Sample records for temperature voc combustion


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemarie Szostak


    The objective of this project was to prepare microporous aluminophosphates containing magnesium, manganese, cobalt and zinc (MeAPOs) and to evaluate their performance as oxidation catalysts for the removal of low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gas streams. The tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) To develop reliable synthesis methods for metal aluminophosphates containing manganese, cobalt and zinc in their framework; (2) To characterize these materials for crystallinity, phase purity, the location and nature of the incorporated metal in the framework; and (3) To evaluate the materials for their catalytic activities in the oxidation of volatile organic environmental pollutants.

  2. Combustion temperature charts for industrial gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matouskova, V.; Gerak, A.; Hlavacka, V.


    Researchers at Czechoslovakia's State Research Institute of Mechanical Engineering offer a method for calculating the theoretical flame temperature that includes the effect of endothermic reactions, especially the dissociation of combustion products. Charts presented for eight types of fuel gases can be used to determine the flame temperature relative to the temperature of the combustion air and to the excess-air ratio. Also considered is the relationship between these parameters and the characteristic temperature relationships for equipment using heat recovered from the flue gases to preheat incoming combustion air.

  3. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders


    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  4. Fly-ash products from biomass co-combustion for VOC control. (United States)

    Kwong, C W; Chao, C Y H


    Experiments were conducted in a continuous flow reactor at room temperature to evaluate the elimination of low-concentration toluene in the gas phase to verify if fly-ash products from biomass combustion in an ozonation system could be used in the removal of volatile organic compounds. The fly-ash products from pure biomass combustion (Ash(100)) demonstrated the highest ozonation activities upon the removal of low-concentration toluene (1.5 ppmv), followed by the fly-ash products from co-combustion (Ash(30)) and the coal combustion (Ash(0)). Kinetic experiments showed that the activation energy of the toluene elimination process was substantially reduced with the use of ozone and the reaction intermediates, such as formic acids, aldehydes, etc. Results also showed that the intermediates were reduced with increasing humidity level. The combined use of fly-ash products and zeolite 13X enhanced the removal of toluene to above 90% and suppressed the release of residual ozone and intermediates by holding them in the adsorbed phase.

  5. Characterization of VOC Emission from Materials in Vehicular Environment at Varied Temperatures: Correlation Development and Validation (United States)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yang, Tao; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan


    The steady state VOC concentration in automobile cabin is taken as a good indicator to characterize the material emission behaviors and evaluate the vehicular air quality. Most studies in this field focus on experimental investigation while theoretical analysis is lacking. In this paper we firstly develop a simplified physical model to describe the VOC emission from automobile materials, and then derive a theoretical correlation between the steady state cabin VOC concentration (Ca) and temperature (T), which indicates that the logarithm of Ca/T0.75 is in a linear relationship with 1/T. Experiments of chemical emissions in three car cabins at different temperatures (24°C, 29°C, 35°C) were conducted. Eight VOCs specified in the Chinese National Standard GB/T 27630–2011 were taken for analysis. The good agreement between the correlation and experimental results from our tests, as well as the data taken from literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the derived correlation. Further study indicates that the slope and intercept of the correlation follows linear association. With the derived correlation, the steady state cabin VOC concentration different from the test conditions can be conveniently obtained. This study should be helpful for analyzing temperature-dependent emission phenomena in automobiles and predicting associated health risks. PMID:26452146

  6. Characterization of VOC Emission from Materials in Vehicular Environment at Varied Temperatures: Correlation Development and Validation. (United States)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yang, Tao; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan


    The steady state VOC concentration in automobile cabin is taken as a good indicator to characterize the material emission behaviors and evaluate the vehicular air quality. Most studies in this field focus on experimental investigation while theoretical analysis is lacking. In this paper we firstly develop a simplified physical model to describe the VOC emission from automobile materials, and then derive a theoretical correlation between the steady state cabin VOC concentration (Ca) and temperature (T), which indicates that the logarithm of Ca/T0.75 is in a linear relationship with 1/T. Experiments of chemical emissions in three car cabins at different temperatures (24°C, 29°C, 35°C) were conducted. Eight VOCs specified in the Chinese National Standard GB/T 27630-2011 were taken for analysis. The good agreement between the correlation and experimental results from our tests, as well as the data taken from literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the derived correlation. Further study indicates that the slope and intercept of the correlation follows linear association. With the derived correlation, the steady state cabin VOC concentration different from the test conditions can be conveniently obtained. This study should be helpful for analyzing temperature-dependent emission phenomena in automobiles and predicting associated health risks.

  7. Characterization of VOC Emission from Materials in Vehicular Environment at Varied Temperatures: Correlation Development and Validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyin Xiong

    Full Text Available The steady state VOC concentration in automobile cabin is taken as a good indicator to characterize the material emission behaviors and evaluate the vehicular air quality. Most studies in this field focus on experimental investigation while theoretical analysis is lacking. In this paper we firstly develop a simplified physical model to describe the VOC emission from automobile materials, and then derive a theoretical correlation between the steady state cabin VOC concentration (Ca and temperature (T, which indicates that the logarithm of Ca/T0.75 is in a linear relationship with 1/T. Experiments of chemical emissions in three car cabins at different temperatures (24°C, 29°C, 35°C were conducted. Eight VOCs specified in the Chinese National Standard GB/T 27630-2011 were taken for analysis. The good agreement between the correlation and experimental results from our tests, as well as the data taken from literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the derived correlation. Further study indicates that the slope and intercept of the correlation follows linear association. With the derived correlation, the steady state cabin VOC concentration different from the test conditions can be conveniently obtained. This study should be helpful for analyzing temperature-dependent emission phenomena in automobiles and predicting associated health risks.

  8. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de


    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  9. Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated VOC Emissions from Modern GDI Light-Duty Vehicles 1 (United States)

    In this study, speciated VOC emissions were characterized from three modern GDI light-duty vehicles. The vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer housed in a climate-controlled chamber at two temperatures (20 and 72 °F) using the EPA Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and a portio...

  10. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin


    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  11. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.; Chen, Q. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Building Technology Program; Bluyssen, P.M. [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands)


    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with carpets that are not new, (2) calculate the time-dependent VOC distributions in a test chamber or room, and (3) consider the temperature effect on VOC emissions. Based on small-scale chamber data, both models were used to examine the VOC emissions under different temperatures from polypropene styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) bitumen-backed carpet. The short-term predictions show that the VOC emissions under different temperatures can be modeled solely by changing the carpet diffusion coefficients. A formulation of the Arrhenius relation was used to correlate the dependence of carpet diffusion coefficient with temperature. The long-term predictions show that it would take several years to bake out the VOCs, and temperature would have a major impact on the bake-out time.

  12. Prediction of temperature front in a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, F.Z.; Kubiak, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Urquiza, G. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    Numerical computation has been applied to investigate the temperature field in a gas turbine combustion chamber. The simulation assumed that pressure imbalance conditions of air flow between primary and secondary inlets occur. The combustion chamber under study is part of a 70 MW gas turbine from an operating combined cycle power plant. The combustion was simulated with normal fuel-air flow rate assuming stoichiometric conditions. Under these conditions characteristic temperature and pressure fields were obtained provided equity of boundary conditions at air inlets applies. However, with pressure distribution imbalances of the order of 3 kPa between primary and secondary air inlets, excessive heating in regions other than the combustion chamber core were obtained. Over heating in these regions helped to explain what was observed to produce permanent damage to auxiliary equipment surrounding the combustion chamber core, like the cross flame pipes. It is observed that high temperatures which normally develop in the central region of the combustion chamber may reach other surrounding upstream regions by modifying slightly the air pressure. Microscope scanning of the damaged pipes confirmed that the material was exposed to high temperatures such as predicted through the numerical computation. (Author)

  13. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  14. Factors Influencing Temperature Fields during Combustion Reactions (United States)


    promoting thermal energy distributions. Keywords: Thermites · Nanoparticle combustion • Aluminum · Infrared thermometry • Non-ideal explosives 1...materials (nano- thermite ) comprised of a metallic fuel and organic or metal- lic oxidizer and will be referred to as nanothermites hence forth. The most...magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and titanium (Ti) nanoparticles were added to Al/CuO at 10% by weight of the nanothermite sample. The nano- thermites with

  15. Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated VOC Emissions from modern GDI Light Duty Truck (United States)

    Although gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles represent nearly half of the light-duty vehicle market share, few studies have reported speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in GDI vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study, speciated VOC emissions were characterized from t...

  16. Low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - hydrogen - air mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E.; Roth, F. von; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - air mixtures would allow the development of no-NO{sub x} burners for heating and power applications. Using commercially available catalysts, the room temperature ignition of methane-propane-air mixtures has been shown in laboratory reactors with combustion efficiencies over 95% and maximum temperatures less than 700{sup o}C. After a 500 hour stability test, severe deactivation of both methane and propane oxidation functions was observed. In cooperation with industrial partners, scaleup to 3 kW is being investigated together with startup dynamics and catalyst stability. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  17. Wide Temperature Range Kinetics of Elementary Combustion Reactions for Army Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fontijn, Arthur


    The goals of this program are to provide accurate kinetic data on isolated elementary reactions at temperatures relevant to Army combustion models, particularly for propellant combustion dark zones...

  18. Low temperature complete combustion of dilute propane over Mn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Combustion of dilute propane (0.9 mol %) over Mn-doped ZrO2 catalysts prepared using different precipitating agents (viz. TMAOH, TEAOH, TPAOH, TBAOH and NH4OH), having different Mn/Zr ratios (0.05 - 0.67) and calcined at different temperatures (500-800°C), has been thoroughly investigated at different temperatures ...

  19. Modelling of flame temperature of solution combustion synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A regression model has also been developed to correlate the input parameters, viz. batch size, diluents, fuel to oxidizer ratio and initial furnace temperature, with flame temperature of the solution combustion reaction. The adequacy of the developed model has been checked using analysis of variance technique.

  20. Catalytic combustion over high temperature stable metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    This thesis presents a study of the catalytic effects of two interesting high temperature stable metal oxides - magnesium oxide and manganese substituted barium hexa-aluminate (BMA) - both of which can be used in the development of new monolithic catalysts for such applications. In the first part of the thesis, the development of catalytic combustion for gas turbine applications is reviewed, with special attention to alternative fuels such as low-BTU gas, e.g. produced in an air blown gasifier. When catalytic combustion is applied for such a fuel, the primary advantage is the possibility of decreasing the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO{sub x}, and achieving flame stability. In the experimental work, MgO was shown to have a significant activity for the catalytic combustion of methane, lowering the temperature needed to achieve 10 percent conversion by 270 deg C compared with homogeneous combustion.The reaction kinetics for methane combustion over MgO was also studied. It was shown that the heterogeneous catalytic reactions were dominant but that the catalytically initiated homogeneous gas phase reactions were also important, specially at high temperatures. MgO and BMA were compared. The latter showed a higher catalytic activity, even when the differences in activity decreased with increasing calcination temperature. For BMA, CO{sub 2} was the only product detected, but for MgO significant amounts of CO and C{sub 2}-hydrocarbons were formed. BMA needed a much lower temperature to achieve total conversion of other fuels, e.g. CO and hydrogen, compared to the temperature for total conversion of methane. This shows that BMA-like catalysts are interesting for combustion of fuel mixtures with high CO and H{sub 2} content, e.g. gas produced from gasification of biomass. 74 refs

  1. Final Report - Low Temperature Combustion Chemistry And Fuel Component Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    Recent research into combustion chemistry has shown that reactions at “low temperatures” (700 – 1100 K) have a dramatic influence on ignition and combustion of fuels in virtually every practical combustion system. A powerful class of laboratory-scale experimental facilities that can focus on fuel chemistry in this temperature range is the rapid compression facility (RCF), which has proven to be a versatile tool to examine the details of fuel chemistry in this important regime. An RCF was used in this project to advance our understanding of low temperature chemistry of important fuel compounds. We show how factors including fuel molecular structure, the presence of unsaturated C=C bonds, and the presence of alkyl ester groups influence fuel auto-ignition and produce variable amounts of negative temperature coefficient behavior of fuel ignition. We report new discoveries of synergistic ignition interactions between alkane and alcohol fuels, with both experimental and kinetic modeling studies of these complex interactions. The results of this project quantify the effects of molecular structure on combustion chemistry including carbon bond saturation, through low temperature experimental studies of esters, alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols.

  2. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M


    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  3. Combustion and Plasma Synthesis of High-Temperature Materials (United States)

    Munir, Z. A.; Holt, J. B.


    KEYNOTE ADDRESS. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis: Twenty Years of Search and Findings (A. Merzhanov). SOLID-STATE COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS. Recent Progress in Combustion Synthesis of High-Performance Materials in Japan (M. Koizumi & Y. Miyamoto). Modeling and Numerical Computation of a Nonsteady SHS Process (A. Bayliss & B. Matkowsky). New Models of Quasiperiodic Burning in Combustion Synthesis (S. Margolis, et al.). Modeling of SHS Operations (V. Hlavacek, et al.). Combustion Theory for Sandwiches of Alloyable Materials (R. Armstrong & M. Koszykowski). Observations on the Combustion Reaction Between Thin Foils of Ni and Al (U. Anselmi-Tamburini & Z. Munir). Combustion Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (Y. Kaieda, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Nickel Aluminides (B. Rabin, et al.). Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of NiTi Intermetallics (H. Yi & J. Moore). Shock-Induced Chemical Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (S. Work, et al.). Advanced Ceramics Via SHS (T. DeAngelis & D. Weiss). In-Situ Formation of SiC and SiC-C Blocked Solids by Self-Combustion Synthesis (S. Ikeda, et al.). Powder Purity and Morphology Effects in Combustion-Synthesis Reactions (L. Kecskes, et al.). Simultaneous Synthesis and Densification of Ceramic Components Under Gas Pressure by SHS (Y. Miyamoto & M. Koizumi). The Use of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of High-Density Titanium Diboride (P. Zavitsanos, et al.). Metal--Ceramic Composite Pipes Produced by a Centrifugal-Thermit Process (O. Odawara). Simultaneous Combustion Synthesis and Densification of AIN (S. Dunmead, et al.). Fabrication of a Functionally Gradient Material by Using a Self-Propagating Reaction Process (N. Sata, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Oxide-Carbide Composites (L. Wang, et al.). Heterogeneous Reaction Mechanisms in the Si-C System Under Conditions of Solid Combustion (R. Pampuch, et al.). Experimental Modeling of Particle-Particle Interactions During SHS of TiB2 -Al2O3 (K. Logan

  4. Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle...

  5. Optical Pressure-Temperature Sensor for a Combustion Chamber (United States)

    Wiley, John; Korman, Valentin; Gregory, Don


    A compact sensor for measuring temperature and pressure in a combusti on chamber has been proposed. The proposed sensor would include two optically birefringent, transmissive crystalline wedges: one of sapph ire (Al2O3) and one of magnesium oxide (MgO), the optical properties of both of which vary with temperature and pressure. The wedges wou ld be separated by a vapor-deposited thin-film transducer, which wou ld be primarily temperaturesensitive (in contradistinction to pressur e- sensitive) when attached to a crystalline substrate. The sensor w ould be housed in a rugged probe to survive the extreme temperatures and pressures in a combustion chamber.

  6. High-temperature catalyst for catalytic combustion and decomposition (United States)

    Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor); Jensen, Jeff J. (Inventor)


    A robust, high temperature mixed metal oxide catalyst for propellant composition, including high concentration hydrogen peroxide, and catalytic combustion, including methane air mixtures. The uses include target, space, and on-orbit propulsion systems and low-emission terrestrial power and gas generation. The catalyst system requires no special preheat apparatus or special sequencing to meet start-up requirements, enabling a fast overall response time. Start-up transients of less than 1 second have been demonstrated with catalyst bed and propellant temperatures as low as 50 degrees Fahrenheit. The catalyst system has consistently demonstrated high decomposition effeciency, extremely low decomposition roughness, and long operating life on multiple test particles.

  7. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confer, Keith [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States)


    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  8. CARS Temperature Measurements in a Combustion-Heated Supersonic Jet (United States)

    Tedder, S. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.


    Measurements were made in a combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric free jet from a nozzle with a diameter of 6.35 cm using dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). The resulting mean and standard deviation temperature maps are presented. The temperature results show that the gas temperature on the centerline remains constant for approximately 5 nozzle diameters. As the heated gas mixes with the ambient air further downstream the mean temperature decreases. The standard deviation map shows evidence of the increase of turbulence in the shear layer as the jet proceeds downstream and mixes with the ambient air. The challenges of collecting data in a harsh environment are discussed along with influences to the data. The yield of the data collected is presented and possible improvements to the yield is presented are discussed.

  9. Spectroscopy and kinetics of combustion gases at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, R.K.; Bowman, C.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    This program involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw ring dye laser absorption methods for sensitive detection of radical species and measurement of fundamental spectroscopic parameters at high temperatures; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. Species currently under investigation in the spectroscopic portion of the research include NO and CH{sub 3}; this has necessitated the continued operated at wavelengths in the range 210-230 nm. Shock tube studies of reaction kinetics currently are focussed on reactions involving CH{sub 3} radicals.

  10. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji


    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. High temperature catalyst combustion method and catalyst material; Koonshokubai nenshoho to shokubai zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Koichi [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    The high temperature catalyst combustion has not yet come to the practical stage. However, the application to gas turbine combustion machine, etc. is expected. The high temperature catalyst combustion has next features further than the combustion reaction of homogeneous system, which generates present flame. (1) The burning rate is big, and the combustion efficiency is also high. Stabilized combustion is obtained, because it not becomes partially a high temperature. (2) Thermal The generation of NOx is dependent on the temperature resistant, and over 1500 degrees C , the speed of the NOx generation consists in the anther. (3) It can be correspondent to air and fuel ratio such as the exhaust gas including thin organic compounds. (4) Since the reaction progresses in the catalyst surface, the surface is maintained in comparison with the gas phase reaction in high temperature. Therefore, the furnace volume can be miniaturized. (5) In case of the adiabatic reactor, heat recovery and energy recovery as a power become possible. (NEDO)

  12. Apparatus and method for temperature mapping a turbine component in a high temperature combustion environment (United States)

    Baleine, Erwan; Sheldon, Danny M


    Method and system for calibrating a thermal radiance map of a turbine component in a combustion environment. At least one spot (18) of material is disposed on a surface of the component. An infrared (IR) imager (14) is arranged so that the spot is within a field of view of the imager to acquire imaging data of the spot. A processor (30) is configured to process the imaging data to generate a sequence of images as a temperature of the combustion environment is increased. A monitor (42, 44) may be coupled to the processor to monitor the sequence of images of to determine an occurrence of a physical change of the spot as the temperature is increased. A calibration module (46) may be configured to assign a first temperature value to the surface of the turbine component when the occurrence of the physical change of the spot is determined.

  13. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles (United States)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  14. Development of High Efficiency and Low Emission Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine with Direct EGR Injection (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Kumaran, P.; Yusoff, M. Z.


    Focus on energy and environmental sustainability policy has put automotive research & development directed to developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Diffused flame controlled diesel combustion has reach its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other modes of combustions. Known effective mode of combustion to reduce emission are Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition by suppressing Nitrogen Oxide(NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation. The key control to meet this requirement are chemical composition and distribution of fuel and gas during a combustion process. Most research to accomplish this goal is done by manipulating injected mass flow rate and varying indirect EGR through intake manifold. This research paper shows viable alternative direct combustion control via co-axial direct EGR injection with fuel injection process. A simulation study with OpenFOAM is conducted by varying EGR injection velocity and direct EGR injector diameter performed with under two conditions with non-combustion and combustion. n-heptane (C7H16) is used as surrogate fuel together with 57 species 290 semi-detailed chemical kinetic model developed by Chalmers University is used for combustion simulation. Simulation result indicates viability of co-axial EGR injection as a method for low temperature combustion control.

  15. Densitometry and temperature measurement of combustion gas by X-ray Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Hiroshi, E-mail: [Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kawahara, Nobuyuki [Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Tomita, Eiji [Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Suzuki, Kosuke [Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


    Measurement of combustion gas by high-energy X-ray Compton scattering is reported. Measurement of combustion gas by high-energy X-ray Compton scattering is reported. The intensity of Compton-scattered X-rays has shown a position dependence across the flame of the combustion gas, allowing us to estimate the temperature distribution of the combustion flame. The energy spectra of Compton-scattered X-rays have revealed a significant difference across the combustion reaction zone, which enables us to detect the combustion reaction. These results demonstrate that high-energy X-ray Compton scattering can be employed as an in situ technique to probe inside a combustion reaction.

  16. Numerical investigation of high temperature synthesis gas premixed combustion via ANSYS Fluent


    Pashchenko Dmitry


    A numerical model of the synthesis gas pre-mixed combustion is developed. The research was carried out via ANSYS Fluent software. Verification of the numerical results was carried out using experimental data. A visual comparison of the flame contours that obtained by the synthesis gas combustion for Re = 600; 800; 1000 was performed. A comparison of the wall temperature of the combustion chamber, obtained with the help of the developed model, with the results of a physical experiment was also...

  17. Low temperature complete combustion of dilute propane over Mn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    ratio of about 0⋅2 and calcined at 500–600°C, is found to show the best performance in propane combustion. Propane combustion over the catalyst involves redox (Mars and van. Krevelen) mechanism. The doping of Mn in ZrO2 greatly enhances the mobility of lattice oxygen in Mn-doped ZrO2 catalyst. Acknowledgement.

  18. Combustion Temperature Effect of Diesel Engine Convert to Compressed Natural Gas Engine


    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar


    Effect of combustion temperature in the engine cylinder of diesel engine convert to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine was presents in this study. The objective of this study was to investigate the engine cylinder combustion temperature effect of diesel engine convert to CNG engine on variation engine speed. Problem statement: The hypothesis was that the lower performance of CNG engine was caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder temperature. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder temp...

  19. Numerical investigation of high temperature synthesis gas premixed combustion via ANSYS Fluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashchenko Dmitry


    Full Text Available A numerical model of the synthesis gas pre-mixed combustion is developed. The research was carried out via ANSYS Fluent software. Verification of the numerical results was carried out using experimental data. A visual comparison of the flame contours that obtained by the synthesis gas combustion for Re = 600; 800; 1000 was performed. A comparison of the wall temperature of the combustion chamber, obtained with the help of the developed model, with the results of a physical experiment was also presented. For all cases, good convergence of the results is observed. It is established that a change in the temperature of the syngas/air mixture at the inlet to the combustion chamber does not significantly affect the temperature of the combustion products due to the dissipation of the H2O and CO2 molecules. The obtained results are of practical importance for the design of heat engineering plants with thermochemical heat recovery.

  20. Effects of intake air temperature on homogenous charge compression ignition combustion and emissions with gasoline and n-heptane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianyong


    Full Text Available In a port fuel injection engine, Optimized kinetic process (OKP technology is implemented to realize HCCI combustion with dual-fuel injection. The effects of intake air temperature on HCCI combustion and emissions are investigated. The results show that dual-fuel control prolongs HCCI combustion duration and improves combustion stability. Dual-fuel HCCI combustion needs lower intake air temperature than gasoline HCCI combustion, which reduces the requirements on heat management system. As intake air temperature decreases, air charge increases and maximum pressure rising rate decreases. When intake air temperature is about 55ºC, HCCI combustion becomes worse and misfire happens. In fixed dual fuel content condition, HC and CO emission decreases as intake air temperature increases. The combination of dual-fuel injection and intake air temperature control can expand operation range of HCCI combustion.

  1. Temperature Estimation in the Combustion Chamber of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Safakish


    Full Text Available The mathematical model of heat transfer phenomena is considered at the combustion chamber wall in an internal combustion (IC engine. The mathematical model of proposed phenomena is established with respect to the crank angle. An inverse heat conduction problem is derived at the cylinder wall, and this problem is investigated numerically using Alifanov's regularization method. This problem studied as an optimization problem in which a squared residual functional is minimized with the conjugate gradient method. To show the ability of the proposed method, some test problems are considered.

  2. VOC Reactivity and the Ozone Climate Penalty: Modeled Impacts of Updated Aromatic and Monoterpene Chemistry on the Ozone-temperature Connection (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Safieddine, S.


    Rising temperatures associated with global warming can increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O3) in many regions worldwide, a correlation often described as the "ozone climate penalty". This effect is driven by a variety of underlying chemical, physical, and biological mechanisms, including temperature-dependent reaction rates, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from trees and other plant life, and correlations with other meteorological variables. While many of the most important O3-producing VOCs, such as isoprene, are represented in typical chemical transport models such as GEOS-Chem, others - including aromatics from fires and human activity and monoterpenes from natural sources - are not always included in gas-phase chemistry. Here we examine the impact of increased VOC reactivity on the ozone climate penalty due to a more comprehensive treatment of aromatics and monoterpenes in the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, finding regional impacts not only on daily O3 levels themselves, but also on the O3/temperature relationship. While many uncertainties related to the emissions and chemistry of these species remain, the impact of their inclusion on both current simulations and future projections indicates their importance towards the overall goal of more accurately modeled surface O3.

  3. Spectroscopy and Kinetics of Combustion Gases at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Bowman, Craig [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    This report describes our research program that involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw laser absorption methods for the measurement of concentration time-histories and fundamental spectroscopic parameters for species of interest in combustion; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. This first part of this report covers research during the final three-year support period, i.e. March 2012 – November 2015. The later part of this report summarizes research conducted over multiple-year periods between March 1988 to March 2012. Publications supported by DOE for each period are summarized at the end of that report section.

  4. Determination of surface temperatures in combustion environments using thermographic phosphors; Wandtemperaturmessungen in Verbrennungsumgebungen mithilfe thermographischer Phosphore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruebach, J.; Kissel, T. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). FG Energie- und Kraftwerkstechnik; Dreizler, A. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). FG Reaktive Stroemungen und Messtechnik


    A phosphor thermometry system was characterised with regard to all sources of systematic errors. Exemplary, the point measurement of a surface temperature and the determination of wall-normal temperature gradients within an optically accessible combustion chamber are outlined. Furthermore, the temporal temperature characteristic at the quartz ring of an optically accessible engine is presented. (orig.)

  5. Evaporation and Ignition Characteristics of Water Emulsified Diesel under Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Wang


    Full Text Available The combination of emulsified diesel and low temperature combustion (LTC technology has great potential in reducing engine emissions. A visualization study on the spray and combustion characteristics of water emulsified diesel was conducted experimentally in a constant volume chamber under conventional and LTC conditions. The effects of ambient temperature on the evaporation, ignition and combustion characteristics of water emulsified diesel were studied under cold, evaporating and combustion conditions. Experimental results showed that the ambient temperature had little effect on the spray structures, in terms of the liquid core length, the spray shape and the spray area. However, higher ambient temperature slightly reduced the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD of the spray droplets. The auto-ignition delay time increased significantly with the decrease of the ambient temperature. The ignition process always occurred at the entrainment region near the front periphery of the liquid core. This entrainment region was evolved from the early injected fuel droplets which were heated and mixed by the continuous entrainment until the local temperature and equivalence ratio reached the ignition condition. The maximum value of integrated natural flame luminosity (INFL reduced by 60% when the ambient temperature dropped from 1000 to 800 K, indicating a significant decrease of the soot emissions could be achieved by LTC combustion mode than the conventional diesel engines.

  6. Development of a 2D temperature measurement technique for combustion diagnostics using 2-line atomic fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Johan


    The present thesis is concerned with the development and application of a novel planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for temperature measurements in a variety of combusting flows. Accurate measurement of temperature is an essential task in combustion diagnostics, since temperature is one of the most fundamental quantities for the characterization of combustion processes. The technique is based on two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) from small quantities of atomic indium (In) seeded into the fuel. It has been developed from small-scale experiments in laboratory flames to the point where practical combustion systems can be studied. The technique is conceptually simple and reveals temperature information in the post-flame regions. The viability of the technique has been tested in three extreme measurement situations: in spark ignition engine combustion, in ultra-lean combustion situations such as lean burning aero-engine concepts and, finally, in fuel-rich combustion. TLAF was successfully applied in an optical Sl engine using isooctane as fuel. The wide temperature sensitivity, 700 - 3000 K, of the technique using indium atoms allowed measurements over the entire combustion cycle in the engine to be performed. In applications in lean combustion a potential problem caused by the strong oxidation processes of indium atoms was encountered. This limits measurement times due to deposits of absorbing indium oxide on measurement windows. The seeding requirement is a disadvantage of the technique and can be a limitation in some applications. The results from experiments performed in sooting flames are very promising for thermometry measurements in such environments. Absorption by hydrocarbons and other native species was found to be negligible. Since low laser energies and low seeding concentrations could be used, the technique did not, unlike most other incoherent optical thermometry techniques, suffer interferences from LII of soot particles or LIF from PAH

  7. Low temperature combustion of organic coal-water fuel droplets containing petrochemicals while soaring in a combustion chamber model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.


    Full Text Available The paper examines the integral characteristics (minimum temperature, ignition delay times of stable combustion initiation of organic coal-water fuel droplets (initial radius is 0.3-1.5 mm in the oxidizer flow (the temperature and velocity varied in ranges 500-900 K, 0.5-3 m/s. The main components of organic coal-water fuel were: brown coal particles, filter-cakes obtained in coal processing, waste engine, and turbine oils. The different modes of soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel have been established. The conditions have been set under which it is possible to implement the sustainable soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel droplets. We have compared the ignition characteristics with those defined in the traditional approach (based on placing the droplets on a low-inertia thermocouple junction into the combustion chamber. The paper shows the scale of the influence of heat sink over the thermocouple junction on ignition inertia. An original technique for releasing organic coal-water fuel droplets to the combustion chamber was proposed and tested. The limitations of this technique and the prospects of experimental results for the optimization of energy equipment operation were also formulated.

  8. Facile catalytic combustion of rice husk and burning temperature dependence of the ashes. (United States)

    Xiong, Liangming; Sekiya, Edson H; Wada, Shigetaka; Saito, Kazuya


    In this work, it was discovered and demonstrated that the combustion of rice husk is a catalytic process by the thermoanalytical technique. The catalyst involves the oxides of such transition metals as Mn, Fe, and Cu, which are mainly formed in the initial stage of rice husk combustion and remain in the rice husk ash as an impurity. Mn(2+) ions of various concentrations were reloaded into the HCl-washed husk for cocombustion. As a result, the complete combustion temperature of the husk was decreased exponentially depending on the Mn(2+) concentration. By the facile Mn loading technique using a 0.5 M solution, the combustion temperature can be decreased by approximately 100 degrees C, and the resulting ashes themselves can be a good catalyst in the complete combustion of many other organic compounds. The physicochemical properties and amorphous structure of the ashes from both the raw and HCl-washed husks were found to be strongly dependent on the burning temperature. A decreased complete rice husk combustion temperature can be beneficial in preparing porous amorphous silica with high surface area, high densification, and small Si-O-Si band angles.

  9. Optimization and simulation of low-temperature combustion and heat transfer in an Uhde carbonization furnace (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yongfa; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lei; Liu, Gaihuan


    The temperature distribution inside a low-temperature combustion chamber with circuited flame path during the low temperature pyrolysis of lignite was simulated using the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The temperature distribution in the Uhde combustion chamber showed that the temperature is very non-uniform and could therefore not meet the requirements for industrial heat transfer. After optimizing the furnace, by adding a self-made gas-guide structure to the heat transfer section as well as adjusting the gas flow size in the flame path, the temperature distribution became uniform, and the average temperature (550-650 °C) became suitable for industrial low-temperature pyrolysis. The Realizable k-epsilon model, P-1 model, and the Non-premixed model were used to calculate the temperature distribution for the combustion of coke-oven gas and air inside the combustion chamber. Our simulation is consistent with our experimental results within an error range of 40-80 °C. The one-dimensional unsteady state heat conduction differential equation ρ nolimits_{coal} Cnolimits_{coal} partial T/partial t = partial /partial x(λ partial T/partial x) can be used to calculate the heat transfer process. Our results can serve as a first theoretical base and may enable technological advances with regard to lignite pyrolysis.

  10. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Analysis of Low Temperature Non-Sooting Diesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L


    We have developed a model of the diesel fuel injection process for application to analysis of low temperature non-sooting combustion. The model uses a simplified mixing correlation and detailed chemical kinetics, and analyzes a parcel of fuel as it moves along the fuel jet, from injection into evaporation and ignition. The model predicts chemical composition and soot precursors, and is applied at conditions that result in low temperature non-sooting combustion. Production of soot precursors is the first step toward production of soot, and modeling precursor production is expected to give insight into the overall evolution of soot inside the engine. The results of the analysis show that the model has been successful in describing many of the observed characteristics of low temperature combustion. The model predicts results that are qualitatively similar to those obtained for soot formation experiments at conditions in which the EGR rate is increased from zero to very high values as the fueling rate is kept constant. The model also describes the two paths to achieve non-sooting combustion. The first is smokeless rich combustion and the second is modulated kinetics (MK). The importance of the temperature after ignition and the equivalence ratio at the time of ignition is demonstrated, as these parameters can be used to collapse onto a single line all the results for soot precursors for multiple fueling rates. A parametric analysis indicates that precursor formation increases considerably as the gas temperature in the combustion chamber and the characteristic mixing time are increased. The model provides a chemical kinetic description of low temperature diesel combustion that improves the understanding of this clean and efficient regime of operation.

  11. Influence of increasing combustion temperature on the AMS 14C dating of modern crop phytoliths. (United States)

    Yin, Jinhui; Yang, Xue; Zheng, Yonggang


    Several attempts have been made to directly date phytoliths, but most (14)C results are not consistent with other independent chronologies. Due to the limited dataset, there is not a clear explanation for these discrepancies. Herein, we report the (14)C ages of phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) from contemporary rice and millet crops that were combusted at different temperatures to investigate the relationship between the combustion temperature and resulting (14)C age. Our results show that the (14)C age of PhytOC increases directly with combustion temperature (up to 1100°C) and results in age overestimations of hundreds of years. Considerably older ages are observed at higher temperatures, suggesting that it may be possible to distinguish between two fractions of organic carbon in phytoliths: labile and recalcitrant carbon. These findings challenge the assumption that PhytOC is homogeneous, an assumption made by those who have previously attempted to directly date phytoliths using (14)C.

  12. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musculus, Mark P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Regulatory drivers and market demands for lower pollutant emissions, lower carbon dioxide emissions, and lower fuel consumption motivate the development of clean and fuel-efficient engine operating strategies. Most current production engines use a combination of both in-cylinder and exhaust emissions-control strategies to achieve these goals. The emissions and efficiency performance of in-cylinder strategies depend strongly on flow and mixing processes associated with fuel injection. Various diesel engine manufacturers have adopted close-coupled post-injection combustion strategies to both reduce pollutant emissions and to increase engine efficiency for heavy-duty applications, as well as for light- and medium-duty applications. Close-coupled post-injections are typically short injections that follow a larger main injection in the same cycle after a short dwell, such that the energy conversion efficiency of the post-injection is typical of diesel combustion. Of the various post-injection schedules that have been reported in the literature, effects on exhaust soot vary by roughly an order of magnitude in either direction of increasing or decreasing emissions relative to single injections (O’Connor et al., 2015). While several hypotheses have been offered in the literature to help explain these observations, no clear consensus has been established. For new engines to take full advantage of the benefits that post-injections can offer, the in-cylinder mechanisms that affect emissions and efficiency must be identified and described to provide guidance for engine design.

  13. Temperature Trends in Coal Char Combustion under Oxy-fuel Conditions for the Determination of Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Samira [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hecht, Ethan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Oxy-fuel combustion technology with carbon capture and storage could significantly reduce global CO2 emissions, a greenhouse gas. Implementation can be aided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, which require an accurate understanding of coal particle kinetics as they go through combustion in a range of environments. To understand the kinetics of pulverized coal char combustion, a heated flow reactor was operated under a wide range of experimental conditions. We varied the environment for combustion by modifying the diluent gas, oxygen concentration, gas flow rate, and temperature of the reactor/reacting gases. Measurements of reacting particle temperatures were made for a sub-bituminous and bituminous coal char, in environments with CO2 or N2 as the diluent gas, with 12, 24, and 36 vol-% oxygen concentration, at 50, 80, 100, and 200 standard liters per minute flowing through the reactor, reactor temperatures of 1200, 1400 K, at pressures slightly above atmospheric. The data shows consistent increasing particle temperature with increased oxygen concentration, reactor temperature and higher particle temperatures for N2 diluent than CO2. We also see the effects of CO2 gasification when different ranks of coal are used, and how the reduction in the temperature due to the CO2 diluent is greater for the coal char that has higher reactivity. Quantitative measurements for temperature are not yet complete due to ongoing calibration of detection systems.

  14. Influence of intake air temperature on internal combustion engine operation (United States)

    Birtok-Băneasă, C.; Raţiu, S.; Hepuţ, T.


    This paper presents three methods for reduce thermal losses in the intake system with improvement of airflow and thermal protection. In the experiment are involved two patented devices conceived by the author and one PhD theme device: 1- Dynamic device for air transfer, 2-Integrated thermal deflector, and, 3-Advanced thermal protection. The tests were carried on different vehicle running in real traffic and in the Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, within the specialization “Road vehicle” belonging to the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara, component of Politehnica University of Timişoara. The results have been processed and compared whit the ones obtained without these devices.

  15. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen


    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  16. Comparison of Diesel Spray Combustion in Different High-temperature, High-pressure Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickett, Lyle M.; Genzale, Caroline L.; Bruneaux, Gilles


    Diesel spray experimentation at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions is intended to provide a more fundamental understanding of diesel combustion than can be achieved in engine experiments. This level of understanding is needed to develop the high-fidelity multi-scale CFD models...... boundary conditions at these unique facilities. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (, which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all...... that will be used to optimize future engine designs. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but because of the uniqueness of each facility, there are uncertainties about their operation. For this paper, we describe...

  17. Soot measurements for diesel and biodiesel spray combustion under high temperature highly diluted ambient conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji


    This paper presents the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel, namely fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and diesel fuel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. The KL factor is a parameter for soot concentration, where K is an absorption coefficient and proportional to the number density of soot particles, L is the geometric thickness of the flame along the optical detection axis, and KL factor is proportional to soot volume fraction. The main objective is to explore a combustion regime called high-temperature and highly-diluted combustion (HTHDC) and compare it with the conventional and low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes. The three different combustion regimes are implemented under different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1400 K) and ambient oxygen concentrations (10%, 15%, and 21%). Results are presented in terms of soot temperature and KL factor images, time-resolved pixel-averaged soot temperature, KL factor, and spatially integrated KL factor over the soot area. The time-averaged results for these three regimes are compared for both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Results show complex combined effects of the ambient temperature and oxygen concentration, and that two-color temperature for the HTHDC mode at the 10% oxygen level can actually be lower than the conventional mode. Increasing ambient oxygen and temperature increases soot temperature. Diesel fuel results in higher soot temperature than biodiesel for all three regimes. Results also show that diesel and biodiesel fuels have very different burning and sooting behavior under the three different combustion regimes. For diesel fuel, the HTHDC regime offers better results in terms of lower soot than the conventional and LTC regimes, and the 10% O2, 1400 K ambient condition shows the lowest soot concentration while maintaining a moderate two-color temperature. For biodiesel, the 15% O2, 800 K ambient condition shows some advantages in terms of reducing soot

  18. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)


    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na{sub 2}O{sub (l)}, and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH{sub (g)}. The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH{sub (g)}, NaOH{sub (l)} and H2{sub (g)}. Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar.

  19. Effect of combustion temperature on the atmospheric stability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennise, D.M.; Kamens, R.M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering


    Atmospheric emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) are likely to increase in the future due to an increase in municipal and hazardous waste incineration. There is little information regarding the atmospheric stability of PCDDs and PCDFs. In this study PCDDs and PCDFs were generated from the combustion of a mixture of pentachlorophenol polyvinyl chloride pipe shavings, and wood chips treated with pentachlorophenol. These emissions were injected into outdoor Teflon film chambers and aged in sunlight under typical atmospheric conditions. Incineration experiments were conducted using low temperature combustion (400--470 C range) and high temperature combustion (670--800 C range). Concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs were determined over time by collecting both particulate and vapor phase samples. These compounds were found to exist primarily in the particulate phase. Based on previous results with polybrominated dioxins and furans, the authors expect particulate phase PCDDs and PCDF to slowly degrade over periods of hours in the low temperature experiments. However, in high temperature experiments, they expect particulate phase PCDD and PCDF emissions to be stable. Differences in the morphology and chemical composition of the combustion particles generated can explain the differences in the Atmospheric stability of particle associated organics produced from the low temperature and high temperature experiments.

  20. High temperature corrosion investigation in an oxyfuel combustion test rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Bjurman, M.; Hjörnhede, A


    Oxyfuel firing and subsequent capture of CO2 is a way to reduce CO2 emissions from coal‐fired boilers. Literature is summarized highlighting results which may contribute to understanding of the corrosion processes in an oxyfuel boiler.Tests were conducted in a 500 kWth oxyfuel test facility...... constructed by Brandenburg Technical University to gain understanding into oxyfuel firing. Two air‐cooled corrosion probes were exposed in this oxyfuel combustion chamber where the fuel was lignite. Gas composition was measured at the location of testing. Various alloys from a 2½ Cr steel, austenitic steels...... (perhaps carburized) zone was used as a measure of corrosion rates. The lowest alloyed steel had the highest corrosion rate, and the other austenitic and nickel alloys had much lower corrosion rates. Precipitates in the alloy adjacent the corrosion front were revealed for both Sanicro 28 and C‐276. However...

