Sample records for temperature zero k

  1. Zero Thermal Noise in Resistors at Zero Temperature (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes-Göran


    The bandwidth of transistors in logic devices approaches the quantum limit, where Johnson noise and associated error rates are supposed to be strongly enhanced. However, the related theory — asserting a temperature-independent quantum zero-point (ZP) contribution to Johnson noise, which dominates the quantum regime — is controversial and resolution of the controversy is essential to determine the real error rate and fundamental energy dissipation limits of logic gates in the quantum limit. The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise for a resistance is the sum of Nyquist’s classical Johnson noise equation and a quantum ZP term with a power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. The classical Johnson-Nyquist formula vanishes at the approach of zero temperature, but the quantum ZP term still predicts non-zero noise voltage and current. Here, we show that this noise cannot be reconciled with the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. Consequently, Johnson noise must be nil at zero temperature, and non-zero noise found for certain experimental arrangements may be a measurement artifact, such as the one mentioned in Kleen’s uncertainty relation argument.

  2. Structure and Superconducting Properties of TlCan-1Ba2CunO2n+3 Thin Films with Zero Resistance at Temperatures above 100 K (United States)

    Huang, T. C.; Lee, W. Y.; Lee, V. Y.; Karimi, R.


    New superconducting TlCan-1Ba2CunO2n+3 thin films have been analyzed by the X-ray diffraction and four-point probe techniques. The films consist mainly of a single TlCa2Ba2Cu3O9 phase or a mixture of the TlCa2Ba2O9 and TlCaBa2Cu2O7 phases with the c-axis preferentially oriented perpendicular to the film surface. The TlCa2Ba2Cu3O9 film grown on an asymmetrically cut yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) substrate has the highest superconducting transition with on-set Tc near 120 K and zero resistance at 116 K. The TlCa2Ba2Cu3O9 film deposited on a SrTiO3 (100) substrate has a slightly lower transition with zero resistance at 104 K probably because of stacking faults. The film composed of both the TlCa2Ba2Cu3O9 and TlCaBa2Cu2O7 phases and grown on YSZ has a double transition with on-set Tc near 118 K and 107 K, and zero resistance at 102 K.

  3. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan


    Sub-zero treatment of steels with an M1 below 0°C relies (partly) on a continuation of the martensite formation. The present work reports on the observation of isothermal martensite formation in the sub-zero temperature regime for two steels: AISI 1070 and AISI 52100. Samples were austenitized......, quenched in oil, and thereafter investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry, which allows a quantitative assessment of the fraction of retained austenite as a function of the sub-zero temperature and time. Isothermal martensite formation was observed on interrupting the continuous cooling (5 K....../min) at temperatures in the range of 80-233 K. The kinetics of isothermal martensite formation depends strongly on the temperature and can be described by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov kinetics. Isothermal experiments with dilatometry indicated the occurrence of a volume increase on isothermal holding, consistent...

  4. Trapped individual ion at absolute zero temperature (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Dehmelt, Hans; Nagourney, Warren


    Laser cooling and ion trapping have progressed to such an extent that one can now speak of realizing a confined atom at absolute zero temperature. In this short publication, we analyze an experiment toward such realization using a single Ba+ ion in a miniature rf trap. The Ba+ ion is first laser-cooled to the limit where the ion spends most of its time in the zero-point energy state. Then a test sequence allows one to verify whether or not the ion is actually in its zero-point state. The test sequence may also serve as a device for state selection of an atom at absolute zero temperature. PMID:16594054

  5. On the planarity of the k-zero-divisor hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tamizh Chelvam


    Full Text Available Let R be a commutative ring with identity and let Z(R,k be the set of all k-zero-divisors in R and k>2 an integer. The k-zero-divisor hypergraph of R, denoted by Hk(R, is a hypergraph with vertex set Z(R,k, and for distinct element x1,x2,…,xk in Z(R,k, the set {x1,x2,…,xk} is an edge of Hk(R if and only if x1x2⋯xk=0 and the product of elements of no (k−1-subset of {x1,x2,…,xk} is zero. In this paper, we characterize all finite commutative non-local rings R for which the k-zero-divisor hypergraph is planar.

  6. Zero temperature quark matter equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, F.


    An equation of state is computed for a plasma of one flavor quarks interacting through some phenomenological potential, in the Hartree approximation, at zero temperature. Assuming that the confining potential is scalar and color-independent, it is shown that the quarks undergo a first-order mass phase transition. In addition, due to the way screening is introduced, all the thermodynamic quantities computed are independent of the actual shape of the interquark potential. This equation of state is then generalized to a potential with scalar and vector components, Fock corrections are discussed and the case of a several quark flavor plasma is studied. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Technical Feasibility Study for Zero Energy K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldwasser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Studer, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This technical feasibility study provides documentation and research results supporting a possible set of strategies to achieve source zero energy K-12 school buildings as defined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) zero energy building (ZEB) definition (DOE 2015a). Under this definition, a ZEB is an energy-efficient building in which, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy.

  8. Zero Energy Schools: Designing for the Future: Zero Energy Ready K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Designing, building, and operating zero energy ready K-12 schools provides benefits for districts, students, and teachers. Optimizing energy efficiency is important in any building, but it's particularly important in K-12 schools. Many U.S. school districts struggle for funding, and improving a school building's energy efficiency can free up operational funds that may then be available for educational and other purposes.

  9. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan


    Sub-zero treatment of steels with an Mf below 0°C relies (partly) on a continuation of the martensite formation. The present work reports on the observation of isothermal martensite formation in the sub-zero temperature regime for two steels: AISI 1070 and AISI 52100. Samples were austenitized...

  10. A Kohn-Sham system at zero temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Hoke, K.; Neidhardt, H.


    A one-dimensional Kohn-Sham system for spin particles is considered which effectively describes semiconductor nanostructures, and which is investigated at zero temperature. We prove the existence of solutions and derive a priori estimates. For this purpose we find estimates for eigenvalues...... of the Schrödinger operator with effective Kohn-Sham potential and obtain W1,2-bounds of the associated particle density operator. Afterwards, compactness and continuity results allow us to apply Schauder's fixed point theorem. In the case of vanishing exchange-correlation potential uniqueness is shown...... by monotonicity arguments. Finally, we investigate the behavior of the system if the temperature approaches zero....

  11. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan


    Sub-zero treatment of steels with an Mf below zero degrees Celsius relies (partly) on a continuation of the martensite formation. The present work reports on the observation of isothermal martensite formation in the sub-zero temperature regime for two steels: AISI 1070 and AISI 52100. Samples were...... austenitized and quenched in oil and thereafter investigated with vibrating sample agnetometry, which allows a quantitative assessment of the fraction of retained austenite as a function of the subzero temperature and time. Isothermal martensite formation was observed on interrupting the continuous cooling (5...... with a continuation of the martensitic transformation. On prolonged isothermal holding a volume reduction was observed for AISI 52100, but not for AISI 1070. A mechanism is proposed that explains the occurrence of isothermal martensite formation....

  12. Synthesizing SMOS Zero-Baselines with Aquarius Brightness Temperature Simulator (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Dinnat, E.; Le Vine, D.; Kainulainen, J.


    SMOS [1] and Aquarius [2] are ESA and NASA missions, respectively, to make L-band measurements from the Low Earth Orbit. SMOS makes passive measurements whereas Aquarius measures both passive and active. SMOS was launched in November 2009 and Aquarius in June 2011.The scientific objectives of the missions are overlapping: both missions aim at mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Additionally, SMOS mission produces soil moisture product (however, Aquarius data will eventually be used for retrieving soil moisture too). The consistency of the brightness temperature observations made by the two instruments is essential for long-term studies of SSS and soil moisture. For resolving the consistency, the calibration of the instruments is the key. The basis of the SMOS brightness temperature level is the measurements performed with the so-called zero-baselines [3]; SMOS employs an interferometric measurement technique which forms a brightness temperature image from several baselines constructed by combination of multiple receivers in an array; zero-length baseline defines the overall brightness temperature level. The basis of the Aquarius brightness temperature level is resolved from the brightness temperature simulator combined with ancillary data such as antenna patterns and environmental models [4]. Consistency between the SMOS zero-baseline measurements and the simulator output would provide a robust basis for establishing the overall comparability of the missions.

  13. Numerical study of high-power semiconductor lasers for operation at sub-zero temperatures (United States)

    Hasler, K. H.; Frevert, C.; Crump, P.; Erbert, G.; Wenzel, H.


    We present results on the impact of the Al-content in the waveguide structure on the electro-optical characteristics of 9xx nm, GaAs-based high-power lasers operated at room (300 K) and at sub-zero (200 K) heat sink temperatures. Experimentally a strong improvement of conversion efficiency and output power has been found if the lasers are cooled down. Numerical simulations using a software tool which solves the thermo-dynamic based drift-diffusion equations are able to reproduce the experimental findings. The reasons for the improved performance at lower temperatures are the enhancement of the modal gain and the reduced accumulation of electrons in the p-confinement layers resulting in a reduction of the leakage current. The latter allows the realization of lasers with a reduced Al content having a smaller series resistance and thus further enlarged conversion efficiency at sub-zero temperatures.

  14. Electrodynamics at non-zero temperature, chemical potential and Bose condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, Alexander D.; Lepidi, Angela [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico, Via Saragat 1 (edificio C), 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Piccinelli, Gabriella, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro Tecnologico, FES Aragon, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Avenida Rancho Seco S/N, Bosques de Aragon, Nezahualcoyotl, Estado de Mexico 57130 (Mexico)


    Electrodynamics of charged scalar bosons and spin 1/2 fermions is studied at non-zero temperature, chemical potentials, and possible Bose condensate of the charged scalars. Debye screening length, plasma frequency, and the photon dispersion relation are calculated. It is found that in presence of the condensate the time-time component of the photon polarization operator in the first order in electric charge squared acquires infrared singular parts proportional to inverse powers of the spatial photon momentum k.

  15. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin


    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) is the preferred tool for obtaining non-perturbative results from QCD in the low-energy regime. It has by now entered the era in which high precision calculations for a number of phenomenologically relevant observables at the physical point, with dynamical quark degrees of freedom and controlled systematics, become feasible. Despite these successes there are still quantities where control of systematic effects is insufficient. The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the potential of todays state-of-the-art simulation algorithms for non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions to produce reliable results in the chiral regime and at the physical point both for zero and non-zero temperature. Important in this context is the control over the chiral extrapolation. This thesis is concerned with two particular topics, namely the computation of hadronic form factors at zero temperature, and the properties of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD. The electromagnetic iso-vector form factor of the pion provides a platform to study systematic effects and the chiral extrapolation for observables connected to the structure of mesons (and baryons). Mesonic form factors are computationally simpler than their baryonic counterparts but share most of the systematic effects. This thesis contains a comprehensive study of the form factor in the regime of low momentum transfer q{sup 2}, where the form factor is connected to the charge radius of the pion. A particular emphasis is on the region very close to q{sup 2}=0 which has not been explored so far, neither in experiment nor in LQCD. The results for the form factor close the gap between the smallest spacelike q{sup 2}-value available so far and q{sup 2}=0, and reach an unprecedented accuracy at full control over the main systematic effects. This enables the model-independent extraction of the pion charge radius. The results for the form factor and the charge

  16. Zero field entanglement in dipolar coupling spin system at negative temperatures


    Furman, Gregory B.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.


    A dipolar coupled spin system can achieve internal thermodynamic equilibrium states at negative absolute temperature. We study analytically and numerically the temperature dependence of the concurrence in a dipolar coupled spin-1/2 system in both non-zero and zero fields and show that, at negative temperatures, entangled states can exist even in zero magnetic field.

  17. Concreting techniques and equipment for construction at below zero temperatures (United States)

    Kvashnin, Alexandre G.

    Opening-up intact sites in the Russian North and Siberia involves all-year-round construction of structures ranging from cast-in-situ foundations for industrial buildings and runways at newly built and operating airports to public and residential buildings erected with entirely monolithic techniques. Climatic particularities formed over most part of this area being about necessity for concreting in natural settings the asperity of which is designated by a period of below-zero temperatures and strong winds spanning 4 to 6 months a year. So, to smooth extremes of natural environment, supplementary compensative arrangements are to be applied during winter concreting. They imply maintenance of favorable conditions to provide concrete hardening by making use of special thermodynamic effects which can be accomplished in wide arsenal of concreting techniques. The most advanced of them are those which utilize concrete curing with applied electrical energy.

  18. Tolerance of Coffea arabica L. seeds to sub zero temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vilas Boas Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preservation of the quality of coffee seeds is hindered by their intermediate behavior in storage. However, long-term storage at sub zero temperatures may be achieved by adjusting the water content of the seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of coffee seeds to freezing, in relation to physiological and enzymatic modifications. Coffee seeds were dried in two manners, rapid and slow, to water contents of interest, 0.67, 0.43, 0.25, 0.18, 0.11, and 0.05 g H2O g-¹ dw (dry basis. After drying, the seeds were stored at a temperature of -20 ºC and of 86 ºC for 24 hours and for 12 months, and then compared to seeds in cold storage at 10 ºC. The seeds were evaluated through calculation of percentage of normal seedlings, percentage of seedlings with expanded cotyledonary leaves, dry matter of roots and of hypocotyls, and viability of embryos in the tetrazolium test. Expression of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were evaluated by means of electrophoretic analysis. Only seeds dried more slowly to 0.18 g H2O g-1 dw present relative tolerance to storing at -20 °C for 12 months. Coffee seeds do not tolerate storage at a temperature of -86 ºC for 12 months. Water contents below 0.11g H2O g-¹ dw and above 0.43 g H2O g-¹ dw hurt the physiological quality of coffee seeds, regardless of the type of drying, temperature, and storage period. Coffee seed embryos are more tolerant to desiccation and to freezing compared to whole seeds, especially when the seeds are dried to 0.05 g H2O g-¹ dw. The catalase enzyme can be used as a biochemical marker to study tolerance to freezing in coffee seeds.

  19. Filtrated K-theory for real rank zero C*-algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arklint, Sara Esther; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren


    The smallest primitive ideal spaces for which there exist counterexamples to the classification of non-simple, purely infinite, nuclear, separable C*-algebras using filtrated K-theory, are four-point spaces. In this article, we therefore restrict to real rank zero C*-algebras with four-point...... primitive ideal spaces. Up to homeomorphism, there are ten different connected T0-spaces with exactly four points. We show that filtrated K-theory classifies real rank zero, tight, stable, purely infinite, nuclear, separable C*-algebras that satisfy that all simple subquotients are in the bootstrap class...

  20. Wrinkle-stabilized metal-graphene hybrid fibers with zero temperature coefficient of resistance. (United States)

    Fang, Bo; Xi, Jiabin; Liu, Yingjun; Guo, Fan; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Weiwei; Guo, Daoyou; Li, Peigang; Gao, Chao


    The interfacial adhesion between graphene and metals is poor, as metals tend to generate superlubricity on smooth graphene surface. This problem renders the free assembly of graphene and metals to be a big challenge, and therefore, some desired conducting properties (e.g., stable metal-like conductivities in air, lightweight yet flexible conductors, and ultralow temperature coefficient of resistance, TCR) likely being realized by integrating the merits of graphene and metals remains at a theoretical level. This work proposes a wrinkle-stabilized approach to address the poor adhesion between graphene surface and metals. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests and theoretical analysis by Scharifker-Hills models demonstrate that multiscale wrinkles effectively induce nucleation of metal particles, locking in metal nuclei and guiding the continuous growth of metal islands in an instantaneous model on rough graphene surface. The universality and practicability of the wrinkle-stabilized approach is verified by our investigation through the electrodeposition of nine kinds of metals on graphene fibers (GF). The strong interface bonding permits metal-graphene hybrid fibers to show metal-level conductivities (up to 2.2 × 107 S m-1, a record high value for GF in air), reliable weatherability and favorable flexibility. Due to the negative TCR of graphene and positive TCR of metals, the TCR of Cu- and Au-coated GFs reaches zero at a wide temperature range (15 K-300 K). For this layered model, the quantitative analysis by classical theories demonstrates the suitable thickness ratio of graphene layer and metal layer to achieve zero TCR to be 0.2, agreeing well with our experimental results. This wrinkle-stabilized approach and our theoretical analysis of zero-TCR behavior of the graphene-metal system are conducive to the design of high-performance conducting materials based on graphene and metals.

  1. Zero temperature coefficient of resistivity induced by photovoltaic effect in Y Ba2Cu3O6.96 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang


    Full Text Available I-V characteristics of YBCO-Ag system under blue laser (λ = 450 nm illumination were studied from 100 to 300 K and obvious photovoltaic effects were observed. All the I-V curves in the temperature range intersect at a point in the first quadrant while the laser points to the cathode electrode, indicating a zero temperature coefficient of resistivity. This implies that the outputting voltage keeps constant in a broad temperature range when a critical bias current is assigned. The intersection points of different laser intensities fall in a straight line, the slope of which (Rc is independent of temperature and laser intensity.

  2. Equilibrium shape of (4)He crystal under zero gravity below 200 mK. (United States)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Ohuchi, Haruka; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi


    Equilibrium crystal shape is the lowest energy crystal shape that is hardly realized in ordinary crystals because of their slow relaxation. (4)He quantum crystals in a superfluid have been expected as unique exceptions that grow extremely fast at very low temperatures. However, on the ground, gravity considerably deforms the crystals and conceals the equilibrium crystal shape, and thus, gravity-free environment is needed to observe the equilibrium shape of (4)He. We report the relaxation processes of macroscopic (4)He crystals in a superfluid below 200 mK under zero gravity using a parabolic flight of a jet plane. When gravity was removed from a gravity-flattened (4)He crystal, the crystal rapidly transformed into a shape with flat surfaces. Although the relaxation processes were highly dependent on the initial condition, the crystals relaxed to a nearly homothetic shape in the end, indicating that they were truly in an equilibrium shape minimizing the interfacial free energy. Thanks to the equilibrium shape, we were able to determine the Wulff's origin and the size of the c-facet together with the vicinal surface profile next to the c-facet. The c-facet size was extremely small in the quantum crystals, and the facet-like flat surfaces were found to be the vicinal surfaces. At the same time, the interfacial free energy of the a-facet and s-facet was also obtained.

  3. Investigation of Dependence between Time-zero and Time-dependent Variability in High-k NMOS Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Mohammad Khaled


    Bias Temperature Instability (BTI) is a major reliability concern in CMOS technology, especially with High dielectric constant (High-\\k{appa}/HK) metal gate (MG) transistors. In addition, the time independent process induced variation has also increased because of the aggressive scaling down of devices. As a result, the faster devices at the lower threshold voltage distribution tail experience higher stress, leading to additional skewness in the BTI degradation. Since time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and stress-induced leakage current (SILC) in NMOS devices are correlated to BTI, it is necessary to investigate the effect of time zero variability on all these effects simultaneously. To that effect, we propose a simulation framework to model and analyze the impact of time-zero variability (in particular, random dopant fluctuations) on different aging effects. For small area devices (~1000 nm2) in 30nm technology, we observe significant effect of Random Dopant Fluctuation (RDF) on BTI induced variabili...

  4. Organoaqueous calcium chloride electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in carbon nanotubes at sub-zero-temperatures. (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Qin, Zhanbin; Guan, Li; Wang, Xiaomian; Chen, George Z


    Solutions of calcium chloride in mixed water and formamide are excellent electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in partially oxidised carbon nanotubes at unprecedented sub-zero-temperatures (e.g. 67% capacitance retention at -60 °C).

  5. Fast, Computer Supported Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature at School (United States)

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.


    A simple and fast experimental method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented. Air gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and data acquisition system COACH is applied in a wide range of temperature. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air under constant volume it is possible to obtain--by extrapolation to zero…

  6. Accuracy of Zero-Heat-Flux Cutaneous Temperature in Intensive Care Adults. (United States)

    Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Lamarche, Solène; Kerforne, Thomas; Bénard, Thierry; Giraud, Benoit; Bellier, Rémy; Carise, Elsa; Frasca, Denis; Mimoz, Olivier


    To compare accuracy of a continuous noninvasive cutaneous temperature using zero-heat-flux method to esophageal temperature and arterial temperature. Prospective study. ICU and NeuroICU, University Hospital. Fifty-two ICU patients over a 4-month period who required continuous temperature monitoring were included in the study, after informed consent. All patients had esophageal temperature probe and a noninvasive cutaneous device to monitor their core temperature continuously. In seven patients who required cardiac output monitoring, continuous iliac arterial temperature was collected. Simultaneous core temperatures were recorded from 1 to 5 days. Comparison to the esophageal temperature, considered as the reference in this study, used the Bland and Altman method with adjustment for multiple measurements per patient. The esophageal temperature ranged from 33°C to 39.7°C, 61,298 pairs of temperature using zero-heat-flux and esophageal temperature were collected and 1,850 triple of temperature using zero-heat-flux, esophageal temperature, and arterial temperature. Bias and limits of agreement for temperature using zero-heat-flux were 0.19°C ± 0.53°C compared with esophageal temperature with an absolute difference of temperature pairs equal to or lower than 0.5°C of 92.6% (95% CI, 91.9-93.4%) of cases and equal to or lower than 1°C for 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7-100.0%) of cases. Compared with arterial temperature, bias and limits of agreement were -0.00°C ± 0.36°C with an absolute difference of temperature pairs equal to or lower than 0.5°C of 99.8% (95% CI, 95.3-100%) of cases. All absolute difference of temperature pairs between temperature using zero-heat-flux and arterial temperature and between arterial temperature and esophageal temperature were equal to or lower than 1°C. No local or systemic serious complication was observed. These results suggest a comparable reliability of the cutaneous sensor using the zero-heat-flux method compared with esophageal or

  7. Magnetic resonance studies of atomic hydrogen at zero field and low temperature. Recombination and binding on liquid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochemsen, R.; Morrow, M.; Berlinsky, A.J.; Hardy, W.N. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Physics)


    Magnetic resonance studies at zero field are reported for atomic hydrogen gas confined in a closed glass bulb with helium-coated walls for T<1 K in a dilution refrigerator. Low-energy r.f. discharge pulses have been used to produce H atoms at temperatures as low as T=0.06 K. The atom density nsub(H) (10/sup 9/temperatures recombination is dominated by the process H+H+wall..-->..H/sub 2/+wall. From the temperature dependence of the rate constant K we have determined the binding energy of H on liquid /sup 4/He and /sup 3/He, and also the cross section for recombination on the surface.

  8. S-parameter at Non-Zero Temperature and Chemical Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Ulrik Ishøj; Sannino, Francesco; Pica, Claudio


    We compute the finite-temperature and matter density corrections to the S-parameter at the one loop level. At non-zero temperature T and matter density Lorentz symmetry breaks and therefore we suggest a suitable generalization of the S-parameter. By computing the plasma correction, we discover a ...

  9. Revisiting glueball wave functions at zero and finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Loan, Mushtaq


    We study the sizes and thermal properties of glueballs in a three dimensional compact Abelian gauge model on improved lattice. We predict the radii of $\\sim 0.60$ and $\\sim 1.12$ in the units of string tension, or $\\sim 0.28$ and $\\sim 0.52$ fm, for the scalar and tensor glueballs, respectively. We perform a well controlled extrapolation of the radii to the continuum limit and observe that our results agree with the predicted values. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we extract the pole-mass of the lowest scalar and tensor glueballs from the temporal correlators at finite temperature. We see a clear evidence of the deconfined phase, and the transition appears to be similar to that of the two-dimensional XY model as expected from universality arguments. Our results show no significant changes in the glueball wave functions and masses in the deconfined phase.

  10. Magnetic structure and magnetization of helical antiferromagnets in high magnetic fields perpendicular to the helix axis at zero temperature (United States)

    Johnston, David C.


    The zero-temperature angles of magnetic moments in a helix or sinusoidal fan confined to the x y plane, with respect to an in-plane magnetic field Hx applied perpendicular to the z axis of a helix or fan, are calculated for commensurate helices and fans with field-independent turn angles k d between moments in adjacent layers of the helix or fan using the classical J0-J1-J2 Heisenberg model. For 0 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.014422] for single-crystal EuCo2P2 possessing a helix ground state with k d ≈0.85 π . The low-field magnetic susceptibility and the ratio Ht/Hc are calculated analytically or numerically versus k d for helices, and are shown to approach the respective known limits for k d →0 .

  11. A zero-gravity instrument to study low velocity collisions of fragile particles at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salter, D. M.; Heisselmann, D.; Chaparro, G.; van der Wolk, G.; Reissaus, P.; Borst, A. G.; Dawson, R. W.; de Kuyper, E.; Drinkwater, G.; Gebauer, K.; Hutcheon, M.; Linnartz, H.; Molster, F. J.; Stoll, B.; van der Tuijn, P. C.; Fraser, H. J.; Blum, J.

    We discuss the design, operation, and performance of a vacuum setup constructed for use in zero (or reduced) gravity conditions to initiate collisions of fragile millimeter-sized particles at low velocity and temperature. Such particles are typically found in many astronomical settings and in

  12. The temperature dependence of Cr3+ : YAG zero-phonon lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marceddu, Marco; Manca, Marianna; Ricci, Pier Carlo; Anedda, Alberto


    This paper deals with the photoluminescence temperature dependence of the zero-phonon lines of Cr3+ ions in an yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) matrix. Experimental data were analysed in the framework of electron-phonon coupling in the quadratic approximation and it was found that Cr3+ ions in the YAG

  13. Topological properties of function spaces $C_k(X,2)$ over zero-dimensional metric spaces $X$


    Gabriyelyan, S.


    Let $X$ be a zero-dimensional metric space and $X'$ its derived set. We prove the following assertions: (1) the space $C_k(X,2)$ is an Ascoli space iff $C_k(X,2)$ is $k_\\mathbb{R}$-space iff either $X$ is locally compact or $X$ is not locally compact but $X'$ is compact, (2) $C_k(X,2)$ is a $k$-space iff either $X$ is a topological sum of a Polish locally compact space and a discrete space or $X$ is not locally compact but $X'$ is compact, (3) $C_k(X,2)$ is a sequential space iff $X$ is a Pol...

  14. Novel Zero-Heat-Flux Deep Body Temperature Measurement in Lower Extremity Vascular and Cardiac Surgery. (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero


    The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of TLD's zero-count based on temperature and radiation history of them (United States)

    Tunçel, Nina; Karakuş, İsmail; Dündar, Ertuğrul; Toykan Çiflikçi, Özlem


    In order to review the background value of a group of TLD-100, the zero-count values were collected from the first reading and after seven years after using them in experimental irradiations. The zero-counts for these two conditions were collected, as well as the dependence of temperature and radiation history of this group was evaluated. This study recommended that after frequently irradiation of TLDs the rearrangement for obtaining zero-count value must be performed before using TLDs in a new irradiation examination. Regarding on memory of radiation and thermal history, the sensitivity can change after receiving a large dose of radiation and undergoing readout. Additional annealing would be necessary to restore the original sensitivity. TLDs must be used under reproducible conditions to obtain consistent results.

  16. Design of temperature-independent zero-birefringence pressure sensitive adhesives (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kosaka, Kaoru; Shafiee, Houran; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Oda, Sumihisa; Tagaya, Akihiro; Koike, Yasuhiro


    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are composed of two glass substrates, two polarizers and some optical films. These components are laminated by pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). When a polarizer shrinks by humidity or the heat from a backlight of LCDs, stress appears and deforms PSAs. PSAs tend to exhibit birefringence due to applied stress and temperature change, which causes light leakage degrading image quality of LCDs. PSAs are consisted of main chain polymers and cross-linkers. To evaluate birefringence of PSAs at room temperature is difficult because PSAs easily plastically deform at the temperature. The purpose of this article is to design temperature-independent zero-birefringence PSAs (TIZBPSAs) exhibiting almost no birefringence even during stress-induced deformation over a wide temperature range. Butyl acrylate (BA) and phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) were selected as the monomers of main chain polymers and an isocyanate-type cross-linker was added. Trilaminar films were prepared in which PSAs were sandwiched between two supporting films. We successfully evaluated birefringence and temperature dependence of birefringence of PSAs for the first time by using temperature-independent zero-birefringence polymers (TIZBPs) as the supporting films. TIZBPs, designed in our group, show almost no orientational birefringence even when the polymer main chain is in an oriented state and almost no temperature dependence of orientational birefringence over a wide temperature range. We have proposed a novel method to design PSAs having desirable the birefringence properties by determining the contributions of BA, PHEA and the cross-linker to birefringence and temperature dependence of PSAs quantitatively. Furthermore, we have designed TIZBPSAs by the proposed method.

  17. Coupling bosonic modes with a qubit: entanglement dynamics at zero and finite temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancio, Emanuele [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Viale Settimio Severo 65, 10133 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail:; Zanardi, Paolo [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Viale Settimio Severo 65, 10133 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail:


    We consider a system of two iso-spectral bosonic modes coupled with a single two-level systems i.e., a qubit. The dynamics is described by a mode-symmetric two-modes Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian. The entanglement, induced between the two bosonic modes, is analyzed and quantified by negativity. We computed the time evolution of negativity starting from an initial thermal state of the bosonic sector for both zero and finite temperature. We also studied the entangling power of the interaction as a function of mode-qubit detuning and its resilience against temperature increase. Finally a two-qubit gate based on bosonic virtual subsystem is discussed.

  18. Unobtrusive Monitoring of Neonatal Brain Temperature Using a Zero-Heat-Flux Sensor Matrix. (United States)

    Atallah, Louis; Bongers, Edwin; Lamichhane, Bishal; Bambang-Oetomo, Sidarto


    The temperature of preterm neonates must be maintained within a narrow window to ensure their survival. Continuously measuring their core temperature provides an optimal means of monitoring their thermoregulation and their response to environmental changes. However, existing methods of measuring core temperature can be very obtrusive, such as rectal probes, or inaccurate/lagging, such as skin temperature sensors and spot-checks using tympanic temperature sensors. This study investigates an unobtrusive method of measuring brain temperature continuously using an embedded zero-heat-flux (ZHF) sensor matrix placed under the head of the neonate. The measured temperature profile is used to segment areas of motion and incorrect positioning, where the neonate's head is not above the sensors. We compare our measurements during low motion/stable periods to esophageal temperatures for 12 preterm neonates, measured for an average of 5 h per neonate. The method we propose shows good correlation with the reference temperature for most of the neonates. The unobtrusive embedding of the matrix in the neonate's environment poses no harm or disturbance to the care work-flow, while measuring core temperature. To address the effect of motion on the ZHF measurements in the current embodiment, we recommend a more ergonomic embedding ensuring the sensors are continuously placed under the neonate's head.

  19. A dual-unit pressure sensor for on-chip self-compensation of zero-point temperature drift (United States)

    Wang, Jiachou; Li, Xinxin


    A novel dual-unit piezoresistive pressure sensor, consisting of a sensing unit and a dummy unit, is proposed and developed for on-chip self-compensation for zero-point temperature drift. With an MIS (microholes inter-etch and sealing) process implemented only from the front side of single (1 1 1) silicon wafers, a pressure sensitive unit and another identically structured pressure insensitive dummy unit are compactly integrated on-chip to eliminate unbalance factors induced zero-point temperature-drift by mutual compensation between the two units. Besides, both units are physically suspended from silicon substrate to further suppress packaging-stress induced temperature drift. A simultaneously processes ventilation hole-channel structure is connected with the pressure reference cavity of the dummy unit to make it insensitive to detected pressure. In spite of the additional dummy unit, the sensor chip dimensions are still as small as 1.2 mm × 1.2 mm × 0.4 mm. The proposed dual-unit sensor is fabricated and tested, with the tested sensitivity being 0.104 mV kPa-1 3.3 V-1, nonlinearity of less than 0.08% · FSO and overall accuracy error of ± 0.18% · FSO. Without using any extra compensation method, the sensor features an ultra-low temperature coefficient of offset (TCO) of 0.002% °C-1 · FSO that is much better than the performance of conventional pressure sensors. The highly stable and small-sized sensors are promising for low cost production and applications.

  20. Paramagnetism at ambient temperature, diamagnetism at low temperature in a Ru2(6+) core: structural evidence for zero-field splitting. (United States)

    Cotton, F Albert; Murillo, Carlos A; Reibenspies, Joseph H; Villagrán, Dino; Wang, Xiaoping; Wilkinson, Chad C


    Variable temperature magnetic studies of the Ru(2)(6+) guanidinate compounds Ru(2)(hpp)(4)Cl(2) (1) and Ru(2)(hpp)(4)(CF(3)SO(3))(2) (2) show that they are paramagnetic with two unpaired electrons at room temperature and that they appear essentially diamagnetic at 2 K. In neither compound do the Ru-Ru distances vary by more than 0.008(1) A from 27 to 296 K. This argues strongly that the ground state electronic configuration remains constant over this temperature range and that the decrease in magnetism as the temperature is lowered must be attributable to zero-field splitting of the (3)A(2g) ground state arising from the electronic configuration sigma(2)pi(4)delta(2)pi(2). The Ru-Ru distance in 1 is about 0.04-0.05 A longer than that in 2 which indicates that the Ru(2)(hpp)(4)(2+) core is quite sensitive to the nature of the axial ligands. The electronic spectra show three absorption bands for each compound.

  1. CFRP strengthening of concrete beams - testing in sub-zero temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Carolin, A.


    Strengthening structures with epoxy bonded Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) plates and sheets are today a well-known and over the world common used method to improve a structure performance. The composite materials used for strengthening are very light and easy to handle,. have good...... compared to the summer period? In this paper the last issue will be addressed. CFRP strengthen concrete beams have been tested in sub-zero temperature and loaded up to failure. The cold climate tests are then compared with similar beams tested in room climate. From the tests no significantly difference...

  2. Zero Power Warming - A New Technology for Investigating Plant Responses to Rising Temperature (United States)

    Ely, K.; Lewin, K. F.; McMahon, A. M.; Serbin, S.; Rogers, A.


    Investigation of terrestrial ecosystem responses to rising temperature often requires temperature manipulation of research plots, and there are many methods to achieve this. However, in remote locations where line power is unavailable and unattended operation is a requirement, passive warming using solar energy is often the only viable approach. Current open topped passive warming approaches are unable to elevate enclosure air temperatures by more than 2°C. Existing full enclosure designs are capable of reaching higher air temperatures but can experience undesirable high temperature excursions. The ability to simulate future climate conditions using modulated temperature manipulations is critical to understand the acclimation of plant functional and structural traits to rising temperature and to enable improved model projections of a warming planet. This is particularly true for the Arctic—our target environment—where projected temperature increases far surpass those possible to achieve using current passive warming technology. To meet the research need for improved passive warming technology we have designed and tested a Zero Power Warming (ZPW) chamber capable of unattended temperature elevation and modulation. The ZPW chamber uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders that control chamber venting. This allows the ZPW chamber to heat the enclosed plot to a higher temperature than an open topped chamber but avoid the overheating typical of fully enclosed chambers. Here we describe the technology behind the ZPW and present data from a temperate prototype that was able to elevate and modulate the internal air temperature by 8°C, a marked increase over existing passive warming approaches. We also present new data from a recently deployed Arctic prototype. Whilst the ZPW chambers were designed for the Arctic, the concept described here can be adapted for many research


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors report the current status of the systematic studies of the QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with two flavors of improved Wilson quarks. They evaluate the critical temperature of two flavor QCD in the chiral limit at zero chemical potential and show the preliminary result. Also they discuss fluctuations at none-zero temperature and density by calculating the quark number and isospin susceptibilities and their derivatives with respect to chemical potential.

  4. Model of discontinuous plastic flow at temperature close to absolute zero

    CERN Document Server

    Marcinek, Dawid Jarosław; Sgobba, Stefano

    In the present study cryogenic tensile tests performed on different materials (316LN, JK2LB) were used. The discontinuous plastic flow phenomenon was analysed, in order to develop a constitutive model of serrated yielding as a support for analysis of structural materials at low temperatures. Devices and structures, cooled be means of liquid helium, operate at the temperatures equal or lower than 4.2 K, which for the examined materials is below the transition threshold between screw and edge dislocations. It is considered a threshold for the appearance of DPF consisting in cyclic drop of load followed by deformation jumps and generation of heat. Temperature oscillations resulting from the thermodynamic instability in stainless steel can be of the order of dT = 40 K, which is exceptionally dangerous for superconducting cables. Suitably calibrated numerical algorithm allows prediction of the behaviour of the material subjected to deformation at low temperatures. The issues presented in the present study are curr...

  5. Nowhere-zero 3-flows and modulo k-orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovász, László Miklós; Thomassen, Carsten; Wu, Yezhou


    The main theorem of this paper provides partial results on some major open problems in graph theory, such as Tutteʼs 3-flow conjecture (from the 1970s) that every 4-edge connected graph admits a nowhere-zero 3-flow, the conjecture of Jaeger, Linial, Payan and Tarsi (1992) that every 5-edge-connec...

  6. Uniform Order Zero- Stable K-Step Block Methods For Initial Value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... successive steps movement at a time (block steps). Numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the new procedures. Keywords: Zero stability, Hybrid, k–step, Block methods, first order initial value problem. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 65 – 74 ...

  7. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Lewin


    Full Text Available Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. However, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by  ∼  1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be  ∼  2–3 °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. The approach we describe is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming

  8. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature (United States)

    Lewin, Keith F.; McMahon, Andrew M.; Ely, Kim S.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Rogers, Alistair


    Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. However, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by ˜ 1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be ˜ 2-3 °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW) chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. The approach we describe is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming approaches is desired.

  9. Quantum and classical vacuum forces at zero and finite temperature; Quantentheoretische und klassische Vakuum-Kraefte bei Temperatur Null und bei endlicher Temperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niekerken, Ole


    In this diploma thesis the Casimir-Polder force at zero temperature and at finite temperatures is calculated by using a well-defined quantum field theory (formulated in position space) and the method of image charges. For the calculations at finite temperature KMS-states are used. The so defined temperature describes the temperature of the electromagnetic background. A one oscillator model for inhomogeneous dispersive absorbing dielectric material is introduced and canonically quantized to calculate the Casimir-Polder force at a dielectric interface at finite temperature. The model fulfils causal commutation relations and the dielectric function of the model fulfils the Kramer-Kronig relations. We then use the same methods to calculate the van der Waals force between two neutral atoms at zero temperature and at finite temperatures. It is shown that the high temperature behaviour of the Casimir-Polder force and the van der Waals force are independent of {Dirac_h}. This means that they have to be understood classically, what is then shown in an algebraic statistical theory by using classical KMS states. (orig.)

  10. Zero-temperature equation of state of mass-imbalanced resonant Fermi gases. (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Drut, Joaquín E; Roscher, Dietrich


    We calculate the zero-temperature equation of state of mass-imbalanced resonant Fermi gases in an ab initio fashion, by implementing the recent proposal of imaginary-valued mass difference to bypass the sign problem in lattice Monte Carlo calculations. The fully nonperturbative results thus obtained are analytically continued to real mass-imbalance to yield the physical equation of state, providing predictions for upcoming experiments with mass-imbalanced atomic Fermi gases. In addition, we present an exact relation for the rate of change of the equation of state at small mass imbalances, showing that it is fully determined by the energy of the mass-balanced system.

  11. Fluctuation induced diamagnetism in the zero magnetic field limit in a low temperature superconducting alloy. (United States)

    Mosqueira, J; Carballeira, C; Vidal, F


    By using a Pb-18 at. % In alloy, the fluctuation induced diamagnetism was measured in the zero magnetic field limit, never observed until now in a low-T(C) superconductor. This allows us to disentangle the dynamic and the nonlocal electrodynamic effects from the short-wavelength fluctuation effects. The latter may be explained on the grounds of the Gaussian-Ginzburg-Landau approach by introducing a total energy cutoff in the fluctuation spectrum, which strongly suggests the existence of a well-defined temperature in the normal state above which all fluctuating modes vanish. This conclusion may also have implications when describing the superconducting state formation of the high-T(C) cuprates.

  12. Critical behavior of 3D Z(N) lattice gauge theories at zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisenko, O., E-mail: [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Chelnokov, V., E-mail: [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Cortese, G., E-mail: [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gravina, M., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Papa, A., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Surzhikov, I., E-mail: [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine)


    Three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at zero temperature are studied for various values of N. Using a modified phenomenological renormalization group, we explore the critical behavior of the generalized Z(N) model for N=2,3,4,5,6,8. Numerical computations are used to simulate vector models for N=2,3,4,5,6,8,13,20 for lattices with linear extension up to L=96. We locate the critical points of phase transitions and establish their scaling with N. The values of the critical indices indicate that the models with N>4 belong to the universality class of the three-dimensional XY model. However, the exponent α derived from the heat capacity is consistent with the Ising universality class. We discuss a possible resolution of this puzzle.

  13. Holographic s+p insulator/superconductor phase transition at zero temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li


    Full Text Available We study the holographic s+p insulator/superconductor phase transition at zero temperature by using the model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU(2 gauge field in anti-de Sitter (AdS soliton background. In this model, besides the insulator phase, s-wave condensate phase and p-wave condensate phase, the s+p coexisting condensate phase is found numerically when operator dimension Δ is greater than a critical value Δc. We also construct the complete phase diagram in Δ−μ plane, which shows the s+p coexisting region is very narrow. Furthermore, we calculate the corresponding conductivities for different phases. The delta function support for the real part of conductivity of the spontaneous breaking phases is also revealed numerically as expected for the superconducting phases.

  14. In-situ investigation of martensite formation in AISI 52100 bearing steel at sub-zero Celsius temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Pantleon, Karen


    Martensite formation in AISI 52100 bearing steel at sub-zero Celsius temperature was investigated with Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. The investigation reports the stabilization of retained austenite in quenched samples during storage at room temperature and reveals the thermally activated nature...

  15. Zero-Heat-Flux Thermometry for Non-Invasive Measurement of Core Body Temperature in Pigs. (United States)

    Guschlbauer, Maria; Maul, Alexandra C; Yan, Xiaowei; Herff, Holger; Annecke, Thorsten; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Böttiger, Bernd W; Schroeder, Daniel C


    Hypothermia is a severe, unpleasant side effect during general anesthesia. Thus, temperature surveillance is a prerequisite in general anesthesia settings during experimental surgeries. The gold standard to measure the core body temperature (Tcore) is placement of a Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery, which is a highly invasive procedure. Therefore, Tcore is commonly examined in the urine bladder and rectum. However, these procedures are known for their inaccuracy and delayed record of temperatures. Zero-heat-flux (ZHF) thermometry is an alternative, non-invasive method quantifying Tcore in human patients by applying a thermosensoric patch to the lateral forehead. Since the porcine cranial anatomy is different to the human's, the optimal location of the patch remains unclear to date. The aim was to compare three different patch locations of ZHF thermometry in a porcine hypothermia model. Hypothermia (33.0 °C Tcore) was conducted in 11 anesthetized female pigs (26-30 kg). Tcore was measured continuously by an invasive Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery (Tpulm). A ZHF thermometry device was mounted on three different defined locations. The smallest average difference between Tpulm and TZHF during stable temperatures was 0.21 ± 0.16 °C at location A, where the patch was placed directly behind the eye. Also during rapidly changing temperatures location A showed the smallest bias with 0.48 ± 0.29 °C. Location A provided the most reliable data for Tcore. Therefore, the ZHF thermometry patch should be placed directly behind the left temporal corner of the eye to provide a non-invasive method for accurate measurement of Tcore in pigs.

  16. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials (United States)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.


    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  17. Study of the Rare Charmless Hadronic B Meson Decays B-zero to phi K-zero and B-zero to K-star-plus pi-minus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjomshoaa, A


    This thesis describes the analyses of the rare charmless hadronic B meson decays B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0} and B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, using 20.58 fb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} data taken at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. The data were taken with the BABAR detector during its first run at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Measurements of these modes using a counting technique are presented with the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0}) = (9.3 {+-} 3.4(stat.) {+-} 1.1(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} with a significance of 4.9{sigma}, and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (20.8 {+-} 9.3(stat.) {+-} 2.1(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} with a significance of 3.0{sigma}. For the latter, an upper limit of {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) < 38.9 x 10{sup -6} was calculated at 90% confidence limit. The branching fraction of a calibration mode was measured using the same method, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = (3.59 {+-} 0.29(stat.) {+-} 0.35(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}.

  18. Removal of singularity in radial Langmuir probe models for non-zero ion temperature (United States)

    Regodón, Guillermo Fernando; Fernández Palop, José Ignacio; Tejero-del-Caz, Antonio; Díaz-Cabrera, Juan Manuel; Carmona-Cabezas, Rafael; Ballesteros, Jerónimo


    We solve a radial theoretical model that describes the ion sheath around a cylindrical Langmuir probe with finite non-zero ion temperature in which singularity in an a priori unknown point prevents direct integration. The singularity appears naturally in fluid models when the velocity of the ions reaches the local ion speed of sound. The solutions are smooth and continuous and are valid from the plasma to the probe with no need for asymptotic matching. The solutions that we present are valid for any value of the positive ion to electron temperature ratio and for any constant polytropic coefficient. The model is numerically solved to obtain the electric potential and the ion population density profiles for any given positive ion current collected by the probe. The ion-current to probe-voltage characteristic curves and the Sonin plot are calculated in order to use the results of the model in plasma diagnosis. The proposed methodology is adaptable to other geometries and in the presence of other presheath mechanisms.

  19. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Wang, Cong, E-mail: [Center for Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wu, Hui; Huang, Qingzhen [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States)


    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  20. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn3+xNi1-xN (United States)

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Wu, Hui; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Qingzhen; Wang, Cong


    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn3+xNi1-xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn3+xNi1-xN from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  1. Theoretical approaches to the temperature and zero-point motion effects on the electronic band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, X. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1, Place Croix du Sud, 1348 Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Boulanger, P. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1, Place Croix du Sud, 1348 Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Cote, M. [Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)


    The modifications of the electronic band structure of solids due to electron-phonon interactions (temperature and zero-point motion effects) have been explored by Manuel Cardona from both the experimental and theoretical sides. In the present contribution, we focus on the theoretical approaches to such effects. Although the situation has improved since the seventies, the wish for a fully developed theory (and associated efficient implementations) is not yet fulfilled. We review noticeable semi-empirical and first-principle studies, with a special emphasis on the Allen-Heine-Cardona (AHC) approach. We then focus on the non-diagonal Debye-Waller contribution, appearing beyond the rigid-ion approximation, in a Density-Functional Theory (DFT) approach. A numerical study shows that they can be sizeable (10%-50%) for diatomic molecules. We also present the basic idea of a new formalism, based on Density-Functional Perturbation Theory, that allows one to avoid the sums over a large number of empty states, and speed up the calculation by one order of magnitude, compared to the straightforward implementation of the AHC approach within DFT. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Reptilian uncoupling protein: functionality and expression in sub-zero temperatures. (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Sibille, Brigitte; Romestaing, Caroline; Belouze, Maud; Letexier, Dominique; Servais, Stéphane; Barré, Hervé; Duchamp, Claude; Voituron, Yann


    Here we report the partial nucleotide sequence of a reptilian uncoupling protein (repUCP) gene from the European common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). Overlapping sequence analysis reveals that the protein shows 55%, 72% and 77% sequence homology with rat UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3, respectively, and 73% with bird and fish UCPs. RepUCP gene expression was ubiquitously detected in 4 degrees C cold-acclimated lizard tissues and upregulated in muscle tissues by a 20 h exposure to sub-zero temperatures in a supercooling state or after thawing. In parallel, we show an increase in the co-activators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), mRNA expression, suggesting that the mechanisms regulating UCP expression may be conserved between mammals (endotherms) and reptiles (ectotherms). Furthermore, mitochondria extracted from lizard skeletal muscle showed a guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-sensitive non phosphorylating respiration. This last result indicates an inhibition of extra proton leakage mediated by an uncoupling protein, providing arguments that repUCP is functional in lizard tissues. This result is associated with a remarkable GDP-dependent increase in mitochondrial endogenous H(2)O(2) production. All together, these data support a physiological role of the repUCP in superoxide limitation by lizard mitochondria in situations of stressful oxidative reperfusion following a re-warming period in winter.

  3. Zero field splitting fluctuations induced phase relaxation of Gd3+ in frozen solutions at cryogenic temperatures. (United States)

    Raitsimring, A; Dalaloyan, A; Collauto, A; Feintuch, A; Meade, T; Goldfarb, D


    Distance measurements using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) and Gd(3+) chelates for spin labels (GdSL) have been shown to be an attractive alternative to nitroxide spin labels at W-band (95GHz). The maximal distance that can be accessed by DEER measurements and the sensitivity of such measurements strongly depends on the phase relaxation of Gd(3+) chelates in frozen, glassy solutions. In this work, we explore the phase relaxation of Gd(3+)-DOTA as a representative of GdSL in temperature and concentration ranges typically used for W-band DEER measurements. We observed that in addition to the usual mechanisms of phase relaxation known for nitroxide based spin labels, GdSL are subjected to an additional phase relaxation mechanism that features an increase in the relaxation rate from the center to the periphery of the EPR spectrum. Since the EPR spectrum of GdSL is the sum of subspectra of the individual EPR transitions, we attribute this field dependence to transition dependent phase relaxation. Using simulations of the EPR spectra and its decomposition into the individual transition subspectra, we isolated the phase relaxation of each transition and found that its rate increases with |ms|. We suggest that this mechanism is due to transient zero field splitting (tZFS), where its magnitude and correlation time are scaled down and distributed as compared with similar situations in liquids. This tZFS induced phase relaxation mechanism becomes dominant (or at least significant) when all other well-known phase relaxation mechanisms, such as spectral diffusion caused by nuclear spin diffusion, instantaneous and electron spin spectral diffusion, are significantly suppressed by matrix deuteration and low concentration, and when the temperature is sufficiently low to disable spin lattice interaction as a source of phase relaxation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As part of the APT project, it was necessary to quantify the release of tungsten from the APT spallation target during postulated accident conditions in order to develop accident source terms for accident consequence characterization. Experiments with tungsten rods at high temperatures in a flowing steam environment characteristic of postulated accidents revealed that considerable vaporization of the tungsten occurred as a result of reactions with the steam and that the aerosols which formed were readily transported away from the tungsten surfaces, thus exposing fresh tungsten to react with more steam. The resulting tungsten release fractions and source terms were undesirable and it was decided to clad the tungsten target with Inconel 718 in order to protect it from contact with steam during an accident and mitigate the accident source term and the consequences. As part of the material selection criteria, experiments were conducted with Inconel 718 at high temperatures to evaluate the rate of oxidation of the proposed clad material over as wide a temperature range as possible, as well as to determine the high-temperature failure limit of the material. Samples of Inconel 718 were inserted into a preheated furnace at temperatures ranging from 973 K to 1620 K and oxidized in air for varying periods of time. After oxidizing in air at a constant temperature for the prescribed time and then being allowed to cool, the samples would be reweighed to determine their weight gain due to the uptake of oxygen. From these weight gain measurements, it was possible to identify three regimes of oxidation for Inconel 718: a low-temperature regime in which the samples became passivated after the initial oxidation, an intermediate-temperature regime in which the rate of oxidation was limited by diffusion and exhibited a constant parabolic rate dependence, and a high-temperature regime in which material deformation and damage accompanied an accelerated oxidation rate above the parabolic

  5. A variable temperature EPR study of Mn(2+)-doped NH(4)Cl(0.9)I(0.1) single crystal at 170 GHz: zero-field splitting parameter and its absolute sign. (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K; Andronenko, Serguei I; Chand, Prem; Earle, Keith A; Paschenko, Sergei V; Freed, Jack H


    EPR measurements have been carried out on a single crystal of Mn(2+)-doped NH(4)Cl(0.9)I(0.1) at 170-GHz in the temperature range of 312-4.2K. The spectra have been analyzed (i) to estimate the spin-Hamiltonian parameters; (ii) to study the temperature variation of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter; (iii) to confirm the negative absolute sign of the ZFS parameter unequivocally from the temperature-dependent relative intensities of hyperfine sextets at temperatures below 10K; and (iv) to detect the occurrence of a structural phase transition at 4.35K from the change in the structure of the EPR lines with temperature below 10K.

  6. Random-field Ising model: Insight from zero-temperature simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Theodorakis


    Full Text Available We enlighten some critical aspects of the three-dimensional (d=3 random-field Ising model (RFIM from simulations performed at zero temperature. We consider two different, in terms of the field distribution, versions of model, namely a Gaussian RFIM and an equal-weight trimodal RFIM. By implementing a computational approach that maps the ground-state of the system to the maximum-flow optimization problem of a network, we employ the most up-to-date version of the push-relabel algorithm and simulate large ensembles of disorder realizations of both models for a broad range of random-field values and systems sizes V=LxLxL, where L denotes linear lattice size and Lmax=156. Using as finite-size measures the sample-to-sample fluctuations of various quantities of physical and technical origin, and the primitive operations of the push-relabel algorithm, we propose, for both types of distributions, estimates of the critical field hmax and the critical exponent ν of the correlation length, the latter clearly suggesting that both models share the same universality class. Additional simulations of the Gaussian RFIM at the best-known value of the critical field provide the magnetic exponent ratio β/ν with high accuracy and clear out the controversial issue of the critical exponent α of the specific heat. Finally, we discuss the infinite-limit size extrapolation of energy- and order-parameter-based noise to signal ratios related to the self-averaging properties of the model, as well as the critical slowing down aspects of the algorithm.

