functions calculated from the experimental data. The effect of hydroxamic acid concentration and temperature on these parameters has been discussed. The results were interpreted in the light of solute-solvent interactions in aquo-organic media

  19. Symmetry realization of texture zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)

  20. Zero-Power Radio Device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This report describes an unpowered radio receiver capable of detecting and responding to weak signals transmit ted from comparatively long distances . This radio receiver offers key advantages over a short range zero - power radio receiver previously described in SAND2004 - 4610, A Zero - Power Radio Receiver . The device described here can be fabricated as an integrated circuit for use in portable wireless devices, as a wake - up circuit, or a s a stand - alone receiver operating in conjunction with identification decoders or other electroni cs. It builds on key sub - components developed at Sandia National Laboratories over many years. It uses surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter technology. It uses custom component design to enable the efficient use of small aperture antennas. This device uses a key component, the pyroelectric demodulator , covered by Sandia owned U.S. Patent 7397301, Pyroelectric Demodulating Detector [1] . This device is also described in Sandia owned U.S. Patent 97266446, Zero Power Receiver [2].