  1. NEDO project reports. High performance industrial furnace development project - High temperature air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption, a NEDO project 'Developmental research on high efficiency industrial furnaces' was carried out from FY 1993 to FY 1999 by The Japan Industrial Furnaces Manufacturers Association, and the paper outlined the details of the project. Industrial furnaces handled in this R and D can bring 30% reduction of the energy consumption and approximately 50% NOx reduction, and were given the 9th Nikkei global environmental technology prize. In the study of combustion phenomena of high temperature air combustion, the paper arranged characteristics of flame, the base of gaseous fuel flame, the base of liquid fuel flame, the base of solid fuel flame, etc. Concerning high temperature air combustion models for simulation, fluid dynamics and heat transfer models, and reaction and NOx models, etc. As to impacts of high temperature air combustion on performance of industrial furnaces, energy conservation, lowering of pollution, etc. In relation to a guide for the design of high efficiency industrial furnaces, flow charts, conceptual design, evaluation method for heat balance and efficiency using charts, combustion control system, applicability of high efficiency industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  2. On Developing a Spectroscopic System for Fast Gas Temperature Measurements in Combustion Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim; Clausen, Sønnik


    is not high enough to trace fast temperature variations which are of great importance for complete combustion diagnostics. To eliminate the above mentioned shortcoming, a new IR spectroscopic-imaging system has been developed at Risø DTU. The schematic of the system is presented. Results on lab and industrial...

  3. Evaluating metal-organic frameworks for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture via temperature swing adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, J.A.; Sumida, K.; Herm, Z.R.; Krishna, R.; Long, J.R.


    Two representative metal-organic frameworks, Zn4O(BTB)2 (BTB3− = 1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate; MOF-177) and Mg2(dobdc) (dobdc4− = 1,4-dioxido-2,5-benzenedicarboxylate; Mg-MOF-74, CPO-27-Mg), are evaluated in detail for their potential use in post-combustion CO2 capture via temperature swing adsorption

  4. A secular carbon debt from atmospheric high temperature combustion of stem wood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf


    Basically, combustion of woody biomass in high temperature processes that react with atmospheric air results in a long lasting addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. When harvesting large extra amounts of stem tree for energetic use, a global as well as secular time frame is needed to assess...

  5. Temperature and Species Measurements of Combustion Produced by a 9-Point Lean Direct Injector (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.


    This paper presents measurements of temperature and relative species concentrations in the combustion flowfield of a 9-point swirl venturi lean direct injector fueled with JP-8. The temperature and relative species concentrations of the flame produced by the injector were measured using spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS). Results of measurements taken at four flame conditions are presented. The species concentrations reported are measured relative to nitrogen and include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.

  6. Erosion-Corrosion of Iron and Nickel Alloys at Elevated Temperature in a Combustion Gas Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)


    This paper reports on the results of a study that compares the erosion-corrosion behavior of a variety of alloys (Fe- 2¼Cr 1Mo, 304 SS, 310 SS, Incoloy 800, Haynes 230 and a Fe3Al) in a combustion environment. Advanced coal combustion environments, with higher temperatures, are driving re-examination of traditional and examination of new alloys in these hostile environments. In order to simulate conditions in advanced coal combustion boilers, a special erosion apparatus was used to allow for impingement of particles under a low abrasive flux in a gaseous environment comprised of 20 % CO2, 0.05 % HCl, 77 % N2, 3 % O2, and 0.1 % SO2. Tests were conducted at room temperature and 700 °C with ~ 270 μm silica, using an impact velocity of 20 m/s in both air and the simulated combustion gas environment. The erosion-corrosion behavior was characterized by gravimetric measurements and by examination of the degraded surfaces optically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature most of the alloys had similar loss rates. Not surprisingly, at 700 °C the lower chrome-iron alloy had a very high loss rate. The nickel alloys tended to have higher loss rates than the high chrome austenitic alloys.

  7. Research of power fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in industrial boiler based on numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova K.Y.


    Full Text Available The goal of the presented research is to perform numerical modelling of fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in once-through industrial steam boiler. Full size and scaled-down furnace model created with FIRE 3D software and was used for the research. All geometrical features were observed. The baseline information for the low-temperature vortex furnace process are velocity and temperature of low, upper and burner blast, air-fuel ratio, fuel consumption, coal dust size range. The obtained results are: temperature and velocity three dimensional fields, furnace gases and solid fuel ash particles concentration.

  8. A Review on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition and Low Temperature Combustion by Optical Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jin


    Full Text Available Optical diagnostics is an effective method to understand the physical and chemical reaction processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI and low temperature combustion (LTC modes. Based on optical diagnostics, the true process on mixing, combustion, and emissions can be seen directly. In this paper, the mixing process by port-injection and direct-injection are reviewed firstly. Then, the combustion chemical reaction mechanism is reviewed based on chemiluminescence, natural-luminosity, and laser diagnostics. After, the evolution of pollutant emissions measured by different laser diagnostic methods is reviewed and the measured species including NO, soot, UHC, and CO. Finally, a summary and the future directions on HCCI and LTC used optical diagnostics are presented.

  9. Validation of a Grid Independent Spray Model and Fuel Chemistry Mechanism for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yoshikawa


    Full Text Available Spray and combustion submodels used in a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code, KIVACHEMKIN, were validated for Low Temperature Combustion (LTC in a diesel engine by comparing measured and model predicted fuel spray penetrations, and in-cylinder distributions of OH and soot. The conditions considered were long ignition delay, early and late fuel injection cases. It was found that use of a grid independent spray model, called the GASJET model, with an improved n-heptane chemistry mechanism can well predict the heat release rate, not only of the main combustion stage, but also of the cool flame stage. Additionally, the GASJET model appropriately predicts the distributions of OH and soot in the cylinder even when the resolution of the computational mesh is decreased by half, which significantly reduces the required computational time.

  10. Performance of doped Pt/TiO{sub 2} (W{sup 6+}) catalysts for combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthimiou, Panagiotis; Ioannides, Theophilos; Verykios, Xenophon E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Patras (Greece)


    The oxidation of benzene and ethylacetate, present in trace amounts in air, over Pt supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} (W{sup 6+}) carriers has been studied. It was found that doping of the TiO{sub 2} support with W{sup 6+} cations has a positive effect on the activity of Pt catalysts for benzene and ethylacetate oxidation. A maximum in activity enhancement has been observed at a W{sup 6+} content of 0.45at% in the TiO{sub 2} support. The Pt/TiO{sub 2} (0.45at% W{sup 6+}) catalyst is over two orders of magnitude more active than the Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in the case of ethylacetate oxidation and an order of magnitude more active in the case of benzene oxidation. Doping of TiO{sub 2} with W{sup 6+} cations enhances its activity for ethylacetate degradation towards smaller organic intermediates, such as ethanol, acetic acid and ethylene, and it also affects product distribution. The enhanced activity of the Pt/TiO{sub 2} (W{sup 6+}) catalysts is attributed to complementary bifunctional steps occurring on sites offered by Pt metal and by the support. During oxidation of benzene-ethylacetate-water mixtures, benzene oxidation is strongly suppressed in the presence of ethylacetate, while water acts as an inhibitor for both volatile organic compounds (VOC) oxidations

  11. HTP kinetics studies on isolated elementary combustion reactions over wide temperature ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontijn, A.; Adusei, G.Y.; Hranisavlevic, J.; Bajaj, P.N. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)


    The goals of this project are to provide accurate data on the temperature dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions, (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made mainly by using the pseudo-static HTP (high-temperature photochemistry) technique. While continuing rate coefficient measurements, further aspects of kinetics research are being explored. Thus, starting from the data obtained, a method for predicting the temperature dependence of rate coefficients of oxygen-atom olefin experiment and confirms the underlying mechanistic assumptions. Mechanistic information of another sort, i.e. by product analysis, has recently become accessible with the inauguration of our heated flow tube mass spectrometer facility; early results are reported here. HTP experiments designed to lead to measurements of product channels by resonance fluorescence have started.

  12. The research and development of in situ non intrusive optical and temperature diagnostics in an internal combustion engine

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, T S


    Novel instrumentation has been developed and evaluated in a low-cost, purpose built, single-cylinder internal combustion engine test facility designed to simulate many of the combustion features that are common between an internal combustion engine, a gas turbine combustor and a steel rolling furnace. High bandwidth in-cylinder surface temperature measurements are demonstrated with a new application of platinum thin film resistance thermometers. These gauges are exposed to the combustion gases and are mounted to both the cylinder head and piston. It is shown that calculation of flame speed, determination of heat flux levels and flame structure observation are possible. Fibre optic probes capable of high frequency spectral measurements of the combustion emission are presented. The spectral measurements are shown to complement the temperature measurement by being able to differentiate the flame front from the general combustion emission and hot by-products. Beyond this, other optical techniques have been explor...

  13. Ideal Temperature Rise Due to Constant-pressure Combustion of a JP-4 Fuel (United States)

    Huntley, S C


    The ideal temperature rise due to the constant-pressure combustion of a methylene (CH sub 2) fuel was calculated. CH sub 2 fuel closely approximates MIL-F-5624 grade JP-4 fuel presently used in most turbojet and ram-jet engines. Charts are presented from which the ideal temperature rise or the ideal quantity of fuel required to obtain a specified combustion temperature may be obtained for any flight condition likely to be encountered with turbojet or ram-jet engines using this fuel. The charts are applicable only to a fuel having a hydrogen-carbon mass ratio of 0.168. They include a range of fuel-air ratios from 0 to 1.2 fraction of stoichiometric fuel-air ratio with dissociation taken into account, inlet-air temperatures from 400 degrees to 1600 degrees R, and combustion pressures from 1/16 to 64 atmospheres. The use of the charts is illustrated by several examples.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gras’Ko


    Full Text Available The paper describes choosing and substantiating the control laws, forming the appearance the automatic control system for regulated high temperature main combustion chamber of maneuverable aircraft multimode gas turbine engine aimed at sustainable and effective functioning of main combustion chamber within a broad operation range.

  15. Hydrogen detonation and detonation transition data from the High-Temperature Combustion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T.; Finfrock, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others


    The BNL High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) is an experimental research tool capable of investigating the effects of initial thermodynamic state on the high-speed combustion characteristic of reactive gas mixtures. The overall experimental program has been designed to provide data to help characterize the influence of elevated gas-mixture temperature (and pressure) on the inherent sensitivity of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonation, on the potential for flames accelerating in these mixtures to transition into detonations, on the effects of gas venting on the flame-accelerating process, on the phenomena of initiation of detonations in these mixtures by jets of hot reactant products, and on the capability of detonations within a confined space to transmit into another, larger confined space. This paper presents results obtained from the completion of two of the overall test series that was designed to characterize high-speed combustion phenomena in initially high-temperature gas mixtures. These two test series are the intrinsic detonability test series and the deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) test series. A brief description of the facility is provided below.

  16. Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion (United States)

    Einecke, S.; Schulz, C.; Sick, V.


    A technique based on planar laser-induced fluorescence of 3-pentanone, for measurements of absolute concentration, temperature and fuel/air equivalence ratios in turbulent, high-pressure combustion systems such as an internal combustion engine is presented. Quasi-simultaneous excitation with 248 nm and 308 nm of 3-pentanone that is used as a fluorescence tracer doped to iso-octane, yields pairs of strongly temperature-dependent fluorescence images. Previous investigations have resulted in information on temperature and pressure dependence of absorption cross-sections and fluorescence quantum yields. Using these data the ratio of corresponding fluorescence images can be converted to temperature images. Instantaneous temperature distribution fields in the compression stroke and in the unburned end-gas of an SI engine were measured. The temperature fields obtained from the two-line technique are used to correct the original tracer-LIF images in order to evaluate quantitative fuel distributions in terms of number densities and fuel/air equivalence ratio.

  17. A high-temperature shape memory alloy sensor for combustion monitoring and control (United States)

    Shaw, Greg S.; Snyder, Joseph T.; Prince, Troy S.; Willett, Michael C.


    Innovations in the use of thin film SMA materials have enabled the development of a harsh environment pressure sensor useful for combustion monitoring and control. Development of such active combustion control has been driven by rising fuel costs and environmental pressures. Active combustion control, whether in diesel, spark ignited or turbine engines requires feedback to the engine control system in order to adjust the quantity, timing, and placement of fuel charges. To be fully effective, sensors must be integrated into each engine in a manner that will allow continuous combustion monitoring (turbine engines) or monitoring of each discrete combustion event (diesel and SI engines). To date, the sensors available for detection of combustion events and processes have suffered from one or more of three problems: 1) Low sensitivity: The sensors are unable to provide and adequate signal-to-noise ratio in the high temperature and electrically noisy environment of the engine compartment. Attempts to overcome this difficulty have focused on heat removal and/or temperature compensation or more challenging high temperature electronics. 2) Low reliability: Sensors and/or sensor packages have been unable to withstand the engine environment for extended periods of time. Issues have included gross degradation and more subtle issues such as migration of dopants in semiconductor sensor materials. 3) High cost: The materials that have been used, the package concepts employed, and the required support electronics have all contributed to the high cost of the few sensor systems available. Prices have remained high due to the limited demand associated with the poor reliability and the high price itself. Ternary titanium nickel alloys, with platinum group metal substitution for the nickel, are deposited as thin films on MEMS-based diaphragms and patterned to form strain gages of a standard metal film configuration. The strain induced phase transformation of the SMA is used as a

  18. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assanis, Dennis N. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Atreya, Arvind [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chen, Jyh-Yuan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Wai K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dibble, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Edwards, Chris [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Filipi, Zoran S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gerdes, Christian [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Im, Hong [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lavoie, George A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wooldridge, Margaret S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    The objective of the University consortium was to investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines and develop methods to extend those boundaries to improve the fuel economy of these engines, while operating with ultra low emissions. This work involved studies of thermal effects, thermal transients and engine management, internal mixing and stratification, and direct injection strategies for affecting combustion stability. This work also examined spark-assisted Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and exhaust after-treatment so as to extend the range and maximize the benefit of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/ Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) operation. In summary the overall goals were; Investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines; Develop methods to extend LTC boundaries to improve the fuel economy of HCCI engines fueled on gasoline and alternative blends, while operating with ultra low emissions; and Investigate alternate fuels, ignition and after-treatment for LTC and Partially Premixed compression Ignition (PPCI) engines.

  19. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - A review (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Razzak, Shaikh A.; Hossain, Mohammad M.


    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The main sources of VOCs are petroleum refineries, fuel combustions, chemical industries, decomposition in the biosphere and biomass, pharmaceutical plants, automobile industries, textile manufacturers, solvents processes, cleaning products, printing presses, insulating materials, office supplies, printers etc. The most common VOCs are halogenated compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds, and ethers. High concentrations of these VOCs can cause irritations, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Some VOCs are also carcinogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the emission of VOCs. Among the available technologies, the catalytic oxidation of VOCs is the most popular because of its versatility of handling a range of organic emissions under mild operating conditions. Due to that fact, there are numerous research initiatives focused on developing advanced technologies for the catalytic destruction of VOCs. This review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of VOCs. Review also describes various VOCs and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.

  20. Effect of the initial pressure and temperature on the combustion characteristics of hydrogen-containing mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebeko, IU.N.; Korol' chenko, A.IA.; Tsarichenko, S.G.; Navtsenia, V.IU.; Malkin, V.L.


    Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of initial pressure and temperature on the normal combustion velocity of stoichiometric hydrogen-containing mixtures with additions of steam and on the lower concentration limit of flame propagation of oxyhydrogen gas ({sup 2}H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}) in steam. It is shown that the baric index of the normal combustion velocity is positive for hydrogen-air mixtures containing no steam and negative for mixtures with a steam content greater than 5 percent. In oxyhydrogen gas mixtures with saturated and superheated steam, the initial pressure is found to have little effect on the lower concentration limit of flame propagation. 18 refs.

  1. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei


    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  2. Smoldering Combustion


    Rein, G


    Smoldering combustion is the slow, low temperature, flameless burning of porous fuels and is the most persistent type of combustion phenomena. It is especially common in porous fuels which form a char on heating, like cellulosic insulation, polyurethane foam or peat. Smoldering combustion is among the leading causes of residential fires, and it is a source of safety concerns in industrial premises as well as in commercial and space flights. Smoldering is also the dominant combustion phenomena...

  3. Off-design performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle: effects of ambient temperature (United States)

    Chi, Jinling; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Shijie; Xiao, Yunhan


    The present work investigates the influence of ambient temperature on the steady-state off-design thermodynamic performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle. A sensitivity analysis of the CLC reactor system was conducted, which shows that the parameters that influence the temperatures of the CLC reactors most are the flow rate and temperature of air entering the air reactor. For the ambient temperature variation, three off-design control strategies have been assumed and compared: 1) without any Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) control, 2) IGV control to maintain air reactor temperature and 3) IGV control to maintain constant fuel reactor temperature, aside from fuel flow rate adjusting. Results indicate that, compared with the conventional combined cycle, due to the requirement of pressure balance at outlet of the two CLC reactors, CLC combined cycle shows completely different off-design thermodynamic characteristics regardless of the control strategy adopted. For the first control strategy, temperatures of the two CLC reactors both rise obviously as ambient temperature increases. IGV control adopted by the second and the third strategy has the effect to maintain one of the two reactors' temperatures at design condition when ambient temperature is above design point. Compare with the second strategy, the third would induce more severe decrease of efficiency and output power of the CLC combined cycle.

  4. Intelligent Detector of Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder Pressure and Sensitivity Temperature Coefficient Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beirong Zheng


    Full Text Available The detecting device based on mechanical mechanism is far from the measurement of internal combustion engine cylinder explosion and compression pressure. This pressure detection is under the environment of pulsed gas (over 500 times per one minute and mechanical impactive vibration. Piezoresistive detection with silicon on insulator (SOI strain gauges to pressure seems to be a good solution to meet such special applications. In this work, separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX wafer was used to fabricate the high temperature pressure sensor chip. For high accuracy and wide temperature range application, this paper also presents a novel pressure sensitivity temperature coefficient (TCS compensation method, using integrated constant current network. A quantitative compensation formula is introduced in mathematics. During experiments, the absolute value of the compensated TCS is easy to be 10 × 10−6/°C~100 × 10−6/°C by individual adjustment and calibration of each device’s temperature compensation. Therefore, the feasibility and practicability of this technology are tested. Again, the disadvantages are discussed after the research of the experiment data and the improvement methods are also given in the designing period. This technology exhibits the great potential practical value of internal combustion engine cylinder pressure with volume manufacturing.

  5. VOC emissions chambers (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to support the development of test methods and reference materials for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from building materials and furnishings,...

  6. Investigation of Thermographic Phosphors for Gas-Phase Temperature Measurements in Combustion Applications (United States)

    Witkowski, Dustin

    The feasibility of a planar gas temperature diagnostic, termed aerosol phosphor thermometry (APT), was investigated for combustion applications. APT has several advantages over other thermometry methods, such as the potential to measure both the reactants and products of a combusting flow, and the capability of providing simultaneous spatially-resolved planar temperature and velocity measurements. Unfortunately, thermal quenching of the phosphor signal due to nonradiative relaxation at elevated temperatures has limited the state-of-the-art for accurate single-shot APT to measurements below approximately 800 K. Therefore, the primary focus of this work was to establish a methodology that utilizes configurational coordinate diagrams in combination with host-referred binding energy diagrams to systematically select new phosphors for high-temperature thermometry applications. Oxide hosts doped with trivalent ions were investigated, and based on the analysis Ce3+ doped ortho-phosphates were selected for testing. All selected phosphors had high measured quenching temperatures (T50>800 K), partially validating the methodology. One particular phosphor, Ce:GdPO4, had a quenching temperature of T50=1000 K and demonstrated usable signal levels out to 1300 K, representing a substantial improvement on the current state-of-the-art from a temperature quenching perspective. Following this, an experimental setup designed to characterize the properties of thermographic phosphors in an environment representative of APT applications was presented. Luminescence imaging and spectrally-resolved measurements of aerosolized phosphor particles in a seeded jet were presented. A significant result of this work was the ability to quantitatively assess systematic errors due to radiative trapping in the measured spectra of the furnace by making a head-to-head comparison with data collected in the jet. Finally, the current viability of APT for high-temperature applications was assessed by using

  7. Studies and development of high-temperature catalytic materials for application in gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, Dennis; Thevenin, Philippe [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology


    The catalyst system should fulfil the following conditions: (1) Low pressure drop, (2) Ignition of the fuel at the compressor outlet temperature, i.e. 300 - 400 deg C, (3) Resistance to thermal shocks, and (4) Resistance to sintering and deactivation for at least 1 year (8000 hours). As a single component can hardly retain all these properties, material science must then be combined with combustion technology and chemical reaction engineering. The work was then divided in four main tasks; material development, catalytic activity and kinetics measurement, mathematical modelling and design and engineering. The material development was devoted to the different components of a catalytic system, monolith, washcoat and active phase. The preparation method has proven to be of great importance with respect to the BET surface area of the prepared powder as well as the catalytic activity. A carbonate precipitation and a sol-gel procedure were developed at our laboratory. The use of modifiers in the sol-gel method has shown to affect the surface properties as well as the catalytic activity in ethanol and diesel combustion. Various catalytic materials have then been prepared: spinel, perovskite, hexaaluminate and pyrochlore. The hexaaluminate have the highest resistance to sintering in term of BET surface area when aged in 10% steam at temperature up to 1400 deg C for 4 hours. However, the LaAl{sub 11}O{sub 18} hexaaluminate does not have sufficient catalytic activity to ignite the fuel at 300-400 deg C. Substitution with transition metals have then been examined. In the case of ethanol combustion, the Mn-substituted La-hexaaluminate has a T{sub 50} (temperature for 50% conversion) of about 350 deg C. The noble metal-supported catalysts reveal a much higher activity with a T{sub 50} below 250 deg C. However their thermal stability may limit their use to temperatures below 900 deg C. The need of more thermal stable materials lead to the study of NZP-type material, yttrium

  8. Combustion synthesis of molybdenum silicides and borosilicides for ultrahigh-temperature structural applications (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiul

    Molybdenum silicides and borosilicides are promising structural materials for gas-turbine power plants. A major challenge, however, is to simultaneously achieve high oxidation resistance and acceptable mechanical properties at high temperatures. For example, molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) has excellent oxidation resistance and poor mechanical properties, while Mo-rich silicides such as Mo5Si3 (called T 1) have much better mechanical properties but poor oxidation resistance. One approach is based on the fabrication of MoSi2-T 1 composites that combine high oxidation resistance of MoSi2 and good mechanical properties of T1. Another approach involves the addition of boron to Mo-rich silicides for improving their oxidation resistance through the formation of a borosilicate surface layer. In particular, Mo 5SiB2 (called T2) phase is considered as an attractive material. In the thesis, MoSi2-T1 composites and materials based on T2 phase are obtained by mechanically activated SHS. Use of SHS compaction (quasi-isostatic pressing) significantly improves oxidation resistance of the obtained MoSi2-T1 composites. Combustion of Mo-Si-B mixtures for the formation of T2 phase becomes possible if the composition is designed for the addition of more exothermic reactions leading to the formation of molybdenum boride. These mixtures exhibit spin combustion, the characteristics of which are in good agreement with the spin combustion theory. Oxidation resistance of the obtained Mo-Si-B materials is independent on the concentration of Mo phase in the products so that the materials with a higher Mo content are preferable because of better mechanical properties. Also, T2 phase has been obtained by the chemical oven combustion synthesis technique.

  9. Analytical approximations for temperature dependent thermophysical properties of supercritical diesel fuel surrogates used in combustion modeling (United States)

    Kumar, Abhinav; Saini, Vishnu; Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao


    Supercritical fluid technology is introduced to combat the critical challenges related with emissions, incomplete and clean diesel fuel combustion. The chemical kinetics of diesel fuel is a strong function of temperature. As surrogate fuels have a potential to represent a real diesel fuel, thermophysical properties of such fuels have been studied in this present work as a function of temperature. Further, two diesel surrogate fuels which have been identified as the components of actual diesel fuel for jet engines are studied and thermophysical properties of these two surrogates are evaluated as a function of temperature at critical pressure. In addition, the accuracy and reliability of the developed correlations is estimated using two statistical parameters such as Absolute Average of Relative Error (AARE) and Sum of Average Residues (SAR). Results show an excellent agreement between the standard data and the correlated property values.

  10. Catalytic Palladium Film Deposited by Scalable Low-Temperature Aqueous Combustion. (United States)

    Voskanyan, Albert A; Li, Chi-Ying Vanessa; Chan, Kwong-Yu


    This article describes a novel method for depositing a dense, high quality palladium thin film via a one-step aqueous combustion process which can be easily scaled up. Film deposition of Pd from aqueous solutions by conventional chemical or electrochemical methods is inhibited by hydrogen embrittlement, thus resulting in a brittle palladium film. The method outlined in this work allows a direct aqueous solution deposition of a mirror-bright, durable Pd film on substrates including glass and glassy carbon. This simple procedure has many advantages including a very high deposition rate (>10 cm 2 min -1 ) and a relatively low deposition temperature (250 °C), which makes it suitable for large-scale industrial applications. Although preparation of various high-quality oxide films has been successfully accomplished via solution combustion synthesis (SCS) before, this article presents the first report on direct SCS production of a metallic film. The mechanism of Pd film formation is discussed with the identification of a complex formed between palladium nitrate and glycine at low temperature. The catalytic properties and stability of films are successfully tested in alcohol electrooxidation and electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction. It was observed that combustion deposited Pd film on a glassy carbon electrode showed excellent catalytic activity in ethanol oxidation without using any binder or additive. We also report for the first time the concept of a reusable "catalytic flask" as illustrated by the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. The Pd film uniformly covers the inner walls of the flask and eliminates the catalyst separation step. We believe the innovative concept of a reusable catalytic flask is very promising and has the required features to become a commercial product in the future.

  11. Spatially Resolved Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Distributions in Supersonic Combustion Facilities by TDLAT (United States)

    Busa, K. M.; McDaniel J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; DePiro, M. J.; Capriotti, D. P.; Gaffney, R. L.


    Detailed knowledge of the internal structure of high-enthalpy flows can provide valuable insight to the performance of scramjet combustors. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is often employed to measure temperature and species concentration. However, TDLAS is a path-integrated line-of-sight (LOS) measurement, and thus does not produce spatially resolved distributions. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography (TDLAT) is a non-intrusive measurement technique for determining two-dimensional spatially resolved distributions of temperature and species concentration in high enthalpy flows. TDLAT combines TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction. More than 2500 separate line-of-sight TDLAS measurements are analyzed in order to produce highly resolved temperature and species concentration distributions. Measurements have been collected at the University of Virginia's Supersonic Combustion Facility (UVaSCF) as well as at the NASA Langley Direct-Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility (DCSCTF). Due to the UVaSCF s unique electrical heating and ability for vitiate addition, measurements collected at the UVaSCF are presented as a calibration of the technique. Measurements collected at the DCSCTF required significant modifications to system hardware and software designs due to its larger measurement area and shorter test duration. Tomographic temperature and water vapor concentration distributions are presented from experimentation on the UVaSCF operating at a high temperature non-reacting case for water vitiation level of 12%. Initial LOS measurements from the NASA Langley DCSCTF operating at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are also presented. Results show the capability of TDLAT to adapt to several experimental setups and test parameters.

  12. Evaluation of models for the low temperature combustion of alkanes through interpretation of pressure-temperature ignition diagrams. (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin J; Griffiths, John F; Fairweather, Michael; Tomlin, Alison S


    The purpose of this paper is to show the application of global uncertainty analysis to comprehensive and reduced kinetic models as a tool to identify important thermochemical and reaction rate parameters as determinants of the conditions leading to autoignition. Propane oxidation is taken as the test case. The simulation of experimental investigations of the cool flames and two-stage ignitions, via the pressure-temperature ignition diagram, show that existing kinetic models for the low temperature combustion of propane at sub-atmospheric pressures reflect a greater reactivity than seems to be appropriate. That is, the models lead to a prediction of two-stage ignition at pressures somewhat lower and with ignition delays shorter than is found experimentally. The inconsistency between experiment and numerical simulation seems not to be an inherent problem of the qualitative structure of the models, but may derive from uncertainties in the parameters within the mechanism. By use of "brute force", Morris-one-at-a-time and Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that uncertainties in only a small number of parameters, and falling well within the errors that may reasonably be assigned, can shift the response appropriately. Moreover, it appears that in the low temperature combustion regime, thermochemistry is at least as, if not more, important than the reaction rates, yet usually receives less attention within sensitivity studies. In the present case, the main factors controlling the temperature reached in the first stage of two-stage ignition and the time to ignition appear to be connected with the thermochemistry of three specific hydroperoxyalkyl radicals and their derivatives. Other factors, such as heat and mass transport are also addressed, and their effects are mitigated to some extent by evaluation of initial and revised models against experimental data for ignition delay obtained under microgravity. The results highlight more general issues that pertain to the numerical

  13. Ash deposition and high temperature corrosion at combustion of aggressive fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O. [I/S Fynsvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Odense (Denmark); Henriksen, N. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)


    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission, ELSAM is investigating the possibilities of using biomass - mainly straw - for combustion in high efficiency power plants. As straw has very high contents of chlorine and potassium, a fuel with high corrosion and ash deposition propensities has been introduced. ELSAM has investigated 3 ultra supercritical boiler concepts for combustion of straw alone or together with coal: (1) PF boilers with a relatively low share of straw, (2) CFB boilers with low to high share of straw and (3) vibrating grate boilers with 100% straw. These investigations has mainly been full-scale tests with straw fed into existing boilers. Corrosion tests have been performed in these boilers using temperature regulated probes and in-plant test tubes in existing superheaters. The corrosion has been determined by detailed measurements of wall thickness reduction and light optical microscopic measurements of the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion. Corrosion mechanisms have been evaluated using SEM/EDX together with thermodynamical considerations based on measurements of the chemical environment in the flue gas. Ash deposition is problematic in CFB boilers and in straw fired boilers, especially in years with high potassium and chlorine content of the straw. This ash deposition also is related to condensation of KCl and can probably only be handled by improved cleaning devices. (EG)

  14. Motion of water droplets in the counter flow of high-temperature combustion products (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Strizhak, P. A.


    This paper presents the experimental studies of the deceleration, reversal, and entrainment of water droplets sprayed in counter current flow to a rising stream of high-temperature (1100 K) combustion gases. The initial droplets velocities 0.5-2.5 m/s, radii 10-230 μm, relative volume concentrations 0.2·10-4-1.8·10-4 (m3 of water)/(m3 of gas) vary in the ranges corresponding to promising high-temperature (over 1000 K) gas-vapor-droplet applications (for example, polydisperse fire extinguishing using water mist, fog, or appropriate water vapor-droplet veils, thermal or flame treatment of liquids in the flow of combustion products or high-temperature air; creating coolants based on flue gas, vapor and water droplets; unfreezing of granular media and processing of the drossed surfaces of thermal-power equipment; ignition of liquid and slurry fuel droplets). A hardware-software cross-correlation complex, high-speed (up to 105 fps) video recording tools, panoramic optical techniques (Particle Image Velocimetry, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, Interferometric Particle Imagine, Shadow Photography), and the Tema Automotive software with the function of continuous monitoring have been applied to examine the characteristics of the processes under study. The scale of the influence of initial droplets concentration in the gas flow on the conditions and features of their entrainment by high-temperature gases has been specified. The dependencies Red = f(Reg) and Red' = f(Reg) have been obtained to predict the characteristics of the deceleration of droplets by gases at different droplets concentrations.

  15. Motion of water droplets in the counter flow of high-temperature combustion products (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Strizhak, P. A.


    This paper presents the experimental studies of the deceleration, reversal, and entrainment of water droplets sprayed in counter current flow to a rising stream of high-temperature (1100 K) combustion gases. The initial droplets velocities 0.5-2.5 m/s, radii 10-230 μm, relative volume concentrations 0.2·10-4-1.8·10-4 (m3 of water)/(m3 of gas) vary in the ranges corresponding to promising high-temperature (over 1000 K) gas-vapor-droplet applications (for example, polydisperse fire extinguishing using water mist, fog, or appropriate water vapor-droplet veils, thermal or flame treatment of liquids in the flow of combustion products or high-temperature air; creating coolants based on flue gas, vapor and water droplets; unfreezing of granular media and processing of the drossed surfaces of thermal-power equipment; ignition of liquid and slurry fuel droplets). A hardware-software cross-correlation complex, high-speed (up to 105 fps) video recording tools, panoramic optical techniques (Particle Image Velocimetry, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, Interferometric Particle Imagine, Shadow Photography), and the Tema Automotive software with the function of continuous monitoring have been applied to examine the characteristics of the processes under study. The scale of the influence of initial droplets concentration in the gas flow on the conditions and features of their entrainment by high-temperature gases has been specified. The dependencies Red = f(Reg) and Red' = f(Reg) have been obtained to predict the characteristics of the deceleration of droplets by gases at different droplets concentrations.

  16. Source apportionment of ambient VOCs in Delhi City. (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Sengupta, B; Dutta, S A


    Source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) model was carried using a data set of 360 four hourly samples collected at 15 locations of five categories namely residential, commercial, industrial, traffic intersections and petrol pumps during August 2001-July 2002 in Delhi. The results indicate that emissions from diesel internal combustion engines dominate in Delhi. Vehicular exhaust and evaporative emissions also contribute significantly to VOCs in ambient air. Emission of VOCs associated with sewage sludge was also found to contribute to VOCs in Delhi's air. This points to the fact that open defecation and leaking sewage manholes are a problem in all categories of locations.

  17. Source apportionment of ambient VOCs in Delhi City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Anjali [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, 89/B, Dr.A.B.Road, Worli, Mumbai-400 018 (India); Sengupta, B.; Dutta, S.A. [Central Pollution Control Board, Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar, Delhi-110032 (India)


    Source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) model was carried using a data set of 360 four hourly samples collected at 15 locations of five categories namely residential, commercial, industrial, traffic intersections and petrol pumps during August 2001-July 2002 in Delhi. The results indicate that emissions from diesel internal combustion engines dominate in Delhi. Vehicular exhaust and evaporative emissions also contribute significantly to VOCs in ambient air. Emission of VOCs associated with sewage sludge was also found to contribute to VOCs in Delhi's air. This points to the fact that open defecation and leaking sewage manholes are a problem in all categories of locations. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velibor V Vujović


    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithm and results of a computer program for calculation of complex equilibrium composition for the high temperature fossil fuel combustion products. The method of determining the composition of high temperatures combustion products at the temperatures appearing in the open cycle MHD power generation is given. The determination of combustion product composition is based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The number of equations to be solved is reduced by using variational principles and a method of geometric programming and is equal to the sum of the numbers of elements and phases. A short description of the computer program for the calculation of the composition and an example of the results are also given.

  19. Sulfur Removal in Bio-Briquette Combustion Using Seashell Waste Adsorbent at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Presently, biomass is mostly utilized as co-fuel in coal combustion in view of energy diversification and emission reduction. However, since the coal content of bio-briquettes is high (up to 80% in this study, gas emissions such as those of SOx still occur. Therefore, the introduction of SO2 adsorbent is common in coal briquette or bio-briquette combustion. A calcium-based material is usually used for this goal. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of desulfurization temperature and Ca/S ratio (Ca = calcium content in adsorbent; S = sulfur content in coal and biomass on desulfurization efficiency and kinetics. The ratio of coal to biomass (palm kernel shell/PKS was fixed at 90:10 (wt/wt and the ratios of Ca to S were varied at 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, 1.75:1 and 2:1. The mixtures of coal, PKS and adsorbent were briquetted at a molding pressure of 6 ton/cm2 with Jatropha curcas seeds and starch mixture as binding agents. Desulfurization was performed within a temperature range of 300 to 500°C for 720 seconds at an airflow rate of 1.2 L/min. The results showed that the highest desulfurization efficiency (90.6% was associated with the Ca/S ratio of 2:1 and temperature of 400°C. Moreover, the highest reaction rate constant of desulfurization was 0.280 min-1.

  20. MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology applied in China: combustion temperature, flue gas loss and economic considerations. (United States)

    Fu, Zhe; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Xiangpeng; Shao, Jingai; Wang, Ke; Chen, Hanping


    To investigate the application prospect of MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology in China, the technical and economical analyses of a municipal solid waste (MSW) grate furnace with oxy-fuel incineration technology in comparison to co-incineration with coal are performed. The rated capacity of the grate furnace is 350 tonnes MSW per day. When raw MSW is burned, the amount of pure oxygen injected should be about 14.5 wt.% under 25% O2 oxy-fuel combustion conditions with the mode of oxygen supply determined by the actual situation. According to the isothermal combustion temperature (Ta), the combustion effect of 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is identical with that of MSW co-incineration with 20% mass ratio of coal (α = 1.91). However, the former is better than the latter in terms of plant cost, flue gas loss, and environmental impact. Despite the lower costs of MSW co-incineration with mass ratio of 5% and 10% coal (α = 1.91), 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is far more advantageous in combustion and pollutant control. Conventional combustion flue gas loss (q2) for co-incineration with 0% coal, 20% coal, 10% coal, 5% coal are around 17%, 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively, while that under the condition of 25% O2 oxy-enriched combustion is approximately 12% (α = 1.43). Clearly, q2 of oxy-enriched incineration is less than other methods under the same combustion conditions. High moisture content presents challenges for MSW incineration, therefore it is necessary to dry MSW prior to incineration, and making oxy-enriched incineration technology achieves higher combustion temperature and lower flue gas loss. In conclusion, based on technical and economical analysis, MSW oxy-enriched incineration retains obvious advantages and demonstrates great future prospects for MSW incineration in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov


    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and

  2. High temperature high velocity direct power extraction using an open-cycle oxy-combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    The implementation of oxy-fuel technology in fossil-fuel power plants may contribute to increased system efficiencies and a reduction of pollutant emissions. One technology that has potential to utilize the temperature of undiluted oxy-combustion flames is open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators. These systems can be configured as a topping cycle and provide high enthalpy, electrically conductive flows for direct conversion of electricity. This report presents the design and modeling strategies of a MHD combustor operating at temperatures exceeding 3000 K. Throughout the study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were extensively used as a design and optimization tool. A lab-scale 60 kWth model was designed, manufactured and tested as part of this project. A fully-coupled numerical method was developed in ANSYS FLUENT to characterize the heat transfer in the system. This study revealed that nozzle heat transfer may be predicted through a 40% reduction of the semi-empirical Bartz correlation. Experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical evaluation, with the combustor exhibiting a favorable performance when tested during extended time periods. A transient numerical method was employed to analyze fuel injector geometries for the 60-kW combustor. The ANSYS FLUENT study revealed that counter-swirl inlets achieve a uniform pressure and velocity ratio when the ports of the injector length to diameter ratio (L/D) is 4. An angle of 115 degrees was found to increase distribution efficiency. The findings show that this oxy-combustion concept is capable of providing a high-enthalpy environment for seeding, in order to render the flow to be conductive. Based on previous findings, temperatures in the range of 2800-3000 K may enable magnetohydrodynamic power extraction. The heat loss fraction in this oxy-combustion system, based on CFD and analytical calculations, at optimal operating conditions, was estimated to be less than 10 percent

  3. Monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion processes via ultrasound. [Ultrasonic thermometry proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C.; Mulcahey, T. P.


    A study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion systems has been carried out. The instrumentation types studied include Thermocouples, Radiation Pyrometers, and Acoustical Thermometers. The capabilities and limitations of each type are reviewed. The study determined that ultrasonic thermometry has the potential of providing viable instrumentation. Consequently, a feasibility study of the ultrasonic thermometry was undertaken. A mathematical model of a pulse-echo ultrasonic temperature measurement system is developed using linear system theory. The mathematical model lends itself to the adaptation of generalized correlation techniques for the estimation of propagation delays. Computer simulations are made to test the efficacy of the signal processing techniques for noise-free as well as noisy signals. Based on the theoretical study, acoustic techniques to measure temperature in reactors and combustors are feasible. To experimentally verify the technique it is needed (a) to test the available sensor materials at high temperatures under erosive and corrosive conditions and (b) upon the selection of the appropriate sensor material to validate the proposed signal processing technique. The base for the applicability of this technique will be the frequency of operation, which will determine the length of the sensor and the noise background at the frequency of interest. It is, however, believed that the proposed technique will provide reliable estimates under the noise background.