  7. Measurement of the primary phodesorption yield at 4.2 K, 77 K and room temperature in a quasi-closed geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V


    In the context of the Large Hadron Collider project, the normal incidence photodesorption yield of neutral gases from a stainless steel surface has been measured at 4.2 K, 77 K and room temperature. The yields were measured using a synchrotron radiation photon beam with a critical energy of 45.3 eV, which is very near that to be expected in the LHC. It has been shown that the primary photodesorption yield decrease with decreasing temperature. The gases desorbed were H2, CH4, CO and CO2. At 4.2 K and 77 K the H2O primary photodesorption yield was practically zero. At room temperature the primary photodesorption yields were 5 10-4, 1.6 10-5, 2.5 10-4 and 2.2 10-4 molecules photon-1 respectively for H2, CH4, CO and CO2. At 77 K the primary photodesorption yields of H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were reduced by factors of 2, 4, 17 and 32 respectively with respect to room temperature. At 4.2 K, these corresponding reduction factors were 14, 20, 42 and 31.

  8. Flexible Dielectric Nanocomposites with Ultrawide Zero-Temperature Coefficient Windows for Electrical Energy Storage and Conversion under Extreme Conditions. (United States)

    Shehzad, Khurram; Xu, Yang; Gao, Chao; Li, Hanying; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hasan, Tawfique; Luo, Jack; Duan, Xiangfeng


    Polymer dielectrics offer key advantages over their ceramic counterparts such as flexibility, scalability, low cost, and high breakdown voltages. However, a major drawback that limits more widespread application of polymer dielectrics is their temperature-dependent dielectric properties. Achieving dielectric constants with low/zero-temperature coefficient (L/0TC) over a broad temperature range is essential for applications in diverse technologies. Here, we report a hybrid filler strategy to produce polymer composites with an ultrawide L/0TC window of dielectric constant, as well as a significantly enhanced dielectric value, maximum energy storage density, thermal conductivity, and stability. By creating a series of percolative polymer composites, we demonstrated hybrid carbon filler based composites can exhibit a zero-temperature coefficient window of 200 °C (from -50 to 150 °C), the widest 0TC window for all polymer composite dielectrics reported to date. We further show the electric and dielectric temperature coefficient of the composites is highly stable against stretching and bending, even under AC electric field with frequency up to 1 MHz. We envision that our method will push the functional limits of polymer dielectrics for flexible electronics in extreme conditions such as in hybrid vehicles, aerospace, power electronics, and oil/gas exploration.

  9. Temperature dependence of the critical current of the superconducting microladder in zero magnetic field: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, H.J. (Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (USA)); Buisson, O.; Pannetier, B. (Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperature, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Boite Postale 166X, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX, France (FR))


    The largest supercurrent which can be injected into a superconducting microladder was calculated as a function of nodal spacing {ital scrL} and temperature for zero magnetic flux using (i) exact solutions of the Ginzburg-Landau equation in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions and (ii) approximate solutions in terms of hyperbolic functions. The agreement is good for {ital scrL}/{xi}({ital T}){lt}3, where {xi}({ital T}) is the temperature-dependent coherence length. Since solution (ii) is much simpler than solution (i), it is of considerable value when calculating critical currents of micronets with nodal spacings comparable to {xi}({ital T}). We find that the temperature-dependent critical current deviates significantly from the classical 3/2 power law of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. Preliminary experiments on a submicrometer ladder confirm such deviations.

  10. Zero thermal expansion and ferromagnetism in cubic Sc(1-x)M(x)F3 (M = Ga, Fe) over a wide temperature range. (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Rong, Yangchun; Pan, Zhao; Deng, Jinxia; Yu, Ranbo; Xing, Xianran


    The rare physical property of zero thermal expansion (ZTE) is intriguing because neither expansion nor contraction occurs with temperature fluctuations. Most ZTE, however, occurs below room temperature. It is a great challenge to achieve isotropic ZTE at high temperatures. Here we report the unconventional isotropic ZTE in the cubic (Sc1-xMx)F3 (M = Ga, Fe) over a wide temperature range (linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), αl = 2.34 × 10(-7) K(-1), 300-900 K). Such a broad temperature range with a considerably negligible CTE has rarely been documented. The present ZTE property has been designed using the introduction of local distortions in the macroscopic cubic lattice by heterogeneous cation substitution for the Sc site. Even though the macroscopic crystallographic structure of (Sc0.85Ga0.05Fe0.1)F3 adheres to the cubic system (Pm3̅m) according to the results of X-ray diffraction, the local structure exhibits a slight rhombohedral distortion. This is confirmed by pair distribution function analysis of synchrotron radiation X-ray total scattering. This local distortion may weaken the contribution from the transverse thermal vibration of fluorine atoms to negative thermal expansion, and thus may presumably be responsible for the ZTE. In addition, the present ZTE compounds of (Sc1-xMx)F3 can be functionalized to exhibit high-Tc ferromagnetism and a narrow-gap semiconductor feature. The present study shows the possibility of obtaining ZTE materials with multifunctionality in future work.

  11. An efficient solution of Liouville-von Neumann equation that is applicable to zero and finite temperatures. (United States)

    Tian, Heng; Chen, GuanHua


    Application of quantum dissipation theory to electronic dynamics has been limited to model systems with few energy levels, and its numerical solutions are mostly restricted to high temperatures. A highly accurate and efficient numerical algorithm, which is based on the Chebyshev spectral method, is developed to integrate a single-particle Liouville-von Neumann equation, and the two long-standing limitations of quantum dissipation theory are resolved in the context of quantum transport. Its computational time scales to O(N(3)) with N being the number of orbitals involved, which leads to a reality for the quantum mechanical simulation of real open systems containing hundreds or thousands of atomic orbitals. More importantly, the algorithm spans both finite and zero temperatures. Numerical calculations are carried out to simulate the transient current through a metallic wire containing up to 1000 orbitals.

  12. Equation of state calculations for two-dimensional dust coulomb crystal at near zero temperature by molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouder, M., E-mail:; Kermoun, F.; Mitiche, M. D.; Lamrous, O. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri Tizi-Ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)


    Dust particles observed in universe as well as in laboratory and technological plasma devices are still under investigation. At low temperature, these particles are strongly negatively charged and are able to form a 2D or 3D coulomb crystal. In this work, our aim was to check the ideal gas law validity for a 2D single-layer dust crystal recently reported in the literature. For this purpose, we have simulated, using the molecular dynamics method, its thermodynamic properties for different values of dust particles number and confinement parameters. The obtained results have allowed us to invalidate the ideal gas behaviour and to propose an effective equation of state which assumes a near zero dust temperature. Furthermore, the value of the calculated sound velocity was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data published elsewhere.

  13. Electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1314 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=763 K), from 551 K to temperature as high as 1314 K, that is, 391 above the boiling point of the salt. The specific electrical conductance was found to reach its maximum at 1143 K, after that it decreases with the temperature rising.

  14. Dispersion forces in micromechanics: Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces affected by geometry and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Aadnoey


    The present thesis focuses on several topics within three separate but related branches of the overall field of dispersion forces. The three branches are: temperature corrections to the Casimir force between real materials (Part 1), explicit calculation of Casimir energy in wedge geometries (Part 2), and Casimir-Polder forces on particles out of thermal equilibrium (Part 3). Part 1 deals primarily with analysis of a previously purported thermodynamic inconsistency in the Casimir-Lifshitz free energy of the interaction of two plane mirrors - violation of the third law of thermodynamics - when the latter's dielectric response is described with dissipative models. It is shown analytically and numerically that the Casimir entropy of the interaction between two metallic mirrors described by the Drude model does tend to zero at zero temperature, provided electronic relaxation does not vanish. The leading order terms at low temperature are found. A similar calculation is carried out for the interaction of semiconductors with small but non-zero DC conductivity. In a generalisation, it is shown that a violation of the third law can only occur for permittivities whose low-frequency behaviour is temperature dependent near zero temperature. A calculation using path integral methods shows that the low temperature behaviour of the interaction of fluctuating Foucault currents in two mirrors of Drude metal is identical to that of the full Casimir-Lifshitz free energy, reasserting a previous finding by Intravaia and Henkel that such fluctuating bulk currents are the physical reason for the anomalous entropy behaviour. In a related effort, an analysis of the frequency dependence of the Casimir force by Ford is generalised to imperfectly reflecting mirrors. A paradox is pointed out, in that the effects of a perturbation of the reflecting properties of the mirrors in a finite frequency window can be calculated in two ways giving different results. It is concluded that optimistic

  15. Near-Zero-Power Temperature Sensing via Tunneling Currents Through Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistors. (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Mercier, Patrick P


    Temperature sensors are routinely found in devices used to monitor the environment, the human body, industrial equipment, and beyond. In many such applications, the energy available from batteries or the power available from energy harvesters is extremely limited due to limited available volume, and thus the power consumption of sensing should be minimized in order to maximize operational lifetime. Here we present a new method to transduce and digitize temperature at very low power levels. Specifically, two pA current references are generated via small tunneling-current metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) that are independent and proportional to temperature, respectively, which are then used to charge digitally-controllable banks of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors that, via a discrete-time feedback loop that equalizes charging time, digitize temperature directly. The proposed temperature sensor was integrated into a silicon microchip and occupied 0.15 mm2 of area. Four tested microchips were measured to consume only 113 pW with a resolution of 0.21 °C and an inaccuracy of ±1.65 °C, which represents a 628× reduction in power compared to prior-art without a significant reduction in performance.

  16. Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge at zero and finite temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhardt H.


    Full Text Available I report on recent results obtained within the Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge. By relating the Gribov confinement scenario to the center vortex picture of confinement it is shown that the Coulomb string tension is tied to the spatial string tension. For the quark sector a vacuum wave functional is used which results in variational equations which are free of ultraviolet divergences. The variational approach is extended to finite temperatures by compactifying a spatial dimension. For the chiral and deconfinement phase transition pseudo-critical temperatures of 170MeV and 198 MeV, respectively, are obtained.

  17. QSATS: MPI-driven quantum simulations of atomic solids at zero temperature (United States)

    Hinde, Robert J.


    We describe QSATS, a parallel code for performing variational path integral simulations of the quantum mechanical ground state of monatomic solids. QSATS is designed to treat Boltzmann quantum solids, in which individual atoms are permanently associated with distinguishable crystal lattice sites and undergo large-amplitude zero-point motions around these sites. We demonstrate the capabilities of QSATS by using it to compute the total energy and potential energy of hexagonal close packed solid 4He at the density ρ=4.61421×10a0-3. Program summaryProgram title:QSATS Catalogue identifier: AEJE_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7329 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 61 685 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: QSATS should execute on any distributed parallel computing system that has the Message Passing Interface (MPI) [1] libraries installed. Operating system: Unix or Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI [1]. RAM: The memory requirements of QSATS depend on both the number of atoms in the crystal and the number of replicas in the variational path integral chain. For parameter sets A and C (described in the long write-up), approximately 4.5 Mbytes and 12 Mbytes, respectively, are required for data storage by QSATS (exclusive of the executable code). Classification: 7.7, 16.13. External routines: Message Passing Interface (MPI) [1] Nature of problem: QSATS simulates the quantum mechanical ground state for a monatomic crystal characterized by large-amplitude zero-point motions of individual (distinguishable) atoms around their nominal lattice sites. Solution method: QSATS employs

  18. Global cold curve. New representation for zero-temperature isotherm in whole density range

    CERN Document Server

    Iosilevskiy, Igor


    Non-standard representation for so-called "cold curve" of matter (i.e. isotherm $T = 0$) is proposed as Global Cold Curve (GCC). The main point is that chemical potential of substance, $\\mu$, plays role of ruling parameter in basic GCC-dependence of internal energy under compression, $U = U(\\mu)$, in contrast to the standard form $U = U(\\rho)$. This substitution changes radically low-density ("gaseous") part of GCC. Namely: ($i$) - physically meaningless part of standard cold curve $(U(\\rho)$ at $T \\rightarrow 0)$ disappears totally from new version of GCC. This deleted part corresponded to absolutely thermodynamically unstable states in standard representation $U(\\rho)$; ($ii$) - new gaseous branch of cold curve, $U = U(\\mu)$, comes in GCC. It describes in simple, schematic way thermodynamics of whole gas-like plasma in low-temperature limit (Iosilevskiy: arXiv:0902.3708) as combination of all ionization and dissociation processes available for equilibrium plasma at finite temperature. This gaseous branch co...

  19. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part One: Zero-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Casseau


    Full Text Available A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrational-electronic temperatures. hy2Foam has the capability to model vibrational-translational and vibrational-vibrational energy exchanges in an eleven-species air mixture. It makes use of either the Park TTv model or the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV model to handle chemistry-vibration coupling and it can simulate flows with or without electronic energy. Verification of the code for various zero-dimensional adiabatic heat baths of progressive complexity has been carried out. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with those given by the CFD code LeMANS (The Michigan Aerothermodynamic Navier-Stokes solver and previously published data. A comparison is also performed with the open-source DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code dsmcFoam. It has been demonstrated that the use of the CVDV model and rates derived from Quantum-Kinetic theory promote a satisfactory consistency between the CFD and DSMC chemistry modules.

  20. Intraoperative temperature monitoring with zero heat flux technology (3M SpotOn sensor) in comparison with sublingual and nasopharyngeal temperature: An observational study. (United States)

    Iden, Timo; Horn, Ernst-Peter; Bein, Berthold; Böhm, Ruwen; Beese, Janne; Höcker, Jan


    Perioperative hypothermia is common in patients undergoing general anaesthesia and is associated with important adverse events. The 'gold standard' for monitoring body core temperature - the pulmonary artery catheter - is invasive and unsuitable for most patients. For routine clinical practice, other sites and methods of temperature monitoring are commonly used. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new temperature sensor (3M SpotOn) using the 'zero heat flux' method attached to the forehead, and compare it to sublingual and nasopharyngeal sensors in terms of correlation, accuracy and precision. An observational study. University Medical Center Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany from October 2013 to January 2014. One hundred and twenty patients scheduled for elective gynaecological or trauma surgery undergoing general anaesthesia were enrolled into this study. Data of 83 patients were finally analysed. Patients with unexpected blood loss, haemodynamic instability determined by the need for continuous norepinephrine infusion and/or need for postoperative ventilation were excluded from this study. Temperature monitoring was established after induction of anaesthesia with sublingual and nasopharyngeal probes, and the SpotOn sensor. Body temperature was measured 15, 45 and 75 min after induction of anaesthesia from sublingual and nasopharyngeal probes and the 3M SpotOn sensor at precisely the same moment. Analysis of 83 data sets revealed that 3M SpotOn temperatures were almost identical with nasopharyngeal temperatures (mean difference 0.07 °C; P = 0.1424) and slightly lower than sublingual temperatures by 0.35 °C (P sensor provides a good measurement of body temperature in comparison to the nasopharyngeal probe and an acceptable measurement in comparison with sublingual thermometry. It is adequate for clinical use. identifier: NCT02031159.

  1. Absolute Zero (United States)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.


    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  2. Effect of cooling to different sub-zero temperatures on boar sperm cryosurvival


    Angelica Garcia-Olivares; Cesar Garzon-Perez; Oscar Gutierrez-Perez; Alfredo Medrano


    Objective: To compare different cooling temperatures before ice formation on pig sperm quality, before and after cryopreservation. Methods: Semen diluted in BF5 was cooled from 23 °C to 5 °C (1% glycerol, 200 × 106 cells/mL). Sperm were packaged in plastic straws, and maintained at +5 °C per 16 h. 1. Freezing point of diluted spermatozoa was determined by exposing straws to nitrogen vapors. 2. Straws (at +5 °C) were further cooled to −3 °C, −5 °C, and −7 °C, and rewarmed. 3. Straws (at +5 ...

  3. Bacterial survival in response to desiccation and high humidity at above zero and subzero temperatures (United States)

    Yang, Yinjie; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko


    Earthly microorganisms might have contaminated Mars for millions of years by intellectual activities or natural transfer. Knowledge on the preservation of microorganisms may help our searching for life on outer planets, particularly Mars-contaminated earthly microorganisms at ancient time. Extreme dryness is one of the current Mars characteristics. However, a humid or watery Mars at earlier time was suggested by evidence accumulated in recent decades. It raises the question that whether water helps preservation of the microorganisms or not, particularly those with high possibility of interplanetary transfer like spores and Deinococci. In this study, we examined the effects of desiccation and high humidity on survival and DNA double strand breaks (DSB) of Escherichia coli, Deinococcus radiodurans and spores of Bacillus pumilus at 25, 4 and -70 °C. They exhibited different survival rates and DSB patterns under desiccation and high humidity. Higher survival and less DSB occurred at lower temperature. We suggest that some Mars-contaminated bacteria might have been viably preserved on cold Mars regions for long periods, regardless of water availability. It is more likely to find ancient spores than ancient Deinococci on Mars. In our search for preserved extraterrestrial life, priority should be given to the Mars Polar Regions.

  4. [Partial k-space sampling with zero filling used with phase-contrast flow measurements: in vivo and in vitro validation]. (United States)

    Pertschy, S; Meyer, G P; Waalkes, S; Doeker, R; Koshedub, R; Noeske, R; Galanski, M; Lotz, J


    To validate the technique of partial k-space sampling and zero filling with phase-contrast flow measurements as compared to measurements with full k-space sampling. In vitro: A laminar flow phantom was utilized to evaluate the effect of partial k-space sampling on the accuracy, precision and signal-to-noise ratio of phase-contrast flow measurements. In vivo: The effect of partial k-space sampling on the quantification of cardiac output (n = 40 patients) and the duration of the scan were evaluated in the ascending aorta (n = 37) and pulmonary trunk (n = 34) in a prospective study. Partial k-space sampling resulted in an increase in the SNR by 2 % in vitro. The precision was altered by less than 1 %. Flow volumes were systematically overestimated by 3.5 %. No significant differences were found in the in vivo measurements of cardiac output. The scan duration was reduced by 34 % by utilizing partial k-space sampling. Partial k-space sampling can be used to reduce scan time without a significant decrease in the accuracy or precision of phase-contrast flow measurements in large arteries.

  5. Dioctahedral smectite reactions at elevated temperatures: Effects of K-availability, Na/K ratio and ionic strength (United States)

    Whitney, G.


    Hydrothermal experiments were conducted to measure the effects of K availability, Na/K ratio and ionic strength in chloride solutions on the rate and extent of the reaction of smectite to interstratified illite/smectite. The effect of K-content on reaction progress is dramatic at low (0.33 eq.) K concentrations, but diminishes above a concentration of 0.66 equivalents. The effect of K-content is also more important at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. Addition of K above that required to satisfy the cation exchange capacity of the smectite reduced the amount of chlorite byproduct and produced authigenic K-feldspar at the highest K-concentration. Similar experiments were run using Na/K equivalent ratios of 0 to 25 and total solution molalities of 0 to 3.75 molal. Because these experiments were small fixed-volume experiments, it was necessary to vary two of the three key variables (K-content, Na/K ratio, ionic strength simultaneously. The data suggest, however, that K-content has a much stronger effect than either Na/K ratio or ionic strength on illitization reaction progress. ?? 1992.

  6. Dynamical equations for time-ordered Green's functions: from the Keldysh time-loop contour to equilibrium at finite and zero temperature. (United States)

    Ness, H; Dash, L K


    We study the dynamical equation of the time-ordered Green's function at finite temperature. We show that the time-ordered Green's function obeys a conventional Dyson equation only at equilibrium and in the limit of zero temperature. In all other cases, i.e. finite temperature at equilibrium or non-equilibrium, the time-ordered Green's function obeys instead a modified Dyson equation. The derivation of this result is obtained from the general formalism of the non-equilibrium Green's functions on the Keldysh time-loop contour. At equilibrium, our result is fully consistent with the Matsubara temperature Green's function formalism and also justifies rigorously the correction terms introduced in an ad hoc way with Hedin and Lundqvist. Our results show that one should use the appropriate dynamical equation for the time-ordered Green's function when working beyond the equilibrium zero-temperature limit.

  7. Evolution and interaction of twins, dislocations and stacking faults in rolled α-brass during nanostructuring at sub-zero temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Roy


    Full Text Available The effect of cryorolling (CR strain at 153 K on the evolution of structural defects and their interaction in α−brass (Cu–30 wt.% Zn during nanostructuring has been evaluated. Even though the lattice strain increases up to 2.1 × 10−3 at CR strain of 0.6 initially, but it remains constant upon further rolling. Whereas, the twin density (β increases to a maximum value of 5.9 × 10−3 at a CR strain of 0.7 and reduces to 1.1 × 10−5 at 0.95. Accumulation of stacking faults (SFs and lattice disorder at the twin boundaries causes dynamic recrystallization, promotes grain refinement and decreases the twin density by forming subgrains. Detailed investigations on the formation and interaction of defects have been done through resistivity, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements in order to understand the micro-mechanism of nanostructuring at sub-zero temperatures.

  8. Zero-temperature coarsening in the Ising model with asymmetric second-neighbor interactions in two dimensions. (United States)

    Mullick, Pratik; Sen, Parongama


    We consider the zero-temperature coarsening in the Ising model in two dimensions where the spins interact within the Moore neighborhood. The Hamiltonian is given by H=-∑_{〈i,j〉}S_{i}S_{j}-κ∑_{〈i,j^{'}〉}S_{i}S_{j^{'}}, where the two terms are for the first neighbors and second neighbors, respectively, and κ≥0. The freezing phenomenon, already noted in two dimensions for κ=0, is seen to be present for any κ. However, the frozen states show more complicated structure as κ is increased; e.g., local antiferromagnetic motifs can exist for κ>2. Finite-sized systems also show the existence of an isoenergetic active phase for κ>2, which vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. The persistence probability shows universal behavior for κ>0; however, it is clearly different from the κ=0 results when a nonhomogeneous initial condition is considered. Exit probability shows universal behavior for all κ≥0. The results are compared with other models in two dimensions having interactions beyond the first neighbor.

  9. Zero temperature non-plateau magnetization and magnetocaloric effect in an Ising-XYZ diamond chain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrico, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970, Maceió, AL (Brazil); Rojas, M.; Souza, S.M. de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Lavras, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Rojas, Onofre, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Lavras, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil)


    Zero temperature non-plateau magnetization is a peculiar property of a quantum spin chain and it sometimes appears due to different gyromagnetic factors. In this study, we illustrate a quite unusual non-plateau magnetization property driven by XY-anisotropy in an Ising-XYZ diamond chain. Two particles with spin-1/2 are bonded by XYZ coupling and they are responsible for the emergence of non-plateau magnetization. These two quantum operator spins are bonded to two nodal Ising spins and this process is repeated infinitely to yield a diamond chain structure. Due to the non-plateau magnetization property, we focus our discussion on the magnetocaloric effect of this model by presenting the isentropic curves and the Grüneisen parameters, as well as showing the regions where the model exhibits an efficient magnetocaloric effect. Due to the existence of two phases located very close to each other, the strong XY-anisotropy exhibits a particular behavior with a magnetocaloric effect, with a wider interval in the magnetic field, where the magnetocaloric effect is efficient.

  10. Electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1421 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg. (Russian Federation) Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=863 K) to a temperature as high as 1421 K that is 417 degrees above the boiling point of the salt. At the temperature maximum of the own vapor pressure of the salt reached several megapascals.

  11. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  12. Temperature dependent structural, vibrational and magnetic properties of K3Gd5(PO4)6. (United States)

    Bevara, Samatha; Achary, S Nagabhusan; Mishra, Karuna Kara; Ravindran, T R; Sinha, Anil K; Sastry, P U; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar


    Herein we report the evolution of the crystal structure of K3Gd5(PO4)6 in the temperature range from 20 K to 1073 K, as observed from variable temperature X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic studies. K3Gd5(PO4)6 has an open tunnel containing a three dimensional structure built by [Gd5(PO4)6]3- ions which in turn are formed of PO4 tetrahedra and GdOn (n = 8 and 9) polyhedra. The empty tunnels in the structure are occupied by K+ ions and maintain charge neutrality in the lattice. Evolution of unit cell parameters with temperature shows a systematic increase with temperature. The average axial thermal expansion coefficients between 20 K and 1073 K are: αa = 10.6 × 10-6 K-1, αb = 5.5 × 10-6 K-1 and αc = 16.4 × 10-6 K-1. The evolution of distortion indices of the various coordination polyhedra with temperature indicates a gradual decrease with increasing temperature, while those of Gd2O9 and K2O8 polyhedra show opposite trends. The overall anisotropy of the lattice thermal expansion is found to be controlled largely by the effect of temperature on GdOn polyhedra and their linkages. Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic studies indicated that the intensities and wavenumbers of most of the Raman modes decrease continuously with increasing temperature. Anharmonic analyses of Raman modes indicated that the lattice, rigid translation and librational modes have larger contributions towards thermal expansion of K3Gd5(PO4)6 compared to high frequency internal modes. The temperature and field dependent magnetic measurements indicated no long range ordering down to 2 K and the observed effective magnetic moment per Gd3+ ion and the Weiss constant are 7.91 μB and 0.38 K, respectively.

  13. Electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} at temperatures as high as 1474 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} was measured across a wide temperature range (ΔT=628 K), from 846 K to as high as 1474 K, i.e. 241 above the normal boiling point of the salt. In previous studies, a maximum temperature of 1201 K was reached, this being 273 lower than in the present work. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  14. Is There a Temperature Limit in Planet Formation at 1000 K? (United States)

    Demirci, Tunahan; Teiser, Jens; Steinpilz, Tobias; Landers, Joachim; Salamon, Soma; Wende, Heiko; Wurm, Gerhard


    Dust drifting inward in protoplanetary disks is subject to increasing temperatures. In laboratory experiments, we tempered basaltic dust between 873 K and 1273 K and find that the dust grains change in size and composition. These modifications influence the outcome of self-consistent low speed aggregation experiments showing a transition temperature of 1000 K. Dust tempered at lower temperatures grows to a maximum aggregate size of 2.02 ± 0.06 mm, which is 1.49 ± 0.08 times the value for dust tempered at higher temperatures. A similar size ratio of 1.75 ± 0.16 results for a different set of collision velocities. This transition temperature is in agreement with orbit temperatures deduced for observed extrasolar planets. Most terrestrial planets are observed at positions equivalent to less than 1000 K. Dust aggregation on the millimeter-scale at elevated temperatures might therefore be a key factor for terrestrial planet formation.

  15. Dimension, depth and zero-divisors of the algebra of basic k-covers of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Benedetti


    Full Text Available We study the basic k-covers of a bipartite graph G; the algebra A(G they span, first studied by Herzog, is the fiber cone of the Alexander dual of the edge ideal. We characterize when A(G is a domain in terms of the combinatorics of G; it follows from a result of Hochster that when A(G is a domain, it is also Cohen-Macaulay. We then study the dimension of A(G by introducing a geometric invariant of bipartite graphs, the “graphical dimension”. We show that the graphical dimension of G is not larger than dim(A(G, and equality holds in many cases (e.g. when G is a tree, or a cycle. Finally, we discuss applications of this theory to the arithmetical rank.

  16. 20-50 K and 40-80 K pulse tube coolers: Two candidates for a low temperature cooling chain (United States)

    Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Triqueneaux, S.; Ravex, A.


    Following its important cryogenics heritage for the European Space industry for both Ariane launcher and Orbital programs, Air Liquide - Advanced Technology Division (AL/DTA) is proposing different pulse tube cryocoolers all over the temperature range to answer the needs of earth observation and scientific missions. This paper presents recent performance improvement of the large heat lift 40-80 K pulse tube cooler (LPTC). Four units have been manufactured and tested. Three units are dedicated to lifetime testing in the framework of French Military Space Program (under CNES contract) and Meteosat Third Generation program (ESA contract). The batch performances are described and the product maturity is discussed in this paper. To lower the temperature range and to complete our cryogenic chain, we developed in partnership with CEA/INAC/SBT, a heat intercepted 20-50 K pulse tube cryocooler. This cooler has been developed in the framework of an ESA contract (ESA/ESTEC No 20497/0/NL/PA-20-50 K pulse tube cooler). A development phase has been performed to test and optimize different cold head architectures to reach the 300 mW@20 K specification. A no-load temperature of 12.5 K has been demonstrated on breadboard model. The outputs of the trade-off, the resulting design and the performances are described. In complement to the dilution cooler similar to the one developed for the PLANCK mission, those two pulse tube coolers are potential candidates for a very low temperature cooling chain. By optimizing the capabilities of the 20 K stage for low temperature operation (no-load in the range of 8 K) the coupling of the three independent stages becomes possible.

  17. Methane hydrate dissociation rates as 0.1 MPa and temperatures above 272K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W B; Circone, S; Stern, L A; Kirby, S H; Pinkston, J C


    We performed rapid depressurization experiments on methane hydrate under isothermal conditions above 272 K to determine the amount and rate of methane evolution. Sample temperatures rapidly drop below 273 K and stabilize near 272.5 K during dissociation. This thermal anomaly and the persistence of methane hydrate are consistent with the reported recovery of partially dissociated methane hydrate from ocean drilling cores.

  18. Reactions of O‑ with D2 at temperatures below 300 K (United States)

    Plašil, Radek; Tran, Thuy D.; Roučka, Štěpán; Rednyk, Serhiy; Kovalenko, Artem; Jusko, Pavol; Mulin, Dmytro; Zymak, Illia; Dohnal, Petr; Glosík, Juraj


    The reaction of O‑ anions with molecular deuterium D2 has been studied experimentally using a cryogenic 22-pole radiofrequency ion trap. Two reaction channels were observed. In the associative detachment D2O and an electron are formed and for atom transfer formation OD‑ + D was observed. The rate coefficients of the reactions have been determined at temperatures below 300 K. The reaction rate coefficient k 1 of the associative detachment increases with decreasing temperature from k 1(300 K) = 0.5 × 10‑9 cm3 s‑1 at 300 K up to k 1(70 K) = 1.2 × 10‑9 cm3 s‑1 at 70 K both with 30 % overall uncertainty.

  19. A single-ended 10-bit 200 kS/s 607 μW SAR ADC with an auto-zeroing offset cancellation technique (United States)

    Weiru, Gu; Yimin, Wu; Fan, Ye; Junyan, Ren


    This paper presents a single-ended 8-channel 10-bit 200 kS/s 607 μW synchronous successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using HLMC 55 nm low leakage (LL) CMOS technology with a 3.3 V/1.2 V supply voltage. In conventional binary-encoded SAR ADCs the total capacitance grows exponentially with resolution. In this paper a CR hybrid DAC is adopted to reduce both capacitance and core area. The capacitor array resolves 4 bits and the other 6 bits are resolved by the resistor array. The 10-bit data is acquired by thermometer encoding to reduce the probability of DNL errors which are typically present in binary weighted architectures. This paper uses an auto-zeroing offset cancellation technique that can reduce the offset to 0.286 mV. The prototype chip realized the 10-bit SAR ADC fabricated in HLMC 55 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 167 × 87 μm2. It shows a sampling rate of 200 kS/s and low power dissipation of 607 μW operates at a 3.3 V analog supply voltage and a 1.2 V digital supply voltage. At the input frequency of 10 kHz the signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) is 60.1 dB and the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is 68.1 dB. The measured DNL is +0.37/-0.06 LSB and INL is +0.58/-0.22 LSB. Project supported by the National Science and Technology Support Program of China (No. 2012BAI13B07) and the National Science and Technology Major Project of China (No.2012ZX03001020-003).

  20. Current oscillations in ultra-small superconducting Nb-Nb junctions formed by STM at mK temperatures (United States)

    Dreyer, Michael; Roychowdhury, Anita; Dana, Rami


    Using etched Nb STM tips we formed ultra-small tunnel junctions on a Nb crystal at an effective temperature of ~ 200 mK using an Oxford dilution refrigerator. The Nb crystal was prepared in UHV and then transferred into the mK STM. The resulting superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction displayed several sub-gap features from multiple Andreev reflections to a zero bias conductance peak. The latter showed features of a Josephson junction in the phase diffusion limit with side structures due to the electrical environment. Upon microwave irradiation the peak split into multiple peaks in accordance with theory, verifying Josephson tunneling. In addition we observed bias dependent oscillations of the tunneling current. The oscillations where recorded at a rate of 10 kS/s while acquiring conventional dI/dV or I(V) spectroscopic curves. Histograms of the current for each bias voltage step then reveal the nature of the oscillation. It ranges from multiple states in certain bias regions through pure oscillations to supercurrent-normal switching. Fourier transform of the current show in some cases a bias dependence of the main frequencies. Possible causes will be discussed.

  1. Decoherence at absolute zero


    Sinha, Supurna


    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  2. Evaluation of a novel noninvasive continuous core temperature measurement system with a zero heat flux sensor using a manikin of the human body. (United States)

    Brandes, Ivo F; Perl, Thorsten; Bauer, Martin; Bräuer, Anselm


    Reliable continuous perioperative core temperature measurement is of major importance. The pulmonary artery catheter is currently the gold standard for measuring core temperature but is invasive and expensive. Using a manikin, we evaluated the new, noninvasive SpotOn™ temperature monitoring system (SOT). With a sensor placed on the lateral forehead, SOT uses zero heat flux technology to noninvasively measure core temperature; and because the forehead is devoid of thermoregulatory arteriovenous shunts, a piece of bone cement served as a model of the frontal bone in this study. Bias, limits of agreements, long-term measurement stability, and the lowest measurable temperature of the device were investigated. Bias and limits of agreement of the temperature data of two SOTs and of the thermistor placed on the manikin's surface were calculated. Measurements obtained from SOTs were similar to thermistor values. The bias and limits of agreement lay within a predefined clinically acceptable range. Repeat measurements differed only slightly, and stayed stable for hours. Because of its temperature range, the SOT cannot be used to monitor temperatures below 28°C. In conclusion, the new SOT could provide a reliable, less invasive and cheaper alternative for measuring perioperative core temperature in routine clinical practice. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate these results.

  3. Driven interfaces in random media at finite temperature: existence of an anomalous zero-velocity phase at small external force. (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas


    The motion of driven interfaces in random media at finite temperature T and small external force F is usually described by a linear displacement h{G}(t) approximately V(F,T)t at large times, where the velocity vanishes according to the creep formula as V(F,T) approximately e;{-K(T)F;{mu}} for F-->0 . In this paper, we question this picture on the specific example of the directed polymer in a two-dimensional random medium. We have recently shown [C. Monthus and T. Garel, J. Phys. A 41, 255002 (2008)] that its dynamics for F=0 can be analyzed in terms of a strong disorder renormalization procedure, where the distribution of renormalized barriers flows towards some "infinite disorder fixed point." In the present paper, we obtain that for small F , this "infinite disorder fixed point" becomes a "strong disorder fixed point" with an exponential distribution of renormalized barriers. The corresponding distribution of trapping times then only decays as a power law P(tau) approximately 1tau;{1+alpha} , where the exponent alpha(F,T) vanishes as alpha(F,T) proportional, variant F micro as F-->0 . Our conclusion is that in the small force region alpha(F,T)infinity induces strong non-self-averaging effects that invalidate the usual creep formula obtained by replacing all trapping times by the typical value. We find instead that the motion is only sublinearly in time h{G}(t) approximately t;{alpha(F,T)} , i.e., the asymptotic velocity vanishes V=0 . This analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations of a directed polymer with a metric constraint driven in a traps landscape. We moreover obtain that the roughness exponent, which is governed by the equilibrium value zeta{eq}=23 up to some large scale, becomes equal to zeta=1 at the largest scales.

  4. Reaction rate constants of HO2 + O3 in the temperature range 233-400 K (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyan; Suto, Masako; Lee, L. C.


    The reaction rate constants of HO2 + O3 were measured in the temperature range 233-400 K using a discharge flow system with photofragment emission detection. In the range 233-253 K, the constants are approximately a constant value, and then increase with increasing temperature. This result suggests that the reaction may have two different channels. An expression representing the reaction rate constants is presented.

  5. Phase Transformations and Phase Equilibria in the Fe-N System at Temperatures below 573 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinov, S.; Böttger, A.J.; Mittemeijer, E.J.


    The phase transformations of homogeneous Fe-N alloys of nitrogen contents from 10 to 26 at. pct were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis upon aging in the temperature range from 373 to 473 K. It was found that precipitation of alpha double prime-Fe16N2 below 443 K does not only oc...

  6. Collecting the Missing Piece of the Puzzle: The Wind Temperatures of Arcturus (K2 III) and Aldeberan (K5 III) (United States)

    Harper, Graham


    Unravelling the poorly understood processes that drive mass loss from red giant stars requires that we empirically constrain the intimately coupled momentum and energy balance. Hubble high spectral resolution observations of wind scattered line profiles, from neutral and singly ionized species, have provided measures of wind acceleration, turbulence, terminal speeds, and mass-loss rates. These wind properties inform us about the force-momentum balance, however, the spectra have not yielded measures of the much needed wind temperatures, which constrain the energy balance.We proposed to remedy this omission with STIS E140H observations of the Si III 1206 Ang. resonance emission line for two of the best studied red giants: Arcturus (alpha Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (alpha Tau: K5 III), both of which have detailed semi-empirical wind velocity models. The relative optical depths of wind scattered absorption in Si III 1206 Ang., O I 1303 Ang. triplet., C II 1335 Ang., and existing Mg II h & k and Fe II profiles give the wind temperatures through the thermally controlled ionization balance. The new temperature constraints will be used to test existing semi-empirical models by comparision with multi-frequency JVLA radio fluxes, and also to constrain the flux-tube geometry and wave energy spectrum of magnetic wave-driven winds.

  7. Phase transitions in the hard-core Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model at non-zero temperatures in the heavy-fermion limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasyuk, I.V.; Krasnov, V.O., E-mail:


    Phase transitions at non-zero temperatures in ultracold Bose- and Fermi-particles mixture in optical lattices using the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model in the mean field and hard-core boson approximations are investigated. The case of infinitely small fermion transfer and the repulsive on-site boson-fermion interaction is considered. The possibility of change of order (from the 2nd to the 1st one) of the phase transition to the superfluid phase in the regime of fixed values of the chemical potentials of Bose- and Fermi-particles is established. The relevant phase diagrams determining the conditions at which such a change takes place, are built.

  8. Influence of the spin quantum number $s$ on the zero-temperature phase transition in the square lattice $J$-$J'$ model


    Darradi, R.; Richter, J.; Farnell, D. J. J.


    We investigate the phase diagram of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the square lattice with two different nearest-neighbor bonds $J$ and $J'$ ($J$-$J'$ model) at zero temperature. The model exhibits a quantum phase transition at a critical value $J'_c > J$ between a semi-classically ordered N\\'eel and a magnetically disordered quantum paramagnetic phase of valence-bond type, which is driven by local singlet formation on $J'$ bonds. We study the influence of spin quantum number $s$ on this p...

  9. High Temperature Electrolysis 4 kW Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. O' Brien; X. Zhang; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao


    This report provides results of long-term stack testing completed in the new high-temperature steam electrolysis multi-kW test facility recently developed at INL. The report includes detailed descriptions of the piping layout, steam generation and delivery system, test fixture, heat recuperation system, hot zone, instrumentation, and operating conditions. This facility has provided a demonstration of high-temperature steam electrolysis operation at the 4 kW scale with advanced cell and stack technology. This successful large-scale demonstration of high-temperature steam electrolysis will help to advance the technology toward near-term commercialization.

  10. Nonlinear reflection of a nanosecond laser pulse from thin aluminum film in the temperature range 2-14 kK (United States)

    Karabutov, A. A.; Kaptilniy, A. G.; Ksenofontov, D. M.; Makarov, V. A.; Cherepetskaya, E. B.; Podymova, N. B.


    This letter aims to experimentally demonstrate the possibility of measuring the temporal dependencies of the surface temperature of an aluminum film confined by a transparent dielectric in the range below and above the critical temperature of aluminum (from 2 kK to 14 kK). Such temperatures are achieved under the action of a powerful linearly-polarized laser pulse of one nanosecond in duration onto the film’s surface. To find the temporal dependencies of the temperature of the aluminum film the nonlinear reflection coefficient of its irradiated surface is measured to determine the radiation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at the fundamental wavelength.

  11. A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

    CERN Multimedia


    A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

  12. Absolute Zero. (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca


    So far the courts have supported most schools' zero-tolerance policies--even those banning toy weapons, over-the-counter drugs, and unseemly conduct. However, wide-ranging get-tough policies can draw criticism. Policy experts advise school boards to ask the community, decide what people want, allow some wiggle room, create an appeals process,…

  13. Characterisation of net type thermal insulators at 1.8 K low boundary temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Peón-Hernández, G; Szeless, Balázs


    The Large Hadron Collider's superconducting magnets are cooled by superfluid helium at 1.8 K and housed in cryostats that minimise the heat inleak to this temperature level by extracting heat at 70 and 5 K. In the first generation of prototype cryostats, the radiative heat to the 1.8 K temperature level accounted for 70 % of the total heat inleak. An alternative to enhance the cryostat thermal performance incorporates a thermalised radiation screen at 5 K. In order to avoid contact between the 5 K radiation screen and the cold mass, insulators are placed between both surfaces. Sets of commercial fibre glass nets are insulator candidates to minimise the heat inleak caused by a accidental contact between the two temperature levels. A model to estimate their performance is presented. A set-up to thermally characterise them has been designed and is also described in the paper. Finally, results as a function of the number of the spacer nets, the boundary temperatures and the compressive force in the spacer are pre...

  14. Shock Tube/Laser Absorption Studies of Jet Fuels at Low Temperatures (600-1200K) (United States)


    fundamental band of CO (4.3–5.8 μm) to find can- didate CO transitions suitable for high-temperature (>1000 K) in situ detection that are isolated ...A systematic line-selection procedure was used to find lines with sufficient absorption strength, isolation from interfering absorption, temperature...the reaction volume, for either exothermic or endo- thermic reactions, also causes the reflected shock environment to deviate from constant-volume

  15. The reactions of OH radicals with chloroalkanes in the temperature range 295-360 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, F.; Nielsen, O.J.


    The temperature dependency of the rate constants for the gas phase reaction of OH radicals with a series of chloroalkanes was measured in the temperature range from 295 to 360 K at a total pressure of 1 atm. The rate constants were obtained by using the absolute technique of pulse radiolysis...... combined with kinetic UV spectroscopy. The results are discussed in terms of reactivity trends....

  16. Febrile temperature facilitates hERG/IKr degradation through an altered K(+) dependence. (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Tingzhong; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Koichopolos, Jennifer; Lamothe, Shawn M; Kang, Yudi; Ma, Aiqun; Zhang, Shetuan


    Dysfunction of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) channel (IKr) encoded by the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) is the primary cause of acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS). Fever has been reported to trigger LQTS in various conditions. We aim to clarify the effect and underlying mechanisms of febrile temperature on hERG expressed in HEK cells, IKr in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and the QT interval in rabbits. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of hERG channel protein in stably transfected HEK 293 cells. Immunocytochemistry was used to visualize the localization of hERG channels. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record hERG K(+) current (IhERG) in hERG expressing HEK 293 cells, as well as IKr, transient outward K(+) current (Ito), and L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa) in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Electrocardiographic recordings were performed in an in vivo rabbit model. Compared with culture at 37°C, culture at 40°C reduced the mature hERG expression and IhERG in an extracellular K(+) concentration-dependent manner. Point mutations that remove the K(+) dependence of hERG-S624T and F627Y-also abolished the febrile temperature-induced hERG reduction. In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, febrile temperature prolonged the action potential duration and selectively reduced IKr in a manner similar to low K(+) culture. In an in vivo rabbit model, fever and hypokalemia synergistically prolonged the QT interval. Febrile temperature facilitates the development of LQTS by expediting hERG degradation through altered K(+) dependence. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanoscale zero-valent iron supported by biochars produced at different temperatures: Synthesis mechanism and effect on Cr(VI) removal. (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Zhang, Wenying; Yan, Jingchun; Han, Lu; Chen, Yun; Ouyang, Da; Chen, Mengfang


    Biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) produced under different temperatures was studied to evaluate the effect of the nZVI-biochar composite on the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in solution. The structure of biochar-supported nZVI and its roles in Cr(VI) removal were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and batch experiments. The XRD revealed that the removal rate of Cr(VI) for the nZVI supported by rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 °C (RS400) was much greater than that for other supporting biochar, and the FTIR further indicated that the carboxyl groups and silicon mineral within the biochar served as dual support sites for nZVI. NZVI-RS400 exhibited the highest removal amount of Cr(VI) at approximately 40.0 mg/g under an initial pH of 4.0, possibly due to both the reduction and adsorption processes. Therefore, the RS400-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron could be a preferable material for Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The use of partial thickness method and zero wet bulb temperature for discriminating precipitation type during winter months at the Ebro basin in Spain (United States)

    Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.


    The forecast office of the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET) which is located in the city of Zaragoza provides weather forecast, warnings and aviation forecast products for Aragón, Navarra and La Rioja regions. This area of Spain lies mainly on the Ebro river basin. Although the likelihood of snowfall in this territory is low, a forecasting of snow-depth higher than 5cm for low elevations activates the orange warning which must be issued to local emergency management and civil protection authorities. Zero wet bulb temperature has been historically the main tool for forecasting the altitude of snow-rain boundary at the forecast office; it shows the freezing level limit due to evaporational cooling when lower troposphere is saturated from aloft. This work adds two new parameters, the 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness in order to characterize the thermal structure of surface based cold air and atmospheric mid-levels. The three main airports in this area Zaragoza-Aragón, Logroño-La Rioja and Pamplona-Navarra are located at altitudes below 500 m. They are thus suitable for this study. In addition, more than 16 years of meteorological observations every hour, known as METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), are available at these locations. These observations were analysed and the predominant precipitation type during a six-hour period was characterized. The 00h, 06h, 12h and 18h analysis time of the ECMWF Forecast model were employed in order to get the parameters at the day and time when the precipitation took place. The most representative grid point of the model for each airport was chosen in order to illustrate the atmospheric conditions. A correlation between precipitation type and zero wet bulb temperature, 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness was done for more than 230 different situations during a 16 year period. As a result, we plotted a series of site specific charts for each airport based on these parameters, in order to describe the

  19. A density-functional study of the phase diagram of cementite-type (Fe,Mn)3C at absolute zero temperature. (United States)

    Von Appen, Jörg; Eck, Bernhard; Dronskowski, Richard


    The phase diagram of (Fe(1-x) Mn(x))(3)C has been investigated by means of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations at absolute zero temperature. The atomic distributions of the metal atoms are not random-like as previously proposed but we find three different, ordered regions within the phase range. The key role is played by the 8d metal site which forms, as a function of the composition, differing magnetic layers, and these dominate the physical properties. We calculated the magnetic moments, the volumes, the enthalpies of mixing and formation of 13 different compositions and explain the changes of the macroscopic properties with changes in the electronic and magnetic structures by means of bonding analyses using the Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP) technique. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Non-perturbative studies of scalar and scalar-fermion quantum field theories at zero and finite temperature using the Gaussian effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj, G.A.


    The Gaussian effective potential (GEP), a non-perturbative approach to study quantum field theory, is applied to scalar and scalar-fermion models. We study the scalar {phi}{sup 6} field coupled to fermions through g{sub B}{phi}{psi}{psi} or g{sub B}{phi}{sup 2}{psi}{psi} in 2 and 3 space-time dimensions. In addition, we derive the finite temperature (T > 0) GEP from first principles and apply it to study these models at T > 0. Also the Autonomous {lambda}{phi}{sup 4}, coupled to fermions through a Yukawa term (g{sub B}{phi}{psi}{psi}), is examined in 4 dimensions at T > 0. In all these models, in order to obtain stable theories, it is found that g{sub B} must vanish as 1/log(M{sub uv}), 1/M{sub uv} or 1/M{sub uv}{sup 2} in 2, 3 or 4 dimensions respectively, M{sub uv} being an ultraviolet cutoff which is sent to infinity. The contribution of fermions to the GEP, however, is nonvanishing. It is also found that for the class of theories discussed, symmetry, if broken, is restored above a critical temperature. The coupling constant parameter space for each model is studied carefully, and regions where symmetry breaking occurs are determined both at zero and finite temperature.

  1. Thermodynamic constants of N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-amino]propanesulfonic acid (Taps) from the temperatures 278.15 K to 328.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Rabindra N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States)]. E-mail:; Roy, Lakshmi N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); LeNoue, Sean R. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Denton, Cole E. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Simon, Ashley N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Richards, Sarah J. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Moore, Andrew C. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Roy, Chandra N. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Redmond, R. Ryan [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Bryant, Paul A. [Walter H. Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, 900 N. Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States)


    Values of the second thermodynamic dissociation constant pK{sub 2} of N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-amino]propanesulfonic acid (Taps) have been determined at twelve temperatures from 278.15 K to 328.15 K including 310.15 K by measurements of the electromotive-force for cells without liquid junction of the type: Pt|H{sub 2} (g, p{sup -}bar =101.325 kPa)|Taps (m{sub 1}), NaTapsate (m{sub 2}), NaCl (m{sub 3})|AgCl|Ag, where m denotes molality. The pK{sub 2} values for the dissociation of Taps are represented by the equation: pK{sub 2}=2969.61.(K/T) - 17.05052+2.73697.ln(T/K). The values of pK{sub 2} for Taps were found to be (8.502+/-0.0007) at T=298.15 K and (8.225+/-0.0009) at T=310.15 K, respectively, indicating thereby to be useful as buffer solutions for pH control in the region 7.4 to 8.5. The thermodynamic quantities, {delta}G{sup -}bar , {delta}H{sup -}bar , {delta}S{sup -}bar , and {delta}C{sub p}{sup -}bar dissociation process of Taps have been derived from the temperature coefficients of the pK{sub 2}.

  2. Variable- and fixed-point blackbody sources developed at VNIIOFI for precision measurements in radiometry and thermometry within 100K-3500K temperature range (United States)

    Sapritsky, V. I.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Ogarev, S. A.; Privalsky, V. E.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sakharov, M. K.; Bourdakin, A. A.; Panfilov, A. S.


    The demands of modern radiation thermometry and radiometry are being satisfied by a large variety of high-precision unique BB sources (both fixed-point and variable temperature) designed for a wide range of temperature from 100 K to 3500 K. The paper contains a detailed review of low-, medium- and high-temperature precision blackbodies developed at VNIIOFI as the basis of the spectral radiance and irradiance calibration devices in the rank of National standards. The blackbodies include: 1) variable-temperature (100K..1000K) research-grade extended-area (up to 100 mm) models intended to perform radiometric calibrations by comparison with a primary standard source, as well as can be used as the sources for high-accuracy IR calibration of space-borne and other systems not requiring a vacuum environment; 2) low-temperature fixed-point blackbodies on the basis of phase transitions of pure metals such as In and Ga sources, and the metal-metal eutectics operating within the medium-temperature range (300K to 400K); these are used for pyrometric measurements, IR-radiometry, preflight and (future aspects) in-flight calibration of space borne IR instruments; 3) high-temperature wide aperture variable-temperature blackbodies (1800K to 3500K) such as BB3500MP, BB3500YY designed and fabricated, along with fixed-point cells working above the ITS-90 temperatures on the basis of phase transitions of metal-carbon eutectic alloys (Re-C, TiC-C, ZrC-C, HfC-C), which possess unique reproducibility of 0.1% or less.

  3. Thermal Stability of Austempered Ductile Iron Evaluated in a Temperature Range of 20-300K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid MYSZKA


    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to determine through changes in magnetic properties the stability of the austempered ductile iron (ADI microstructure during temperature changes in a range of 20 – 300 K. The measurements were taken in a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM using Fe27Ni2TiMoAlNb austenitic stainless steel and four types of austempered ductile iron obtained under various heat treatment conditions. The plotted curves showing changes in the magnetisation degree as a function of temperature had a number of characteristic points illustrating changes taking place in the microstructure. For each of the materials examined, the martensite start temperature Ms and the temperature range within which the martensitic transformation takes place were identified.

  4. Absolute rate constant and O(3P yield for the O(1D+N2O reaction in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Carl


    Full Text Available The absolute rate constant for the reaction that is the major source of stratospheric NOx, O(1D+N2O → products, has been determined in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K, and, in the temperature range 248 K to 600 K, the fraction of the reaction that yields O(3P. Both the rate constants and product yields were determined using a recently-developed chemiluminescence technique for monitoring O(1D that allows for higher precision determinations for both rate constants, and, particularly, O(3P yields, than do other methods. We found the rate constant, kR1, to be essentially independent of temperature between 400 K and 227 K, having a value of (1.37±0.11×10−10 cm3 s−1, and for temperatures greater than 450 K a marked decrease in rate constant was observed, with a rate constant of only (0.94±0.11×10−10 cm3 s−1 at 719 K. The rate constants determined over the 227 K–400 K range show very low scatter and are significantly greater, by 20% at room temperature and 15% at 227 K, than the current recommended values. The fraction of O(3P produced in this reaction was determined to be 0.002±0.002 at 250 K rising steadily to 0.010±0.004 at 600 K, thus the channel producing O(3P can be entirely neglected in atmospheric kinetic modeling calculations. A further result of this study is an expression of the relative quantum yields as a function of temperature for the chemiluminescence reactions (kCL1C2H + O(1D → CH(A + CO and (kCL2C2H + O(3P → CH(A + CO, both followed by CH(A → CH(X + hν, as kCL1(T/kCL2(T=(32.8T−3050/(6.29T+398.