  4. High-temperature oxidation behavior of carbon-carbon composites in the field of combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fushitani, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Arai, Norio [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)


    The effects of equivalence ratio and temperature on oxidation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced carbon composites (C/C composites) were studied experimentally. Rates of weight loss of C/C composites in the field of combustion with methane-air were measured. The experiments were conducted at equivalence ratios of 0 = 0.8 and 1.3, and at temperatures of 1200, 1300 and 1400{degrees}C. It was found that higher equivalence ratio and lower temperature of methane-air were more effective in protecting C/C composites from oxidation. Changes of chemical structure on surface of C/C composites before and after experiment were also observed by Raman spectroscopy to evaluate chemically the degree of oxidation. The two peaks of Raman spectra from C/C composites appeared strongly at 1580 cm{sup -1} and weakly at 1360 cm{sup -1}. The ratios of the peak intensities at their wave numbers, R=I{sub 1360}/I{sub 1580}, which may indicate the degree of degradation of carbonaceous materials were measured. The dependence of equivalence ratio and temperature on R-value was similar to those on behavior of weight loss. This suggested that R-value obtained by Raman spectroscopy may be useful for estimation of the degree of oxidation. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and concentration for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji


    Ambient oxygen concentration, a key variable directly related to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels in diesel engines, plays a significant role in particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The utilization of biodiesel in diesel engines has been investigated over the last decades for its renewable characteristics and lower emissions compared to diesel. In an earlier work, we demonstrated that the soot temperature and concentration of biodiesel were lower than diesel under regular diesel engine conditions without EGR. Soot concentration was quantified by a parameter called KL factor. As a continuous effort, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and KL factor during biodiesel and diesel spray combustion. The experiment was implemented in a constant volume chamber system, where the ambient oxygen concentration varied from 21 to 10% and the ambient temperature was kept to 1,000 K. A high speed two-color pyrometry technique was used to measure transient soot temperature and the KL factor of the spray flame. The soot temperature of biodiesel is found to be lower than that of diesel under the same conditions, which follows the same trend from our previous results found when the ambient temperature changes to 21% oxygen conditions. A reduction in ambient oxygen concentration generally reduces the soot temperature for both fuels. However, this is a complicated effect on soot processes as the change of oxygen concentration greatly affects the balance between soot formation and oxidation. The KL factor is observed to be the highest at 12% O2 for diesel and 18% O2 for biodiesel, respectively. On the other hand, the 10% O2 condition shows the lowest KL factor for both fuels. These results can provide quantitative experimental evidences to optimize the ambient oxygen concentration for diesel engines using different fuels for better emissions characteristics. © 2014 American Society of

  6. Multi-zone modelling of partially premixed low-temperature combustion in pilot-ignited natural-gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S. R.; inivasan, K. K.


    Detailed results from a multi-zone phenomenological simulation of partially premixed advanced-injection low-pilot-ignited natural-gas low-temperature combustion are presented with a focus on early injection timings (the beginning of (pilot) injection (BOI)) and very small diesel quantities (2-3 per cent of total fuel energy). Combining several aspects of diesel and spark ignition engine combustion models, the closed-cycle simulation accounted for diesel autoignition, diesel spray combustion, and natural-gas combustion by premixed turbulent flame propagation. The cylinder contents were divided into an unburned zone, several pilot fuel zones (or 'packets') that modelled diesel evaporation and ignition, a flame zone for natural-gas combustion, and a burned zone. The simulation predicted the onset of ignition, cylinder pressures, and heat release rate profiles satisfactorily over a wide range of BOIs (20-60° before top dead centre (before TDC)) but especially well at early BOIs. Strong coupling was observed between pilot spray combustion in the packets and premixed turbulent combustion in the flame zone and, therefore, the number of ignition centres (packets) profoundly affected flame combustion. The highest local peak temperatures (greater than 2000 K) were observed in the packets, while the flame zone was much cooler (about 1650 K), indicating that pilot diesel spray combustion is probably the dominant source of engine-out emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx). Further, the 60° before TDC BOI yielded the lowest average peak packet temperatures (about 1720 K) compared with the 20° before TDC BOI (about 2480 K) and 40° before TDC BOI (about 2700 K). These trends support experimental NOx trends, which showed the lowest NOx emissions for the 60°, 20°, and 40° before TDC BOIs in that order. Parametric studies showed that increasing the intake charge temperature, pilot quantity, and natural-gas equivalence ratio all led to

  7. Fuel particles for high temperature reactors; Combustibles a particules pour reacteurs a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pheip, M. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/CAD/DEC/SESC/LIPA), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Masson, M. [CEA Valrho, Dept. Radiochimie et Procedes, 30 (France); Perrais, Ch. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DEC/SPUA), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Pelletier, M. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DEC/SESC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles


    The concept of fuel particles with a millimeter size was born at the end of the 1950's and is the reference concept of high or very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR/VHTR). The specificity of this fuel concerns its fine divided structure, its all-ceramic composition and its micro-confining properties with respect to fission products. These 3 properties when combined together allow the access to high temperatures and to a high level of safety. This article presents: 1 - the general properties of particle fuels; 2 - the fabrication and control of fuel elements: nuclei elaboration processes, vapor deposition coating of nuclei, shaping of fuel elements, quality control of fabrication; 3 - the fuel particles behaviour under irradiation: mechanical and thermal behaviour, behaviour and diffusion of fission products, ruining mode; 4 - the reprocessing of particle fuels: stakes and options, direct storage, separation of constituents, processing of carbonous wastes; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  8. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface coating materials: Their compositions and potential as an alternative fuel. (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Choi, In-Young; Son, Youn-Suk; Song, Kyu-Yong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun


    A sampling system was designed to determine the composition ratios of VOCs emitted from 31 surface coating materials (SCMs). Representative architectural, automotive, and marine SCMs in Korea were investigated. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were the predominant VOCs. The VOC levels (wt%) from automotive SCMs were significantly higher than those from architectural and marine paints. It was found that target SCMs comprised mainly VOCs with 6-10 carbon atoms in molecules, which could be adsorbed by activated carbon. The saturated activated carbon which had already adsorbed toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene was combusted. The saturated activated carbon was more combustible than new activated carbon because it comprised inflammable VOCs. Therefore, it could be an alternative fuel when using in a "fuelization system". To use the activated carbon as a fuel, a control technology of VOCs from a coating process was also designed and introduced. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li


    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy

  10. Effect of Pilot Injection Timings on the Combustion Temperature Distribution in a Single-Cylinder CI Engine Fueled with DME and ULSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Joonho


    Full Text Available Many studies of DiMethyl Ether (DME as an alternative fuel in Compression-Ignition (CI engines have been performed. Although diverse DME engine research has been conducted, the investigation of combustion behavior and temperature distribution in the combustion engine has not progressed due to the fact that there is no sooting flame in DME combustion. In order to investigate the combustion characteristics in this study, the KIVA-3 V code was implemented to research various pilot injection strategies on a single-cylinder CI engines with DME and Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD fuels. The combustion distribution results obtained from the numerical investigation were validated when compared with the measurement of flame temperature behaviors in the experimental approach. This study showed that long intervals between two injection timings enhanced pilot combustion by increasing the ambient pressure and temperature before the start of the main combustion. Different atomization properties between DME and ULSD fuels contributed to the formation of a fuel-air mixture at the nozzle tip and piston lip regions, separately, which strongly affected the temperature distribution of the two fuels. In addition, the pilot injection timing played a vital role in regard to ignition delay and peak combustion temperatures. Exhaust emissions, such as NOx and soot, are related to the local equivalence ratio and temperature in the combustion chamber, also illustrated by the contrary result on a Φ (equivalence ratio – T (temperature map.

  11. High-temperature CO / HC gas sensors to optimize firewood combustion in low-power fireplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ojha


    Full Text Available In order to optimize firewood combustion in low-power firewood-fuelled fireplaces, a novel combustion airstream control concept based on the signals of in situ sensors for combustion temperature, residual oxygen concentration and residual un-combusted or partly combusted pyrolysis gas components (CO and HC has been introduced. A comparison of firing experiments with hand-driven and automated airstream-controlled furnaces of the same type showed that the average CO emissions in the high-temperature phase of the batch combustion can be reduced by about 80 % with the new control concept. Further, the performance of different types of high-temperature CO / HC sensors (mixed-potential and metal oxide types, with reference to simultaneous exhaust gas analysis by a high-temperature FTIR analysis system, was investigated over 20 batch firing experiments (∼ 80 h. The distinctive sensing behaviour with respect to the characteristically varying flue gas composition over a batch firing process is discussed. The calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficients reveals that mixed-potential sensor signals correlate more with CO and CH4; however, different metal oxide sensitive layers correlate with different gas species: 1 % Pt / SnO2 designates the presence of CO and 2 % ZnO / SnO2 designates the presence of hydrocarbons. In the case of a TGS823 sensor element, there was no specific correlation with one of the flue gas components observed. The stability of the sensor signals was evaluated through repeated exposure to mixtures of CO, N2 and synthetic air after certain numbers of firing experiments and exhibited diverse long-term signal instabilities.

  12. Numerical simulation of wall temperature on gas pipeline due to radiation of natural gas during combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marko N.


    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the possible hazardous situations during transportation of gas through the international pipeline. It describes the case when at high-pressure gas pipeline, due to mechanical or chemical effect, cracks and a gas leakage appears and the gas is somehow triggered to burn. As a consequence of heat impingement on the pipe surface, change of material properties (decreasing of strength at high temperatures will occur. In order to avoid greater rapture a reasonable pressure relief rate needs to be applied. Standards in this particular domain of depressurizing procedure are not so exact (DIN EN ISO 23251; API 521. This paper was a part of the project to make initial contribution in defining the appropriate procedure of gas operator behaving during the rare gas leakage and burning situations on pipeline network. The main part of the work consists of two calculations. The first is the numerical simulation of heat radiation of combustible gas, which affects the pipeline, done in the FLUENT software. The second is the implementation of obtained results as a boundary condition in an additional calculation of time resolved wall temperature of the pipe under consideration this temperature depending on the incident flux as well as a number of other heat flow rates, using the Matlab. Simulations were done with the help of the “E.ON Ruhrgas AG” in Essen.

  13. Formation of brominated pollutants during the pyrolysis and combustion of tetrabromobisphenol A at different temperatures. (United States)

    Ortuño, Nuria; Moltó, Julia; Conesa, Juan A; Font, Rafael


    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant worldwide. A detailed examination of the degradation products emitted during thermal decomposition of TBBPA is presented in the study. Runs were performed in a laboratory furnace at different temperatures (650 and 800 °C) and in different atmospheres (nitrogen and air). More than one hundred semivolatile compounds have been identified by GC/MS, with special interest in brominated ones. Presence of HBr and brominated light hydrocarbons increased with temperature and in the presence of oxygen. Maximum formation of PAHs is observed at pyrolytic condition at the higher temperature. High levels of 2,4-, 2,6- and 2,4,6- bromophenols were found. The levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans have been detected in the ppm range. The most abundant isomers are 2,4,6,8-TeBDF in pyrolysis and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF in combustion. These results should be considered in the assessment of thermal treatment of materials containing brominated flame retardants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of reaction temperature on the PM{sub 1}0 features during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, J.C. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Resources and Environmental Science]|[CPI Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China); Du, Y.G.; Liu, Q.C. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Resources and Environmental Science; Liu, X.W.; Xu, M.H. [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion; Liu, Y. [CPI Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China)


    Coal-fired power plants produce fine fly ash consisting of particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM{sub 1}0) is of significant concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. This paper studied the effect of reaction temperature on particulate matter (PM{sub 1}0) emission and its chemical composition. The emission characteristics and elemental partition of PM{sub 1}0 from coal combustion were investigated in a drop tube furnace. The paper discussed the experimental apparatus and conditions as well as the coal properties and sample analysis. Liupanshui (LPS) bituminous coal from China was used for the study. The fuel composition of LPS coal and the composition of low temperature ash of Chinese LPS coal were described. The paper also presented the results of the study with reference to particle size distribution and emission characteristic of PM{sub 1}0; elemental partition within PM{sub 1}0; and effect of the reaction temperature on elemental partition within PM{sub 1}0. The PM mass size distribution was found to be bimodal. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Measurement of Soot Volume Fraction and Temperature for Oxygen-Enriched Ethylene Combustion Based on Flame Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan


    Full Text Available A method for simultaneously visualizing the two-dimensional distributions of temperature and soot volume fraction in an ethylene flame was presented. A single-color charge-coupled device (CCD camera was used to capture the flame image in the visible spectrum considering the broad-response spectrum of the R and G bands of the camera. The directional emissive power of the R and G bands were calibrated and used for measurement. Slightly increased temperatures and reduced soot concentration were predicted in the central flame without self-absorption effects considered, an iterative algorithm was used for eliminating the effect of self-absorption. Nine different cases were presented in the experiment to demonstrate the effects of fuel mass flow rate and oxygen concentration on temperature and soot concentration in three different atmospheres. For ethylene combustion in pure-air atmosphere, as the fuel mass flow rate increased, the maximum temperature slightly decreased, and the maximum soot volume fraction slightly increased. For oxygen fractions of 30%, 40%, and 50% combustion in O2/N2 oxygen-enhanced atmospheres, the maximum flame temperatures were 2276, 2451, and 2678 K, whereas combustion in O2/CO2 atmospheres were 1916, 2322, and 2535 K. The maximum soot volume fractions were 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere and 13.6, 15.3, and 14.8 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/CO2 atmosphere. Compared with the O2/CO2 atmosphere, combustion in the oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere produced higher flame temperature and larger soot volume fraction. Preliminary results indicated that this technique is reliable and can be used for combustion diagnosis.

  16. Development of a generally valid model for calculating combustion chamber wall temperatures in internal combustion engines. Wall temperature model - final report; Entwicklung eines allgemeingueltigen Modells zur Berechnung der Brennraumwandtemperaturen bei Verbrennungsmotoren. Wandtemperaturmodell - Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, P. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany); Bargende, M.; Sargenti, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)


    Starting from the literature research in the FVV-Project 722, the objective of this project was set on the development of a universally valid model for the calculation of wall temperatures in combustion engines. To reach this target, intensive research work was necessary to improve the simple zero-dimensional modeling of the in-cylinder processes. For this reason, a 2.3 l Otto-engine was fitted with thermocouples in a manner to permit accurate measurements of wall temperatures of both cylinder liner wall and cylinder head. To allow for the calculation of the thermodynamic boundary conditions of the gas phase using a pressure history analysis, the engine was indicated in all four cylinders. The parameters cooling liquid temperature and oil temperature were highly varied to examine their influence on the wall temperature. Simultaneous to the test bench measurements, the components for the numerical calculation of the wall temperature were programmed and analyzed. The modular description of the combustion chamber enables modelling of an arbitrary combustion engine. For the calculation of the influence of the gas phase heat, the working process analyses was performed by an external simulation program. The wall temperature model can be used as an independent tool as well as an integrated part of a coupled simulation. In a pressure history analysis the wall temperatures needed for the calculation of the wall heat can be determined precisely. In case of a coupling with a one-dimensional simulation tool, the wall temperature model is used for an iterative calculation of the wall temperatures and the wall heat fluxes. Due to the possibility of an arbitrary discretisation of the cylinder liner, this model can also be applied to a three-dimensional simulation for the initial calculation of the boundary conditions. (orig.)

  17. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi, E-mail:; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich


    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  18. Application of C/C composites to the combustion chamber of rocket engines. Part 1: Heating tests of C/C composites with high temperature combustion gases (United States)

    Tadano, Makoto; Sato, Masahiro; Kuroda, Yukio; Kusaka, Kazuo; Ueda, Shuichi; Suemitsu, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Kude, Yukinori


    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite (C/C composite) has various superior properties, such as high specific strength, specific modulus, and fracture strength at high temperatures of more than 1800 K. Therefore, C/C composite is expected to be useful for many structural applications, such as combustion chambers of rocket engines and nose-cones of space-planes, but C/C composite lacks oxidation resistivity in high temperature environments. To meet the lifespan requirement for thermal barrier coatings, a ceramic coating has been employed in the hot-gas side wall. However, the main drawback to the use of C/C composite is the tendency for delamination to occur between the coating layer on the hot-gas side and the base materials on the cooling side during repeated thermal heating loads. To improve the thermal properties of the thermal barrier coating, five different types of 30-mm diameter C/C composite specimens constructed with functionally gradient materials (FGM's) and a modified matrix coating layer were fabricated. In this test, these specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of the rocket engine using nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) / monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) to evaluate the properties of thermal and erosive resistance on the thermal barrier coating after the heating test. It was observed that modified matrix and coating with FGM's are effective in improving the thermal properties of C/C composite.

  19. Demonstration of high temperature thermoelectric waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of a combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Weidenkaff, Anke; Populoh, Sascha; Brunko, Oliver; Veziridis, Angelika; Bach, Christian; Cabalzar, Urs [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    The energy efficiency of passenger cars becomes increasingly important due to a growing awareness in terms of climate change and shortages of resources associated with rising fuel prices. In addition to the efforts towards the optimization of the engine's internal efficiency, waste heat recovery is the main objective. In this respect, thermoelectric (TE) devices seem to be suited as heat recuperation systems. Thermoelectric generators allow for direct transformation of thermal into electrical energy. In order to thoroughly investigate this type of recovery system a TE demonstrator was mounted on the muffler of a VW Touran and tested. The waste heat of the exhaust gas was converted into electricity with a conversion rate of {proportional_to}. 3.5%. The limiting factor was the low thermal stability of the commercial modules used in this pre-study to elaborate reference values. Thermoelectric modules based on sustainable and temperature-stable materials are being developed to improve the measured values. A thermoelectric test generator with perovskite-type oxide modules was constructed confirm the function and stability at elevated temperatures. Despite all the advantages of this material class, the TE performance is still to be improved. A quantitative measure of a material's TE performance is the temperature-independent Figure of Merit ZT. ZT increases with decreasing thermal and increasing electrical conductivity. An approach to thermal conductivity reduction is nanostructuring of the material. The Ultrasonic Spray Combustion (USC) technique allows to produce powders with a grain size on the nanoscale and was tested in this study. (orig.)

  20. Thermométrie DRASC appliquée aux milieux en combustion Cars Temperature Measurements in Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchardy P.


    Full Text Available La diffusion Raman anti-Stokes cohérente (DRASC est devenue une technique de thermométrie aujourd'hui opérationnelle. Après un rappel du principe de la mesure, un montage de DRASC est décrit. Les diverses contraintes auxquelles l'expérimentateur doit faire face sont présentées. Les avantages et les inconvénients des spectroscopies DRASC par balayage et multiplex sont comparés. Deux expériences, l'une dans un écoulement à haute enthalpie, l'autre dans un foyer de simulation de turbomachine, illustrent, par leurs résultats, les performances obtenues ainsi que les difficultés le plus souvent rencontrées. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman diffusion (CARS has now become an operational thermometric technique. After reviewing the principle of the measurement, this article describes a CARS set-up. The different constraints that an experimenter must cope with are described. The advantages and disadvantages of CARS spectroscopy by scanning and multiplexing are compared. The results of two experiments, one in a high-enthalpy flow and the other in a turbojet engine simulation combustion chamber illustrate the performances obtained as well as the difficulties most often encountered.

  1. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W


    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  2. Development and application of a high-temperature sampling probe for burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion; Korkean laempoetilan naeytteenottosondin kehittaeminen ja soveltaminen leijukerrospolton tulipesaeolosuhteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K.; Paerkkae, M.; Jormanainen, P.; Roine, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Chemistry, Espoo (Finland); Linna, V. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    A sampling probe for the burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion will be developed in this project. The probe will be suitable for sampling vaporous heavy and alkali metals and other condensing compounds (e.g. chlorides) as well combustion gases and alternatively also flue gas particles at high temperatures. The knowledge gained with the probe will help understanding, developing and modeling combustion processes and will thus aid the manufacturers of the boilers. (author)

  3. Shock wave dynamics of novel aluminized detonations and empirical model for temperature evolution from post-detonation combustion fireballs (United States)

    Gordon, J. Motos

    -detonation combustion fireballs. Using a radiative cooling term and a secondary combustion term, the model is able to reduce 82 data points down to five fit parameters. The fit-derived heat of combustion has a 96% correlation with the calculated heat of combustion but has a slope of 0.49 suggesting that only half of the theoretical heat of combustion is realized. Initial temperature is not a good discriminator of detonation events but heat of combustion holds promise as a potential variable for event classification. This model and corresponding analyses might improve the ability of sensing platforms to identify explosive types and sources.

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) (United States)

    ... their MCLs: Organic Chemicals U.S. Geology Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Information on VOCs in Water ... Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance ...

  5. Oxy-fuel combustion of millimeter-sized coal char: Particle temperatures and NO formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Navascués, Leyre Gómez; Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann


    coal char and lignite char, respectively, cannot be fully explained. Char/NO interactions appear to be quite complex, and mineral catalysis and release to the gas-phase of volatile N-species such as HCN, either from secondary pyrolysis or as a product of the char–N + O2 reaction, may play a role.......In this work, differences in particle temperature and NO yield during char oxidation in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, respectively, have been examined. A laboratory scale fixed bed reactor, operated isothermally at 1073 K, was used for combustion of millimeter-sized lignite and bituminous coal char...... increased with mass loading, by as much as 700 K above the furnace set point. The formation of NO from lignite char was not influenced by the change from N2 to CO2 whereas the NO yield from bituminous coal char was considerably lower in O2/CO2 compared O2/N2. For both chars the conversion to NO decreased...

  6. Kinetics of the high-temperature combustion reactions of dibutylether using composite computational methods

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El


    This paper investigates the high-temperature combustion kinetics of n-dibutyl ether (n-DBE), including unimolecular decomposition, H-abstraction by H, H-migration, and C{single bond}C/C{single bond}O β-scission reactions of the DBE radicals. The energetics of H-abstraction by OH radicals is also studied. All rates are determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 and G4 composite methods in conjunction with conventional transition state theory. The B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd) method is used to optimize the geometries and calculate the frequencies of all reactive species and transition states for use in ChemRate. Some of the rates calculated in this study vary markedly from those obtained for similar reactions of alcohols or alkanes, particularly those pertaining to unimolecular decomposition and β-scission at the α-β C{single bond}C bond. These variations show that analogies to alkanes and alcohols are, in some cases, inappropriate means of estimating the reaction rates of ethers. This emphasizes the need to establish valid rates through computation or experimentation. Such studies are especially important given that ethers exhibit promising biofuel and fuel additive characteristics. © 2014.

  7. Solution combustion synthesis: Effect of calcination and sintering temperature on structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of five layer Aurivillius oxides (United States)

    Dubey, Shivangi; Subohi, Oroosa; Kurchania, Rajnish


    The effect of calcination temperature on phase formation and sintering temperature on structural, dielectric, electrical and ferroelectric properties of Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 (BBT), Pb2Bi4Ti5O18 (PBT) and Sr2Bi4Ti5O18 (SBT) ceramics prepared by solution combustion route using glycine as a fuel are investigated in this paper. Calcination temperature was optimized at 650 °C for BBT and 750 °C for SBT and PBT, at which these compounds showed pure phase formation. It was observed that density and grain size of the sintered pellets increases with increasing sintering temperature. The dielectric constant was found to be dependent on grain size and density. Transition temperature, activation energy and remnant polarization were found to increase with an increase in sintering temperature. Porosity and conductivity decreases with an increase in the sintering temperature. Thus improving the dielectric, electrical and ferroelectric properties of five layered Aurivillius oxides.

  8. Experimental determination of temperatures of the inner wall of a boiler combustion chamber for the purpose of verification of a CFD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Trávníček


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the non-destructive method of determination of temperatures in the boiler combustion chamber. This method proves to be significant mainly as regards CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of combustion processes, in case of which it is subsequently advisable to verify the data calculated using CFD software application with the actually measured data. Verification of the method was based on usage of reference combustion equipment (130 kW which performs combustion of a mixture of waste sawdust and shavings originating in the course of production of wooden furniture. Measuring of temperatures inside the combustion chamber is – considering mainly the high temperature values – highly demanding and requires a special type of temperature sensors. Furthermore, as regards standard operation, it is not possible to install such sensors without performing structural alterations of the boiler. Therefore, for the purpose of determination of these temperatures a special experimental device was constructed while exploiting a thermal imaging system used for monitoring of the surface temperature of outer wall of the reference boiler. Temperatures on the wall of the boiler combustion chamber were determined on the basis of data measured using the experimental device as well as data from the thermal imaging system. These values might serve for verification of the respective CFD model of combustion equipment.

  9. Evaluation of an adsorption system to concentrate VOC in air streams prior to catalytic incineration. (United States)

    Campesi, María A; Luzi, Carlos D; Barreto, Guillermo F; Martínez, Osvaldo M


    Catalytic combustion is a well-developed process for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to reduce both the amount of catalyst needed for incineration and the surface area of recuperative heat exchangers, an evaluation of the use of thermal swing adsorption as a previous step for VOC concentration is made. An air stream containing ethyl acetate and ethanol (employed as solvents in printing processes) has been taken as a case study. Based on the characteristics of the adsorption/desorption system and the properties of the stream to be treated, a monolithic rotor concentrator with activated carbon as adsorbent material is adopted. Once the temperature of the inlet desorption stream TD is chosen, the minimum possible desorption flow rate, WD,min, and the amount of adsorbent material can be properly defined according to the extent of the Mass Transfer Zone (MTZ) at the end of the adsorption stage. An approximate procedure to speed up the calculations needed for sizing the bed and predicting the operating variables is also presented. In the case studied here, the concentration of the VOC stream can reach 6 times that of the primary effluent when TD = 200 °C is chosen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Evaluation of High Temperature Adhesive Bonding Processes for Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber Applications (United States)

    McCray, Daniel; Smith, Jeffrey; Rice, Brian; Blohowiak, Kay; Anderson, Robert; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda; Sutter, James


    NASA Glenn Research Center is currently evaluating the possibility of using high- temperature polymer matrix composites to reinforce the combustion chamber of a rocket engine. One potential design utilizes a honeycomb structure composed of a PMR-II- 50/M40J 4HS composite facesheet and titanium honeycomb core to reinforce a stainless steel shell. In order to properly fabricate this structure, adhesive bond PMR-II-50 composite. Proper prebond surface preparation is critical in order to obtain an acceptable adhesive bond. Improperly treated surfaces will exhibit decreased bond strength and durability, especially in metallic bonds where interface are susceptible to degradation due to heat and moisture. Most treatments for titanium and stainless steel alloys require the use of strong chemicals to etch and clean the surface. This processes are difficult to perform due to limited processing facilities as well as safety and environmental risks and they do not consistently yield optimum bond durability. Boeing Phantom Works previously developed sol-gel surface preparations for titanium alloys using a PETI-5 based polyimide adhesive. In support of part of NASA Glenn Research Center, UDRI and Boeing Phantom Works evaluated variations of this high temperature sol-gel surface preparation, primer type, and primer cure conditions on the adhesion performance of titanium and stainless steel using Cytec FM 680-1 polyimide adhesive. It was also found that a modified cure cycle of the FM 680-1 adhesive, i.e., 4 hrs at 370 F in vacuum + post cure, significantly increased the adhesion strength compared to the manufacturer's suggested cure cycle. In addition, the surface preparation of the PMR-II-50 composite was evaluated in terms of surface cleanness and roughness. This presentation will discuss the results of strength and durability testing conducted on titanium, stainless steel, and PMR-II-50 composite adherends to evaluate possible bonding processes.

  11. High-VOC biochar-effectiveness of post-treatment measures and potential health risks related to handling and storage. (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Mašek, Ondřej


    Biochar can contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formed and introduced during the pyrolysis process. In some pyrolysis units or under specific conditions during production, pyrolysis vapours can deposit on biochar in significant amounts resulting in high-VOC biochar. In this study, it was tested to which extent VOCs are released from such high-VOC biochars when openly stored, which post-treatment measures are most effective in reducing phytotoxic potential and whether the VOC emissions could exceed human health-related threshold values. It was shown that the initial VOC release of high-VOC biochars can exceed occupational exposure limit values and even after 2 months, the biochars still emitted VOCs exceeding air quality guideline values. Consequently, these specific high-VOC biochars pose health risks when handled or stored openly. Simple open-air storage turned out to be insufficient for VOC removal. Low temperature treatment, on the other hand, removed VOCs from the high-VOC biochars effectively and alleviated any human health risks and phytotoxic effects. In addition to the high-VOC biochars, a low-VOC biochar was tested which did not emit any VOCs and was even able to sorb VOCs from the VOC-rich biochar to a certain extent. Thermal treatment and blending with low-VOC biochar are methods which could be used in practise to treat high-VOC biochar, reducing VOC emissions. This study revealed significant new findings on the topic of VOCs in biochar which highlights the need to include VOCs in the list of priority contaminants in biochar.

  12. Development of gas temperature probes for 1700 degrees C hydrogen-combustion turbine combustors; 1700 degrees C suiso nensho turbine yo nenshokino gas ondo keisoku probe no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, H.; Kasai, Y.; Fukahori, O. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Dodo, S. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In the development of the Hydrogen-oxygen combustor for 1700 degrees C Hydrogen-combustion turbines, it is important to measure gas temperature distribution at combustor outlet where local temperatures are estimated over 1800 degrees C in order to evaluate the performance of combustors. Multi point gas temperature probes consisting of Pt/Rh 40% Pt/Rh 20% thermocouples are developed to measure gas temperature distribution in the combustion tests of the Hydrogen-Oxygen combustors. Two types of probes no cooled and water-cooled, are designed and tested on the high pressure combustion tests. The test results demonstrate that the water-cooled type probes enable us to measure local gas temperatures up to 1850 degrees C in 2.5 Mpa, 130 m/s steam flow, and are applicable to the combustion tests of the combustor. (author)

  13. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B


    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  14. On the high-temperature combustion of n-butanol: Shock tube data and an improved kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Vasu, Subith S.


    The combustion of n-butanol has received significant interest in recent years, because of its potential use in transportation applications. Researchers have extensively studied its combustion chemistry, using both experimental and theoretical methods; however, additional work is needed under specific conditions to improve our understanding of n-butanol combustion. In this study, we report new OH time-history data during the high-temperature oxidation of n-butanol behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1300-1550 K and at pressures near 2 atm. These data were obtained at Stanford University, using narrow-line-width ring dye laser absorption of the R1(5) line of OH near 306.7 nm. Measured OH time histories were modeled using comprehensive n-butanol literature mechanisms. It was found that n-butanol unimolecular decomposition rate constants commonly used in chemical kinetic models, as well as those determined from theoretical studies, are unable to predict the data presented herein. Therefore, an improved high-temperature mechanism is presented here, which incorporates recently reported rate constants measured in a single pulse shock tube [C. M. Rosado-Reyes and W. Tsang, J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, 116, 9825-9831]. Discussions are presented on the validity of the proposed mechanism against other literature shock tube experiments. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... power Manufacture date Emission standards a g/HP-hr NOX CO VOC d ppmvd at 15% O2 NOX CO VOC d Non...

  16. CFD simulation of thermodynamic and temperature effects on spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles and dumps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, J


    Full Text Available numerical integration of stiff partial differential equations (PDE’s).The simulation results obtained from the twodimensional model provided useful information in characterising the thermal-flow and combustion properties of coal stockpiles and carbonaceous...

  17. Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Lined C/C Combustion Chambers, Phase II Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and DoD are seeking high-performance, lightweight liquid rocket combustion chambers with future performance goals that cannot be achieved using state-of-the-art...

  18. Evaluation of the correlation between concentration of volatile organic compounds and temperature of the exhaust gases in motor vehicles (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Wróbel, Radosław; Andrych-Zalewska, Monika


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the group of organic compounds which are one of the most important air pollutants. One of the main sources of VOCs are combustion processes including fuel combustion is internal combustion engines. Volatile organic compounds are very dangerous pollution, because even in very low concentrations they have significant harmful effect on human health. A lot of that compounds are mutagenic and carcinogenic, in addition they could cause asthma, intoxication or allergy. The measurements of VOCs are quite problematic, because it is required using the specialist analytical apparatus, ex. chromatograph. However, not always it is need to measure the content of that compounds in engine exhaust with high precision and sometimes it is enough only to estimate the level of the concentration. Emission of the VOCs mainly depends on the combustion process in the engine and this determines the temperature of the exhaust gases. In this paper authors tried to determine if the correlation between temperature of exhaust gases and VOCs' concentration exist and is able to determine.

  19. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs Mycotoxins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan W. Bennett


    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that “volatoxin” might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties.

  20. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins? (United States)

    Bennett, Joan W; Inamdar, Arati A


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that "volatoxin" might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties.

  1. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins? (United States)

    Bennett, Joan W.; Inamdar, Arati A.


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that “volatoxin” might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties. PMID:26402705

  2. Experimental investigation on the effect of intake air temperature and air-fuel ratio on cycle-to-cycle variations of HCCI combustion and performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar [Engine Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)


    Combustion in HCCI engines is a controlled auto ignition of well-mixed fuel, air and residual gas. Since onset of HCCI combustion depends on the auto ignition of fuel/air mixture, there is no direct control on the start of combustion process. Therefore, HCCI combustion becomes unstable rather easily, especially at lower and higher engine loads. In this study, cycle-to-cycle variations of a HCCI combustion engine fuelled with ethanol were investigated on a modified two-cylinder engine. Port injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous charge for HCCI combustion. The experiments were conducted at varying intake air temperatures and air-fuel ratios at constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and P-{theta} diagram of 100 consecutive combustion cycles for each test conditions at steady state operation were recorded. Consequently, cycle-to-cycle variations of the main combustion parameters and performance parameters were analyzed. To evaluate the cycle-to-cycle variations of HCCI combustion parameters, coefficient of variation (COV) of every parameter were calculated for every engine operating condition. The critical optimum parameters that can be used to define HCCI operating ranges are 'maximum rate of pressure rise' and 'COV of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP)'. (author)

  3. Cold temperature and biodiesel fuel effects on speciated emissions of volatile organic compounds from diesel trucks. (United States)

    George, Ingrid J; Hays, Michael D; Snow, Richard; Faircloth, James; George, Barbara J; Long, Thomas; Baldauf, Richard W


    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-7 and 22 °C) operating on two fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel and 20% soy biodiesel blend) over three driving cycles: cold start, warm start and heavy-duty urban dynamometer driving cycle. VOCs were measured separately for each drive cycle. Carbonyls such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde dominated VOC emissions, making up ∼ 72% of the sum of the speciated VOC emissions (∑VOCs) overall. Biodiesel use led to minor reductions in aromatics and variable changes in carbonyls. Cold temperature and cold start conditions caused dramatic enhancements in VOC emissions, mostly carbonyls, compared to the warmer temperature and other drive cycles, respectively. Different 2007+ aftertreatment technologies involving catalyst regeneration led to significant modifications of VOC emissions that were compound-specific and highly dependent on test conditions. A comparison of this work with emission rates from different diesel engines under various test conditions showed that these newer technologies resulted in lower emission rates of aromatic compounds. However, emissions of other toxic partial combustion products such as carbonyls were not reduced in the modern diesel vehicles tested.

  4. Catalytic combustion of lean methane at low temperature over ZrO2-modified Co3O4 catalysts (United States)

    Pu, Zhiying; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Huan; Huang, Wanzhen; Zheng, Yifan; Li, Xiaonian


    A series of ZrO2 modified Co3O4 catalysts prepared by co-precipitation method were characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM, XPS and H2-TPR, and used in the catalytic combustion of lean methane at low temperature. XRD and Raman results demonstrate that ZrO2sbnd Co3O4 is in the form of a Zr-Co-O solid solution. XPS result indicates that the content of ZrO2 in ZrO2sbnd Co3O4 composite oxide has a significant influence on the concentration of Co2+ in tetrahedral site (ATetrahedral/AOctahedral) and the surface active oxygen species, which are correlated to the activity of methane combustion. H2-TPR result shows that the ZrO2(2)-Co3O4 composite oxide exhibits better reducibility. Compared with pure Co3O4, the ZrO2(2)-Co3O4 composite oxide presented the highest activity with T90 of 335 °C. All these characterizations suggest that high activity in the lean methane combustion could be ascribed to high surface areas, ATetrahedral/AOctahedral and surface active oxygen species.

  5. Dejima VOC dan rangaku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wibawarta


    Full Text Available Japan and the Netherlands have maintained a special relationship for about 300years since the adoption of the National Seclusion policy, the so-called sakoku bythe Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1867. The Dutch began trading with Japan andengaging with Japanese society in 1600, when a Dutch ship, De Liefde, arrived inKyushu. The Tokugawa government measures regarding foreign policy includedregulations on foreign access to Japan and a prohibition on Japanese goingabroad. Between the middle of the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century,Japan was characterized by a stable political pattern in which representativesof the VOC (Dutch East India Company, were the only Europeans with a rightto trade in Japan. In the course of this period, the Japanese evaluation of theDutch changed from regarding them as commercial agents to seeing them asimporters of European knowledge. This paper is especially concerned with theinfluence of the so-called ‘Dutch Studies’ (rangaku on the early modernizationof Japan, especially with regard to medicine and the natural sciences. Thisresearch examines the development of rangaku and the trading between Japanand VOC at Dejima.

  6. Transition duct system with arcuate ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.


    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include an arcuate connecting segment (36). An arcuate ceramic liner (60) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the arcuate connecting segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  7. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and microwave-assisted combustion synthesis (MACS) of the thallium superconducting phases (United States)

    Bayya, S. S.; Snyder, R. L.


    This paper explores the speed of reaction as a parameter to minimizing thallium loss. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and microwave-assisted combustion synthesis (MACS) were developed for the synthesis of Tl-2212 and Tl-2223 superconductors using Cu metal powder as a fuel. A kitchen microwave oven was used to carry out MACS reactions. The samples were reacted for few seconds and led to the formation of the superconducting phases. Further explorations and modifications in the processing could lead to the formation of single phases by MACS.

  8. Analysis regarding steam generator furnace's incident heat, temperature and composition of combustion gases; Analisis de calor incidente, temperatura y composicion de gases de combustion en hornos de generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Marin, Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    In order to obtain more precise evaluations of the combustion process in the furnace of a steam generator a suction pyrometer has been integrated to measure the temperature of the combustion gases; an ellipsoidal radiometer to measure the incident heat by thermal radiation in the water walls; a water cooled probe to determine the particle concentration, as well as a water cooled probe to determine the composition of the combustion gases present. This document clarifies the form of use of these instruments and their engineering specifications, simultaneously presenting an analysis that considers, unlike others, the internal conditions of the furnace to obtain a more precise evaluation of the efficiency that the combustion process presents and bases for the taking of preventive actions in specific zones of the furnace. Thus, the present work exhibits instruments and techniques of analysis to study the phenomena occurring within a steam generator. [Spanish] Con el fin de obtener evaluaciones mas precisas del proceso de combustion en el horno de un generador de vapor, se ha integrado un pirometro de succion para medir la temperatura de los gases de combustion; un radiometro elipsoidal para medir el calor incidente por radiacion termica en las paredes del agua; una sonda enfriada con agua para determinar la concentracion de particulas, asi como una sonda refrigerada con agua para determinar la composicion de los gases de combustion presentes. Este documento aclara la forma de uso de estos instrumentos y sus especificaciones tecnicas, a la vez que presenta un analisis que considera, a diferencia de otros, las condiciones internas del horno para obtener una evaluacion mas precisa sobre la eficiencia del proceso de combustion y bases para la toma de acciones preventivas en zonas especificas del horno. Asi, el presente trabajo exhibe instrumentos y tecnicas de analisis para estudiar los fenomenos que ocurren dentro de un generador de vapor.

  9. Fundamental phenomena affecting low temperature combustion and HCCI engines, high load limits and strategies for extending these limits

    KAUST Repository

    Saxena, Samveg


    Low temperature combustion (LTC) engines are an emerging engine technology that offers an alternative to spark-ignited and diesel engines. One type of LTC engine, the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, uses a well-mixed fuel–air charge like spark-ignited engines and relies on compression ignition like diesel engines. Similar to diesel engines, the use of high compression ratios and removal of the throttling valve in HCCI allow for high efficiency operation, thereby allowing lower CO2 emissions per unit of work delivered by the engine. The use of a highly diluted well-mixed fuel–air charge allows for low emissions of nitrogen oxides, soot and particulate matters, and the use of oxidation catalysts can allow low emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. As a result, HCCI offers the ability to achieve high efficiencies comparable with diesel while also allowing clean emissions while using relatively inexpensive aftertreatment technologies. HCCI is not, however, without its challenges. Traditionally, two important problems prohibiting market penetration of HCCI are 1) inability to achieve high load, and 2) difficulty in controlling combustion timing. Recent research has significantly mitigated these challenges, and thus HCCI has a promising future for automotive and power generation applications. This article begins by providing a comprehensive review of the physical phenomena governing HCCI operation, with particular emphasis on high load conditions. Emissions characteristics are then discussed, with suggestions on how to inexpensively enable low emissions of all regulated emissions. The operating limits that govern the high load conditions are discussed in detail, and finally a review of recent research which expands the high load limits of HCCI is discussed. Although this article focuses on the fundamental phenomena governing HCCI operation, it is also useful for understanding the fundamental phenomena in reactivity controlled

  10. Numerical study of laminar nonpremixed methane flames in coflow jets: Autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edges and MILD combustion at elevated temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    M. Al-Noman, Saeed


    Autoignition characteristics of laminar nonpremixed methane jet flames in high-temperature coflow air are studied numerically. Several flame configurations are investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. At a relatively low initial temperature, a non-autoignited nozzle-attached flame is simulated at relatively low jet velocity. When the initial temperature is higher than that required for autoignition, two regimes are investigated: an autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge structure and an autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion. The autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge exhibited three branches: lean and rich premixed flame wings and a trailing diffusion flame. Characteristics of kinetic structure for autoignited lifted flames are discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of stoichiometric mixture. Results showed that a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. The autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion occurs when methane fuel is highly diluted with nitrogen. The kinetic structure analysis shows that the characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to nozzle-attached flame was investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction. As the maximum flame temperature increases with decreasing liftoff height, the kinetic structure showed a transition behavior from autoignition to flame propagation of a lean premixed flame. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  11. Influence of adhesive bonding on quantity of emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech


    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of urea-formaldehyde glue and veneered bolstering on technological operation veneering on quantity of emission VOCs (volatile organic compounds.The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation.The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation:VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3.In this work there were tested background working environment in various parts of multi-storeyed press, next was judged emissive charge of veneered device and used glue. We used surface material such as chipboard. We used urea-formaldehyde glue KRONOCOL U300 on technological operation veneering.The VOC emissions from the wooden surfaces with or without finishing were tested in the Equipment for VOC Measuring with a small-space chamber. This equipment was installed in and made available by the Institute of Furniture, Design and Habitation. The small-space chamber is suitable for testing small parts of wood products. The device equipped with small-chamber satisfies all conditions mandated in the standard ENV 13 419 DIN -V-ENV 13 419 ”Determination of the emissions of Volatile organic compounds”.The VOC emissions were collected in columns with sorbent Tenax TA. We analyzed the columns with the VOC emissions by: the gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometer and Direct Thermal Desorption.

  12. Unexpected chemistry from the reaction of naphthyl and acetylene at combustion-like temperatures. (United States)

    Parker, Dorian S N; Kaiser, Ralf I; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P; Ahmed, Musahid


    The hydrogen abstraction/acetylene addition (HACA) mechanism has long been viewed as a key route to aromatic ring growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in combustion systems. However, doubt has been drawn on the ubiquity of the mechanism by recent electronic structure calculations which predict that the HACA mechanism starting from the naphthyl radical preferentially forms acenaphthylene, thereby blocking cyclization to a third six-membered ring. Here, by probing the products formed in the reaction of 1- and 2-naphthyl radicals in excess acetylene under combustion-like conditions with the help of photoionization mass spectrometry, we provide experimental evidence that this reaction produces 1- and 2-ethynylnaphthalenes (C12 H8 ), acenaphthylene (C12 H8 ) and diethynylnaphthalenes (C14 H8 ). Importantly, neither phenanthrene nor anthracene (C14 H10 ) was found, which indicates that the HACA mechanism does not lead to cyclization of the third aromatic ring as expected but rather undergoes ethynyl substitution reactions instead. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effets on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Dr Isaac [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Peterson, Dr. Brian [University of Edinburgh; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Northrop, Dr. William [University of Minnesota


    A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible energy. Experiment results were complemented by detailed chemistry single-zone reactor simulations performed at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions, with results used to evaluate ignition behavior and expected energy recovery yields. For the intermediate bulk-gas temperatures present during the NVO period (900-1100 K), weak negative temperature coefficient behavior with iso-octane fueling significantly lengthened ignition delays relative to similar ethanol fueled conditions. Faster ethanol ignition chemistry led to lower recovered fuel intermediate yields relative to similar iso-octane fueled conditions due to more complete fuel oxidation. From the energy analysis it was found that increased NVO-period global equivalence ratio, either from lower NVOperiod oxygen

  14. Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery. (United States)

    Cetin, Eylem; Odabasi, Mustafa; Seyfioglu, Remzi


    Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4-20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and an intermediate product of the vinyl chloride process in the petrochemical complex, was the most abundant volatile organic compound, followed by ethyl alcohol and acetone. Evaluations based on wind direction clearly indicated that ambient VOC concentrations measured were affected by the refinery and petrochemical complex emissions. VOC concentrations showed seasonal variations at all sampling sites. Concentrations were highest in summer, followed by autumn, probably due to increased evaporation of VOCs from fugitive sources as a result of higher temperatures. VOC concentrations generally increased with temperature and wind speed. Temperature and wind speed together explained 1-60% of the variability in VOC concentrations. The variability in ambient VOC concentrations that could not be explained by temperature and wind speed can be attributed to the effect of other factors (i.e. wind direction, other VOC sources).

  15. Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    Everaert, K; Baeyens, J


    Despite the success of adsorption and thermal incineration of (C)VOC emissions, there is still a need for research on techniques which are both economically more favorable and actually destroy the pollutants rather than merely remove them for recycling elsewhere in the biosphere. The catalytic destruction of (C)VOC to CO2, H2O and HCl/Cl2 appears very promising in this context and is the subject of the present paper. The experiments mainly investigate the catalytic combustion of eight target compounds, all of which are commonly encountered in (C)VOC emissions and/or act as precursors for the formation of PCDD/F. Available literature on the different catalysts active in the oxidation of (C)VOC is reviewed and the transition metal oxide complex V2O5-WO3/TiO2 appears most suitable for the current application. Different reactor geometries (e.g. fixed pellet beds, honeycombs, etc.) are also described. In this research a novel catalyst type is introduced, consisting of a V2O5-WO3/TiO2 coated metal fiber fleece. The conversion of (C)VOC by thermo-catalytic reactions is governed by both reaction kinetics and reaction equilibrium. Full conversion of all investigated VOC to CO2, Cl2, HCl and H2O is thermodynamically feasible within the range of experimental conditions used in this work (260-340 degrees C, feed concentrations 30-60 ppm). A first-order rate equation is proposed for the (C)VOC oxidation reactions. The apparent rate constant is a combination of reaction kinetics and mass transfer effects. The oxidation efficiencies were measured with various (C)VOC in the temperature range of 260-340 degrees C. Literature data for oxidation reactions in fixed beds and honeycomb reactors are included in the assessment. Mass transfer resistances are calculated and are generally negligible for fleece reactors and fixed pellet beds, but can be of importance for honeycomb monoliths. The experimental investigations demonstrate: (i) that the conversion of the hydrocarbons is

  16. Bubble Combustion (United States)

    Corrigan, Jackie


    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  17. BASIC experiment on the sodium leak combustion. Examination of sodium combustion and liner material damage by sodium continuously dropped into the high-temperature NaOH molten pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center


    The purpose of this basic experiments to clarify the cause of damage of the liner material, which recognized by the Sodium Leak and Combustion Test II. In this experiment, the liquid sodium continuously dropped into the high-temperature NaOH molten pool, to investigate sodium combustion phenomenon in the NaOH pool and damage of the liner material (carbon steel, JIS, G3106, SM400B). The drop temperature of sodium is 496degC, and the amount of dropped sodium is about 1200g. The temperature of NaOH molten pool is 660-690degC in the initial stage, and the amount of NaOH is about 2500g. The average drop (leak) rate is 1.8g/sec, and the height of above the NaOH molten pool is about 700 mm. The following results were obtained. The fallen sodium continued to burn during floating on the NaOH molten pool. In this case, the NaOH molten pool was not totally covered with the combustion products, and the molten pool always had the atmosphere interface. The combustion products were mixed and melted in the NaOH molten pool. The maximum reduction of thickness was occurred in the level vicinity of NaOH molten pool. Plate test specimens of 3 mm thickness were separated in the level vicinity during periods of combustion. And, in the NaOH container, the metal loss of largest about 2.5 mm was recognized at the level vicinity. It is considered that the remarkable metal loss in the level vicinity indicates the involvement of molten salt-type corrosion mechanism with the atmosphere interface. The above mentioned results were obtained from the basic experiment. These results gave the important information to evaluate the damage mechanism of the floor liner material. (author)

  18. Microscopic evolution of dielectric nanoparticles at different calcination temperatures synthesized via sol-gel auto-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adil, Muhammad, E-mail:; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd, E-mail:; Chuan, Lee Kean, E-mail:; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad, E-mail: [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Alta’ee, Ali F., E-mail: [Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)


    Dielectric nano powder synthesis is carried by a simple and fast sol-gel auto-combustion method. The transformation of crystalline phases of as-synthesized nano powders is investigated through the detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed the crystallographic alterations and morphological information even at lattice scale. From specific area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, has specified the d-spacing and corresponding planes supported by the observed lattice fringes. The morphological characterization of nanoparticles is performed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), exhibiting the increment in particle size due to agglomeration with the increase in annealing temperature. Furthermore, EDX pattern has been used to verify the formation of nanoparticles by revealing the presence of required elements.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boheman


    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, improvement was made on the performance of in-fiber grating fabricated in single crystal sapphire fibers, test was performed on the grating performance of single crystal sapphire fiber with new fabrication methods, and the fabricated grating was applied to high temperature sensor. Under Task 2, models obtained from 3-D modeling of the Demonstration Boiler were used to study relationships between temperature and NOx, as the multi-dimensionality of such systems are most comparable with real-life boiler systems. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we investigate a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. The 3D temperature data is furnished by the Penn State Energy Institute using FLUENT. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic

  20. Optimal thermionic energy conversion with established electrodes for high-temperature topping and process heating. [coal combustion product environments (United States)

    Morris, J. F.


    Applied research-and-technology (ART) work reveals that optimal thermionic energy conversion (TEC) with approximately 1000 K to approximately 1100 K collectors is possible using well established tungsten electrodes. Such TEC with 1800 K emitters could approach 26.6% efficiency at 27.4 W/sq cm with approximately 1000 K collectors and 21.7% at 22.6 W/sq cm with approximately 1100 K collectors. These performances require 1.5 and 1.7 eV collector work functions (not the 1 eV ultimate) with nearly negligible interelectrode losses. Such collectors correspond to tungsten electrode systems in approximately 0.9 to approximately 6 torr cesium pressures with 1600 K to 1900 K emitters. Because higher heat-rejection temperatures for TEC allow greater collector work functions, interelectrode loss reduction becomes an increasingly important target for applications aimed at elevated temperatures. Studies of intragap modifications and new electrodes that will allow better electron emission and collection with lower cesium pressures are among the TEC-ART approaches to reduced interelectrode losses. These solutions will provide very effective TEC to serve directly in coal-combustion products for high-temperature topping and process heating. In turn this will help to use coal and to use it well.

  1. The influence of composition and final pyrolysis temperature variations on global kinetics of combustion of segregated municipal solid waste (United States)

    Pranoto; Himawanto, D. A.; Arifin, N. A.


    The combustion of segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) and the resulted char from the pyrolysis process were investigated in this research. The segregated MSW that was collected and used can be divided into organic and inorganic waste materials. The organic materials were bamboo and banana leaves and the inorganic materials were Styrofoam and snack wrappings. The composition ratio of the waste was based on the percentage of weight of each sample. The thermal behaviour of the segregated MSW was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis. For the pyrolysis process the prepared samples of 200gram were heated from ambient temperature until a variance of final pyrolysis temperature of 550°C, 650°C and 750°C at a constant heating rate of 25°C/min. It was found that the highest activation energy of the raw materials is achieved from sample CC1 (Char with 100% inorganic materials). The activation energy of the raw materials is relatively lower than that of the char. The higher the final pyrolysis temperature, the lower the calorific value of char. The calorific value gradually increases with the amount of inorganic materials.

  2. Improved heat recovery and high-temperature clean-up for coal-gas fired combustion turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, N.M.; Lynn, S.


    This study investigates the performance of an Improved Heat Recovery Method (IHRM) applied to a coal-gas fired power-generating system using a high-temperature clean-up. This heat recovery process has been described by Higdon and Lynn (1990). The IHRM is an integrated heat-recovery network that significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a gas turbine in the generation of electric power. Its main feature is to recover both low- and high-temperature heat reclaimed from various gas streams by means of evaporating heated water into combustion air in an air saturation unit. This unit is a packed column where compressed air flows countercurrently to the heated water prior to being sent to the combustor, where it is mixed with coal-gas and burned. The high water content of the air stream thus obtained reduces the amount of excess air required to control the firing temperature of the combustor, which in turn lowers the total work of compression and results in a high thermal efficiency. Three designs of the IHRM were developed to accommodate three different gasifying process. The performances of those designs were evaluated and compared using computer simulations. The efficiencies obtained with the IHRM are substantially higher those yielded by other heat-recovery technologies using the same gasifying processes. The study also revealed that the IHRM compares advantageously to most advanced power-generation technologies currently available or tested commercially. 13 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Intelligent Monitoring System With High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor For Power Plant Combustion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boheman


    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we investigate a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. The 3D temperature data is furnished by the Penn State Energy Institute using FLUENT. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first develop an analytic description and then extend that model along a single axis. Extrapolation

  4. Nondestructive Measurement of Momentum Transfer Collision Frequency for Low Temperature Combustion Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Letsholathebe


    Full Text Available Accurately measured momentum transfer collision frequency and electron density for fire plasma enable correct simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation in the medium. The simulation is essential for designing high-performance systems suitable for the environment. Despite this, momentum transfer collision frequency for fire plumes has always been an estimated quantity and/or crudely determined. There are anecdotal reports of severe line-of-sight (LOS radio frequency signal degradation on firegrounds. The problem has implications on safety of fire-fighters during wildfire suppression hence the need of high performance communication systems. In the experiment, a nonintrusive and direct method for measuring momentum transfer collision frequency in a fire plume was carried out. Using an automatic network analyser, x-band microwaves were caused to propagate combustion zones of eucalyptus and grass litter fires to measure the flames, scattering parameters. The parameters were then used to determine average collision frequencies for the plumes. The average collision frequencies for the eucalyptus and grass fire plumes were measured to be 5.84×1010 and 5.92×1010 rad/s, respectively.

  5. Investigation of reactions and species dominating low temperature combustion - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T.; Radi, P.; Knopp, G.; Tulej, M.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), reports on work done in 2007 at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland on the quantitative description of ignition. processes and the influence of peroxy radicals that determine ignition and speciation of the intermediates initially present and, thereby, the progress of subsequent reactions. The authors note that for the preparation of peroxy radicals, a dedicated molecular beam apparatus has been built by the PSI's 'Molecular Dynamics' group. A novel radical source is operational. In many cases, specific radicals can be prepared with high selectivity. A description of flame chemistry is being worked on that can reliably predict the speciation of intermediate products during ignition. Laser-based measurement techniques are being applied at PSI to measure the static and dynamic properties of alkyl peroxy radicals in order to accurately describe their reaction behaviour in combustion processes. A dedicated synchrotron beam line is installed at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) that extends the available range of spectroscopic measurements into the VUV (vacuum-ultraviolet) wavelength domain. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  6. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticulate powders prepared by combustion reaction method (United States)

    Franco, A.; Pessoni, H. V. S.; Soares, M. P.


    Nanoparticulate powders of Eu-doped ZnO with 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 at% Eu were synthesized by combustion reaction method using zinc nitrate, europium nitrate and urea as fuel without subsequent heat treatments. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of all samples showed broad peaks consistent with the ZnO wurtzite structure. The absence of extra reflections in the diffraction patterns ensures the phase purity, except for x=0.03 that exhibits small reflection corresponding to Eu2O3 phase. The average crystallite size determined from the most prominent (1 0 1) peak of the diffraction using Scherrer's equation was in good agreement with those determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); being ~26 nm. The magnetic properties measurements were performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in magnetic fields up to 2.0 kOe at room temperature. The hysteresis loops, typical of magnetic behaviors, indicating that the presence of an ordered magnetic structure can exist in the Eu-doped ZnO wurtzite structure at room temperature. The room temperature ferromagnetism behavior increases with the Eu3+ doping concentration. All samples exhibited the same Curie temperature (TC) around ~726 K, except for x=0.01; TC~643 K. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images revealed defects/strain in the lattice and grain boundaries of Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticulate powders. The origin of room temperature ferromagnetism in Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticulate powders was discussed in terms of these defects, which increase with the Eu3+ doping concentration.

  7. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman


    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  8. Theoretical study of simultaneous water and VOCs adsorption and desorption in a silica gel rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, G.; Zhang, Y.F.; Fang, Lei


    One-dimensional partial differential equations were used to model the simultaneous water and VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) adsorption and desorption in a silica gel rotor which was recommended for indoor air cleaning. The interaction among VOCs and moisture in the adsorption and desorption...... process was neglected in the model as the concentrations of VOC pollutants in typical indoor environment were much lower than that of moisture and the adsorbed VOCs occupied only a minor portion of adsorption capacity of the rotor. Consequently VOC transfer was coupled with heat and moisture transfer only...... by the temperatures of the rotor and the air stream. The VOC transfer equations were solved by discretizing them into explicit up-wind finite differential equations. The model was validated with experimental data. The calculated results suggested that the regeneration time designed for dehumidification may...

  9. Influence of fuel temperature on supersonic mixing and combustion of hydrogen (United States)

    Rogers, R. C.


    Results are presented from an experimental investigation of the influence of fuel stagnation temperature on the mixing and reaction of hydrogen injected transverse to a supersonic flow in a duct. The hydrogen fuel was injected stoichiometrically at stagnation temperatures of 300 K and 800 K from a row of five circular orifices in the duct wall. Detailed measurements in the flow at the duct exit are used to determine the overall amount of mixing accomplished at each of three test conditions. Static pressure distributions are used with duct wall temperatures and heat flux in a one-dimensional analysis to deduce the fraction of fuel reacted along the duct. Results from the one-dimensional analyses of the tests with hot fuel indicated slightly more fuel reacted at the exit; however, differences in the accomplished mixing obtained from integrations of exit surveys were small.

  10. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew


    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  11. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicle emissions in China. (United States)

    Hong-Li, Wang; Sheng-Ao, Jing; Sheng-Rong, Lou; Qing-Yao, Hu; Li, Li; Shi-Kang, Tao; Cheng, Huang; Li-Ping, Qiao; Chang-Hong, Chen


    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicles were widely studied as their critical roles in VOCs source apportionment and abatement measures in megacities. Studies of VOCs source profiles from on-road motor vehicles from 2001 to 2016 were summarized in this study, with a focus on the comparisons among different studies and the potential impact of different factors. Generally, non-methane hydrocarbons dominated the source profile of on-road vehicle emissions. Carbonyls, potential important components of vehicle emission, were seldom considered in VOCs emissions of vehicles in the past and should be paid more attention to in further study. VOCs source profiles showed some variations among different studies, and 6 factors were extracted and studied due to their impact to VOCs source profile of on-road vehicles. Vehicle types, being dependent on engine types, and fuel types were two dominant factors impacting VOCs sources profiles of vehicles. In comparison, impacts of ignitions, driving conditions and accumulated mileage were mainly due to their influence on the combustion efficiency. An opening and interactive database of VOCs from vehicle emissions was critically essential in future, and mechanisms of sharing and inputting relative research results should be formed to encourage researchers join the database establishment. Correspondingly, detailed quality assurance and quality control procedures were also very important, which included the information of test vehicles and test methods as detailed as possible. Based on the community above, a better uncertainty analysis could be carried out for the VOCs emissions profiles, which was critically important to understand the VOCs emission characteristics of the vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-temperature fabrication of high-performance metal oxide thin-film electronics via combustion processing (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Gil; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.


    The development of large-area, low-cost electronics for flat-panel displays, sensor arrays, and flexible circuitry depends heavily on high-throughput fabrication processes and a choice of materials with appropriate performance characteristics. For different applications, high charge carrier mobility, high electrical conductivity, large dielectric constants, mechanical flexibility or optical transparency may be required. Although thin films of metal oxides could potentially meet all of these needs, at present they are deposited using slow and equipment-intensive techniques such as sputtering. Recently, solution processing schemes with high throughput have been developed, but these require high annealing temperatures (Tanneal>400 °C), which are incompatible with flexible polymeric substrates. Here we report combustion processing as a new general route to solution growth of diverse electronic metal oxide films (In2O3, a-Zn-Sn-O, a-In-Zn-O, ITO) at temperatures as low as 200 °C. We show that this method can be implemented to fabricate high-performance, optically transparent transistors on flexible plastic substrates.

  13. High Temperature Catalytic Combustion Suppports Final Report CRADA No. TSB-0841-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hair, Lucy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Magno, Scott [Catalytic Combustion Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)


    This Small Business CRADA between LLNL and Catalytica was executed on January 25, 1995. The total estimated cost of this project was 113K. LLNL's contribution was estimated at $50K funded under the DOE/Defense Program Small Business Initiative. Catalytica's in-kind contribution was estimated at 63K. Catalytic combusion catalyst systems operate at temperatures from 600°C to above 1300°C. Catalytica has developed technology that limits the catalyst temperature to below 1000°C. At temperatures in the range of 850 to 1000°C, the thermal stability of the catalyst is an important issue. Typical supports such as stabilized aluminas, hexaluminates, zirconia and stabilized zirconia supports are typically used but lack either thermal stability or other desirable properties. Catalytica had developed a new concept for thermally stable mixed oxide supports but this concept required the preparation of molecularly uniform precursors; that is, prior to high temperature treatment of these materials, the elements that make up the mixed oxide must be as nearly uniform as possible on a molecular level. The technique of sol gel processing appeared to be the preferred technique to make these molecularly uniform precursors, and a cooperative program with LLNL was established to prepare and test the proposed compounds. Catalytica proposed the composition and concentration levels for the materials to be prepared.

  14. Rational design of temperature swing adsorption cycles for post-combustion CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joss, Lisa; Gazzani, Matteo; Mazzotti, Marco


    The design of temperature swing adsorption (TSA) cycles aimed at recovering the heavy product at high purity is investigated by model-based design and applied to the capture of CO2 from flue gases. This model based design strategy and an extensive parametric analysis enables gaining an understanding

  15. Plasma Assisted Ignition and Combustion at Low Initial Gas Temperatures: Development of Kinetic Mechanism (United States)


    using the technique suggested in [6]: the HV electrode have been replaced by a toothed wheel. A filament was selected and the discharge chamber rotated so...far from understood, in spite of considerable experimental advances achieved over the past two decades. High–temperature conditions, close to the

  16. Ignition and combustion of pyrotechnics at low pressures and at temperature extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Woodley


    Full Text Available Rapid and effective ignition of pyrotechnic countermeasure decoy flares is vitally important to the safety of expensive military platforms such as aircraft. QinetiQ is conducting experimental and theoretical research into pyrotechnic countermeasure decoy flares. A key part of this work is the development and application of improved models to increase the understanding of the ignition processes occurring for these flares. These models have been implemented in a two-dimensional computational model and details are described in this paper. Previous work has conducted experiments and validated the computational model at ambient temperature and pressure. More recently the computational model has been validated at pressures down to that equivalent to 40,000 feet but at ambient temperature (∼290 K. This paper describes further experimental work in which the ignition delays of the priming material in inert countermeasure decoy flares were determined for pressures down to 40,000 feet and at temperature extremes of −40 °C and 100 °C. Also included in this paper is a comparison of the measured and predicted ignition delays at low pressures and temperature extremes. The agreement between the predicted and measured ignition delays is acceptable.

  17. Temperature dependent structural and magnetic properties of Cerium substituted Co–Cr ferrite prepared by auto-combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, Ghulam, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Zhang, Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, UESTC, Chengdu 610054 (China); Jamil, Yasir [Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Asif Iqbal, M.; Hussain, Mudassar [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Mukhtar, E-mail: [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)


    The effects of heat treatment on a nano-crystalline spinel ferrite with chemical formula CoCr{sub 0.04}Ce{sub x}F{sub e1.96−x}O{sub 4} (x=0.06) were investigated in the present work. The sample was prepared by the auto-combustion method and then heat treated at 700–1200 °C for 8 h. The sample heat treated at these temperatures was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyses and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometery. The XRD patterns and IR spectra confirmed that the synthesized materials were of single phase at and above 900 °C. The average particle size was found to be in the range of 30.8–63.8 nm estimated by the Scherer formula. IR studies confirm two main absorption bands in the frequency range of 400–800 cm{sup −1} arising due to the tetrahedral (A-site) and octahedral (B-site) stretching vibrations. The average grain size increased with the increase of temperature while distribution of particles became homogeneous as observed by scanning electron microscope. The saturation magnetization was increased gradually from 7.4 to 59.6 emu/g with the increase of temperature. The coercivity lies in the range of 248–811 Oe as a function of temperature. The obtained results suggest that the investigated materials may be potential candidates for high density recording media applications. - Highlights: • Effects of temperature on structural and magnetic parameters of spinel ferrite are studied. • The XRD patterns confirms that the materials are of single phase at and above 900 °C. • The M{sub s} was increased gradually from 7.4–59.6 emu/g with the increase of temperature. • The values of coercivity lie in the range of 248–811 Oe as a function of temperature. • The results show that materials may have a potential for high density recording media.

  18. Treatment of VOCs with molecular sieve catalysts in regenerative catalytic oxidizer. (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Lou, Jie-Chung; Lin, Yung-Chang


    This work prepares molecular sieve catalysts with various metal species and various metal weight loadings by impregnation, and then screens them in a catalytic combustion system. The current study further investigates the molecular sieve catalyst in an RCO system after it performed well in combustion efficiency. This work tests its performances in terms of CO(2) yield, pressure drop, the difference between temperatures of the inlet and outlet gases (T(d)), and thermal recovery efficiency (TRE), with various operational conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that the 10 wt% Cu/(MS) catalyst was the most active because it has the greatest combustion efficiency to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than Co/(MS) catalysts and Mn/(MS) catalysts. The 10 wt% Cu/(MS) catalyst used in an RCO system reaches over 95% CO(2) yields under the heating zone temperature (T(set))=400°C, gas velocity (U(g))=0.37 m/s, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) concentration=200-400 ppm conditions. Moreover, the RCO system performed well in economic efficiency with the RCO with in terms of TRE, T(d) and pressure drop. The TRE ranged from 90.4% to 94.6% and T(d) ranged from 14.0 to 34.2°C under various conditions at T(set)=300-450°C. Finally, the results of the stability test demonstrated that the catalyst was very stable at various U(g) values and various T(set) values. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relations between combustion, deposition, flue gas temperatures and corrosion in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie


    using an aluminium silicate additive, however the relative chlorine content of the deposits was unchanged. At Ensted woodchip plant, a dosage level of additives was reached which reduced the chlorine flux. For straw firing where the chlorine level in the fuel is higher and the fuel load is greater......, the chlorine flux on deposition probes was not affected by additive dosage. An indication that some chlorine had been removed could be measured by the increased HCl output during additive dosage. The importance of temperature and where the additive is dosed is discussed....

  20. Cálculo de la temperatura en el interior de la cámara de combustión en motores de combustión interna. // Calculation of temperature into combustion chamber of internal combustion engines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soto Pau


    Full Text Available El trabajo aquí presentado tiene como objetivo llegar a expresiones de cálculo de la temperatura en el interior de la cámarade combustión como vía de diagnostico de la combustión en motores térmicos. Este trabajo consiste en un modelo físicomatemático,el cual usa como herramientas fundamentalmente, los valores de presión medidos en el interior de la cámarade combustión, las características geométricas del motor y todos los valores normalmente medidos en el bancodinamométrico. El procesamiento teórico de este modelo consiste fundamentalmente en la determinación de la evoluciónde la combustión a partir de la curva de presión, basada en la Primera Ley de la Termodinámica, adoptando Modelo deGases Perfectos. A partir de la posición angular de cierre de la válvula de admisión es posible calcular la derivada de latemperatura en relación a la posición angular del cigüeñal para los gases quemados T&b y no quemados T&u . Teniendo estosvalores de T&u y T&b calculados, es posible integrar numéricamente las temperaturas utilizando el método de integración deEuler. Conociendo la composición química del combustible, es posible calcular la temperatura adiabática de llama, estesería el valor de temperatura inicial Tb que nos permitiría calcular un valor de entalpía específica de los gases quemados. Deigual forma con el valor de la temperatura inicial para los gases no quemados Tu se tiene el valor de temperatura inicial parael proceso de integración.Palabras claves: Proceso de combustión en motores térmicos, temperatura en el interior de la cámara decombustión, presión en el interior de la cámara de combustión.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This paper presents calculation expressions of the temperature inside the combustion chamber in order to diagnose thecombustion in termic engines. This analysis consists in a physical-mathematical model, which uses

  1. Biochar for volatile organic compound (VOC) removal: Sorption performance and governing mechanisms. (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Yulin; Hu, Xin; Creamer, Anne Elise; Annable, Michael D; Li, Yuncong


    Sorption is one of the most efficient and low cost strategies for volatile organic compound (VOC) removal, but VOC sorption by biochar has seen limited research. In this work, gas phase sorption experiments were conducted to determine the sorption potential and mechanisms of VOCs onto biochar. A total of 15 biochars produced from 5 common feedstocks at 300, 450, and 600°C were evaluated as sorbents. Three common VOCs (acetone, cyclohexane, and toluene) were chosen as sorbates. The results showed that all the tested biochars had VOC sorption capacity in the range of 5.58-91.2mgg-1. The sorption capacities were mainly influenced by both the surface area of biochar and its noncarbonized organic matter content. The vapor sorption process was exothermic, and the removal of VOCs by the biochars decreased with increasing feedstock temperature. Both the physical adsorption and partition mechanisms played important roles in controlling the VOC removal by the biochars. Biochar maintained its VOC removal ability after five consecutive sorption-desorption cycles, which indicated good reusability. Findings of this work suggest that biochar is a promising alternative sorbent for gaseous VOC removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of low-temperature combustion and dimethyl ether-diesel blends on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of common rail diesel engine: a CFD study. (United States)

    Lamani, Venkatesh Tavareppa; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Narayanappa, Kumar Gottekere


    Due to presence of more oxygen, absence of carbon-carbon (C-C) bond in chemical structure, and high cetane number of dimethyl ether (DME), pollution from DME operated engine is less compared to diesel engine. Hence, the DME can be a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine. The present study emphasizes the effect of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates (0-20%) and DME/Diesel blends (0-20%) on combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Extended coherent flame model-3 zone (ECFM-3Z) is implemented to carry out combustion analysis, and k-ξ-f model is employed for turbulence modeling. Results show that in-cylinder pressure marginally decreases with employing EGR compared to without EGR case. As EGR rate increases, nitrogen oxide (NO) formation decreases, whereas soot increases marginally. Due to better combustion characteristics of DME, indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) increases with the increases in DME/diesel blend ratio. Adverse effect of EGR on efficiency for blends is less compared to neat diesel, because the anoxygenated region created due to EGR is compensated by extra oxygen present in DME. The trade-off among NO, soot, carbon monoxide (CO) formation, and efficiency is studied by normalizing the parameters. Optimum operating condition is found at 10% EGR rate and 20% DME/diesel blend. The maximum indicated thermal efficiency was observed for DME/diesel ratio of 20% in the present range of study. Obtained results are validated with published experimental data and found good agreement.

  3. Role of temperature and hydrochloric acid on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during combustion of paraffin powder, polymers, and newspaper. (United States)

    Takasuga, Takumi; Umetsu, Norihito; Makino, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Katsuya; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil


    Formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined using a laboratory-scale incinerator when combusting materials at different temperatures, different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl), and when combusting various types of polymers/newspaper. Polychlorobenzenes (PCBz), polychlorophenols (PCPhs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and their toxic equivalency (TEQ) and PAHs were highlighted and reported. Our results imply maximum formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons at 400 degrees C in the following order; PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ on a parts-per-billion level. Similarly, a maximum concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was noticed with an HCl concentration at 1000 ppm with the presence of paraffin powder in the following order; PAHs>PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ an a parts-per-billion level. PAHs were not measured at different temperatures. Elevated PAHs were noticed with different HCl concentrations and paraffin powder combustion (range: 27-32 microg/g). While, different polymers and newspaper combusted, nylon and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) produced the maximum hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration, concentrations of PCDD/FS, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), and TEQ were in a decreasing order: polyvinylchloride (PVC)ABS = blank. Precursors of PCBs were in a decreasing order: PPABSABSABSABS< PET

  4. Effect of Calcination Temperature on the Alumina-Zirconia Nanostructures Prepared by Combustion Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafar Tafreshi


    Full Text Available In this research, a sol gel autocaombustion route has been proposed to synthesize alumina-zirconia composite powders, using ammonium bicarbonate as a new fuel. Then the effect of calcination temperature on phase transformation and crystallite sizes was investigated. To characterize the products XRD, TEM and BET analyses were used. XRD patterns of as-synthesized powder and calcined powders at 1100 ◦C and 1200 ◦C showed t-ZrO2 phase with small crystallite sizes (sintered at 1300 ◦C and the particle sizes after calcination were 14.90 nm and 50 nm for ZrO2 and Al2O3 phases, respectively as calculated from XRD and the transformation of t-ZrO2 to m-ZrO2 started at 1300 ◦C. TEM micrograph of as-synthesized powder revealed nanosize spherical particles of about 8 nm.

  5. LITGS: a new technique for single shot temperature and fuel concentration measurements in turbulent combusting environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, Roberta; Giorgi, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione


    In the present study the possibility to apply time resolved Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy (LITGS) to detect fuel concentration and temperature in mixtures and flames at atmospheric pressure or higher is investigated. The resonant IR single photon absorption of two short pulse pump beams is used to initially generate a population grating, decaying into a thermal grating due to relaxation processes in the gas mixture. The thermal grating evolution is followed by monitoring the scattered signal of a cw visible probe beam after the end of the pump pulse. The use of the IR optical transition of diesel fuel assured a high species selectivity and a negligible influence of the visible emission background due to the presence of electronically excited species in flames. Fuel concentration and temperature measurements in a pressurized cell, with pressure ranging between 0.1 an 1.5 MPa, and in a diffusion turbulent flame generated by a burner feed with diesel fuel operating at atmospheric pressure are presented. The experimental investigation shows that LITGS signal increase linearly with gas density. This characteristic makes LITGS a very interesting technique for fuel distribution and temperature measurements in hostile (high-pressure and turbulent flow) environments. Detection limit for diesel fuel at atmospheric pressure is found to be about 40 ppm and it decreases with the increase of the pressure. The low detection limit which can be reached makes this technique suitable also for monitoring minor species and radicals. [Italian] Nel presente studio si investiga la possibilita' di applicare la tecnica LITGS (Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy) per misurare la concentrazione e la temperatura di carburante in miscele e fiamme a pressiona atmosferica o superiore. L'assorbimento risonante di un singolo fotone IR proveniente da uno dei due laser impulsati di pompa e' utilizzato per generare inizialmente un reticolo di popolazione, che decade

  6. Rocket Combustion Chamber Coating (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor)


    A coating with the ability to protect (1) the inside wall (i.e., lining) of a rocket engine combustion chamber and (2) parts of other apparatuses that utilize or are exposed to combustive or high temperature environments. The novelty of this invention lies in the manner a protective coating is embedded into the lining.

  7. Lump wood combustion process (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan


    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  8. Investigation of combustion phenomena associated with the flow of hot propellant gases. I. Spectroscopic temperature measurements inside the muzzle flash of a rifle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingenberg, G. (Arbeitsgruppe fuer Ballistische Forschung, Weil am Rhein, Ger.); Mach, H.


    The spatial and temporal temperature distribution in the muzzle blast field of a rifle of caliber 7.62mm was determined by evaluation of the radiation emitted by the muzzle flash. In the primary flash directly adjacent to the muzzle a maximum gas temperature of 1645 K was observed by means of emission- absorption measurements of both continuum and discrete radiation. The influence of the surrounding cool layers was taken into account by applying Abel-inversion techniques. In the intermediate flash about 100 to 300 mm downstream line-reversal-techniques using K- and Na-resonance lines gave temperatures of about 1600 K increasing with time and with muzzle distance to a maximum temperature of 1940 K. This rise of temperature is due to the onset of combustion processes. Further downstream at a distance of 300 to 500 mm in the secondary flash a fast intense combustion of the propellant gases mixed with air leads to gas temperatures of about 2500 K. By firing into inert gases this flash could be suppressed whereas the primary and intermediate flash remained unchanged. When firing into oxygen a maximum gas temperature of 3000 K was observed in the secondary flash.


    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted to characterize speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs) and ozone precursors, in exhaust emissions from three modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) light-duty vehicles. Each GDI vehicle tested in this study utilized slightly different fuel injection technology: Vehicle 1 used a 2.4 liter, naturally aspirated, wall-guided GDI; Vehicle 2 used a 1.8 liter, turbocharged GDI engine; Vehicle 3 used a 1.5 liter, turbocharged, spray-guided GDI engine. Vehicle testing was conducted in a temperature controlled chassis dynamometer test cell at 22 °C over the EPA Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and a portion of the Supplemental FTP (SFTP). The FTP was conducted as a three phase cycle with a cold start, hot transient, and warm start phase (also known as the FTP-75 driving cycle). The SFTP consisted of the US06 driving cycle (conducted without the vehicle’s air conditioning on), which provides a more aggressive driving pattern than the FTP. The vehicles operated on 10 percent ethanol blended gasoline (E10). VOC emissions from diluted vehicle exhaust were sampled over each FTP phase and over the Supplemental FTP with SUMMA canisters for EPA Method TO-15 analysis and with DNPH cartridges for carbonyl analysis by EPA Method TO-11A. This presentation will report the impact of driving cycle and GDI technology on speciated MSAT emissions. MSAT emission rates will be compared

  10. Development and application of a high-temperature sampling probe for burning chamber conditions in fluidized-bed combustion; Korkean laempoetilan naeytteenottosondin kehittaeminen ja soveltaminen leijukerrospolton tulipesaeolosuhteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K.; Paerkkae, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Linna, V. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Environmental Technology


    Determination of heavy and alkali metals and other condensing compounds (e.g. chlorides) in combustion chamber conditions is limited by the poor suitability of traditional methods for sampling at high temperatures. IFRF has developed a high-temperature sampling probe for sampling HCN and NH{sub 3}, which has been tested for sampling of NH{sub 3} by Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. VTT Chemical Technology and Chalmers University of Technology have in their preliminary experiments determined contents of vaporous heavy metals in the combustion chamber of a 12 MW circulating fluidized-bed boiler using this probe. According to the results, the modified probe is suitable for heavy metal determination in combustion chamber. Based on this series of experiments, modification of the probe has been started on the own financing of VTT Chemical Technology and a field measurement was performed in November 1994 to test the present version of the probe. Based on the results of that measurement, the probe has been modified further on as a part of this LIEKKI 2 project. Similar kind of a principle has been applied in the probe which has been developed by VTT Energy during 1994. The probe is built for determination of gas composition of fluidized bed in full-scale boilers. The purpose of this project is to develop and test a sampling probe for fluidized bed combustion. The main advantage of the probe is that condensation losses in sampling due to high temperature gradients can be avoided. Thus, the probe is very suitable for sampling vaporous heavy and alkali metals and other condensing species as well as burning gases and alternatively also solids at high temperatures

  11. High-Fidelity Simulation and Analysis of Ignition Regimes and Mixing Characteristics for Low Temperature Combustion Engine Application (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh

    Computational singular perturbation (CSP) technique is applied as an automated diagnostic tool to classify ignition regimes, especially spontaneous ignition front and deflagration in low temperature combustion (LTC) engine environments. Various model problems representing LTC are simulated using high-fidelity computation with detailed chemistry for hydrogen-air, and the simulation data are then analyzed by CSP. The active reaction zones are first identified by the locus of minimum number of fast exhausted time scales. Subsequently, the relative importance of transport and chemistry is determined in the region ahead of the reaction zone. A new index IT, defined as the sum of the absolute values of the importance indices of diffusion and convection of temperature to the slow dynamics of temperature, serves as a criterion to differentiate spontaneous ignition from deflagration regimes. The same strategy is then used to gain insights into classification of ignition regimes in n-heptane air mixtures. Parametric studies are conducted using high-fidelity simulations with detailed chemistry and transport. The mixture at non-NTC conditions shows initially a deflagration front which is subsequently transitioned into a spontaneous ignition front. For the mixtures at the NTC conditions which exhibit two-stage ignition behavior, the 1 st stage ignition front is found to be more likely in the deflagration regime. On the other hand, the 2nd stage ignition front occurs almost always in the spontaneous regime because the upstream mixture contains active radical species produced by the preceding 1st stage ignition front. The effects of differently correlated equivalence ratio stratification are also considered and the results are shown to be consistent with previous findings. 2D turbulent auto-ignition problems corresponding to NTC and non-NTC chemistry yield similar qualitative results. Finally, we look into the modeling of turbulent mixing, in particular, the scalar dissipation

  12. Structure, provenance and residence time of terrestrial organic carbon: insights from Programmed temperature Pyrolysis-Combustion of river sediments (United States)

    Feng, X.; Galy, V.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Roe, K. M.; Williams, E. K.


    The terrestrial organic carbon (OC) represents one of the largest reservoirs of C on earth and thus plays a crucial role in the global C cycle, participating to the regulation of atmospheric chemistry. While degradation of sedimentary OC (petrogenic C) is a source of CO2 for the atmosphere, burial of biospheric C (e.g. plant debris and soil OC) is a long-term sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Over short timescales, the atmospheric CO2 level is also sensitive to variations of the residence time of carbon in continental reservoirs. Fluvial transport plays a crucial role in the organic carbon cycle, constituting the connection between the different reservoirs and promoting the transfer of C from one reservoir to the other. Moreover, thanks to the integrating effect of erosion, studying river sediments allows the spatial and temporal integration of organic carbon exchanges occurring in a given basin. OC transported by rivers (riverine OC) is known to be extremely heterogeneous in nature and reactivity, however; ranging from extremely refractory petrogenic C (e.g. graphite) to soil complex OC to labile vegetation debris. Here we use a recently developed method, a programmed-temperature pyrolysis-combustion system (PTP-CS) coupled to multiisotopic analysis, to determine the reactivity, age and nature of OC in river sediments. The method takes advantage of the wide range of reactivity and radiocarbon content of different components of riverine OC. We submitted to PTP-CS a set of river sediments from 1) the Ganges-Brahmputra river system and, 2) the lower Mississippi river. Preliminary results highlight the heterogeneous nature of riverine OC. Different components of the riverine OC pool decompose at different temperature and are characterized by extremely variable isotopic compositions. The decomposition of radiocarbon dead petrogenic C at very high temperature allows estimating the respective contribution of biospheric and petrogenic C. Moreover, biospheric OC appears to

  13. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt


    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  14. Fuel-Rich Catalytic Combustion (United States)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Olson, Sandra L.