  5. Nitrogen activation of carbon-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles and influence of the activation temperature on heavy metals removal (United States)

    Bonaiti, Stefania; Calderon, Blanca; Collina, Elena; Lasagni, Marina; Mezzanotte, Valeria; Aracil Saez, Nacho; Fullana, Andrés


    Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI) represent a promising agent for environmental remediation. This is due to their core-shell structure which presents the characteristics of both metallic and oxidised iron, leading to sorption and reductive precipitation of metal ions. Nevertheless, nZVI application presents some limitations regarding their rapid oxidation and aggregation in the media which leads to the delivery of the ions after some hours (the “aging effect”). To address these issues, modifications of nZVI structure and synthesis methods have been developed in the last years. The aging problem was solved by using nZVI encapsulated inside carbon spheres (CE-nZVI), synthetized through Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC). Results showed high heavy metals removal percentage. Furthermore, CE-nZVI were activated with nitrogen in order to increase the metallic iron content. The aim of this study was to test CE-nZVI post-treated with nitrogen at different temperatures in heavy metals removal, demonstrating that the influence of the temperature was negligible in nanoparticles removal efficiency.

  6. Effects of porous properties on cold-start behavior of polymer electrolyte fuel cells from sub-zero to normal operating temperatures (United States)

    Gwak, Geonhui; Ko, Johan; Ju, Hyunchul


    In this investigation, a parametric study was performed using the transient cold-start model presented in our previous paper, in which the ice melting process and additional constitutive relations were newly included for transient cold-start simulations of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) from a sub-zero temperature (-20°C) to a normal operating temperature (80°C). The focus is placed on exploring the transient cold-start behavior of a PEFC for different porous properties of the catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL). This work elucidates the detailed effects of these properties on key cold-start phenomena such as ice freezing/melting and membrane hydration/dehydration processes. In particular, the simulation results highlight that designing a cathode CL with a high ionomer fraction helps to retard the rate of ice growth whereas a high ionomer fraction in the anode CL is not effective to mitigate the anode dry-out and membrane dehydration issues during PEFC cold-start.

  7. Electrothermally Tunable Graphene Resonators Operating at Very High Temperature up to 1200 K. (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Lee, Jaesung; Feng, Philip X-L


    The unique negative thermal expansion coefficient and remarkable thermal stability of graphene make it an ideal candidate for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) with electrothermal tuning. We report on the first experimental demonstration of electrothermally tuned single- and few-layer graphene NEMS resonators operating in the high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) bands. In single-, bi-, and trilayer (1L, 2L, and 3L) graphene resonators with carefully controlled Joule heating, we have demonstrated remarkably broad frequency tuning up to Δf/f 0 ≈ 310%. Simultaneously, device temperature variations imposed by Joule heating are monitored using Raman spectroscopy; we find that the device temperature increases from 300 K up to 1200 K, which is the highest operating temperature known to date for electromechanical resonators. Using the measured frequency and temperature variations, we further extract both thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivities of these devices. Comparison with graphene electrostatic gate tuning indicates that electrothermal tuning is more efficient. The results clearly suggest that the unique negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene and its excellent tolerance to very high temperature can be exploited for engineering highly tunable and robust graphene transducers for harsh and extreme environments.

  8. Laser Cooling of a Solid by 16K Starting from Room Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungan, C.; Buchwald, M.; Edwards, B.; Epstein, R.; Gosnell, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop E543, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)


    An Yb{sup 3+}-doped optical fiber is laser cooled {ital in vacuo}from 298 to 282K. Cooling results from anti-Stokes fluorescence of the ytterbium ions after optical pumping at a wavelength of 1015nm. The sample temperature is deduced from the emission spectrum, which is sensitive to the populations in the excited-state multiplet of the ions. The temperature change is limited by the coupling between the fiber and ambient blackbody radiation, as confirmed when samples suddenly exposed to the pump laser are found to exponentially relax towards thermal steady state with the expected time constants. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. K-Based Geopolymer from metakaolin: roles of K/Al ratio and water or steam Curing at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik, A.


    Full Text Available K-based geopolymer binder was prepared by reacting metakaolin with alkaline solutions having different potassium contents and by water curing at room temperature and 80 °C as well as steam curing at 150 and 180 °C. The phase formation, microstructure and Al and Si nearest neighbor environments were studied using XRD, TEM and 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, respectively. The results revealed that amorphous alumino-silicates were predominant in geopolymer prepared by curing up to 28 days at room temperature or at 80 °C. The amorphous alumino-silicates persisted after hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C/48 hrs and even at 180 °C/30 hrs. However, the samples cured hydrothermally at 180 °C/48 hrs revealed formation of crystalline potassium aluminum silicate and chabazite phases. The Al nearest neighbor environments was not significantly affected by increasing the K/Al ratio up to 1.55 or by the curing temperatures. On the other hand, the geopolymer reaction appears to have increased when cured at 80 °C or steam cured at 150° and 180 °C and crystalline aluminosilicates resulted when the geopolymer sample was hydrothermally treated at 180 °C/48 hrs.Se prepararon geopolímeros por reacción de metacaolín con disoluciones alcalinas con diferentes contenidos de potasio. Se realizó un curado con agua a temperatura ambiente y a 80 °C, y con vapor de agua a 150 y 180 °C. La formación de las diferentes fases así como la microestructura y entornos del Al y Si se estudiaron mediante DRX, TEM y espectroscopia de RMN MAS de 27Al y 29Si. Los aluminosilicatos amorfos fueron predominantes en aquellos geopolímeros sometidos a curado de hasta 28 días a temperatura ambiente o a 80 °C. Los aluminosilicatos amorfos persistieron tras el tratamiento hidrotermal a 150 °C/48 horas e incluso a 180 °C/30 h. Sin embargo, las muestras curadas hidrotermalmente a 180 °C/48 h revelaron la formación de fases cristalinas de silicatos de aluminio y potasio, as

  10. K-band spectroscopic metallicities and temperatures of M-dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Ayala Bárbara


    Full Text Available I present the metallicity and effective temperature techniques developed for M dwarf stars by Rojas-Ayala et al. (2010, 2012. These techniques are based on absorption features present in the modest resolution K-band spectra (R∼2700 of M dwarfs and have been calibrated using FGK+M dwarf pairs and synthetic atmosphere models. The H2O-K2 index seems to overestimate the effective temperatures of M dwarfs when compared to interferometric measurements. The metallicity distribution of the M dwarf host candidates by the Kepler Mission hints that jovian-size planets form preferentially around solar and super-solar metallicity environments, while small rocky planet host exhibit a wide range of metallicities, just like in their solar-type counterparts.

  11. Time resolved quantitative imaging of charring in materials at temperatures above 1000 K (United States)

    Böhrk, Hannah; Jemmali, Raouf


    A device is presented allowing for in situ investigation of chemically changing materials by means of X-ray imaging. A representative cork ablator sample, additionally instrumented with thermocouples, is encapsulated in an evacuated cell heating a sample surface with a heat flux of 230 kW/m2. The images show the sample surface and the in-depth progression of the char front dividing the char layer from the virgin material. Correlating the images to thermocouple data allows for the deduction of a reaction temperature. For the representative cork ablator investigated at the present conditions, the progression rate of the pyrolysis layer is determined to 0.0285 mm/s and pyrolysis temperature is 770 or 737 K, depending on the pre-existing conditions. It is found that the novel device is ideally suited for volume process imaging.

  12. Design of a 100 kVA high temperature superconducting demonstration synchronous generator (United States)

    Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Beduz, C.; Goddard, K.; Sykulski, J. K.; Yang, Y.; Xu, B.; Ship, K. S.; Stoll, R.; Stephen, N. G.


    The paper presents the main features of a 100 kVA high temperature superconducting (HTS) demonstrator generator, which is designed and being built at the University of Southampton. The generator is a 2-pole synchronous machine with a conventional 3-phase stator and a HTS rotor operating in the temperature range 57-77 K using either liquid nitrogen down to 65 K or liquid air down to 57 K. Liquid air has not been used before in the refrigeration of HTS devices but has recently been commercialised by BOC as a safe alternative to nitrogen for use in freezing of food. The generator will use an existing stator with a bore of 330 mm. The rotor is designed with a magnetic core (invar) to reduce the magnetising current and the field in the coils. For ease of manufacture, a hybrid salient pole construction is used, and the superconducting winding consists of twelve 50-turn identical flat coils. Magnetic invar rings will be used between adjacent HTS coils of the winding to divert the normal component of the magnetic field away from the Bi2223 superconducting tapes. To avoid excessive eddy-current losses in the rotor pole faces, a cold copper screen will be placed around the rotor core to exclude ac magnetic fields.

  13. Bimetallic strip for low temperature use. [4-300/sup 0/K (United States)

    Bussiee, J.F.; Welch, D.O.; Suenaga, M.

    A class of mechanically pre-stressed structures is provided suitably bi-layer strips, consisting of a layer of group 5 transition metals in intimate contact with a layer of an intermetallic compound of transition metals with certain group 3A, 4A or 5A metals or metalloids such as Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn, As or Sb. The changes of Young's modulus of these bi-layered combinations at temperatures in the region of somewhat above absolute zero provides a useful means of sensing temperature changes. Such bi-metallic strips may be used as control strips in thermostats, or in direct dial reading instruments. The structures are made by preparing a sandwich of a group 5B transition metal strip between the substantially thicker strips of an alloy between copper and a predetermined group 3A, 4A or 5A metal or metalloid, holding the three layers are heated, cooled the copper alloys and is removed. Removing one of the two formed interlayer alloys between the transition metal and the metal previously alloyed with copper remain.

  14. Test results of full-scale high temperature superconductors cable models destined for a 36 kV, 2 kA(rms) utility demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daumling, M.; Rasmussen, C.N.; Hansen, F.


    with thermal terminations, an HTS cable conductor including a flexible thermal insulation, a conventional room temperature dielectric, and a closed-loop circulating cooling system maintaining the temperature between 68 and 78 K. Critical issues before the commercialisation of this technology...... are the improvement of the thermal insulation, and the reduction of costs. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Development of the active magnetic regenerative refrigerator operating between 77 K and 20 K with the conduction cooled high temperature superconducting magnet (United States)

    Park, Inmyong; Jeong, Sangkwon


    The experimental investigation of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) operating between 77 K and 20 K is discussed in this paper, with detailed energy transfer analysis. A multi-layered active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is used, which consists of four different rare earth intermetallic compounds in the form of irregular powder. Numerical simulation confirms that the AMR can attain its target operating temperature range. Magnetic field alternation throughout the AMR is generated by a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet. The HTS magnet is cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler. Helium gas was employed as a working fluid and its oscillating flow in the AMR is controlled in accordance with the magnetic field variation. The AMR is divided into two stages and each stage has a different mass flow rate as needed to achieve the desired cooling performance. The temperature variation of the AMR during the experiment is monitored by temperature sensors installed inside the AMR. The experimental results show that the AMRR is capable of achieving no-load temperature of 25.4 K while the warm end temperature is 77 K. The performance of the AMRR is analyzed by observing internal temperature variations at cyclic steady state. Furthermore, numerical estimation of the cooling capacity and the temperature variation of the AMR are examined and compared with the experimental results.

  16. Investigations of Heat Transfer in Vacuum between Room Temperature and 80 K (United States)

    Hooks, J.; Demko, J. A.; E Fesmire, J.; Matsumoto, T.


    The heat transfer between room temperature and 80 K is controlled using various insulating material combinations. The modes of heat transfer are well established to be conduction and thermal radiation when in a vacuum. Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) in a vacuum has long been the best approach. Typically this layered system is applied to the cold surface. This paper investigates the application of MLI to both the cold and warm surface to see whether there is a significant difference. In addition if MLI is on the warm surface, the cold side of the MLI may be below the critical temperature of some high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. It has been proposed that HTS materials can serve to block thermal radiation. An experiment is conducted to measure this effect. Boil-off calorimetry is the method of measuring the heat transfer.

  17. Differential protein expression following low temperature culture of suspension CHO-K1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ensure maximal productivity of recombinant proteins (rP during production culture it is typical to encourage an initial phase of rapid cell proliferation to achieve high biomass followed by a stationary phase where cellular energies are directed towards production of rP. During many such biphasic cultures, the initial phase of rapid cell growth at 37°C is followed by a growth arrest phase induced through reduction of the culture temperature. Low temperature induced growth arrest is associated with many positive phenotypes including increased productivity, sustained viability and an extended production phase, although the mechanisms regulating these phenotypes during mild hypothermia are poorly understood. Results In this study differential protein expression in suspension CHO-K1 cells was investigated following a reduction of the culture temperature from 37°C to 31°C in comparison to standard batch culture maintained at 37°C using 2D-DIGE (Fluorescence 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS. There is only limited proteomic analysis of suspension-grown CHO cells describing a direct comparison of temperature shifted versus non-temperature shifted cultures using 2D-DIGE. This investigation has enabled the identification of temperature-dependent as well as temperature-independent proteomic changes. 201 proteins were observed as differentially expressed following temperature shift, of which 118 were up regulated. Of the 53 proteins identified by MALDI-ToF MS, 23 were specifically differentially expressed upon reduction of the culture temperature and were found related to a variety of cellular functions such as regulation of growth (HNRPC, cap-independent translation (EIF4A, apoptosis (importin-α, the cytoskeleton (vimentin and glycoprotein quality control (alpha glucosidase 2. Conclusion These results indicate the extent of the temperature response in CHO-K1 cells and suggest a number of key

  18. Determination of the Thermal Diffusivity of Electrically Non-Conductive Solids in the Temperature Range from 80 K to 300 K by Laser-Flash Measurement (United States)

    Hemberger, F.; Göbel, A.; Ebert, H.-P.


    The adoption of the popular laser-flash method at temperatures far below 300 K is restricted by the weak signal-to-noise ratio and the limited spectral bandwidth of the commonly used mercury cadmium tellurite (MCT) infrared (IR) detector used as a non-contacting temperature probe. In this work, a different approach to measure the temperature rise in pulse heating experiments is described and evaluated. This method utilizes the change of the temperature-dependent electrical resistance of a thin strip of sputtered gold for the detection of a temperature rise as it was proposed by Kogure et al. The main advantage of this method at lower temperatures is the significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio compared to the commonly used IR detectors. A newly developed laser-flash apparatus using this detection method for the determination of the thermal diffusivity in the temperature range from 80 K to 300 K is presented. To test the accuracy of the new detection method, the thermal diffusivity of a borosilicate crown glass (BK7) specimen at 300 K was determined and compared to results derived with a MCT detector. Good agreement of the derived thermal diffusivity values within 3 % was found. The thermal diffusivity of BK7 and polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) was measured at temperatures between 80 K and 300 K by a laser-flash method to test the functionality of the apparatus. Finally, the thermal conductivity was calculated using values for the specific heat capacity determined by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Comparisons with literature data confirm the reliability of the experimental setup.

  19. Experimental Reconstructions of Surface Temperature using the PAGES 2k Network (United States)

    Wang, Jianghao; Emile-Geay, Julien; Vaccaro, Adam; Guillot, Dominique; Rajaratnam, Bala


    Climate field reconstructions (CFRs) of the Common Era provide uniquely detailed characterizations of natural, low-frequency climate variability beyond the instrumental era. However, the accuracy and robustness of global-scale CFRs remains an open question. For instance, Wang et al. (2013) showed that CFRs are greatly method-dependent, highlighting the danger of forming dynamical interpretations based on a single reconstruction (e.g. Mann et al., 2009). This study will present a set of new reconstructions of global surface temperature and compare them with existing reconstructions from the IPCC AR5. The reconstructions are derived using the PAGES 2k network, which is composed of 501 high-resolution temperature-sensitive proxies from eight continental-scale regions (PAGES2K Consortium, 2013). Four CFR techniques are used to produce reconstructions, including RegEM-TTLS, the Mann et al. (2009) implementation of RegEM-TTLS (hereinafter M09-TTLS), CCA (Smerdon et al., 2010) and GraphEM (Guillot et al., submitted). First, we show that CFRs derived from the PAGES 2k network exhibit greater inter-method similarities than the same methods applied to the proxy network of Mann et al. (2009) (hereinafter M09 network). For instance, reconstructed NH mean temperature series using the PAGES 2k network are in better agreement over the last millennium than the M09-based reconstructions. Remarkably, for the reconstructed temperature difference between the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, the spatial patterns of the M09-based reconstructions are greatly divergent amongst methods. On the other hand, not a single PAGES 2k-based CFR displays the La Niña-like pattern found in Mann et al. (2009); rather, no systematic pattern emerges between the two epochs. Next, we quantify uncertainties associated with the PAGES 2k-based CFRs via ensemble methods, and show that GraphEM and CCA are less sensitive to random noise than RegEM-TTLS and M09-TTLS, consistent with pseudoproxy

  20. Gas gun driven dynamic fracture and fragmentation of Ti-6Al-4V cylinders at initial temperatures between 150 K and 750 K (United States)

    Jones, David R.; Chapman, David J.; Eakins, Daniel E.


    We present a study on the dynamic fracture and fragmentation of Ti-6Al-4V cylinders at initial temperatures ranging from approximately 150 K to 750 K. Cylinders with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a wall thickness of 4 mm were driven into uniform axially-symmetric expansion at radial strain rates of 104 s-1 using the ogive-insert gas gun method. Diagnostics consisted of simultaneous high speed imaging and multiple points of laser velocimetry (PDV) along the length of the sample. The imaging and PDV provided a record of the expansion process, giving expansion velocity and the failure strain. Recovered fragments were examined with optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to determine the fracture mechanisms for each initial temperature. The failure strain (radial strain at first fracture) was observed to increase with temperature over the range tested, from 7.4 ± 5.2 percent at 158 K to 24.1 ± 2.4 percent at 724 K. In experiments from 158 K up to 609 K the fracture mechanism was found to be ductile tearing under mode II loading along the planes of maximum shear at 45° to the radius. At an initial cylinder temperature of 724 K the fracture mechanism transitioned to void nucleation and coalescence along adiabatic shear bands, again forming at 45° to the radial direction. The fragmentation toughness Kf was observed to also increase with temperature until the 724 K shot where there was a marked reduction, suggesting the formation of shear bands at high temperatures reduced the energy required to form fragments. The average value of Kf was 101 ± 13 MPa m1/2.

  1. Study of the Effects of Temperature and Pressure on the Thermodynamic and Acoustic Properties of 2-Methyl-1-butanol at Temperatures from 293K to 318K and Pressures up to 100MPa (United States)

    Dzida, Marzena


    The speeds of sound in 2-methyl-1-butanol were measured at temperatures from 293K to 318K and pressures up to 101MPa. The densities were measured in the same temperature range under atmospheric pressure. The isobaric specific heat capacities were measured at atmospheric pressure and temperatures from 284K to 355K. The densities, isobaric heat capacities, isobaric thermal expansions, isentropic compressibilities, isothermal compressibilities, and internal pressures as functions of temperature and pressure were calculated using the experimental speeds of sound under elevated pressures together with the densities and heat capacities at atmospheric pressure. The effects of temperature and pressure on the isobaric thermal expansion and internal pressure of 2-methyl-1-butanol are discussed and compared with those of pentan-1-ol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and pentan-3-ol.

  2. Temperature-dependent activation energy of electromigration in Cu/porous low-k interconnects (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Yin, Binfeng; Zhou, Ke; Chen, Leigang; Kuo, Chinte


    In this paper, it was reported that the Time-to-Failure (TTF) of electromigration (EM) in Cu/porous low-k interconnects deviated from the classical Black's Equation at 250-350 °C due to moisture invasion. The EM activation energy (Ea) was 1.003 eV at above 300 °C, whereas the apparent value reduced to be negative below 300 °C, being accompanied by significantly narrowed TTF distribution. The corresponding change in the failure mode was distinctly revealed, which indicated that the oxidation of Ta-based liner due to moisture invasion through the porous low-k contributed significantly and modestly to the EM failure below and above 300 °C. The mechanism of the liner oxidation was interpreted with the theory of field-assisted cation migration, which suggested the steep slowdown of the oxidation from 275 to 300 °C could be ascribed to the substantial decrease in the moisture concentration at the low-k/Ta oxide interface, most probably owing to significant suppression of adsorption and surface diffusion of chemisorbed moisture in the nanoporous low-k. The inconsistent EM behaviors at the lower and higher temperatures were thus interpreted by the competition of intrinsic and extrinsic EM controlled separately by Cu diffusion along the Cu/SiN-based cap layer interface and the moisture-damaged Cu/Ta interface.

  3. Monitoring Excitations of the N =1 Landau Level by Optical Emission at mK Temperatures (United States)

    Levy, Antonio; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Fields, Dov; Pinczuk, Aron; Watson, John; Mondal, Sumit; Manfra, Michael J.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.


    Optical emission experiments have proven to be powerful contactless probe of collective states of electrons in the second (N =1) Landau Level (LL). We report the emission spectrum from optical recombination in the N =0 and N =1 LL's the second LL. The 2DEG is confined in ultra-high-mobility GaAs quantum well structures. Optical emission red-shifted from the main luminescence of the N =0 and N =1 LL are interpreted as shakeup processes of quasiparticles in the N =1 LL. Results of two samples with different carrier densities measured in the temperature range of 42mK mK will be compared. The experimental observations will be discussed taking into account the striking quantum phases dominating the second LL. Supported by NSF and AvH

  4. Damage and etching of ultra low-k materials in fluorocarbon plasma at lowered temperatures (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Mankelevich, Yu A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Zotovich, A. I.; Zyryanov, S. M.; Baklanov, M. R.


    SiOCH ULK films with k-value from 2.5 to 2.1 and porosity from 24 to 40% were etched in CHF3, CHF3  +  Ar, CF4 and CF4  +  Ar plasmas at  +15…‑120 °C with and without bias being applied. It was shown that the presence of Ar in gas mixture can significantly increase the damage of unetched ultra low-k (ULK) material (at sidewalls) due to the removal of  ‑CH3 groups from the film by VUV photons. It was also shown that etching and damage of the sidewalls by F atoms can be partially prevented by lowering the temperature of the sample.

  5. A sensitive time-resolved radiation pyrometer for shock-temperature measurements above 1500 K (United States)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Ahrens, Thomas J.


    The general design, calibration, and performance of a new high-sensitivity radiation pyrometer are described. The pyrometer can determine time-resolved temperatures (as low as 1500 K) in shocked materials by measuring the spectral radiance of light emitted from shocked solid samples in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (0.5-1.0 micron). The high sensitivity of the radiation pyrometer is attributed to the large angular aperture (0.06 sr), the large bandwidth per channel (up to 0.1 micron), the large photodiode detection areas (1.0 sq cm), and the small number of calibrated channels (4) among which light is divided.

  6. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of (fluoromethane + tetrafluoromethane) at the temperature 130.46 K


    Fonseca, I. M. A.; Sardinha, G. G.; Lobo, Lélio Q.


    The total vapour pressure of binary liquid mixtures of (fluoromethane+tetrafluoromethane) has been measured at the temperature 130.46 K. Two partially miscible liquid phases were found. The excess molar Gibbs energy was calculated in the region where the two liquids are mutually soluble. For the hypothetical equimolar mixture,GEm01 (x=0.5)=846 Jmol-1.

  7. Electron Temperature Measurement of Buried Layer Targets Using Time Resolved K-shell Spectroscopy (United States)

    Marley, Edward; Foord, M. E.; Shepherd, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Scott, H.; London, R.; Martin, M.; Wilson, B.; Iglesias, C.; Mauche, C.; Whitley, H.; Nilsen, J.; Hoarty, D.; James, S.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Allan, P.; Hobbs, L.


    Short pulse laser-heated buried layer experiments have been performed with the goal of creating plasmas with mass densities >= 1 g/cm3 and electron temperatures >= 500 eV. The buried layer geometry has the advantage of rapid energy deposition before significant hydrodynamic expansion occurs. For brief periods (< 40 ps) this provides a low gradient, high density platform for studying emission characteristics under extreme plasma conditions. A study of plasma conditions achievable using the Orion laser facility has been performed. Time resolved K-shell spectroscopy was used to determine the temperature evolution of buried layer aluminum foil targets. The measured evolution is compared to a 2-D PIC simulation done using LSP, which shows late time heating from the non-thermal electron population. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Zero Gravity Research Facility (Zero-G) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Zero Gravity Research Facility (Zero-G) provides a near weightless or microgravity environment for a duration of 5.18 seconds. This is accomplished by allowing...

  9. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    distillation. SERIES I ARTICLE temperature around 0.65 K. At this temperature the vapour pressure of 3He is about a hundred times more than the vapour pressure of 4He. So when heat is supplied to the still to distil the mixture, the vapour consists almost of pure 3He atoms. Because of this fractional distillation of 3He from ...

  10. The Temperature Dependence of the Resistivity the Noble Metals from 0.03 to 9 K. (United States)

    Steenwyk, Steven Dale

    We present here a thorough investigation of the temperature dependent resistivity (rho)(T) of the noble metals for temperatures from 0.3 K - 9 K. We experimentally determine the magnitude of electron-electron scattering contributions as well as the magnitude and mathematical form of the phonon contribution and its variation with strain and impurity content. We review the basics of the relevant theory including some of the recent calculations of the contribution from various scattering mechanisms, specifically, scattering of electrons by other electrons and by phonons. We consider at length the fundamental effects of the dominant contributors to the residual resistivity, impurity and dislocation scattering, in light of the anisotropy in k-space of the relaxation time determined by these mechanisms. We performed measurements of the resistivity to a precision of one ppm on samples ranging from extremely pure single crystals of Cu and Ag to dilute polycrystalline alloys of Cu with Ag. The techniques required to prepare such samples and to make very high precision measurements are discussed. In particular, treatment is given to some of the unique problems faced in using a SQUID based measuring system on samples of nano-ohm resistance with special attention paid to the use of superconducting chokes and transformers to control the electrical response time of the circuit. The results of our measurements give substantial verification of the calculations of the e-e scattering contribution to (rho)(T). Of special interest is the serendipitious verification of the theory of Bermann, Kaveh and Wiser('(DAG)) explaining the origin of the T('4) behavior we had observed in the earliest work. This theory reproduces a nearly T('4) behavior by a combination of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering. Our data fit their equations very well. While we expected to find, and indeed did find, the effect of dislocation to be a reduction in the phonon scattering, we did not

  11. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork (United States)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.


    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1 degree C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273 degrees C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and…

  12. Results of Koo measurements of HTGR lattice by oscillated zero reactivity technique using the AGIP-NUCLEARE RB-2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, F; Brighenti, G.; Chiodi, P.L.; Ghilardotti, G.; Giuliani, C.


    This paper describes k-infinity measurements conducted using an assembly of loose HTGR coated particles in the BR-2 reactor by means of null reactivity oscillating method comparing the effect of poisoned and unpoisoned lattices like tests performed in the Physical Constants Test Reactor (PCTR) at Hanford. The RB-2 reactor was the property of the Italian firm AGIP NUCLEARE and operated at the Montecuccolino Center in Bologna.

  13. Sample environment for neutron scattering measurements of internal stresses in engineering materials in the temperature range of 6 K to 300 K. (United States)

    Kirichek, O; Timms, J D; Kelleher, J F; Down, R B E; Offer, C D; Kabra, S; Zhang, S Y


    Internal stresses in materials have a considerable effect on material properties including strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue resistance. The ENGIN-X beamline is an engineering science facility at ISIS optimized for the measurement of strain and stress using the atomic lattice planes as a strain gauge. Nowadays, the rapidly rising interest in the mechanical properties of engineering materials at low temperatures has been stimulated by the dynamic development of the cryogenic industry and the advanced applications of the superconductor technology. Here we present the design and discuss the test results of a new cryogenic sample environment system for neutron scattering measurements of internal stresses in engineering materials under a load of up to 100 kN and in the temperature range of 6 K to 300 K. Complete cooling of the system starting from the room temperature down to the base temperature takes around 90 min. Understanding of internal stresses in engineering materials at cryogenic temperatures is vital for the modelling and designing of cutting-edge superconducting magnets and other superconductor based applications.

  14. Vaporization of graphite in the temperature range of 4000 to 4500 K (United States)

    Lundell, J. H.; Dickey, R. R.


    The vaporization of graphite under intense laser radiation is considered both theoretically and experimentally. Under intense radiation, the mass-loss rate can be high enough to cause the flow in the laser plume to be supersonic. It is shown that under these conditions the vaporization process is coupled to the plume gasdynamics and the mass-loss rate for graphite is 62% of the free vaporization rate. Experimental results are presented for surface temperatures from 3985 to 4555 K and mass-loss rates from 0.56 to 27.0 g per sq cm sec. The results are used to determine the vapor pressure of graphite in a pressure range of 2 to 11 atm, and the values are shown to be in agreement with the JANAF vapor pressure curve.

  15. Radiative Vaporization of Graphite in the Temperature Range of 4000 to 4500 deg K (United States)

    Lundell, John H.; Dickey, Robert R.


    The vaporization of graphite under intense laser radiation is considered both theoretically and experimentally. Under intense radiation, the mass-loss rate can be high enough to cause the flow in the laser plume to be supersonic. Under these conditions, the vaporization process is coupled to the plume gasdynamics. Experimental results are presented for surface temperatures of 3985 to 4555 K and mass-loss rates from 0.52 to 27.0 g/sq cm sec. The data are used to determine the vapor pressure of graphite in a range of 2 to 11 atm, and the results are shown to be in good agreement with the JANAF vapor pressure curve, if the vaporization coefficients are unity. The assumption of unity vaporization coefficients is shown to be reasonable by a comparison of the present results with other recent vapor pressure results for graphite.

  16. Oxide particle coarsening at temperature over 1473K in 9CrODS steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Oono


    Full Text Available The oxide particle coarsening was evaluated at temperature over 1473K by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM. After annealing of the 9CrODS extruded bar, the size of oxide particles increases while the number density decreases, indicating that the oxide particles coarsen through Ostwald ripening. The growth rate of the oxide particles follows the fifth-power law, which is in the region of dislocation ‘pipe’ diffusion. The activation energy for pipe diffusion, however, was remarkably high, derived as 891KJ/mole. The stability of oxide particles and the difference of the diffusion velocity in between bcc-δ phase and fcc-γ phase should be considered as the contributions to the activation energy.

  17. Josephson STM at mK temperatures: Coupling to the electronic environment (United States)

    Dreyer, Michael; Dana, Rami; Liao, Wan-Ting; Lobb, Cris; Wellstood, Fred; Anderson, Bob

    Ultra-small Josephson junctions can couple to modes in the electronic environment. This leads to sub-gap peaks in the I(V) curve in addition to the phase diffuse supercurrent. The I(V) curve can - in principle - be explained by P(E) theory which describes the probability of tunneling at energy E. A recent study showed that antenna modes of the STM tips could be responsible for the observed sideband structures. In our case the explanation appears to be less simple. We employ a dual tip STM at a temperature of 30 mK. The I(V) spectra of the two tips show distinct patterns with only one shared mode. While the supercurrent branch for the ''inner'' tip is visible, it is obscured by a resonance for the ``outer'' tip. Possible causes and applications to other systems will be discussed. Support from NSF (DMR- 0605763) and Laboratory for Physical Sciences.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of spin-polarized 3He gas in the temperature range 1 mK-4 K from the quantum second virial coefficient (United States)

    Al-Maaitah, A. F.; Sandouqa, A. S.; Joudeh, B. R.; Ghassib, H. B.


    The quantum second virial coefficient Bq of 3He↑ gas is determined in the temperature range 0.001-4 K from the Beth-Uhlenbeck formula. The corresponding phase shifts are calculated from the Lippmann-Schwinger equation using a highly-accurate matrix-inversion technique. A positive Bq corresponds to an overall repulsive interaction; whereas a negative Bq represents an overall attractive interaction. It is found that in the low-energy limit, Bq tends to increase with increasing spin polarization. The compressibility Z is evaluated as another measure of nonideality of the system. Z becomes most significant at low temperatures and increases with polarization. From the pressure-temperature (P-T) behavior of 3He↑ at low T, it is deduced that P decreases with increasing T below 8 mK.

  19. Measurement of the Electron Neutrino Charged-current Interaction Rate on Water with the T2K ND280 pi-zero Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bartet-Friburg, P; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Das, R; Davis, S; de, P; De, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di, F; Di, S; Dolan, S; Drapier, O; Duffy, K; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Feusels, T; Finch, A J; Fiorentini, G A; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Garcia, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayashino, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Jiang, M; Johnson, S; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; King, S; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Koga, T; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, J P; Ludovici, L; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martins, P; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mefodiev, A; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K G; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nantais, C; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; Nowak, J; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Ovsyannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pinzon, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riccio, C; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Rychter, A; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; S, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shah, R; Shaker, F; Shaw, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Wakamatsu, K; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Warzycha, W; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yoshida, K; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J


    The first direct observation of the appearance of electron neutrinos in a muon neutrino beam through neutrino oscillation was recently reported by the T2K experiment. The main background in this observation was the presence of the electron neutrino component of the beam, which accounts for 1.2 % of the beam below the 1.2 GeV threshold. This paper presents a measurement of the charged current interaction rate of the electron neutrino beam component using the large fiducial mass of the T2K $\\pi^0$ detector. The measured ratio of the observed beam interaction rate to the predicted rate in the detector with water targets filled is 0.89 $\\pm$ 0.08 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.11 (sys.), and with the water targets emptied is 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.09 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.13 (sys.). The ratio obtained for the interactions on water only from an event subtraction method is 0.87 $\\pm$ 0.33 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.21 (sys.). These are pioneering measurements of the $\

  20. Towards a 20 kA high temperature superconductor current lead module using REBCO tapes (United States)

    Heller, R.; Bagrets, N.; Fietz, W. H.; Gröner, F.; Kienzler, A.; Lange, C.; Wolf, M. J.


    Most of the large fusion devices presently under construction or in operation consisting of superconducting magnets like EAST, Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), JT-60SA, and ITER, use high temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) to reduce the cryogenic load and operational cost. In all cases, the 1st generation HTS material Bi-2223 is used which is embedded in a low-conductivity matrix of AgAu. In the meantime, industry worldwide concentrates on the production of the 2nd generation HTS REBCO material because of the better field performance in particular at higher temperature. As the new material can only be produced in a multilayer thin-film structure rather than as a multi-filamentary tape, the technology developed for Bi-2223-based current leads cannot be transferred directly to REBCO. Therefore, several laboratories are presently investigating the design of high current HTS current leads made of REBCO. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is developing a 20 kA HTS current lead using brass-stabilized REBCO tapes—as a further development to the Bi-2223 design used in the JT-60SA current leads. The same copper heat exchanger module as in the 20 kA JT-60SA current lead will be used for simplicity, which will allow a comparison of the newly developed REBCO CL with the earlier produced and investigated CL for JT-60SA. The present paper discusses the design and accompanying test of single tape and stack REBCO mock-ups. Finally, the fabrication of the HTS module using REBCO stacks is described.

  1. A test rig for analysis of adhesive tapes at 4 K cryogenic temperature (United States)

    Funke, Thomas; Germer, Alexander; Haberstroh, Christoph; Mayrhofer, Robert; Stipsitz, Johannes


    Cryostats and dewar vessels, in particular those used for liquid helium applications, are usually equipped with multi-layer insulation (MLI). Thereby, multiple foils are wrapped around the respective vessels, tubing and components. As standard, different foils are bonded edge to edge using adhesive tapes either based on aluminized non-metallic films or on aluminum foil. There are a number of standard test procedures for adhesive tapes near ambient temperatures (e.g. AFERA 5012/ISO 29863) allowing a standardized characterization of tapes in terms of holding force and long-term reliability. Unfortunately this does not hold true for adhesive tapes to be used at cryogenic temperatures. In this respect, a test rig comprised of a spring-based traction mechanism has been developed by the authors. Combined with a liquid helium dewar, the fabricated test set-up allows a precise and reproducible application of an adjustable tensile load at 4.2 K and measurements of the respective holding time. In the following, the overall set-up including its significant features is described and first experimental results with aluminum tapes are presented.

  2. Potassium isotope fractionation between K-salts and saturated aqueous solutions at room temperature: Laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Kwon, Kideok D.; Li, Shilei; Beard, Brian L.


    Improvements in mass spectrometry have made it possible to identify naturally occurring K isotope (39K/41K) variability in terrestrial samples that can be used in a variety of geological and biological applications that involve cycling of K such as clay or evaporite formation. However, our ability to interpret K isotope variability is limited by a poor understanding of how K isotopes are fractionated at low temperatures. In this study, we conducted recrystallization experiments of eight K-salts in order to measure the K isotope fractionation factor between the salt and the saturated K solution (Δ41Kmin-sol). Measured Δ41Kmin-sol are +0.50‰ for K2CO3·1.5H2O, +0.32‰ for K2SO4, +0.23‰ for KHCO3, +0.06‰ for K2C2O4·H2O, +0.02‰ for KCl, -0.03‰ for K2CrO4, -0.15‰ for KBr, and -0.52‰ for KI. Overall the Δ41Kmin-sol decreases with increasing r for K in crystals, where r is the average distance between a K atom and its neighboring atoms of negative charge. Salts with monovalent anions and salts with divalent anion complexes define different linear trends with distinct slopes on a plot of Δ41Kmin-sol - r. We applied ab initio lattice dynamics and empirical crystal-chemistry models to calculation of K isotope fractionation factors between K salts; both methods showed that the calculated inter-mineral K isotope fractionation factors (Δ41Kmin-KCl) are highly consistent with experimentally derived Δ41Kmin-KCl under the assumption of consistent β factors for different saturated K solutions. Formulations for the crystal-chemistry model further indicate that both anion charge and bond length r are the principle controlling factors for K isotope fractionation, and the K isotope fractionation factors correlate with r following a 1/r3 relationship. Our experiment and theoretical study confirms the existence of significant equilibrium K isotope fractionation at ambient conditions, and the K isotope fractionation factors for halides and sulfate obtained in this

  3. Study of the system responsivity to measure the blackbody's temperature by optical pyrometry from 1200 K to 1570 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbane Saif


    Full Text Available This work presents a method that has been recently adopted in our laboratory to determine the temperatures of blackbody sources in the range of 1200–1570 K. The system uses a Double Monochromator System (DMS based on a grating and a prism as dispersion elements. The detection element was a silicon photodiode (Si-MMA, over which the spectral range from 800 nm to 900 nm has been used. Between the blackbody source and the DMS was placed an optical system consists of two convergent lenses. The system responsivity “G” was determined by the transmission factor of the optical system and the transmission factor of the DMS and the photodiode responsivity. The obtained results showed that the relative uncertainty of the system responsivity “G” varied from 0.3% to 1.12%. This in turn resulted in a corresponding uncertainty in temperature of about 2.2 K and 4.5 K (k = 1 over the evaluated temperature range. Although this uncertainty level was significantly high compared to those obtained by many other national metrology institutes, it was considered as a step forward in our laboratory to measure high temperatures.

  4. Studies on the Effect of Sub-zero Temperatures on the Formation of Extremely Low Volatility Dimer Esters in Secondary Organic Aerosol from Alpha-Pinene (United States)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Normann Jensen, Louise; Bilde, Merete


    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) is considered a major source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Recently, extremely low volatility organic compounds, or ELVOC, formed from the oxidation of VOCs have been shown to play a crucial role in new particle formation (Ehn et al., 2014). In addition, higher molecular weight dimer esters originating from the oxidation of the biogenic VOC alpha-pinene have been observed in both laboratory-generated and ambient SOA (Kristensen et al., 2013). The low volatility of the dimer esters along with an observed rapid formation makes these high molecular weight compounds likely candidates involved in new particle formation from the oxidation of alpha-pinene. Furthermore, laboratory experiments show that the dimer esters only form in the presence of ozone, thus may be used as tracers for the ozone-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene, and are therefore indicative of enhanced anthropogenic activities. In this work, we present the results of a series of oxidation experiments performed in the newly constructed cold-room smog chamber at Aarhus University. This unique and state-of-the-art Teflon chamber allows for atmospheric simulations of the oxidation VOCs and subsequent SOA formation at temperatures down to -16 °C. In this study, ozonolysis and photochemical oxidations of alpha-pinene are performed at temperatures ranging from +20 to -16 °C. Chemical characterization of the formed SOA is performed using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results show significant differences in the chemical composition related to the experiment temperature. In particularly, the concentration of the high molecular weight dimer esters showed to be highly affected by temperature. Interestingly, preliminary results show higher formation of dimer esters related to increased SOA formation rate, thus indicating that these particle-phase ELVOCs may be linked with new particle

  5. Temperature dependent kinetics (195-798 K) and H atom yields (298-498 K) from reactions of (1)CH(2) with acetylene, ethene, and propene. (United States)

    Gannon, K L; Blitz, M A; Liang, C H; Pilling, M J; Seakins, P W; Glowacki, D R


    The rate coefficients for the removal of the excited state of methylene, (1)CH(2) (a(1)A(1)), by acetylene, ethene, and propene have been studied over the temperature range 195-798 K by laser flash photolysis, with (1)CH(2) being monitored by laser-induced fluorescence. The rate coefficients of all three reactions exhibit a negative temperature dependence that can be parametrized as k((1)CH(2)+C(2)H(2)) = (3.06 +/- 0.11) x 10(-10) T ((-0.39+/-0.07)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k((1)CH(2)+C(2)H(4)) = (2.10 +/- 0.18) x 10(-10) T ((-0.84+/-0.18)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k((1)CH(2)+C(3)H(6)) = (3.21 +/- 0.02) x 10(-10) T ((-0.13+/-0.01)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), where the errors are statistical at the 2sigma level. Removal of (1)CH(2) occurs by chemical reaction and electronic relaxation to ground state triplet methylene. The H atom yields from the reactions of (1)CH(2) with acetylene, ethene, and propene have been determined by laser-induced fluorescence over the temperature range 298-498 K. For the reaction with propene, H atom yields are close to the detection limit, but for acetylene and ethene, the fraction of H atom production is approximately 0.88 and 0.71, respectively, at 298 K, rising to unity by 398 K, with the balance of the reaction with acetylene presumed to be electronic relaxation. Experimental constraints limit studies to a maximum of 1 Torr of bath gas; master equation calculations using an approach that allows treatment of intermediates with deep energy wells have been carried out to explore the role of collisional stabilization for the reaction of (1)CH(2) with acetylene. Stabilization is calculated to be insignificant under the experimental conditions, but does become significant at higher pressures. Between pressures of 100 and 1000 Torr, propyne and allene are formed in similar amounts with a slight preference for propyne. At higher pressures propyne formation becomes about a factor two greater than that of allene, and above 10(5) Torr (300 < T

  6. Iron Disilicide as High-Temperature Reference Material for Traceable Measurements of Seebeck Coefficient Between 300 K and 800 K (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Pawel; Stiewe, Christian; de Boor, Johannes; Druschke, Ines; Zabrocki, Knud; Edler, Frank; Haupt, Sebastian; König, Jan; Mueller, Eckhard


    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) convert heat to electrical energy by means of the Seebeck effect. The Seebeck coefficient is a central thermoelectric material property, measuring the magnitude of the thermovoltage generated in response to a temperature difference across a thermoelectric material. Precise determination of the Seebeck coefficient provides the basis for reliable performance assessment in materials development in the field of thermoelectrics. For several reasons, measurement uncertainties of up to 14% can often be observed in interlaboratory comparisons of temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient or in error analyses on currently employed instruments. This is still too high for an industrial benchmark and insufficient for many scientific investigations and technological developments. The TESt (thermoelectric standardization) project was launched in 2011, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), to reduce measurement uncertainties, engineer traceable and precise thermoelectric measurement techniques for materials and TEGs, and develop reference materials (RMs) for temperature-dependent determination of the Seebeck coefficient. We report herein the successful development and qualification of cobalt-doped β-iron disilicide ( β-Fe0.95Co0.05Si2) as a RM for high-temperature thermoelectric metrology. A brief survey on technological processes for manufacturing and machining of samples is presented. Focus is placed on metrological qualification of the iron disilicide, results of an international round-robin test, and final certification as a reference material in accordance with ISO-Guide 35 and the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the national metrology institute of Germany.

  7. Evaluation of the three-phase equilibrium method for measuring temperature dependence of internally consistent partition coefficients (K(OW), K(OA), and K(AW)) for volatile methylsiloxanes and trimethylsilanol. (United States)

    Xu, Shihe; Kropscott, Bruce


    Partitioning equilibria and their temperature dependence of chemicals between different environmental media are important in determining the fate, transport, and distribution of contaminants. Unfortunately, internally consistent air/water (K(AW)), 1-octanol/air (K(OA)), and 1-octanol/water (K(OW)) partition coefficients, as well as information on their temperature dependence, are scarce for organosilicon compounds because of the reactivity of these compounds in water and octanol and their extreme partition coefficients. A newly published 3-phase equilibrium method was evaluated for simultaneous determination of the temperature dependence of (K(OW), K(OA), and K(AW)) of 5 volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS) and trimethylsilanol (TMS) in a temperature range from 4 °C to 35 °C. The measured partition coefficients at the different temperatures for any given compound, and the enthalpy and entropy changes for the corresponding partition processes, were all internally consistent, suggesting that the 3-phase equilibrium method is suitable for this type of measurement. Compared with common environmental contaminants reported in the literature, VMS have enthalpy and entropy relationships similar to those of alkanes for air/water partitioning and similar to those of polyfluorinated compounds for octanol/air partitioning, but more like those for benzoates and phenolic compounds for octanol/water partitioning. The temperature dependence of the partition coefficients of TMS is different from those of VMS and is more like that of alcohols, phenols, and sulfonamides. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Transport current density at temperatures up to 25 K of Cu/Ag composite sheathed 122-type tapes and wires (United States)

    Liu, Shifa; Lin, Kaili; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Dong, Chiheng; Wang, Dongliang; Awaji, Satoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Ma, Yanwei


    The fabrication of iron-based superconductors with high transport critical current density (J c) and low cost is a crucial determinant of whether they can be used for practical applications. In this paper, Cu/Ag composite sheathed Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Sr122) tapes and Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Ba122) round wires were fabricated via an ex situ powder-in-tube method and heat-treated by the hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing process respectively. In order to thoroughly reveal the application potential of Cu/Ag composite sheathed ‘122’ iron pnictide superconductors, transport J c of tapes and wires in high fields at temperatures up to 25 K was measured. High transport J c of 4.4 × 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 3.6 × 103 A cm-2 at 20 K in 10 T was achieved in Cu/Ag composite sheathed Sr122 tapes. Transport J c of Ba122 wires is 9.4 × 103 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 1.9 × 103 A cm-2 at 20 K in 10 T. These results demonstrate the great potential of Cu/Ag composite sheathed ‘122’ iron pnictide superconducting tapes and wires for high-field applications at intermediate temperatures around 20 K, which can be easily obtained by using cryocoolers.

  9. Solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations at zero temperature throughout the BCS-BEC crossover: Josephson and related effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuntarelli, A.; Pieri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Strinati, G.C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)], E-mail:


    The BCS-BEC crossover has received much attention lately, owing especially to its experimental realization with trapped ultracold Fermi atoms. Theoretically, the two limiting situations, of paired fermions described by BCS theory in weak coupling and of composite bosons undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in strong coupling, can be connected with continuity throughout the crossover. This evolution encompasses the unitary limit at intermediate values of the coupling, where the scattering length for two-fermion scattering diverges. Several quantities have been measured experimentally and calculated theoretically in this context over the last several years, with the notable exception of the Josephson and related effects. This is in spite of the fact that the Josephson effect is intimately associated with the spontaneous breaking of the phase of the complex order parameter which unifies superconductivity and superfluidity. In the present paper, we aim at filling (at least partially) this gap and investigate the evolution of the Josephson and related effects throughout the BCS-BEC crossover, by performing a systematic numerical solution of the (time-independent) Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations at zero temperature in a fully self-consistent fashion. We consider a stationary and uniform current flowing in the presence of a three-dimensional barrier with a slab geometry. This extended geometry is specifically required to reach the BEC limit of the crossover, where the formation of composite bosons in terms of their fermionic constituents requires consideration of wave vectors with components along all three dimensions. In addition, we regard the fermionic attraction to extend unmodified over the barrier region, a situation that typically applies to ultracold Fermi atoms. The fully self-consistent solution of the BdG equations in such an extended geometry and coupling range represents a non-trivial numerical calculation. The numerical strategies and algorithms

  10. Densities and derived thermodynamic properties of 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 22 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1er piso, UPALM Zacatenco, 07738 Lindavista, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galicia-Luna, Luis A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1er piso, UPALM Zacatenco, 07738 Lindavista, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail:; Betancourt-Cardenas, Felix F. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1er piso, UPALM Zacatenco, 07738 Lindavista, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Experimental densities were determined in liquid phase for 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 22 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. Water and nitrogen were used as reference fluids for the calibration of the vibrating tube densimeter. The uncertainties of the experimental measurements in the whole range of reported data are estimated to be {+-}0.03 K for temperature, {+-}0.008 MPa for pressure, and {+-}0.20 kg . m{sup -3} for density. The experimental data are correlated using a short empirical equation of six parameters and the 11-parameter Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation of state (BWRS EoS) using a least square optimization. Statistical values to evaluate the different correlations are reported. Published density data of 1-heptanol are compared with values calculated with the 6-parameter equation using the parameters obtained in this work. The experimental data determined here are also compared with an available correlation for 1-heptanol. Densities of 2-heptanol at high pressure were not found in the literature and the data reported here represent the first set of data reported in the literature. Isothermal compressibilities and isobaric thermal expansivity are calculated using the 6-parameter equation for both alcohols within uncertainties estimated to be {+-}0.025 Gpa{sup -1} and {+-}4 x 10{sup -7} K{sup -1}, respectively.

  11. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting. (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.


    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  12. An ultra-low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope for magnetic imaging below 40 mK


    Karci Ozgur; Piatek Julian O.; Jorba Pau; Dede Munir; Ronnow Henrik M.; Oral Ahmet


    We describe the design of a low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) for a dilution refrigerator system. A detachable SHPM head with 25.4 mm OD and 200 mm length is integrated at the end of the mixing chamber base plate of the dilution refrigerator insert (Oxford Instruments, Kelvinox MX-400) by means of a dedicated docking station. It is also possible to use this detachable SHPM head with a variable temperature insert (VTI) for 2 K-300 K operations. A microfabricated 1 mu m size...

  13. Noise measurement system at electron temperature down to 20 mK with combinations of the low pass filters. (United States)

    Hashisaka, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Yoshiaki; Chida, Kensaku; Nakamura, Shuji; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo


    We developed a quantum noise measurement system in a dilution refrigerator by using three kinds of cryogenic low pass filters. One of them is a commercial low pass filter inserted into the noise measurement lines instead of the conventional powder filter, which assures well-defined circuit parameters necessary for the noise measurement at a finite frequency. We checked that this filter gives sufficiently large attenuation up to 20 GHz at room temperature, 77 and 4.2 K. The electron temperature of the mesoscopic device placed in the present system was confirmed to be down to around 20 mK by measuring the thermal noise of the device.

  14. An ultra-low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope for magnetic imaging below 40 mK (United States)

    Karcı, Özgür; Piatek, Julian O.; Jorba, Pau; Dede, Münir; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Oral, Ahmet


    We describe the design of a low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) for a dilution refrigerator system. A detachable SHPM head with 25.4 mm OD and 200 mm length is integrated at the end of the mixing chamber base plate of the dilution refrigerator insert (Oxford Instruments, Kelvinox MX-400) by means of a dedicated docking station. It is also possible to use this detachable SHPM head with a variable temperature insert (VTI) for 2 K-300 K operations. A microfabricated 1μm size Hall sensor (GaAs/AlGaAs) with integrated scanning tunneling microscopy tip was used for magnetic imaging. The field sensitivity of the Hall sensor was better than 1 mG/√Hz at 1 kHz bandwidth at 4 K. Both the domain structure and topography of LiHoF4, which is a transverse-field Ising model ferromagnet which orders below TC = 1.53 K, were imaged simultaneously below 40 mK.

  15. Compressed liquid densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galicia-Luna, Luis A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Camacho-Camacho, Luis E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    (p, {rho}, T) properties were determined in liquid phase for 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. The uncertainty is estimated to be lower than {+-}0.2 kg . m{sup -3} for the experimental densities. Nitrogen and water were used as reference fluids for the calibration of the vibrating tube densimeter. Experimental densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol were correlated with a short empirical equation and the 11-parameter Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation of state (BWRS EoS) using a least square optimization. Statistical values to evaluate the different correlations were reported. Published densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol are compared with values calculated with the BWRS EoS using the parameters obtained in this work. The experimental data determined here are also compared with available correlations for 1-butanol and 2-butanol.

  16. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Acetate at Variable Temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio


    Spectrophotometric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/acetate complex and determine the equilibrium constants at variable temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K) and at the ionic strength of 1.05 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. The enthalpy of complexation at corresponding temperatures was determined by microcalorimetric titrations. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with acetate is weak but strengthened as the temperature is increased. The complexation is endothermic and is entropy-driven. The enhancement of the complexation at elevated temperatures is primarily due to the increasingly larger entropy gain when the solvent molecules are released from the highly-ordered solvation spheres of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and acetate to the bulk solvent where the degree of disorder is higher at higher temperatures.

  17. GHRSST Level 4 K10_SST Global 1 meter Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Naval...

  18. The interaction of O2 with the surface of polycrystalline gadolinium at the temperature range 300-670 K (United States)

    Cohen, S.; Shamir, N.; Mintz, M. H.; Jacob, I.; Zalkind, S.