    Two-stage combustion system reduces particulate emissions. Program on catalytic oxidation of iso-octane demonstrates feasibility of two-stage combustion system for reducing particulate emissions. With fuel-rich (fuel/air equivalence ratios of 4.8 to 7.8) catalytic-combustion preburner as first stage, combustion process free of soot at reactor-outlet temperatures of 1,200 K or less.

  15. Direct numerical simulations of ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture with temperature and composition inhomogeneities relevant to HCCI and SCCI combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minh Bau


    The effects of temperature and composition stratifications on the ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture at three initial mean temperatures under elevated pressure are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 58-species reduced mechanism. Two-dimensional DNSs are performed by varying several key parameters: initial mean temperature, T0, and the variance of temperature and equivalence ratio (T\\' and φ\\') with different T-φcorrelations. It is found that for cases with φ\\' only, the overall combustion occurs more quickly and the mean heat release rate (HRR) increases more slowly with increasing φ\\' regardless of T0. For cases with T\\' only, however, the overall combustion is retarded/advanced in time with increasing T\\' for low/high T0 relative to the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime resulting from a longer/shorter overall ignition delay of the mixture. For cases with uncorrelated T-φfields, the mean HRR is more distributed over time compared to the corresponding cases with T\\' or φ\\' only. For negatively-correlated cases, however, the temporal evolution of the overall combustion exhibits quite non-monotonic behavior with increasing T\\' and φ\\' depending on T0. All of these characteristics are found to be primarily related to the 0-D ignition delays of initial mixtures, the relative timescales between 0-D ignition delay and turbulence, and the dominance of the deflagration mode during the ignition. These results suggest that an appropriate combination of T\\' and φ\\' together with a well-prepared T-φdistribution can alleviate an excessive pressure-rise rate (PRR) and control ignition-timing in homogeneous charge compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion. In addition, critical species and reactions for the ignition of n-heptane/air mixture through the whole ignition process are estimated by comparing the temporal evolution of the mean mass fractions of important species with the overall reaction pathways of n

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Total Dissolved Nitrogen on a Coupled High-Temperature Combustion Total Organic Carbon-Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection (HTC TOC-NCD) System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Xi; Sanders, Richard; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J; Achterberg, Eric P


    .... Recent studies have shown that the high-temperature combustion (HTC) technique is suitable for routine analyses of dissolved organic matter due to its good oxidation efficiency, high sensitivity, and precision...

  17. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective. (United States)

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T


    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations.

  18. Turbulence characterization of a high-pressure high-temperature fan-stirred combustion vessel using LDV, PIV and TR-PIV measurements (United States)

    Galmiche, Bénédicte; Mazellier, Nicolas; Halter, Fabien; Foucher, Fabrice


    Standard particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), time-resolved particle imaging velocimetry (TR-PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) are complementary techniques used to measure the turbulence statistics in a fan-stirred combustion vessel. Since a solid knowledge of the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbulent flow will enable better analysis of the flame-turbulence interactions, the objective of this paper is to provide an accurate characterization of the turbulent flow inside the combustion vessel. This paper aims at becoming a reference for further work on turbulent premixed flames using this fan-stirred combustion vessel. Close approximations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence are achieved using this setup. The integral length scales L, Taylor microscales λ and Kolmogorov length scales η, the rms velocity fluctuations and the energy spectra are investigated using PIV, TR-PIV and LDV techniques. The difficulty to reach an accurate estimation of the integral length scale is particularly examined. The strengths and limitations of these three techniques are highlighted. High temporally resolved and high spatially resolved PIV appears as an interesting alternative to LDV in so far as close attention is paid to the measurements resolution. Indeed, the largest scales of the flow are limited by the field size and the smallest ones may be not caught with high accuracy due to the limited spatial resolution. A low spatial resolution of the PIV measurements can also lead to an underestimation of the rms velocity fluctuations. As the vessel was designed to study turbulent combustion at high initial pressure and high initial temperature, the effects of the gas temperature and pressure on the energy spectra and the turbulent parameters are finally investigated in the last part of the paper.

  19. Seasonal variations in VOC emission rates from gorse (Ulex europaeus) (United States)

    Boissard, C.; Cao, X.-L.; Juan, C.-Y.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    Seasonal variations of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rates and standardised emission factors from gorse (Ulex europaeus) have been measured at two sites in the United Kingdom, from October 1994 to September 1995, within temperature and PAR conditions ranging from 3 to 34°C and 10-1300 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a relative composition fluctuating from 7% of the total VOC (winter) to 97% (late summer). The monoterpenes α-pinene, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, trans-ocimene and γ-terpinene were also emitted, with α-pinene being the dominant monoterpene during most the year. Trans-ocimene represented 33-66% of the total monoterpene during the hottest months from June to September. VOC emissions were found to be accurately predicted using existing algorithms. Standard (normalised) emission factors of VOCs from gorse were calculated using experimental parameters measured during the experiment and found to fluctuate with season, from 13.3±2.1 to 0.1±0.1 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in August 1995 and January 1995, respectively, for isoprene, and from 2.5±0.2 to 0.4±0.2 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in July and November 1995, respectively, for total monoterpenes. No simple clear relation was found to allow prediction of these seasonal variations with respect to temperature and light intensity. The effects of using inappropriate algorithms to derive VOC fluxes from gorse were assessed for isoprene and monoterpenes. Although on an annual basis the discrepancies are not significant, monthly estimation of isoprene were found to be overestimated by more than a factor of 50 during wintertime when the seasonality of emission factors is not considered.

  20. Influence of residential wood combustion on local air quality. (United States)

    Hellén, H; Hakola, H; Haaparanta, S; Pietarila, H; Kauhaniemi, M


    The importance of wood combustion to local air quality was estimated by measuring different air pollutants and conducting chemical mass balance modelling. PM10, PM2.5, PAHs and VOC concentrations in ambient air were measured in a typical Finnish residential area. Measurements were conducted in January-March 2006. For some compounds, wood combustion was clearly the main local source at this site. The effect of wood combustion was more clearly seen for organic compounds than for fine particle mass. For fine particles, background concentrations dominated. However, very high, short-lived concentration peaks were detected, when the wind direction and other weather conditions were favourable. For organic compounds, the effect of wood combustion was seen in diurnal and in two-week average concentrations. PAH-concentrations were often several times higher at the residential area than in the background. Benzene concentrations showed similar diurnal pattern as the use of wood and benzene/toluene ratios indicated that wood combustion is the most important source. A chemical mass balance model was used for studying the effect of wood combustion on the measured concentrations of VOCs. Model results showed that the main local sources for VOCs at Kurkimäki are wood combustion and traffic. Wood combustion was clearly the most important source for many compounds (e.g., benzene).

  1. FY 1999 Report on research and development project. Research and development of high-temperature air combustion technology; 1999 nendo koon kuki nensho seigyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The high-temperature air combustion technology recently developed greatly advances combustion technology. The technology, when applied to the other areas, may expand its applicable areas and contribute to environmental preservation, e.g., abatement of CO2 emissions. This is the motivation for promotion of this project. The combustion technology, developed by improving functions of industrial furnaces, cannot be directly applied to the other combustion heaters. This project is aimed at extraction of the problems involved, finding out the solutions, and thereby smoothly transferring the technology to commercialization. This project covers boilers firing finely pulverized coal, waste incineration processes and high-temperature chemical reaction processes, to which the new technology is applied. It is also aimed at establishment of advanced combustion control basic technology, required when the high-temperature air combustion technology is applied to these processes. In addition to application R and D efforts for each area, the basic phenomena characteristic of each combustion heater type are elucidated using microgravity and the like, to support the application R and D efforts from the basic side. This project also surveys reduction of environmental pollutants, e.g., NOx and dioxins. This report presents the results obtained in the first year. (NEDO)

  2. Co-combustion of coal and meat and bone meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; D. Boavida; P. Abelha; M.H. Lopes; I. Cabrita [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)


    Feeding meat and bone meal (MBM) to cattle, sheep or other animals has been banned within the EU since 1 of July 1994. The quantities to be eliminated are measured in millions of tons. Disposal to landfill is not an option, as simply burying the material cannot destroy any potential bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) pathogens. One disposal option is the co-combustion of coal and MBM, to ensure that any living organism is totally thermally destroyed and at the same time valorising its energetic potential. Fluidised bed co-combustion of MBM is considered a viable technological option as it has the flexibility to burn coal with different materials in an efficient way, at relatively low temperatures (750-850{sup o}C) with lower environmental impact. For this purpose, co-combustion tests of coal and MBM were carried out on a pilot scale FBC, to investigate the implications of the results. This involved the determination of the emissions of pollutants like NOx, N{sub 2}O, VOC, CO{sub 2}, as well as the composition and the valorisation of the ashes produced. The ashes from the bed, the cyclones and the stack were collected and analyzed for biological activity, ecotoxicity, heavy metal concentration and leachability. The results obtained suggest that the ashes were suitable to be deposited in municipal landfills. 23 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  4. Premixed Supersonic Combustion (Rev) (United States)


    lean and low temperature flameout points). Figure 11. Chemiluminescence image (0.6 ms capture) at global φ = 0.41 (cavity-side = 0.27...mixing can still be rate-controlling if the flow temperature is high or if a flame holder is present and there is an adequate source of combustion... temperature associated with kinetic energy and ΔTc is the change in temperature associated with the chemistry [3]. If the rise in temperature

  5. Low temperature-fired Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nanoparticles through auto-combustion method for multilayer chip inductor applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Batoo, Khalid Mujasam; Ansari, Mohammad Shahnawaze


    Ferrite nanoparticles of basic composition Ni0.7-x ZnxCu0.3Fe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2, x = 0.05) were synthesized through auto-combustion method and were characterized for structural properties using X-ray diffraction...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskantzis Neto G.


    Full Text Available Abstract - A pilot-scale catalytic incineration system was used to investigate the effectiveness of catalytic incineration as a means of reducing volatile organic compound (VOC air pollutants. The objectives of the study were: 1 to investigate the effects of operating and design variables on the reduction efficiency of VOCs; and 2 to evaluate reduction efficiencies for specific compounds in different chemical classes. The study results verified that the following factors affect the catalyst performance: inlet temperature, space velocity, compound type, and compound inlet concentration. Tests showed that reduction efficiencies exceeding 98% were possible, given sufficiently high inlet gas temperatures for the following classes of compounds: alcohols, acetates, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aromatics

  7. Concentrations and flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in boreal forest soil (United States)

    Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana


    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) impact soil processes as VOCs transmit signals between roots and rhizosphere (Ditengou et al., 2015), VOCs can regulate microbial activity (Asensio et al., 2012), and VOCs can also promote root growth (Hung et al., 2012). Belowground concentrations of VOCs have not been measured in situ and for this reason, knowledge of how different soil organisms such as roots, rhizosphere and decomposers contribute to VOC production is limited. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify VOC fluxes and concentrations of different horizons from boreal forest soil. The VOC concentrations and fluxes were measured from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland from 21th of April to 2nd of December in 2016. VOC fluxes were measured using dynamic (flow-through) chambers from five soil collars placed on five different locations. VOC concentrations were also measured in each location from four different soil horizons with the measurement depth 1-107 cm. VOCs were collected from underground gas collectors into the Tenax-Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes using portable pumps ( 100 ml min-1). The VOC concentrations and fluxes of isoprene, 11 monoterpenes, 13 sesquiterpenes and different oxygenated VOCs were measured. Sample tubes were analyzed using thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Soil temperature and soil water content were continuously monitored for each soil horizon. Our preliminary results show that the primary source of VOCs is organic soil layer and the contribution of mineral soil to the VOC formation is minor. VOC fluxes and concentrations were dominated by monoterpenes such as α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, and Δ3-carene. Monoterpene concentration is almost 10-fold in organic soil compared to the deeper soil layers. However, the highest VOC fluxes on the soil surface were measured in October, whereas the monoterpene concentrations in organic soil were highest in July

  8. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred


    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  9. CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Wei


    A sensor for sensitive in situ measurements of carbon monoxide and temperature in combustion gases has been developed using absorption transitions in the (v′ = 1 ← v″ = 0) and (v′ = 2 ← v″ = 1) fundamental bands of CO. Recent availability of mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) lasers provides convenient access to the CO fundamental band near 4.7 μm, having approximately 104 and 102 times stronger absorption line-strengths compared to the overtone bands near 1.55 μm and 2.3 μm used previously to sense CO in combustion gases. Spectroscopic parameters of the selected transitions were determined via laboratory measurements in a shock tube over the 1100-2000 K range and also at room temperature. A single-laser absorption sensor was developed for accurate CO measurements in shock-heated gases by scanning the line pair v″ = 0, R(12) and v″ = 1, R(21) at 2.5 kHz. To capture the rapidly varying CO time-histories in chemical reactions, two different QC lasers were then used to probe the line-center absorbance of transitions v″ = 0, P(20) and v″ = 1, R(21) with a bandwidth of 1 MHz using fixed-wavelength direct absorption. The sensor was applied in successful shock tube measurements of temperature and CO time-histories during the pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl formate, illustrating the capability of this sensor for chemical kinetic studies. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nano ZnO and MgO powder by low temperature solution combustion method: studies concerning electrochemical and photocatalytic behavior




    The objective of the research was mainly focused on the synthesis of ZnO and MgO nanoparticle by low temperature solution combustion method using Urea as fuel. The accurate size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to assess the structure of the ZnO and MgO particles. The phase composition of the Synthesized ZnO and MgO nanoparticles were confirmed from powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) ...

  11. Effect of the temperature of different combustion zones in the boiler grate on changes in physical and chemical parameters of bituminous coal and slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Rompalski


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the influence of the temperature of characteristic zones of coal combustion in a stoker fired boiler (drying, degassing, and burn-out, on changes in physical and chemical parameters of bituminous coal and slags. This information is important as it helps identify the impact of coal properties on the accumulation of trace elements, primarily mercury, in combustion waste. The study is the continuation of research work on the impact of mercury compounds accumulated in combustion waste on the natural environment (mercury from landfills of slag, and fly ash. Studies were undertaken because no in-depth analysis of the impact of the temperature of particular zones of stoker fired boilers on the physical and chemical parameters of the post-process slag, including mercury content, had been reported in literature. Both of the coals examined, classified as bituminous coal according to the International Classification of Seam Coals and of type 32.1 according to the PN-G-97002:1982 standard, showed an average mercury content of 0.0849 μg/g. In the chemical composition determined for the ash derived from burnt coal, the dominance of SiO2 and Al2O3 over other oxides was found. This feature results in the increase of the softening temperature and ash melting and, therefore, during the combustion of coal tested in a stoker fired boiler, only ash was subjected to the sintering process. Mercury content in the other examined samples taken from various locations of the stoker fired boiler (drying – 32–1050 °C, degassing – 1050–1020 °C, and burn-out – 1020–400 °C varied from 0.0668 to 0.0009 μg/g and was determined with the use of a LECO atomic absorption spectrometer. The analyses of the elemental composition, performed with the application of XRF spectrometry, for ash obtained from samples collected from different sampling points of the stoker fired boiler showed that the largest concentration of

  12. On the Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lean Partially Premixed Combustion, Burning Speed, Flame Instability and Plasma Formation of Alternative Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures (United States)

    Askari, Omid

    This dissertation investigates the combustion and injection fundamental characteristics of different alternative fuels both experimentally and theoretically. The subjects such as lean partially premixed combustion of methane/hydrogen/air/diluent, methane high pressure direct-injection, thermal plasma formation, thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon/air mixtures at high temperatures, laminar flames and flame morphology of synthetic gas (syngas) and Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels were extensively studied in this work. These subjects will be summarized in three following paragraphs. The fundamentals of spray and partially premixed combustion characteristics of directly injected methane in a constant volume combustion chamber have been experimentally studied. The injected fuel jet generates turbulence in the vessel and forms a turbulent heterogeneous fuel-air mixture in the vessel, similar to that in a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Direct-Injection (DI) engines. The effect of different characteristics parameters such as spark delay time, stratification ratio, turbulence intensity, fuel injection pressure, chamber pressure, chamber temperature, Exhaust Gas recirculation (EGR) addition, hydrogen addition and equivalence ratio on flame propagation and emission concentrations were analyzed. As a part of this work and for the purpose of control and calibration of high pressure injector, spray development and characteristics including spray tip penetration, spray cone angle and overall equivalence ratio were evaluated under a wide range of fuel injection pressures of 30 to 90 atm and different chamber pressures of 1 to 5 atm. Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon/air plasma mixtures at ultra-high temperatures must be precisely calculated due to important influence on the flame kernel formation and propagation in combusting flows and spark discharge applications. A new algorithm based on the statistical thermodynamics was developed to calculate the ultra-high temperature plasma

  13. VOCs in industrial, urban and suburban neighborhoods—Part 2: Factors affecting indoor and outdoor concentrations (United States)

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart; Godwin, Christopher

    Many microenvironmental and behavioral factors can affect concentrations of and exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Identifying these determinants is important to understand exposures and risks, and also to design policies and strategies that minimize concentrations. This study is aimed at determining factors associated with VOC concentrations found indoors in residences and outdoors in ambient air. It utilizes results from a comprehensive field study in which 98 VOCs were measured both inside and outside of 159 residences in three communities in southeast Michigan, USA. Additional measurements included indoor CO 2 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, building and neighborhood characteristics, and occupant activities, assessed using a questionnaire and comprehensive walkthrough investigation. Factors potentially affecting concentrations were identified using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Outdoors, seasonal and community effects were observed. Indoors, seasonal effects were limited to the urban and industrial communities, largely due to changes in ambient levels. Elevated indoor VOC concentrations were associated with eight sources or activities: the presence of an attached garage; recent renovations; older residences; indoor smoking; less frequent window or door opening; higher CO 2 concentrations; and lower ventilation rates. VOC levels were uninfluenced by building materials (wood vs. brick), flooring type (carpeting vs. wood), stove type (gas or electric), number of occupants, air freshener use, and hobbies involving arts and crafts. Factor analyses identified up to five factors for the ambient VOC measurements, and up to 10 factors for the indoor measurements, which further helped to explain the variability of concentrations and associations between VOCs.

  14. Adsorptive performance of chromium-containing ordered mesoporous silica on volatile organic compounds (VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Fan


    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are the primary poisonous emissions into the atmosphere in natural gas exploitation and disposing process. The adsorption method has been widely applied in actual production because of its good features such as low cost, low energy consumption, flexible devices needed, etc. The commonly used adsorbents like activated carbon, silicon molecular sieves and so on are not only susceptible to plugging or spontaneous combustion but difficult to be recycled. In view of this, a new adsorbent (CrSBA15 was made by the co-assembly method to synthesize the ordered mesoporous silica materials with different amounts of chromium to eliminate VOCs. This new adsorbent was characterized by small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Its adsorption performance to eliminate VOCs (toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate used as typical pollutants was also tested systematically. Research results indicate that this new adsorbent of CrSBA-15(30, with the silicon/chromium ration being 30, owns the maximum micropore volume, and shows a higher adsorption performance in eliminating toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate. Besides, it is cost-effective and much easier to be recycled than the activated carbon. In conclusion, CrSBA-15(30 is a good adsorbent to eliminate VOCs with broad application prospects. Keywords: Mesoporous materials, Silicon dioxide, Synthesis, Adsorption, Volatile organic compounds (VOCs, Recyclability, Energy saving

  15. Experimental biomass burning emission assessment by combustion chamber (United States)

    Lusini, Ilaria; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Corona, Piermaria; Ciccioli, Paolo; Calfapietra, Carlo


    Biomass burning is a significant source of several atmospheric gases and particles and it represents an important ecological factor in the Mediterranean ecosystem. In this work we describe the performances of a recently developed combustion chamber to show the potential of this facility in estimating the emission from wildland fire showing a case study with leaves, small branches and litter of two representative species of Mediterranean vegetation, Quercus pubescens and Pinus halepensis. The combustion chamber is equipped with a thermocouple, a high resolution balance, an epiradiometer, two different sampling lines to collect organic volatile compounds (VOCs) and particles, a sampling line connected to a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass-Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a portable analyzer to measure CO and CO2 emission. VOCs emission were both analyzed with GC-MS and monitored on-line with PTR-MS. The preliminary qualitative analysis of emission showed that CO and CO2 are the main gaseous species emitted during the smoldering and flaming phase, respectively. Many aromatics VOCs as benzene and toluene, and many oxygenated VOC as acetaldehyde and methanol were also released. This combustion chamber represents an important tool to determine the emission factor of each plant species within an ecosystem, but also the contribution to the emissions of the different plant tissues and the kinetics of different compound emissions during the various combustion phases. Another important feature of the chamber is the monitoring of the carbon balance during the biomass combustion.

  16. The fractionation factors of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios for VOCs (United States)

    Kawashima, H.


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere, some of which are carcinogenic, teratogenic, or mutagenic. VOCs in ambient air originate from many sources, including vehicle exhausts, gasoline evaporation, solvent use, natural gas emissions, and industrial processes, and undergo intricate chemical reactions in the atmosphere. To develop efficient air pollution remediation strategies, it is important to clearly identify the emission sources and elucidate the reaction mechanisms in the atmosphere. Recently, stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of VOCs in some sources and ambient air have been measured by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). In this study, we measured δ13C and stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) of atmospheric VOCs by using the gas chromatography/thermal conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled with a thermal desorption instrument (TD-GC/TC/IRMS). The wider δD differences between sources were found in comparison with the δ13C studies. Therefore, determining δD values of VOCs in ambient air is potentially useful in identifying VOC sources and their reactive behavior in the atmosphere. However, to elucidate the sources and behavior of atmospheric VOCs more accurately, isotopic fractionation during atmospheric reaction must be considered. In this study, we determined isotopic fractionation of the δ13C and δD values for the atmospheric some VOCs under irradiation conditions. As the results, δ13C for target all VOCs and δD for most VOCs were increasing after irradiation. But, the δD values for both benzene and toluene tended to decrease as irradiation time increased. We also estimated the fractionation factors for benzene and toluene, 1.27 and 1.05, respectively, which differed from values determined in previous studies. In summary, we were able to identify an inverse isotope effect for the δD values of benzene and toluene

  17. Pollution profiles and health risk assessment of VOCs emitted during e-waste dismantling processes associated with different dismantling methods. (United States)

    An, Taicheng; Huang, Yong; Li, Guiying; He, Zhigui; Chen, Jiangyao; Zhang, Chaosheng


    Pollution profiles of typical volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during dismantling of various printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) of e-wastes using different methods were comparatively investigated in the real e-waste dismantling workshops in South China in April 2013. Similar pollution profiles and concentrations of VOCs were observed between dismantling mobile phone and hard disk PCBAs by using electric blowers and between dismantling television and power supplier PCBAs using electric heating furnaces. Aromatic hydrocarbons (accounting for >60% of the sum of VOCs) were the dominant group during using electric blowers, while aromatic (accounting for >44% of the sum of VOCs) and halogenated hydrocarbons (accounting for >48% of the sum of VOCs) were the two dominant groups which contributed equally using electric heating furnaces. However, the distribution profiles of VOCs emitted during dismantling of televisions, hard disks and micro motors using rotary incinerators varied greatly, though aromatic hydrocarbons were still the dominant group. The combustion of e-wastes led to the most severe contamination of VOCs, with total VOCs (3.3×10(4) μg m(-3)) using rotary incinerators about 190, 180, 139, and 40 times higher than those using mechanical cutting, electric soldering iron, electric blower, and electric heating furnace, respectively. Both cancer and non-cancer risks existed for workers due to exposure to on-site emitted VOCs in all workshops especially in those using rotary incinerators according to the USEPA methodology, whereas only cancer risks existed in rotary incinerator workshops according to the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coupling Noble Metals and Carbon Supports in the Development of Combustion Catalysts for the Abatement of BTX Compounds in Air Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Morales-Torres


    Full Text Available The catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs is one of the most important techniques to remove these pollutants from the air stream, but it should be carried out at the lowest possible temperature, saving energy and avoiding the simultaneous formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx. Under these experimental conditions, the chemisorption of water generated from VOCs combustion may inhibit hydrophilic catalysts. Nowadays, a wide variety of carbon materials is available to be used in catalysis. The behavior of these hydrophobic materials in the development of highly active and selective combustion catalysts is analyzed in this manuscript. The support characteristics (porosity, hydrophobicity, structure, surface chemistry, etc. and the active phase nature (noble metals: Pt, Pd and dispersion were analyzed by several techniques and the results correlated with the dual adsorptive and/or catalytic performance of the corresponding catalysts. The coupling of highly active phases and carbon materials (activated carbons, honeycomb coated monoliths, carbon aerogels, etc. with tuneable physicochemical properties leads to the complete abatement of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX from dilute air streams, being selectively oxidized to CO2 at low temperatures.

  19. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials. (United States)

    Cui, Peiqiang; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Fuzhou; Xiao, Yue; Zhang, Honghua


    Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC), making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis) were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  20. Atmospheric Dispersion Capability for T2VOC


    Oldenburg, Curtis M.


    Atmospheric transport by variable-K theory dispersion has been added to T2VOC. The new code, T2VOCA, models flow and transport in the subsurface identically to T2VOC, but includes also the capability for modeling passive multicomponent variable-K theory dispersion in an atmospheric region assumed to be flat, horizontal, and with a logarithmic wind profile. The specification of the logarithmic wind profile in the T2VOC input file is automated through the use of a build code called ATMDISP...

  1. Computational Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J


    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  2. A novel single-run dual temperature combustion (SRDTC) method for the determination of organic, in-organic and total carbon in soil samples. (United States)

    Bisutti, Isabella; Hilke, Ines; Schumacher, Jens; Raessler, Michael


    The quantification of organic (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) in soils provides an essential tool for understanding biogeochemical processes. Examples of its potential application are the assessment of the humification degree of soil organic matter, the calculation of carbon fluxes and budgets in terrestrial systems on a regional and global scale and the investigation of the carbon storage potential of soils. The verification of changes in carbon stocks requires an extensive number of samples as well as precise and reliable analyses. Due to the wide variation in the concentrations of the two forms of carbon in solid samples, the exact distinction is very difficult. We present the advantages of a single-run dual temperature combustion method (SRDTC) at 515 degrees C for OC and 925 degrees C for IC, which allows the determination of OC, IC and total carbon (TC) within one single analytical run. The three parameters are analyzed in less than 30 min. Additionally, the method is characterized by a significantly reduced variability and low operator bias, as there is no need of chemical sample pre-treatment. It is applicable to a broad range of varying OC and IC contents, which is demonstrated by the use of numerous synthetic soil mixtures that have been analyzed. Furthermore, SRDTC indicates the presence of thermally instable carbonates, like magnesite, in the sample. Use of silver boats as a catalytic agent results in an improved distinction between OC and IC in this case. To examine the accuracy and reliability of the SRDTC method, it was compared to other techniques frequently used for carbon determination in soil samples: total combustion by elemental analysis to determine TC and acidification of the sample prior to combustion to determine OC. We will show that the rugged SRDTC method offers a substantial progress for both the reliable and rapid OC and IC determination in soil samples where elemental carbon is negligible.

  3. Peat moss-derived biochars as effective sorbents for VOCs' removal in groundwater. (United States)

    Kim, Jeonggwan; Lee, Sang Soo; Khim, Jeehyeong


    Peat moss-derived biochars were produced at the pyrolytic temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 °C and were tested for evaluating the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from waters. As the pyrolytic temperature increases, the carbon contents were increased from 66 to 84%, and the contents of hydrogen and oxygen were decreased from 4 to 1% and from 19 to 4%, respectively. The surface areas of the biochars were 2 m2 g-1 at the pyrolysis temperature of 300 °C and were increased to 200 and 300 m2 g-1 at 500 and 700 °C, respectively. Results of FTIR analysis showed that functional groups such as hydroxyl, nitro, and carboxyl groups were observed in the biochar produced at 300 °C; however, the functional groups were removed in the biochars produced at higher temperatures. Sorption kinetics and equilibrium experiments were conducted with selected six VOCs of benzene (BZN), toluene (TOL), ethylbenzene (EBZ), p-xylene (pXYL), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are the most common VOCs found in contaminated groundwater of South Korea. Sorption equilibrium was attained in 6 h with the constants of first order kinetic rate of 0.5 h-1 for the VOCs tested. Freundlich isotherm well described the adsorption of VOCs to the biochars. Biochar produced at 500 °C showed the highest sorption capacity for all VOCs with an average K f of 7692 (±2265), although biochars produced at 300 °C (K f  = 3146 ± 629) and 700 °C (K f  = 2776 ± 2693) showed the similar sorption capacity. The biochars produced at 500 °C can be an excellent remover of VOCs in contaminated groundwater.

  4. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap


    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron


    The overall objective of this project is to facilitate national acceptance of the EnCore{trademark} sampling/storage device by conducting product tests, method development, and method validation activities. The specific goals for the initial six-month period of the project are listed: (1) Evaluate and become familiar with the stainless steel EnCore{trademark} sampling/storage device for collecting and holding soil samples for determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); (2) Initiate interaction with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D-34 on Waste Management to begin the ASTM standard preparation and approval process; (3) Prepare an ASTM drall practice for using a device fitting the description of the EnCore{trademark} sampler for sampling and storing soil for volatile organic analysis. Under ASTM guidelines, the procedure describing the use of a device, such as the EnCore{trademark} sampler, is referred to as a practice rather than a method because it is a definitive set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations that does not produce a test result (ASTM 1996a); and (4) Plan testing needed to establish maximum storage temperatures and times for inclusion in the ASTM practice.


    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  7. Comparison of the decomposition VOC profile during winter and summer in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb) climate. (United States)

    Forbes, Shari L; Perrault, Katelynn A; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Nizio, Katie D; Focant, Jean-François


    The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb) climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC × GC-TOFMS were demonstrated

  8. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste (United States)

    Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.


    Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant

  9. Emission of volatile organic compounds from domestic coal stove with the actual alternation of flaming and smoldering combustion processes. (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Chenglong; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the chimney of a prevailing domestic stove fuelled with raw bituminous coal were measured under flaming and smoldering combustion processes in a farmer's house. The results indicated that the concentrations of VOCs quickly increased after the coal loading and achieved their peak values in a few minutes. The peak concentrations of the VOCs under the smoldering combustion process were significantly higher than those under the flaming combustion process. Alkanes accounted for the largest proportion (43.05%) under the smoldering combustion, followed by aromatics (28.86%), alkenes (21.91%), carbonyls (5.81%) and acetylene (0.37%). The emission factors of the total VOCs under the smoldering combustion processes (5402.9 ± 2031.8 mg kg-1) were nearly one order of magnitude greater than those under the flaming combustion processes (559.2 ± 385.9 mg kg-1). Based on the VOCs emission factors obtained in this study and the regional domestic coal consumption, the total VOCs emissions from domestic coal stoves was roughly estimated to be 1.25 × 108 kg a-1 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone (O3) polluted atmospheres: the ecological effects. (United States)

    Pinto, Delia M; Blande, James D; Souza, Silvia R; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K


    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an important secondary air pollutant formed as a result of photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). O3 concentrations in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are predicted to continue increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity, which will impact strongly on wild and cultivated plants. O3 affects photosynthesis and induces the development of visible foliar injuries, which are the result of genetically controlled programmed cell death. It also activates many plant defense responses, including the emission of phytogenic VOCs. Plant emitted VOCs play a role in many eco-physiological functions. Besides protecting the plant from abiotic stresses (high temperatures and oxidative stress) and biotic stressors (competing plants, micro- and macroorganisms), they drive multitrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and their natural enemies e.g., predators and parasitoids as well as interactions between plants (plant-to-plant communication). In addition, VOCs have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are O3 precursors, but at the same time are readily oxidized by O3, thus resulting in a series of new compounds that include secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Here, we review the effects of O3 on plants and their VOC emissions. We also review the state of current knowledge on the effects of ozone on ecological interactions based on VOC signaling, and propose further research directions.

  11. [Estimation of VOC emission from forests in China based on the volume of tree species]. (United States)

    Zhang, Gang-feng; Xie, Shao-dong


    Applying the volume data of dominant trees from statistics on the national forest resources, volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions of each main tree species in China were estimated based on the light-temperature model put forward by Guenther. China's VOC emission inventory for forest was established, and the space-time and age-class distributions of VOC emission were analyzed. The results show that the total VOC emissions from forests in China are 8565.76 Gg, of which isoprene is 5689.38 Gg (66.42%), monoterpenes is 1343.95 Gg (15.69%), and other VOC is 1532.43 Gg (17.89%). VOC emissions have significant species variation. Quercus is the main species responsible for emission, contributing 45.22% of the total, followed by Picea and Pinus massoniana with 6.34% and 5.22%, respectively. Southwest and Northeast China are the major emission regions. In specific, Yunnan, Sichuan, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Shaanxi are the top five provinces producing the most VOC emissions from forests, and their contributions to the total are 15.09%, 12.58%, 10.35%, 7.49% and 7.37%, respectively. Emissions from these five provinces occupy more than half (52.88%) of the national emissions. Besides, VOC emissions show remarkable seasonal variation. Emissions in summer are the largest, accounting for 56.66% of the annual. Forests of different ages have different emission contribution. Half-mature forests play a key role and contribute 38.84% of the total emission from forests.

  12. Combustion Temperature Measurement by Spontaneous Raman Scattering in a Jet-A Fueled Gas Turbine Combustor Sector (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; DeGroot, Wilhelmus A.; Locke, Randy J.; Anderson, Robert C.


    Spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering was used to measure temperature in an aviation combustor sector burning jet fuel. The inlet temperature ranged from 670 K (750 F) to 756 K (900 F) and pressures from 13 to 55 bar. With the exception of a discrepancy that we attribute to soot, good agreement was seen between the Raman-derived temperatures and the theoretical temperatures calculated from the inlet conditions. The technique used to obtain the temperature uses the relationship between the N2 anti-Stokes and Stokes signals, within a given Raman spectrum. The test was performed using a NASA-concept fuel injector and Jet-A fuel over a range of fuel/air ratios. This work represents the first such measurements in a high-pressure, research aero-combustor facility.

  13. Effect of Manganese Additive on the Improvement of Low-Temperature Catalytic Activity of VO(x)-WO(x)/TiO2 Nanoparticles for Chlorobenzene Combustion. (United States)

    He, Fei; Chen, Chunxiao; Liu, Shantang


    In this study, V-W/TiO2, Mn-V-W/TiO2 and Mn-W/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by homogeneous precipitation method and investigated for the catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene (CB), which was used as a model compound of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and hydrogen temperature-programed reduction (H2-TPR). The average size of the nanoparticles was -20 nm. Manganese species were evenly distributed on the surface of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst, and a small amount of manganese addition did not affect the crystal form, crystallinity and morphology of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst. In addition, low-temperature catalytic activity of V-W/TiO2 catalysts could be effectively improved. When the molar ratio of Mn/(Mn + V) was 0.25 or 0.4, the catalyst displayed the highest low-temperature activity. This was possibly due to Mn (VO3)x formed by the reaction of manganese and vanadium species. Meanwhile, we also found that the addition of oxalic acid was benefit to the improvement of the catalytic activities. When manganese content was high, such as Mn (0.75) VW/Ti, the catalyst activity declined seriously, and the reason was also discussed.

  14. POCP for individual VOC under European conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenstedt, J.; Pleijel, K.


    Ground level ozone has been recognised as one of the most important environmental threats on the regional scale in Europe. Ozone is today considered to be harmful to human health already at the relatively low concentrations present in southern Scandinavia. The fact that ozone has the potential to damage vegetation at these concentrations is already well known. Ozone also gives rise to degradation of materials and is one of the gases which adds to the greenhouse effect. Ground level ozone is formed from nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. The only way to reduce ozone is therefore to reduce the emissions of the precursors. Ranking individual VOC by their ozone formation potential can make emission reductions more environmentally efficient and save time and money. POCP values give a ranking of the ozone formation ability of an individual VOC relative to other VOC. A critical analysis of the POCP concept has been performed which shows that the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC affect the POCP values to a large extent. Based on the critical analysis, five scenarios with different background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC were selected for calculation of POCP values. These scenarios were chosen because they reflect the variation in POCP values which arise in different environments within Europe. The range thus indicates POCP values which are intended to be applicable within Europe. POCP values for 83 different VOC are presented in the form of ranges in this report. 42 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Underestimated public health risks caused by overestimated VOC removal in wastewater treatment processes. (United States)

    Yang, Junchen; Wang, Kun; Zhao, Qingliang; Huang, Likun; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yang, Wen-Bin


    The uncontrolled release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the adverse health effects on the public have been of increasing concern. In this study, a lab-scale bioreactor was prepared to analyze the mass distribution of three aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and four chlorinated VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) among the air, water and sludge phases in wastewater treatment processes. The VOC distribution through a full-scale WWTP in northern China was further investigated with respect to the effects of seasonal temperature variations and treatment technologies, followed by the cancer risk assessment using a steady-state Gaussian plume model (Industrial Source Complex) to simulate the atmospheric behaviors of the VOCs emitted from the WWTP. It was found that three aromatic hydrocarbons, notably benzene, were more readily released from the wastewater into the atmosphere, whereas the chlorinated compounds except chloroform were mainly present in the water phase through the treatment processes. The primary clarifier was the technology releasing high levels of VOCs into the atmosphere from the wastewater. The extents of volatilization or biodegradation, two important mechanisms to remove VOCs from wastewater, appeared to be determined by the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds, as the influence of treatment technologies (e.g., aeration) and seasonal temperature variations was rather limited. More importantly, the people living in the areas even more than 4 km away from the WWTP were still potentially exposed to cancer risks exceeding the regulatory threshold limit. The findings described the complex nature of VOC emissions from WWTPs and quantitatively indicated that the associated health impacts on the public near the WWTPs could be severely underestimated, whereas their treatment efficiencies by wastewater treatment technologies were overestimated

  16. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, P., E-mail: [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Gioli, B. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Dugheri, S. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Salvini, A. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Matese, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Bonacchi, A. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Zaldei, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Cupelli, V. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Miglietta, F. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via Mach 1, San Michele all' Adige, Trento (Italy)


    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. - Highlights: > Flight plan aimed at sampling industrial area at various altitudes and locations. > SPME sampling strategy was based on plume detection by means of CO{sub 2}. > Concentrations obtained were lower than the limit values or below the detection limit. > Scan mode highlighted presence of {gamma}-butyrolactone (GBL) compound. > Gaussian dispersion modelling was used to estimate GBL source location and strength. - An integrated strategy based on atmospheric aircraft observations and dispersion modelling was developed, aimed at estimating spatial location and strength of VOC point source emissions in industrial areas.

  17. Planar temperature measurement on OH using LIF in commercial combustion systems; Planare Temperaturmessung am OH mittels LIF in technischen Verbrennungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, U.E.; Wolff-Gassmann, D. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DlR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungstechnik; Stricker, W.; Heinze, J. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik


    Two dimensional laser-induced fluorescence is a suitable method for temporally resolved planar temperature measurements even under technical conditions. In addition, the use of the OH radical as temperature indicator species allows visualization of structural features of a flame, like location, turbulent fluctuations, mixing properties etc. The method is demonstrated in a jet engine combustor segment at pressures of 6 bar and above. The UV radiation of the lasers can also excite fluorescence of the kerosene fuel, thus enabling visualization of the fuel distribution qualitatively. Conversely, excitation and fluorescence of the fuel can affect the temperature measurement. We show that by using a suitable substitute fuel, this perturbation can be substantially reduced. (orig.)

  18. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker


    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  19. Source Apportionment of VOCs in Edmonton, Alberta (United States)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; Aklilu, Y.; Lyder, D. A.


    Regional emissions at Edmonton, Alberta, are complex, containing emissions from (1) transportation sources, such as cars, trucks, buses, and rail; (2) industrial sources, such as petroleum refining, light manufacturing, and fugitive emissions from holding tanks or petroleum terminals; and (3) miscellaneous sources, such as biogenic emissions and natural gas use and processing. From 2003 to 2009, whole air samples were collected at two sites in Edmonton and analyzed for over 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs were sampled in the downtown area (Central) and the industrial area on the eastern side of the city (East). Concentrations of most VOCs were highest at the East site. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model was used to apportion ambient concentration measurements of VOCs into eleven factors, which were associated with emissions source categories. Factors of VOCs identified in the final eleven-factor solution include transportation sources (both gasoline and diesel vehicles), industrial sources, a biogenic source, and a natural-gas-related source. Transportation sources accounted for more mass at the Central site than at the East site; this was expected because Central is in a core urban area where transportation emissions are concentrated. Transportation sources accounted for nearly half of the VOC mass at the Central site, but only 6% of the mass at the East site. Encouragingly, mass from transportation sources has declined by about 4% a year in this area; this trend is similar to the decline found throughout the United States, and is likely due to fleet turnover as older, more highly polluting cars are replaced with newer, cleaner cars. In contrast, industrial sources accounted for ten times more VOC mass at the East site than at the Central site and were responsible for most of the total VOC mass observed at the East site. Of the six industrial factors identified at the East site, four were linked to petrochemical industry production

  20. Low-temperature CO oxidation over Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singhania


    Full Text Available Zirconia (ZrO2 nanoparticles co-doped with Cu and Pt were applied as catalysts for carbon monoxide (CO oxidation. These materials were prepared through solution combustion in order to obtain highly active and stable catalytic nanomaterials. This method allows Pt2+ and Cu2+ ions to dissolve into the ZrO2 lattice and thus creates oxygen vacancies due to lattice distortion and charge imbalance. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM results showed Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles with a size of ca. 10 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectra confirmed cubic structure and larger oxygen vacancies. The nanoparticles showed excellent activity for CO oxidation. The temperature T50 (the temperature at which 50% of CO are converted was lowered by 175 °C in comparison to bare ZrO2. Further, they exhibited very high stability for CO reaction (time-on-stream ≈ 70 h. This is due to combined effect of smaller particle size, large oxygen vacancies, high specific surface area and better thermal stability of the Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles. The apparent activation energy for CO oxidation is found to be 45.6 kJ·mol−1. The CO conversion decreases with increase in gas hourly space velocity (GHSV and initial CO concentration.

  1. Combustion studies in a fluidised bed-The link between temperature, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O formation, char morphology and coal type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, B.; Lemos de Sousa, M.J. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Praca de Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002, Porto (Portugal); Abelha, P.; Boavida, D.; Gulyurtlu, I. [Departamento de Engenharia Energetica e Controlo Ambiental (DEECA), Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao (INETI), Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, Edif. J, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)


    Five commercially available high volatile bituminous coals from different origins were studied with the objective of characterizing their petrographic nature with respect to emissions of NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. The chars produced [at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 {sup o}C] from these coals were also petrographic ally analyzed to assess the contribution of char to NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O formation during combustion. Vitrinite-rich coals produced higher porous chars (cenospheres and tenuinetworks) than those that are rich in inertinite. The former coals were, however, found to release lower concentrations of NO. Consistent with previous works, N{sub 2}O emissions were observed to decrease significantly with temperature, however, on the whole, the N{sub 2}O emissions from vitrinite-rich high volatile coals were less than those from inertinite-rich coals. Additionally, high porous chars were found to give rise to lower emissions of NO and N{sub 2}O. (author)

  2. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.


    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel, the intake air temperature is increased to 90°C for naphtha. The combustion stratification from CI to PPC is also investigated for various level of dilution by displacing oxygen with nitrogen in the intake. The start of combustion (SOC) was delayed with the increase in dilution and to compensate for this, the intake air temperature is increased. The mixture homogeneity is enhanced for higher dilution due to longer ignition delay. The results show that high speed image is initially blue and then turned yellow, indicating soot formation and oxidation. The luminosity of combustion images decreases with early SOI and increased dilution. The images are processed to generate the level of stratification based on the image intensity. The level of stratification is same for diesel and naphtha at various SOI. When O concentration in the intake is decreased to 17.7% and 14

  3. VOC methods and levels in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomboi, M.T. [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda (Spain)


    Ozone precursors began to be studied in the eighties in Spain, in order to know their levels and composition in areas, which had high concentrations of other atmospheric polluting agents. At the end of the eighties, VOC were incorporated into the air quality networks in urban areas in order to anticipate at the derived amendments of the entrance into force on the Directive 92/72/CEE of 1992 on air pollution by ozone. At the same time, field campaigns for VOC toxics were started in specific industrial areas and the zones with high traffic. More recently, the air quality networks have been orientated to non-urban areas, to cover the knowledge of VOC in semi-urban and rural areas. On the other hand, the role of the biogenic emissions and the role that their chemical and photochemical products play in atmospheric chemistry was becoming important in the nineties. Therefore some research projects, e.g. 'Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area (BEMA)', were developed in order to understand the vegetation emissions in the Mediterranean area in relation to anthropogenic compounds and to get information on their participation in tropospheric ozone formation. VOC have been sampled at European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) sites since 1999, based on recommendations from the EMEP Workshop on Measurements of Hydrocarbons/VOC in Lindau 1989. Collection of light hydrocarbons started in 1999, whereas measurements of carbonyls have just started in 2003. In this work, the most important sampling and analysis techniques to determine ozone precursors and to control VOC are shown, as well as the main results obtained in projects, networks and measurement campaigns performed with these methods.

  4. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  5. VOC breath biomarkers in lung cancer. (United States)

    Saalberg, Yannick; Wolff, Marcus


    This review provides an overview of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are considered lung cancer biomarkers for diagnostic breath analysis. It includes results of scientific publications from 1985 to 2015. The identified VOCs are listed and ranked according to their occurrence of nomination. The applied detection and sampling methods are specified but not evaluated. Possible reasons for the different results of the studies are stated. Among the most frequently emerging biomarkers are 2-butanone and 1-propanol as well as isoprene, ethylbenzene, styrene and hexanal. The outcome of this review may be helpful for the development of a lung cancer screening device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical modeling of straw combustion in a fixed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Haosheng; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, Peter


    . The straw combustion processes include moisture evaporation, straw pyrolysis, gas combustion, and char combustion. The model provides detailed information of the structure of the ignition flame front. Simulated gas species concentrations at the bed surface, ignition flame front rate, and bed temperature...... packing condition, and heat capacity of the straw have considerable effects on the model predictions of straw combustion in the fixed bed....

  7. Vertical characteristics of VOCs in the lower troposphere over the North China Plain during pollution periods. (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Yuesi; Wu, Fangkun; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yinghong; Yang, Yuan


    In recent years, photochemical smog and gray haze-fog have frequently appeared over northern China. To determine the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during a pollution period, tethered balloon flights were conducted over a suburban site on the North China Plain. Statistical analysis showed that the VOCs concentrations peaked at the surface, and decreased with altitude. A rapid decrease appeared from the surface to 400 m, with concnetrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and halocarbons decreasing by 48.0%, 53.3%, 43.3% and 51.1%, respectively. At heights in the range of 500-1000 m, alkenes concnetrations decline by 40.2%; alkanes and halocarbons concnetrations only decreased by 24.8% and 6.4%, respectively; and aromatics increased slightly by 5.5%. High concentrations VOCs covered a higher range of height (400 m) on heavy pollution days due to lacking of diffusion power. The VOCs concentrations decreased by 50% at 200 m on light pollution days. The transport of air mass affected the composition and concentration of high-altitude VOCs, especially on lightly polluted days. These air masses originated in areas with abundant traffic and combustion sources. Reactive aromatics (kOH>20,000 ppm(-1) min(-1) and kOHlight pollution days. The contribution increased to 52% with pollution aggravated, and increased to 64% with height. The contributions of reactive aromatics were influenced by the degree of air mass aging. Under the umbrella of aging air mass, the contribution of reactive aromatics increased with height. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Chemically adjusting plasma temperature, energy, and reactivity (CAPTEAR) method using NOx and combustion for selective synthesis of Sc3N@C80 metallic nitride fullerenes. (United States)

    Stevenson, Steven; Thompson, M Corey; Coumbe, H Louie; Mackey, Mary A; Coumbe, Curtis E; Phillips, J Paige


    Goals are (1) to selectively synthesize metallic nitride fullerenes (MNFs) in lieu of empty-cage fullerenes (e.g., C60, C70) without compromising MNF yield and (2) to test our hypothesis that MNFs possess a different set of optimal formation parameters than empty-cage fullerenes. In this work, we introduce a novel approach for the selective synthesis of metallic nitride fullerenes. This new method is "Chemically Adjusting Plasma Temperature, Energy, and Reactivity" (CAPTEAR). The CAPTEAR approach with copper nitrate hydrate uses NOx vapor from NOx generating solid reagents, air, and combustion to "tune" the temperature, energy, and reactivity of the plasma environment. The extent of temperature, energy, and reactive environment is stoichiometrically varied until optimal conditions for selective MNF synthesis are achieved. Analysis of soot extracts indicate that percentages of C60 and Sc3N@C80 are inversely related, whereas the percentages of C70 and higher empty-cage C2n fullerenes are largely unaffected. Hence, there may be a "competitive link" in the formation and mechanism of C60 and Sc3N@C80. Using this CAPTEAR method, purified MNFs (96% Sc3N@C80, 12 mg) have been obtained in soot extracts without a significant penalty in milligram yield when compared to control soot extracts (4% Sc3N@C80, 13 mg of Sc3N@C80). The CAPTEAR process with Cu(NO3)2.2.5H2O uses an exothermic nitrate moiety to suppress empty-cage fullerene formation, whereas Cu functions as a catalyst additive to offset the reactive plasma environment and boost the Sc3N@C80 MNF production.

  9. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.


    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  10. Metallurgical and mechanical behaviours of PWR fuel cladding tube oxidised at high temperature; Comportements metallurqigue et mecanique des materiaux de gainage du combustible REP oxydes a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, A


    Zirconium alloys are used as cladding materials in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). As they are submitted to very extreme conditions, it is necessary to check their behaviour and especially to make sure they meet the safety criteria. They are therefore studied under typical in service-loadings but also under accidental loadings. In one of these accidental scenarios, called Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the cladding temperature may increase above 800 C, in a steam environment, and decrease before a final quench of the cladding. During this temperature transient, the cladding is heavily oxidised, and the metallurgical changes lead to a decrease of the post quench mechanical properties. It is then necessary to correlate this drop in residual ductility to the metallurgical evolutions. This is the problem we want to address in this study: the oxidation of PWR cladding materials at high temperature in a steam environment and its consequences on post quench mechanical properties. As oxygen goes massively into the metallic part - a zirconia layer grows at the same time - during the high temperature oxidation, the claddings tubes microstructure shows three different phases that are the outer oxide layer (zirconia) and the inner metallic phases ({alpha}(O) and 'ex {beta}') - with various mechanical properties. In order to reproduce the behaviour of this multilayered material, the first part of this study consisted in creating samples with different - but homogeneous in thickness - oxygen contents, similar to those observed in the different phases of the real cladding. The study was especially focused on the {beta}-->{alpha} phase transformation upon cooling and on the resulting microstructures. A mechanism was proposed to describe this phase transformation. For instance, we conclude that for our oxygen enriched samples, the phase transformation kinetics upon cooling are ruled by the oxygen partitioning between the two allotropic phases. Then, these materials

  11. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature Range During Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis


    In chapter 1, the studies focused on the development of novel sorbents for reducing the carbon dioxide emissions at high temperatures. Our studies focused on cesium doped CaO sorbents with respect to other major flue gas compounds in a wide temperature range. The thermo-gravimetric analysis of sorbents with loadings of CaO doped on 20 wt% cesium demonstrated high CO{sub 2} sorption uptakes (up to 66 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent). It is remarkable to note that zero adsorption affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NO at temperatures as high as 600 C was observed. For water vapor and nitrogen oxide we observed a positive effect for CO{sub 2} adsorption. In the presence of steam, the CO{sub 2} adsorption increased to the highest adsorption capacity of 77 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent. In the presence of nitrogen oxide, the final CO{sub 2} uptake remained same, but the rate of adsorption was higher at the initial stages (10%) than the case where no nitrogen oxide was fed. In chapter 2, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, CaO, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, and Ca(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O were used as precursors for synthesis of CaO sorbents on this work. The sorbents prepared from calcium acetate (CaAc{sub 2}-CaO) resulted in the best uptake characteristics for CO{sub 2}. It possessed higher BET surface area and higher pore volume than the other sorbents. According to SEM images, this sorbent shows 'fluffy' structure, which probably contributes to its high surface area and pore volume. When temperatures were between 550 and 800 C, this sorbent could be carbonated almost completely. Moreover, the carbonation progressed dominantly at the initial short period. Under numerous adsorption-desorption cycles, the CaAc{sub 2}-CaO demonstrated the best reversibility, even under the existence of 10 vol % water vapor. In a 27 cyclic running, the sorbent sustained fairly high carbonation conversion of 62%. Pore size distributions indicate that their

  12. Time-Dependent Temperature Measurements in Post-Detonation Combustion: Current State-of-the-Art Methods and Emerging Technologies (United States)


    to low signal levels. LIF and Rayleigh scattering have seen wide use as 2-D temperature probes. Lasers produce short, high - energy pulses that...and techniques Femtosecond lasers offer spectrally broad bandwidths in high energy pulses that can be used in a variety of optical diagnostics...are present from more than one upper energy state e.g. if both v=0←1 and v=1←2 bands of CO2 are observed This approach has a number of advantages

  13. Neutron analysis of the fuel of high temperature nuclear reactors; Analisis neutronico del combustible de reactores nucleares de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida O, G. E.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)


    In this work a neutron analysis of the fuel of some high temperature nuclear reactors is presented, studying its main features, besides some alternatives of compound fuel by uranium and plutonium, and of coolant: sodium and helium. For this study was necessary the use of a code able to carry out a reliable calculation of the main parameters of the fuel. The use of the Monte Carlo method was convenient to simulate the neutrons transport in the reactor core, which is the base of the Serpent code, with which the calculations will be made for the analysis. (Author)

  14. Impact of ignition temperature on particle size and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared by self-propagated MILD combustion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliyamoorthy, Venkatesan; Rajan Babu, D., E-mail:; Saminathan, Madeswaran


    We prepared nanocrystalline CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by changing its ignition temperatures, using moderate and intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion technique. The effect of ignition temperature on the particle size and its magnetic behavior was investigated by HR-TEM and VSM respectively. We observed a vast change in the structural behavior and the magnetic properties of the prepared samples. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the resultant samples had single phase with different grain sizes from 23±5 nm to 16±5 nm, which was understood by observing the growth of the grains through heat released from the combustion reaction. FE-SEM analysis showed high porosity with heterogeneous distribution of the pore size based on the adiabatic temperature and EPMA analysis, which confirmed the elemental compositions of the prepared samples. The saturation magnetization values measured at room temperature, employing vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) decreased gradually from 50 to 34 emu/g when the ignition temperature was increased from 243 °C to 400 °C. Some of Fe ions on the B sites moved periodically to the A sites because of quenching treatment. The presence of Fe{sup 2+} ions in the existing ferrite structure ruled the magnetic behavior of the sample, as confirmed by the Mössbauer analysis. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by MILD combustion technique. • Structural behavior and magnetic properties were changed by ignition temperature. • Formation of ferrite complex was confirmed by using FT-IR spectroscopy. • FE-SEM image confirmed the combustion nature by exhibiting the pores and voids. • The cationic distributions were investigated by the Mössbauer analysis.

  15. Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric (PTR-TOF-MS) determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from a biomass fire developed under stable nocturnal conditions (United States)

    Brilli, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Ciccioli, Paolo; Zona, Donatella; Loreto, Francesco; Janssens, Ivan A.; Ceulemans, Reinhart


    Combustion of solid and liquid fuels is the largest source of potentially toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can strongly affect health and the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere. Among combustion processes, biomass burning is one of the largest at global scale. We used a Proton Transfer Reaction “Time-of-Flight” Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS), which couples high sensitivity with high mass resolution, for real-time detection of multiple VOCs emitted by burned hay and straw in a barn located near our measuring station. We detected 132 different organic ions directly attributable to VOCs emitted from the fire. Methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, methyl vinyl ether (MVE), acetic acid and glycolaldehyde dominated the VOC mixture composition. The time-course of the 25 most abundant VOCs, representing ∼85% of the whole mixture of VOCs, was associated with that of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The strong linear relationship between the concentrations of pyrogenic VOC and of a reference species (i.e. CO) allowed us to compile a list of emission ratios (ERs) and emission factors (EFs), but values of ER (and EF) were overestimated due to the limited mixing of the gases under the stable (non-turbulent) nocturnal conditions. In addition to the 25 most abundant VOCs, chemical formula and concentrations of the residual, less abundant VOCs in the emitted mixture were also estimated by PTR-TOF-MS. Furthermore, the evolution of the complex combustion process was described on the basis of the diverse types of pyrogenic gases recorded.

  16. Low VOC Barrier Coating for Industrial Maintenance (United States)


    a millable gum polysulfide known as the first synthetic rubber commercially made in the United States. Today, there are several liquid polysulfide...polymers have the same excellent overall solvent resistance properties as the millable gum polysulfides. However, the liquid polysulfides have the...VOC Total Solids (wt) Total Solids (volume) Percent Pigment Stormer Viscosity Brookfield Viscosity Pot Life Sag Resistance Theoretical

  17. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika


    conditions). Results from a 3D-LES simulation model for chemically reacting flows have been validated using the experimental data obtained within this study. The simulations have been carried out at the Division of Combustion Physics. The 3D simulation model can be used as a tool for studying the complex phenomena encountered in pulsating combustion. Together with measurements of temperature fields and measurements of the concentration of different species (for example O{sub 2}, NO and CH{sub 4}) in the combustion chamber, even further enhanced understanding of the fundamental processes in pulse combustors can be achieved.

  18. Biofuels combustion. (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K


    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  19. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis


    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  20. Historical Perspective and Contribution of U.S. Researchers Into the Field of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS)/Combustion Synthesis (CS): Personal Reflections (United States)


    simultaneous combustion synthesis and densification, (e) and (f) SEM images of single- walled carbon nanotubes reinforced nickel aluminide- alumina ...articles with nanosize grains. The starting powders were obtained by plasma, mechanical alloying, or sol - gel techniques. A very important modification...Mines and Technology where he has been continuing SHS-related work. His research has been focused on combustion synthesis of nanopowders and

  1. Carbon Shale Combustion in the Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olek Małgorzata


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the possibilities of coal shale combustion in furnaces with bubbling fluidized bed. Coal shale can be autothermally combusted in the fluidized bed, despite the low calorie value and high ash content of fuel. Established concentrations of CO (500 ppm and VOC (30 mg/m3 have indicated a high conversion degree of combustible material during combustion process. Average concentrations of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas were higher than this received from the combustion of high quality hard coal, 600 ppm and 500 ppm, respectively. Optional reduction of SO2 and NOx emission may require the installation of flue gas desulphurization and de-NOx systems.

  2. Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) pollution in Isolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results from analysis of the air samples collected showed that twenty-six (26) VOCs were captured in Isolo Industrial area. The VOCs were classified thus: aromatics 41%, halogenated 42%, esters 3%, ketones 8%, alcohols 4%, and ethers 2%. There is a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the levels of VOCs in ...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2225 - VOC rule deficiency correction. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VOC rule deficiency correction. 52.2225... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2225 VOC rule... be added to the term “VOC/gallon solids” as a clarification. (3) The term “vapor-tight” should be...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2126 - VOC rule deficiency correction. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VOC rule deficiency correction. 52.2126... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2126 VOC rule... Health and Environmental Control: (a) South Carolina's VOC regulations contain no method for determining...

  5. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  6. Luminescence study and dosimetry approach of Ce on an α-Sr2 P2 O7 phosphor synthesized by a high-temperature combustion method. (United States)

    Patel, Nimesh P; Srinivas, M; Modi, Dhaval; Vishwnath, Verma; Murthy, K V R


    We report synthesis of a cerium-activated strontium pyrophosphate (Sr2 P2 O7 ) phosphor using a high-temperature combustion method. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL). The XRD pattern reveals that Sr2 P2 O7 has an α-phase with crystallization in the orthorhombic space group of Pnam. The IR spectrum of α-Sr2 P2 O7 displays characteristic bands at 746 and 1190 cm(-1) corresponding to the absorption of (P2 O7 )(-4) . PL emission spectra exhibit a broad emission band around 376 nm in the near-UV region due to the allowed 5d-4f transition of cerium and suggest its applications in a UV light-emitting diode (LED) source. PL also reveals that the emission originates from 5d-4f transition of Ce(3+) and intensity increases with doping concentration. TL measurements made after X-ray irradiation, manifest a single intense glow peak at around 192°C, which suggests that this is an outstanding candidate for dosimetry applications. The kinetic parameters, activation energy and frequency factor of the glow curve were calculated using different analysis methods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Small details of big importance: Carbon mass determination in the invasive cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov, 1891 by the high temperature combustion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena V. Telesh


    Full Text Available Carbon mass of the non-indigenous predatory fishhook water flea Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov, 1891 from the eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, was for the first time measured using the high temperature combustion method. Prior to the analysis, individual dry weight of Cercopagis was determined; altogether ca. 500 organisms were examined. Mean individual dry weight of C. pengoi for July-September was estimated as 34.0 µg; carbon mass averaged 15.8 µg; carbon content, calculated as percent of dry weight, averaged 43.4%. Those values varied over months, mainly because of different population structure of C. pengoi and variation in their diet due to seasonal dynamics of the food objects. However, relations between carbon mass and dry weight for different months did not differ statistically (p<0.001. Therefore, the general polynomial regressions (k=2, describing carbon mass-to-dry weight and carbon content-to-dry weight relationships, were calculated for the entire dataset of individual measurements of C. pengoi body metrics. These data will contribute to adequate evaluation of food web structure and ecosystem alterations in various water bodies invaded by C. pengoi which has got a strong potential to pelagic food web transformations that may impact the overall energy balance and decrease the size of fish stocks.

  8. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.


    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  9. On Lean Turbulent Combustion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LEVENTIU


    Full Text Available This paper investigates a lean methane-air flame with different chemical reaction mechanisms, for laminar and turbulent combustion, approached as one and bi-dimensional problem. The numerical results obtained with Cantera and Ansys Fluent software are compared with experimental data obtained at CORIA Institute, France. First, for laminar combustion, the burn temperature is very well approximated for all chemical mechanisms, however major differences appear in the evaluation of the flame front thickness. Next, the analysis of turbulence-combustion interaction shows that the numerical predictions are suficiently accurate for small and moderate turbulence intensity.

  10. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.


    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  12. Effect of heat waves on VOC emissions from vegetation and urban air quality (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Kuik, F.; Lauer, A.; Bonn, B.; Butler, T. M.


    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of VOC from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the 2006 heat wave. VOC emissions from vegetation are simulated with MEGAN 2.0 coupled with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during the heat wave period. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  13. Some characteristics of fine beryllium particle combustion (United States)

    Davydov, D. A.; Kholopova, O. V.; Kolbasov, B. N.


    Beryllium dust will be produced under plasma interaction with beryllium armor of the first wall in ITER. Exothermal reaction of this dust with water steam or air, which can leak into the reactor vacuum chamber in some accidents, gives concern in respect to reactor safety. Results of studies devoted to combustion of fine beryllium particles are reviewed in the paper. A chemically active medium and elevated temperature are prerequisite to the combustion of beryllium particles. Their ignition is hampered by oxide films, which form a diffusion barrier on the particle surface as a result of pre-flame oxidation. The temperature to initiate combustion of particles depends on flame temperature, particle size, composition of combustible mixture, heating rate and other factors. In mixtures enriched with combustible, the flame temperature necessary to ignite individual particles approaches the beryllium boiling temperature.

  14. Investigating co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood. (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Wang, Ruijuan; Jiang, Changle; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Wanhe; Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia


    To investigate co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood, moso bamboo and masson pine were torrefied and mixed with different blend ratios. The combustion process was examined by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed the combustion process of samples included volatile emission and oxidation combustion as well as char combustion. The main mass loss of biomass blends occurred at volatile emission and oxidation combustion stage, while that of torrefied biomass occurred at char combustion stage. With the increase of bamboo content, characteristic temperatures decreased. Compared with untreated biomass, torrefied biomass had a higher initial and burnout temperature. With the increase of heating rates, combustion process of samples shifted to higher temperatures. Compared with non-isothermal models, activation energy obtained from isothermal model was lower. The result is helpful to promote development of co-combustion of bamboo and masson pine wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical investigation of spray combustion towards HITAC conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Shanglong


    The features of High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC), i.e. high-efficiency combustion processes creating a uniform temperature distribution with low NOX and CO emissions, lend itself ideally for the combustion of all sorts of "difficult” fuels, ranging from low-calorific gases such as

  16. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development]. (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng


    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  17. A Real-Time Fast-Flow Tube Study of VOC and Particulate Emissions from Electronic, Potentially Reduced-Harm, Conventional, and Reference Cigarettes. (United States)

    Blair, Sandra L; Epstein, Scott A; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Staimer, Norbert

    Tobacco-free electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), which are currently not regulated by the FDA, have become widespread as a "safe" form of smoking. One approach to evaluate the potential toxicity of e-cigarettes and other types of potentially "reduced-harm" cigarettes is to compare their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including reactive organic electrophillic compounds such as acrolein, and particulate matter to those of conventional and reference cigarettes. Our newly designed fast-flow tube system enabled us to analyze VOC composition and particle number concentration in real-time by promptly diluting puffs of mainstream smoke obtained from different brands of combustion cigarettes and e-cigarettes. A proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTRMS) was used to analyze real-time cigarette VOC emissions with a 1 s time resolution. Particles were detected with a condensation particle counter (CPC). This technique offers real-time analysis of VOCs and particles in each puff without sample aging and does not require any sample pretreatment or extra handling. Several important determining factors in VOC and particle concentration were investigated: (1) puff frequency; (2) puff number; (3) tar content; (4) filter type. Results indicate that electronic cigarettes are not free from acrolein and acetaldehyde emissions and produce comparable particle number concentrations to those of combustion cigarettes, more specifically to the 1R5F reference cigarette. Unlike conventional cigarettes, which emit different amounts of particles and VOCs each puff, there was no significant puff dependence in the e-cigarette emissions. Charcoal filter cigarettes did not fully prevent the emission of acrolein and other VOCs.

  18. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbets during coal combustion (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Qing-jie; Lin, Zhi-yan; Liu, Jian-zhong; Wu, Xian; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Resource and Environment Engineering


    In order to provide experimental guide to commercial use of fluorine pollution control during coal combustion, with fluorine pollution control during coal combustion in mind, this paper proposed the theory of combustion fluorine retention technology. Feasibility of fluorine retention reaction with calcium-based fluorine retention agent was analyzed through thermodynamic calculation during coal combustion. By simulating the restraining and retention effects and influential factors of calcium-based sorbets on vaporized fluoride during experimental combustion using fixed bed tube furnace, the paper systematically explored the influential law of such factors as combustion temperature, retention time, and added quantities of calcium-based sorbets on effects of fluorine retention. The research result shows that adding calcium-based fluorine retention agent in coal combustion has double effects of fluorine retention and sulfur retention, it lays an experimental foundation for commercial test of combustion fluorine retention. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru


    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  20. Influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech


    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs (volatile organic compounds. The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation. The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation: VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3In this work there were tested MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components’ production. Next were tested compressed wood, which was used as a second material of furniture components. These both chosen materials was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.An attention of this study is especially put on mentioned factors and on quantity of instant and long-term VOCs emissions emitted from furniture components.The amount of emissions from furniture components, in different phases of the preparation including the resin impregnated paper coating finish, was monitored within the time intervals of 24 hours and 720 hours starting after the time of the finish preparation.The MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components´ production.A compressed wood was used as a second material of furniture components. This alternative material was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.

  1. Emissions from waste combustion. An application of statistical experimental design in a laboratory-scale boiler and an investigation from large-scale incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaojing


    The aim of this thesis is a study of the emissions from the combustion of household refuse. The experiments were both on a laboratory-scale boiler and on full-scale incineration plants. In the laboratory, an artificial household refuse with known composition was fed into a pilot boiler with a stationary grate. Combustion was under non-optimum conditions. Direct sampling with a Tenax adsorbent was used to measure a range of VOCs. Measurements were also made of incompletely burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and flue gas temperature. Combustion and emission parameters were recorded continuously by a multi-point data logger. VOCs were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The full-scale tests were on seven Swedish incineration plants. The data were used to evaluate the emissions from large-scale incineration plants with various type of fuels and incinerators, and were also compared with the laboratory results. The response surface model developed from the laboratory experiments was also validated. This thesis also includes studies on the gasification of household refuse pellets, estimations of particulate and soot emissions, and a thermodynamic analysis of PAHs from combustion flue gas. For pellet gasification, experiments were performed on single, well characterised refuse pellets under carefully controlled conditions. The aim was to see if the effects of pellets were different from those of untreated household refuse. The results from both laboratory and full-scale tests showed that the main contributions to emissions from household refuse are plastics and moisture. 142 refs, 82 figs, 51 tabs

  2. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL


    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  3. Plant-specific correlations to predict the total VOC emissions from wastewater treatment plants (United States)

    Oskouie, Ali K.; Lordi, David T.; Granato, Thomas C.; Kollias, Louis

    Simple linear correlations between the lumped parameter of raw wastewater flow rate, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and concentration of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs), chloroform, dichloromethane and toluene in the liquid and gas phases, Q×MLSS(C/ER), and T, wastewater temperature, were found for three large wastewater treatment plants operated by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) using their monthly data for year 2000. These linear relationships were verified for these three dominant VOCs using the data from years 1987 to 1992, 1998, and 1999 for the three MWRDGC plants. The results of this theoretical study showed that linear functions could reasonably fit to the actual data, and the specific VOC compounds' emission rate could be predicted upon having information on ambient temperature, MLSS, and VOC concentration in the liquid phase at the influent to the specific plant without having to use the Bay Area Sewage Toxics Emission (BASTE) fate model as a future emission estimator once the baseline correlation was determined.

  4. VOCs emission rate estimate for complicated industrial area source using an inverse-dispersion calculation method: A case study on a petroleum refinery in Northern China. (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Yang, Gan; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Yue; Wang, Litao


    This study aimed to apply an inverse-dispersion calculation method (IDM) to estimate the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the complicated industrial area sources, through a case study on a petroleum refinery in Northern China. The IDM was composed of on-site monitoring of ambient VOCs concentrations and meteorological parameters around the source, calculation of the relationship coefficient γ between the source's emission rate and the ambient VOCs concentration by the ISC3 model, and estimation of the actual VOCs emission rate from the source. Targeting the studied refinery, 10 tests and 8 tests were respectively conducted in March and in June of 2014. The monitoring showed large differences in VOCs concentrations between background and downwind receptors, reaching 59.7 ppbv in March and 248.6 ppbv in June, on average. The VOCs increases at receptors mainly consisted of ethane (3.1%-22.6%), propane (3.8%-11.3%), isobutane (8.5%-10.2%), n-butane (9.9%-13.2%), isopentane (6.1%-12.9%), n-pentane (5.1%-9.7%), propylene (6.1-11.1%) and 1-butylene (1.6%-5.4%). The chemical composition of the VOCs increases in this field monitoring was similar to that of VOCs emissions from China's refineries reported, which revealed that the ambient VOCs increases were predominantly contributed by this refinery. So, we used the ISC3 model to create the relationship coefficient γ for each receptor of each test. In result, the monthly VOCs emissions from this refinery were calculated to be 183.5 ± 89.0 ton in March and 538.3 ± 281.0 ton in June. The estimate in June was greatly higher than in March, chiefly because the higher environmental temperature in summer produced more VOCs emissions from evaporation and fugitive process of the refinery. Finally, the VOCs emission factors (g VOCs/kg crude oil refined) of 0.73 ± 0.34 (in March) and 2.15 ± 1.12 (in June) were deduced for this refinery, being in the same order with previous direct

  5. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik


    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  6. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity (United States)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.


    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  7. Recent Development of Catalysts for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Flue Gas by Combustion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomatis


    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from anthropogenic sources pose direct and indirect hazards to both atmospheric environment and human health due to their contribution to the formation of photochemical smog and potential toxicity including carcinogenicity. Therefore, to abate VOCs emission, the catalytic oxidation process has been extensively studied in laboratories and widely applied in various industries. This report is mainly focused on the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX with additional discussion about chlorinated VOCs. This review covers the recent developments in catalytic combustion of VOCs over noble metal catalysts, nonnoble metal catalysts, perovskite catalysts, spinel catalysts, and dual functional adsorbent-catalysts. In addition, the effects of supports, coke formation, and water effects have also been discussed. To develop efficient and cost-effective catalysts for VOCs removal, further research in catalytic oxidation might need to be carried out to strengthen the understanding of catalytic mechanisms involved.

  8. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part I: study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. (United States)

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Léonardis, Thierry; Galloo, Jean-Claude


    The global objective of this two part study was (1) to conduct VOC measurements in order to further understand VOC behaviour in an urban area influenced by industrial emissions and (2) to evaluate the role of these specific sources relative to urban sources. In this first paper a thorough descriptive and qualitative analysis is performed. A second article will be devoted to the quantitative analysis using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modelling. In the Dunkerque (France) area most industrial sources are situated in the north and the west of the receptor site whereas urban and traffic sources are located in the south and the east. A data set constituted of nearly 330,000 VOC data has been developed from the hourly measurements of 53 VOCs for 1 year from September 2002 to August 2003. It also contains meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind direction and wind speed. Using different graphical methods, the influence of the different sources on the ambient VOC concentrations has been highlighted at different time scales. In this work, the analysis of daily time series for the 53 VOCs shows the influence of traffic exhaust emissions because of the increases at traffic rush hours. Besides, the seasonal evolution of the VOC/acetylene ratio points out the influence of evaporative sources on ambient VOC concentration. Concerning other point sources, the variations of measured VOC concentrations for different wind directions and scatter plots of VOC hourly concentrations highlight the influence of some industrial sources.

  9. Reduced combustion mechanism for C1-C4 hydrocarbons and its application in computational fluid dynamics flare modeling. (United States)

    Damodara, Vijaya; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Rasel, Kader M A; Richmond, Peyton; Wang, Anan; Li, Xianchang


    Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators/regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed. LU 3.0.1 is capable of handling C4 hydrocarbons and soot precursor species (C2H2, C2H4, C6H6). The new reduced mechanism LU 3.0.1 was first validated against experimental performance indicators: laminar flame speed, adiabatic flame temperature, and ignition delay. Further, CFD simulations using LU 3.0.1 were run to predict soot emission and CE of air-assisted flare tests conducted in 2010 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, using ANSYS Fluent software. Results of non-premixed probability density function (PDF) model and eddy dissipation concept (EDC) model are discussed. It is also noteworthy that when used in conjunction with the EDC turbulence-chemistry model, LU 3.0.1 can reasonably predict volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as well. A reduced combustion mechanism containing 50 C1-C4 species and soot precursors has been developed and validated against experimental data. The combustion mechanism is then employed in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of modeling of soot emission and combustion efficiency (CE) of controlled flares for which experimental soot and CE data are available. The validated CFD modeling tools are useful for oil, gas, and chemical industries to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mandate to achieve smokeless flaring with a high CE.

  10. 2D-COS of in situ μ-Raman and in situ IR spectra for structure evolution characterisation of NEP-deposited cobalt oxide catalyst during n-nonane combustion (United States)

    Chlebda, Damian K.; Jodłowski, Przemysław J.; Jędrzejczyk, Roman J.; Łojewska, Joanna


    New catalytic systems are still in development to meet the challenge of regulations concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This is because such compounds have a significant impact on air quality and some of them are toxic to the environment and human beings. The catalytic combustion process of VOCs over non-noble metal catalysts is of great interest to researchers. The high conversion parameters and cost effective preparation makes them a valuable alternative to monoliths and noble metal catalysts. In this study, the cobalt catalyst was prepared by non-equilibrium plasma deposition of organic precursor on calcined kanthal steel. Thus prepared, cobalt oxide based microstructural short-channel reactors were tested for n-nonane combustion and the catalyst surfaces were examined by in situ μ-Raman spectroscopy and in situ infrared spectroscopy. The spectra collected at various temperatures were used in generalised two-dimensional correlation analysis to establish the sequential order of spectral intensity changes and correlate the simultaneous changes in bands selectively coupled by different interaction mechanisms. The 2D synchronous and asynchronous contour maps were proved to be a valuable extension to the standard analysis of the temperature dependent 1D spectra.

  11. An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito


    Full Text Available The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as on board aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, so that the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed to a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii and (iii minimize temperature drifts to ~30 mK h−1 per Kelvin temperature difference to the environment. The respective uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1%. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 μm dominates.

  12. Remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with membrane separation techniques. (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Weng, Huan-xin; Chen, Huan-lin; Gao, Cong-jie


    Membrane separation, a new technology for removing VOCs including pervaporation, vapor permeation, membrane contactor, and membrane bioreactor was presented. Comparing with traditional techniques, these special techniques are an efficient and energy-saving technology. Vapor permeation can be applied to recovery of organic solvents from exhaust streams. Membrane contactor could be used for removing or recovering VOCs from air or wastewater. Pervaporation and vapor permeation are viable methods for removing VOCs from wastewater to yield a VOC concentrate which could either be destroyed by conventional means, or be recycled for reuse.

  13. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco


    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  14. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.


    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  15. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber (United States)

    Green, Norman W.


    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  16. Combustion Research Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  17. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt


    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy......-fuel process and focuses particularly on the combustion fundamentals, i.e. flame temperatures and heat transfer, ignition and burnout, emissions, and fly ash characteristics. Knowledge is currently available regarding both an entire oxy-fuel power plant and the combustion fundamentals. However, several...

  18. Sandia Combustion Research Program: Annual report, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents research results of the past year, divided thematically into some ten categories. Publications and presentations arising from this work are included in the appendix. Our highlighted accomplishment of the year is the announcement of the discovery and demonstration of the RAPRENOx process. This new mechanism for the elimination of nitrogen oxides from essentially all kinds of combustion exhausts shows promise for commercialization, and may eventually make a significant contribution to our nation's ability to control smog and acid rain. The sections of this volume describe the facility's laser and computer system, laser diagnostics of flames, combustion chemistry, reacting flows, liquid and solid propellant combustion, mathematical models of combustion, high-temperature material interfaces, studies of engine/furnace combustion, coal combustion, and the means of encouraging technology transfer. 182 refs., 170 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Influence of precision of emission characteristic parameters on model prediction error of VOCs/formaldehyde from dry building material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Wei

    Full Text Available Mass transfer models are useful in predicting the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and formaldehyde from building materials in indoor environments. They are also useful for human exposure evaluation and in sustainable building design. The measurement errors in the emission characteristic parameters in these mass transfer models, i.e., the initial emittable concentration (C 0, the diffusion coefficient (D, and the partition coefficient (K, can result in errors in predicting indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations. These errors have not yet been quantitatively well analyzed in the literature. This paper addresses this by using modelling to assess these errors for some typical building conditions. The error in C 0, as measured in environmental chambers and applied to a reference living room in Beijing, has the largest influence on the model prediction error in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration, while the error in K has the least effect. A correlation between the errors in D, K, and C 0 and the error in the indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration prediction is then derived for engineering applications. In addition, the influence of temperature on the model prediction of emissions is investigated. It shows the impact of temperature fluctuations on the prediction errors in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations to be less than 7% at 23±0.5°C and less than 30% at 23±2°C.

  20. A predictive model of natural gas mixture combustion in internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Espinoza


    Full Text Available This study shows the development of a predictive natural gas mixture combustion model for conventional com-bustion (ignition engines. The model was based on resolving two areas; one having unburned combustion mixture and another having combustion products. Energy and matter conservation equations were solved for each crankshaft turn angle for each area. Nonlinear differential equations for each phase’s energy (considering compression, combustion and expansion were solved by applying the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The model also enabled studying different natural gas components’ composition and evaluating combustion in the presence of dry and humid air. Validation results are shown with experimental data, demonstrating the software’s precision and accuracy in the results so produced. The results showed cylinder pressure, unburned and burned mixture temperature, burned mass fraction and combustion reaction heat for the engine being modelled using a natural gas mixture.

  1. A predictive model of natural gas mixture combustion in internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Espinoza


    Full Text Available This study shows the development of a predictive natural gas mixture combustion model for conventional com-bustion (ignition engines. The model was based on resolving two areas; one having unburned combustion mixture and another having combustion products. Energy and matter conservation equations were solved for each crankshaft turn angle for each area. Nonlinear differential equations for each phase’s energy (considering compression, combustion and expansion were solved by applying the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The model also enabled studying different natural gas components’ composition and evaluating combustion in the presence of dry and humid air. Validation results are shown with experimental data, demonstrating the software’s precision and accuracy in the results so produced. The results showed cylinder pressure, unburned and burned mixture temperature, burned mass fraction and combustion reaction heat for the engine being modelled using a natural gas mixture.

  2. Analysis of Sidestream Smoke VOCs and Characterization of their Odor Profiles by VOC Preconcentrator-GC-O Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi N


    Full Text Available Various techniques have been employed in the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. However, these techniques are insufficient for the precise analysis of tobacco smoke VOCs because of the complexity of the operating system, system instability, or poor sensitivity. To overcome these problems, a combined system of VOC preconcentrator, gas chromatograph, and olfactometer has been developed. The performance of this new system was evaluated in the analysis of VOCs in tobacco smoke and applied to the odor profiling of sidestream smoke (SSS that has not been sufficiently investigated in the past.

  3. Ignition and wave processes in combustion of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nickolai M; Alymov, Michail I


    This book focuses on the application of classical combustion theory to ignition and flame propagation in solid-solid and gas-solid systems. It presents experimental investigations in the areas of local ignition, filtration combustion, self-propagating high temperature synthesis and nanopowders protection. The authors highlight analytical formulas used in different areas of combustion in solids and propose an approach based on classical combustion theory. The book attempts to analyze the basic approaches to understanding of solid-solid and solid - gas combustion presented in contemporary literature in a unified approach based on classical combustion theory. .