    Auger-Electron-Spectroscopy (AES) and Direct-Recoils-Spectrometry (DRS) were applied to study the interaction of O2 with a polycrystalline gadolinium surface, in the temperature range 300-670 K and oxygen pressure up to 2 × 10- 6 Torr. It has been found that initial uptake of oxygen, at coverage measurable by the techniques used here, results in rapid oxide island formation. The subsurface is believed to be a mixture of oxide particles and oxygen dissolved in the Gd metal, the latter being the mobile species, even at relatively low temperatures.Enhanced inward diffusion of oxygen starts as early as 420 K and dictates the surface oxygen concentration and effective thickness of the forming oxide. The oxygen accumulation rate at the near-surface region, as measured by the O(KLL) AES signal intensity, goes through a maximum as a function of temperature at 420 K. This is a result of the combination of still efficient oxygen chemisorption that increases surface occupation and slow inward diffusion. The thickest oxide, ~ 1.7 nm, is formed at 300 K and its effective thickness was found to decrease with increasing temperature (due to oxygen dissolution into the metal bulk).Diffusion coefficients of the oxygen dissolution into the bulk were evaluated for various temperatures utilizing models for infinitely thin oxide layer and thick oxide layer, respectively. The best fit under our experimental procedure was obtained by the thick layer model, and the coefficients that were calculated are D0 = 2.2 × 10- 16m2s- 1 and Ea = 46kJ/mol.

  19. Relative Distribution of Water Clusters at Temperature (300-3000K) and Pressure (1-500MPa)

    CERN Document Server

    Ri, Yong-U; Sin, Kye-Ryong


    At 300-3000K and 1-500MPa, variations of relative contents for small water clusters (H2O)n (n=1~6) were calculated by using statistical mechanical methods. First, 9 kinds of small water clusters were selected and their structures were optimized by using ab initio method. In the wide range of temperature (300-3000K) and pressure (1-500MPa), their equilibrium constants of reactions for formation of 9 kinds of water clusters were determined by using molecular partition function. Next, changes of contents (molar fractions) as function of temperature and pressure were estimated. The obtained results for small water clusters can be used to interpret temperature-pressure dependency of the average number for the hydrogen bonds in water clusters and redistribution of the water clusters at the ultrasonic cavitation reactions.

  20. Experiment K-7-35: Circadian Rhythms and Temperature Regulation During Spaceflight. Part 1; Circadian Rhythms and Temperature Regulation (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Klimovitsky, V. Y.


    Mammals have developed the ability to adapt to most variations encountered in their everyday environment. For example, homeotherms have developed the ability to maintain the internal cellular environment at a relatively constant temperature. Also, in order to compensate for temporal variations in the terrestrial environment, the circadian timing system has evolved. However, throughout the evolution of life on earth, living organisms have been exposed to the influence of an unvarying level of earth's gravity. As a result changes in gravity produce adaptive responses which are not completely understood. In particular, spaceflight has pronounced effects on various physiological and behavioral systems. Such systems include body temperature regulation and circadian rhythms. This program has examined the influence of microgravity on temperature regulation and circadian timekeeping systems in Rhesus monkeys. Animals flown on the Soviet Biosatellite, COSMOS 2044, were exposed to 14 days of microgravity while constantly monitoring the circadian patterns temperature regulation, heart rate and activity. This experiment has extended our previous observations from COSMOS 1514, as well as providing insights into the physiological mechanisms that produce these changes.

  1. Prediction of the critical reduced electric field strength for carbon dioxide and its mixtures with 50% O2 and 50% H2 from Boltzmann analysis for gas temperatures up to 3500 K at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli; Murphy, Anthony B.


    This paper provides theoretical calculations that predict the dielectric breakdown properties of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its mixtures with 50% O2 and 50% H2 for a gas temperature range of 300-3500 K at 0.1 MPa. CO2 is one of the most likely candidates for an environment-friendly arc-quenching medium to replace SF6 in high-voltage circuit breakers. Initially, the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is derived by solving the Boltzmann equation under the zero-dimensional two-term spherical harmonic approximation. Then the reduced ionization and attachment coefficients are obtained, based on the calculated EEDF. Finally, the critical reduced electric field strength (E/N)cr, which is defined as the value for which total ionization reactions are equal to total attachment reactions, is obtained and analysed. The results demonstrate the superior breakdown properties of a 50% CO2-50% O2 mixture to those of both pure CO2 and 50% CO2-50% H2. Nearly no deviation in (E/N)cr is found in a 50% CO2-50% O2 mixture for gas temperatures up to 2500 K, and although there is clear reduction as the gas temperature is increased further to 3500 K, the value remains higher than that of pure CO2.

  2. Measuring the microwave response of superconducting Nb:STO and Ti at mK temperatures using superconducting resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiemann, Markus; Beutel, Manfred; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Fillis-Tsirakis, Evangelos; Boschker, Hans; Mannhart, Jochen [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Niobium doped SrTiO{sub 3} is a superconductor, with the lowest charge carrier density among all superconductors. It shows a dome in the transition temperature as a function of doping concentration with a maximum T{sub c} ∼ 0.3 K. The superconducting dome may originate from the different bands being occupied depending on the doping level. The low energy scales of the system, as indicated by the low T{sub c} are within the GHz-regime. Therefore microwave measurements are a powerful technique to reveal the electronic properties of these superconductors. We preformed microwave measurements on Nb:STO of different doping levels in a dilution refrigerator, using superconducting stripline resonators. Measurements were done in a temperature and frequency range from 40-400 mK and 1-20 GHz, covering the normal and superconducting states. For comparison we also measured the temperature dependence of the surface impedance of superconducting titanium (T{sub c} ∼ 0.5 K), which can be well described by the Mattis-Bardeen equations with a ratio (2Δ)/(k{sub B}T{sub c}) = 3.56. Therefore titanium is an ideal reference sample representing a conventional BCS-superconductor.

  3. Challenges of Handling, Processing, and Studying Liquid and Supercooled Materials at Temperatures above 3000 K with Electrostatic Levitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Ishikawa


    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, great progress has been made in techniques for electrostatic levitation, with innovations such as containerless thermophysical property measurements and combination of levitators with synchrotron radiation source and neutron beams, to name but a few. This review focuses on the technological developments necessary for handling materials whose melting temperatures are above 3000 K. Although the original electrostatic levitator designed by Rhim et al. allowed the handling, processing, and study of most metals with melting points below 2500 K, several issues appeared, in addition to the risk of contamination, when metals such as Os, Re, and W were processed. This paper describes the procedures and the innovations that made successful levitation and the study of refractory metals at extreme temperatures (>3000 K possible; namely, sample handling, electrode design (shape and material, levitation initiation, laser heating configuration, and UV range imaging. Typical results are also presented, putting emphasis on the measurements of density, surface tension, and viscosity of refractory materials in their liquid and supercooled phases. The data obtained are exemplified by tungsten, which has the highest melting temperature among metals (and is second only to carbon in the periodic table, rhenium and osmium. The remaining technical difficulties such as temperature measurement and evaporation are discussed.

  4. Raman spectroscopy of SrB4O7 single crystals in the temperature range 300-1273 K (United States)

    Sobol, A. A.; Shukshin, V. E.; Zaitsev, A. I.


    The polarized Raman spectra of SrB4O7 (SBO) single crystals are studied in detail in the temperature range of 300-1273 K. The TO, LO, and IO phonon lines of A 1, A 2, B 1, and B 2 symmetries of rhombic SBO at 300 K are identified. The behavior of the Raman spectra of SBO crystals is studied upon heating up to their melting. The relation of Raman spectra with the structure of boron-oxygen fragments, as well as the transformation of spectra in the process of melting of SBO crystals, is discussed.

  5. Thermoelectric, electronic, optical and chemical bonding properties of Ba{sub 2}PrRuO{sub 6}: At temperature 7 K and 150 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H. [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Kangar, Perlis 01007 Malaysia (Malaysia); Khan, Wilayat, E-mail: [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: • DFT-FPLAPW method used for calculating the electronic structure. • The Fermi surface of BPRO (7 K and 150 K) is also calculated. • The complex dielectric function has been calculated. • Thermoelectric properties were also calculated using BoltzTraP code. • Power factor shows that both compounds are good thermoelectric materials at 600 K. - Abstract: We present first principles calculations of the band structure, density of states, electronic charge density, Fermi surface and optical properties of Ba{sub 2}PrRuO{sub 6} single crystals at two different temperatures. The atomic positions were optimized by minimizing the forces acting on the atoms. We have employed the full potential linear augmented plane wave method within local density approximation, generalized gradient approximation and Engel–Vosko generalized gradient approximation to treat the exchange correlation potential. The calculation shows that the compound is superconductor with strong hybridization near the Fermi energy level. Fermi surface is composed of two sheets. The calculated electronic specific heat capacities indicate, very close agreement with the experimental one. The bonding features of the compounds are analyzed using the electronic charge density in the (1 0 0) and (0–10) crystallographic planes. The dispersion of the optical constants was calculated and discussed. The thermoelectric properties are also calculated using the BoltzTrap code.

  6. PSI's 1kW imaging furnace-A tool for high-temperature chemical reactivity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesdon, C.; Alxneit, I.; Tschudi, H.R.; Wuillemin, D.; Brunner, Y.; Winkel, L.; Sturzenegger, M. [Laboratory for High-Temperature Solar Technology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Petrasch, J. [Professorship for Renewable Energy Carriers, ETHZ Zentrum, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)


    A new experiment has been installed to conduct studies at temperatures as high as 2500K on chemical reactions that involve solids or melts and the release of condensable gases. The sample is radiatively heated by a 1kW xenon short arc lamp placed in the upper focus of a vertically oriented ellipsoid of revolution. The optimal optical configuration has been determined by a Monte-Carlo Ray tracing method. Several methods to machine the reflector have been evaluated by experimentally determining the optical quality of the surface of plane test pieces. In the imaging furnace the sample is placed on a water-cooled support and heated by the concentrated radiation. This arrangement allows for fast heating and impedes the reaction of the sample with crucible material. A remotely controlled hammer allows for freezing the high-temperature composition of the sample by a fast quench. Thus, the sample can be later analyzed by conventional methods such as XRD or TEM. To allow for measurements under defined atmospheres and to protect the ellipsoidal reflector from liberated condensable products, the entire sample stage is enclosed by a hemispherical glass dome. The dome itself is protected from condensable compounds by a laminar flow of inert gas. Experiments with an incense cone at the place of the sample to visualize the gas flow showed that a steady layer of inert gas protects the dome from smoke, if the inert gas flow is properly adjusted. Measured peak flux densities clearly exceed 500Wcm{sup -2} required to access temperatures of at least 2500K. Decomposition experiments on copper sulfides confirmed the operation of the furnace. In the near future flash assisted multi-wavelength pyrometry (FAMP) will be implemented to measure sample temperatures online. Though the imaging furnace was developed to study the decomposition of metal sulfides it is obviously suited to conduct high-temperature studies on most materials relevant for high-temperature solar technology. (author)

  7. Densities and volumetric properties of (acetonitrile+an amide) binary mixtures at temperatures between 293.15K and 318.15K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nain, Anil Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110 003 (India)]. E-mail:


    The densities of binary mixtures of acetonitrile (ACN) with formamide (FA), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methylacetamide (NMA), and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), including those of pure liquids, over the entire composition range were measured at temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K and atmospheric pressure. From the experimental data, the excess molar volume, V{sub m}{sup E}, and partial molar volumes, V-bar {sub m,1} and V-bar {sub m,2}, were calculated over whole composition range. The variation of these parameters with composition and temperature of the mixtures has been discussed in terms of molecular interaction in these mixtures. The V{sub m}{sup E} values were found negative for all the mixtures and at each temperature studied, indicating the presence of specific interactions between ACN and amide molecules. The extent of negative deviations in V{sub m}{sup E} values follows the order: FA>NMA>DMA>DMF. It is observed that the V{sub m}{sup E} values depend upon the positions of methyl groups in these amide molecules.

  8. Zero emission coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.


    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  9. Calculation of the second virial coefficient B(T) for gaseous and molecular hydrogen in the temperature range of 1 K to 3000 K. Berechnung des zweiten Virialkoeffizienten B(T) fuer gasfoermigen molekularen Wasserstoff im Temperaturintervall von 1 K bis 3000 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artym, R.; Kliem, M. (Energetisches Inst., Moscow (USSR))


    The second virial coefficient B(T) of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) has been calculated at temperatures over the range 1 K to 3000 K using the Woolley potential function. The potential constants {epsilon}/k = 28,79 K, r{sub m} = 0,34473 nm, e{sub 1} = 0,01 have been determined from the B(T)-data of Michels et al. (1959). The calculated second virial coefficients B(T) agree very well with the available experimental data over the whole temperature range from 13 K to 3000 K. A new method of calculating second virial coefficients has been suggested for low temperatures based on the representation of (y-y{sub 0})/(x-x{sub 0}) vs x by a straight line (x = T{sup 1/2}, y = T{sup 5/4} B). (orig.).

  10. Robust Zero-Field Skyrmion Formation in FeGe Epitaxial Thin Films. (United States)

    Gallagher, J C; Meng, K Y; Brangham, J T; Wang, H L; Esser, B D; McComb, D W; Yang, F Y


    B20 phase magnetic materials have been of significant interest because they enable magnetic Skyrmions. One major effort in this emerging field is the stabilization of Skyrmions at room temperature and zero magnetic field. We grow phase-pure, high crystalline quality FeGe epitaxial films on Si(111). Hall effect measurements reveal a strong topological Hall effect after subtracting the ordinary and anomalous Hall effects, demonstrating the formation of high density Skyrmions in FeGe films between 5 and 275 K. In particular, a substantial topological Hall effect was observed at a zero magnetic field, showing a robust Skyrmion phase without the need of an external magnetic field.

  11. Solubility of esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in alcohols at temperatures from 298.15 to 318.15 K (United States)

    Bhesaniya, K.; Baluja, S.


    The solubility of esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol was determined at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 318.15 K at atmospheric pressure using gravimetrical method. The highest solubility is found in 1-butanol and lowest in ethanol. The experimental solubility data are correlated by the modified Apelblat equation. Thermodynamic properties such as dissolution enthalpy, Gibb's energy, and entropy of mixing have been determined from the solubility data.

  12. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M


    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  13. Zero-Based Budgeting. (United States)

    Wichowski, Chester


    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  14. Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.


    Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  15. cleaned glass substrates at room temperature (300°K). An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sheet resistivity of the as-deposited SnOz films was very high (> 20 M0) and decreased with annealing in air. The variation of sheet resistivity as a function of time during isothermal annealing at different temperatures is shown in figure 1. The as- deposited or unannealed SnO2 films (evaporatiOn temperature above ...

  16. Investigation of Electrical Latchup and SEL Mechanisms at Low Temperature for Applications Down to 50 K (United States)

    Youssef, A. Al; Artola, L.; Ducret, S.; Hubert, G.; Perrier, F.


    This paper presents a physical investigation of the mechanisms induced by the low temperature on single-event latchup in CMOS inverters for a range of technology nodes (250 nm from Sofradir and 180 nm from IBM). For the first time, the TCAD simulations show a good agreement of latchup characteristics with the experimental measurements at cryogenic temperatures. Additionally, a more robust technology provided by Sofradir was demonstrated.

  17. Temperature dependence and mechanism of the reaction between O(3P) and chlorine dioxide (United States)

    Colussi, A. J.; Sander, S. P.; Fiedl, R. R.


    Second-order rate constants for the decay of O(3P) in excess chlorine dioxide, k(II), were measured as a function of total pressure (20-600 Torr argon) and temperature (248-312 K), using flash photolysis-atomic resonance fluorescence. Results indicate that k(II) is pressure dependent with a value, K(b), that is nonzero at zero pressure, and both the third-order rate constant and k(b) have negative temperature dependences.

  18. Pusat Tenaga Malaysia's Zero Energy Office (ZEO) Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, C.K.; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    Technical Review of the Zero Energy Office building in Malaysia. The building, which has an energy index of 50 kWh/m2/year, reaches a net annual energy of zero through the use of building integrated photovoltaic panels. For reference, ordinary offices in Malaysia consume 200 - 300 kWh/m2/year...

  19. Neutron experiments on nuclear order in silver at pK temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nummila, K.K.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Vuorinen, R.T.


    Spontaneous long range antiferromagnetic order in the spin-1/2 s ystem of silver nuclei has been observed by neutron diffraction on a single crystal of Ag The observed antiferromagnetic state had a simple 1-k structure and no field induced phase transitions within the ordered state could be inden...

  20. Probing environment fluctuations by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of molecular systems at temperatures below 5 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancova, Olga; Abramavicius, Darius [Department of Theoretical Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Jankowiak, Ryszard [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 213 CBC Building Manhattan, Kansas 66506-0401 (United States)


    Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy at cryogenic and room temperatures reveals excitation energy relaxation and transport, as well as vibrational dynamics, in molecular systems. These phenomena are related to the spectral densities of nuclear degrees of freedom, which are directly accessible by means of hole burning and fluorescence line narrowing approaches at low temperatures (few K). The 2D spectroscopy, in principle, should reveal more details about the fluctuating environment than the 1D approaches due to peak extension into extra dimension. By studying the spectral line shapes of a dimeric aggregate at low temperature, we demonstrate that 2D spectra have the potential to reveal the fluctuation spectral densities for different electronic states, the interstate correlation of static disorder and, finally, the time scales of spectral diffusion with high resolution.

  1. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik


    The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...... system. The overall objective of the project is to achieve zero energy consumption at lowest possible initial investments. The ZEO Building shows implementation of integrated design concepts, where active and passive energy systems are interwoven into the building itself, and where several building...... by daylight, supplemented by electric lighting during very dark and overcast periods. Extensive active energy efficiency measures are implemented in the building in order to reduce the need for electricity to an absolute minimum, without compromising the request for comfortable temperatures and adequate...

  2. Practical thermometry and thermalization at sub-1 K temperatures using commercial surface-mount components (United States)

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko


    Thermometry and heat sinking are important aspects of cryogenic engineering. We have carried out experiments to determine the usefulness of commercial surface-mount resistors, resistor arrays and capacitors as temperature sensors and electrically isolated heat conductors. Our investigations were motivated by the need for easy thermal diagnostics and management of heat dissipation in experimental setups operating at sub-kelvin temperatures in dilution refrigerators. In this work we also present a simple and robust resistance-to-voltage converter circuit with low excitation power.

  3. Thermal conductivity measurements of impregnated Nb3Sn coil samples in the temperature range of 3.5 K to 100 K (United States)

    Koettig, T.; Maciocha, W.; Bermudez, S.; Rysti, J.; Tavares, S.; Cacherat, F.; Bremer, J.


    In the framework of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, high-field magnets are under development. Magnetic flux densities of up to 13 T require the use of Nb3Sn superconducting coils. Quench protection becomes challenging due to the high stored energy density and the low stabilizer fraction. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the combination of insulating layers and Nb3Sn based cables are an important thermodynamic input parameter for quench protection systems and superfluid helium cooling studies. A two-stage cryocooler based test stand is used to measure the thermal conductance of the coil sample in two different heat flow directions with respect to the coil package geometry. Variable base temperatures of the experimental platform at the cryocooler allow for a steady-state heat flux method up to 100 K. The heat is applied at wedges style copper interfaces of the Rutherford cables. The respective temperature difference represents the absolute value of thermal conductance of the sample arrangement. We report about the measurement methodology applied to this kind of non-uniform sample composition and the evaluation of the used resin composite materials.

  4. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  5. Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the 500-1150 K temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Risueno, E. [CIC Energigune, Parque Tecnologico, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava, Spain. (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First heating cycle acts as a annealing, relieving the surface stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress relieving occurs mainly above 900 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity decreases between 0.35 and 0.10 in the 2.5-22 {mu}m spectral range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity increases linearly with temperature, with the same slope for {lambda} > 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between resistivity and emissivity by means of Hagen-Rubens relation. - Abstract: Thermal radiative emissivity is related to the optical and electrical properties of materials, and it is a key parameter required in a large number of industrial applications. In the case of Ti-6Al-4V, spectral emissivity experimental data are not available for the range of temperatures between 400 and 1200 K, where almost all industrial applications take place. The experimental results in this paper show that the normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength from a value of about 0.35 at 2.5 {mu}m to about 0.10 at 22 {mu}m. At the same time, the spectral emissivity shows a slight linear increase with temperature between 500 and 1150 K, with approximately the same slope for all wavelengths. Additionally, the influence of the samples thermal history on the emissivity is studied. A strong decrease in the emissivity values appears due to the effect of surface stress relaxation processes. This means that the radiative properties of this alloy strongly depend on the surface stress state. A thermal treatment to relieve the surface stress should be carried out to achieve a steady state of the radiative properties. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is found between the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity obtained using conventional measurements and the one obtained from the emissivity experimental results by using the Hagen-Rubens equation.

  6. Effect of the slow (K or rapid (k+ feathering gene on body and feather growth and fatness according to ambient temperature in a Leghorn × brown egg type cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordas André


    Full Text Available Abstract Chicks of both sexes issued from the cross of heterozygous K/k+ cocks for the slow-feathering sex linked K allele with k+ (rapid feathering hens, were compared from the age of 4 to 10 weeks at two ambient temperatures. In individual cages, 30 male chicks of each genotype (K/k+ and k+/k+ were raised at 21°C, and 60 others, distributed in the same way, were raised at 31°C. 71 K/W females and 69 k+/W females were raised in a floor pen at 31°C till 10 weeks of age. In the males, the body weight, feed consumption and feed efficiency at different ages were influenced only by temperature (lower growth rate and feed intake at 31°C; no significant effects of the genotype at locus K nor genotype × temperature interaction were observed. In females, all at 31°C, the genotype (K/W or k+/W had no significant effect on growth rate. Plumage weight and weight of abdominal fat (absolute or related to body weight were measured on half of the males of each group in individual cages, at 10 weeks of age. Moreover, on 36 males and 48 females of the two genotypes, in a group battery at 31°C, the absolute and relative weight of plumage were measured on a sample every two weeks between 4 and 10 weeks. In the first case, no significant effect of genotype appeared. In the second case, an interaction between age and genotype was suggested from plumage weight: its growth, especially in male chicks, appears to be temporarily and unexpectedly faster from 4 to 6 weeks of age for the K/k+ and K/W genotypes.

  7. Optical Refrigeration to 119 K, below National Institute of Standards and Technology Cryogenic Temperature (United States)


    New Mexico 87131, USA 2NEST, Nanoscience Insitute -CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica , Universita’ di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, Pisa 3-56127, Italy 3Air...Yb:fiber laser at 1020 nm from IPG Photonics. The experimental setup is outlined in Fig. 2. The laser is optically isolated from and focused via a lens...285 K. A cool- ing power of 50 mW was estimated at the steady state, which, within our experimental uncertainty, corresponds to the NIST-defined

  8. Starting From Ground Zero (United States)

    Fischer, William B.; Stauffer, Robert A.


    Erie County Community College (New York) has developed a zero-based program budgeting system to meet current fiscal problems and diminished resources. The system allocates resources on the basis of program effectiveness and market potential. (LH)

  9. Robust zero resistance in a superconducting high-entropy alloy at pressures up to 190 GPa (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Wang, Honghong; von Rohr, Fabian; Wang, Zhe; Cai, Shu; Zhou, Yazhou; Yang, Ke; Li, Aiguo; Jiang, Sheng; Wu, Qi; Cava, Robert J.; Sun, Liling


    We report the observation of extraordinarily robust zero-resistance superconductivity in the pressurized (TaNb)0.67(HfZrTi)0.33 high-entropy alloy––a material with a body-centered-cubic crystal structure made from five randomly distributed transition-metal elements. The transition to superconductivity (TC) increases from an initial temperature of 7.7 K at ambient pressure to 10 K at ˜60 GPa, and then slowly decreases to 9 K by 190.6 GPa, a pressure that falls within that of the outer core of the earth. We infer that the continuous existence of the zero-resistance superconductivity from 1 atm up to such a high pressure requires a special combination of electronic and mechanical characteristics. This high-entropy alloy superconductor thus may have a bright future for applications under extreme conditions, and also poses a challenge for understanding the underlying quantum physics.

  10. Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300 - 1500 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvoretskii, D A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel' miskin, V V; Zlenko, Alexander S; Khopin, V F; Semjonov, S L; Guryanov, Aleksei N; Denisov, L K; Dianov, Evgenii M


    The visible and near-IR absorption and luminescence bands of bismuth-doped silica and germanosilicate fibres have been measured for the first time as a function of temperature. The temperature-dependent IR luminescence lifetime of a bismuth-related active centre associated with silicon in the germanosilicate fibre has been determined. The Bi{sup 3+} profile across the silica fibre preform is shown to differ markedly from the distribution of IR-emitting bismuth centres associated with silicon. The present results strongly suggest that the IR-emitting bismuth centre comprises a lowvalence bismuth ion and an oxygen-deficient glass network defect. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  11. Temperature Dependence of Spin Relaxation Time in InAs Columnar Quantum Dots at 10 to 150 K (United States)

    Nakanishi, Sota; Sasayama, Kazutoshi; Oyanagi, Yoshitsugu; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Lu, Shulong; Li, Lianhe; Fiore, Andrea; Tackeuchi, Atsushi


    We have investigated carrier spin relaxation in InAs columnar quantum dots (CQDs) using time-resolved photoluminescence measurement. The CQDs were formed by depositing a 1.8 monolayer InAs seed dot layer and a short-period GaAs/InAs superlattice (SL). The spin relaxations of the 3- and 35-period SL CQDs show double exponential decay up to 50 and 130 K, respectively. The spin relaxation times of the fast component, whose amplitudes are 4-11 times larger than that of the slow component, are around 100 ps for the two samples. For the 3-period SL CQDs, the fast spin relaxation time shows no temperature dependence up to around 50 K, indicating the relevance of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process. The slow spin relaxation time of the 35-period SL CQDs was found to decrease from 3.42 ns at 10 K to 0.849 ns at 130 K. This large change may be explained by the Elliott-Yafet process considering acoustic phonon scattering.

  12. The effect of feeding frequency, water temperature, and stocking density on the growth of river puffer Takifugu obscurus reared in a zero-exchange water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Yeol Yoo


    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of daily feeding frequency (Exp I, water temperature (Exp II, and stocking density (Exp III on the growth of river puffer, Takifugu obscurus, juvenile fish of 10 and 40 g in body weight were examined to develop effective techniques to produce river puffer in a non-exchange water system. In Exp I, fish were fed commercial floating feed with 45 % protein one to five times per day to apparent satiation each by hand daily for 8 weeks at 25 °C. In both the 10- and 40-g size groups, the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain of fish fed one meal per day were significantly lower than those of fish fed five meals per day (P < 0.05. However, there were no significant differences in the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain among fish fed two, three, and five meals per day. Feed efficiency showed decreasing tendency with increasing size of fish. In Exp II, fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight were reared with the commercial feed at 15–30 °C for 8 weeks. The weight gain of fish increased with raising water temperature up to 25 °C and decreased drastically at 30 °C for both sizes. The Q10 of specific growth rate was decreased with raising water temperature from 5.04 (temperature interval, 15–20 °C to 0.66 (25–30 °C for the 10-g fish and from 4.98 to 0.31 for the 40-g fish. In Exp III, the effect of stocking density on growth was examined with fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight. The final body weight for initial stocking densities of 4, 8, and 12 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 20 kg/m3 for the 10-g fish, and the final stocking density reached 10.1, 19.2, 28.7, and 39.9 kg/m3, respectively. For the 40-g fish, the final body weight for initial stocking densities of 3 and 6 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 9 and 15 kg/m3 and the final stocking density reached 7.38, 13.5, 17.1, and 27.5 kg/m3, respectively (P < 0.05. In both

  13. Exact low-temperature series expansion for the partition function of the zero-field Ising model on the infinite square lattice. (United States)

    Siudem, Grzegorz; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr


    In this paper, we provide the exact expression for the coefficients in the low-temperature series expansion of the partition function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the infinite square lattice. This is equivalent to exact determination of the number of spin configurations at a given energy. With these coefficients, we show that the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition in the square lattice Ising model can be explained through equivalence between the model and the perfect gas of energy clusters model, in which the passage through the critical point is related to the complete change in the thermodynamic preferences on the size of clusters. The combinatorial approach reported in this article is very general and can be easily applied to other lattice models.

  14. A high-resolution combined scanning laser and widefield polarizing microscope for imaging at temperatures from 4 K to 300 K. (United States)

    Lange, M; Guénon, S; Lever, F; Kleiner, R; Koelle, D


    Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved. The sample is mounted on a 4He continuous flow cryostat providing a temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, and electromagnets are used to apply magnetic fields of up to 800 mT with variable in-plane orientation and 20 mT with out-of-plane orientation. Typical applications of the polarizing microscope are the imaging of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization via the longitudinal and polar MOKE, imaging of magnetic flux structures in superconductors covered with a magneto-optical indicator film via the Faraday effect, or imaging of structural features, such as twin-walls in tetragonal SrTiO3. The scanning laser microscope furthermore offers the possibility to gain local information on electric transport properties of a sample by detecting the beam-induced voltage change across a current-biased sample. This combination of magnetic, structural, and electric imaging capabilities makes the microscope a viable tool for research in the fields of oxide electronics, spintronics, magnetism, and superconductivity.

  15. A high-resolution combined scanning laser and widefield polarizing microscope for imaging at temperatures from 4 K to 300 K (United States)

    Lange, M.; Guénon, S.; Lever, F.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.


    Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved. The sample is mounted on a 4He continuous flow cryostat providing a temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, and electromagnets are used to apply magnetic fields of up to 800 mT with variable in-plane orientation and 20 mT with out-of-plane orientation. Typical applications of the polarizing microscope are the imaging of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization via the longitudinal and polar MOKE, imaging of magnetic flux structures in superconductors covered with a magneto-optical indicator film via the Faraday effect, or imaging of structural features, such as twin-walls in tetragonal SrTiO3. The scanning laser microscope furthermore offers the possibility to gain local information on electric transport properties of a sample by detecting the beam-induced voltage change across a current-biased sample. This combination of magnetic, structural, and electric imaging capabilities makes the microscope a viable tool for research in the fields of oxide electronics, spintronics, magnetism, and superconductivity.

  16. System model development for a methanol reformed 5 kW high temperature PEM fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    This work investigates the system performance when reforming methanol in an oil heated reformer system for a 5 kW fuel cell system. A dynamic model of the system is created and evaluated. The system is divided into 4 separate components. These components are the fuel cell, reformer, burner...... and evaporator, which are connected by two separate oil circuits, one with a burner and reformer and one with a fuel cell and evaporator. Experiments were made on the reformer and measured oil and bed temperatures are presented in multiple working points. The system is examined at loads from 0 to 5000 W electric...

  17. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium in (N,N-dimethylacetamide + ethanol + water) at the temperature 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielkiewicz, Jan [Department of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza Str. 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail:


    Total vapour pressures, measured at the temperature 313.15 K, are reported for the ternary mixture (N,N-dimethylacetamide + ethanol + water), and for binary constituent (N,N-dimethylacetamide + ethanol). The present results are also compared with previously obtained data for (amide + ethanol) binary mixtures, where amide = N-methylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, N-methylacetamide, 2-pyrrolidinone, and N-methylpyrrolidinone. We found that excess Gibbs free energy of mixing for binary (amide + ethanol) mixtures varies roughly linearly with the molar volume of amide.

  18. Thermodynamic Properties of Low-Density {}^{132}Xe Gas in the Temperature Range 165-275 K (United States)

    Akour, Abdulrahman


    The method of static fluctuation approximation was used to calculate selected thermodynamic properties (internal energy, entropy, energy capacity, and pressure) for xenon in a particularly low-temperature range (165-270 K) under different conditions. This integrated microscopic study started from an initial basic assumption as the main input. The basic assumption in this method was to replace the local field operator with its mean value, then numerically solve a closed set of nonlinear equations using an iterative method, considering the Hartree-Fock B2-type dispersion potential as the most appropriate potential for xenon. The results are in very good agreement with those of an ideal gas.

  19. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of aqueous N-acetyl-D-glucosamine at temperatures from 278.15 K to 368.15 K and of aqueous N-methylacetamide at temperatures from 278.15 K to 393.15 K at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, D.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-5700 (United States); Ziemer, S.P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-5700 (United States); Blodgett, M.B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-5700 (United States); Jones, J.S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-5700 (United States); Woolley, E.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-5700 (United States)]. E-mail:


    We determined apparent molar volumes V {sub {phi}} from densities measured with a vibrating-tube densimeter at 278.15 {<=} (T/K) {<=} 368.15 and apparent molar heat capacities C {sub p,{phi}} with a twin fixed-cell, differential, temperature-scanning calorimeter at 278.15 {<=} (T/K) {<=} 363.15 for aqueous solutions of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine at m from (0.01 to 1.0) mol . kg{sup -1} and at p = 0.35 MPa. We also determined V {sub {phi}} at 278.15 {<=} (T/K) {<=} 368.15 and C {sub p,{phi}} at 278.15 {<=} (T/K) {<=} 393.15 for aqueous solutions of N-methylacetamide at m from (0.015 to 1.0) mol . kg{sup -1} and at p = 0.35 MPa. Empirical functions of m and T for each compound were fitted to our results, which are then compared to those for N,N-dimethylacetamide. Estimated values of {delta}{sub r} V {sub m}(m, T) and {delta}{sub r} C {sub p,m}(m, T) for formation of aqueous N-acetyl-D-glucosamine from aqueous D-glucose and aqueous acetamide are calculated and discussed.

  20. Temperature Measurements Using Type K Thermocouples and the Fluke Helios Plus 2287A Datalogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Vonbank, R.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    In 1821, the German–Estonian physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered that when any conductor (such as a metal) is subjected to a thermal gradient, it will generate a voltage. This is now known as the thermoelectric effect or Seebeck effect. Any attempt to measure this voltage necessarily...... involves connecting another conductor to the "hot" end. This additional conductor will then also experience the temperature gradient, and develop a voltage of its own which will oppose the original. Fortunately, the magnitude of the effect depends on the metal in use. Using a dissimilar metal to complete...

  1. Effects of Novel Fin Shape of High Temperature Heat Exchanger on 1 kW Class Stirling Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joon; Kim, Seok Yeon [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this research, numerical analysis was carried out on novel and existing fins, adjusted in terms of factors such as length, spacing, and angle, of a high-temperature heat exchanger for a 1 kW class Stirling engine, designed as a prime mover for a domestic cogeneration system. The performance improvement as a result of shape optimization was confirmed with numerical analysis by including the air preheater, which was not considered during optimization. However, a negative heat flux was observed in the cylinder head portion. This phenomenon was clarified by analyzing the exhaust gas and wall surface temperature of the combustion chamber. Furthermore, assuming an ideal cycle, the effects of heat transfer enhancement on the thermodynamic cycle and system performance were predicted.

  2. Operation experiences with a 30 kV/100 MVA high temperature superconducting cable system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Däumling, Manfred; Jensen, Kim Høj


    of this demonstration project is to gain experience with HTS cables under realistic conditions in a live distribution network. Approximately 50 000 utility customers have their electric power supplied through the HTS cable. The cable system has delivered 226 GW h of energy and reached a maximum operating current......A superconducting cable based on Bi-2223 tape technology has been developed, installed and operated in the public network of Copenhagen Energy in a two-year period between May 2001 and May 2003. This paper gives a brief overview of the system and analyses some of the operation experiences. The aim...... of 1157 A. The operation experiences include over-currents of 6 kA due to faults on peripheral lines, commissioning, servicing and failure responses on the cooling system, continuous 24 h, 7 day per week monitoring and performance of the alarm system. The implications of these experiences for the future...

  3. MRI temperature map reconstruction directly from k-space with compensation for heating-induced geometric distortions (United States)

    Gaur, Pooja; Grissom, William A.


    Proton resonance frequency (PRF) change is used to measure tissue heating, but also distorts the image and causes geometric distortions in temperature estimates in the same manner as other chemical shift distortions if left uncompensated. We propose an algorithm that produces PRF temperature maps free of these distortions by fitting a signal model directly to acquired k-space data that accounts for PRF-induced phase both up to and during the readout. We also introduce a faster method compatible with Cartesian data that corrects distortions from image-domain temperature maps. Gel heating experiments show the proposed CS compensation algorithms correct magnitude image artifacts and hotspot distortions. Without CS compensation, thermal dose values are overestimated in spiral data, and are spatially offset in 2DFT and EPI data. Compensating for heat-induced CS distortions improves the accuracy of temperature change and thermal dose measurements, and can have a significant positive impact on clinical and research applications of PRF-shift thermometry.

  4. Measurement and Analysis of Normal Zone Propagation in a ReBCO Coated Conductor at Temperatures Below 50K

    CERN Document Server

    van Nugteren, J; Wessel, S; Krooshoop, E; Nijhuis, A; ten Kate, H


    Measurements of the quasi-adiabatic normal zone propagation velocity and quench energies of a Superpower SCS4050 copper stabilised ReBCO superconducting tape are presented over a temperature range of 23 − 47 K; in parallel applied magnetic fields of 6, 10 and 14 T; and over a current range from 50% to 100% of Ic. The data are compared to results of analytic predictions and to one-dimensional numerical simulations. The availability of long lengths of ReBCO coated conductor makes the material interesting for many HTS applications operating well below the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, such as magnets and motors. One of the main issues in the design of such devices is quench detection and protection. At higher temperatures, the quench velocities in these materials are known to be about two orders of magnitude lower compared to low temperature superconductors, resulting in significantly smaller normal zones and the risk of higher peak temperatures. To investigate whether the same also holds for lower tempera...

  5. Photophysics of α-furil at room temperature and 77 K: Spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies (United States)

    Kundu, Pronab; Chattopadhyay, Nitin


    Steady state and time resolved spectroscopic measurements have been exploited to assign the emissions from different conformations of α-furil (2, 2'-furil) in solution phase at room temperature as well as cryogen (liquid nitrogen, LN2) frozen matrices of ethanol and methylcyclohexane. Room temperature studies reveal a single fluorescence from the trans-planar conformer of the fluorophore or two fluorescence bands coming from the trans-planar and the relaxed skew forms depending on excitation at the nπ∗ or the ππ∗ absorption band, respectively. Together with the fluorescence bands, the LN2 studies in both the solvents unambiguously ascertain two phosphorescence emissions with lifetimes 5 ± 0.3 ms (trans-planar triplet) and 81 ± 3 ms (relaxed skew triplet). Quantum chemical calculations have been performed using density functional theory at CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G∗∗ level to prop up the spectroscopic surveillance. The simulated potential energy curves (PECs) illustrate that α-furil is capable of giving two emissions from each of the S1 and the T1 states - one corresponding to the trans-planar and the other to the relaxed skew conformation. Contrary to the other 1,2-dicarbonyl molecular systems like benzil and α-naphthil, α-furil does not exhibit any fluorescence from its second excited singlet (S2) state. This is ascribed to the proximity of the minimum of the PEC of the S2 state and the hill-top of the PEC of the S1 state.

  6. Targeted expression of redesigned and codon optimised synthetic gene leads to recrystallisation inhibition and reduced electrolyte leakage in spring wheat at sub-zero temperatures. (United States)

    Khanna, Harjeet K; Daggard, Grant E


    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to ice crystals and inhibit their growth, leading to non-colligative freezing point depression. Crops like spring wheat, that are highly susceptible to frost damage, can potentially be made frost tolerant by expressing AFPs in the cytoplasm and apoplast where ice recrystallisation leads to cellular damage. The protein sequence for HPLC-6 alpha-helical antifreeze protein from winter flounder was rationally redesigned after removing the prosequences in the native protein. Wheat nuclear gene preferred amino acid codons were used to synthesize a recombinant antifreeze gene, rAFPI. Antifreeze protein was targeted to the apoplast using a Murine leader peptide sequence from the mAb24 light chain or retained in the endoplasmic reticulum using C-terminus KDEL sequence. The coding sequences were placed downstream of the rice Actin promoter and Actin-1 intron and upstream of the nopaline synthase terminator in the plant expression vectors. Transgenic wheat lines were generated through micro projectile bombardment of immature embryos of spring wheat cultivar Seri 82. Levels of antifreeze protein in the transgenic lines without any targeting peptide were low (0.06-0.07%). The apoplast-targeted protein reached a level of 1.61% of total soluble protein, 90% of which was present in the apoplast. ER-retained protein accumulated in the cells at levels up to 0.65% of total soluble proteins. Transgenic wheat line T-8 with apoplast-targeted antifreeze protein exhibited the highest levels of antifreeze activity and provided significant freezing protection even at temperatures as low as -7 degrees C.

  7. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, S. W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH{sup −}) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  8. Fluoride salts as phase change materials for thermal energy storage in the temperature range 1000-1400 K (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.


    Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermediate compounds in binary and ternary fluoride salt systems were characterized for potential use as latent heat of fusion phase change materials to store thermal energy in the temperature range 1000-1400 K. The melting points and eutectic compositions for many systems with published phase diagrams were experimentally verified and new eutectic compositions having melting points between 1000 and 1400 K were identified. Heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting compounds were experimentally measured by differential scanning calorimetry. For a few systems in which heats of mixing in the melts have been measured, heats of fusion of the eutectics were calculated from thermodynamic considerations and good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated values. Several combinations of salts with high heats of fusion per unit mass (greater than 0.7 kJ/g) have been identified for possible use as phase change materials in advanced solar dynamic space power applications.

  9. Forced convection of ammonia. 2. part.: gaseous ammonia - very high wall temperatures (1000 to 3000 K); Convection forcee de l'ammoniac. 2. partie: ammoniac gazeux - cas de tres hautes temperatures de paroi (1000 a 3000{sup 0} K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P.; Rebiere, J.; Strittmatter, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop of gaseous ammonia in forced convection are experimentally determined. The fluid flows (mass flow rate 0.6 to 2.4 g/s) in a long tungsten tube (d{sub i} = 2.8 mm, d{sub e} = 5.1 mm, L = 700 mm) electrically heated. The temperature of the wall reaches 3000 deg. K and the fluid 2500 deg. K; maximum heat flux 530 w/cm{sup 2}. Ammonia is completely dissociated and the power necessary for dissociation reaches 30 per cent of the total power exchanged. Inlet pressure varies between 6 and 16 bars and the maximum pressure drop in the tube reaches 15 bars. Two regimes of dissociation have been shown: catalytic and homogeneous and the variation of dissociation along the length of the tube is studied. The measured heat transfer coefficients may be about 10 times these calculated by the means of classical formulae. A correlation of experimental results using enthalpy as a driving force for heat transmission is presented. Pressure drops may be calculated by the means of a classical friction factor. (authors) [French] On determine experimentalement les coefficients d'echange thermique et les pertes de charge de l'ammoniac gazeux en convection forcee. Le fluide circule avec un debit en masse compris entre 0.6 et 2.4 g/s (G = 10 a 40 g/cm{sup 2}.s) dans un tube long en tungstene (d{sub i} = 2.8 mm, d{sub e} = 5.1 mm, L = 700 mm), chauffe electriquement. La temperature de paroi atteint 3000 deg. K, celle du fluide 2500 deg. K et le flux de chaleur maximal est de 530 W/cm{sup 2}. L'ammoniac se dissocie completement, la puissance correspondant a la dissociation atteint 30 pour cent de la puissance totale echangee. La pression d'entree varie entre 6 et 16 bars et la chute de pression maximale dans le canal est de 15 bars. On distingue deux regimes de dissociation, catalytique et homogene, et on etudie la variation du taux de dissociation en fonction de la longueur du tube. Les coefficients d'echange thermique mesures

  10. Resistance of LHC main bus bar splices at room temperature and at 77.4 K

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, S; Scheuerlein, Chr; CERN. Geneva. TE Department


    As part of the quality control the resistance of newly produced LHC main bus bar splices is now routinely measured at room temperature (RT) in order to conclude on the electrical continuity of the bus bar stabiliser across the splice under operating conditions. In this note we present splice resistance measurements that have been performed at RT and in liquid nitrogen (LN) in the CERN Cryolab with “ideal” splices (represented by continuous dipole and quadrupole bus bars), and with dipole and quadrupole splices with different defects, which cause an additional RT splice resistance of up to 60 µΩ. The RT resistance (RRT) results obtained with the Cryolab set-up are compared to the calculated resistance values and with the so-called R-8 and R-16 resistance results, as they are measured in the LHC tunnel with a Digital Low Resistance Ohmmeter with a voltage tap distance of 8 cm or 16 cm. The RT to LN resistance ratio has been determined for all splices in order to study the influence of the resistance of th...

  11. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N


    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  12. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermodynamic characterization of Zr doped ceria in the 1573-1773 K temperature range. (United States)

    Takacs, M; Scheffe, J R; Steinfeld, A


    This work encompasses the thermodynamic characterization and critical evaluation of Zr(4+) doped ceria, a promising redox material for the two-step solar thermochemical splitting of H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. As a case study, we experimentally examine 5 mol% Zr(4+) doped ceria and present oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements at elevated temperatures ranging from 1573 K to 1773 K and oxygen partial pressures ranging from 4.50 × 10(-3) atm to 2.3 × 10(-4) atm, yielding higher reduction extents compared to those of pure ceria under all conditions investigated, especially at the lower temperature range and at higher pO2. In contrast to pure ceria, a simple ideal solution model accounting for the formation of isolated oxygen vacancies and localized electrons accurately describes the defect chemistry. Thermodynamic properties are determined, namely: partial molar enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. In general, partial molar enthalpy and entropy values of Zr(4+) doped ceria are lower. The equilibrium hydrogen yields are subsequently extracted as a function of the redox conditions for dopant concentrations as high as 20%. Although reduction extents increase greatly with dopant concentration, the oxidation of Zr(4+) doped ceria is thermodynamically less favorable compared to pure ceria. This leads to substantially larger temperature swings between reduction and oxidation steps, ultimately resulting in lower theoretical solar energy conversion efficiencies compared to ceria under most conditions. In effect, these results point to the importance of considering oxidation thermodynamics in addition to reduction when screening potential redox materials.

  13. Measurement of the Absorptance-emittance of Black Paint Surfaces at Temperatures From 10 To 120[K]. (United States)

    Jamotton, P.; Delree, C.; Cucchiaro, A.; Liebecq, S.


    The PLANCK satellite, the third medium-size (M3) mission of Horizon 2000 program of the European Space Agency, will provide data to understand the origin and the evolution of our Universe. CSL is in charge of the whole satellite thermal vacuum testing, and will perform the only on-ground verification of the overall satellite, including its thermal performances. It is necessary to reproduce the deep cold space by thermal shrouds. The thermal requirements for these shrouds are not only to support a heat load of 50 [W] at a temperature lower than 20 [K] but also mainly to avoid cross-coupling from the warm parts of the spacecraft to the colder payload. The thermal shrouds are copper plates coated with a black paint on their inner face. Due to the main requirement, the choice of the paint, driven by its emittance-absorptance property, is one of the major parameter of the test set-up. A measurement bench for emittance-absorptance measurements was developed previously[1] for the testing of the METEOSAT SECOND GENERATION (MSG) set-up at CSL premises. The measurements were performed on flat plates and on an aluminium open honeycomb glued on a copper plate. The results showed that the best coating for this type of application is the PU1 paint from MAP in France. Due to the criticality of this parameter, deeper investigations on flat and open honeycomb surfaces absorptance-emittance measurements were required. The measurement bench has been improved, and the measurement post-treatment has also been strongly modified. Measurements of absorptance at 10 [K], for radiation coming from body in the range from 40 to 120 [K], have been performed together with emittance measurements in the range from 40 to 80 [K].

  14. Growth temperature regulation of some genes that define the superficial capsular carbohydrate composition of Escherichia coli K92. (United States)

    Navasa, Nicolás; Rodríguez-Aparicio, Leandro B; Ferrero, Miguel Ángel; Moteagudo-Mera, Andrea; Martínez-Blanco, Honorina


    We studied growth temperature as a factor controlling the expression of genes involved in capsular polymers of Escherichia coli K92. These genes are shown to be regulated by growth temperature. Expression levels of genes belonging to the kps cluster, responsible for polysialic acid (PA) biosynthesis, were significantly increased at 37 °C compared with at 19 °C, being up to 500-fold increased for neuE and neuS genes. Similarly, the genes for the nan operon, responsible for PA catabolism, also reached higher expression levels at 37 °C, although with slightly lower values (39-141-fold). In contrast, genes of the cps operon, which are implicated in colanic acid (CA) metabolism, were upregulated when the bacteria were grown at 19 °C, albeit to a much lesser extent (around twofold). This different regulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis of polysialic and CAs correlates with the reported maximal production temperatures for the two polymers. The results suggest that the metabolism of PA is predominantly regulated by changes in gene expression, while CA production may be regulated mainly by post-transcriptional processes such as phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parrot "Understands" Zero (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005


    The walnut sized brain of the African grey parrot may actually be capable of comprehending abstract mathematical concepts. The bird seems to understand a numerical concept akin to zero--an abstract notion that humans don't typically understand until they are three or four years old. Alex, the 28-year-old parrot who lives in a Brandeis University…

  16. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  17. Approach To Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Approach to Absolute Zero Liquefaction of Gases. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 6-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  18. Openings for Zero Rating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Preta (Augusto); P. Peng (Peng)


    textabstractZero rating (toll-free data) is the practice of internet service providers (ISPs) and mobile operators not charging end users for data usage of specific internet content and applications of content providers through their network. On one hand it may benefit consumers from using the

  19. Medium decoupling of dynamics at temperatures ~100 K above glass-transition temperature: a case study with (acetamide + lithium bromide/nitrate) melts. (United States)

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit


    Time-resolved fluorescence Stokes shift and anisotropy measurements using a solvation probe in [0.78CH(3)CONH(2) + 0.22{f LiBr + (1-f) LiNO(3)}] melts reveal a strong decoupling of medium dynamics from viscosity. Interestingly, this decoupling has been found to occur at temperatures ∼50-100 K above the glass transition temperatures of the above melt at various anion concentrations (f(LiBr)). The decoupling is reflected via the following fractional viscosity dependence (η) of the measured average solvation and rotation times ( and , respectively): ∝ (η∕T)(p) (x being solvation or rotation), with p covering the range, 0.20 than for , indicating a sort of translation-rotation decoupling. Multiple probes have been used in steady state fluorescence measurements to explore the extent of static heterogeneity. Estimated experimental dynamic Stokes shift for coumarin 153 in these mixtures lies in the range, 1000 < Δν(t)/cm(-1) < 1700, and is in semi-quantitative agreement with predictions from our semi-molecular theory. The participation of the fluctuating density modes at various length-scales to the observed solvation times has also been investigated.

  20. The Conductivity of Aqueous K2CO3 at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures, Measured using the AC van der Pauw Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Pia Lolk; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Bonanos, Nikolaos


    Conductivity measurements of aqueous K2CO3 were performed using the van der Pauw method and a specially designed sample holder with Pt wires as electrodes. The resistance was measured using alternating current. The conductivity of 10-50 wt% aqueous K2CO3 was measured at room temperature and ambie...

  1. Medium decoupling of dynamics at temperatures ˜100 K above glass-transition temperature: A case study with (acetamide + lithium bromide/nitrate) melts (United States)

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit


    Time-resolved fluorescence Stokes shift and anisotropy measurements using a solvation probe in [0.78CH3CONH2 + 0.22{f LiBr + (1-f) LiNO3}] melts reveal a strong decoupling of medium dynamics from viscosity. Interestingly, this decoupling has been found to occur at temperatures ˜50-100 K above the glass transition temperatures of the above melt at various anion concentrations (fLiBr). The decoupling is reflected via the following fractional viscosity dependence (η) of the measured average solvation and rotation times (⟨τs⟩ and ⟨τr⟩, respectively): ⟨τx⟩ ∝ (η/T)p (x being solvation or rotation), with p covering the range, 0.20 < p < 0.70. Although this is very similar to what is known for deeply supercooled liquids, it is very surprising because of the temperature range at which the above decoupling occurs for these molten mixtures. The kinship to the supercooled liquids is further exhibited via p which is always larger for ⟨τr⟩ than for ⟨τs⟩, indicating a sort of translation-rotation decoupling. Multiple probes have been used in steady state fluorescence measurements to explore the extent of static heterogeneity. Estimated experimental dynamic Stokes shift for coumarin 153 in these mixtures lies in the range, 1000 < Δνt/cm-1 < 1700, and is in semi-quantitative agreement with predictions from our semi-molecular theory. The participation of the fluctuating density modes at various length-scales to the observed solvation times has also been investigated.

  2. Temperature variations in Greenland from 10 to 110 kyr b2k derived from the NGRIP ice core (United States)

    Kindler, Philippe; Leuenberger, Markus; Landais, Amaelle; Guillevic, Myriam


    During the last ice age dramatic temperature variations of up to 16 °C took place in Greenland which are now known as Dansgaard-Oeschger-events (DO-events). They most probably originate from the North Atlantic oceanic and atmospheric circulation system and are characterised by an abrupt warming within decades followed by a gradual cooling over hundreds to thousands of years. We have determined local temperature variations for DO-event 1 to 25 in Greenland based on δ15N measurements from the NorthGRIP ice core, corresponding to the period from 10 to 110 kyr b2k. The record is a composite of measurements from two laboratories, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Paris (DO 18 to 25) and the Climate and Environmental Physics Division of the Physics Institute of the University of Bern (DO 1 to 17) with new measurements from the beginning of the Holocene to DO 8. Temperature variations were reconstructed by reproducing the measured 15N/14N ratio of air enclosed in ice bubbles by the firn densification and heat diffusion model from Schwander. The reconstruction show temperature amplitudes for the DO-events ranging from 5 to 16 °C, thereby the corresponding rates of change can exceed 0.5 °C/decade. In order get an agreement between measured δ15N, Δdepth and Δage values with their modelled analogues, a lower accumulation rate than the one associated with the used ss09sea06bm1 time scale had to be assumed. We had to reduce the accumulation rate time dependently by 0 to nearly 40% with a mean reduction over the whole time period of 16%. With these adjustments both the Δdepth and the Δage values agree between model and measurements.