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  5. Analysis of the internal temperature of the combustion chamber of a compact system of co-generation; Analise das temperaturas internas da camara de combustao de um sistema compacto de co-geracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Joao B.F. [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)], email:; Couto, Heraldo S. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)], email:; Holanda, Carlos A.M. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais], email:


    Nowadays, the energy deficit represents one of the biggest governmental challenges, since there is still a great number of communities living in areas without electricity energy; and thus without access to electro-electronic equipment such as television, refrigerators, computers. The main focus of this work is to present the possibility of electricity energy generation in conjunction with the frozen or hot water production in for places without electricity transmission nets or even any type of alternative power plants. The system is based on the standard air cycle called Brayton cycle composed of a turbo-compressor model 4LGZ from BorgWarner, a combustion chamber, a power turbine, a heat exchanger, a water-ammonia chiller, a 5.0 kV A generator, and a command panel for automation and distribution of energy. This system that uses natural gas or LPG, will supply electric energy from the generator, hot water from the heat exchange with the gases of combustion, and water frozen from chiller using as the hot source the gases proceeding from the power system. The prototype is already being tested and the first results obtained are excellent. In this paper, we analyze the internal combustion chamber temperatures. (author)

  6. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  7. Establishment of Combustion Model for Isooctane HCCI Marine Diesel Engine and Research on the Combustion Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Biao


    Full Text Available The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion mode applied in marine diesel engine is expected to be one of alternative technologies to decrease nitrogen oxide (NOX emission and improve energy utilization rate. Applying the chemical-looping combustion (CLC mechanism inside the cylinder, a numerical study on the HCCI combustion process is performed taking a marine diesel engine as application object. The characteristic feature of combustion process is displayed. On this basis, the formation and emission of NOX are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that the HCCI combustion mode always exhibit two combustion releasing heats: low-temperature reaction and high-temperature reaction. The combustion phase is divided into low-temperature reaction zone, high-temperature reaction zone and negative temperature coefficient (NTC zone. The operating conditions of the high compression ratio, high intake air temperature, low inlet pressure and small excess air coefficient would cause the high in-cylinder pressure which often leads engine detonation. The low compression ratio, low intake air temperature and big excess air coefficient would cause the low combustor temperature which is conducive to reduce NOX emissions. These technological means and operating conditions are expected to meet the NOX emissions limits in MARPOL73/78 Convention-Annex VI Amendment.

  8. Contribution of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles toward total VOC emissions in Japan. (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki


    The features of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles were examined. One potential source of evaporative emissions is mainly the so-called sigh of a fuel tank, which is a function of the daily temperature change and the volume not occupied by fuel. A theoretical equation was proposed for estimating the fuel vapor generation. It reproduced observed features well but underestimated the absolute values obtained in the experimental results. The widely used semi-empirical Reddy equation overestimates the results. The performance of a carbon canister was also evaluated. More than 95% of fuel vapor generation was trapped by the carbon canister. However, the canister worked for only one day because it adsorbed more VOC than that contained in the sigh alone. To estimate the evaporative emissions in the real world, the fuel tank temperature change while a car was parked in an outside car park was monitored and was found to be almost the same as the change in ambient air temperature; no other weather conditions had any effect. According to the findings in this study and data on frequency of car use, the annual amount of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles in Japan was estimated to be 4.6% of the total VOC emissions in Japan, making it the 6th-highest source of VOC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    The article discusses the formulation of ultra-low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood furniture coatings. The annual U.S. market for wood coatings is about 240, 000 cu m (63 million gal). In this basis, between 57 and 91 million kg (125 and 200 million lb) of VOCs are emitted i...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1780 - VOC rule deficiency correction. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VOC rule deficiency correction. 52.1780 Section 52.1780 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) North Carolina § 52.1780 VOC rule...

  11. 40 CFR 52.934 - VOC rule deficiency correction. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VOC rule deficiency correction. 52.934 Section 52.934 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.934 VOC rule deficiency...


    The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...


    The paper describes results of tests, conducted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) large chamber facility, that investigated emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from one electrical plug-in type air freshener with pine-scented refills. VOCs were measured ...

  14. Internal and surface phenomena in metal combustion (United States)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Molodetsky, Irina E.; Law, Chung K.


    Combustion of metals has been widely studied in the past, primarily because of their high oxidation enthalpies. A general understanding of metal combustion has been developed based on the recognition of the existence of both vapor-phase and surface reactions and involvement of the reaction products in the ensuing heterogeneous combustion. However, distinct features often observed in metal particle combustion, such as brightness oscillations and jumps (spearpoints), disruptive burning, and non-symmetric flames are not currently understood. Recent metal combustion experiments using uniform high-temperature metal droplets produced by a novel micro-arc technique have indicated that oxygen dissolves in the interior of burning particles of certain metals and that the subsequent transformations of the metal-oxygen solutions into stoichiometric oxides are accompanied with sufficient heat release to cause observed brightness and temperature jumps. Similar oxygen dissolution has been observed in recent experiments on bulk iron combustion but has not been associated with such dramatic effects. This research addresses heterogeneous metal droplet combustion, specifically focusing on oxygen penetration into the burning metal droplets, and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. A unique feature of the experimental approach is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc Generator of Monodispersed Metal Droplets (GEMMED), ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with controllable initial temperature and velocity. The droplet initial temperatures can be adjusted within a wide range from just above the metal melting point, which provides means to ignite droplets instantly upon entering an oxygen containing environment. Initial droplet velocity will be set equal to zero allowing one to organize metal combustion microgravity experiments in a fashion similar to usual microgravity

  15. Numerical investigation of spray combustion towards HITAC conditions


    Zhu, Shanglong


    The features of High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC), i.e. high-efficiency combustion processes creating a uniform temperature distribution with low NOX and CO emissions, lend itself ideally for the combustion of all sorts of "difficult” fuels, ranging from low-calorific gases such as waste-gases, to heavy fuel-oils. However, to date most of the applications of HiTAC are for gaseous fuels and solid fuels, while little has been investigated on liquid fuel spray combustion in such combustion...

  16. Influence of relative humidity on VOC concentrations in indoor air. (United States)

    Markowicz, Pawel; Larsson, Lennart


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be emitted from surfaces indoors leading to compromised air quality. This study scrutinized the influence of relative humidity (RH) on VOC concentrations in a building that had been subjected to water damage. While air samplings in a damp room at low RH (21-22%) only revealed minor amounts of 2-ethylhexanol (3 μg/m(3)) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB, 8 μg/m(3)), measurements performed after a rapid increase of RH (to 58-75%) revealed an increase in VOC concentrations which was 3-fold for 2-ethylhexanol and 2-fold for TXIB. Similar VOC emission patterns were found in laboratory analyses of moisture-affected and laboratory-contaminated building materials. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring RH when sampling indoor air for VOCs in order to avoid misleading conclusions from the analytical results.

  17. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate


    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden


    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  18. Catalytic incineration of CO and VOC emissions over supported metal oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Olof


    Catalytic incineration is one of the methods to reduce the emissions of CO and VOCs. Low operation temperature and low catalyst cost are essential parameters for catalytic incinerators. Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts are frequently used today, but the cheaper metal oxide catalysts can be very competitive if comparable overall activity is obtained. This thesis concerns how it is possible to decrease the operation temperature for supported metal oxide catalysts by using different supports, active metal oxides and additives. In the thesis it is demonstrated that different copper oxide based catalysts have the best activity and durability for complete oxidation among several tested metal oxide catalysts. CuO{sub x} supported on TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed increased activity with the CuO{sub x} loading up to the threshold coverage for formation of crystalline CuO particles, which is 12 {mu}mol/m{sup 2} on TiO{sub 2} and 6 {mu}mol/m{sup 2} on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Up to the threshold coverage for CuO formation, well dispersed copper oxide species were formed on TiO{sub 2}, and a dispersed copper aluminate surface phase was formed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Durability tests showed accelerated sintering of TiO{sub 2} by copper, but stabilisation was possible by modification of the TiO{sub 2} with CeO{sub x} before the deposition of CuO{sub x}. The stabilisation was obtained by formation of a Ce-O-Ti surface phase. Addition of CeO{sub x} also enhanced the activity of the copper oxide species thanks to favourable interaction between the active copper oxide species and the CeO{sub x} on the support, which could be seen as increased reducibility in TPR experiments. The increased activity and reducibility was also observed for CuO{sub x} supported on ceria modified Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In this regard it was shown that CuO{sub x} deposited on CeO{sub 2}(001) surfaces was substantially more active for CO oxidation than copper oxide deposited on CeO{sub 2}(111) Surfaces. This

  19. Nieuwsgaring in Batavia tijdens de VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Zuiderweg


    Full Text Available  The board members of the Dutch East India Company (1602-1795, the Heren Zeventien, promulgated various decrees in which they forbade to bring out information regarding their colonies in the Dutch East Indies and Batavia in letters, manuscripts and printed matter. But in Batavia some inventive Company servants and even staff members got around these regulations, as did some printers in Holland. They published newspapers like Bataviase Nouvelles and Vendu-Nieuws, and also the specialized journal Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap. The initiators of this journal joined hands with the Dutch world of learning and its journals. This article provides an overview of early journalism in the Dutch East Indies and thus contributes to the reconstruction of the literary and cultural climate in Batavia at the time of the VOC.

  20. Oxygen Storage Capacity and Oxygen Mobility of Co-Mn-Mg-Al Mixed Oxides and Their Relation in the VOC Oxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Haidy Castaño


    Full Text Available Co-Mn-Mg-Al oxides were synthesized using auto-combustion and co-precipitation techniques. Constant ratios were maintained with (Co + Mn + Mg/Al equal to 3.0, (Co + Mn/Mg equal to 1.0 and Co/Mn equal to 0.5. The chemical and structural composition, redox properties, oxygen storage capacity and oxygen mobility were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR, oxygen storage capacity (OSC, oxygen storage complete capacity (OSCC and isotopic exchange, respectively. The catalytic behavior of the oxides was evaluated in the total oxidation of a mixture of 250 ppm toluene and 250 ppm 2-propanol. The synthesis methodology affected the crystallite size, redox properties, OSC and oxide oxygen mobility, which determined the catalytic behavior. The co-precipitation method got the most active oxide in the oxidation of the volatile organic compound (VOC mixture because of the improved mobility of oxygen and ability to favor redox processes in the material structure.

  1. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E


    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  2. Fuel gas combustion research at METC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, T.S.


    The in-house combustion research program at METC is an integral part of many METC activities, providing support to METC product teams, project managers, and external industrial and university partners. While the majority of in-house combustion research in recent years has been focussed on the lean premixed combustion of natural gas fuel for Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) applications, increasing emphasis is being placed on issues of syngas combustion, as the time approaches when the ATS and coal-fired power systems programs will reach convergence. When the METC syngas generator is built in 1996, METC will have the unique combination of mid-scale pressurized experimental facilities, a continuous syngas supply with variable ammonia loading, and a team of people with expertise in low-emissions combustion, chemical kinetics, combustion modeling, combustion diagnostics, and the control of combustion instabilities. These will enable us to investigate such issues as the effects of pressure, temperature, and fuel gas composition on the rate of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx, and on combustion instabilities in a variety of combustor designs.

  3. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.


    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  4. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the Paris megacity (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baudic


    Full Text Available Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2–C8 measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer, respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature. Source apportionment (SA was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO, black carbon (BC and meteorological data (temperature. The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %, with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %, solvent use (20 %, wood-burning (18 % and a biogenic source (15 %. An

  5. Performance of the JULES land surface model for UK Biogenic VOC emissions (United States)

    Hayman, Garry; Comyn-Platt, Edward; Vieno, Massimo; Langford, Ben


    Emissions of biogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are important for air quality and tropospheric composition. Through their contribution to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), biogenic VOCs indirectly contribute to climate forcing and climate feedbacks [1]. Biogenic VOCs encompass a wide range of compounds and are produced by plants for growth, development, reproduction, defence and communication [2]. There are both biological and physico-chemical controls on emissions [3]. Only a few of the many biogenic VOCs are of wider interest and only two or three (isoprene and the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene) are represented in chemical transport models. We use the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), the UK community land surface model, to estimate biogenic VOC emission fluxes. JULES is a process-based model that describes the water, energy and carbon balances and includes temperature, moisture and carbon stores [4, 5]. JULES currently provides emission fluxes of the 4 largest groups of biogenic VOCs: isoprene, terpenes, methanol and acetone. The JULES isoprene scheme uses gross primary productivity (GPP), leaf internal carbon and the leaf temperature as a proxy for the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis [6]. In this study, we compare JULES biogenic VOC emission estimates of isoprene and terepenes with (a) flux measurements made at selected sites in the UK and Europe and (b) gridded estimates for the UK from the EMEP/EMEP4UK atmospheric chemical transport model [7, 8], using site-specific or EMEP4UK driving meteorological data, respectively. We compare the UK-scale emission estimates with literature estimates. We generally find good agreement in the comparisons but the estimates are sensitive to the choice of the base or reference emission potentials. References (1) Unger, 2014: Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8563, doi:10.1002/2014GL061616; (2) Laothawornkitkul et al., 2009: New Phytol., 183, 27, doi

  6. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Paris megacity (France) (United States)

    Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Sanchez, Olivier; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Kalogridis, Cerise; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Baisnée, Dominique; Favez, Olivier; Albinet, Alexandre; Sciare, Jean; Bonsang, Bernard


    Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2-C8) measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites) from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs) measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector) and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer), respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature). Source apportionment (SA) was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF) was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions) and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO), black carbon (BC) and meteorological data (temperature). The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %), with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %), solvent use (20 %), wood-burning (18 %) and a biogenic source (15 %). An important finding of

  7. Spying on spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The British Coal Technical Services and Research Executive (TSRE) has carried out a project to investigate potential applications of fibre optic based distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology within a mining environment. The objective was to determine whether DTS could identify and locate spontaneous combustion earlier than conventional systems. The trials took place in a British mine from April to September 1992 and from August to November 1993 using a commercially available system from York Sensors Ltd. Results indicate that DTS is capable of very sensitive temperature monitoring, revealing sub-degree thermal trends resulting from various activities and local heatings. DTS has several prospective mining applications, e.g. monitoring known hot spots, investigating ventilation and heat flow through mine workings. The trials show that the system can be installed, calibrated, operated and maintained by relatively inexperienced personnel. 1 photo.

  8. A Generalized Theory Explains the Anomalous Suns–Voc Response of Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chavali, Raghu Vamsi Krishna


    Suns–Voc measurements exclude parasitic series resistance effects and are, therefore, frequently used to study the intrinsic potential of a given photovoltaic technology. However, when applied to a-Si/c-Si heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells, the Suns–Voc curves often feature a peculiar turnaround at high illumination intensities. Generally, this turn-around is attributed to extrinsic Schottky contacts that should disappear with process improvement. In this paper, we demonstrate that this voltage turnaround may be an intrinsic feature of SHJ solar cells, arising from the heterojunction (HJ), as well as its associated carrier-transport barriers, inherent to SHJ devices. We use numerical simulations to explore the full current–voltage (J–V) characteristics under different illumination and ambient temperature conditions. Using these characteristics, we establish the voltage and illumination-intensity bias, as well as temperature conditions necessary to observe the voltage turnaround in these cells. We validate our turnaround hypothesis using an extensive set of experiments on a high-efficiency SHJ solar cell and a molybdenum oxide (MoOx) based hole collector HJ solar cell. Our work consolidates Suns–Voc as a powerful characterization tool for extracting the cell parameters that limit efficiency in HJ devices.

  9. Distributed combustion in a cyclonic burner (United States)

    Sorrentino, Giancarlo; Sabia, Pino; de Joannon, Mara; Cavaliere, Antonio; Ragucci, Raffaele


    Distributed combustion regime occurs in several combustion technologies were efficient and environmentally cleaner energy conversion are primary tasks. For such technologies (MILD, LTC, etc…), working temperatures are enough low to boost the formation of several classes of pollutants, such as NOx and soot. To access this temperature range, a significant dilution as well as preheating of reactants is required. Such conditions are usually achieved by a strong recirculation of exhaust gases that simultaneously dilute and pre-heat the fresh reactants. However, the intersection of low combustion temperatures and highly diluted mixtures with intense pre-heating alters the evolution of the combustion process with respect to traditional flames, leading to significant features such as uniformity and distributed ignition. The present study numerically characterized the turbulence-chemistry and combustion regimes of propane/oxygen mixtures, highly diluted in nitrogen, at atmospheric pressure, in a cyclonic combustor under MILD Combustion operating conditions. The velocity and mixing fields were obtained using CFD with focus on mean and fluctuating quantities. The flow-field information helped differentiate between the impact of turbulence levels and dilution ones. The integral length scale along with the fluctuating velocity is critical to determine Damköhler and Karlovitz numbers. Together these numbers identify the combustion regime at which the combustor is operating. This information clearly distinguishes between conventional flames and distributed combustion. The results revealed that major controllers of the reaction regime are dilution and mixing levels; both are significantly impacted by lowering oxygen concentration through entrainment of hot reactive species from within the combustor, which is important in distributed combustion. Understanding the controlling factors of distributed regime is critical for the development and deployment of these novel combustion

  10. A Novel Wireless Wearable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Monitoring Device with Disposable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Deng


    Full Text Available A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the device and its sensors. The device was compared to a commercial photo-ionization detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon monoxide detector. In addition, environmental operational conditions, such as barometric change, temperature change and wind conditions were also tested to evaluate the device performance. The multiple comparisons and tests indicate that the proposed VOC device is adequate to characterize personal exposure in many real-world scenarios and is applicable for personal daily use.

  11. A Novel Wireless Wearable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Monitoring Device with Disposable Sensors. (United States)

    Deng, Yue; Chen, Cheng; Xian, Xiaojun; Tsow, Francis; Verma, Gaurav; McConnell, Rob; Fruin, Scott; Tao, Nongjian; Forzani, Erica S


    A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the device and its sensors. The device was compared to a commercial photo-ionization detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon monoxide detector. In addition, environmental operational conditions, such as barometric change, temperature change and wind conditions were also tested to evaluate the device performance. The multiple comparisons and tests indicate that the proposed VOC device is adequate to characterize personal exposure in many real-world scenarios and is applicable for personal daily use.

  12. A Novel Sensor for VOCs Using Nanostructured ZnO and MEMS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Pandya


    Full Text Available A sensor for detection of vapors of volatile organic compounds (VOCs incorporating nanostructured zinc oxide film and silicon micromachining is reported. One of the key features of the sensor is the use of nanostructured ZnO material which has been synthesized using a novel low cost process. Considerable reduction in the operating temperature of the sensor has been achieved due to the use of nanostructured ZnO material as compared to a sensor having ZnO thin film as the sensing layer. The sensor is formed on a micromachined silicon platform thereby reducing the heat loss. This resulted in reduction in power consumption. The sensor has been tested for a variety of VOCs such as: ethanol, iso-propyl alcohol and acetone. The maximum sensitivity of sensor was observed for ethanol vapors.

  13. Effect of calcination temperature on the structure and performance of CeO{sub x}–MnO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for the catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fei; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Pei; Liu, Shantang, E-mail: [Wuhan Institute of Technology, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China)


    In this study, MnO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}, and CeO{sub x}–MnO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by the homogeneous precipitation method. The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic performance of CeO{sub x}–MnO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} mixed oxide catalyst in the catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectra, hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that calcination significantly affect the activity of the prepared catalysts. When calcined at a low temperature such as 400 °C, Ce, and Mn species form a solid solution of MnCeO{sub x} in the catalyst, thus locating the O atoms in a perturbed chemical surrounding in the catalysts. This increases the mobility of the O atoms during the reaction, probably contributing to the highest catalytic activity of CeO{sub x}–MnO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} among all the tested catalysts. However, a further increase in the calcination temperature decreased the performance of the catalyst for the catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene. This is probably because of a reduction in surface chemisorbed oxygen concentration, a decrease in the interface area between metal oxides and MnCeO{sub x} caused by the isolation of MnO{sub x} or CeO{sub 2} from MnCeO{sub x}, and a decrease in the specific surface area of CeO{sub x}–MnO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst due to the sintering of catalyst.Graphical Abstract.

  14. Application of OMI Observations to a Space-Based Indicator of NOx and VOC Controls on Surface Ozone Formation (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Olson, Jennifer R.; Sillman, Sanford; Martin, Randall V.; Lamsal, Lok; Hu, Yongtao; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Retscher, Christian; Allen, Dale J.; hide


    We investigated variations in the relative sensitivity of surface ozone formation in summer to precursor species concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) as inferred from the ratio of the tropospheric columns of formaldehyde to nitrogen dioxide (the "Ratio") from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Our modeling study suggests that ozone formation decreases with reductions in VOCs at Ratios less than 1 and NOx at Ratios greater than 2; both NOx and VOC reductions may decrease ozone formation for Ratios between 1 and 2. Using this criteria. the OMI data indicate that ozone formation became: 1. more sensitive to NOx over most of the United States from 2005 to 2007 because of the substantial decrease in NOx emissions, primarily from stationary sources, and the concomitant decrease in the tropospheric column of NO2. and 2. more sensitive to NOx with increasing temperature, in part because emissions of highly reactive, biogenic isoprene increase with temperature, thus increasing the total VOC reactivity. In cities with relatively low isoprene emissions (e.g .. Chicago). the data clearly indicate that ozone formation became more sensitive to NOx from 2005 to 2007. In cities with relatively high isoprene emissions (e.g ., Atlanta), we found that the increase in the Ratio due to decreasing NOx emissions was not obvious as this signal was convolved with variations in the Ratio associated with the temperature dependence of isoprene emissions and, consequently, the formaldehyde concentration.

  15. Quantifying VOC emissions for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Lord, David L.


    A very important aspect of the Department of Energys (DOEs) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program is regulatory compliance. One of the regulatory compliance issues deals with limiting the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted into the atmosphere from brine wastes when they are discharged to brine holding ponds. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set limits on the amount of VOCs that can be discharged to the atmosphere. Several attempts have been made to quantify the VOC emissions associated with the brine ponds going back to the late 1970s. There are potential issues associated with each of these quantification efforts. Two efforts were made to quantify VOC emissions by analyzing VOC content of brine samples obtained from wells. Efforts to measure air concentrations were mentioned in historical reports but no data have been located to confirm these assertions. A modeling effort was also performed to quantify the VOC emissions. More recently in 2011- 2013, additional brine sampling has been performed to update the VOC emissions estimate. An analysis of the statistical confidence in these results is presented here. Arguably, there are uncertainties associated with each of these efforts. The analysis herein indicates that the upper confidence limit in VOC emissions based on recent brine sampling is very close to the 0.42 ton/MMB limit used historically on the project. Refining this estimate would require considerable investment in additional sampling, analysis, and monitoring. An analysis of the VOC emissions at each site suggests that additional discharges could be made and stay within current regulatory limits.

  16. Torrefaction of empty fruit bunches under biomass combustion gas atmosphere. (United States)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Sellappah, Varsheta; Trinh, Thanh Hoai; Hassan, Suhaimi; Tanoue, Ken-Ichiro


    Torrefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) under combustion gas atmosphere was conducted in a batch reactor at 473, 523 and 573K in order to investigate the effect of real combustion gas on torrefaction behavior. The solid mass yield of torrefaction in combustion gas was smaller than that of torrefaction in nitrogen. This may be attributed to the decomposition enhancement effect by oxygen and carbon dioxide in combustion gas. Under combustion gas atmosphere, the solid yield for torrefaction of EFB became smaller as the temperature increased. The representative products of combustion gas torrefaction were carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (gas phase) and water, phenol and acetic acid (liquid phase). By comparing torrefaction in combustion gas with torrefaction in nitrogen gas, it was found that combustion gas can be utilized as torrefaction gas to save energy and inert gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.


    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  18. Gap-filling strategies for annual VOC flux data sets. (United States)

    Bamberger, I; Hörtnagl, L; Walser, M; Hansel, A; Wohlfahrt, G


    Up to now the limited knowledge about the exchange of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the biosphere and the atmosphere is one of the factors which hinders more accurate climate predictions. Complete long-term flux data sets of several VOCs to quantify the annual exchange and validate recent VOC models are basically not available. In combination with long-term VOC flux measurements the application of gap-filling routines is inevitable in order to replace missing data and make an important step towards a better understanding of the VOC ecosystem-atmosphere exchange on longer time scales. We performed VOC flux measurements above a mountain meadow in Austria during two complete growing seasons (from snowmelt in spring to snow reestablishment in late autumn) and used this data set to test the performance of four different gap-filling routines, mean diurnal variation (MDV), mean gliding window (MGW), look up tables (LUT) and linear interpolation (LIP), in terms of their ability to replace missing flux data in order to obtain reliable VOC sums. According to our findings the MDV routine was outstanding with regard to the minimization of the gap-filling error for both years and all quantified VOCs. The other gap-filling routines, which performed gap-filling on 24 h average values, introduced considerably larger uncertainties. The error which was introduced by the application of the different filling routines increased linearly with the number of data gaps. Although average VOC fluxes measured during the winter period (complete snow coverage) were close to zero, these were highly variable and the filling of the winter period resulted in considerably higher uncertainties compared to the application of gap-filling during the measurement period. The annual patterns of the overall cumulative fluxes for the quantified VOCs showed a completely different behavior in 2009, which was an exceptional year due to the occurrence of a severe hailstorm, compared to 2011. Methanol

  19. Colorimetric Polydiacetylene-Aerogel Detector for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). (United States)

    Dolai, Susmita; Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Beglaryan, Stella S; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Zeiri, Leila; Jelinek, Raz


    A new hybrid system comprising polydiacetylene (PDA), a chromatic conjugated polymer, embedded within aerogel pores has been constructed. The PDA-aerogel powder underwent dramatic color changes in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), facilitated through infiltration of the gas molecules into the highly porous aerogel matrix and their interactions with the aerogel-embedded PDA units. The PDA-aerogel composite exhibited rapid color/fluorescence response and enhanced signals upon exposure to low VOC concentrations. Encapsulation of PDA derivatives displaying different headgroups within the aerogel produced distinct VOC-dependent color transformations, forming a PDA-aerogel "artificial nose".

  20. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.


    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  1. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BREBENEL


    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  2. 2003 Laser Diagnostic in Combustion Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark G. Allen


    The GRC Laser Diagnostics in Combustion aims at bringing together scientists and engineers working in the front edge of research and development to discuss and find new ways to solve problems connected to combustion diagnostics. Laser-based techniques have proven to be very efficient tools for studying combustion processes thanks to features as non-intrusiveness in combination with high spatial and temporal resolution. Major tasks for the community are to develop and apply techniques for quantitative measurements with high precision e.g of species concentrations, temperatures, velocities and particles characteristics (size and concentration). These issues are of global interest, considering that the major part of the World's energy conversion comes from combustion sources and the influence combustion processes have on the environment and society.

  3. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume


    Marius BREBENEL


    Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant ...

  4. Middle East emissions of VOCs estimated using OMI HCHO observations and the MAGRITTE regional model (United States)

    Müller, Jean-Francois; Stavrakou, Trisevgeni; Bauwens, Maite; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel


    Air quality in the Middle East has considerably deteriorated in the last decades. In particular tropospheric ozone reaches very high levels during summer due to the combination of high solar irradiances with often very high and rapidly evolving anthropogenic emissions of NOx and VOCs associated to oil/gas exploitation and fast urbanisation. In addition, high biogenic VOC emissions are expected in non-desert areas, in particular during summer due to scorching temperatures and high solar irradiances. Both anthropogenic and biogenic VOC emissions are poorly known, however, due to near-absence of experimental constraints on emission factors for local vegetation and industrial and extraction processes. Furthermore, the dependence of emissions on environmental conditions (e.g. soil moisture in the case of biogenic isoprene emissions) is only very crudely parameterized in emission models. Here we use spaceborne (OMI) observations of formaldehyde, a known product of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC oxidation, as constraint in an inversion framework built on a regional model, MAGRITTE (Model of Atmospheric composition at Global and Regional scales using Inversion Techniques for Trace Gas Emissions). MAGRITTE is run at 0.5x0.5 degree resolution, with lateral boundary conditions provided by the global CTM IMAGESv2 (Bauwens et al., 2016). The global and regional models share essentially the same chemistry and physical parameterizations. Emission inversion with MAGRITTE is performed using an adjoint-based iterative procedure, similar to previous inversions using IMAGES. Biogenic VOC emissions are calculated using MEGAN (Muller et al., 2008; Stavrakou et al., 2015), whereas the HTAPv2 emission dataset is used for anthropogenic emissions, with several adjustments for oil/gas exploitation and traffic emissions. The OMI data are regridded onto the model resolution and averaged seasonally in order to reduce noise. Preliminary results indicate that biogenic isoprene emissions are a

  5. Potential of Porous-Media Combustion Technology as Applied to Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Weclas


    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the knowledge concerning porous media combustion techniques as applied in engines. One of most important reasons of this review is to introduce this still not well known technology to researchers doing with internal combustion engine processes, thermal engines, reactor thermodynamics, combustion, and material science. The paper gives an overview of possible applications of a highly porous open cell structures to in-cylinder processes. This application means utilization of unique features of porous media for supporting engine processes, especially fuel distribution in space, vaporization, mixing with air, heat recuperation, ignition and combustion. There are three ways for applying porous medium technology to engines: support of individual processes, support of homogeneous combustion process (catalytic and non-catalytic with temperature control, and utilization of the porous structure as a heat capacitor only. In the first type of application, the porous structure may be utilized for fuel vaporization and improved fuel distribution in space making the mixture more homogeneous in the combustion chamber. Extension of these processes to mixture formation and ignition inside a combustion reactor allows the realization of a homogeneous and a nearly zero emissions level combustion characterized by a homogeneous temperature field at reduced temperature level.

  6. Combustion of Methane Hydrate (United States)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding

  7. Environmental optimisation of waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Berge, Niclas; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The regulations concerning waste combustion evolve through R and D and a strive to get better and common regulations for the European countries. This study discusses if these rules of today concerning oxygen concentration, minimum temperature and residence time in the furnace and the use of stand-by burners are needed, are possible to monitor, are the optimum from an environmental point of view or could be improved. No evidence from well controlled laboratory experiments validate that 850 deg C in 6 % oxygen content in general is the best lower limit. A lower excess air level increase the temperature, which has a significant effect on the destruction of hydrocarbons, favourably increases the residence time, increases the thermal efficiency and the efficiency of the precipitators. Low oxygen content is also necessary to achieve low NO{sub x}-emissions. The conclusion is that the demands on the accuracy of the measurement devices and methods are too high, if they are to be used inside the furnace to control the combustion process. The big problem is however to find representative locations to measure temperature, oxygen content and residence time in the furnace. Another major problem is that the monitoring of the operation conditions today do not secure a good combustion. It can lead to a false security. The reason is that it is very hard to find boilers without stratifications. These stratifications (stream lines) has each a different history of residence time, mixing time, oxygen and combustible gas levels and temperature, when they reach the convection area. The combustion result is the sum of all these different histories. The hydrocarbons emission is in general not produced at a steady level. Small clouds of unburnt hydrocarbons travels along the stream lines showing up as peaks on a THC measurement device. High amplitude peaks has a tendency to contain higher ratio of heavy hydrocarbons than lower peaks. The good correlation between some easily detected

  8. Sandia combustion research program: Annual report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.E.; Sanders, B.R.; Ivanetich, C.A. (eds.)


    More than a decade ago, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Our strategy was to apply the rapidly increasing capabilities in lasers and computers to combustion science and technology. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''User Facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative--involving US universities, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions of several research projects which have been stimulated by Working Groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship Program has been instrumental in the success of some of the joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents research results of calendar year 1987, separated thematically into nine categories. Refereed journal articles appearing in print during 1987, along with selected other publications, are included at the end of Section 10. In addition to our ''traditional'' research--chemistry, reacting flow, diagnostics, engine combustion, and coal combustion--you will note continued progress in somewhat recent themes: pulse combustion, high temperature materials, and energetic materials, for example. Moreover, we have just started a small, new effort to understand combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.


    The report presents an assessment of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from fiberglass boat manufacturing. Description of the industry structure is presented, including estimates of the number of facilities, their size, and geographic distribution. The fiberglass boat m...


    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted to characterize speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs) and ozone precursors, in exhaust emissions from three modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) light-duty vehicles. Each GDI v...

  11. [Countermeasures for priority control of toxic VOC pollution]. (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Li-Na; Yang, Chang-Qing; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Han-Kun; Li, Yao


    VOC pollution is worsening, not only affects the environment, air quality, but also directly harm human health, and Chinese relevant departments need to improve control measures. U. S. toxic air pollutants (HAPs) control system was studied, and Chinese environment countermeasures were proposed based on pollution features. U. S. recognized sources of hazardous air pollutants in the Clean Air Act (CAA), and reduced their emissions by industrial regulations and regional policies. In urban areas, VOC occupied a great part of toxic air and were controlled as a major project in U. S. Due to relatively weak management and technical base, China should screen some VOC components for priority pollutant control. The feature of Chinese VOC pollution was described as complex components, industry sources widely distributed, strong regional characteristics and processes, and gradual development of regional pollution. It was suggested to carry out investigation assessment activities, enhance cumulative risk assessment and environmental impact assessment management, and strengthen emergency risk prevention.

  12. Production of nanocrystalline metal powders via combustion reaction synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, John G.; Weil, Kenneth Scott; Lavender, Curt A.; Kim, Jin Yong


    Nanocrystalline metal powders comprising tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium and/or niobium can be synthesized using a combustion reaction. Methods for synthesizing the nanocrystalline metal powders are characterized by forming a combustion synthesis solution by dissolving in water an oxidizer, a fuel, and a base-soluble, ammonium precursor of tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, or niobium in amounts that yield a stoichiometric burn when combusted. The combustion synthesis solution is then heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove water and to initiate a self-sustaining combustion reaction. The resulting powder can be subsequently reduced to metal form by heating in a reducing gas environment.

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VOC Content Limits by Product Category..., Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart C—VOC Content Limits by Product Category Product category VOC content limit (weight-percent VOC) Air fresheners: Single-phase 70 Double-phase 30 Liquids/pump sprays 18 Solids/gels 3...

  14. Combustion Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  15. Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust; Utslaepp av laettflyktiga kolvaeten vid torkning av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstroem, Karin


    In the project 'Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust' the identity, amount and composition of monoterpenes found in the drying medium of a fluidized bed drier drying sawdust from Norwegian spruce and Scotch pine has been determined. The energy efficiency of the drier has also been measured. The aim of this project was to reduce both emissions and energy required for drying, to minimize environmental and health hazards, and make drying more competitive. This would help our primary target group - small scale saw mills - to make use of the sawdust produced as a by- product by making pellets and briquettes. If the VOC remains in the sawdust its energy content will improve and therefore also its value as a fuel. The sawdust was dried to different moisture levels in a spouted bed drier at atmospheric pressure, using either recirculating or not recirculating drying medium with temperatures 140, 170 or 200 deg C. The emissions of VOC were measured using a flame ionization detector (FID) and the nature of the emissions analyzed with a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS). The GC-MS data is reported as emitted substance per oven dry weight (odw). Experiments show that terpenes do not leave the sawdust in great amounts until it is dried to a moisture content (water/total weight) below 10%. When sawdust is dried to a predetermined moisture level, the terpene emissions increase when warmer incoming drying medium is used. The monoterpenes found in greatest amount are a-pinene, b-pinene, 3-carene, limonene and myrcene. y-terpinene was detected in emissions from pine but not from spruce. The relative amounts of different monoterpenes did not vary significantly with post-drying moisture content, but drying medium of higher temperature caused an increase in the relative amount of less volatile monoterpenes. The FID data is reported as concentration of VOC in the drying medium, and as weight VOC per odw. The concentration

  16. Zero VOC, Coal Tar Free Splash Zone Coating (SZC) (United States)


    volatile organic compounds (VOC) content, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and may also include hazardous pigment content. The coal tar epoxy also...VOCs, HAPs of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and xylene, and the pigment chromium oxide. Each coat of SSPC PS 11.01 contains 30% by weight coal tar...marketed a millable gum polysulfide known as the first synthetic rubber commercially made in the United States. Today, there are several liquid

  17. Exposure to genotoxic compounds alters in vitro cellular VOC excretion. (United States)

    Fijten, Rianne; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Shi, Quan; Pachen, Daniëlle; Dallinga, Jan; Boots, Agnes; van Schooten, Frederik Jan


    Genotoxic carcinogens significantly damage cells and tissues by targeting macromolecules such as proteins and DNA, but their mechanisms of action and effects on human health are diverse. Consequently, determining the amount of exposure to a carcinogen and its cellular effects is essential, yet difficult. The aim of this manuscript was to investigate the potential of detecting alterations in Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) profiles in the in vitro headspace of pulmonary cells after exposure to the genotoxic carcinogens cisplatin and benzo[a]pyrene using two different sampling set-ups. A prototype set-up was used for the cisplatin exposure, whereas a modified set-up was utilized for the benzo[a]pyrene exposure. Both carcinogens were added to the cell medium for 24 hours. The headspace in the culture flask was sampled to measure the VOC content using gas chromatography - time of flight - mass spectrometry. Eight cisplatin-specific VOCs and six benzo[a]pyrene-specific VOCs were discriminatory between treated and non-treated cells. Since the in vivo biological effects of both genotoxic compounds are well-defined, the origin of the identified VOCs could potentially be traced back to common cellular processes including cell cycle pathways, DNA damage and repair. These results indicate that exposing lung cells to genotoxins alters headspace VOC profiles, suggesting that it might be possible to monitor VOC changes in vivo to study drug efficacy or exposure to different pollutants. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the innovative potential of in vitro VOCs experiments to determine their in vivo applicability and discover their endogenous origin. . © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Petroleum recovery by in situ combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orkiszewski, J.


    In an in situ combustion process for the recovery of oil, the available fuel is changed to more nearly equal the minimum fuel requirement for the process. The API gravity of the reservoir oil and the temperature of the reservoir are used to determine the total available fuel. The available fuel in the reservoir is changed to more nearly equal the minimum fuel requirement for the in situ combustion process by injecting a fluid capable of changing either the API gravity of the reservoir oil, the reservoir temperature, or both. An oxygen containing gas is then injected into the reservoir to initiate combustion. Oil is recovered from the reservoir as a result of the in situ combustion process. (10 claims)

  19. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion (United States)

    Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Pagni, Patrick J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos


    An analytical model of cocurrent smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is developed. Smoldering is initiated at the top of a long radially insulated uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward-forced flow of oxidizer, with the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer entering the reaction zone from the same direction (hence, cocurrent). Radiative heat transfer was incorporated using a diffusion approximation, and smoldering was modeled using a one-step reaction mechanism. The results indicate that, for a given fuel, the final temperature depends only on the initial oxygen mass flux, increasing logarithmically with the mass flux. The smolder velocity is linearly dependent on the initial oxygen mass flux, and, at a fixed value of the flux, increases with initial oxygen mass fraction. The mathematical relationship determining the conditions for steady smolder propagation is presented.

  20. Effect of VOC Emissions from Vegetation on Air Quality in Berlin during a Heatwave. (United States)

    Churkina, Galina; Kuik, Friderike; Bonn, Boris; Lauer, Axel; Grote, Rüdiger; Tomiak, Karolina; Butler, Tim M


    The potential of emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone and particulate matter has long been recognized. This potential increases with rising temperatures and may lead to severe problems with air quality in densely populated areas during heat waves. Here, we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds from urban/suburban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone and particulate matter. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with atmospheric chemistry (WRF-Chem) with emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation simulated with MEGAN to quantify some of these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany, during the heat wave in 2006. The highest ozone concentration observed during that period was ∼200 μg/m3 (∼101 ppbV). The model simulations indicate that the contribution of biogenic VOC emissions to ozone formation is lower in June (9-11%) and August (6-9%) than in July (17-20%). On particular days within the analyzed heat wave period, this contribution increases up to 60%. The actual contribution is expected to be even higher as the model underestimates isoprene concentrations over urban forests and parks by 0.6-1.4 ppbv. Our study demonstrates that biogenic VOCs can considerably enhance air pollution during heat waves. We emphasize the dual role of vegetation for air quality and human health in cities during warm seasons, which is removal and lessening versus enhancement of air pollution. The results of our study suggest that reduction of anthropogenic sources of NOx, VOCs, and PM, for example, reduction of the motorized vehicle fleet, would have to accompany urban tree planting campaigns to make them really beneficial for urban dwellers.

  1. Numerical simulation of combustion and soot under partially premixed combustion of low-octane gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao


    In-cylinder combustion visualization and engine-out soot particle emissions were investigated in an optical diesel engine fueled with low octane gasoline. Single injection strategy with an early injection timing (−30 CAD aTDC) was employed to achieve partially premixed combustion (PPC) condition. A high-speed color camera was used to record the combustion images for 150 cycles. The regulated emission of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and soot mass concentration were measured experimentally. Full cycle engine simulations were performed using CONVERGE™ and the simulation results matched with the experimental results. The in-cylinder soot particle evolution was performed by coupling a reduced toluene reference fuel mechanism including the PAHs formation/oxidation reactions with particulate size mimic model. The results showed that PPC presents typical stratified combustion characteristics, which is significantly different from the conventional diesel spray-driven combustion. The in-cylinder temperature and equivalence ratio overlaid with soot-NO formation regime revealed that PPC operating condition under study mostly avoided the main sooting conditions throughout the entire combustion. The evaluation of temperature distribution showed formaldehyde could be regarded as an indicator for low temperature reactions, while hydroxyl group represents the high temperature reactions. Soot evolution happened during the combustion process, hydroxyl radicals promoted the soot oxidation.