  3. Effect of prior creep at 1365 K on the room temperature tensile properties of several oxide dispersion strengthened alloys (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.


    An experimental study was conducted to determine whether oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Ni-base alloys in wrought bar form are subject to creep degradation effects similar to those found in thin-gage sheet. The bar products evaluated included ODS-Ni, ODS-NiCr, and advanced ODS-NiCrAl types; the alloys included microstructures ranging from an essentially perfect single crystal to a structure consisting of very small elongated grains. Tensile test specimens were exposed to creep at various stress levels at 1365 K and then tensile tested at room temperature. Low residual tensile properties, change in fracture mode, appearance of dispersoid free bands, grain boundary cavitation, and/or internal oxidation are interpreted as creep degradation effects. The amount of degradation depends on creep strain, and degradation appears to be due to diffusional creep which produces dispersoid free bands around grain boundaries acting as vacancy sources.

  4. Magic angle spinning NMR below 6 K with a computational fluid dynamics analysis of fluid flow and temperature gradients. (United States)

    Sesti, Erika L; Alaniva, Nicholas; Rand, Peter W; Choi, Eric J; Albert, Brice J; Saliba, Edward P; Scott, Faith J; Barnes, Alexander B


    We report magic angle spinning (MAS) up to 8.5 kHz with a sample temperature below 6 K using liquid helium as a variable temperature fluid. Cross polarization 13C NMR spectra exhibit exquisite sensitivity with a single transient. Remarkably, 1H saturation recovery experiments show a 1H T1 of 21 s with MAS below 6 K in the presence of trityl radicals in a glassy matrix. Leveraging the thermal spin polarization available at 4.2 K versus 298 K should result in 71 times higher signal intensity. Taking the 1H longitudinal relaxation into account, signal averaging times are therefore predicted to be expedited by a factor of >500. Computer assisted design (CAD) and finite element analysis were employed in both the design and diagnostic stages of this cryogenic MAS technology development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models describing temperature gradients and fluid flow are presented. The CFD models bearing and drive gas maintained at 100 K, while a colder helium variable temperature fluid stream cools the center of a zirconia rotor. Results from the CFD were used to optimize the helium exhaust path and determine the sample temperature. This novel cryogenic experimental platform will be integrated with pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization and electron decoupling to interrogate biomolecular structure within intact human cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Complex permittivity of lanthanum aluminate in the 20 to 300 K temperature range from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz (United States)

    Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Bhasin, K. B.; Ebihara, B. T.; Heinen, V. O.; Chorey, C. M.


    Dielectric constants of microwave substrates are required in the design of superconducting microwave circuits at various temperatures. In this paper, the results are reported of a study of the complex permittivity of the newly developed lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrate, in the 20 to 300 K temperature range at frequencies from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz. The value of the complex permittivity was obtained by measuring the sample scattering parameters using a microwave waveguide technique. It is observed that, while the dielectric constant did not change appreciably with frequency, its value decreased by approximately 14 percent from room temperature to 20 K.

  6. Zero Boil-Off Methods for Large Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tanks Using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.


    NASA has completed a series of tests at the Kennedy Space Center to demonstrate the capability of using integrated refrigeration and storage (IRAS) to remove energy from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and control the state of the propellant. A primary test objective was the keeping and storing of the liquid in a zero boil-off state, so that the total heat leak entering the tank is removed by a cryogenic refrigerator with an internal heat exchanger. The LH2 is therefore stored and kept with zero losses for an indefinite period of time. The LH2 tank is a horizontal cylindrical geometry with a vacuum-jacketed, multi-layer insulation system and a capacity of 125,000 liters. The closed-loop helium refrigeration system was a Linde LR1620 capable of 390W cooling at 20K (without any liquid nitrogen pre-cooling). Three different control methods were used to obtain zero boil-off: temperature control of the helium refrigerant, refrigerator control using the tank pressure sensor, and duty cycling (on/off) of the refrigerator as needed. Summarized are the IRAS design approach, zero boil-off control methods, and results of the series of zero boil-off tests.

  7. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike


    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  8. Measurement of ion temperature and flow velocity by using LIF and electric probe methods in K2H and DiPS propulsion simulators (United States)

    Choi, Geun-Sig; Chung, Kyu-Sun; Woo, Hyun-Jong; Seo, Young Jun; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bong Ju


    Ion temperature, plasma flow velocity and plasma density are measured in DiPS (Diversified Plasma Simulator) and K2H (KBSI-KAIST-Hanyang University) propulsion simulators by a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method and a fast scanning electric probe system, which consists of an rf-compensated single probe and a Mach probe. In both devices helicon plasmas were stably generated with m=+1 right-helical antenna at 13.56 MHz with powers of 1 - 3kW (DiPS) and 0.5 - 1kW (K2H), and open ended magnetic configurations are utilized. The measured plasma parameters are as follows: plasma densities of 10^11 -- 10^13 cm-3 (K2H) and 10^12 -- 10^13 cm-3 (DiPS), electron temperatures of 3 -- 9 eV (K2H) and 2 -- 4 eV (DiPS), ion temperatures of 0.14 -- 0. 17 eV (K2H) and 0.05 -- 0.2 eV (DiPS) and drift velocities of 0.8 -- 1.6 km/s (k2H) and 0.2 -- 0.5 km/s (DiPS).

  9. Zero Energy Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc


    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  10. Response of branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase to changes in ambient temperature in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus). (United States)

    Michael, Katharina; Koschnick, Nils; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus


    The maintenance of ion and pH homeostasis despite changes in ambient temperature is crucial for ectothermic organisms. Thermal sensitivity of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression, protein expression and activity was determined in gills of North Sea cod (NC) and Northeastern Arctic cod (NEAC), acclimated for 6 weeks at 4 and 10 °C and compared to field samples of North Sea cod (sNC), acclimatized to early spring (4 °C) and summer (18 °C) conditions. The same analyses were conducted in gills of the confamiliar whiting, acclimated at 4 and 10 °C. Branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities remained uncompensated at functional and protein levels in NC and NEAC at both acclimation temperatures. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression in NEAC acclimated at 10 °C was about twofold higher compared to NC, indicating some population-specific differentiation at this level. Lower Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities in gills of warm-acclimatized sNC at common assay temperatures indicate thermal compensation between seasonal extremes, and post-translational modifications contributed to this mitigation at high assay temperature. Together, cod compensates Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities on the warm edge of the thermal window and below 4 °C, respectively. In contrast, whiting Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were cold compensated at 4 °C, supported by 1.5-fold higher mRNA and protein expression. Besides, capacities were lower in whiting compared to NC and NEAC at optimum temperature, which may be advantageous in terms of reduced maintenance cost, but at temperatures ≤4 °C, compensation may represent an energy trade-off to maintain homeostasis. The species-specific response of gadid Na(+)/K(+) ATPase indicates certain threshold temperatures beyond which compensation of the pump is elicited, possibly related to the different biogeography of these species.

  11. Vitamin K 3 family members - Part II: Single crystal X-ray structures, temperature-induced packing polymorphism, magneto-structural correlations and probable anti-oncogenic candidature (United States)

    Rane, Sandhya; Ahmed, Khursheed; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Zaware, Santosh B.; Srinivas, D.; Gonnade, Rajesh; Bhadbhade, Mohan


    Temperature-induced packing polymorphism is observed for vitamin K 3 (menadione, 3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1). Form 1a crystallizes at 300 K and 1b at 277 K both in the same space group P2 1/ c. Form 1b contains one molecule per asymmetric unit, performing anisotropy in g-factor viz. g z = 2.0082, g y = 2.0055 and g x = 2.0025, whereas form 1a contains two molecules in its asymmetric unit. Vitamin K 3 family members 2, [2-hydroxy vitamin K 3] and 3, [2-hydroxy-1-oximino vitamin K 3] also perform intrinsic neutral active naphthosemiquinone valence tautomers even in dark having spin concentrations due to hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions which are compared to vitamin K 3. The significant lateral C-H⋯O and O-H⋯π bifurcated or π-π ∗ interactions are discussed for molecular associations and radical formations. X-ray structure of 3 revealed π-π ∗ stack dimers as radicals signatured in EPR as triplet with five hyperfine splits [ Ā( 14N) = 11.9 G]. The centrosymmetric biradicals in 3 show diamagnetism at high temperature but below 10 K it shows paramagnetism with μeff as 0.19 B.M. Vitamin K 3 and its family members inhibit biological activities of acid phosphatase ( APase), which are proportional to their spin concentrations. This may relate to their probable anti-oncogenic candidature in future.

  12. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory (United States)

    Amrani, D.


    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  13. Zero energy house


    Milián Martínez, Irene; Vink, Willem; Ortiz Braulio, Ruben


    The zero energy house project talks about sustainability. In general terms the house is designed to produce as much energy as it consume. If you take a look to the house its possible to find several systems that takes as much profit as possible to the renewable energies like photovoltaic electricity production, geothermal energy used to run a heat pump or a well thought isolated house. First of all it’s possible to find general information about the topics in house, to make people understa...

  14. ZeroWaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland


    The ZeroWaste research group at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Byg) was established two years ago and covers the broad range of expertise, required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have, prior to that......, developed methods for removal of heavy metals and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes, providing the basis of to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector. Initial results for upgrading and using different types of ashes are presented...

  15. Design of a self-aligned, wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with 10 nm magnetic force microscope resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcı, Özgür [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - İvedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Dede, Münir [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - İvedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Oral, Ahmet, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)


    We describe the design of a wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with a self-aligned fibre-cantilever mechanism. An alignment chip with alignment groves and a special mechanical design are used to eliminate tedious and time consuming fibre-cantilever alignment procedure for the entire temperature range. A low noise, Michelson fibre interferometer was integrated into the system for measuring deflection of the cantilever. The spectral noise density of the system was measured to be ~12 fm/√Hz at 4.2 K at 3 mW incident optical power. Abrikosov vortices in BSCCO(2212) single crystal sample and a high density hard disk sample were imaged at 10 nm resolution to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  16. Dissemination of ultraprecise measurements in radiometry and remote sensing within 100-3500K temperature range based on blackbody sources developed in VNIIOFI (United States)

    Sapritsky, Victor I.; Ogarev, Sergey A.; Khlevnoy, Boris B.; Samoylov, Mikhail L.; Khromchenko, Vladimir B.; Morozova, Svetlana P.


    The large variety of high-precision unique blackbody sources: those operating at fixed temperatures provided by phase transitions of metals and metal-carbon eutectics, and variable-temperature ones had been designed in VNIIOFI for high-precision radiometry, radiation thermometry and spaceborne remote sensing within a 100 to 3500K temperature range. Paper reviews the blackbodies (BBs) ranged to low, middle and high temperatures, and describes spectral radiance and irradiance calibration facilities on the base of these BBs in IR and V-UV spectral ranges. The latest investigations of high-temperature fix-points based on metal-carbon eutectics Re-C (2748K) demonstrated an excellent reproducibility of freezing plateau (up to 0.01% in terms of radiation temperature) between series of measurements/crucibles, and about 0.003% within a sample measurement session, i.e. better than 100mK. Further Re-C (spectral irradiance measurements) and TiC-C (3057° C) eutectics are being investigated for use as high-stable radiance/irradiance sources above the conventionally assigned values of temperatures of ITS-90.

  17. Onset of an Insulating Zero-Plateau Quantum Hall State in Graphene (United States)

    Shimshoni, E.; Fertig, H. A.; Pai, G. Venketeswara


    We analyze the dissipative conductance of the zero-plateau quantum Hall state appearing in undoped graphene in strong magnetic fields. Charge transport in this state is assumed to be carried by a magnetic domain wall, which forms by hybridization of two counterpropagating edge states of opposing spin due to interactions. The resulting nonchiral edge mode is a Luttinger liquid of parameter K, which enters a gapped, perfectly conducting state below a critical value Kc≈1/2. Backscattering in this system involves spin flip, so that interaction with localized magnetic moments generates a finite resistivity Rxx via a “chiral Kondo effect.” At finite temperatures T, Rxx(T) exhibits a crossover from metallic to insulating behavior as K is tuned across a threshold KMI. For T→0, Rxx in the intermediate regime KMI<KK approaches Kc. This model provides a natural interpretation of recent experiments.

  18. Alternating current calorimeter for specific heat capacity measurements at temperatures below 10 K and pressures up to 10 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeo, Kazunori, E-mail: [Cryogenics and Instrumental Analysis Division, N-BARD, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)


    A developed alternating current calorimeter for measuring the absolute value of specific heat C of a very small sample under a pressure up to 10 GPa and low temperature below 10 K is described. A Bridgman anvil cell made of tungsten carbide with a top diameter of 3 mm is used. A hollow at the top prevents expansion of the sample space over the anvil top. Two chip resistors, which act as a thermometer and a heater, are mounted on the outer part of a copper–beryllium gasket with a frying pan-like shape. Thus, the thermometer is not pressurized. In order to isolate the gasket from the anvil thermally, diamond powder with a grain size of 0.25 μm is placed on the anvil top. Two jumps of C at the superconducting transitions of Pb (3.3 mg) and In (5.0 mg) are observed under various pressures up to 9 GPa, as clearly as those at the ambient pressure.

  19. UV superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with high efficiency, low noise, and 4 K operating temperature. (United States)

    Wollman, E E; Verma, V B; Beyer, A D; Briggs, R M; Korzh, B; Allmaras, J P; Marsili, F; Lita, A E; Mirin, R P; Nam, S W; Shaw, M D


    For photon-counting applications at ultraviolet wavelengths, there are currently no detectors that combine high efficiency (> 50%), sub-nanosecond timing resolution, and sub-Hz dark count rates. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have seen success over the past decade for photon-counting applications in the near-infrared, but little work has been done to optimize SNSPDs for wavelengths below 400 nm. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of UV SNSPDs operating at wavelengths between 250 and 370 nm. The detectors have active areas up to 56 μm in diameter, 70 - 80% efficiency at temperatures up to 4.2 K, timing resolution down to 60 ps FWHM, blindness to visible and infrared photons, and dark count rates of ∼ 0.25 counts/hr for a 56 μm diameter pixel. These performance metrics make UV SNSPDs ideal for applications in trapped-ion quantum information processing, lidar studies of the upper atmosphere, UV fluorescent-lifetime imaging microscopy, and photon-starved UV astronomy.

  20. Temperature dependence and kinetic isotope effects for the OH + HBr reaction and H/D isotopic variants at low temperatures (53-135 K) measured using a pulsed supersonic Laval nozzle flow reactor. (United States)

    Mullen, Christopher; Smith, Mark A


    The reactions of OH + HBr and all isotopic variants have been measured in a pulsed supersonic Laval nozzle flow reactor between 53 and 135 K, using a pulsed DC discharge to create the radical species and laser induced fluorescence on the A 2sigma HBr) = (10.84 +/- 0.31) x 10(-12) (T/298)(-0.67+/-0.02) cm3/s, k2 (OD + HBr) = (6.43 +/- 2.60) x 10(-12) (T/298)(-1.19+/-0.26) cm3/s, k3 (OH + DBr) = (5.89 +/- 1.93) x 10(-12) (T/298)(-0.76+/-0.22) cm3/s, and k4 (OD + DBr) = (4.71 +/- 1.56) x 10(-12) (T/298)(-1.09+/-0.21) cm3/s. A global fit of k vs T over the temperature range 23-360 K, including the new OH + HBr data, yields kT = (1.06 +/- 0.02) x 10(-11) (T/298)(-0.90+/-0.11) cm3/s, and (0.96 +/- 0.02) x 10(-11) (T/298)(-0.90+/-0.03) exp((-2.88+/-1.82 K)/T) cm3/s, in accord with previous fits. In addition, the primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects are found to be independent of temperature within experimental error over the range investigated and take on the value of (kH/kD)(AVG) = 1.64 for the primary effect and (kH/kD)(AVG) = 0.87 for the secondary effect. These results are discussed within the context of current experimental and theoretical work.

  1. Temperature-dependent quantum efficiency degradation of K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method (United States)

    Ding, Zihao; Karkare, Siddharth; Feng, Jun; Filippetto, Daniele; Johnson, Matthew; Virostek, Steve; Sannibale, Fernando; Nasiatka, James; Gaowei, Mengjia; Sinsheimer, John; Muller, Erik; Smedley, John; Padmore, Howard


    K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method have been found to have excellent quantum efficiency (QE) and outstanding near-atomic surface smoothness and have been employed in the VHF gun in the Advanced Photoinjector Experiment (APEX), however, their robustness in terms of their lifetime at elevated photocathode temperature has not yet been investigated. In this paper, the relationship between the lifetime of the K-Cs-Sb photocathode and the photocathode temperature has been investigated. The origin of the significant QE degradation at photocathode temperatures over 70 °C has been identified as the loss of cesium atoms from the K-Cs-Sb photocathode, based on the in situ x-ray analysis on the photocathode film during the decay process. The findings from this work will not only further the understanding of the behavior of K-Cs-Sb photocathodes at elevated temperature and help develop more temperature-robust cathodes, but also will become an important guide to the design and operation of the future high-field rf guns employing the use of such photocathodes.

  2. Salt effect in the solubility of hydrogen in n-alcohols at pressures up to 10 MPa and temperatures up to 498.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V.H. d’Angelo


    Full Text Available Gas-liquid solubility of hydrogen in methanol and ethanol systems with electrolytes was studied in the temperature range from 305.15 K to 498.15 K and pressures from 4 to 10 MPa. The experimental method used was the Total Pressure Method, which eliminates sampling and analysis of the phases, determining their composition at equilibrium using the following experimental data: moles of solute and solvent in the system; pressure, temperature and volume of the system at equilibrium; together with thermodynamic equations for fluid-phase equilibria. The salts used were lithium chloride and potassium acetate. The solubility of hydrogen increases with increasing temperature and pressure and the presence of salts causes a decrease in the solubility of hydrogen, when compared with the results of systems without salts, characterizing a "salting-out" effect, which is greater in conditions of lower temperature and pressure, specially for potassium acetate.

  3. Raman scattering of 2H-MoS2 at simultaneous high temperature and high pressure (up to 600 K and 18.5 GPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianJun Jiang


    Full Text Available The Raman spectroscopy of natural molybdenite powder was investigated at simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high pressure in a heatable diamond anvil cell (DAC, to obtain the temperature and pressure dependence of the main Raman vibrational modes (E1g, E 2 g 1 ,A1g, and 2LA(M. Over our experimental temperature and pressure range (300–600 K and 1 atm−18.5 GPa, the Raman modes follow a systematic blue shift with increasing pressure, and red shift with increasing temperature. The results were calculated by three-variable linear fitting. The mutual correlation index of temperature and pressure indicates that the pressure may reduce the temperature dependence of Raman modes. New Raman bands due to structural changes emerged at about 3–4 GPa lower than seen in previous studies; this may be caused by differences in the pressure hydrostaticity and shear stress in the sample cell that promote the interlayer sliding.

  4. Luminescence of the (O2(a(1)Δ(g)))2 collisional complex in the temperature range of 90-315 K: Experiment and theory. (United States)

    Zagidullin, M V; Pershin, A A; Azyazov, V N; Mebel, A M


    Experimental and theoretical studies of collision induced emission of singlet oxygen molecules O2(a(1)Δg) in the visible range have been performed. The rate constants, half-widths, and position of peaks for the emission bands of the (O2(a(1)Δg))2 collisional complex centered around 634 nm (2) and 703 nm (3) have been measured in the temperature range of 90-315 K using a flow-tube apparatus that utilized a gas-liquid chemical singlet oxygen generator. The absolute values of the spontaneous emission rate constants k2 and k3 are found to be similar, with the k3/k2 ratio monotonically decreasing from 1.1 at 300 K to 0.96 at 90 K. k2 slowly decreases with decreasing temperature but a sharp increase in its values is measured below 100 K. The experimental results were rationalized in terms of ab initio calculations of the ground and excited potential energy and transition dipole moment surfaces of singlet electronic states of the (O2)2 dimole, which were utilized to compute rate constants k2 and k3 within a statistical model. The best theoretical results reproduced experimental rate constants with the accuracy of under 40% and correctly described the observed temperature dependence. The main contribution to emission process (2), which does not involve vibrational excitation of O2 molecules at the ground electronic level, comes from the spin- and symmetry-allowed 1(1)Ag←(1)B3u transition in the rectangular H configuration of the dimole. Alternatively, emission process (3), in which one of the monomers becomes vibrationally excited in the ground electronic state, is found to be predominantly due to the vibronically allowed 1(1)Ag←2(1)Ag transition induced by the asymmetric O-O stretch vibration in the collisional complex. The strong vibronic coupling between nearly degenerate excited singlet states of the dimole makes the intensities of vibronically and symmetry-allowed transitions comparable and hence the rate constants k2 and k3 close to one another.

  5. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.


    , (4) the type of energy balance, (5) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (6) the connection to the energy infrastructure and (7) the requirements for the energy efficiency, the indoor climate and in case of gird connected ZEB for the building–grid interaction. This paper focuses......The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires...... clear and consistent definition and a commonly agreed energy calculation methodology. The most important issues that should be given special attention before developing a new ZEB definition are: (1) the metric of the balance, (2) the balancing period, (3) the type of energy use included in the balance...

  6. Temperature-(208–318 K and pressure-(18–696 Torr dependent rate coefficients for the reaction between OH and HNO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dulitz


    Full Text Available Rate coefficients (k5 for the title reaction were obtained using pulsed laser photolytic generation of OH coupled to its detection by laser-induced fluorescence (PLP–LIF. More than 80 determinations of k5 were carried out in nitrogen or air bath gas at various temperatures and pressures. The accuracy of the rate coefficients obtained was enhanced by in situ measurement of the concentrations of both HNO3 reactant and NO2 impurity. The rate coefficients show both temperature and pressure dependence with a rapid increase in k5 at low temperatures. The pressure dependence was weak at room temperature but increased significantly at low temperatures. The entire data set was combined with selected literature values of k5 and parameterised using a combination of pressure-dependent and -independent terms to give an expression that covers the relevant pressure and temperature range for the atmosphere. A global model, using the new parameterisation for k5 rather than those presently accepted, indicated small but significant latitude- and altitude-dependent changes in the HNO3 ∕ NOx ratio of between −6 and +6 %. Effective HNO3 absorption cross sections (184.95 and 213.86 nm, units of cm2 molecule−1 were obtained as part of this work: σ213.86  =  4.52−0.12+0.23  ×  10−19 and σ184.95  =  1.61−0.04+0.08  ×  10−17.

  7. Monitoring Groundwater Temperatures in a Shallow Urban Aquifer Before, During and After Installation of a Ground Source Heat System in Cardiff, U.K. (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.; Farr, Gareth J.; Boon, David P.; James, David R.; Williams, Bernard; Tucker, David; Harcombe, Gareth


    Exploitation of shallow urban aquifers, warmed by the Urban Heat Island Effect, is a relatively new concept in the U.K. An extensive groundwater temperature baseline monitoring network has been established for a shallow superficial aquifer in the city of Cardiff, U.K., to characterise groundwater temperatures and monitor the impacts of the first open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed in the city. In Spring 2014, temperature profiling was carried out at 1m depth intervals at 168 groundwater monitoring boreholes across Cardiff, establishing baseline groundwater temperatures within the shallow (Data was contoured to form the first U.K. 2D city heat map. During the warmest time of year, Autumn 2014, a subset of boreholes were re-profiled to ascertain seasonal temperature variation, defining the Zone of Seasonal Fluctuation. Re-profiling was again carried out at these boreholes in Autumn 2015 to confirm these temperatures as normal for that time of year. By comparing Spring and Autumn profiles, the average depth to the base of the Zone of Seasonal Fluctuation was found to be 9.5mbgl. Two >100m boreholes showed the urban warming effect may extend to 80mbgl, before temperatures follow the predicted geothermal gradient. We term this the Zone of Anthropogenic Influence. After initial baseline temperatures were established, a site was selected for the installation of a shallow GSHP. Before installation work began, a monitoring network was set up to establish a temperature baseline for future GSHPs and identify any impacts on the thermal resource caused by removing ~2°C from the abstracted groundwater prior to reinjection into the aquifer. This comprised of 97 temperature loggers in 60 boreholes, including the abstraction and recharge boreholes and boreholes up and down gradient of the site. Some of these boreholes have multiple loggers at different depths, including the near-surface, but the majority of loggers were placed within the boreholes' slotted sections

  8. Approach To Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    standard baths, say a bath of melting ice and a bath of water boiling at one atmosphere pressure. The thermometer is brought into good thermal contact with each bath and the value of the property measured. Arbitrary values are given to the temperatures of the two baths to define a scale of temperature. In the centigrade.

  9. Dependence of the four-atom reaction HBr + OH → Br + H2O on temperatures between 20 and 2000 K. (United States)

    Ree, J; Kim, Y H; Shin, H K


    A quasiclassical trajectory method is used to study the temperature dependence of HBr + OH → Br + H2O using analytic forms of two-, three-, and four-body and long-range interaction potentials. Below 300 K, the reaction is attraction-driven and occurs through formation of a collision complex BrH···OH, which is sufficiently long-lived to enhance H atom tunneling. Strong negative temperature dependence of the complex-mode rate is found between 20 and 300 K, consistent with experimental data reported by various authors. Above 300 K, the reaction occurs primarily through a direct-reaction mechanism. The sum of the complex- and direct-mode rates is shown to describe the reaction over the wide range 20-2000 K. The primary kinetic isotope effect is nearly constant with the normal H reaction faster by a factor of ∼1.7 over the entire temperature range. The product energy distribution in vibration, rotation, and translation at 300 K is found to be 48, 8, and 44%, respectively. The 1:1 resonance leads to efficient flow of energy between the stretching modes. Less than a quarter of the H2O vibrational energy deposits in the bending mode through intramolecular flow from the two stretching modes.

  10. Spontaneous ignition in afterburner segment tests at an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM jet-A fuel (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.; Branstetter, J. R.


    A brief testing program was undertaken to determine if spontaneous ignition and stable combustion could be obtained in a jet engine afterburning operating with an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM Jet-A fuel. Spontaneous ignition with 100-percent combustion efficiency and stable burning was obtained using water-cooled fuel spraybars as flameholders.

  11. Investigation of oxygen disorder, thermal parameters, lattice vibrations and elastic constants of UO2 and ThO2 at temperatures up to 2 930 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Hayes, W; Hutchings, M.T.


    A knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of UO2 at temperatures in the region 1 500-3 100 K is of importance in reactor safety calculations, yet there are relatively few detailed experimental data available. In particular the major question of whether Frenkel disorder occurs in UO2 at high tem...

  12. Investigation of luminescence and scintillation properties of a ZnS-Ag/{sup 6}LiF scintillator in the 7-295 K temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailik, V.B., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Henry, S.; Horn, M.; Kraus, H.; Lynch, A.; Pipe, M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)


    The luminescence and scintillation properties of ZnS-Ag/{sup 6}LiF where studied in the 7-295 K temperature range to evaluate the suitability of the scintillator for neutron detection at very low temperature (<1 K). It is shown that decrease of temperature has little effect upon principal luminescence and scintillation characteristics of ZnS-Ag: the changes of emission intensity are small for photoexcitation and negligible for excitation with {alpha}-particles. The recombination kinetics of the scintillation decay exhibits modest shortening of the fast decay time constant, from 4.52 to 3.35 {mu}s with cooling to 10 K. It is concluded that ZnS-Ag/{sup 6}LiF is a promising scintillator for cryogenic application. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence and scintillations of ZnS-Ag/6LiF neutron scintillator are studied over 7-295 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interpretation of excitation spectra is offered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scintillation properties exhibit little changes with cooling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS-Ag/6LiF can be used as neutron scintillation detector at cryogenic temperatures.

  13. Inverse gas chromatography of chromia. Part I. Zero surface coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The surface properties of the solid obtained from colloidal chromiawere investigated by inverse gas chromatography (IGC, at zero surface coverage conditions. The solid samples I dried at 423 K and II heated at 1073 K in the amorphous and crystalline form, respectively, were studied in the temperature range 383–423 K. The dispersive components of the surface free energies, enthalpies, entropies, and the acid/base constants for the solidswere calculated from the IGC measurements and compared with the data for a commercially available chromia (III. Significantly lower enthalpies and entropies were obtained for cyclohexane on solid II and chloroform, highly polar organic, on solid I. The dispersive contributions to the surface energy of solid II and III were similar, but much greater in the case of solid I. All the sorbents had a basic character, with the KD/KAA ratio decreasing in the order I > II > III. The retention and resolution in the separation of a vapour mixture of C5–C8n-alkanes on the three substrates were different.Arapid separationwas observed on solid II and an enhanced retention on solid I. Generally, the heated chromia (II exhibited diminished adsorption capacity, and enhanced homogeneity of the surface.

  14. Zero-Time Tunneling - Revisited (United States)

    Nimtz, Günter; Aichmann, Horst


    Since 1931, the nonclassical process of tunneling was conjectured to have a zero-time delay in the barrier. These theories have been rejected and denied. However, photonic and recent electronic tunneling experiments have proven the zero-time prediction. Tunneling is due to virtual wave packets in electromagnetic, elastic, and Schrödinger wave fields up to the macroscopic level. In this article we cite theoretical and experimental studies on zero-time tunneling, which have proven this striking behavior.

  15. A Digital Auto-Zeroing Circuit to Reduce Offset in Sub-Threshold Sense Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benton H. Calhoun


    Full Text Available Device variability in modern processes has become a major concern in SRAM design leading to degradation of both performance and yield. Variation induced offset in the sense amplifiers requires a larger bitline differential, which slows down SRAM access times and causes increased power consumption. The effect aggravated in the sub-threshold region. In this paper, we propose a circuit that reduces the sense amp offset using an auto-zeroing scheme with automatic temperature, voltage, and aging tracking. The circuit enables flexible tuning of the offset voltage. Measurements taken from a 45 nm test chip show the circuit is able to limit the offset to 20 mV. A 16kB SRAM is designed using the auto-zeroing circuit for the sense amps. The reduction in the total read energy and delay is reported for various configurations of the memory.

  16. Large amplitude spin torque vortex oscillations at zero external field using a perpendicular spin polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussaux, A.; Rache Salles, B.; Jenkins, A. S.; Bortolotti, P.; Grollier, J.; Cros, V.; Fert, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Université Paris Sud 11, 1 Ave. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Grimaldi, E., E-mail: [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Université Paris Sud 11, 1 Ave. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); CNES, 1 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Khvalkovskiy, A. V. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Université Paris Sud 11, 1 Ave. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, Vavilova Str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kubota, H.; Fukushima, A.; Yakushiji, K.; Yuasa, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)


    We investigate the microwave response of a spin transfer vortex based oscillator in a magnetic tunnel junction with an in-plane reference layer combined with a spin valve with an out-of-plane magnetization spin polarizing layer. The main advantage of this perpendicular spin polarizer is to induce a large spin transfer force even at zero magnetic field, thus leading to a record emitted power (up to 0.6 μW) associated to a very narrow spectral linewidth of a few hundreds of kHz. The characteristics of this hybrid vortex based spin transfer nano-oscillator obtained at zero field and room temperature are of great importance for applications based on rf spintronic devices as integrated and tunable microwave source and/or microwave detector.

  17. Analysis and Experiment of Hot-Spot Temperature Rise of 110 kV Three-Phase Three-Limb Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohan Gong


    Full Text Available This paper presents a fluid-thermal coupled analysis method to compute the temperature distribution in a 31.5 MVA/110 kV oil natural air natural (ONAN three-phase three-limb transformer. The power losses of windings and core are measured by load-loss test and no-load test respectively. The convective heat transfer process, radiation and oil flow inside the transformer are investigated by finite volume method (FVM. In order to validate the feasibility and accuracy of the presented method, the temperature measuring system based on fiber Brag grating (FBG sensor is constructed for the temperature rise test of the 31.5 MVA/110 kV ONAN transformer. The simulation results deduced from the proposed method agree well with experimental data. This model can be applied to optimizing design and load scheduling.

  18. Experimental study of high-temperature properties of zirconium carbide as a protective material for nuclear power and aerospace technologies (from 2000 to 5000 K) (United States)

    Savvatimskiy, A. I.; Onufriev, S. V.; Muboyadzhyan, S. A.; Seredkin, N. N.


    The temperature dependences of the thermal and electro physical properties of the zirconium carbide ZrC + C and ZrCa0.95 were studied in the temperature range 2000-5000 K. The Zr+C specimens were in the form of thin layers sputtered on quarts substrate and ZrC0.95 specimens were in the form of plates cut off from the sintered block. The properties are measured: temperature and heat of fusion, enthalpy, specific heat and resistivity, referred to the initial dimensions. A steep increase in the specific heat of these substances before melting and a sharp decrease after melting were observed at a heating rate of ∼ 108 K/s, which is possibly due to the formation of Frenkel pair defects in the specimens.

  19. Low-damage plasma etching of porous low-k films in CF3Br and CF4 plasmas under low-temperature conditions (United States)

    Miakonkikh, A.; Clemente, I.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Rudenko, K.; Baklanov, M.


    Low temperature etching of organosilicate low-k dielectrics in CF3Br and CF4 plasmas is studied. Chemical composition if pristine film and etched were measured by FTIR. Decrease in plasma-induced damage under low-temperature conditions is observed. It is shown that the plasma damage reduction is related to accumulation of reaction products. The reaction products could be removed by thermal bake. In the case of CF4 plasma, the thickness of CFx polymer increases with the temperature reduction. This polymer layer leads to strong decrease of diffusion rate of fluorine atoms and as a consequence to reduction of plasma-induced damage (PID). Bromine containing reaction products are less efficient for low-k surface protection against the plasma damage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. F. Suwandi


    Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR has been used as a research tool in many fields. In this study, the magnetic properties, especially anti-ferromagnetic properties of FeF3 materials were investigated. Zero-field custom-built NMR method was used to investigate the anti-ferromagnetic properties in the materials. Experiments have been carried out by varying the sample temperatures from 8 K to 220 K. Ordinary spin echo pulse sequence 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF were used. Using Fast Fourier Transform, the signals in NMR spectrum were analyzed and the peak showed the resonance frequency. The result showed that resonance frequencies decrease with increasing in temperature. The frequency of the spectrum was around 85.41 MHz in the zero-temperature limit, and this corresponds with Fe hyperfine field at zero-temperature limit was 2.14 T. The temperature dependence of the local magnetization does not fit T2 Bloch’s Law very well. Instead, it fits the exponential form having an energy gap in the dispersion relation of the spin wave. It is obtained from the result that FeF3 is antiferromagnetic materials with energy gap of 11.466 meV and anisotropy energy of 1.045 meV.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR telah banyak digunakan sebagai “research tool” pada berbagai bidang kajian di fisika. Pada studi ini, akan dilakukan eksperimen untuk menguji sifat magnetik, khususnya antiferromagnetik pada material FeF3. Telah dilakukan eksperimen dengan memvariasikan temperatur pada sampel dari 8 K hingga 220 K. Pulse sequence yang digunakan adalah 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF. Dengan memanfaatkan Fast Fourier Transform, sinyal echo ini dapat dianalisis dalam bentuk spektrum NMR dengan puncak spektrum menunjukkan frekuensi resonansinya. Diperoleh bahwa frekuensi resonansi akan menurun seiring dengan kenaikan temperatur. Posisi frekuensi pada temperatur 0 K adalah sebesar 85,41 MHz, hal ini memperlihatkan bahwa medan hyperfine dari Fe sebesar 2,14 T pada temperatur 0 K. Kurva

  1. Measurement of Thermal Conductivities of Two Cryoprotective Agent Solutions for Vitreous Cryopreservation of Organs at the Temperature Range of 77 K-300 K Using a Thermal Sensor Made of Microscale Enamel Copper Wire. (United States)

    Li, Yufang; Zhao, Gang; Hossain, S M Chapal; Panhwar, Fazil; Sun, Wenyu; Kong, Fei; Zang, Chuanbao; Jiang, Zhendong


    Biobanking of organs by cryopreservation is an enabling technology for organ transplantation. Compared with the conventional slow freezing method, vitreous cryopreservation has been regarded to be a more promising approach for long-term storage of organs. The major challenges to vitrification are devitrification and recrystallization during the warming process, and high concentrations of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) induced metabolic and osmotic injuries. For a theoretical model based optimization of vitrification, thermal properties of CPA solutions are indispensable. In this study, the thermal conductivities of M22 and vitrification solution containing ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (two commonly used vitrification solutions) were measured using a self-made microscaled hot probe with enameled copper wire at the temperature range of 77 K-300 K. The data obtained by this study will further enrich knowledge of the thermal properties for CPA solutions at low temperatures, as is of primary importance for optimization of vitrification.

  2. Broadband CMOS-compatible SOI temperature insensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer. (United States)

    Xing, Peng; Viegas, Jaime


    We propose an improved design approach for athermal silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder interferometers to extend their spectral range with minimal temperature sensitivity. We demonstrate that the device designed following the improved approach has a near-zero temperature sensitivity (2.5 pm/K) over more than 60 nm spectral range near 1550 nm.

  3. Design and production of efficient current leads for 1500-A, 50-Hz service in a 77-4 K temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, U.; Youngdahl, C.A.; Lanagan, M.T. [and others


    Two arrays of BSCCO 2223 bars were designed and produced for use in current leads for a power utility fault-current limiter operating at 4 K. Each conduction-cooled array, consisting of four parallel bars arranged within a 100-mm-diameter boundary, delivered 1,500 A peak, 50-Hz AC through a 77-4 K temperature gradient while dissipating < 0.2 W. The sinter-forged bars displayed DC critical current densities of 950--1,300 A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and > 5,000 A/cm{sup 2} at 4 K. Magnetic field sensitivity was relatively low. Thermal conductivity tests showed values higher than literature values for polycrystalline BSCCO 2223 made by other processes.

  4. Measurement of the (pressure, density, temperature) relation of two (methane + nitrogen) gas mixtures at temperatures between 240 and 400 K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an accurate single-sinker densimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    Comprehensive (p, {rho}, T) measurements on two gas mixtures of (0.9CH{sub 4} + 0.1N{sub 2}) and (0.8CH{sub 4} + 0.2N{sub 2}) have been carried out at six temperatures between 240 and 400 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. A total of 108 (p, {rho}, T) data for the first mixture and 134 for the second one are given. These measurements were performed using a compact single-sinker densimeter based on Archimedes' buoyancy principle. The overall uncertainty in density {rho} is estimated to be (1.5 . 10{sup -4} . {rho} + 2 . 10{sup -3} kg . m{sup -3}) (coverage factor k = 2), the uncertainty in temperature T is estimated to be 0.006 K (coverage factor k = 2), and the uncertainty in pressure p is estimated to be 1 . 10{sup -4}.p (coverage factor k = 2). The equipment has been previously checked with pure nitrogen over the whole temperature and pressure working ranges and experimental results (35 values) are given and a comparison with the reference equation of state for nitrogen is presented.

  5. Room temperature optical and magnetic properties of (Cu, K) doped ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor thin films grown by chemical bath deposition method (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, G.; Shameem Banu, I. B.


    ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor thin films were prepared by simultaneously doping the non-magnetic Cu and K in the cation sites of the host ZnO employing the chemical bath deposition method. In this study, K was kept at a concentration of 1% and Cu concentration was varied at 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. For comparative study, 1% K doped ZnO was also prepared. The influence of K and Cu doping on the transmittance, band gap and magnetic properties were investigated. The XRD revealed that the thin films are polycrystalline and has hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO without any secondary phases. Well developed hexagonal structures are observed from the surface morphology. The transmittance shows a significant variation when Cu is incorporated at different doping levels along with K and the band gap change is significant for higher concentration. The room temperature magnetic hysteresis revealed the typical ferromagnetic behavior of K doped and (K, Cu) doped ZnO thin films. The K and Cu doped ZnO thin film exhibited enhanced magnetization compared to K doped ZnO thin film. The present study reveals that the magnetic results of the K and Cu doped ZnO are markedly better than that of the Cu doped ZnO reported by other experiments. The magnetic properties have been explained on the basis of the photoluminescence spectrum. The origin of ferromagnetism is due to the p-d hybridization which has the influence on the band gap also.

  6. Observable consequences of zero-point energy (United States)

    Sen, Siddhartha; Gupta, Kumar S.


    Spectral line widths, the Lamb shift and the Casimir effect are generally accepted to be observable consequences of the zero-point electromagnetic (ZPEM) fields. A new class of observable consequences of ZPEM field at the mesoscopic scale were recently proposed and observed. Here, we extend this class of observable effects and predict that mesoscopic water layers should have a high value for its solid-liquid phase transition temperature, as illustrated by water inside a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT). For this case, our analysis predicts that the phase transition temperature scales inversely with the square of the effective radius available for the water flow within the CNT.

  7. Sum-rate analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems with zero-forcing and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang


    This paper considers a multiuser spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with zero-forcing (ZF) operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. We provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different parameters on the multiuser diversity gain. For a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system with scheduling, the asymptotic sum-rate scales like Nt log2(Q(Nt Np√K - 1)/N t), where Np denotes the number of antennas of primary receiver, Q is the interference temperature, and K represents the number of secondary transmitters. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Differential automatic zero-adjusting amplifier. (United States)

    Broersen, B; Van Krevelen, F; van Heusden, J T; van Heukelom, J S


    A method is described for building a low-voltage-drift differential dc amplifier featuring automatic zero adjustment, a high input impedance, and a bandwidth of 10 kHz. This is achieved by an asymmetric two-step process between the input signal and ground. Bandwidth can be extended by the use of a second amplifier during the ground-sampling time. The amplifier can be made with standard electronic components. A major advantage of this method is that an existing amplifier can easily be converted into a low-voltage-drift amplifier by adding the essential elements of the described automatic zero-adjusting amplifier to its input stage. To illustrate the method a practical example is constructed featuring a drift of 0.2 microV/ degrees C.

  9. High force 10 kN piezoresistive silicon force sensor with output independent of force distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijze, A.F.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Peeters, Eric; Paul, Oliver


    A 10 kN silicon force sensor is realized in which the force is measured by compressing a meander shaped polysilicon strain gage. A second gage which is not loaded, is used for temperature compensation, for compensation of bending and stretching stresses in the chip and for common changes in zero

  10. A close-up of the lower part of a 13 kA current lead. The high-temperature superconductor (on the left in the photo) with the low-temperature superconductor (on the right). Resting in liquid helium, the low-temperature superconductor is connected to the bus-bars conveying the current to the LHC magnets.

    CERN Multimedia


    A close-up of the lower part of a 13 kA current lead. The high-temperature superconductor (on the left in the photo) with the low-temperature superconductor (on the right). Resting in liquid helium, the low-temperature superconductor is connected to the bus-bars conveying the current to the LHC magnets.

  11. Liquid Nitrogen Zero Boiloff Testing (United States)

    Plachta, David; Feller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Wesley; Robinson, Craig


    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are a part of NASAs future space exploration due to their high specific impulse for rocket motors of upper stages suitable for transporting 10s to 100s of metric tons of payload mass to destinations outside of low earth orbit and for their return. However, the low storage temperatures of LH2 and LO2 cause substantial boil-off losses for missions with durations greater than several months. These losses can be eliminated by incorporating high performance cryocooler technology to intercept heat load to the propellant tanks and modulating the cryocooler to control tank pressure. The active thermal control technology being developed by NASA is the reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocooler and its integration to the propellant tank through a distributed cooling tubing network coupled to the tank wall. This configuration was recently tested at NASA Glenn Research Center, in a vacuum chamber and cryo-shroud that simulated the essential thermal aspects of low Earth orbit, its vacuum and temperature. Testing consisted of three passive tests with the active cryo-cooler system off, and 7 active tests, with the cryocooler powered up. The test matrix included zero boil-off tests performed at 90 full and 25 full, and several demonstrations at excess cooling capacity and reduced cooling capacity. From this, the tank pressure response with varied cryocooler power inputs was determined. This test series established that the active cooling system integrated with the propellant tank eliminated boil-off and robustly controlled tank pressure.

  12. Observing electron spin resonance between 0.1 and 67 GHz at temperatures between 50 mK and 300 K using broadband metallic coplanar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemann, Yvonne; Simmendinger, Julian; Clauss, Conrad; Bogani, Lapo; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bothner, Daniel; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena in LISA+, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)


    We describe a fully broadband approach for electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments, where it is possible to tune not only the magnetic field but also the frequency continuously over wide ranges. Here, a metallic coplanar transmission line acts as compact and versatile microwave probe that can easily be implemented in different cryogenic setups. We perform ESR measurements at frequencies between 0.1 and 67 GHz and at temperatures between 50 mK and room temperature. Three different types of samples (Cr{sup 3+} ions in ruby, organic radicals of the nitronyl-nitroxide family, and the doped semiconductor Si:P) represent different possible fields of application for the technique. We demonstrate that an extremely large phase space in temperature, magnetic field, and frequency for ESR measurements, substantially exceeding the range of conventional ESR setups, is accessible with metallic coplanar lines.

  13. A review of the deformation behavior of tungsten at temperatures less than 0.2 of the melting point /K/ (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.


    The deformation behavior of tungsten at temperatures below 0.2 times the absolute melting temperature is reviewed with primary emphasis on the temperature dependence of the yield stress and the ductile-brittle transition. It is concluded that a model based on the high Peierls stress of tungsten best accounts for the observed mechanical behavior at low temperatures. Recent research suggests an important role of electron concentration and bonding on the mechanical behavior of tungsten. Future research on tungsten should include studies to define more clearly the correlation between electron concentration and mechanical behavior of alloys of tungsten and other transition metal alloys.

  14. Black Body Detector Temperature from Gall and Planck Perspectives (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.


    The laws of Gall ( and Planck are generally defined with zero intensity at 0 K. However actual measurements involve detectors above absolute zero. These detectors must also be treated as approximate black body radiators. The zero intensity reference point is thus defined by the radiated intensity at the detector temperature. Planck's law thus becomes ( IP=c1λ^51e^c2λT;-1-c1λ^51e^c2λTd;-1) where Td is the detector temperature. Provided that T>Td;;;IP;is;always>0. Thus from a Planck perspective, wavelength increase should not be a factor in defining detector temperature. The corresponding expression for Gall's law is ( IG=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb-σTd^6b^2λe^-λTdb) . Above the crossover wavelength (, even though T>Td;;;IG<0. From a Gall perspective, this sets a limit on the long wavelength range for a given detector temperature. Longer wavelength measurements require lower detector temperatures. For a 6000 K black body radiator, the long wavelength crossover limits for detectors at 300 K, 100 K and 4 K are 9.138, 12.066 and 21.206 microns respectively.

  15. Low-temperature anomalies of EXAFS at the K-edge of As in superconducting LaFe0.89Co0.11AsO (United States)

    Bianconi, A.; Menushenkov, A. P.; Ivanov, V. G.; Ivanov, A. A.; Joseph, B.


    The temperature dependence of the EXAFS-spectra measured above the K absorption edge of As in superconducting (T c = 13.5 K) single crystals of LaFe0.89Co0.11AsO were investigated. Analysis of the spectra in the harmonic approximation revealed anomalies in the temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for As-Fe interatomic bond which correlated with the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity, the coefficient of thermal expansion and magnetic susceptibility given in literature. Taking into account that similar anomalies were earlier observed in superconducting oxides based on BaBiO3 and in cuprates we conducted the EXAFS spectra analysis in the anharmonic approximation using the potential of arbitrary shape for As-Fe bond vibrations. It was shown that the double-well approximation describes the temperature dependence of the EXAFS spectra better than the harmonic one. The temperature dependence of tunneling frequency and a distance between the wells for double-well potential were obtained. The results indicate that local structural dynamic heterogeneities have a strong impact on macroscopic properties of iron-based superconductors.

  16. An adiabatic calorimeter for heat capacity measurements of polyurethane foam with blowing agent of HFC245fa in the temperature range 60-290K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.G.; Xu, L.; Zhang, L.Q.; Chen, N. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)


    In order to meet the urgent need of heat insulating materials used under low temperature in the area of aerospace, a new polyurethane (PU) foam with HFC245fa as blowing agent was developed. In this paper, the heat capacity in the temperature range of 60-290K of the new material was measured through an automated adiabatic calorimeter, which was composed of a heat insulation system, a power measuring system, a vacuum pumping system and a cooling system. The sample cell of the calorimeter was equipped with a miniature platinum thermometer surrounded by two adiabatic shields and housed in a high vacuum can. The temperature differences among the sample cell and the inner and outer adiabatic shields could be adjusted automatically to less than 0.05K, all which ensure there was no heat exchange between the sample and surroundings. Under these conditions, the mathematical formulation of the sample with the physical model was given. Through measuring the heat capacity of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is a standard reference material, a relatively high reliability with a deviation of +/-2.5% of this adiabatic calorimeter was shown compared with the standard data. The results indicate that the newly developed PU foam has a higher heat capacity compared with other heat insulating materials, and there is no obvious sign of any phase transition or thermal anomaly in the entire temperature range. That is to say, the material is thermodynamically stable when used in the low temperature range. (author)

  17. An adiabatic calorimeter for heat capacity measurements of polyurethane foam with blowing agent of HFC245fa in the temperature range 60-290 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.G. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail:; Xu, L. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, L.Q. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Chen, N. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)


    In order to meet the urgent need of heat insulating materials used under low temperature in the area of aerospace, a new PU foam with HFC245fa as blowing agent was developed. In this paper, the heat capacity in the temperature range of 60-290 K of the new material was measured through an automated adiabatic calorimeter, which was composed of a heat insulation system, a power measuring system, a vacuum pumping system and a cooling system. The sample cell of the calorimeter was equipped with a miniature platinum thermometer surrounded by two adiabatic shields and housed in a high vacuum can. The temperature differences among the sample cell and the inner and outer adiabatic shields could be adjusted automatically to less than 0.05 K, all which ensure there was no heat exchange between the sample and surroundings. Under these conditions, the mathematical formulation of the sample with the physical model was given. Through measuring the heat capacity of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is a standard reference material, a relatively high reliability with a deviation of {+-}2.5% of this adiabatic calorimeter was shown compared with the standard data. The results indicate that the newly developed PU foam has a higher heat capacity compared with other heat insulating materials, and there is no obvious sign of any phase transition or thermal anomaly in the entire temperature range. That is to say, the material is thermodynamically stable when used in the low temperature range.

  18. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D


    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  19. Absolute zero and the conquest of cold

    CERN Document Server

    Shachtman, Tom


    In a sweeping yet marvelously concise history, Tom Shachtman ushers us into a world in which scientists tease apart the all-important secrets of cold. Readers take an extraordinary trip, starting in the 1600s with an alchemist's air conditioning of Westminster Abbey and scientists' creation of thermometers. Later, while entrepreneurs sold Walden Pond ice to tropical countries -- packed in "high-tech" sawdust -- researchers pursued absolute zero and interpreted their work as romantically as did adventurers to remote regions. Today, playing with ultracold temperatures is one of the hottest frontiers in physics, with scientists creating useful particles Einstein only dreamed of. Tom Shachtman shares a great scientific adventure story and its characters' rich lives in a book that has won a grant from the prestigious Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Absolute Zero is for everyone who loves history and science history stories, who's eager to explore Nobel Prize-winning physics today, or who has ever sighed with pleasure ...

  20. Thermodynamically complete equation of state of MgO from true radiative shock temperature measurements on samples preheated to 1850 K (United States)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.; Ahrens, T. J.


    Plate impact experiments in the 100-250 GPa pressure range were done on a 〈100 〉 single-crystal MgO preheated before compression to 1850 K. Hot Mo(driver)-MgO targets were impacted with Mo or Ta flyers launched by the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun up to 7.5 km/s. Radiative temperatures and shock velocities were measured with 3%-4% and 1%-2% uncertainty, respectively, by a six-channel pyrometer with 3-ns time resolution, over a 500-900-nm spectral range. MgO shock front reflectivity was determined in additional experiments at 220 and 248 GPa using ≈50 /50 high-temperature sapphire beam splitters. Our measurements yield accurate experimental data on the mechanical, optical, and thermodynamic properties of B1 phase MgO from 102 GPa and 3900 K to 248 GPa and 9100 K, a region not sampled by previous studies. Reported Hugoniot data for MgO initially at ambient temperature, T =298 K, and the results of our current Hugoniot measurements on samples preheated to 1850 K were analyzed using the most general methods of least-squares fitting to constrain the Grüneisen model. This equation of state (EOS) was then used to construct maximum likelihood linear Hugoniots of MgO with initial temperatures from 298 to 2400 K. A parametrization of all EOS values and best-fit coefficients was done over the entire range of relevant particle velocities. Total uncertainties of all the EOS parameters and correlation coefficients for these uncertainties are also given. The predictive capabilities of our updated Mie-Grüneisen EOS were confirmed by (1) the good agreement between our Grüneisen data and five semiempirical γ (V ) models derived from porous shock data only or from combined static and shock data sets, (2) the very good agreement between our 1-bar Grüneisen values and γ (T ) at ambient pressure recalculated from reported experimental data on the adiabatic bulk modulus Ks(T ) , and (3) the good agreement of the brightness temperatures, corrected for shock reflectivity

  1. Vacuum properties of high quality value tuning fork in high magnetic field up to 8 Tesla and at mK temperatures (United States)

    Človečko, M.; Kupka, M.; Skyba, P.; Vavrek, F.


    Tuning forks are very popular experimental tools widely applied in low and ultra low temperature physics as mechanical resonators and cantilevers in the study of quantum liquids, STM and AFM techniques, etc. As an added benefit, these forks being cooled, have very high Q-value, typically 106 and their properties seems to be magnetic field independent. We present preliminary vacuum measurements of a commercial tuning fork oscillating at frequency 32 kHz conducted in magnetic fields up to 8 T and at temperature ~ 10 mK. We found an additional weak damping of the tuning fork motion depending on magnetic field magnitude and we discuss physical nature of the observed phenomena.

  2. Low-temperature (T = 250-400 K) oxygen adsorption on YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub . sub 9 ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V N


    The oxygen adsorption on the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub . sub 9 ceramics is studied within the temperature range of 250-400 K through the method of the thermodesorption (TD) mass-spectroscopy. It is established, that depending on the temperature (T subalpha) the O sub 2 adsorption leads to formation of two (gamma 1 and gamma 2 at the T subalpha = 350 K) adsorption forms. The associative desorption mechanism with the activation energy (0.63 +- 0.08) (gamma 1) and (1.13 +- 0.02) eV (gamma 2) is the most probable one for both forms. The model, qualitatively describing the oxygen sorption on the ceramics, the initial stage whereof is constituted by the gamma 2 adsorption form formation, is proposed

  3. Superhigh Temperatures and Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, V B; Miller, M B; Sermyagin, A V; Topolnikov, A S


    The experimental results on thermonuclear synthesis under acoustic cavitation have been analyzed with the account of the latest data and their discussion. The analysis testifies that this avenue of research is a very promising one. The numerical calculations of the D(d, n)^{3}He reaction rate in the deuterated acetone (C_{3}D_{6}O) under the influence of ultrasound depending on T environment temperature within the range T=249-295 K have been carried out within the framework of hydrodynamic model. The results show that it is possible to improve substantially the effect/background relationship in experiments by decreasing the fluid temperature twenty-thirty degrees below zero.

  4. Zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of viscous liquids. (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Blanchard, J W; Pustelny, S; Saielli, G; Bagno, A; Ledbetter, M P; Budker, D; Pines, A


    We report zero-field NMR measurements of a viscous organic liquid, ethylene glycol. Zero-field spectra were taken showing resolved scalar spin-spin coupling (J-coupling) for ethylene glycol at different temperatures and water contents. Molecular dynamics strongly affects the resonance linewidth, which closely follows viscosity. Quantum chemical calculations have been used to obtain the relative stability and coupling constants of all ethylene glycol conformers. The results show the potential of zero-field NMR as a probe of molecular structure and dynamics in a wide range of environments, including viscous fluids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reaction kinetics of (CF3)2CFCN with OH radicals as a function of temperature (278-358 K): A good replacement for greenhouse SF6? (United States)

    Blázquez, Sergio; Antiñolo, María; Nielsen, Ole J.; Albaladejo, José; Jiménez, Elena


    In many industrial applications, (CF3)2CFCN has been suggested as SF6 substitute, which possess a global warming potential (GWP100-yr) of 23500 relative to CO2. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient (kOH) for the OH + (CF3)2CFCN reaction is reported for the first time: kOH(278-358 K) = (5.9 ± 3.2) × 10-13exp{-(1856 ± 162)/T} cm3 molecule-1 s-1. A lifetime of 47 years was estimated relative to that of CH3CCl3. Infrared absorption cross sections were also determined to derive the radiative efficiency (0.28 W m-2 ppbv-1). A GWP100-yr of 3646 was estimated, resulting in a significant reduction of the contribution to global warming if SF6 was replaced by (CF3)2CFCN.

  6. K sup + - scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Farhan, A M


    A prescription is given to construct an effective interaction that may describe the scattering of K sup + by spin-zero nuclei in a more reliable way. This prescription is based on the Lorentz invariant representation of the meson-nucleon amplitude and the use of the Klein-Gordon equation of motion. Good results for K sup + - sup 1 sup 2 C as well as K sup + - D total cross sections at various energies have been obtained. (author)

  7. Simultaneous high-pressure high-temperature elastic velocity measurement system up to 27 GPa and 1873 K using ultrasonic and synchrotron X-ray techniques (United States)

    Higo, Yuji; Irifune, Tetsuo; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi


    A new pulse-echo interferometry system has been developed for measurements of sound velocity at simultaneous high pressure and temperature corresponding to those of the Earth's lower mantle, using synchrotron X-ray techniques at SPring-8. A combination of a low-noise high-frequency amplifier and a high-speed solid-state relay system allowed us to clearly detect the ultrasonic echoes of a small sample (<1.0 mm in diameter and length) in multi-anvil apparatus. A new high-pressure cell has also been introduced for precise measurement of the length of the tiny sample by X-ray radiography imaging under very high pressure and temperature. The new system was tested by measuring elastic velocities of α-Al2O3 over wide pressure and temperature ranges of up to 27 GPa and 1873 K, respectively. The resultant adiabatic bulk modulus, shear modulus, and pressure and temperature derivatives of α-Al2O3 are K0S = 251.2 (18) GPa, ∂ KS/∂ P = 4.21 (10), ∂ KS/∂ T = -0.025 (1), G = 164.1 (7), ∂ G/∂ P = 1.59 (3), ∂ G/∂ T = -0.021 (1). These values are consistent with those previously reported based on experiments at high temperatures at ambient pressure and high pressures at room temperature. The present system allows precise measurements of the elastic velocities of minerals under the pressures and temperatures corresponding to the lower mantle for the first time, which should greatly contribute to our understanding of mineralogy of the whole mantle.

  8. Measurement of (liquid + liquid) equilibria for ternary systems of (N-formylmorpholine + benzene + cyclohexane) at temperatures (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyedein Ghannad, S. MohammadReza [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader, E-mail: [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi Asl, Ali [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Research highlights: LLE were measured for (NFM+benzene+cyclohexane) at temperatures (303.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K. UNIQUAC and NRTL models were used to correlate the LLE. The reliability of the experimental data was tested by the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The obtained RMSDs are 0.0367 for NRTL model and 0.0539 for UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: This work demonstrates the ability of N-formylmorpholine (NFM) to act as an extraction solvent for the removal of benzene from its mixture with cyclohexane. The (liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) were measured for a ternary system of {l_brace}N-formylmorpholine (NFM) + benzene + cyclohexane{r_brace} under atmospheric pressure and at temperatures (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. The experimental distribution coefficients (K) and selectivity factors (S) were obtained to reveal the extractive effectiveness of the solvent for separation of benzene from cyclohexane. The LLE results for the system studied indicate that increasing temperature decreases selectivity of the solvent. The reliability of the experimental results was tested by applying the Othmer-Tobias correlation. In addition, the universal quasichemical activity coefficient (UNIQUAC) and the non-random two liquids equation (NRTL) were used to correlate the LLE data using the interaction parameters determined from the experimental data. The root mean square deviations (RMSDs) obtained comparing calculated and experimental two-phase compositions are 0.0367 for the NRTL model and 0.0539 for the UNIQUAC model.

  9. Thermodynamic properties and equation of state of liquid di-isodecyl phthalate at temperature between (273 and 423) K and at pressures up to 140 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peleties, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Trusler, J.P.M., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vega-Maza, D. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    We report measurements of the thermodynamic properties of liquid di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and an equation of state determined therefrom. The speed of sound in DIDP was measured at temperatures between (293.15 and 413.15) K and a pressures between (0.1 and 140) MPa with a relative uncertainty of 0.1%. In addition, the isobaric specific heat capacity was measured at temperatures between (293.15 and 423.15) K at a pressure of 0.1 MPa with a relative uncertainty of 1%, and the density was measured at temperatures between (273.15 and 413.15) K at a pressure of 0.1 MPa with a relative uncertainty of 0.015%. The thermodynamic properties of DIDP were obtained from the measured speeds of sound by thermodynamic integration starting from the initial values of density and isobaric specific heat capacity obtained experimentally. The results have been represented by a new equation of state containing nine parameters with an uncertainty in density not worse than 0.025%. Comparisons with literature data are made.

  10. Morphotropy and temperature-driven polymorphism in A2Th(AsO4)2 (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) series. (United States)

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V; Modolo, Giuseppe; Bosbach, Dirk; Suleimanov, Evgeny V; Gesing, Thorsten M; Robben, Lars; Alekseev, Evgeny V


    A new alkaline thorium arsenate family was obtained and systematically investigated. The structures of A2Th(AsO4)2 (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Li2Th(AsO4)2 and either isostructural K2Th(AsO4)2 and Rb2Th(AsO4)2 crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system. Na2Th(AsO4)2 and Cs2Th(AsO4)2 crystallize in the orthorhombic and tetragonal crystal systems, respectively. Li2Th(AsO4)2 consists of [Th(AsO4)2](2-) layers with Li atoms in the interlayer space. The rest of the compounds are based on 3D frameworks. Differences in local environments of ThO8 coordination polyhedra are described in relation to the symmetry. Despite different local environments of ThO8 coordination polyhedra and different structural symmetry, underlying nets of A2Th(AsO4)2 (A = Na, K, Rb, Cs) were shown to be the same. Single-crystal and powder Raman spectra were measured, and bands are assigned. DSC measurements showed phase transitions in K2Th(AsO4)2 and Rb2Th(AsO4)2, which were studied using high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (HT-PXRD). The data of HT-PXRD demonstrates two high-temperature polymorphic modification of K2Th(AsO4)2 and only one for the isotypic Rb2Th(AsO4)2. The phase transitions in both K and Rb phases are reversible.

  11. Prediction of the critical reduced electric field strength for carbon dioxide and its mixtures with copper vapor from Boltzmann analysis for a gas temperature range of 300 K to 4000 K at 0.4 MPa (United States)

    Li, Xingwen; Guo, Xiaoxue; Zhao, Hu; Jia, Shenli; Murphy, Anthony B.


    The influence of copper vapor mixed in hot CO2 on dielectric breakdown properties of gas mixture at a fixed pressure of 0.4 MPa for a temperature range of 300 K-4000 K is numerically analyzed. First, the equilibrium composition of hot CO2 with different copper fractions is calculated using a method based on mass action law. The next stage is devoted to computing the electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) by solving the two-term Boltzmann equation. The reduced ionization coefficient, the reduced attachment coefficient, and the reduced effective ionization coefficient are then obtained based on the EEDF. Finally, the critical reduced electric field (E/N)cr is obtained. The results indicate that an increasing mole fraction of copper markedly reduces (E/N)cr of the CO2-Cu gas mixtures because of copper's low ionization potential and large ionization cross section. Additionally, the generation of O2 from the thermal dissociation of CO2 contributes to the increase of (E/N)cr of CO2-Cu hot gas mixtures from about 2000 K to 3500 K.

  12. The effect of temperature upon the pathogenicity and chemical control of Rhizoctonia solani K. on potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Błaszczak


    Full Text Available In poe experiment, it was found that Rhizoctonia solani was most pathogenic to potato sprouts at 14.8 and 17.4°C. At a third temperature applied (9.9°C, the pathologenicity was much lower. The higher temperatures decreased the fungicidal activity of Ceresan Nassbeize and Rizokton. The addition to the soil of 1 and 3% of corn straw did not affect the pathogenicity of the fungus.

  13. Enthalpy measurement of coal-derived liquids. Technical progress report, August-January 1982. [Isobars of 517. 1, 689. 5, 1034. 2, 1379. 1, and 10342. 5 kPa temperature range of 340 to 664/sup 0/K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidnay, A.J.; Yesavage, V.F.


    The compound quinoline is discussed. Process flow in the flow calorimeter, operational problems, and equipment modifications are described. Procedural modifications, including a new sample purification procedure, are described. Quinoline enthalpy data are presented along the isobars of 517.1, 689.5, 1034.2, 1379.0, 3799.1, and 10342.5 kPa over a temperature range of 340 to 664/sup 0/K. Experimental enthalpy values and thermodynamic properties derived from this data are compared to corresponding values found in the literature, and to values predicted using computer aided calculations involving three correlations. The three correlations are: the SRK equation of state, and two modifications of the BWR equation of state by Kesler et al. and Starling, respectively. In general, the correlations do not accurately predict the thermodynamic behavior of quinoline. However, the experimental data compare well with available literature data for quinoline vapor pressures.

  14. Investigation of reactivity and structure formation in a K-Te-U oxo-system under high-temperature/high-pressure conditions. (United States)

    Xiao, Bin; Kegler, Philip; Bosbach, Dirk; Alekseev, Evgeny V


    The high-temperature/high-pressure treatment of the K-Te-U oxo-family at 1100 °C and 3.5 GPa results in the crystallization of a series of novel uranyl tellurium compounds, K2[(UO2)3(TeIVO3)4], K2[(UO2)TeO14], α-K2[(UO2)TeVIO5] and β-K2[(UO2)TeVIO5]. In contrast to most of the reported uranyl compounds which are favorable in layered structures, we found that under extreme conditions, the potassium uranyl oxo-tellurium compounds preferably crystallized in three-dimensional (3D) framework structures with complex topologies. Anion topology analysis indicates that the 3D uranyl tellurite anionic framework observed in K2[(UO2)3(TeIVO3)4] is attributable to the additional linkages of TeO3 polyhedra connecting with TeO4 disphenoids from the neighboring U-Te layers. The structure of K2[(UO2)TeO14] can be described based on [UTe6O26]22- clusters, where six TeO5 polyhedra enclose a hexagonal cavity in which a UO8 polyhedron is located. The [UTe6O26]22- clusters are further linked by TeO5 square pyramids to form the 3D network. Similar to uranyl tellurates, both α-K2[(UO2)TeVIO5] and β-K2[(UO2)TeVIO5] contain TeO6 octahedra which share a common face to form a dimeric Te2O10 unit. However, in α-K2[(UO2)TeVIO5], these Te2O10 units connect with UO6 tetragonal bipyramids to form a 3D structural framework, while in β-K2[(UO2)TeVIO5], the same Te2O10 dimers are observed to link with UO7 pentagonal bipyramids, forming 2D layers. Raman measurements were carried out and the vibration bands related to TeIV-O, TeVI-O and UVI-O bonds are discussed.

  15. Low-temperature high magnetic field powder x-ray diffraction setup for field-induced structural phase transition studies from 2 to 300 K and at 0 to 8-T field (United States)

    Shahee, Aga; Sharma, Shivani; Kumar, Dhirendra; Yadav, Poonam; Bhardwaj, Preeti; Ghodke, Nandkishor; Singh, Kiran; Lalla, N. P.; Chaddah, P.


    A low-temperature and high magnetic field powder x-ray diffractometer (XRD) has been developed at UGC-DAE CSR (UGC: University Grant Commission, DAE: Department of Atomic Energy, and CSR: Consortium for scientific research), Indore, India. The setup has been developed around an 18 kW rotating anode x-ray source delivering Cu-Kα x-rays coming from a vertical line source. It works in a symmetric θ-2θ parallel beam geometry. It consists of a liquid helium cryostat with an 8 T split-pair Nb-Ti superconducting magnet comprising two x-ray windows each covering an angular range of 65°. This is mounted on a non-magnetic type heavy duty goniometer equipped with all necessary motions along with data collection accessories. The incident x-ray beam has been made parallel using a parabolic multilayer mirror. The scattered x-ray is detected using a NaI detector through a 0.1° acceptance solar collimator. To control the motions of the goniometer, a computer programme has been developed. The wide-angle scattering data can be collected in a range of 2°-115° of 2θ with a resolution of ˜0.1°. The whole setup is tightly shielded for the scattered x-rays using a lead hutch. The functioning of the goniometer and the artifacts arising possibly due to the effect of stray magnetic field on the goniometer motions, on the x-ray source, and on the detector have been characterized by collecting powder XRD data of a National Institute of Standards and Technology certified standard reference material LaB6 (SRM-660b) and Si powder in zero-field and in-field conditions. Occurrence of field induced structural-phase transitions has been demonstrated on various samples like Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3, Nd0.49Sr0.51MnO3-δ and La0.175Pr0.45Ca0.375MnO3 by collecting data in zero field cool and field cool conditions.

  16. Low-temperature high magnetic field powder x-ray diffraction setup for field-induced structural phase transition studies from 2 to 300 K and at 0 to 8-T field. (United States)

    Shahee, Aga; Sharma, Shivani; Kumar, Dhirendra; Yadav, Poonam; Bhardwaj, Preeti; Ghodke, Nandkishor; Singh, Kiran; Lalla, N P; Chaddah, P


    A low-temperature and high magnetic field powder x-ray diffractometer (XRD) has been developed at UGC-DAE CSR (UGC: University Grant Commission, DAE: Department of Atomic Energy, and CSR: Consortium for scientific research), Indore, India. The setup has been developed around an 18 kW rotating anode x-ray source delivering Cu-Kα x-rays coming from a vertical line source. It works in a symmetric θ-2θ parallel beam geometry. It consists of a liquid helium cryostat with an 8 T split-pair Nb-Ti superconducting magnet comprising two x-ray windows each covering an angular range of 65°. This is mounted on a non-magnetic type heavy duty goniometer equipped with all necessary motions along with data collection accessories. The incident x-ray beam has been made parallel using a parabolic multilayer mirror. The scattered x-ray is detected using a NaI detector through a 0.1° acceptance solar collimator. To control the motions of the goniometer, a computer programme has been developed. The wide-angle scattering data can be collected in a range of 2°-115° of 2θ with a resolution of ∼0.1°. The whole setup is tightly shielded for the scattered x-rays using a lead hutch. The functioning of the goniometer and the artifacts arising possibly due to the effect of stray magnetic field on the goniometer motions, on the x-ray source, and on the detector have been characterized by collecting powder XRD data of a National Institute of Standards and Technology certified standard reference material LaB6 (SRM-660b) and Si powder in zero-field and in-field conditions. Occurrence of field induced structural-phase transitions has been demonstrated on various samples like Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3, Nd0.49Sr0.51MnO3-δ and La0.175Pr0.45Ca0.375MnO3 by collecting data in zero field cool and field cool conditions.

  17. Reaction between B{sub 4}C and austenitic stainless steel in oxidizing atmosphere at temperatures below 1673 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Ryosuke; Ueda, Shigeru, E-mail:; Kim, Sun-Joong; Gao, Xu; Kitamura, Shin-ya


    Synopsis: The control rod of a light water nuclear reactor is constructed of a pole comprising stainless steel filled with a boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) core. To appraise the stability of this control rod in the event of a severe accident, the reactions of the system of B{sub 4}C and grade 304 austenitic stainless steel (SS) were observed at 1473 K in Ar, air, and a mixture of both. To clarify the reaction mechanism and the influence of the oxygen partial pressure, the weight change ratio was monitored and differential thermal analysis was performed at the temperature range from room temperature to 1673 K to monitor the reaction under controlled oxygen partial pressure. The results showed that there was no direct reaction between B{sub 4}C and SS. When the temperature was higher than the melting point of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (743 K), the molten B{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed by oxidation of B{sub 4}C covered the surface of SS by spreading wetting. This B{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer functioned to transport oxygen from the atmosphere to SS, leading to accelerated oxidation of SS. As a result, a Fe–Cr–Ni–B–O oxide phase covered the surface of SS. Oxygen continuously entered the oxide phase with prolonged reaction time, and oxides such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and FeOx–Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} were found on the outer layer. Therefore, in the presence of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed by oxidation of B{sub 4}C, the oxidation of SS was accelerated below the eutectic temperature of the Fe–C system. - Highlights: • The reactions of the system of B{sub 4}C and grade 304 austenitic stainless steel (SS) were studied at 1473 K. • The molten B{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed by oxidation of B{sub 4}C covered the surface of SS by spreading wetting at the temperature above 743 K. • In the presence of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the oxidation of SS was accelerated.

  18. Quasiclassical Trajectory Calculations of the Rate Constant of the OH + HBr → Br + H2O Reaction Using a Full-Dimensional Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface Over the Temperature Range 5 to 500 K. (United States)

    de Oliveira-Filho, Antonio G S; Ornellas, Fernando R; Bowman, Joel M


    We report a permutationally invariant, ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the OH + HBr → Br + H2O reaction. The PES is a fit to roughly 26 000 spin-free UCCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ-F12a energies and has no classical barrier to reaction. It is used in quasiclassical trajectory calculations with a focus on the thermal rate constant, k(T), over the temperature range 5 to 500 K. Comparisons with available experimental data over the temperature range 23 to 416 K are made using three approaches to treat the OH rotational and associated electronic partition function. All display an inverse temperature dependence of k(T) below roughly 160 K and a nearly constant temperature dependence above 160 K, in agreement with experiment. The calculated rate constant with no treatment of spin-orbit coupling is overall in the best agreement with experiment, being (probably fortuitously) within 20% of it.

  19. Temperature- and pH-induced structural changes in the membrane of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. (United States)

    Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Adamlje, Urska; Nemec, Marjanca; Sentjurc, Marjeta


    The influence of pH and temperature on the structural organization, fluidity and permeability of the hyperthermophilic archaeon membrane was investigated in situ by a combination of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. For EPR measurements, Aeropyrum pernix cells, after growing at different pHs, were spin-labeled with the doxyl derivative of palmitic acid methylester (MeFASL(10,3)). From the EPR spectra maximal hyperfine splitting (2A (max)) and empirical correlation time (tau (emp)), which are related to mean membrane fluidity, were determined. The mean membrane fluidity increases with temperature and depends on the pH of the growth medium. Computer simulation of the EPR spectra shows that membrane of A. pernix is heterogeneous and consists of the regions characterized with three different types of motional characteristics, which define three types of membrane domains. Order parameter and proportion of the spin probes in the three types of domains define mean membrane fluidity. The fluidity changes of the membrane with pH and temperature correlate well with the ratio between the fluorescence emission intensity of the first and third bands in the vibronic spectra of pyrene, I(1)/I(3). At pH 7.0 a decrease of I(1)/I(3) from 2.0 to 1.2, due to the penetration of pyrene into the nonpolar membrane region, is achieved at temperatures above 65 degrees C, the lower temperature limit of A. pernix growth.

  20. An All-Solid Cryocooler to 100K Based on Optical Refrigeration in Yb:YLF Crystals (United States)


    to a global minimum achievable temperature ( gMAT ) of 93K (Figure. 1 right) at 1020 nm corresponding to the E4-E5 transition in the Yb3+ Stark...result below 100K and matching the anticipated gMAT of the crystal where the cooling efficiency approaches zero. At 100K, the cooling efficiency...temperature was maintained at 271K , reducing the heat load, which is equivalent to an increased cooling power, in order to achieve gMAT . Under the same

  1. Resonance Stabilization Effects on Ketone Autoxidation: Isomer-Specific Cyclic Ether and Ketohydroperoxide Formation in the Low-Temperature (400-625 K) Oxidation of Diethyl Ketone. (United States)

    Scheer, Adam M; Eskola, Arkke J; Osborn, David L; Sheps, Leonid; Taatjes, Craig A


    The pulsed photolytic chlorine-initiated oxidation of diethyl ketone [DEK; (CH3CH2)2C═O], 2,2,4,4-d4-DEK [d4-DEK; (CH3CD2)2C═O], and 1,1,1,5,5,5-d6-DEK [d6-DEK; (CD3CH2)2C═O] is studied at 8 torr and 1-2 atm and from 400-625 K. Cl atoms produced by laser photolysis react with diethyl ketone to form either primary (3-pentan-on-1-yl, RP) or secondary (3-pentan-on-2-yl, RS) radicals, which in turn react with O2. Multiplexed time-of-flight mass spectrometry, coupled to either a hydrogen discharge lamp or tunable synchrotron photoionizing radiation, is used to detect products as a function of mass, time, and photon energy. At 8 torr, the nature of the chain propagating cyclic ether + OH channel changes as a function of temperature. At 450 K, the production of OH is mainly in conjunction with formation of 2,4-dimethyloxetan-3-one, resulting from reaction of the resonance-stabilized secondary RS with O2. In contrast, at 550 K and 8 torr, 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-one, originating from oxidation of the primary radical (RP), is observed as the dominant cyclic ether product. Formation of both of these cyclic ether production channels proceeds via a resonance-stabilized hydroperoxy alkyl (QOOH) intermediate. Little or no ketohydroperoxide (KHP) is observed under the low-pressure conditions. At higher O2 concentrations and higher pressures (1-2 atm), a strong KHP signal appears as the temperature is increased above 450 K. Definitive isomeric identification from measurements on the deuterated DEK isotopologues indicates the favored pathway produces a γ-KHP via resonance-stabilized alkyl, QOOH, and HOOPOOH radicals. Time-resolved measurements reveal the KHP formation becomes faster and signal more intense upon increasing temperature from 450 to 575 K before intensity drops significantly at 625 K. The KHP time profile also shows a peak followed by a gradual depletion for the extent of experiment. Several tertiary products exhibit a slow accumulation in coincidence with

  2. Development and testing of a 2.5 kW synchronous generator with a high temperature superconducting stator and permanent magnet rotor (United States)

    Qu, Timing; Song, Peng; Yu, Xiaoyu; Gu, Chen; Li, Longnian; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping; Chen, Duxing; Zeng, Pan; Han, Zhenghe


    High temperature superconducting (HTS) armature windings have the potential for increasing the electric loading of a synchronous generator due to their high current transport capacity, which could increase the power density of an HTS rotating machine. In this work, a novel synchronous generator prototype with an HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor has been developed. It has a basic structure of four poles and six slots. The armature winding was constructed from six double-pancake race-track coils with 44 turns each. It was designed to deliver 2.5 kW at 300 rpm. A concentrated winding configuration was proposed, to prevent interference at the ends of adjacent HTS coils. The HTS stator was pressure mounted into a hollow Dewar cooled with liquid nitrogen. The whole stator could be cooled down to around 82 K by conduction cooling. In the preliminary testing, the machine worked properly and could deliver 1.8 kW power when the armature current was 14.4 A. Ic for the HTS coils was found to be suppressed due to the influence of the temperature and the leakage field.

  3. Measurements of complex permittivity of microwave substrates in the 20 to 300 K temperature range from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Gordon, William L.; Heinen, Vernon O.; Ebihara, Ben T.; Bhasin, Kul B.


    A knowledge of the dielectric properties of microwve substrates at low temperatures is useful in the design of superconducting microwave circuits. Results are reported for a study of the complex permittivity of sapphire (Al2O3), magnesium oxide (MgO), silicon oxide (SiO2), lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3), and zirconium oxide (ZrO2), in the 20 to 300 Kelvin temperature range, at frequencies from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz. The values of the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity were obtained from the scattering parameters, which were measured using an HP-8510 automatic network analyzer. For these measurements, the samples were mounted on the cold head of a helium gas closed cycle refrigerator, in a specially designated vacuum chamber. An arrangement of wave guides, with mica windows, was used to connect the cooling system to the network analyzer. A decrease in the value of the real part of the complex permittivity of these substrates, with decreasing temperature, was observed. For MgO and Al2O3, the decrease from room temperature to 20 K was of 7 and 15 percent, respectively. For LaAlO3, it decreased by 14 percent, for ZrO2 by 15 percent, and for SiO2 by 2 percent, in the above mentioned temperature range.

  4. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for mixtures of (ethylene glycol + benzene + cyclohexane) at temperatures (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad Reza Seyedein Ghannad, S. [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader, E-mail: [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asl, Ali Haghighi [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for a ternary system containing (ethylene glycol + benzene + cyclohexane) were determined at temperatures (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. The experimental distribution coefficients and selectivity factors are presented to evaluate the efficiency of the solvent for extraction of benzene from cyclohexane. The effect of temperature in extraction of benzene from the (benzene + cyclohexane) mixture indicated that at lower temperatures the selectivity (S) is higher, but the distribution coefficient (K) is rather lower. The LLE results for the system studied were used to obtain binary interaction parameters in the UNIQUAC and NRTL models by minimizing the root mean square deviations (RMSD) between the experimental results and calculated results. Using the interaction parameters obtained, the phase equilibria in the systems were calculated and plotted. The NRTL model fits the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data of the mixture studied slightly better. The root mean square deviations (RMSDs) obtained comparing calculated and experimental two-phase compositions are 0.92% for the NRTL model and 0.95% for the UNIQUAC model.

  5. Yang–Lee zeros of the Yang–Lee model (United States)

    Mussardo, G.; Bonsignori, R.; Trombettoni, A.


    To understand the distribution of the Yang–Lee zeros in quantum integrable field theories we analyse the simplest of these systems given by the 2D Yang–Lee model. The grand-canonical partition function of this quantum field theory, as a function of the fugacity z and the inverse temperature β, can be computed in terms of the thermodynamics Bethe Ansatz based on its exact S-matrix. We extract the Yang–Lee zeros in the complex plane by using a sequence of polynomials of increasing order N in z which converges to the grand-canonical partition function. We show that these zeros are distributed along curves which are approximate circles as it is also the case of the zeros for purely free theories. There is though an important difference between the interactive theory and the free theories, for the radius of the zeros in the interactive theory goes continuously to zero in the high-temperature limit β → 0 while in the free theories it remains close to 1 even for small values of β, jumping to 0 only at β = 0 .

  6. Isothermal vapour–liquid equilibria in cyclohexanone + dichloroalkane binary mixtures at temperatures from 298.15 to 318.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The vapour pressures of binary mixtures of cyclohexanone + dichloroalkane (1,3-dichloropropane and 1,4-dichlorobutane were measured at temperatures between 298.15 and 318.15 K. The vapour pressures vs. liquid phase composition data were used to calculate the activity coefficients of the two components and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE for the mixtures, using the Barker method and the Redlich–Kister, Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC equations, taking into account the vapour phase imperfection in terms of the 2nd virial coefficient. No significant difference between the GE values obtained with these equations was observed.

  7. A facility for X-ray diffraction in magnetic fields up to 25 T and temperatures between 15 and 295 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Kovalev, A. E., E-mail:; Suslov, A. V. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Siegrist, T. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Department of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)


    A facility for X-ray diffraction has been developed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. It brings diffraction capability to the 25 T Florida split coil magnet and implements temperature control in a range of 15–295 K using a cold finger helium cryostat. This instrument represents an alternative to pulsed magnetic field systems, and it exceeds the static magnetic fields currently available at synchrotron facilities. Magnetic field compatibility of an X-ray source and detectors with the sizable magnetic fringe fields emanating from the magnet constrained the design of the diffractometer.

  8. 50-kHz-rate 2D imaging of temperature and H2O concentration at the exhaust plane of a J85 engine using hyperspectral tomography. (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Sanders, Scott T; Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; Plemmons, David H; Gord, James R


    This paper describes a novel laser diagnostic and its demonstration in a practical aero-propulsion engine (General Electric J85). The diagnostic technique, named hyperspectral tomography (HT), enables simultaneous 2-dimensional (2D) imaging of temperature and water-vapor concentration at 225 spatial grid points with a temporal response up to 50 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such sensing capabilities have been reported. This paper introduces the principles of the HT techniques, reports its operation and application in a J85 engine, and discusses its perspective for the study of high-speed reactive flows.

  9. Low Temperature (30 K) TID Test Results of a Radiation Hardened 128 Channel Serial-to-Parallel Converter (United States)

    Meyer, Stephen; Buchner, Stephen; Moseley, Harvey; Ray, Knute; Tuttle, Jim; Quinn, Ed; Buchanan, Ernie; Bloom, Dave; Hait, Tom; Pearce, Mike; hide


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the low temperature, Total Ionizing Dose (TID) tests of radiation hardened serial to parallel converter to be used on the James Webb Space Telescope. The test results show that the original HV583 level shifter - a COTS part -was not suitable for JWST because the supply currents exceeded specs after 20 krad( Si) .The HV584 - functionally similar to the HV583 -was designed using RHBD approach that reduced the leakage currents to within acceptable levels and had only a small effect on the level-shifted output voltage.

  10. Temperature dependence of the thermal diffusivity of GaAs in the 100-305 K range measured by the pulsed photothermal displacement technique (United States)

    Soltanolkotabi, M.; Bennis, G. L.; Gupta, R.


    We have measured the variation of the value of the thermal diffusivity of semi-insulating GaAs in the 100-305 K range. The method used is the pulsed photothermal displacement technique. This is a noncontact technique, and the value of the thermal diffusivity is derived from the temporal evolution of the signal rather than its amplitude. This makes the technique less susceptible to uncertainties. We find that the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of semi-insulating GaAs follows a power law as T-1.62, in disagreement with results obtained previously. Possible reasons for the deviation within this very important intermediate temperature range are discussed.

  11. Suppression of spikes during posttetanic hyperpolarization in auditory neurons: the role of temperature, I(h) currents, and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump. (United States)

    Kim, Jun Hee; von Gersdorff, Henrique


    In vivo recordings from postsynaptic neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), an auditory brain stem nucleus, show that acoustic stimulation produces a burst of spikes followed by a period of hyperpolarization and suppressed spiking activity. The underlying mechanism for this hyperpolarization and reduced spiking is unknown. Furthermore, the mechanisms that control excitability and resting membrane potential are not fully determined for these MNTB neurons. In this study we investigated the excitability of principal neurons from the MNTB after high-frequency afferent fiber stimulation, using whole cell recordings from postnatal day 15-17 rat brain stem slices. We found that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity mediates a progressive hyperpolarization during a prolonged tetanic train and a posttetanic hyperpolarization (PTH) at the end of the train, when postsynaptic action potentials failed to fire. Raising the temperature to more physiological levels (from 22 to 35°C) depolarized the resting membrane potential of both presynaptic and postsynaptic cells and decreased the latency of action potential firing during PTH. Higher temperatures also reduced the presynaptic calyx action potential failure rates by 50% during presynaptic PTH, thus increasing the safety-factor for presynaptic spiking. The effect of temperature on hyperpolarization-activated cation current (I(h)) is reflected in the resting potential at both pre- and postsynaptic neurons. We thus propose that temperature-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and I(h) contribute to set the resting membrane potential and produce a brief period of suppressed spiking (or action potential failures) after a prolonged high-frequency afferent tetanus.

  12. Selection of optimal sintering temperature of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramics for electromechanical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Vats


    Full Text Available This paper has considered the selection of the optimal processing parameter (sintering temperature leading to best possible properties of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN for electromechanical applications. Vital piezoelectric properties for such applications include the piezoelectric coupling coefficient (kp, piezoelectric coefficient (d31, Curie temperature (Tc, remanent polarization (Pr, coercive field (Ec, density (ρ, elastic compliance (S11E and S12E and dielectric loss (tan δ. The weights and priority of these physical properties for KNN are calculated using the modified digital logic (MDL method. The priority order of these properties used for the selection of optimal processing parameters is as d31>tan δ>S11E=S12E>Tc=Pr>ρ>kp>Ec. The weights obtained using MDL are further incorporated with analytic hierarchy process (AHP and VlseKriterijumska Optimisacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR in order to determine the optimal sintering temperature for KNN. Both methods suggest that 1080 °C and 1120 °C are the most and least desirable sintering temperatures, respectively. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed for the robustness of our results and prediction of most influential parameter in terms of sensitivity. tan δ is found to be the most sensitive property for alteration in the present ranking.

  13. Beamline Electrostatic Levitator (BESL) for in-situ High Energy K-Ray Diffraction Studies of Levitated Solids and Liquids at High Temperature (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Lee, G. W.; Kelton, K. F.; Rogers, J. R.; Goldman, A. I.; Robinson, D. S.; Rathz, T. J.; Hyers, R. W.


    Determinations of the phase formation sequence, the crystal structures and the thermodynamic properties of materials at high temperatures are difficult because of contamination from the sample container and environment. Containerless processing techniques, such as electrostatic (ESL), electromagnetic (EML), aerodynamic, and acoustic levitation, are most suitable these studies. An adaptation of ESL for in-situ structural studies of a wide range of materials, including metals, semiconductors, insulators using high energy (125 keV) synchrotron x-rays is described here. This beamline ESL (BESL) allows the in-situ determination of the atomic structures of equilibrium solid and liquid phases, including undercooled liquids, as well as real-time studies of solid-solid and liquid-solid phase transformations. The use of image plate (MAR345) or GE-Angio detectors enables fast (30 ms - 1s) acquisition of complete diffraction patterns over a wide q-range (4 - 140/mm). The wide temperature range (300 - 2500 K), containerless processing under high vacuum (10(exp -7) - 10(exp -8) torr), and fast data acquisition, make BESL particularly suitable for phase diagram studies of high temperature materials. An additional, critically important, feature of BESL is the ability to also make simultaneous measurement of a host of thermo-physical properties, including the specific heat, enthalpy of transformation, solidus and liquidus temperatures, density, viscosity, and surface tension; all on the same sample and simultaneous with the structural measurements.

  14. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech. (United States)

    Hils, Lynda


    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  15. Solving discrete zero point problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.


    In this paper an algorithm is proposed to .nd a discrete zero point of a function on the collection of integral points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space IRn.Starting with a given integral point, the algorithm generates a .nite sequence of adjacent integral simplices of varying dimension and

  16. Zero-Based Budgeting Redux. (United States)

    Geiger, Philip E.


    Zero-based, programmatic budgeting involves four basic steps: (1) define what needs to be done; (2) specify the resources required; (3) determine the assessment procedures and standards to use in evaluating the effectiveness of various programs; and (4) assign dollar figures to this information. (MLF)

  17. Evaluation of high specific-heat ceramic for regenerator use at temperatures between 2-30 K (United States)

    Lawless, W. N.


    Specific heat, thermal conductivity (both in the range 2-30 K), and microhardness data were measured on the ceramics labelled LS-8, LS-8A, and LS-8A doped with CsI, SnCl2, and AgCl. A work hardened sample of LS-8A was also studied in an effort to determine the feasibility of using these types of LS-8 materials to replace Pb spheres in the regenerator of the JPL cryocooler. The LS-8A materials are all more than an order of magnitude harder than Pb, and the dopants do not significantly improve the hardness. However, the SnCl2 dopant has a remarkable effect in improving the specific heat and thermal conductivity of LS-8A. The SnCl2 doping level which maximized the regenerator enthalpy change in going from an unloaded to a loaded condition was found to be 0.2 percent SnCl2 in LS-8A. It was also found that the enthalpy change for a regenerator employing the LS-8A material is more than three times larger than for the Pb spheres case. The use of rods, rather than spheres, of optimally doped LS-8A in regenerators is discussed.

  18. Kinetics of cisplatin binding to short r(GG) containing miRNA mimics - influence of Na(+)versus K(+), temperature and hydrophobicity on reactivity. (United States)

    Alshiekh, Alak; Clausén, Maria; Elmroth, Sofi K C


    Nucleic acids are well recognized targets for platinum-based anticancer drugs, with RNA and DNA being kinetically comparable. In the case of RNA, previous studies have shown that the reaction between small duplex RNAs (dsRNAs) and monoaquated cisplatin (cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl(OH2)(+), ) can be followed by the metal induced hyperchromicity occurring directly after addition of to e.g. microRNA mimics. In the present study, we have used this approach to compare thermal stability and reactivity between intracellularly- and extracellularly relevant salt concentration (CNa(+) and CK(+)ca. 0.1 M), and also as a function of increased hydrophobicity (10% v/v EtOH). In addition, reactivity was studied as a function of temperature in the interval ca. 5-20 °C below the respective dsRNA melting temperatures (Tms). Four different 13- to 20-mer dsRNAs with two different central sequence motifs were used as targets containing either a central r(GG)·r(CC)- or r(GG)·r(UAU)-sequence. The reactions exhibited half-lives in the minute- to hour range at 38 °C in the presence of excess in the μM range. Further, a linear dependence was found between C and the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants. The resulting apparent second-order rate constants were significantly larger for the lower melting r(GG)·r(UAU)-containing sequences compared with that of the fully complementary ones; the higher and lower reactivities represented by RNA-1-3 and RNA-1-1 with k2,appca. 30 and 8 M(-1) s(-1) respectively at CNa(+) = 122 mM. For all RNAs a common small, but significant, trend was observed with increased reactivity in the presence of K(+) compared with Na(+), and decreased reactivity in the presence of EtOH. Finally, the temperature dependence of k2,app was evaluated using the Eyring equation. The retrieved activation parameters reveal positive values for both ΔH(≠) and ΔS(≠) for all dsRNAs, in the range ca. 23-34 kcal mol(-1) and 22-57 cal K(-1) mol(-1) respectively. These values indicate

  19. Slow magnetic relaxation at zero field in the tetrahedral complex [Co(SPh)4]2-. (United States)

    Zadrozny, Joseph M; Long, Jeffrey R


    The Ph(4)P(+) salt of the tetrahedral complex [Co(SPh)(4)](2-), possessing an S = (3)/(2) ground state with an axial zero-field splitting of D = -70 cm(-1), displays single-molecule magnet behavior in the absence of an applied magnetic field. At very low temperatures, ac magnetic susceptibility data show the magnetic relaxation time, τ, to be temperature-independent, while above 2.5 K thermally activated Arrhenius behavior is apparent with U(eff) = 21(1) cm(-1) and τ(0) = 1.0(3) × 10(-7) s. Under an applied field of 1 kOe, τ more closely approximates Arrhenius behavior over the entire temperature range. Upon dilution of the complex within a matrix of the isomorphous compound (Ph(4)P)(2)[Zn(SPh)(4)], ac susceptibility data reveal the molecular nature of the slow magnetic relaxation and indicate that the quantum tunneling pathway observed at low temperatures is likely mediated by intermolecular dipolar interactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Near Zero Maine Home II - Vassalboro, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready home in Vassalboro, Maine, that scored HERS 35 without PV and HERS 11 with PV. This 1,200 ft2 home has 10.5-inch-thick double-walls with 3 layers of mineral wool batt insulation, an R-20 insulated slab, R-70 cellulose in the attic, extensive air sealing, a mini-split heat pump, an heat recovery ventilator, solar water heating, LED lighting, 3.9 kWh PV, and triple-pane windows.

  1. Linear chains of magnetic ions stacked with variable distance: ferromagnetic ordering with a Curie temperature above 20 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlaender, Stefan; Poeppl, Andreas [Abteilung Magnetische Resonanz komplexer Quantenfestkoerper, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig (Germany); Liu, Jinxuan [Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology (China); Addicoat, Matt; Petkov, Petko; Vankova, Nina; Rueger, Robert; Kuc, Agnieszka [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Leipzig (Germany); Guo, Wei; Zhou, Wencai; Wang, Zhengbang; Weidler, Peter G.; Woell, Christof [Institut fuer Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lukose, Binit [Engineering and Science, Department of Physics and Earth Science, Jacobs University Bremen (Germany); Ziese, Michael [Abteilung Supraleitung und Magnetismus, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig (Germany); Heine, Thomas [Engineering and Science, Department of Physics and Earth Science, Jacobs University Bremen (Germany); Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Leipzig (Germany)


    We have studied the magnetic properties of the SURMOF-2 series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Contrary to bulk MOF-2 crystals, where Cu{sup 2+} ions form paddlewheels and are antiferromagnetically coupled, in this case the Cu{sup 2+} ions are connected via carboxylate groups in a zipper-like fashion. This unusual coupling of the spin {sup 1}/{sub 2} ions within the resulting one-dimensional chains is found to stabilize a low-temperature, ferromagnetic (FM) phase. In contrast to other ordered 1D systems, no strong magnetic fields are needed to induce the ferromagnetism. The magnetic coupling constants describing the interaction between the individual metal ions have been determined in SQUID experiments. They are fully consistent with the results of ab initio DFT electronic structure calculations. The theoretical results allow the unusual magnetic behavior of this exotic, yet easy-to-fabricate, material to be described in a detailed fashion. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Rate constant and mechanism of the reaction Cl + CFCl₂H → CFCl₂ + HCl over the temperature range 298-670 K in N₂ or N₂/O₂ diluent. (United States)

    Kaiser, E W; Jawad, Khadija M


    The rate constant of the reaction Cl + CFCl2H (k1) has been measured relative to the established rate constant for the reaction Cl + CH4 (k2) at 760 Torr. The measurements were carried out in Pyrex reactors using a mixture of CFCl2H, CH4, and Cl2 in either N2 or N2/O2 diluent. Reactants and products were quantified by GC/FID analysis. Cl atoms were generated by irradiation of the mixture with 360 nm light to dissociate the Cl2 for temperatures up to ~550 K. At higher temperature, the Cl2 dissociated thermally, and no irradiation was used. Over the temperature range 298-670 K, k1 is consistently a factor of ~5 smaller than that of k2 with a nearly identical temperature dependence. The optimum non-Arrhenius rate constant is represented by the expression k1 = 1.14 × 10(-22) T(3.49) e(-241/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with an estimated uncertainty of ±15% including uncertainty in the reference reaction. CFCl3 formed from the reaction CFCl2 + Cl2 (k3) is the sole product in N2 diluent. In ~20% O2 at 298 K, the CFCl3 product is suppressed. The rate constant of reaction 3 was measured relative to that of reaction 4 [CFCl2 + O2 (k4)] giving the result k3/k4 = 0.0031 ± 0.0005 at 298 K. An earlier experiment by others observed C(O)FCl to be the major product of reaction channel 4 [formed via the sequence, CFCl2(O2) → CFCl2O → C(O)FCl + Cl]. Our current experiments verified that there is a Cl atom chain reaction in the presence of O2 as required by this mechanism.

  3. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report (United States)


    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  4. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices (United States)


    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  5. A study of the effects of rare-earth elements on the microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of magnesium alloys at temperatures up to 523K (United States)

    Chakkedath, Ajith

    Due to their high specific strength, lightweight magnesium (Mg) alloys are being increasingly used for applications, such as the automotive industry, where weight savings are critical. In order to develop new alloys and processing methods to achieve higher strength and better formability to compete with currently used metal alloys, it is important to understand the effects of alloying elements, processing, and temperature on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and the deformation behavior. In this dissertation, a systematic investigation on the effects of Nd additions (0-1wt.%) and temperature (298-523K) on the microstructure and the activity of different deformation modes in as-cast and cast-then-extruded Mg-1Mn (wt.%) alloys were performed. For this study, an in-situ testing technique which combines tension and compression testing inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was employed. The main findings of this work were that the microstructure, strength, and the distribution of the deformation modes varied significantly as a function of Nd content, temperature, and processing. An increase in the Nd content resulted in a weaker texture after extrusion in Mg-1Mn alloys. A combination of slip and twinning mechanisms controlled the tensile deformation in the extruded alloys at ambient temperatures. With an increase in temperature, the twinning activity decreased, and slip mechanisms dominated the deformation. In the extruded Nd-containing alloys, basal slip dominated the deformation, especially at elevated temperatures, suggesting that Nd additions strengthen basal slip. This resulted in excellent elevated-temperature strength retention in extruded Mg-1Mn-1Nd alloy, and a decrease in the Nd content to 0-0.3wt.% resulted in a decrease in the tensile strength at elevated temperatures. In extruded Mg-1Mn, contraction twinning dominated the tensile deformation and this alloy exhibited a lower elongation

  6. Correlations for determining thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium gas mixtures at temperatures from 7,000 to 35,000 K (United States)

    Zoby, E. V.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.


    Simple relations for determining the enthalpy and temperature of hydrogen-helium gas mixtures were developed for hydrogen volumetric compositions from 1.0 to 0.7. These relations are expressed as a function of pressure and density and are valid for a range of temperatures from 7,000 to 35,000 K and pressures from 0.10 to 3.14 MPa. The proportionality constant and exponents in the correlation equations were determined for each gas composition by applying a linear least squares curve fit to a large number of thermodynamic calculations obtained from a detailed computer code. Although these simple relations yielded thermodynamic properties suitable for many engineering applications, their accuracy was improved significantly by evaluating the proportionality constants at postshock conditions and correlating these values as a function of the gas composition and the product of freestream velocity and shock angle. The resulting equations for the proportionality constants in terms of velocity and gas composition and the corresponding simple realtions for enthalpy and temperature were incorporated into a flow field computational scheme. Comparison was good between the thermodynamic properties determined from these relations and those obtained by using a detailed computer code to determine the properties. Thus, an appreciable savings in computer time was realized with no significant loss in accuracy.

  7. An investigation into the effect of spray drying temperature and atomizing conditions on miscibility, physical stability, and performance of naproxen-PVP K 25 solid dispersions. (United States)

    Paudel, Amrit; Loyson, Yves; Van den Mooter, Guy


    The present study investigates the effect of changing spray drying temperature (40°C-120°C) and/or atomizing airflow rate (AR; 5-15 L/min) on the phase structure, physical stability, and performance of spray-dried naproxen-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K 25 amorphous solid dispersions. The modulated differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total internal reflectance-Fourier transform infrared, and powder X-ray diffractometry (pXRD) studies revealed that higher inlet temperature (IT) or atomization airflow leads to the formation of amorphous-phase-separated dispersions with higher strongly H-bonded and free PVP fractions, whereas that prepared with the lowest IT was more homogeneous. The dispersion prepared with the lowest atomization AR showed trace crystallinity. Upon exposure to 75% relative humidity (RH) for 3 weeks, the phase-separated dispersions generated by spray drying at higher temperature or higher atomization airflow retained relatively higher amorphous drug fraction compared with those prepared at slow evaporation conditions. The humidity-controlled pXRD analysis at 98% RH showed that the dispersion prepared with highest atomization AR displayed the slowest kinetics of recrystallization. The molecular-level changes occurring during recrystallization at 98% RH was elucidated by spectroscopic monitoring at the same humidity. The rate and extent of the drug dissolution was the highest for dispersions prepared at the highest atomizing AR and the lowest for that prepared with the slowest atomizing condition. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. On amplitude zeros at threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H


    The occurrence of zeros of 2 to n amplitudes at threshold in scalar theories is studied. We find a differential equation for the scalar potential, which incorporates all known cases where the 2 to n amplitudes at threshold vanish for all sufficiently large $n$, in all space-time dimensions, $d\\ge 1$. This equation is related to the reflectionless potentials of Quantum Mechanics and to integrable theories in 1+1 dimensions. As an application, we find that the sine-Gordon potential and its hyperbolic version, the sinh-Gordon potential, also have amplitude zeros at threshold, ${\\cal A}(2\\to n)=0$, for $n\\ge 4$ and $d\\ge 2$, independently of the mass and the coupling constant.

  9. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor (United States)

    Hand, Julie J.; Roberts, Mark P.


    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  10. Implications of zero economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurow, L.C.


    The consequences of a zero economic growth (ZEG) policy are examined to see what limits to growth, some of which already exist, are desirable and what changes in our institutions are required to impose a no-growth policy. Past periods of zero or negative growth have increased unemployment, raised employability standards, and increased income-distribution inequalities with a subsequent lowering of the living standard. Zero population growth would offset this somewhat by freeing the capital now spent on education and career training and using it to raise per capita living standards if a work-sharing and unemployment-payment system were devised. Undesirable social implications would be felt both if a lack of employment opportunities reduced competition and consumption habits or if it led to intensive competition. Advocates of ZEG propose to restrain only those areas using nonrenewable resources and causing pollution of the environment, while expanding the service areas. The service sector (e.g., transportation and utilities) is also polluting and uses nonrenewable resources, however, pointing up their failure to account for indirect consumption. Many undeveloped countries already have ZEG but would not be content for the U.S. to halt growth opportunities. ZEG would be difficult to enforce and would do nothing to promote pollution control. (DCK)

  11. Zero-Power Radio Device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W.


    This report describes an unpowered radio receiver capable of detecting and responding to weak signals t ransmit ted from comparatively lon g distances . This radio receiver offers key advantages over a short range zero - power radio receiver pre viously described in SAND2004 - 4610, A Zero - Power Radio Receiver . The device described here can be fabricated as an integrated circuit for use in portable wireless devices, as a wake - up circuit, or a s a stand - alone receiver operating in conjunction with identification decoders or other electroni cs. It builds on key sub - components developed at Sandia National L aboratories o ver many years. It uses surface acous tic wave (SAW) filter technology. It uses custom component design to e nable the efficient use of sma ll aperture antennas. This device uses a key component, the pyroelectric demodulator , covered by Sandia owned U.S. Patent 7397301, Pyroelectric Demodulating Detector [1] . This device is also described in Sandia owned U.S. Patent 97266446, Zero Power Receiver [2].

  12. Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. San-Jose


    Full Text Available A clear demonstration of topological superconductivity (TS and Majorana zero modes remains one of the major pending goals in the field of topological materials. One common strategy to generate TS is through the coupling of an s-wave superconductor to a helical half-metallic system. Numerous proposals for the latter have been put forward in the literature, most of them based on semiconductors or topological insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach for the creation of TS in graphene-superconductor junctions without the need for spin-orbit coupling. Our prediction stems from the helicity of graphene’s zero-Landau-level edge states in the presence of interactions and from the possibility, experimentally demonstrated, of tuning their magnetic properties with in-plane magnetic fields. We show how canted antiferromagnetic ordering in the graphene bulk close to neutrality induces TS along the junction and gives rise to isolated, topologically protected Majorana bound states at either end. We also discuss possible strategies to detect their presence in graphene Josephson junctions through Fraunhofer pattern anomalies and Andreev spectroscopy. The latter, in particular, exhibits strong unambiguous signatures of the presence of the Majorana states in the form of universal zero-bias anomalies. Remarkable progress has recently been reported in the fabrication of the proposed type of junctions, which offers a promising outlook for Majorana physics in graphene systems.

  13. Time-resolved measurements of product formation in the low-temperature (550-675 K) oxidation of neopentane: a probe to investigate chain-branching mechanism. (United States)

    Eskola, Arkke J; Antonov, Ivan O; Sheps, Leonid; Savee, John D; Osborn, David L; Taatjes, Craig A


    Product formation, in particular ketohydroperoxide formation and decomposition, were investigated in time-resolved, Cl-atom initiated neopentane oxidation experiments in the temperature range 550-675 K using a photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ionization light was provided either by Advanced Light Source tunable synchrotron radiation or ∼10.2 eV fixed energy radiation from a H2-discharge lamp. Experiments were performed both at 1-2 atm pressure using a high-pressure reactor and also at ∼9 Torr pressure employing a low-pressure reactor for comparison. Because of the highly symmetric structure of neopentane, ketohydroperoxide signal can be attributed to a 3-hydroperoxy-2,2-dimethylpropanal isomer, i.e. from a γ-ketohydroperoxide (γ-KHP). The photoionization spectra of the γ-KHP measured at low- and high pressures and varying oxygen concentrations agree well with each other, further supporting they originate from the single isomer. Measurements performed in this work also suggest that the "Korcek" mechanism may play an important role in the decomposition of 3-hydroperoxy-2,2-dimethylpropanal, especially at lower temperatures. However, at higher temperatures where γ-KHP decomposition to hydroxyl radical and oxy-radical dominates, oxidation of the oxy-radical yields a new important channel leading to acetone, carbon monoxide, and OH radical. Starting from the initial neopentyl + O2 reaction, this channel releases altogether three OH radicals. A strongly temperature-dependent reaction product is observed at m/z = 100, likely attributable to 2,2-dimethylpropanedial.

  14. Technical definition for nearly zero energy buildings nZEB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurnitski, Jarek; Allard, Francis; Braham, Derrick

    This REHVA Task Force proposes a technical definition for nearly zero energy buildings required in the implementation of the Energy performance of buildings directive recast. Energy calculation framework and system boundaries associated with the definition are provided to specify which energy flows...... or maximum harmonized requirements as well as details of energy performance calculation framework, it will be up to the Member States to define what these for them exactly constitute. In the definition local conditions are to be obviously taken into account, but the uniform methodology can be used in all...... sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Based on the directive’s definition, nearly zero energy building is technically defined through the net zero energy building, which is a building using 0 kWh/(m² a) primary energy. Following the cost-optimality principle...

  15. Temperature-jump apparatus with Raman detection based on a solid-state tunable (1.80-2.05 microm) kHz optical parametric oscillator laser. (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Gurusamy; Hu, Ying; Spiro, Thomas G


    The operating characteristics of a pulsed (10 ns) tunable near-infrared (NIR) laser source are described for temperature-jump (T-jump) applications. A Q-switched Nd:YLF laser (approximately 10 ns pulses) with a 1 kHz repetition rate is used to pump a potassium titanyl arsenate (KTA) crystal-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing approximately 1 mJ NIR pulses that are tunable (1.80-2.05 microm) across the 1.9 microm vibrational overtone band of water. This T-jump source has been coupled to a deep ultraviolet (UV) probe laser for Raman studies of protein dynamics. T-jumps of up to 30 degrees C, as measured via the O-H stretching Raman band of water, are readily achieved. Application to cytochrome c unfolding is demonstrated.

  16. Commodity production in Brazil: Combining zero deforestation and zero illegality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Azevedo


    Full Text Available Abstract This article documents the degree of noncompliance of soy producers in the Amazon portion of Mato Grosso with Brazil’s Forest Code and addresses the importance of market demands in shifting agricultural production and land occupation towards zero deforestation. By using a sample composed of the boundaries of 9,113 properties (72.5% of soy in the region we assessed: a compliance with Forest Code legal reserve requirements (a percentage of the property must have its original vegetation kept undisturbed; and compared it to b compliance with the zero deforestation criterion of the soy moratorium. We found that 82% of the sampled properties have not deforested since 2008, thus complying with the soy moratorium. However, approximately 65% out of these 82% are noncompliant with Forest Code legal reserve requirements. This situation is even worse in the Cerrado portion of Mato Grosso. Even though the soy moratorium criterion is only applicable to the Amazon biome, the Forest Code is applicable nationwide. Despite legal reserve requirements being much lower (35% of the property in the Cerrado, as opposed to 80% in the Amazon, almost 70% of sampled properties were noncompliant with the Forest Code. From this analysis we concluded that while there was a role for consumer-driven market demand for zero deforestation soy production, there is still a need (and opportunity to implement purchasing and financing criteria to promote compliance with Forest Code requirements in regards to legal reserve deficits. We believe that if this succeeds, it will drive a process of restoration and compensation of Forest Code deficits, strengthening public policy as well as reducing economic distortions between those who have and have not complied with Forest Code requirements.

  17. The Zero Point of Historical Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R.S. Khakimov


    ...– the zero point of the coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one...

  18. Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) will provide the ability to quantify the mass of objects up to 2,000 grams, including live animal specimens in a zero G...

  19. A Data-Model Comparison over Europe using a new 2000-yr Summer Temperature Reconstruction from the PAGES 2k Regional Network and Last-Millennium GCM Simulations (United States)

    Smerdon, Jason; Werner, Johannes; Fernandez-Donado, Laura; Buntgen, Ulf; Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik; Esper, Jan; Fidel Gonzalez-Rouco, J.; Luterbacher, Juerg; McCarroll, Danny; Wagner, Sebastian; Wahl, Eugene; Wanner, Heinz; Zorita, Eduardo


    A new reconstruction of European summer (JJA) land temperatures is presented and compared to 37 forced transient simulations of the last millennium from coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs). The reconstructions are derived from eleven annually resolved tree-ring and documentary records from ten European countries/regions, compiled as part of the Euro_Med working group contribution to the PAGES 2k Regional Network. Records were selected based upon their summer temperature signal, annual resolution, and time-continuous sampling. All tree-ring data were detrended using the Regional Curve Standardization (RCS) method to retain low-frequency variance in the resulting mean chronologies. A nested Composite-Plus-Scale (CPS) mean temperature reconstruction extending from 138 B.C.E. to 2003 C.E. was derived using nine nests reflecting the availability of predictors back in time. Each nest was calculated using a weighted composite based on the correlation of each proxy with the CRUTEM4v mean European JJA land temperature (35°-70°N, 10°W-40°E). The CPS methodology was implemented using a sliding calibration period, initially extending from 1850-1953 C.E. and incrementing by one year until reaching the final period of 1900-2003 C.E. Within each calibration step, the 50 years excluded from calibration were used for validation. Validation statistics across all reconstruction ensemble members within each nest indicate skillful reconstructions (RE: 0.42-0.64; CE: 0.26-0.54) and are all above the maximum validation statistics achieved in an ensemble of red noise benchmarking experiments. A gridded (5°x5°) European summer (JJA) temperature reconstruction back to 750 C.E. was derived using Bayesian inference together with a localized stochastic description of the underlying processes. Instrumental data are JJA means from the 5° European land grid cells in the CRUTEM4v dataset. Predictive experiments using the full proxy data were made, resulting in a multivariate

  20. Technical Note: VUV photodesorption rates from water ice in the 120–150 K temperature range – significance for Noctilucent Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kulikov


    Full Text Available Laboratory studies have been carried out with the aim to improve our understanding of physicochemical processes which take place at the water ice/air interface initiated by solar irradiation with a wavelength of 121.6 nm. It was intended to mimic the processes of ice particles characteristic of Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs. The experimental set-up used includes a high-vacuum chamber, a gas handling system, a cryostat with temperature controller, an FTIR spectrometer, a vacuum ultraviolet hydrogen lamp, and a microwave generator. We report the first results of measurements of the absolute photodesorption rate (loss of substance due to the escape of photoproducts into gas phase from thin (20–100 nm water ice samples kept in the temperature range of 120–150 K. The obtained results show that a flow of photoproducts into the gas phase is considerably lower than presumed in the recent study by Murray and Plane (2005. The experiments indicate that almost all photoproducts remain in the solid phase, and the principal chemical reaction between them is the recombination reaction H + OH → H2O which is evidently very fast. This means that direct photolysis of mesospheric ice particles seems to have no significant impact on the gas phase chemistry of the upper mesosphere.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lectez, S.; Simon, J.-M.; Salazar, J. M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303, CNRS-Université de Bourgogne Franche Comté, Dijon (France); Mousis, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Picaud, S. [Institut UTINAM, UMR 6213, CNRS-Université de Bourgogne Franche Comté, Besançon (France); Altwegg, K.; Rubin, M., E-mail: [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to reproduce the N{sub 2}/CO ratio ranging between 1.7 × 10{sup −3} and 1.6 × 10{sup −2} observed in situ in the Jupiter-family comet 67 P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67 P) by the ROSINA mass spectrometer on board the Rosetta spacecraft. By assuming that this body has been agglomerated from clathrates in the protosolar nebula (PSN), simulations are developed using elaborated interatomic potentials for investigating the temperature dependence of the trapping within a multiple-guest clathrate formed from a gas mixture of CO and N{sub 2} in proportions corresponding to those expected for the PSN. By assuming that 67 P agglomerated from clathrates, our calculations suggest the cometary grains must have been formed at temperatures ranging between ∼31.8 and 69.9 K in the PSN to match the N{sub 2}/CO ratio measured by the ROSINA mass spectrometer. The presence of clathrates in Jupiter-family comets could then explain the potential N{sub 2} depletion (factor of up to ∼87 compared to the protosolar value) measured in 67 P.

  2. Homeomorphisms and Fredholm theory for perturbations of nonlinear Fredholm maps of index zero with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronije S. Milojevic


    Full Text Available We develop a nonlinear Fredholm alternative theory involving k-ball and k-set perturbations of general homeomorphisms and of homeomorphisms that are nonlinear Fredholm maps of index zero. Various generalized first Fredholm theorems and finite solvability of general (odd Fredholm maps of index zero are also studied. We apply these results to the unique and finite solvability of potential and semilinear problems with strongly nonlinear boundary conditions and to quasilinear elliptic equations. The basic tools used are the Nussbaum degree and the degree theories for nonlinear $C^1$-Fredholm maps of index zero and their perturbations.

  3. Improved functional expression of recombinant human ether-a-go-go (hERG K+ channels by cultivation at reduced temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HERG potassium channel blockade is the major cause for drug-induced long QT syndrome, which sometimes cause cardiac disrhythmias and sudden death. There is a strong interest in the pharmaceutical industry to develop high quality medium to high-throughput assays for detecting compounds with potential cardiac liability at the earliest stages of drug development. Cultivation of cells at lower temperature has been used to improve the folding and membrane localization of trafficking defective hERG mutant proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lower temperature maintenance on wild type hERG expression and assay performance. Results Wild type hERG was stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells, with the majority of channel protein being located in the cytoplasm, but relatively little on the cell surface. Expression at both locations was increased several-fold by cultivation at lower growth temperatures. Intracellular hERG protein levels were highest at 27°C and this correlated with maximal 3H-dofetilide binding activity. In contrast, the expression of functionally active cell surface-associated hERG measured by patch clamp electrophysiology was optimal at 30°C. The majority of the cytoplasmic hERG protein was associated with the membranes of cytoplasmic vesicles, which markedly increased in quantity and size at lower temperatures or in the presence of the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin. Incubation with the endocytic trafficking blocker, nocodazole, led to an increase in hERG activity at 37°C, but not at 30°C. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the concept that maintenance of cells at reduced temperature can be used to boost the functional expression of difficult-to-express membrane proteins and improve the quality of assays for medium to high-throughput compound screening. In addition, these results shed some light on the trafficking of hERG protein under these growth conditions.

  4. Zeros of entire functions of finite order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supper Raphaële


    Full Text Available Given , , let be the set of all entire functions , with , for which there exists some constant such that . It is shown that the zero set of a function of satisfies and that the union of the zero sets of two functions of is not necessarily the zero set of a function of . Some uniqueness results of Carlson's type are also obtained.

  5. Zero Tolerance in Tennessee Schools: An Update. (United States)

    Potts, Kim; Njie, Bintou; Detch, Ethel R.; Walton, Jason

    As required by Tennessee law, this report examines the state's zero-tolerance disciplinary data collected by the Tennessee Department of Education for school years 1999-00, 2000-01, and 2001-02. The first section displays statewide zero-tolerance statistics. The second section focuses on the zero-tolerance statistics of Tennessee's five major…

  6. Influence of Design and Process Parameters of 32-nm Advanced-Process High- k p-MOSFETs on Negative-Bias Temperature Instability and Study of Defects (United States)

    Alimin, A. F. Muhammad; Radzi, A. A. Mohd; Sazali, N. A. F.; Hatta, S. F. Wan Muhamad; Soin, N.; Hussin, H.


    Negative-bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become a prominent factor limiting scaling of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. This work presents a comprehensive simulation study on the effects of critical design parameters of 32-nm advanced-process high- k p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on NBTI. The NBTI mechanism and defects were explored for various geometric and process design parameters over a wide range of values. The NBTI simulation method applied in this work follows the on-the-fly method to capture the mechanisms of fast and slow traps. This work illustrates the dependence of the threshold voltage ( V th) degradation on the stress oxide field and stress temperature as well as investigation of the Arrhenius plot for the devices. The temperature insensitivity during short stress time of 1 ms indicates absence of generated defects and presence of preexisting defects. It is also observed that significant defects are generated in the gate stack subsequent to NBTI. The slope obtained from the V th degradation analysis at 1 ks and 375°C shows that changing the SiO2 interfacial layer thickness affects the V th degradation by 96.16% more than changing the HfO2 thickness and by 80.67% more than changing the metal gate thickness. It is also found that the NBTI effect depends on process design considerations, specifically the boron concentration in the highly doped drain, the metal gate work function, and the halo doping concentration; it was observed that higher boron dose and high metal work function may lead to higher V th degradation. However, the halo doping concentration in the advanced 32-nm structure has an insignificant effect on NBTI.

  7. Zero Energy Schools: The Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    School buildings have a lot of potential to achieve zero energy (ZE) in new construction as well as in retrofits. There are many examples of schools operating at ZE, and many technical resources available to guide school districts and their design and construction teams through the process. When school districts embark on the path to ZE, however, they often confront challenges related to processes and a perception that ZE buildings require 'new,' unconventional, and expensive technologies, materials, or equipment. Here are some of the challenges school districts and their design and construction teams commonly encounter, and the solutions they use to overcome them.

  8. Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality (United States)

    Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.


    Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic

  9. Zero expression of arguments in Old Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, Lars


    Old Scandinavian (represented here by Old Danish) allowed zero arguments (null-arguments) in any nominal (argument) position, that is: for NPs as subjects, objects and in PPs. In generative grammar, zero arguments are held to be variants of pronouns, but in this article, I shall claim that zero...... equivalent. By reducing these two categories to one single underlying category, such as pro, one would miss this point. On the contrary, zero arguments are arguably full-bodied signs with their own content, thus corresponding to Melčuk’s Zero Sign Introduction Principle....

  10. Sub-zero Treatment of P/M Vanadis 6 Ledeburitic Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jurči


    Full Text Available The Cr-V ledeburitic steel Vanadis 6 was vacuum austenitized, nitrogen gas quenched and double tempered at various combinations of regimes. For selected samples, a sub-zero period was inserted between quenching and tempering. The obtained results infer that: I as-quenched microstructure consisted of martensite, retained austenite and undissolved carbides, II sub-zero processing reduced the amount of the retained austenite and increased the tetragonality of the martensitic lattice, III as-quenched hardness of the steel was higher by 2 – 3 HRC due to sub-zero processing, IV as-tempered hardness increased with increasing austenitizing temperature but it decreased slightly with the sub-zero period, V no negative impact of sub-zero processing on toughness was recorded, VI wear resistance increased with sub-zero period when 100Cr6 steel has been used as a counterpart.

  11. Zero-truncated negative binomial - Erlang distribution (United States)

    Bodhisuwan, Winai; Pudprommarat, Chookait; Bodhisuwan, Rujira; Saothayanun, Luckhana


    The zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution is introduced. It is developed from negative binomial-Erlang distribution. In this work, the probability mass function is derived and some properties are included. The parameters of the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution are estimated by using the maximum likelihood estimation. Finally, the proposed distribution is applied to real data, the number of methamphetamine in the Bangkok, Thailand. Based on the results, it shows that the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution provided a better fit than the zero-truncated Poisson, zero-truncated negative binomial, zero-truncated generalized negative-binomial and zero-truncated Poisson-Lindley distributions for this data.

  12. Dilute helium mixtures at low temperatures : properties and cooling methods


    Pentti, Elias


    This thesis describes experimental work on dilute mixtures of ³He in 4He, mainly at millikelvin temperatures. The isotopic helium mixture has the unique property of remaining a miscible liquid down to the absolute zero temperature. In the mK regime, it consists of two very different components: perfectly superfluid 4He, and a weakly interacting degenerate Fermi liquid of ³He, predicted by theory to undergo transition to the superfluid state at an extremely low temperature. To discover that tr...

  13. Chiral heat wave in cold Fermi liquid and modified zero sound (United States)

    Frenklakh, D.; Gorsky, A.


    We discuss kinetic equations involving the anomalous terms responsible for the chiral anomaly. The general chiral heat wave in cold Fermi liquid is described and the modification of the anomalous zero sound at small temperature and vorticity is found.

  14. Comparison of effective noise temperatures in YBa2BCu3O7-δ junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Gerd Michael; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig


    The dc voltage response to 70 GHz radiation was measured for YBCO bicrystal junctions, step edge junctions and ramp edge junctions at temperatures from 4 K to 90 K. Employing the RSJ-model and assuming thermal noise, the Josephson radiation is about equal to the voltage difference of the voltage...... response to the small signal microwave irradiation. In the presence of excess noise, an effective noise temperature can be defined and is used as a figure of merit. In bicrystal grain boundary junctions with zero magnetic field the effective noise temperature was determined to be equal to the physical...

  15. Advances in large, transportable, highly spin-polarized, solid HD targets operable in the frozen-spin mode in a 1-4K temperature environment (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron Paul

    The development of large, portable highly spin-polarized solid HD targets has been in progress at Syracuse University for the past 5 years. These targets are scheduled for deployment at Brookhaven National Laboratory, bearing the acronym SPHICE (Spin-Polarized Hydrogen Ice), for studies of the electro-magnetic spin structure of the nucleus via scattering of polarized gammas from the HD polarized protons and deuterons. The target work has just reached the milestone demonstration of the complete system, including polarization of triple targets containing 4 moles of solid HD, aging of these targets so that they retain their polarization for months under storage at a temperature of 1.3K and in an 8 Tesla field, and for at least a week at operational conditions of 1.3K and 0.7 Tesla in an in-beam cryostat. Cold-transfers of the polarized targets to a storage cryostat have been successfully carried out, and the storage cryostat has been trucked from Syracuse to BNL with one polarized target, sufficient to test the in-beam operations there. The complete system is presented here, with emphasis on innovations for engagement and disengagement of multiple targets, a solution to the challenge of attaining sufficiently strong RF fields in the large volume probe coils at acceptable power dissipation in the cables, and the polarization production and monitoring in the highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields owing to the multiple targets and the large dimensions of the targets. In this first multiple target production and extraction-to-storage cycle, air-ice accumulation in the dilution refrigerator due to repetitive use of cold sliding o-ring seals resulted in a rupture of one of the inserted targets, and a consequent partial thermal short from a solid HD ice bridge. The o-ring fault was cured with double evacuatable o-ring seals, and the air-ice was successfully cleaned out. However, the refrigerator operating base temperature was substantially higher than that normally obtained

  16. Bridge Network for Measuring Very Small Impedances from 4.2 to 300 degrees K with a Null-Detector Sensitivity of 10-11 Volt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Dalsgaard, Erik


    . Measurements with the bridge show that in the temperature range 300°K to 4.2°K the noise level changes from 30×10−11 V to 10−11 V without any zero shift, and as a result the lower limit for the impedance range changes from 10−6 Omega to less than 5×10−8 Omega. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  17. A 2000-year European Mean Summer Temperature Reconstruction from the PAGES 2k Regional Network and Comparison to Millennium-Length Forced Model Simulations (United States)

    Smerdon, J. E.; Büntgen, U.; Ljungqvist, F. C.; Esper, J.; Fernández-Donado, L.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Luterbacher, J.; McCarroll, D.; Wagner, S.; Wahl, E. R.; Wanner, H.; Werner, J.; Zorita, E.


    A reconstruction of mean European summer (JJA) land temperatures from 138 B.C.E. to 2003 C.E. is presented and compared to 37 forced transient simulations of the last millennium from coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs). Eleven annually resolved tree-ring and documentary records from ten European countries/regions were used for the reconstruction and compiled as part of the Euro_Med working group contribution to the PAGES 2k Regional Network. Records were selected based upon their summer temperature signal, annual resolution, and time-continuous sampling. All tree-ring data were detrended using the Regional Curve Standardization (RCS) method to retain low-frequency variance in the resulting mean chronologies. The calibration time series was the area-weighted JJA temperature computed from the CRUTEM4v dataset over a European land domain (35°-70°N, 10°W-40°E). A nested 'Composite-Plus-Scale' reconstruction was derived using nine nests reflecting the availability of predictors back in time. Each nest was calculated by standardizing the available predictor series over the calibration interval, and subsequently calculating a weighted composite in which each proxy was multiplied by its correlation with the target index. The CPS methodology was implemented using a resampling scheme that uses 104 years for calibration. The initial calibration period extended from 1850-1953 C.E. and was incremented by one year until reaching the final period of 1900-2003 C.E., yielding a total of 51 reconstructions for each nest. Within each calibration step, the 50 years excluded from calibration were used for validation. Validation statistics across all reconstruction ensemble members within each nest indicate skillful reconstructions (RE: 0.42-0.64; CE: 0.26-0.54) and are all above the maximum validation statistics achieved in an ensemble of red noise benchmarking experiments. Warm periods in the derived reconstruction during the 1st, 2nd, and 7th-12th centuries compare to

  18. Origin of the Drude peak and of zero sound in probe brane holography (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Fang; Lucas, Andrew


    At zero temperature, the charge current operator appears to be conserved, within linear response, in certain holographic probe brane models of strange metals. At small but finite temperature, we analytically show that the weak non-conservation of this current leads to both a collective ;zero sound; mode and a Drude peak in the electrical conductivity. This simultaneously resolves two outstanding puzzles about probe brane theories. The nonlinear dynamics of the current operator itself appears qualitatively different.

  19. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José


    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  20. Tribology Experiment in Zero Gravity (United States)

    Pan, C. H. T.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A. F.; Finckenor, M. M.


    A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates observation of such motions as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Two experimental configurations were used. One deals with the liquid on one solid surface, and the other with the liquid between a pair of closed spaced surfaces. Time sequence photographs of fluid motion on a solid surface yielded spreading rate data of several fluid-surface combinations. In general, a slow spreading process as governed by the tertiary junction can be distinguished from a more rapid process which is driven by surface tension controlled internal fluid pressure. Photographs were also taken through the transparent bushings of several experimental journal bearings. Morphology of incomplete fluid films and its fluctuation with time suggest the presence or absence of unsteady phenomena of the bearing-rotor system in various arrangements.

  1. Saturn ring temperature changes before and after ring equinox (United States)

    Spilker, Linda; Flandes, Alberto; Morishima, Ryuji; Leyrat, Cedric; Altobelli, Nicolas; Ferrari, Cecile; Brooks, Shawn; Pilorz, Stu


    The Cassini Composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) retrieved the temperatures of Saturn's main rings at solar elevations ranging from 24 degrees to zero degrees at equinox (August 2009) as the sun traversed from the south to north side of the rings. Over this broad range of solar elevation the CIRS data show that the ring temperatures vary as much as 29K- 38K for the A ring, 22K-34K for the B ring and 18K-23K for the C ring. Interestingly the unlit sides of the rings show a similar decrease in temperature with the decreasing solar elevation. As equinox approached, the main rings cooled to their lowest temperatures measured to date. At equinox the solar input is very small and the primary heat sources for the rings are Saturn thermal and visible energy. Temperatures are almost identical for similar geometries on the north and south sides of the rings. The ring temperatures at equinox were: C ring, 55-75 K; B ring, 45-60 K; Cassini Division, 45 - 58 K; and A ring, 43 - 52 K. After Saturn equinox the solar elevation angle began to increase again and the temperatures on both the lit (north) and unlit (south) sides of the rings have begun to increase as well. Ring thermal models developed by Flandes and Morishima are able to reproduce most of the equinox temperatures observed by CIRS. Results before and after equinox will be presented. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA and at CEA Saclay supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie". Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  2. Hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose at the low temperature of 423 K with CaFe2O4-based solid catalyst. (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Fang, Zhen


    Weakly magnetic CaFe(2)O(4) was synthesized by calcination of the hydroxides co-precipitated from aqueous Ca(NO(3))(2)·6H(2)O and Fe(NO(3))(3)·9H(2)O solutions in the presence of urea. Microcrystalline cellulose was treated with ionic liquid (IL) [AMIM]Cl (1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) and hydrolyzed in the presence of the catalyst at 423K. No IL contamination was detected in the treated cellulose by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). A maximum hydrolysis yield of 49.8% and glucose selectivity of 74.1% was obtained. The catalyst was separated and reused four times, showing only a slight decrease in activity. The catalyst was stable and only minor leaching into water occurred as indicated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) measurements and a neutral pH after reactions. Hydrolysis of cellulose with CaFe(2)O(4) catalyst combined with [AMIM]Cl pretreatment is a green, energy-saving and efficient process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of the x-irradiated Cs sub 5 H sub 3 (SO sub 4) sub 4 centre dot H sub 2 O crystal by EPR in the 80-415 K temperature range

    CERN Document Server

    Waplak, S; Baranov, A I; Shuvalov, L A


    The EPR spectra of the x-irradiated fast proton conductor Cs sub 5 H sub 3 (SO sub 4) sub 4 centre dot H sub 2 O were investigated in the temperature range of 80-415 K. Two kinds of paramagnetic SO sub 4 sup - centres with different proton configurations below about 370 K and freeze-out behaviour of one of them below about 200 K were observed. The role of acid proton dynamics with respect to the glassy-like transition is discussed. (author)

  4. Effect of temperature and solvent composition on acid dissociation equilibria, I: Sequenced {sup s}{sub s}pK{sub a} determination of compounds commonly used as buffers in high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padro, Juan M.; Acquaviva, Agustin; Tascon, Marcos [Laboratorio de Separaciones Analiticas, Division Quimica Analitica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata y CIDEPINT, 47 y 115, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Gagliardi, Leonardo G., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Separaciones Analiticas, Division Quimica Analitica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata y CIDEPINT, 47 y 115, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Castells, Cecilia B., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Separaciones Analiticas, Division Quimica Analitica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata y CIDEPINT, 47 y 115, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a rapid potentiometric method for sequential pK{sub a} determinations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured pK{sub a} of buffers from 0 to 90% (v/v) acetonitrile/water and from 20 to 60 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequences of 42 pK{sub a}-data spanned over a wide solvent composition range needed 2 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured pK{sub a} of formic acid and triethylamine/HCl in up to 90% (v/v) acetonitrile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high-throughput method was applied to obtain pK{sub a} of two common buffers in LC/MS. - Abstract: A new automated and rapid potentiometric method for determining the effect of organic-solvent composition on pK{sub a} has been developed. It is based on the measurements of pH values of buffer solutions of variable solvent compositions using a combined glass electrode. Additions of small volumes of one precisely thermostated solution into another, both containing exactly the same analytical concentrations of the buffer components, can produce continuous changes in the solvent composition. Two sequences of potential measurements, one of increasing and the other of decreasing solvent content, are sufficient to obtain the pK{sub a} values of the acidic compound within the complete solvent-composition range in about 2 h. The experimental design, procedures, and calculations needed to convert the measured pH into the thermodynamic pK{sub a} values are thoroughly discussed. This rapid and automated method allows the systematic study of the effect of solvent compositions and temperatures on the pK{sub a}. It has been applied to study the dissociation constants of two monoprotic acids: formic acid and triethylamine:HCl in acetonitrile/water mixtures within the range from 0 to 90% (v/v) at temperatures between 20 Degree-Sign C and 60 Degree-Sign C. These volatile compounds are frequently used to control the pH of the mobile phase in HPLC, especially in

  5. Zero-One Law for Regular Languages and Semigroups with Zero


    Sin'ya, Ryoma


    A regular language has the zero-one law if its asymptotic density converges to either zero or one. We prove that the class of all zero-one languages is closed under Boolean operations and quotients. Moreover, we prove that a regular language has the zero-one law if and only if its syntactic monoid has a zero element. Our proof gives both algebraic and automata characterisation of the zero-one law for regular languages, and it leads the following two corollaries: (i) There is an O(n log n) alg...

  6. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.


    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  7. Mechanical properties of the high-entropy alloy Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi in various structural states at temperatures of 0.5-300 K (United States)

    Tabachnikova, E. D.; Laktionova, M. A.; Semerenko, Yu. A.; Shumilin, S. E.; Podolskiy, A. V.; Tikhonovsky, M. A.; Miskuf, J.; Csach, K.


    The mechanical properties and fracture characteristics of the high-entropy alloy Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi are studied in different structural states (cast and after two heat treatments) at temperatures of 0.5-300 K with quasistatic deformation by uniaxial compression and distension. Mechanical resonance spectroscopy is used to measure the temperature variations of the Young modulus in the different structural states. It is found that heat treatment of the samples leads to an increase (by roughly 25%) in the Young modulus, the nominal yield point τ0.2, and the deforming stress. The form of the deformation curves is analyzed. The temperature interval for the transition from smooth to discontinuous plastic flow is determined. For the cast state the differences in τ0.2 under tension and compression are determined, an anomalous temperature dependence of τ0.2 (for temperatures in the 0.5-4.2 K range) is discovered, and thermal activation analysis of the experimental data yields empirical estimates for the parameters of the interactions of dislocations with local barriers. After heat treatment the samples break up into two parts under compression, as opposed to the cast state, where the samples acquire a "barrel" shape during compression. It is found that fracture of the heat treated samples at temperatures of 300-4.2 K has a viscous character.

  8. How to Define Nearly Net Zero Energy Buildings nZEB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurnitski, Jarek; Allard, Francis; Braham, Derrick


    Member States. The directive defines nearly zero energy buildings as a building that has a very high energy performance and requires the calculation of primary energy indicator. The nearly zero of very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable...... sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site nearby. Based on the directive’s definition, nearly zero energy buildings is technically defined through the net zero energy building, which is a building using 0 kWh/(m2a) primary energy. Following the cost-optimality principle......This REHVA Task Force proposes a technical definition for nearly zero energy buildings required in the implementation of the Energy performance of buildings directive recast. Energy calculation framework and system boundaries associated with the definition are provided to specify which energy flows...

  9. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)? (United States)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah


    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (P< 0,05). Water quality during the culture period in all treatments were still in tolerance range of white leg shrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg

  10. Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based high-K dielectric thin films from solution processed at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frunză, Raluca C., E-mail: [Electronic Ceramics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kmet, Brigita [Electronic Ceramics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jankovec, Marko; Topič, Marko [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Malič, Barbara [Electronic Ceramics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Highlights: • Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} (Ta:Al:Si = 8:1:1 atomic ratio) and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were processed from solutions. • The XRD-amorphous films, heated at or below 400 °C, are smooth (RMS < 0.5 nm). • The dielectric permittivity of the single- and mixed-oxide films heated at 400 °C is 27 and 22, respectively. • The current–voltage characteristics of the mixed-oxide films reveal the Poole–Frenkel behaviour. - Abstract: Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based thin films were prepared by chemical solution deposition at temperatures not exceeding 400 °C. The aim of the work was to investigate the properties of high-K dielectric films of the ternary composition Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} with the Ta:Al:Si = 8:1:1 atomic ratio. Pure Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} samples were also prepared. All thin films were amorphous, and had smooth and flat surfaces with the average roughness of below 0.5 nm. The mixed oxide samples heated between 300 °C and 400 °C showed little difference in the dielectric permittivity with the values ranging from about 19 to 22. The Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film heated at 400 °C exhibited the highest permittivity of about 27. The current–voltage measurements revealed considerably improved characteristics of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} samples within the investigated heating temperature range, with a significant overall decrease of the leakage currents in contrast to that of the pure Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films.

  11. Assimilation of MODIS Ice Surface Temperature and Albedo into the Snow and Ice Model CROCUS Over the Greenland Ice Sheet Along the K-transect Stations (United States)

    Navari, M.; Margulis, S. A.; Bateni, S. M.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.


    Estimating the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) is an important component of current and future projections of sea level rise. In situ measurement provides direct estimates of the SMB, but are inherently limited by their spatial extent and representativeness. Given this limitation, physically based regional climate models (RCMs) are critical for understanding GrIS physical processes and estimating of the GrIS SMB. However, the uncertainty in estimates of SMB from RCMs is still high. Surface remote sensing (RS) has been used as a complimentary tool to characterize various aspects related to the SMB. The difficulty of using these data streams is that the links between them and the SMB terms are most often indirect and implicit. Given the lack of in situ information, imperfect models, and under-utilized RS data it is critical to merge the available data in a systematic way to better characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the GrIS SMB. This work proposes a data assimilation (DA) framework that yields temporally-continuous and physically consistent SMB estimates that benefit from state-of-the-art models and relevant remote sensing data streams. Ice surface temperature (IST) is the most important factor that regulates partitioning of the net radiation into the subsurface snow/ice, sensible and latent heat fluxes and plays a key role in runoff generation. Therefore it can be expected that a better estimate of surface temperature from a data assimilation system would contribute to a better estimate of surface mass fluxes. Albedo plays an important role in the surface energy balance of the GrIS. However, even advanced albedo modules are not adequate to simulate albedo over the GrIS. Therefore, merging remotely sensed albedo product into a physically based model has a potential to improve the estimates of the GrIS SMB. In this work a MODIS-derived IST and a 16-day albedo product are independently assimilated into the snow and ice model CROCUS

  12. The ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaldi, R; Cicalò, C; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Ferretti, A; Gallio, M; Macciotta, P; Masoni, A; Mauro, S; Mereu, P; Musso, A; Oppedisano, C; Piccotti, A; Puddu, G; Randaccio, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Soave, C; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno


    In the ALICE experiment at Cern LHC, a set of hadron calorimeters will be used to determine the centrality of the Pb-Pb collision. The spectator protons and neutrons, will be separated from the ion beams, using the separator magnet (D1) of the LHC beam optics and respectively detected by a proton (ZP) and a neutron (ZN) "Zero-degree Calorimeter" (ZDC). The detectors will be placed in front of the separator D2 magnet, 115 meters away from the beam intersection point. The ZDCs are quartz-fiber spaghetti calorimeters that exploit the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particles in silica optical fibers.This technique offers the advantages of high radiation hardness (up to several Grad), fast response and reduced lateral dimension of the detectable shower. In addition, quartz-fiber calorimeters are intrinsically insensitive to radio-activation background, which produces particles below the Cherenkov threshold.The ALICE ZDC should have an energy resolution comparable with the intrinsic energy fluctuations, whi...

  13. Fraud: zero tolerance at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    In this week’s Bulletin (see here), you’ll read that fraudulent activities were uncovered last year by our Internal Audit Service. CERN has a very clearly defined policy in such cases: we base our efforts on prevention through education, we have a policy of protecting those reporting fraud from recrimination, and we have a zero-tolerance policy should fraud be uncovered.   I don’t intend to enter into the details of what occurred, but I’d like to remind you that fraud is a very grave business, and something we take extremely seriously. What do we mean by fraud at CERN? Operational Circular No. 10 on “Principles and procedures governing the investigation of fraud” defines fraud in terms of any deception intended to benefit the perpetrator, or a third party, that results in a loss to the Organization. This loss can be to funds, property or reputation. Thankfully, fraud at CERN is a rare occurrence, but we should never be complacent. ...

  14. Vortex states near absolute zero in a weak-pinning amorphous Mo x Ge1-x film probed by pulsed mode-locking resonance (United States)

    Sohara, N.; Ochi, A.; Murakami, E.; Ienaga, K.; Kaneko, S.; Kokubo, N.; Okuma, S.


    We have developed measurements of the mode-locking (ML) resonance with pulsed currents, which generates much less heat than the conventional one with continuous currents. Here, we present the experimental details of the pulsed ML measurement. Using this technique, we have succeeded in determining the dynamic melting field of a driven vortex lattice for a weak-pinning thick amorphous Mo x Ge1-x film down to 0.05 K. We construct an ideal vortex phase diagram in the absence of pinning near zero temperature as a function of magnetic field.

  15. Genomic organization and functional diversification of two warm-temperature-acclimation-associated 65-kDa protein genes in rockbream (Oplegnathus fasciatus; Perciformes). (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Byoung Soo; Noh, Choong Hwan; Nam, Yoon Kwon


    Two paralogue genes of warm-temperature-acclimation-associated 65-kDa protein were characterized and their mRNA expression patterns during various experimental stimulations were examined in the rockbream (Oplegnathus fasciatus; Perciformes). Rockbream Wap65 isoforms (rbWap65-1 and rbWap65-2) share basically common structural features with other teleostean orthologues and human hemopexin (HPX) at both amino acid (conserved cysteine and histidine residues) and genomic levels (ten-exon structure), although the rbWap65-2 reveals more homologous characteristics to human HPX than does rbWap65-1 isoform. Southern blot analysis indicates that each rbWap65 isoform exists as a single copy gene in the rockbream genome. Both rbWap65 genes were predicted to possess various transcription factor (TF) binding motifs related with stress and innate immunity in their 5ʹ-upstream regions, in which inflammation-related motifs were more highlighted in the rbWap65-2 than in rbWap65-1. Based on the RT-PCR assay, the liver-predominant expression pattern was more apparent in rbWap65-1 than rbWap65-2 isoform. During thermal elevation, clear upregulation was found only for the rbWap65-1. In contrast, immune stimulations (bacterial challenges, viral infection and iron overload) activated more preferentially the rbWap65-2 isoform in overall, although the inducibility was affected by the kinds of stimulators and tissue types. Taken together, our data suggest that the two paralogue rbWap65 isoforms have experienced subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization during their evolutionary history, in which the rbWap65-2 has retained closer, functional orthology to the human HPX while the rbWap65-1 have been diversified to be more related with thermal acclimation physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High resolution study of magnetic ordering at absolute zero. (United States)

    Lee, M; Husmann, A; Rosenbaum, T F; Aeppli, G


    High resolution pressure measurements in the zero-temperature limit provide a unique opportunity to study the behavior of strongly interacting, itinerant electrons with coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom. Approaching the precision that has become the hallmark of experiments on classical critical phenomena, we characterize the quantum critical behavior of the model, elemental antiferromagnet chromium, lightly doped with vanadium. We resolve the sharp doubling of the Hall coefficient at the quantum critical point and trace the dominating effects of quantum fluctuations up to surprisingly high temperatures.

  17. Exponential bound in the quest for absolute zero (United States)

    Stefanatos, Dionisis


    In most studies for the quantification of the third law of thermodynamics, the minimum temperature which can be achieved with a long but finite-time process scales as a negative power of the process duration. In this article, we use our recent complete solution for the optimal control problem of the quantum parametric oscillator to show that the minimum temperature which can be obtained in this system scales exponentially with the available time. The present work is expected to motivate further research in the active quest for absolute zero.

  18. Assessing the Salting-Out Behavior of 2,4-Dinitrobenzaldehyde and 2,6-Dinitrobenzaldehyde from Solubility Values in Pure Water and Seawater at Temperatures between (280 and 313) K (United States)


    Assessing the Salting-out Behavior of Nitrobenzene, 2- Nitrotoluene , and 3- Nitrotoluene from Solubility Values in Pure Water and Seawater at...Temperatures Between (277 and 314)K. J. Chem. Eng. Data 2009, 54, 1231–1235. (17) Sada, E.; Kito, S.; Ito, Y. Solubility of Toluene in Aqueous Salt Solutions

  19. Low temperature vibrational spectra, lattice dynamics, and phase transitions in some potassium hexahalometallates: K2[XY6] with X=Sn or Te and Y=Cl or Br

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chodos, Steven L.; Berg, Rolf W.


    This paper deals with the observation and identification of phonon frequencies resulting from the low temperature phase transitions in K2XY6 crystals. By means of a simple lattice dynamical model, the vibrational Raman and IR data available in the literature and obtained here have been analyzed. ...

  20. Densities and volume properties of (water + tert-butanol) over the temperature range of (274.15 to 348.15) K at pressure of 0.1 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, Gennadiy I., E-mail: gie@isc-ras.r [Laboratory of Structure and Dynamics of Molecular and Ion-Molecular Solutions, Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Akademicheskaya Street, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Makarov, Dmitriy M. [Laboratory of Structure and Dynamics of Molecular and Ion-Molecular Solutions, Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Akademicheskaya Street, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation)


    The densities of {l_brace}water (1) + tert-butanol (2){r_brace} binary mixture were measured over the temperature range (274.15 to 348.15) K at atmospheric pressure using 'Anton Paar' digital vibrating-tube densimeter. Density measurements were carried out over the whole concentration range at (308.15 to 348.15) K. The following volume parameters were calculated: excess molar volumes and thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture, partial molar volumes and partial molar thermal isobaric expansivities of the components. Concentration dependences of excess molar volumes were fitted with Redlich-Kister equation. The results of partial molar volume calculations using four equations were compared. It was established that for low alcohol concentrations at T {<=} 208 K the inflection points at x{sub 2} {approx} 0.02 were observed at concentration dependences of specific volume. The concentration dependences of partial molar volumes of both water and tert-butanol had extremes at low alcohol content. The temperature dependence of partial molar volumes of water had some inversion at x{sub 2} {approx} 0.65. The temperature dependence of partial molar volumes of tert-butanol at infinite dilution had minimum at {approx}288 K. It was discovered that concentration dependences of thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture at small alcohol content and low temperatures passed through minimum.

  1. Temperature dependence of the NO3 absorption cross-section above 298 K and determination of the equilibrium constant for NO3 + NO2 N2O5 at atmospherically relevant conditions. (United States)

    Osthoff, Hans D; Pilling, Michael J; Ravishankara, A R; Brown, Steven S


    The reaction NO3 + NO2 N2O5 was studied over the 278-323 K temperature range. Concentrations of NO3, N2O5, and NO2 were measured simultaneously in a 3-channel cavity ring-down spectrometer. Equilibrium constants were determined over atmospherically relevant concentration ranges of the three species in both synthetic samples in the laboratory and ambient air samples in the field. A fit to the laboratory data yielded Keq = (5.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(-27) x e((10871 +/- 46)/7) cm3 molecule(-1). The temperature dependence of the NO3 absorption cross-section at 662 nm was investigated over the 298-388 K temperature range. The line width was found to be independent of temperature, in agreement with previous results. New data for the peak cross section (662.2 nm, vacuum wavelength) were combined with previous measurements in the 200 K-298 K region. A least-squares fit to the combined data gave sigma = [(4.582 +/- 0.096) - (0.00796 +/- 0.00031) x T] x 10(-17) cm2 molecule(-1).

  2. Field-induced interplanar magnetic correlations in the high-temperature superconductor La1.88Sr0.12CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, A. T.; Jensen, P.; Jacobsen, H.


    We present neutron-scattering studies of the interplanar magnetic correlations in the high-temperature superconductor La1.88Sr0.12CuO4 (Tc=27 K). The correlations are studied both in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the CuO2 planes, and in zero field under different cooling conditions. We...

  3. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CIRRUS and CUMULUS from Ocean Weather Station K (OWS-K) and M (OWS-M) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 01 January 1969 to 16 January 1970 (NODC Accession 7000939) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CIRRUS and CUMULUS within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station K (4500N 01600W), M (6600N 00200E), and in transit....

  4. On the zeros of the Scorer functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)


    textabstractAsymptotic approximations are developed for zeros of the solutions$Gi(z)$ and $Hi(z)$ ofthe inhomogeneous Airy differential equation $w''-zw=pmfrac1pi$.The solutions are also called Scorer functions.Tables are given with numerical values of the zeros

  5. Methods to Minimize Zero-Missing Phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella


    With the increasing use of high-voltage AC cables at transmission levels, phenomena such as current zero-missing start to appear more often in transmission systems. Zero-missing phenomenon can occur when energizing cable lines with shunt reactors. This may considerably delay the opening of the ci...

  6. On zero sum subsequences of restricted size

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Additive number theory, factorization theory and graph theory provide a good source for combinatorial problems in finite abelian groups (for instance, see [2, 4, 16–18]. Among them, zero sum problems have been of growing interest. The cornerstone of almost all recent combinatorial research on zero-sum problems is a ...

  7. Student Dress Codes Using Zero Tolerance? (United States)

    Essex, Nathan L.


    In this article, the author focuses on the issue involving zero tolerance in the Texas district whether the dress code policy is reasonable. In a small Texas school district, over 700 students were suspended in a single month for violating a zero-tolerance dress code policy. This suspension, which attracted national attention and threats of…

  8. Zero-Base Budgeting:; An Institutional Experience. (United States)

    Alexander, Donald L.; Anderson, Roger C.

    Zero-base budgeting as it is used at Allegany College is described. Zero-based budgeting is defined as a budgeting and planning approach that requires the examination of every item in a budget request as if the request were being proposed for the first time. Budgets (decision packages) are first made up for decision units (i.e., a course for the…

  9. A high-resolution neutron powder diffraction investigation of galena (PbS) between 10 K and 350 K: no evidence for anomalies in the lattice parameters or atomic displacement parameters in galena or altaite (PbTe) at temperatures corresponding to the saturation of cation disorder. (United States)

    Knight, K S


    The temperature dependences of the unit cell parameter and the atomic displacement parameters (adp) for galena (PbS) have been measured using high resolution neutron powder diffraction in the temperature interval 10-350 K. No evidence has been found for the anomalous behaviour recently reported in a total scattering study of galena, in which the temperature variation of both the unit cell and the adp for lead are reported to undergo a dramatic reduction at a temperature of ~250 K. The linear thermal expansion coefficient calculated from the powder diffraction study is found to be in excellent agreement with literature values over the entire temperature interval studied, and approximately 25% greater at room temperature than that determined by analysis of the pair distribution function (pdf) derived from the total scattering data. This discrepancy is shown to be attributable to a linear, temperature-dependent offset from the published temperatures in the total scattering study, and has arisen from the sample temperature being significantly lower than the experimental set point temperature. Applying this correction to the adps of the lead cation removes the anomalous temperature dependence and shows the pdf results are in agreement with the neutron powder diffraction results. Application of the identical temperature offsets to the results of the pdf analysis of data collected on altaite (PbTe) eliminates the anomalous behaviour in the unit cell and the adp for lead, bringing them in line with literature values. Contrary to the conclusions of the pdf analysis, adps for the lead cation in both galena and altaite can be described in terms of Debye-like behaviour and are consistent with the partial phonon density of states.

  10. Kimberlina: a zero-emissions demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronske, K. [Clean Energy Systems Inc. (USA)


    FutureGen may be getting the headlines, but it is not the only superclean demonstration plant in town. In fact, you could argue that other technologies are further down the evolutionary timeline. Case in point: Clean Energy Systems' adaptation of rocket engine technology to radically change the way fuel is burned. The result is a true zero-emissions power plant. Its most distinctive element is an oxy-combustor, similar to one used in rocket engines, that generates steam by burning clean, gaseous fuel in the presence of gaseous oxygen and water. The clean fuel is prepared by processing a conventional fossil fuel such as coal-derived syngas, refinery residues, biomass or biodigester gas, or natural or landfill gas. Combustion takes place at near-stoichiometric conditions to produce a mixture of steam and CO{sub 2} at high temperature and pressure. The steam conditions are suitable for driving a conventional or advanced steam turbine-generator, or a gas turbine modified to be driven by high-temperature steam or to do work as an expansion unit at intermediate pressure. After pressure through the turbine(s), the steam/CO{sub 2} mixture is condensed, cooled, and separated into water and CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} can be sequestered and/or purified and sold for commercial use. Durability and performance tests carried out between March 2005 and March 2006 produced excellent results. CO and NOx emissions are considerably low than those of combined-cycle power plants fuelled by natural gas and using selective catalytic reduction for NOx control. Work is continuing under an NETL grant. Progress and plans are reported in the article. 7 figs.

  11. Crystal structure and high-temperature properties of (Pr,Sr)2(Co,Mn)O4±δ with K2NiF4-type structure (United States)

    Zharikova, E. V.; Rozova, M. G.; Kazakov, S. M.; Istomin, S. Ya.; Lyskov, N. V.; Antipov, E. V.


    Novel oxides PrSrCo1-yMnyO4±δ, 0.0≤y≤0.5 and Pr0.5Sr1.5Co1-yMnyO4±δ 0.3≤y≤0.5 with K2NiF4-type structure were synthesized. The crystal structure, oxygen content, thermal expansion and electrical conductivity of the obtained compounds were examined. A chemical titration showed that PrSrCo0.5Mn0.5O4±δ is slightly overstoichiometric (δ=0.03(2)), while Pr0.5Sr1.5Co0.5Mn0.5O4±δ is oxygen deficient (δ=-0.05(2)). Thermal expansion behavior was studied by both dilatometry and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction in the temperature range of 298-1173 K in air. Pr0.5Sr1.5Co0.5Mn0.5O3.95(2) exhibited linear thermal expansion along the a- and c-axes over the studied temperature range with thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) were 17.5 ppm K-1 and 17.8 ppm K-1, respectively. For PrSrCo0.5Mn0.5O4.03(2) two regions (298-600 K and 600-1173 K) observed, where the TEC along the a-axis decreased from 12.7 ppm K-1 to 10.4 ppm K-1 whereas the TEC along the c-axis increased from 14.5 ppm K-1 to 26.7 ppm K-1. Both compounds demonstrated lower in comparison with undoped PrSrCoO4 values of electrical conductivity of 7 S/cm for PrSrCo0.5Mn0.5O4.03(2) and 23 S/cm for Pr0.5Sr1.5Co0.5Mn0.5O3.95(2) at 1173 K in air.

  12. Energy performance of net-zero and near net-zero energy homes in New England (United States)

    Thomas, Walter D.

    Net-Zero Energy Homes (NZEHs) are homes that consume no more energy than they produce on site during the course of a year. They are well insulated and sealed, use energy efficient appliances, lighting, and mechanical equipment, are designed to maximize the benefits from day lighting, and most often use a combination of solar hot water, passive solar and photovoltaic (PV) panels to produce their on-site energy. To date, NZEHs make up a miniscule percentage of homes in the United States, and of those, few have had their actual performance measured and analyzed once built and occupied. This research focused on 19 NZEHs and near net-zero energy homes (NNZEHs) built in New England. This set of homes had varying designs, numbers of occupants, and installed technologies for energy production, space heating and cooling, and domestic hot water systems. The author worked with participating homeowners to collect construction and systems specifications, occupancy information, and twelve months of energy consumption, production and cost measurements, in order to determine whether the homes reached their respective energy performance design goals. The author found that six out of ten NZEHs achieved net-zero energy or better, while all nine of the NNZEHs achieved an energy density (kWh/ft 2/person) at least half as low as the control house, also built in New England. The median construction cost for the 19 homes was 155/ft 2 vs. 110/ft2 for the US average, their average monthly energy cost was 84% below the average for homes in New England, and their estimated CO2 emissions averaged 90% below estimated CO2 emissions from the control house. Measured energy consumption averaged 14% below predictions for the NZEHs and 38% above predictions for the NNZEHs, while generated energy was within +/- 10% of predicted for 17 out of 18 on-site PV systems. Based on these results, the author concludes that these types of homes can meet or exceed their designed energy performance (depending on

  13. Zero-tillage and corn production in eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, G.S.V.; Taylor, F.; Negi, S.; Douglas, E.; McKyes, E.; Tessier, S.; Burrows, J.


    During the summer of 1979, a zero-tillage experiment was conducted in which corn (maize) was grown on 68 different plots representing different soil structural status. Sixty-four of the plots had been subjected to 16 different compaction and tillage treatments and corn grown on them. No machinery traffic had been introduced to these plots since the spring of 1978. Four new plots were established which had been subjected to conventional tillage methods, those being plowing in the fall of 1978 and disc harrowing in the spring of 1979. Corn was hand seeded into all the plots and the growth, development and yield of the crop measured. Several times over the growing season, soil dry bulk density, soil moisture content and soil temperature were measured. Observation of days to emerge, tassel and silk showed that the zero-till plots performed much better than the control plots.

  14. Studies on volumetric properties of some saccharides in aqueous potassium chloride solutions over temperature range (288.15 to 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banipal, Parampaul K. [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India)], E-mail:; Chahal, Amanpreet K. [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India); Banipal, Tarlok S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India)


    The standard partial molar volumes, V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}} at infinite dilution of monosaccharides; D(+)-xylose, D(-)-arabinose, D(-)-ribose, D(+)-mannose, D(+)-galactose, D(-)-fructose and D(+)-glucose, disaccharides; D(+)-melibiose, D(+)-cellobiose, D(+)-maltose monohydrate, D(+)-trehalose dihydrate, D(+)-lactose monohydrate and sucrose, trisaccharide; D(+)-raffinose pentahydrate, methylglycosides; {alpha}-methyl-D(+)-glucoside, methyl-{alpha}-D-xylopyranoside and methyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of potassium chloride (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0) mol . kg{sup -1} at T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K from density measurements employing a vibrating-tube densimeter. These results have been utilized to determine the corresponding standard partial molar volumes of transfer, {delta}{sub t}V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}} for the transfer of various saccharides from water to aqueous potassium chloride solutions. The standard transfer volumes have been found to be positive (except for {alpha}- and {beta}-methyl xylopyranosides in 0.5 mol . kg{sup -1} solutions of potassium chloride) whose magnitude increase with the concentration of potassium chloride as well as temperature for all the saccharides. Partial molar expansion coefficients, ({partial_derivative}V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}}/{partial_derivative}T){sub p} and the second derivative ({partial_derivative}{sup 2}V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}}/{partial_derivative}T{sup 2}){sub p} values have been estimated. Pair and higher order volumetric interaction coefficients have also been calculated from {delta}{sub t}V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}} by using the McMillan-Mayer theory. These parameters have been discussed in terms of the solute-cosolute interactions and are used to understand various mixing effects due to these interactions. The effect of substitution of -OH by glycosidic group, -OCH{sub 3} is also discussed. Attempt has also been made to discuss the stereochemical effects

  15. Rheological behaviour of some saccharides in aqueous potassium chloride solutions over temperature range (288.15 to 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banipal, Parampaul K., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Chahal, Amanpreet K.; Singh, Vickramjeet [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Banipal, Tarlok S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)


    The viscosities, {eta} of mono-, di-, tri-saccharides and methylglycosides, viz., D(+)-xylose (XYL), D(-)-arabinose (ARA), D(-)-ribose (RIB), D(-)-fructose (FRU), D(+)-galactose (GAL), D(+)-mannose (MAN), D(+)-glucose (GLU), D(+)-melibiose (MEL), D(+)-cellobiose (CEL), D(+)-lactose monohydrate (LAC), D(+)-maltose monohydrate (MAL), D(+)-trehalose dihydrate (TRE), sucrose (SUC), D(+)-raffinose pentahydrate (RAF), {alpha}-methyl-D(+)-glucoside ({alpha}-Me-GLU), methyl-{alpha}-D-xylopyranoside (Me-{alpha}-XYL), and methyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside (Me-{beta}-XYL) in water and in (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0) mol . kg{sup -1} aqueous solutions of potassium chloride (KCl) have been determined at T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K from efflux time measurements by using a capillary viscometer. Densities used to determine viscosities have been reported earlier. The viscosity data have been utilized to determine the viscosity B-coefficients employing the Jones-Dole equation at different temperatures. From these data, the viscosity B-coefficients of transfer, {Delta}{sub t}B have been estimated for the transfer of various saccharides/methylglycosides from water to aqueous potassium chloride solutions. The {Delta}{sub t}B values have been found to be positive, whose magnitude increases with the increase in concentration of potassium chloride in all cases. The dB/dT coefficients, pair, {eta}{sub AB} and triplet, {eta}{sub ABB} viscometric interaction coefficients have also been determined. Gibbs free energies of activation and related thermodynamic parameters of activation of viscous flow have been determined employing Feakin's transition-state theory. The signs and magnitudes of various parameters have been discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring in these solutions. The effect of substitution of -OH by methoxy group, -OCH{sub 3} has also been discussed.

  16. On features ov vacancies generation at low temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Magomedov, M N


    The expressions for calculating the thermodynamic potential, enthalpy, entropy (s subnu) and vacancies generation volume in the simple matter crystal at the temperatures close to 0 K are obtained. It is established that the vacancies concentration (PHI) as the temperature function (T) has the minimum by the certain T sub 0 value. The PHI(T) function by T < T sub 0 increases with decrease in T, therefore by T sub 0 the s subnu(T) function changes its sign, and by T < T sub 0 the s subnu-value becomes negative. It is shown that availability of the zero vacancies does not violate the third principle of thermodynamics

  17. Superconductivity in an Organic Solid at Zero Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechgaard, Klaus; da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Jacobsen, C.S.


    Resistance measurements in the organic conductor (TMTSF)2C104 have given evidence of superconductivity in the absence of applied pressure. Transition temperatures were between 1.2 and 1.4 K for different crystals. A transverse magnetic field of 25 mT nearly restores normal resistance at 0.9 K...

  18. Zero-knowledge using garbled circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawurek, Marek; Kerschbaum, Florian; Orlandi, Claudio


    Zero-knowledge protocols are one of the fundamental concepts in modern cryptography and have countless applications. However, after more than 30 years from their introduction, there are only very few languages (essentially those with a group structure) for which we can construct zero-knowledge pr......Zero-knowledge protocols are one of the fundamental concepts in modern cryptography and have countless applications. However, after more than 30 years from their introduction, there are only very few languages (essentially those with a group structure) for which we can construct zero......-knowledge protocols that are efficient enough to be used in practice. In this paper we address the problem of how to construct efficient zero-knowledge protocols for generic languages and we propose a protocol based on Yao's garbled circuit technique. The motivation for our work is that in many cryptographic......-party computation (i.e., any protocol for generic secure computation can be used to do zero-knowledge). The main contribution of this paper is to construct an efficient protocol for the special case of secure two-party computation where only one party has input (like in the zero-knowledge case). The protocol...

  19. Electron attachment to halomethanes at high temperature: CH2Cl2, CF2Cl2, CH3Cl, and CF3Cl attachment rate constants up to 1100 K (United States)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Schaffer, Linda C.; Viggiano, A. A.


    We have used a high-temperature flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus to measure rate constants for electron attachment to halomethanes which attach electrons very inefficiently at room temperature, yielding Cl- ion product. We studied CH2Cl2 (495-973 K), CF2Cl2 (291-1105 K), and CF3Cl (524-1004 K) and include our recent measurement for CH3Cl (700-1100 K) in the discussion of the electron attachment results. The measured attachment rate constants show Arrhenius behavior in the temperature ranges examined, from which estimates of rate constants at 300 K may be made: CH2Cl2 (1.8×10-13 cm3 s-1), CH3Cl (1.1×10-17 cm3 s-1), and CF3Cl (4.2×10-14 cm3 s-1), all of which are difficult to measure directly. In the case of CF2Cl2, the room temperature rate constant was sufficiently large to be measured (1.6×10-9 cm3 s-1). The Arrhenius plots yield activation energies for the attachment reactions: 390±50 meV (CH2Cl2), 124±20 meV (CF2Cl2), 670±70 meV (CH3Cl), and 406±50 meV (CF3Cl). Comparisons are made with existing data where available. G3 calculations were carried out to obtain reaction energetics. They show that the parent anions of CH2Cl2 CF2Cl2, CH3Cl, and CF3Cl are stable, though CH3Cl- exists only as an electrostatically bound complex.

  20. Isotropic Chiral Objects With Zero Backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Karilainen, Antti O


    In this paper we study electrically small chiral objects with isotropic response and zero backscattering. A bi-isotropic sphere is used as a simple example and its zero-backscattering conditions are studied. A theoretical model of an object composed of three orthogonal chiral particles made of conducting wire is presented as an analog of the zero-backscattering bi-isotropic sphere. A potential application of the object as a receiving antenna or a sensor with the ability to receive power from an arbitrary direction without backscattering is discussed.

  1. Revisiting the texture zero neutrino mass matrices (United States)

    Singh, Madan; Ahuja, Gulsheen; Gupta, Manmohan


    In the light of refined and large measurements of the reactor mixing angle θ, we have revisited the texture three- and two-zero neutrino mass matrices in the flavor basis. For Majorana neutrinos, it has been explicitly shown that all the texture three-zero mass matrices remain ruled out. Further, for both normal and inverted mass ordering, for the texture two-zero neutrino mass matrices one finds interesting constraints on the Dirac-like CP-violating phase δ and Majorana phases ρ and σ.

  2. Zero-base budgeting and the library. (United States)

    Sargent, C W


    This paper describes the application of zero-base budgeting to libraries and the procedures involved in setting up this type of budget. It describes the "decision packages" necessary when this systmem is employed, as well as how to rank the packages and the problems which are related to the process. Zero-base budgeting involves the entire staff of a library, and the incentive engendered makes for a better and more realistic budget. The paper concludes with the problems which one might encounter in zero-base budgeting and the major benefits of the system. PMID:626795

  3. Stark broadening parameter tables for K VIII and K IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.


    Full Text Available Using a semiclassical approach, we have calculated electron−, proton−, and He III−impact line widths and shifts for 4 K VIII and 30 K IX multiplets as a function of temperature and perturber density.

  4. Active Thermometry Based DS18B20 Temperature Sensor Network for Offshore Pipeline Scour Monitoring Using K-Means Clustering Algorithm


    Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Weijie; Zhou, Lei; Song, Gang-Bing; Ba, Qin; Ou, Jinping


    This work presents an offshore pipeline scour monitoring sensor network system based on active thermometry. The system consists of thermal cables, data acquisition unit, and data processing unit. As the thermal cables emit heats, the distributed DS18B20 digital temperature sensors record temperature information over time. The scour-induced exposure and free spanning can be identified by analyzing the temperature curves. Pipeline exposure and free-spanning experiments were carried out in labor...

  5. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zero-order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rabi


    Full Text Available Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point. In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown convective coefficient hc which is allowed to vary due to uncertainty and variability in the actual modus operandi of the chosen case study hospital kitchen. Implemented in MS Excel®, the numerical procedure has successfully combined the 4th order Runge-Kutta method, to solve the governing equation, with non-linear optimization, via the built-in Solver, to determine the coefficient hc. In this work, the coefficient hc was assessed for 119 distinct recently-cooked meal samples whose temperature-time profiles were recorded in situ after 17 technical visits to the hospital kitchen over a year. The average value and standard deviation results were hc = 12.0 ± 4.1 W m-2 K-1, whilst the lowest values (associated with the worst cooling scenarios were about hc » 6.0 W m-2 K-1.

  6. Temperature influence on diode pumped Yb:GGAG laser (United States)

    Veselský, Karel; Boháček, Pavel; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Trunda, Bohumil; Havlák, Lubomír.; Jurek, Karel; Nikl, Martin


    We present temperature influence (in range from 78 up to 400,K) on spectroscopic properties and laser performance of new Yb-doped mixed garnet Gd3GaxAl5-xO12 (Yb:GGAG). The sample was 2.68 mm thick plane-parallel face-polished Yb:GGAG single-crystal plate which was AR coated for pump (930 nm) and generated (1030 nm) laser radiation wavelength. The composition of sample was Gd3.098Yb0:0897Ga2:41Al2.41O12 (3 at % Yb/Gd). The Yb:GGAG crystal was mounted in temperature controlled copper holder of the liquid nitrogen cryostat. The 138 mm long semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a flat pumping mirror (T > 90 % @ 930 nm, HR @ 1030 nm) placed inside cryostat, and a curved output coupler (r = 150 mm, R = 94.5 % @ 1030 nm) placed outside cryostat. For longitudinal pumping a fiber coupled laser diode was used. The diode was operating in the pulse regime (5 ms pulse length, 20 Hz repetition rate) at wavelength 928.5 nm. The absorption spectrum was measured for the temperatures from 78 to 400 K, and absorption lines narrowing was observed with temperature decrease. Zero-phonon line at 970 nm has width 1 nm (FWHM) at 100 K. The fluorescence intensity decay time was measured and it increased linearly with temperature from 864 μs @ 78 K to 881 μs @ 300 K. The temperature of active medium has strong influence mainly on laser threshold which was 5 times lower at 100 K than at 300 K, and on slope efficiency which was 3 times higher at 100 K than at 300 K.

  7. Zero emission targets as long-term global goals for climate protection (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Knutti, Reto; Alcamo, Joseph; Riahi, Keywan; Hare, William


    Recently, assessments have robustly linked stabilization of global-mean temperature rise to the necessity of limiting the total amount of emitted carbon-dioxide (CO2). Halting global warming thus requires virtually zero annual CO2 emissions at some point. Policymakers have now incorporated this concept in the negotiating text for a new global climate agreement, but confusion remains about concepts like carbon neutrality, climate neutrality, full decarbonization, and net zero carbon or net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we clarify these concepts, discuss their appropriateness to serve as a long-term global benchmark for achieving temperature targets, and provide a detailed quantification. We find that with current pledges and for a likely (>66%) chance of staying below 2 °C, the scenario literature suggests net zero CO2 emissions between 2060 and 2070, with net negative CO2 emissions thereafter. Because of residual non-CO2 emissions, net zero is always reached later for total GHG emissions than for CO2. Net zero emissions targets are a useful focal point for policy, linking a global temperature target and socio-economic pathways to a necessary long-term limit on cumulative CO2 emissions.

  8. Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zero Gravity Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) provides the ability to measure the mass of samples in a microgravity environment, like that found on the...

  9. Zero-Based Budgeting in Nursing Education. (United States)

    Farrell, Marie; Eckert, Joseph


    Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) refers to a system whereby the entire nursing program is reevaluated yearly and justification for all programs and expenditures must be made. ZBB is compared to the governmental sunset law. (JOW)

  10. Designing Holistic Zero Energy Homes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann


    of zero energy houses, and identifies technical and architectural potentials and challenges related to the application of these. The publication argues that the key issue is to design the buildings through a cross-disciplinary approach to architecture and based on an integrated design process. The project...... is part of the Danish Strategic Research Centre for Zero Energy Buildings at Aalborg University, Denmark. Keywords: Holistic zero energy building design, architecture, design principles, cross-disciplinary design, integrated design......Designing zero-energy buildings (ZEB) is a complex but not an impossible task, which has also been illustrated through demonstration projects, including houses that produce as much energy as they use on a yearly basis. Over the last years an increased interest for ZEBs is also seen in practice...

  11. Development and Experimental Results from a 1 kW Prototype AMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan


    A novel rotary magnetic refrigeration device has been designed and constructed following the concepts recently outlined in Bahl et al. (2011). The magnet and flow system design allow for almost continuous usage of both the magnetic field and the magnetocaloric material in 24 cassettes, each...... exchange of the 24 cassettes, allowing the testing of different material amounts and compositions. Operating with 2.8 kg of commercial grade Gd spheres a maximum no-span cooling power of 1010 W and a maximum zero load temperature span of 25.4 K have been achieved. For the purpose of actual operation......, simultaneous high span and high performance is required. At a heat load of 200 W a high temperature span of 18.9 K has been obtained, dropping to a span of 13.8 K at the higher heat load value of 400 W....

  12. Brownian motion on \\lbrack 0,\\infty) with linear drift, reflected at zero: exact asymptotics for ergodic means (United States)

    Fatalov, V. R.


    For the Brownian motion X_μ(t) on the half-axis \\lbrack 0,∞) with linear drift μ, reflected at zero and for fixed numbers p>0, δ>0, d>0, a ≥ 0, we calculate the exact asymptotics as T\\to∞ of the mathematical expectations and probabilities \\displaystyle \\mathsf E\\biggl \\lbrack \\exp\\biggl\\{-δ\\int_0T X_μ......l\\{\\frac1 T\\int_0T X_μ^p(t) dt as well as of their conditional versions. For p=1 we give explicit formulae for the emerging constants via the Airy function. We consider an application of the results obtained to the problem of studying the behaviour of a Brownian particle in a gravitational field in a container bounded below by an impenetrable wall when μ=-mg/(2kT K), where m is the mass of the Brownian particle, g is the gravitational acceleration, k is the Boltzmann constant, T K is the temperature in the Kelvin scale. The analysis is conducted by the Laplace method for the sojourn time of homogeneous Markov processes. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  13. Influence of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}3-methyl pentane + cyclopentane + methanol{r_brace} ternary system at T = (293.15, 297.15, and 299.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo de Doz, Monica B. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Avenida Independencia 1800, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina)], E-mail:; Cases, Alicia M.; Bonatti, Carlos M.; Solimo, Horacio N. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Avenida Independencia 1800, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina)


    In order to show the influence of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) of the {l_brace}3-methyl pentane (1) + cyclopentane (2) + methanol (3){r_brace} ternary system, equilibrium results at T = (293.15, 297.15, and 299.15) K are reported. The effect of the temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium is determined and discussed. Experimental results show that this ternary system is completely homogeneous beyond T = 300 K. All chemicals were quantified by gas chromatography using a thermal conductivity detector. The tie line results were satisfactorily correlated by the Othmer and Tobias method, and the plait point coordinates for the three temperatures were estimated. Experimental values for the ternary system are compared with values calculated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations, and predicted by means of the UNIFAC group contribution method. It is found that the UNIQUAC and NRTL models provide similar good correlations of the solubility curve at these three temperatures. Finally, the UNIFAC model predicts binodal band type curves in the range of temperatures studied here, similar to those observed for systems classified by Treybal as type 2, instead of type 1 as experimentally observed. Distribution coefficients were also analysed through distribution curves.

  14. Henri Fayol and Zero Tolerance Policies




    Zero tolerance policies have been increasingly popular in both education and business. Henri Fayol was the one of the earliest and influential thinkers in modern management theory. He defined management as a body of knowledge and defined his 14 administrative principles. It is an interesting exercise to apply Fayol’s teachings to the theory of zero tolerance and attempt to determine what Fayol would think of this new management technique.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lobo Segura


    Full Text Available Theoretical upper and lower bounds are established for zeroes of a parametric family of functions which are defined by integrals of the same type as the Fresnel complementary integral. Asymptotic properties for these bounds are obtained as well as monotony properties of the localization intervals. Given the value of the parameter an analytical-numerical procedure is deduced to enclose all zeros of a given function with an a priori error.

  16. Cylindrical Antenna Using Near Zero Index Metamaterial (United States)


    about their vertical axes could also be used. These include, but are not be limited to, dipole antennas and biconical antennas . [0022] The anomalous...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cylindrical Antenna Using Near Zero Index Metamaterial 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...1 Attorney Docket No. 101380 CYLINDRICAL ANTENNA USING NEAR ZERO INDEX METAMATERIAL STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention

  17. Kink fluctuation asymptotics and zero modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, A.A. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Salamanca (Spain); Guilarte, J.M. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Salamanca (Spain)


    In this paper we propose a refinement of the heat-kernel/zeta function treatment of kink quantum fluctuations in scalar field theory, further analyzing the existence and implications of a zero-energy fluctuation mode. Improved understanding of the interplay between zero modes and the kink heat-kernel expansion delivers asymptotic estimations of one-loop kink mass shifts with remarkably higher precision than previously obtained by means of the standard Gilkey-DeWitt heat-kernel expansion. (orig.)

  18. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature. (United States)

    Villa, E; Aja, B; de la Fuente, L; Artal, E


    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  19. Low-temperature magnetothermal transport investigation of a Ni-based superconductor BaNi2As2: evidence for fully gapped superconductivity. (United States)

    Kurita, N; Ronning, F; Tokiwa, Y; Bauer, E D; Subedi, A; Singh, D J; Thompson, J D; Movshovich, R


    We have performed low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity measurements of the Ni-based superconductor BaNi2As2 (T{c}=0.7 K) in a magnetic field. In a zero field, thermal conductivity shows T-linear behavior in the normal state and exhibits a BCS-like exponential decrease below T{c}. The field dependence of the residual thermal conductivity extrapolated to zero temperature is indicative of a fully gapped superconductor. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of the specific heat data, which are well fit by the BCS temperature dependence from T{c} down to the lowest temperature of 0.1 K.

  20. Observation of the Decay B+ --> K+K-pi+

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Graugès-Pous, E; López, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabé, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bequilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; De La Vaissière, C; Hamon, O; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pérez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di, E; Marco; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Röthel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H


    We report the observation of charmless hadronic decays of charged B mesons to the final state K+K-pi+. Using a data sample of 347.5 fb^-1 collected at the Y(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector, we observe 429+/-43 signal events with a significance of 9.6 sigma. We measure the inclusive branching fraction BF(B+ --> K+K-pi+) = [5.0+/-0.5(stat.)+/-0.5(syst.)]x10^-6. Inspection of the Dalitz plot of signal candidates shows a broad structure peaking near 1.5 GeV/c^2 in the K+K- invariant mass distribution. We find the direct CP asymmetry to be consistent with zero.

  1. Boiling temperature measurement for water, methanol, ethanol and their binary mixtures in the presence of a hydrochloric or acetic salt of mono-, di- or tri-ethanolamine at 101.3 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Junfeng [State Key Lab. of Chem. Resource Eng, College of Chem. Eng., Beijing Univ. of Chem. Tech. Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail:; Li Xuemei; Meng Hong [College of Chem. Eng.., Beijing Univ. of Chem. Tech. Beijing 100029 (China); Li Chunxi [State Key Lab. of Chem. Resource Eng, College of Chem. Eng., Beijing Univ. of Chem. Tech. Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Zihao [College of Chem. Eng., Beijing Univ. of Chem. Tech. Beijing 100029 (China)


    The boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure were measured for 12 binary systems within the range T = (316 to 379) K and 7 ternary systems using a dual circulation. The systems studied contained water, methanol or ethanol with the following ionic liquids (ILs): monoethanolammonium acetate ([HEMA][Ac]), diethanolammonium acetate ([HDEA][Ac]), triethanolammonium acetate ([HTEA][Ac]) and diethanolammonium chloride ([HDEA]Cl). The experimental VLE results of the IL-containing binary systems were correlated by NRTL equation, and the binary NRTL parameters were used for the prediction of VLE of ternary systems with average absolute deviation of 0.73 K in boiling temperature. The results indicate that [HDEA]Cl can be used as an efficient solvent for the extractive distillation of (ethanol + water) mixture due to its notable salting-out effect, which lower the vapour pressure of water, increase the volatility of ethanol and eliminate the azeotropic phenomenon of the (water + ethanol) mixture at definite IL concentration.

  2. Universality and chaoticity in ultracold K+KRb chemical reactions (United States)

    Croft, J. F. E.; Makrides, C.; Li, M.; Petrov, A.; Kendrick, B. K.; Balakrishnan, N.; Kotochigova, S.


    A fundamental question in the study of chemical reactions is how reactions proceed at a collision energy close to absolute zero. This question is no longer hypothetical: quantum degenerate gases of atoms and molecules can now be created at temperatures lower than a few tens of nanokelvin. Here we consider the benchmark ultracold reaction between, the most-celebrated ultracold molecule, KRb and K. We map out an accurate ab initio ground-state potential energy surface of the K2Rb complex in full dimensionality and report numerically-exact quantum-mechanical reaction dynamics. The distribution of rotationally resolved rates is shown to be Poissonian. An analysis of the hyperspherical adiabatic potential curves explains this statistical character revealing a chaotic distribution for the short-range collision complex that plays a key role in governing the reaction outcome.

  3. Excess enthalpies of binary mixtures of 1-hexene with some branched alkanes at the temperature 298.15 K[Excess enthalpy; Binary mixture; 1-Hexene; Branched alkanes; Liebermann-Fried model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Benson, George C.; Lu, Benjamin C.-Y. E-mail:


    Measurements of excess molar enthalpies at the temperature 298.15 K in a flow microcalorimeter are reported for the five binary mixtures formed by mixing 1-hexene with the branched alkanes: 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane. Smooth Redlich-Kister representations of the results are described. It was found that the Liebermann-Fried model also provided good representations of the results.

  4. Rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with CH3CHF2 and CHCl2CF3 over the temperature range 295-388 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.J.


    Rate constants for the reactions of OH radicals with CH3CHF2 and CHCl2CF3 have been determined over the temperature range 295-388 K and a total pressure of 1 atm. The OH rate data were obtained using the absolute rate technique of pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. The data can...... and in the light of the important role CH3CHF2 and CHCl2CF3 play as alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons....

  5. Temperature retrievals from satellite radiance measurements - An empirical method (United States)

    Fritz, S.


    This paper presents a method for using satellite measurements to interpolate vertical temperature soundings between radiosonde stations. The calculations presented show that especially in the 1000-800 mb layer, where linear methods of temperature retrieval usually contain large errors, the proposed method reduces the errors substantially. The method finds a set of coefficients, which when multiplied by corresponding measured radiance quantities, yield zero temperature error at a radiosonde station. This derived set of coefficients is then applied to satellite radiance measurements at places between the radiosonde stations. The computations show, for example, that the average absolute error in the layer 1000-800 mb is only 0.3 K when the corresponding 'minimum-information' method error was 2.9 K. The method may be most applicable to measurements from geostationary satellites, but should also be applicable to measurements from polar orbiting satellites under certain conditions.

  6. 373 K Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kostadinov, Ivan Zahariev


    Experimental evidence of superconductors with critical temperatures above $373\\:K$ is presented. In a family of different compounds we demonstrate the superconductor state, the transition to normal state above $387\\:K$, an intermediate $242\\:K$ superconductor, susceptibility up to $350\\:K$, $I-V$ curves at $4.2\\:K$ in magnetic field of $12\\:T$ and current up to $60\\:A$, $300\\:K$ Josephson Junctions and Shapiro steps with radiation of $5\\:GHz$ to $21\\:THz$, $300\\:K$ tapes tests with high currents up to $3000\\:A$ and many $THz$ images of coins and washers. Due to a pending patent, the exact chemical characterization and technological processes for these materials are temporarily withheld and will be presented elsewhere.

  7. Dynamics of 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-15N nitroxide-propylene glycol system studied by ESR and ESE in liquid and glassy state in temperature range 10-295 K (United States)

    Goslar, Janina; Hoffmann, Stanislaw K.; Lijewski, Stefan


    ESR spectra and electron spin relaxation of nitroxide radical in 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-15N in propylene glycol were studied at X-band in the temperature range 10-295 K. The spin-lattice relaxation in the liquid viscous state determined from the resonance line shape is governed by three mechanisms occurring during isotropic molecular reorientations. In the glassy state below 200 K the spin-lattice relaxation, phase relaxation and electron spin echo envelope modulations (ESEEM) were studied by pulse spin echo technique using 2-pulse and 3-pulse induced signals. Electron spin-lattice relaxation is governed by a single non-phonon relaxation process produced by localized oscillators of energy 76 cm-1. Electron spin dephasing is dominated by a molecular motion producing a resonance-type peak in the temperature dependence of the dephasing rate around 120 K. The origin of the peak is discussed and a simple method for the peak shape analysis is proposed, which gives the activation energy of a thermally activated motion Ea = 7.8 kJ/mol and correlation time τ0 = 10-8 s. The spin echo amplitude is strongly modulated and FT spectrum contains a doublet of lines centered around the 2D nuclei Zeeman frequency. The splitting into the doublet is discussed as due to a weak hyperfine coupling of nitroxide unpaired electron with deuterium of reorienting CD3 groups.

  8. K Agashe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Agashe. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 60 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 383-394. Working group report: Collider and B physics · Amitava Datta K Sridhar K Abe K Agashe R Aleksan B C Allanach S Chakraborti D Choudhury Asesh Krishna Datta Anindya Datta A Djouadi D Ghosh R M Godbole M ...

  9. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle. (United States)

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G


    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  10. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USS RICHMOND K. TURNER, USS CUSHING and other platforms from 1991-01-14 to 1992-10-29 (NCEI Accession 9300065) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data was collected from eight ships by the US Navy. The data was collected from January 14, 1991 to October 29, 1992. 32 envelopes of...

  11. Determination of the rate constant for the OH(X2Π) + OH(X2Π) → H2O + O(3P) reaction over the temperature range 295 to 701 K. (United States)

    Altinay, Gokhan; Macdonald, R Glen


    The rate constant for the radical-radical reaction OH(X(2)Π) + OH(X(2)Π) → H2O + O((3)P) has been measured over the temperature and pressure ranges 295-701 K and 2-12 Torr, respectively, in mixtures of CF4, N2O, and H2O. The OH radical was produced by the 193 nm laser photolysis of N2O. The resulting O((1)D) atoms reacted rapidly with H2O to produce the OH radical. The OH radical was detected by high-resolution time-resolved infrared absorption spectroscopy using a single Λ-doublet component of the OH(1,0) P1e/f(4.5) fundamental vibrational transition. A detailed kinetic model was used to determine the reaction rate constant as a function of temperature. These experiments were conducted in a new temperature controlled reaction chamber. The values of the measured rate constants are quite similar to the previous measurements from this laboratory of Bahng and Macdonald (J. Phys. Chem. A 2007 , 111 , 3850 - 3861); however, they cover a much larger temperature range. The results of the present work do not agree with recent measurements of Sangwan and Krasnoperov (J. Phys. Chem. A 2012 , 116 , 11817 - 11822). At 295 K the rate constant of the title reaction was found to be (2.52 ± 0.63) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), where the uncertainty includes both experimental scatter and an estimate of systematic errors at the 95% confidence limit. Over the temperature range of the experiments, the rate constant can be represented by k1a = 4.79 × 10(-18)T(1.79) exp(879.0/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with a uncertainty of ±24% at the 2σ level, including experimental scatter and systematic error.

  12. Non-zero total correlation means non-zero quantum correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo [Department of Mathematics and Computer, Shangrao Normal University, Shangrao 334001 (China); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Lin, E-mail: [Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Fan, Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    We investigated the super quantum discord based on weak measurements. The super quantum discord is an extension of the standard quantum discord defined by projective measurements and also describes the quantumness of correlations. We provide some equivalent conditions for zero super quantum discord by using quantum discord, classical correlation and mutual information. In particular, we find that the super quantum discord is zero only for product states, which have zero mutual information. This result suggests that non-zero correlations can always be detected using the quantum correlation with weak measurements. As an example, we present the assisted state-discrimination method.

  13. Involvement of the CasK/R two-component system in optimal unsaturation of the Bacillus cereus fatty acids during low-temperature growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diomandé, Sara Esther; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Abee, Tjakko; Tempelaars, M.H.; Broussolle, Véronique; Brillard, Julien


    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is composed of a set of ubiquitous strains including human pathogens that can survive a range of food processing conditions, grow in refrigerated food, and sometimes cause food poisoning. We previously identified the two-component system CasK/R that plays a key role in

  14. Persistent-current switch for pancake coils of rare earth-barium-copper-oxide high-temperature superconductor: Design and test results of a double-pancake coil operated in liquid nitrogen (77–65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60–57 K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Timing; Michael, Philip C.; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu, E-mail: [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 170 Albany Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Voccio, John [Wentworth Institute of Technology, 550 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Hahn, Seungyong [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 2031 Paul Dirac Drive, Florida 32310 (United States)


    We present design and test results of a superconducting persistent current switch (PCS) for pancake coils of rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide, REBCO, high-temperature superconductor (HTS). Here, a REBCO double-pancake (DP) coil, 152-mm ID, 168-mm OD, 12-mm high, was wound with a no-insulation technique. We converted a ∼10-cm long section in the outermost layer of each pancake to a PCS. The DP coil was operated in liquid nitrogen (77–65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60–57 K). Over the operating temperature ranges of this experiment, the normal-state PCS enabled the DP coil to be energized; thereupon, the PCS resumed the superconducting state and the DP coil field decayed with a time constant of 100 h, which would have been nearly infinite, i.e., persistent-mode operation, were the joint across the coil terminals superconducting.

  15. New experimental perspectives for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies at ultra-low temperatures below 50 mK and in high magnetic fields up to 7 T (United States)

    Beeck, T.; Baev, I.; Gieschen, S.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, S.; Palutke, S.; Feulner, P.; Uhlig, K.; Martins, M.; Wurth, W.


    A new ultra-low temperature experiment including a superconducting vector magnet has been developed for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments at third generation synchrotron light sources. The sample is cooled below 50 mK by a cryogen free 3He-4He dilution refrigerator. At the same time, magnetic fields of up to ±7 T in the horizontal direction and ±0.5 T in the vertical direction can be applied by a superconducting vector magnet. The setup allows to study ex situ and in situ prepared samples, offered by an attached UHV preparation chamber with load lock. The transfer of the prepared samples between the preparation section and the dilution refrigerator is carried out under cryogenic temperatures. First commissioning studies have been carried out at the Variable Polarization XUV Beamline P04 at PETRA III and the influence of the incident photon beam to the sample temperature has been studied.

  16. Temperature and field dependent Mossbauer studies of the metallic inclusions in synthetic MDAS diamond grits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bharuth-Ram, K.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Mørup, Steen


    Mossbauer spectroscopy of the metallic inclusions in diamond grits produced in high-temperature high-pressure synthesis have revealed varying but interesting results. The MDAS(1) grits synthesized with Fe/Ni solvent-catalysts show Mossbauer spectra that vary with grit size, with the ferromagnetic...... at temperatures of 300 K and 80 K, in zero field and in an external field of 0.60 T, on the metallic inclusions in these grits. The Mossbauer spectra of the inclusions are rather complex, reflecting the contributions of several different magnetic phases. Our results show that the temperature variation...... of the Mossbauer spectra is not due to superparamagnetic relaxation of ferromagnetic inclusions but rather to magnetic ordering temperatures of the order of room temperature. Based on the spectral lineshapes and elemental analyses, we suggest the inclusions in the 63-75 mum grits contain iron mainly in Fe...

  17. A study of the temperature dependence of the infrared absorption cross-sections of 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol in the range of 298-362 K (United States)

    Godin, Paul J.; Cabaj, Alex; Xu, Li-Hong; Le Bris, Karine; Strong, Kimberly


    Absorption cross-sections of 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol (PFPO) were derived from Fourier transform infrared spectra recorded from 565 to 3400 cm-1 with a resolution of 0.1 cm-1 over a temperature range of 298-362 K. These results were compared to previously published theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental measurements made at room temperature. We find good agreement between our experimentally derived results, DFT calculations, and previously published data. The only temperature dependence observed was in the centroid shift of the 850-1500 cm-1 band and in the amplitude of some of the absorption peaks. However, this temperature dependence does not result in a significant trend in integrated band strength as a function of temperature. We calculate an average integrated band strength of (1.991±0.001)×10-16 cm molecule-1 for PFPO over the spectral range studied. Radiative efficiencies (REs) and the global warming potential (GWP) for PFPO were also derived. We find an average RE of 0.2603 ± 0.0007 Wm-2ppbv-1 and a GWP100 of 19.8. The calculated radiative efficiencies show that no dependence on temperature and our findings are consistent with previous studies, increasing our confidence in the value of the GWP of PFPO.

  18. Near zero thermal expansion properties in antiperovskite Mn3Cu0.6Ge0.4N prepared by spark plasma sintering (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Wen; Huang, Chuangjun; Han, Yemao; Li, Laifeng


    Antiperovskite manganese nitride Mn3Cu0.6Ge0.4N was fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at different temperatures and its negative thermal expansion behavior was investigated. It is observed that the width of negative thermal expansion (NTE) operation-temperature window becomes broader when the sintering temperature decreases. Moreover, it is significantly larger than that of other Mn3CuN-based antiperovskite manganese nitrides prepared by solid-state reaction. More interestingly, the Mn3Cu0.6Ge0.4N sintered at 650 °C shows near zero thermal expansion (ZTE) behavior in the temperature range of 220-170 K. The average linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is estimated to be -0.9 × 10-6 K-1. Magnetic measurement shows that the process of the magnetic transition becomes slow when the sintering temperature decreases. This antiperovskite manganese nitride Mn3Cu0.6Ge0.4N with ZTE behavior is much useful for applications in the fields of cryogenics and applied superconductivity.

  19. Entanglment assisted zero-error codes (United States)

    Matthews, William; Mancinska, Laura; Leung, Debbie; Ozols, Maris; Roy, Aidan


    Zero-error information theory studies the transmission of data over noisy communication channels with strictly zero error probability. For classical channels and data, much of the theory can be studied in terms of combinatorial graph properties and is a source of hard open problems in that domain. In recent work, we investigated how entanglement between sender and receiver can be used in this task. We found that entanglement-assisted zero-error codes (which are still naturally studied in terms of graphs) sometimes offer an increased bit rate of zero-error communication even in the large block length limit. The assisted codes that we have constructed are closely related to Kochen-Specker proofs of non-contextuality as studied in the context of foundational physics, and our results on asymptotic rates of assisted zero-error communication yield non-contextuality proofs which are particularly `strong' in a certain quantitive sense. I will also describe formal connections to the multi-prover games known as pseudo-telepathy games.

  20. A helium-3/helium-4 dilution cryocooler for operation in zero gravity (United States)

    Hendricks, John B.


    This research effort covered the development of He-3/He-4 dilution cryocooler cycles for use in zero gravity. The dilution cryocooler is currently the method of choice for producing temperatures below 0.3 Kelvin in the laboratory. However, the current dilution cryocooler depends on gravity for their operation, so some modification is required for zero gravity operation. In this effort, we have demonstrated, by analysis, that the zero gravity dilution cryocooler is feasible. We have developed a cycle that uses He-3 circulation, and an alternate cycle that uses superfluid He-4 circulation. The key elements of both cycles were demonstrated experimentally. The development of a true 'zero-gravity' dilution cryocooler is now possible, and should be undertaken in a follow-on effort.

  1. Study of the adsorption of reactive blue 50 on zero valent iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sarangerel


    Full Text Available  In this study, removal efficiency of the Reactive blue 50 and adsorption mechanism on the zero valent iron were investigated. Reactive blue 50 which is used to wool and cashmere dyeing were selected due its non-biodegradable and metabolic stability. Zero valent iron particle has been synthesized by chemical method. A systematic characterization of zero valent iron was performed using X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and infrared spectrometer analysis. The optimal condition of adsorption was determined as initial reactive dye 50 concentration of 150 mg·L-1, zero valent iron mass of 0.2 g and solution pH of 6.0 at room temperature. At optimal condition, organic dye removal in a real wastewater sample from Tsombon Knit LLC was 99.5%.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p21-26

  2. Zero-bias offsets in I–V characteristics of the staircase type quantum well infrared photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutku, Ferhat, E-mail: [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Vezneciler, 34134 Istanbul (Turkey); Erol, Ayse; Arikan, M. Cetin [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Vezneciler, 34134 Istanbul (Turkey); Ergun, Yuksel [Anadolu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)


    In this work, observed zero-bias offsets in I–V characteristics and differences in J–V characteristics of staircase quantum well infrared photodetectors were investigated. Temperature and voltage sweep rate dependence of the zero-bias offsets were studied on mesa structures shaped in different diameters. Furthermore, effect of mesa diameter on J–V characteristics was investigated. The temperature, initial bias voltage and voltage sweep rate dependence of the zero-bias offsets were explained by a qualitative model, which is based on a RC equivalent circuit of the quantum well infrared photodetector.

  3. Geometric spin echo under zero field (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuhei; Komura, Yusuke; Mishima, Shota; Tanaka, Touta; Niikura, Naeko; Kosaka, Hideo


    Spin echo is a fundamental tool for quantum registers and biomedical imaging. It is believed that a strong magnetic field is needed for the spin echo to provide long memory and high resolution, since a degenerate spin cannot be controlled or addressed under a zero magnetic field. While a degenerate spin is never subject to dynamic control, it is still subject to geometric control. Here we show the spin echo of a degenerate spin subsystem, which is geometrically controlled via a mediating state split by the crystal field, in a nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond. The demonstration reveals that the degenerate spin is protected by inherent symmetry breaking called zero-field splitting. The geometric spin echo under zero field provides an ideal way to maintain the coherence without any dynamics, thus opening the way to pseudo-static quantum random access memory and non-invasive biosensors.

  4. Observation of the Zero Doppler Effect. (United States)

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Chen, Hong


    The normal Doppler effect has well-established applications in many areas of science and technology. Recently, a few experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear in negative-index metamaterials. Here we report an experimental observation of the zero Doppler effect, that is, no frequency shift irrespective of the relative motion between the wave signal source and the detector in a zero-index metamaterial. This unique phenomenon, accompanied by the normal and inverse Doppler effects, is generated by reflecting a wave from a moving discontinuity in a composite right/left-handed transmission line loaded with varactors when operating in the near zero-index passband, or the right/left-handed passband. This work has revealed a complete picture of the Doppler effect in metamaterials and may lead to potential applications in electromagnetic wave related metrology.

  5. 2014 Zero Waste Strategic Plan Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph J.


    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, primarily on Department of Energy (DOE) permitted land on approximately 2,800 acres of Kirtland Air Force Base. There are approximately 5.5 million square feet of buildings, with a workforce of approximately 9200 personnel. Sandia National Laboratories Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) program adopted in 2008 an internal team goal for New Mexico site operations for Zero Waste to Landfill by 2025. Sandia solicited a consultant to assist in the development of a Zero Waste Strategic Plan. The Zero Waste Consultant Team selected is a partnership of SBM Management Services and Gary Liss & Associates. The scope of this Plan is non-hazardous solid waste and covers the life cycle of material purchases to the use and final disposal of the items at the end of their life cycle.

  6. Spectral singularities and zero energy bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, W.D. [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study, and Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Stellenbosch, 7602 Matieland (South Africa); Nazmitdinov, R.G. [Department de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)


    Single particle scattering around zero energy is re-analysed in view of recent experiments with ultra-cold atoms, nano-structures and nuclei far from the stability valley. For non-zero orbital angular momentum the low energy scattering cross section exhibits dramatic changes depending on the occurrence of either a near resonance or a bound state or the situation in between, that is a bound state at zero energy. Such state is singular in that it has an infinite scattering length, behaves for the eigenvalues but not for the eigenfunctions as an exceptional point and has no pole in the scattering function. These results should be observable whenever the interaction or scattering length can be controlled. (authors)

  7. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per


    of the energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little......This paper takes an overall energy system approach to analysing the mismatch problem of zero energy and zero emission buildings (ZEBs). The mismatch arises from hourly differences in energy production and consumption at the building level and results in the need for exchange of electricity via...... the public grid even though the building has an annual net-exchange of zero. This paper argues that, when looked upon from the viewpoint of the overall electricity supply system, a mismatch can be both negative and positive. Moreover, there are often both an element of levelling out mismatches between...

  8. Zero Benefit: Estimating the Effect of Zero Tolerance Discipline Polices on Racial Disparities in School Discipline (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen


    This study estimates the effect of zero tolerance disciplinary policies on racial disparities in school discipline in an urban district. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, the abrupt expansion of zero tolerance discipline policies in a mid-sized urban school district, the study demonstrates that Black students in the district were…

  9. Main Street Zero Energy Buildings: The Zero Energy Method in Concept and Practice: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Lobato, C.; Hootman, T.


    Ongoing work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicates that net-zero energy building (NZEB) status is both achievable and repeatable today. This paper presents a definition framework for classifying NZEBs and a real-life example that demonstrates how a large-scale office building can cost-effectively achieve net-zero energy.

  10. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Brookside Development — Singer Village, Derby, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This DOE Zero Energy Ready Home is one of a development of seven two-story homes that garnered a Production Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. Exceptional construction quality allowed the home to achieve a HERS score of 45 without photovoltaic, or HERS 26 with a 7-kW photovoltaic system included.

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Mandalay Homes — Pronghorn Ranch, Prescott Valley, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The builder has certified 20 homes to DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program and plans are underway for 50 more. Winner of a Production Builder prize in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, the homes achieved a HERS score of 48 without photovoltaics (PV) or HERS 25 with 3.5 kW PV included.

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Clifton View Homes — Kaltenbach Residence, Clinton, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This home on Whidbey Island won a Custom Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The DOE Zero Energy Ready Home scores HERS 37 without PV or HERS -13 with 10 kW PV, enough to power the home and an electric car.

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Cobblestone Homes — 2014 Model Home, Midland, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This builder's first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home won a Custom Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, scored HERS 49 without PV or HERS 44 with 1.4 kW of PV, and served as a prototype and energy efficiency demonstration model while performance testing was conducted.

  14. 110K Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor oxide and method for making same (United States)

    Veal, Boyd W.; Downey, John W.; Lam, Daniel J.; Paulikas, Arvydas P.


    A superconductor consisting of a sufficiently pure phase of the oxides of Bi, Sr, Ca, and Cu to exhibit a resistive zero near 110K resulting from the process of forming a mixture of Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrCO.sub.3, CaCO.sub.3 and CuO into aparticulate compact wherein the atom ratios are Bi.sub.2, Sr.sub.1.2-2.2, Ca.sub.1.8-2.4, Cu.sub.3. Thereafter, heating the particulate compact rapidly in the presence of oxygen to an elevated temperature near the melting point of the oxides to form a sintered compact, and then maintaining the sintered compact at the elevated temperature for a prolonged period of time. The sintered compact is cooled and reground. Thereafter, the reground particulate material is compacted and heated in the presence of oxygen to an elevated temperature near the melting point of the oxide and maintained at the elevated temperature for a time sufficient to provide a sufficiently pure phase to exhibit a resistive zero near 110K.

  15. Kvasiresonant DC-DC Converter with Switching at Zero Current - Part 1


    Vorel, P.


    A kvasiresonant DC - DC converter and its control circuits are proposed. The relations useful for design of the converter will be deduced in the part 2. The fundamental idea of the converter is the switching -on and -off a transistor at zero current. In this way the switching losses are eliminated. It enables to design a converter with a large output power (several kW), high switching frequency (about 200 kHz), very good efficiency and low radiation.

  16. Measurement of the muon-neutrino charged-current cross section on water with zero pions

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Tianlu


    The Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) experiment is a 295-km long-baseline neutrino experiment aimed towards the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters ${\\theta}_{13}$ and ${\\theta}_{23}$. Precise measurement of these parameters requires accurate knowledge of neutrino cross sections. We present a flux-averaged double differential measurement of the charged-current cross section on water with zero pions in the final state using the T2K off-axis near detector, ND280. A selection of $\

  17. Development of a nano-tesla magnetic field shielded chamber and highly precise AC-susceptibility measurement coil at μK temperatures (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Om; Ramakrishanan, S.


    A special sample measurement chamber has been developed to perform experiments at ultralow temperatures and ultralow magnetic field. A high permeability material known as cryoperm 10 and Pb is used to shield the measurement space consisting of the signal detecting set-up and the sample. The detecting setup consists of a very sensitive susceptibility coil wound on OFHC Cu bobbin.

  18. Vitamin K (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  19. Vitamin K (United States)

    ... diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Vitamin K1 might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking vitamin K1 along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go ...

  20. Curvature, zero modes and quantum statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de AstrofIsica de AndalucIa, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)


    We explore an intriguing connection between the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics and the thermal baths obtained from a vacuum radiation of coherent states of zero modes in a second quantized (many-particle) theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2, 1) isometry subgroups of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit is retrieved as a (zero-curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem. (letter to the editor)

  1. A zero-power radio receiver.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley


    This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.

  2. Zero birefringence films of pullulan ester derivatives (United States)

    Danjo, Takahiro; Enomoto, Yukiko; Shimada, Hikaru; Nobukawa, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Iwata, Tadahisa


    High-performance films with almost zero-birefringence and zero-wavelength dispersion were succeeded to prepare from pullulan esters derivatives (PLEs) without any additives. Optical transmittance analysis, birefringence measurement of PLE cast film and hot stretched films, and infrared dichroism analysis were conducted to characterize optical properties of PLE films comparing with cellulose triacetate which is commercially used as low-birefringence in optical devices. The aims of this study, characterization of optical properties of pullulan esters, can develop a deep understanding of the fundamental knowing and applicability of polysaccharides. Accordingly, authors believe this paper will open the gate for researches in the application of polysaccharides.

  3. Applications of zero-suppressed decision diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu


    A zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) is a data structure to represent objects that typically contain many zeros. Applications include combinatorial problems, such as graphs, circuits, faults, and data mining. This book consists of four chapters on the applications of ZDDs. The first chapter by Alan Mishchenko introduces the ZDD. It compares ZDDs to BDDs, showing why a more compact representation is usually achieved in a ZDD. The focus is on sets of subsets and on sum-of-products (SOP) expressions. Methods to generate all the prime implicants (PIs), and to generate irredundant SOPs are show

  4. Zero Energy Schools: Architects Take the Lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Zero energy schools are possible and practical, and architects are leading the way. Imagine a school so inviting that students want to come to school. Now imagine this school housed in a beautiful, light-filled building that produces more energy on an annual basis than it uses. Finally, imagine that the district built this school on the same budget as a conventional school, using typical materials, equipment, and tradespeople. Sound too good to be true Discovery Elementary School in Arlington, Virginia, is living proof that zero energy (ZE) schools are feasible, affordable, and sensible.

  5. K Vidyasagar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. K Vidyasagar. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 112 Issue 3 June 2000 pp 417-417. Solid state chemistry of new polysulphides in A/Sn/S (A = Na, K, Rb) systems · M Suseela Devi K Vidyasagar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 115 Issue 5-6 ...

  6. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  7. Consistent implementation of non-zero-range terms into hydrodynamics (United States)

    Pratt, Scott


    Non-zero-range interactions are often incorporated into mean field theories through gradient terms. Here, a formalism is developed to incorporate such terms into hydrodynamics. These terms alter expressions for the entropy, chemical potential, temperature, and the stress-energy tensor. The formalism respects local conservation of energy, charge, and entropy. The formalism leads to static solutions where the temperature, chemical potential, and hydrodynamic acceleration all vanish, even when the density profile might be nonuniform. Profiles for a phase boundary and for correlation functions are calculated to illustrate the gradient modifications for various thermodynamic quantities. Also, for hydrodynamic calculations that add thermal noise to generate density-density correlations of the desired strength, an additional noise term is derived so that, at equilibrium, correlations are generated with both the correct size and length scale.

  8. Net Zero Ft. Carson: making a greener Army base (United States)

    The US Army Net Zero program seeks to reduce the energy, water, and waste footprint of bases. Seventeen pilot bases aim to achieve 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases are pursuing Net Zero in a single secto...

  9. New hardware and software platform for experiments on a HUBER-5042 X-ray diffractometer with a DISPLEX DE-202 helium cryostat in the temperature range of 20-300 K (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Antipin, A. M.; Verin, I. A.


    Huber-5042 diffractometer with a closed-cycle Displex DE-202 helium cryostat is a unique scientific instrument for carrying out X-ray diffraction experiments when studying the single crystal structure in the temperature range of 20-300 K. To make the service life longer and develop new experimental techniques, the diffractometer control is transferred to a new hardware and software platform. To this end, a modern computer; a new detector reader unit; and new control interfaces for stepper motors, temperature controller, and cryostat vacuum pumping system are used. The system for cooling the X-ray tube, the high-voltage generator, and the helium compressor and pump for maintaining the desired vacuum in the cryostat are replaced. The system for controlling the primary beam shutter is upgraded. A biological shielding is installed. The new program tools, which use the Linux Ubuntu operating system and SPEC constructor, include a set of drivers for control units through the aforementioned interfaces. A program for searching reflections from a sample using fast continuous scanning and a priori information about crystal is written. Thus, the software package for carrying out the complete cycle of precise diffraction experiment (from determining the crystal unit cell to calculating the integral reflection intensities) is upgraded. High quality of the experimental data obtained on this equipment is confirmed in a number of studies in the temperature range from 20 to 300 K.

  10. Volumetric and transport properties of binary liquid mixtures of N-methylacetamide with lactones at temperatures (303.15 to 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boodida, Sathyanarayana; Bachu, Ranjith Kumar; Patwari, Murali Krishna [Department of Chemistry, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009 (India); Nallani, Satyanarayana [Department of Chemistry, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009 (India)], E-mail:


    The values of density ({rho}), viscosity ({eta}) and speed of sound (u) have been measured for binary liquid mixtures of {gamma}-butyrolactone (GBL), {delta}-valerolactone (DVL), and {epsilon}-caprolactone (ECL) with N-methylacetamide (NMA) over the whole composition range at T = (303.15 to 318.15) K and atmospheric pressure. From these data, excess molar volume (V{sup E}), deviation in viscosity ({delta}{eta}), and deviation in isentropic compressibility ({delta}{kappa}{sub s}), are calculated. The results are fitted to a Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation to derive binary coefficients and standard deviations.

  11. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek


    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  12. Zero gravity tissue-culture laboratory (United States)

    Cook, J. E.; Montgomery, P. O., Jr.; Paul, J. S.


    Hardware was developed for performing experiments to detect the effects that zero gravity may have on living human cells. The hardware is composed of a timelapse camera that photographs the activity of cell specimens and an experiment module in which a variety of living-cell experiments can be performed using interchangeable modules. The experiment is scheduled for the first manned Skylab mission.

  13. Zero Energy Schools--Beyond Platinum (United States)

    Hutton, Paul C.


    One of the fastest growing trends in school design is Net Zero Energy Schools. There are now at least a dozen or more schools completed or in construction that have achieved, or have committed to, this incredible level of energy efficiency. In this article, the author examines this trend and take a brief look at some of the exemplary projects that…

  14. Zero-sum problems with subgroup weights

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this note, we generalize some theorems on zero-sums with weights from [1], [4] and [5] in two directions. In particular, we consider Z Z p d for a general and subgroups of Z p ∗ as weights. Author Affiliations. S D Adhikari1 A A Ambily2 B Sury2. Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 ...

  15. Some zero-sum constants with weights

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 2. Some Zero-Sum Constants with Weights. S D Adhikari ... Motivated by some recent developments around the notion of Davenport constant with weights, we study them in some basic cases. We also define a new combinatorial invariant related to ...

  16. The zero of potential : a persistent error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, H.C.

    Any point of an inanimate system or of a human body can be connected to earth to obtain zero potential. The processes inside the system are independent of this connection. It is only the potential differences which matter. An absolute value of the potential does not enter in the physical laws and,

  17. Division by zero in common meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.


    Common meadows are fields expanded with a total inverse function. Division by zero produces an additional value denoted with "a" that propagates through all operations of the meadow signature (this additional value can be interpreted as an error element). We provide a basis theorem for so-called

  18. Zero-two law for cosine families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenninger, F.L.; Zwart, Heiko J.

    Abstract. For $(C(t))_{t\\geq 0}$ being a strongly continuous cosine family on a Banach space, we show that the estimate $\\lim \\sup_{t\\rightarrow 0+} \\|C(t) - I\\| < 2$ implies that $C(t)$ converges to $I$ in the operator norm. This implication has become known as the zero-two law. We further prove

  19. Division by zero in common meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; De Nicola, R.; Hennicker, R.


    Common meadows are fields expanded with a total inverse function. Division by zero produces an additional value denoted with "a" that propagates through all operations of the meadow signature (this additional value can be interpreted as an error element). We provide a basis theorem for so-called

  20. Zero Based Budgeting for Voc Ed (United States)

    Chuang, Ying C.


    To help vocational education budget planners take a good look each year at where they are going, what they are trying to accomplish, and where to put their money, this article describes the 12 steps in a model commonly used for zero based budgeting. (Author/HD)