  2. Specifics of phytomass combustion in small experimental device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard


    Full Text Available A wood pellet combustion carries out with high efficiency and comfort in modern pellet boilers. These facts help to increase the amount of installed pellet boilers in households. The combustion process quality depends besides the combustion conditions also on the fuel quality. The wood pellets, which don`t contain the bark and branches represent the highest quality. Because of growing pellet demand, an herbal biomass (phytomass, which is usually an agricultural by-product becomes economically attractive for pellet production. Although the phytomass has the net calorific value relatively slightly lower than the wood biomass, it is often significantly worse in view of the combustion process and an emission production. The combustion of phytomass pellets causes various difficulties in small heat sources, mainly due to a sintering of fuel residues. We want to avoid the ash sintering by a lowering of temperature in the combustion chamber below the ash sintering temperature of phytomass via the modification of a burner design. For research of the phytomass combustion process in the small boilers is constructed the experimental combustion device. There will investigate the impact of cooling intensity of the combustion chamber on the combustion process and emissions. Arising specific requirements from the measurement will be the basis for the design of the pellet burner and for the setting of operating parameters to the trouble-free phytomass combustion was guaranteed.

  3. Surface emission determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from a closed industrial waste landfill using a self-designed static flux chamber. (United States)

    Gallego, E; Perales, J F; Roca, F J; Guardino, X


    Closed landfills can be a source of VOC and odorous nuisances to their atmospheric surroundings. A self-designed cylindrical air flux chamber was used to measure VOC surface emissions in a closed industrial landfill located in Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. The two main objectives of the study were the evaluation of the performance of the chamber setup in typical measurement conditions and the determination of the emission rates of 60 different VOC from that industrial landfill, generating a valuable database that can be useful in future studies related to industrial landfill management. Triplicate samples were taken in five selected sampling points. VOC were sampled dynamically using multi-sorbent bed tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen 569) connected to SKC AirCheck 2000 pumps. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled with a capillary gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry detector. The emission rates of sixty VOC were calculated for each sampling point in an effort to characterize surface emissions. To calculate average, minimum and maximum emission values for each VOC, the results were analyzed by three different methods: Global, Kriging and Tributary area. Global and Tributary area methodologies presented similar values, with total VOC emissions of 237 ± 48 and 222 ± 46 g day(-1), respectively; however, Kriging values were lower, 77 ± 17 gd ay(-1). The main contributors to the total emission rate were aldehydes (nonanal and decanal), acetic acid, ketones (acetone), aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Most aromatic hydrocarbon (except benzene, naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes) and aldehyde emission rates exhibited strong correlations with the rest of VOC of their family, indicating a possible common source of these compounds. B:T ratio obtained from the emission rates of the studied landfill suggested that the factors that regulate aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in the landfill emissions are different from the ones

  4. VOC Measurements in the Northern Colorado Front Range Metropolitan Area: Investigating the Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Emissions on O3 Production (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Farmer, D.; Fischer, E. V.; Pollack, I. B.; Zaragoza, J.


    Authors: Ilana Pollock1,2, Jake Zaragoza2, Emily V. Fischer2, Delphine K. Farmer11. Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 2. Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO During summer months, the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado consistently violates the 75 ppbv 8-hour EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ambient ozone (O3), despite continued reduction in anthropogenic emissions. The region has been deemed an O3 non-attainment zone since 2008. Ground-level O3 is produced from photochemical catalytic cycles involving OH radicals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and NOx (NO + NO2). VOC emissions in the NFRMA are dominated by anthropogenic sources and influenced by biogenic and agricultural sources, while NOx emissions are mainly from automobile exhaust. A growing concern in the region is the role of oil and natural gas (ONG) on VOC concentrations and the potential for O3 production. Increases in local VOC emissions will likely cause subsequent increase in local O3 concentrations as PO3 increases in a region that is already affected by high O3episodes. As a part of the SONGNEX 2015 (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) campaign, we measured a broad suite of speciated VOCs during two 8-week deployments (March-May 2015, July-September 2015) at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. VOC measurements were made with a custom-online multichannel gas chromatography system (50+ compounds hourly), along with measurements of O3, SO2, NOx, NOy, PAN, CO, CO2, and CH4. We use these data to investigate the role of different VOC sources, and ONG in particular, in contributing to VOC reactivity and thus instantaneous O3 production. Preliminary analysis of the Spring VOC data indicates that VOC reactivity is dominated by light alkanes typical of ONG emissions - specifically propane, consistent with previous winter-time studies. We will use the observed temperature

  5. Improvement of energy efficiency of natural gas combustion by applying a homogeneous combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymczyk Jacek


    Full Text Available In many heat devices designers and operators meet the problem of low efficiency of combustion and restricted emission standards. This process should be improved to maximize its efficiency and satisfy additional requirements as, for example, uniform temperature fieldin combustion chamber, low noise level or very low NOx emission. These requirements are satisfied by homogeneous combustion. Such combustion method is particularly attractive for the steel or glass industry or power industry based in particular on natural gas. In this paper factors, which have the biggest influence on performance of flameless combustion, are discussed, among others: momentum of fuel and oxidizer, composition of the mixture, the temperature of the inlet gases. Additionally, blind simulations of combustion in a combustion chamber of a furnace are run to assess how high is the influence of these factors individually. Numerical simulations are performed in a CFD code AVL Fire. The detailed chemical kinetics mechanism GRI-mech 3.0 is used for combustion calculations. Calculations results are correlated with experimental data. Blind simulations and experiment provide similar level of NOX emission (~6-8 ppm. Experiments showed that the effect of the addition of ethylene to fuel on emissions of NOX, CO, THC is not significant. Similarly, numerical simulations predict that influence of ethylene is negligible. CO, THC and CO2 were on a stable level across all cases. NOX emissions increases when mass flow of air and fuel increases due to higher heat release in the same volume, what results in higher temperature of combustion products. When temperature of fuel increases NOX level decreases.

  6. Sensory and Physiological Effects on Humans of Combined Exposures to Air Temperatures and Volatile Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Liu, Zunyong; Jørgensen, Anne Hempel


    Ten healthy humans were exposed to combinations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air temperature (0 mg/m3 and 10 mg/m3 of a mixture of 22 volatile organic compounds and 18, 22 and 26° C). Previously demonstrated effects of VOCs and thermal exposures were replicated. For the first time nasal...... cross-sectional areas and nasal volumes, as measured by acoustic rhinometry, were shown to decrease with decreasing temperature and increasing VOC exposure. Temperature and pollutant exposures affected air quality, the need for more ventilation, skin humidity on the forehead, sweating, acute sensory...... indoor air concentrations of VOCs should depend on room air temperature....

  7. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.


    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  8. Boiler using combustible fluid (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.


    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.


    Soil vapor surveys are commonly used as a screening technique to delineate volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminant plumes and provide information for soil sampling plans. Traditionally, three purge volumes of vapor are removed before a sample is collected. One facet of this study was to evaluate the VOC concentrations lost during purging and explore the potential implications of those losses. The vapor data was compared to collocated soil data to determine if any correlation existed between the VOC concentrations. Two different methods for soil vapor collection were compared: 1) active/micro-volume; and 2) active/macro-volume. The active/micro-volume vapor sample had total line purge volume of 1.25 mL and the active/macro-volume vapor sample had a total line purge volume of 15 mL. Six line purge volumes were collected for each vapor sampling technique, with the fourth purge volume representing the traditional sample used for site screening data. Each sample was collected by gas tight syringe and transferred to a thermal de sorption tube for sorption, transport, and analysis. Following the removal of the soil vapor samples, collocated soil samples were taken. For both active vapor sampling techniques, the VOC concentrations in the first three purge volumes exceeded the VOC concentrations in the last three purge volumes. This implies that the general rule of removal of three purge volumes prior to taking a sample for analysis could lead to underestimating the

  10. Novel collection method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dogs. (United States)

    Holderman, Chris J; Kaufman, Phillip E; Booth, Matthew M; Bernier, Ulrich R


    Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cycles that include dog heartworm disease vectored by mosquitoes, however the host VOCs utilized by vectors are not well known. Herein we present a novel method that sampled VOCs from a dog host. A Tenax TD stainless steel tube was held near a dog's fur and skin, which collected VOCs that were later desorbed and tentatively identified using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrospectrometer (GC-MS). Background air chemicals were subtracted from the dog sample, resulting in 182 differentiated compounds, a majority of which were identified by ionization fragmentation patterns. Four dogs were sampled and shared 41 of the identified chemicals. VOCs were representative of aliphatics, aromatics, aldehydes, alcohols and carboxylic acids. This chemical characterization method has the potential to identify both individuals and breeds of dogs in addition to other potential uses such as disease diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))


    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  12. Ignition and combustion phenomena on a moving grate: with application to the thermal conversion of biomass and municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijderveen, M.


    Combustion can be defined as a fast oxidation process of a solid, gaseous or liquid fuel at elevated temperatures. In any combustion process, ignition plays an essential role. Not only to initiate the combustion process, but also to maintain it. Especially in solid fuel combustion on a grate, where

  13. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  14. Occurrence of Indoor VOCs in Nursery School - Case Study (United States)

    Juhasova Senitkova, Ingrid


    Children’s exposure to air pollutants is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to preschools because younger children are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and spend more time indoors. The concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in younger and older children’s classrooms during the winter season were studied. An electronic nose based on gas chromatography was used for the analysis of individual VOCs and a photoionization detector with a UV lamp was used for the determination of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration. Continuous measurements of CO2 concentrations both inside classrooms and outside each building were performed using automatic portable monitors. Improving ventilation, decreasing the occupancy per room and completing cleaning activities following occupancy periods can contribute to alleviating high CO2 and VOCs occurrence levels.

  15. Photoluminescence and phosphorescence properties of MAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} (M=Ca, Ba, Sr) phosphors prepared at an initiating combustion temperature of 500 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothudi, B.M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, ZA 6031 (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa)


    Eu{sup 2+} and Dy{sup 3+} co-doped calcium aluminate, barium aluminate and strontium aluminate phosphors were synthesized at an initiating combustion temperature of 500 deg. C using urea as an organic fuel. The crystallinity of the phosphors was investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphology was determined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The low temperature monoclinic structure for both CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and the hexagonal structure of BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were observed. The effect of the host materials on the photoluminescence (PL) and phosphorescence properties were investigated by using a He-Cd Laser and a Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The broad band emission spectra observed at 449 nm for CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+}, 450 nm (with a shoulder-peak at 500 nm) for BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} and 528 nm for SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} are attributed to the 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1} to 4f{sup 7} transition in the Eu{sup 2+} ion in the different hosts.

  16. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower


    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  17. CARS measurements in an internal combustion engine. (United States)

    Stenhouse, I A; Williams, D R; Cole, J B; Swords, M D


    The first reported coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) experiments within the cylinder of a firing internal combustion engine are described. The feasibility of making noninvasive temperature and species measurements, with good spatial and temporal resolution, both before and after ignition has been demonstrated. Temperatures have been derived from the shape of the Q-branch vibrational spectrum of nitrogen since it is present as a major species and does not take part in combustion. Methods of overcoming such problems as were encountered are discussed.

  18. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Stanton


    aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  19. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels (United States)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.


    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  20. Extending the predictions of chemical mechanisms for hydrogen combustion by Comparison of predicted and measured flame temperatures in burner-stabilized, 1-D flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepman, A. V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    A method is presented for extending the range of conditions for which the performance of chemical mechanisms used to predict hydrogen burning velocities can be evaluated. Specifically, by comparing the computed variation of flame temperature with mass flux in burner-stabilized flat flames with those

  1. Direct measurement of VOC diffusivities in tree tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baduru, K.K.; Trapp, Stefan; Burken, Joel G.


    fundamental terminal fate processes for VOCs that have been translocated from contaminated soil or groundwater, and diffusion constitutes the mass transfer mechanism to the plant−atmosphere interface. Therefore, VOC diffusion through woody plant tissues, that is, xylem, has a direct impact on contaminant fate......, and tetrachloroethane and aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and methyl tert-butyl ether. All compounds tested are currently being treated at full scale with tree-based phytoremediation. Diffusivities were determined by modeling the diffusive transport data with a one-dimensional diffusive flux model...

  2. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  3. Experimental study on combustion of biomass micron fuel (BMF) in cyclone furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Siyi, E-mail: [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huanzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xiao Bo; Hu Zhiquan; Liu Shiming; He Maoyun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huanzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Based on biomass micron fuel (BMF) with particle size less than 250 {mu}m, a cyclone combustion concept was presented and a lab-scale cyclone furnace was designed to evaluate the feasibility. The influences of equivalence ration (ER) and particle size of BMF on combustion performance were studied, as well as temperature distribution in the combustion chamber. The results show that BMF combustion in the cyclone furnace is reliable, with rational temperature distribution inside furnace hearth, lower CO emission, soot concentration and C content in ashes. As ER being 1.2, the temperature in the chamber is maximized up to 1200 deg. C. Smaller particles results in better combustion performances.

  4. Experimental study on combustion of biomass micron fuel (BMF) in cyclone furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siyi Luo; Bo Xiao; Zhiquan Hu; Shiming Liu; Maoyun He [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huanzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Based on biomass micron fuel (BMF) with particle size less than 250 {mu}m, a cyclone combustion concept was presented and a lab-scale cyclone furnace was designed to evaluate the feasibility. The influences of equivalence ration (ER) and particle size of BMF on combustion performance were studied, as well as temperature distribution in the combustion chamber. The results show that BMF combustion in the cyclone furnace is reliable, with rational temperature distribution inside furnace hearth, lower CO emission, soot concentration and C content in ashes. As ER being 1.2, the temperature in the chamber is maximized up to 1200 C. Smaller particles results in better combustion performances. (author)

  5. Experimental study of combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol fuelled port injected homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar [Engine Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)


    The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative combustion concept for in reciprocating engines. The HCCI combustion engine offers significant benefits in terms of its high efficiency and ultra low emissions. In this investigation, port injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous charge. The combustion and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine fuelled with ethanol were investigated on a modified two-cylinder, four-stroke engine. The experiment is conducted with varying intake air temperature (120-150 C) and at different air-fuel ratios, for which stable HCCI combustion is achieved. In-cylinder pressure, heat release analysis and exhaust emission measurements were employed for combustion diagnostics. In this study, effect of intake air temperature on combustion parameters, thermal efficiency, combustion efficiency and emissions in HCCI combustion engine is analyzed and discussed in detail. The experimental results indicate that the air-fuel ratio and intake air temperature have significant effect on the maximum in-cylinder pressure and its position, gas exchange efficiency, thermal efficiency, combustion efficiency, maximum rate of pressure rise and the heat release rate. Results show that for all stable operation points, NO{sub x} emissions are lower than 10 ppm however HC and CO emissions are higher. (author)

  6. Anthropogenic, Biogenic and Biomass Burning VOCs in the Southeast of the United States during SENEX (United States)

    Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Trainer, M.; Aikin, K.; Brown, S. S.; Gilman, J.; Hanisco, T. F.; Holloway, J.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Lee, B.; Lerner, B. M.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Min, K.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Thornton, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Wolfe, G. M.


    The NOAA field study SENEX was designed to investigate the source strengths and spatial distribution of man-made air pollutants and natural emissions, their interaction to form secondary pollutants, and the atmospheric fate of aerosol and trace gases at the nexus of air quality and climate change. To this end the NOAA research aircraft WP-3D was equipped with instrumentation for the analysis of aerosol and trace gases and this flying atmospheric science laboratory performed 18 research flights over the Southeast of the United States in June and July 2013. VOCs such as isoprene and monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere by vegetation. Aromatics come from incomplete combustion of transportation fuels as well as from oil and natural gas production, and they are found in biomass burning plumes along with the distinct tracer acetonitrile. Oxygenated species such as alcohols, aldehydes and ketones are directly emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources and can be formed by photo oxidation of organic trace gases. At sufficiently high levels of nitrogen oxides, VOCs fuel the production of tropospheric ozone and they contribute to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosol. Hence one key instrument onboard WP-3D was a PTR-MS for the time-resolved quantification of VOCs. The WP-3D performed plume study patterns downwind of coal- and gas-fired power plants. Isoprene concentrations were modulated in the high NOx regime as the plume evolved and the SENEX dataset will be used to constrain the chemistry in such plumes. City plumes of Atlanta (GA), Birmingham (AL), Indianapolis (IN), and St Louis (MO) showed modest concentrations of aromatics due to the decrease in hydrocarbon emissions from cars in comparison with previous studies. One flight leg targeted the plume of a large biofuel refinery, which will allow for an independent estimate of the primary emissions from this industry. A number of plumes of small fires in the study region were sampled as well as

  7. Testing fireproof materials in a combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhavy Petr


    Full Text Available This article deals with a prototype concept, real experiment and numerical simulation of a combustion chamber, designed for testing fire resistance some new insulating composite materials. This concept of a device used for testing various materials, providing possibility of monitoring temperatures during controlled gas combustion. As a fuel for the combustion process propane butane mixture has been used and also several kinds of burners with various conditions of inlet air (forced, free and fuel flows were tested. The tested samples were layered sandwich materials based on various materials or foams, used as fillers in fire shutters. The temperature distribution was measured by using thermocouples. A simulation of whole concept of experimental chamber has been carried out as the non-premixed combustion process in the commercial final volume sw Pyrosim. The result was to design chamber with a construction suitable, according to the international standards, achieve the required values (temperature in time. Model of the combustion based on a stoichiometric defined mixture of gas and the tested layered samples showed good conformity with experimental results – i.e. thermal distribution inside and heat release rate that has gone through the sample.

  8. Testing fireproof materials in a combustion chamber (United States)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Martinec, Tomas; Novak, Ondrej; Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel

    This article deals with a prototype concept, real experiment and numerical simulation of a combustion chamber, designed for testing fire resistance some new insulating composite materials. This concept of a device used for testing various materials, providing possibility of monitoring temperatures during controlled gas combustion. As a fuel for the combustion process propane butane mixture has been used and also several kinds of burners with various conditions of inlet air (forced, free) and fuel flows were tested. The tested samples were layered sandwich materials based on various materials or foams, used as fillers in fire shutters. The temperature distribution was measured by using thermocouples. A simulation of whole concept of experimental chamber has been carried out as the non-premixed combustion process in the commercial final volume sw Pyrosim. The result was to design chamber with a construction suitable, according to the international standards, achieve the required values (temperature in time). Model of the combustion based on a stoichiometric defined mixture of gas and the tested layered samples showed good conformity with experimental results - i.e. thermal distribution inside and heat release rate that has gone through the sample.

  9. LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation (United States)

    Jensen, R. J.; Dodson, H. C.; Claflin, S. E.


    The LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation Program was structured to determine if the use of light hydrocarbon combustion fuels with liquid oxygen (LOX) produces combustion performance and stability behavior similar to the LOX/hydrogen propellant combination. In particular methane was investigated to determine if that fuel can be rated for combustion instability using the same techniques as previously used for LOX/hydrogen. These techniques included fuel temperature ramping and stability bomb tests. The hot fire program probed the combustion behavior of methane from ambient to subambient temperatures. Very interesting results were obtained from this program that have potential importance to future LOX/methane development programs. A very thorough and carefully reasoned documentation of the experimental data obtained is contained. The hot fire test logic and the associated tests are discussed. Subscale performance and stability rating testing was accomplished using 40,000 lb. thrust class hardware. Stability rating tests used both bombs and fuel temperature ramping techniques. The test program was successful in generating data for the evaluation of the methane stability characteristics relative to hydrogen and to anchor stability models. Data correlations, performance analysis, stability analyses, and key stability margin enhancement parameters are discussed.

  10. Distributed Low Temperature Combustion: Fundamental Understanding of Combustion Regime Transitions (United States)


    Classification of the Multiple Fluid States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2.1 Density Segregation Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12...47 3 Identification of the multiple fluid states in a sample Mie scattering and OH-PLIF image...Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 5 21 PDF of the rate of strain and vorticity evaluated along the reactant fluid surface

  11. Distributed Low Temperature Combustion: Fundamental Understanding of Combustion Regime Transitions (United States)


    Aerodynamically stabilised dimethyl ether (DME) flames in a backstep burnt opposed jet configuration, featuring fractal generated multi-scale turbulence(Re_t...chemical mechanisms for the considered fuels (e.g. DME) to establish their ability to reproduce laminar flame and auto-ignition properties. The...Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK ∗Principal Investigator, email : 1 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for

  12. Heat transfer in high temperature fluidized beds with immersed tubes for coal combustion service. Final report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, J. R.


    The project involved two parts: analytical and experimental. The progression of work includes the following major divisions: analytical studies involving studies of heat transfer, hydrodynamics of gas flow within the bed, and some considerations of bubble and adjacent tube influences on the heat transfer; experimental apparatus including the instrumented tubes for heat transfer measurements, digital data acquisition, and the high temperature fluidized bed test facility; experimental results; and experimental validation of the analytical model.

  13. Influence of Torrefaction on Single Particle Combustion of Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Zhimin; Jian, Jie; Jensen, Peter Arendt


    This study focuses on the influence of torrefaction on the char reactivity, char yield, and combustion time of 3-5 mm spherical wood particles in a single particle combustion reactor (SPC) operating at a nominal temperature of 1231 °C. The devolatilization times were reduced and the char burnout...

  14. Diesel oil combustion in fluidized bed; Combustion de aceite diesel en lecho fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Cazares, Mario [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The effect of the fluidized bed depth in the combustion in burning diesel oil in a fluidized bed, was analyzed. A self sustained combustion was achieved injecting the oil with an injector that utilized a principle similar to an automobile carburetor venturi. Three different depths were studied and it was found that the deeper the bed, the greater the combustion efficiency. Combustion efficiencies were attained from 82% for a 100mm bed depth, up to 96% for a 200mm bed depth. The diminution in the efficiency was mainly attributed to unburned hydrocarbons and to the carbon carried over, which was observed in the black smoke at the stack outlet. Other phenomena registered were the temperature gradient between the lower part of the bed and the upper part, caused by the fluidization velocity; additionally it was observed that the air employed for the oil injection (carbureting air) is the most important parameter to attain a complete combustion. [Espanol] Se analizo el efecto de la profundidad del lecho en la combustion al quemar aceite diesel en un lecho fluidizado experimental. Se logro combustion autosostenida inyectando el aceite con un inyector que utilizo un principio similar al venturi del carburador de automovil. Se estudiaron tres diferentes profundidades del lecho y se encontro que a mayor profundidad del lecho, mayor eficiencia de la combustion. Se lograron eficiencias de la combustion desde 82% para el lecho de 100 mm de profundidad hasta 96% para el de 200 mm. La disminucion de la eficiencia se atribuyo, principalmente, a los hidrocarburos no quemados y al carbon arrastrado, lo cual se observo en el humo negro a la salida de la chimenea. Otros fenomenos registrados fueron el gradiente de temperatura entre la parte baja del lecho y la parte superior causado por la velocidad de fluidizacion; ademas, se observo que el aire utilizado para inyectar el aceite (aire de carburacion) es el parametro mas importante para lograr una combustion completa.

  15. Lectures on combustion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, S.Z.; Lax, P.D.; Sod, G.A. (eds.)


    Eleven lectures are presented on mathematical aspects of combustion: fluid dynamics, deflagrations and detonations, chemical kinetics, gas flows, combustion instability, flame spread above solids, spark ignition engines, burning rate of coal particles and hydrocarbon oxidation. Separate abstracts were prepared for three of the lectures. (DLC)

  16. Strobes: An Oscillatory Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341356034; van Lingen, J.N.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311441769; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073464708; Meijerink, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075044986


    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  17. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.


    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  18. Perspective -- Aerodynamic control of combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheim, A.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering


    To do useful work, the exothermic process of combustion should be carried out in an enclosure, as is typically the case with i.c. engines -- the subject of this paper`s particular concern. To meet the requirements of high efficiency and low pollutant production, this process should be executed at a relatively low temperature -- a condition attainable by the use of lean air-fuel mixtures. For this purpose it has to be distributed in space upon multipoint initiation and kept away from the walls to minimize their detrimental effects. In principle, all this can be accomplished by a system referred to as fireball combustion that takes advantage of entrainment and spiral mixing associated with large scale vortex structures of jet plumes. As demonstrated in this paper, the success in such an endeavor depends crucially upon the utilization of the essential elements of classical aerodynamics: the properly distributed sources, expressed in terms of velocity divergences prescribed by the thermodynamic process of combustion and of the vorticity field generated by shear between the jets and the fluid into which they are injected.

  19. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from large furniture]. (United States)

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Furuta, Mitsuko; Shibatsuji, Masayoshi; Jinno, Hideto; Nishimura, Tetsuji


    Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which may cause a hazardous influence on human being such as sick building (sick house) syndrome, has become a serious problem. In this study, VOCs emitted from nine pieces of home furniture, three sets of dining tables, three sets of chest of drawers and three sofas, were analyzed as potential sources of indoor air pollution by large chamber test method (JIS A 1911). Based on the emission rates of total VOC (TVOC), the impacts on the indoor TVOC was estimated by the sample model with a volume of 20 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment values were exceeded the provisional target value for indoor air (400 microg/m3) in three sets of dining tables, one set of chest of drawer and one sofa. The estimated increment of formaldehyde were exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m3) in one set of dining table, two sets of chest of drawers and one sofa. These results revealed that VOC emissions from furniture may influence significantly indoor air quality. Also, in this study, to establish the alternative method for large chamber test methods, emission rates from representative three parts of furniture unit were evaluated using the small chamber and emission rate from full-sized furniture was predicted. Emission rates of TVOC and formaldehyde predicted by small chamber test were 3-46% and 6-252% of the data obtained using large chamber test, respectively.

  20. Solid-Phase Microextraction and the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome (United States)

    Dixon, Emma; Clubb, Cynthia; Pittman, Sara; Ammann, Larry; Rasheed, Zeehasham; Kazmi, Nazia; Keshavarzian, Ali; Gillevet, Pat; Rangwala, Huzefa; Couch, Robin D.


    The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein. PMID:21494609

  1. Novel collection method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dogs (United States)

    Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cy...

  2. [Emission Characteristics of VOCs from Typical Restaurants in Beijing]. (United States)

    Cui, Tong; Cheng, Jing-chen; He, Wan-qing; Ren, Pei-fang; Nie, Lei; Xu, Dong-yao; Pan, Tao


    Using the EPA method, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) , sampled from barbecue, Chinese and Western fast-food, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine restaurants in Beijing was investigated. VOCs concentrations and components from different cuisines were studied. The results indicated that based on the calibrated baseline ventilation volume, the VOCs emission level from barbecue was the highest, reaching 12.22 mg · m(-3), while those from fast-food of either Chinese or Western, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine were about 4 mg · m(-3). The components of VOCs from barbecue were different from those in the other cuisines, which were mainly propylene, 1-butene, n-butane, etc. The non-barbecue cuisines consisted of high concentration of alcohols, and Western fast-food contained relatively high proportion of aldehydes and ketones organic compounds. According to emission concentration of baseline ventilation volume, barbecue released more pollutants than the non-barbecue cuisines at the same scale. So, barbecue should be supervised and controlled with the top priority.


    The report gives results of a study in which wood furniture manufacturing facilities were identified that had converted at least one of their primary coating steps to low-volatile organic compound (VOC)/hazardous Air pollutant (HAP) wood furniture coatings: high-solids, water...

  4. Solid-phase microextraction and the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Dixon

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein.

  5. Accuracy of seven vapour intrusion algorithms for VOC in groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Swartjes, F.; Bronders, J.; Seuntjens, P.; Lijzen, J.


    Background, aim and scope: During the last decade, soil contamination with volatile organic contaminants (VOC) received special attention because of their potential to cause indoor air problems. Moreover, research has shown that people spend 64% to 94% of there time indoors; therefore, the indoor


    The sink strength of two common indoor materials, a carpet and a gypsum board, was evaluated by environmental chamber tests with four volatile organic compounds (VOCs): propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (BEE), and texanol. These oxygenated compounds rep...

  7. A Study of Advanced Materials for Gas Turbine Coatings at Elevated Temperatures Using Selected Microstructures and Characteristic Environments for Syngas Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravinder Diwan; Patrick Mensah; Guoqiang Li; Nalini Uppu; Strphen Akwaboa; Monica Silva; Ebubekir Beyazoglu; Ogad Agu; Naresh Polasa; Lawrence Bazille; Douglas Wolfe; Purush Sahoo


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that can be suitable for use in industrial gas turbine engines have been processed and compared with electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) microstructures for applications in advanced gas turbines that use coal-derived synthesis gas. Thermo-physical properties have been evaluated of the processed air plasma sprayed TBCs with standard APS-STD and vertically cracked APS-VC coatings samples up to 1300 C. Porosity of these selected coatings with related microstructural effects have been analyzed in this study. Wet and dry thermal cycling studies at 1125 C and spalling resistance thermal cycling studies to 1200 C have also been carried out. Type I and Type II hot corrosion tests were carried out to investigate the effects of microstructure variations and additions of alumina in YSZ top coats in multi-layered TBC structures. The thermal modeling of turbine blade has also been carried out that gives the capability to predict in-service performance temperature gradients. In addition to isothermal high temperature oxidation kinetics analysis in YSZ thermal barrier coatings of NiCoCrAlY bond coats with 0.25% Hf. This can affect the failure behavior depending on the control of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth at the interface. The TGO growth kinetics is seen to be parabolic and the activation energies correspond to interfacial growth kinetics that is controlled by the diffusion of O{sub 2} in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The difference between oxidation behavior of the VC and STD structures are attributed to the effects of microstructure morphology and porosity on oxygen ingression into the zirconia and TGO layers. The isothermal oxidation resistance of the STD and VC microstructures is similar at temperatures up to 1200 C. However, the generally thicker TGO layer thicknesses and the slightly faster oxidation rates in the VC microstructures are attributed to the increased ingression of oxygen through the grain boundaries of the vertically

  8. Numerical models for the phenomenological study of flameless combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Argemiro Herrera Múnera


    Full Text Available Flameless combustion is a technique which offers environmental advantages such as lower than 100 ppm NOx and CO emis- sions due to below 200 K temperature gradients. Flameless combustion also supplies higher than 70% energy efficiency. Knowledge of the phenomena in this combustion regime has been facilitated by using numerical simulation. This paper reviewed the specialised literature about the most commonly used turbulence, combustion, heat transfer and NOx formation models in modelling flameless combustion with CFD codes. The review concluded that the k-ε standard model is the most used for turbu- lence. Finite rate/eddy dissipation with modified constants and eddy dissipation concept models are suitable for combustion reac- tions, discrete ordinates and weighted sum gray gas (WSGG models are used for radiation and thermal, prompt and N2O inter- mediate models are used for NOx.

  9. Diffusion-controlled toluene reference material for VOC emissions testing: international interlaboratory study. (United States)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Liu, Zhe; Cox, Steven; Leber, Dennis; Samarov, Dan; Little, John C


    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building products and materials by manufacturers and testing laboratories, and the use of the test results for labeling programs, continue to expand. One issue that hinders wide acceptance for chamber product testing is the lack of a reference material to validate test chamber performance. To meet this need, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Virginia Tech (VT) have developed a prototype reference material that emits a single VOC similar to the emissions of a diffusion-controlled building product source with a dynamic emissions profile. The prototype material has undergone extensive testing at NIST and a pilot interlaboratory study (ILS) with four laboratories. The next development step is an evaluation of the prototype source in multiple-sized chambers of 14 laboratories in seven countries. Each laboratory was provided duplicate specimens and a test protocol. Study results identified significant issues related to the need to store the source at a subzero Celsius temperature until tested and possible inconsistencies in large chambers. For laboratories using a small chamber and meeting all the test method criteria, the results were very encouraging with relative standard deviations ranging from 5% to 10% across the laboratories. Currently, the chamber performance of laboratories conducting product VOC emissions testing is assessed through interlaboratory studies (ILS) using a source with an unknown emission rate. As a result, laboratory proficiency can only be based on the mean and standard deviation of emission rates measured by the participating ILS laboratories. A reference material with a known emission rate has the potential to provide an independent assessment of laboratory performance as well as improve the quality of interlaboratory studies. Several international laboratories with different chamber testing systems demonstrated the ability to measure the emission rate

  10. Effect of temperature and precursor concentration on the morphology of Cu/γ-Al2O3 prepared via urea combustion method (United States)

    Maharsi, R.; Septianto, R. D.; Rohman, F.; Iskandar, F.; Devianto, H.; Budhi, Y. W.


    Mesoporous gamma alumina (γ-Al2O3) was successfully prepared via urea route synthesis. Different urea concentration effects were investigated toward the material’s characterization. Calcination was done at 500 °C for 3 h to obtain γ-Al2O3. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that the urea was decomposed completely after calcination. The amorphous gamma phase of alumina was transformed completely into crystalline alpha phase, accompanied by a lower surface area of alumina at a higher concentration of urea. Copper was added by wet impregnation and the γ-Al2O3 was then calcined at different temperatures to study the effect on the material’s properties. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) characterization showed peaks that belong to CuO and CuAl2O4. As the calcination temperature rose, the peak intensity of the CuAl2O4 became higher. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that CuO nanoparticles covered the surface of the γ-Al2O3. The absence of a γ-Al2O3 diffraction peak was due to its low crystallinity.

  11. Steady Nuclear Combustion in Rockets (United States)

    Saenger, E.


    The astrophysical theory of stationary nuclear reactions in stars is applied to the conditions that would be met in the practical engineering cases that would differ from the former, particularly with respect to the much lower combustion pressures, dimensions of the reacting volume, and burnup times. This application yields maximum rates of hear production per unit volume of reacting gas occurring at about 10(exp 8) K in the cases of reactions between the hydrogen isotopes, but yields higher rates for heavier atoms. For the former, with chamber pressures of the order of 100 atmospheres, the energy production for nuclear combustion reaches values of about 10(exp 4) kilocalories per cubic meter per second, which approaches the magnitude for the familiar chemical fuels. The values are substantially lower for heavier atoms, and increase with the square of the combustion pressure. The half-life of the burnup in the fastest reactions may drop to values as low as those for chemical fuels so that, despite the high temperature, the radiated energy can remain smaller than the energy produced, particularly if an inefficiently radiating (i.e., easily completely ionized reacting material like hydrogen), is used. On the other hand, the fraction of completely ionized particles in the gases undergoing nuclear combustion must not exceed a certain upper limit because the densities (approximately 10(exp -10) grams per cubic centimeter)) lie in the range of high vacua and only for the previously mentioned fraction of nonionized particles can mean free paths be retained small enough so that the chamber diameters of several dozen meters will suffice. Under these conditions it appears that continuously maintained stable nuclear reactions at practical pressures and dimensions are fundamentally possible and their application can be visualized as energy sources for power plants and propulsion units.

  12. 40 CFR 80.71 - Descriptions of VOC-control regions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Descriptions of VOC-control regions... VOC-control regions. (a) Reformulated gasoline covered areas which are located in the following States are included in VOC-Control Region 1: Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado District of...

  13. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. 60... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. (a) Each owner or operator of an affected facility subject to the provisions of this...

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Total Dissolved Nitrogen on a Coupled High-Temperature Combustion Total Organic Carbon-Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection (HTC TOC-NCD) System. (United States)

    Pan, Xi; Sanders, Richard; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J; Achterberg, Eric P


    The marine biogeochemistries of carbon and nitrogen have come under increased scrutiny because of their close involvement in climate change and coastal eutrophication. Recent studies have shown that the high-temperature combustion (HTC) technique is suitable for routine analyses of dissolved organic matter due to its good oxidation efficiency, high sensitivity, and precision. In our laboratory, a coupled HTC TOC-NCD system with a sample changer was used for the automated and simultaneous determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in seawater samples. TOC control software was used for TOC instrument control, DOC data acquisition, and data analysis. TDN data acquisition and manipulation was undertaken under LabVIEW. The combined system allowed simultaneous determination of DOC and TDN in the same sample using a single injection and provided low detection limits and excellent linear ranges for both DOC and TDN. The risk of contamination has been remarkably reduced due to the minimal sample manipulation and automated analyses. The optimised system provided a reliable tool for the routine determination of DOC and TDN in marine waters.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Combustion Chamber for Button Turbojet Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hongpeng


    Full Text Available To provide reference data for ultra-micro combustor, a new type button turbojet engine was designed and simulated the combustion’s steady-state process. The boundary condition of inlet was calculated using isentropic numerical calculation, taken into turbulent chemical reaction, heat radiation, and so on, getting the combustion chamber’s steady-state of the velocity, temperature and component concentration distribution, analysis the fuel/air flow and backflow, combustion efficiency and total pressure recovery coefficient, and compared with the experimental data. The calculation results can accurately reflect the actual combustion. The results show that combustion chamber exit velocity is about 65m/s, outlet temperature is around 1000K, the simulation and experimental data are similar, combustion chamber structure design is reasonable, and this paper will provide a basis for the future improvement of the millimeter scale turbojet engine.

  16. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.


    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  17. Regenerative process for desulfurization of high temperature combustion and fuel gases. Quarterly progress report No. 12, January 1-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, M.S.; Albanese, A.S.


    Portland cement, a calcium-based sorbent, was found to have a high sulfation reactivity. Spherical pellets, formed from powdered Portland cement by granulation, had exceptional higher resistance to attrition than natural limestone or dolomite, both of which had serious attrition losses in fluidized-bed reactors. The effect of carbon addition to Portland cement type III pellets on sulfation rates has been studied. A greater percentage of burnable carbon would leave more pores, and therefore increase the sulfation ability. An evaluation between sulfation reactivity and attrition resistance will be made to obtain the best combination. Experiments have been conducted on calcination and subsequent sulfation of calcium silicates and Greer limestone in a pressurized TGA. At 10 atm, calcium silicates sulfated better than limestone. A rotary kiln, 3'' ID, has been completed and is now undergoing preliminary tests for temperature, feed rate and residence time. The effect of CO/sub 2/ concentation on the reductive decomposition of the sulfated sorbent has been investigated. Results of this study would provide the necessary information for an efficient design of sorbent regeneration processes. The mechanisms of the solid-solid reaction taking place in the regeneration: 2CaSO/sub 4/ + C ..-->.. 2CaO + 2SO/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ are being studied. It has been shown that gaseous intermediates exist in the CaSO/sub 4/-C reaction, and are most likely supplied by the CaSO/sub 4/ decomposition.

  18. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  19. Development of a method for assessing the toxicity of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) to soil biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cureton, P.M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Evaluation and Interpretation Branch; Lintott, D.; Balch, G.; Goudey, S. [HydroQual Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)


    A method was developed to assess the toxicity of VOCs to plants and earthworms (survival of Eisenia foetida). The procedures followed were based on Greene et al. Gas samples for head space analyses were removed, at test initiation a termination, through a bulkhead fitting in the lid equipped with septa. Treatment levels were prepared, at low temperature to minimize volatilization, by spiking a soil sample with the compound of interest and then serially diluting it with clean soil. Root elongation tests were conducted on filter paper supported by 70 mesh silica sand spiked with the volatile of interest. Soils were then inundated with water, shaken with heating, and the headspace reanalyzed for the total contaminant concentration in the test system (total equals headspace plus adsorbed). Enclosing the seeds and worms in containers did not appear to have detrimental effects. VOCs tested included benzene, xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,2-trichloroethylene. Each test was repeated three times with different batches of soil, seed lots and worms from different colonies. Endpoints derived based on nominal and measured concentrations included: NOEC, LOEC, LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 25} for earthworm mortality and EC{sub 50} and EC{sub 25} for emergence and root elongation.

  20. Enthalpy Calculation for Pressurized Oxy- coal Combustion


    Weihong Wu; Jingli Huang


    Oxy-fuel combustion is recognizing one of the most promising available technologies that zero emission accomplishment may be in the offing. With coal burned under the pressure of 6MPa and oxygen-enriched conditions, the high temperature and high pressure gaseous combustion product is composed of 95% CO2 and water-vapor, with the rest of O2, N2 and so on. However, once lauded as classic approach of resolving fuel gas enthalpy calculation pertaining to ideal gas at atmospheric pressure was rest...

  1. Reaction-diffusion pulses: a combustion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Daniel [Grup de FIsica EstadIstica, Dept. de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterrra (Spain); Llebot, Josep Enric [Grup de FIsica EstadIstica, Dept. de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterrra (Spain); Fort, Joaquim [Dept. de FIsica, Univ. de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)


    We focus on a reaction-diffusion approach proposed recently for experiments on combustion processes, where the heat released by combustion follows first-order reaction kinetics. This case allows us to perform an exhaustive analytical study. Specifically, we obtain the exact expressions for the speed of the thermal pulses, their maximum temperature and the condition of self-sustenance. Finally, we propose two generalizations of the model, namely, the case of several reactants burning together, and that of time-delayed heat conduction. We find an excellent agreement between our analytical results and simulations.

  2. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition (United States)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald


    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  3. Combustion Technology Outreach (United States)


    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  4. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)


    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  5. VOC Emissions from the Potential Biofuel Crop, Switchgrass (United States)

    Graus, M.; Eller, A. S.; Fall, R.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Qian, Y.; Sekimoto, K.; Monson, R. K.; Warneke, C.


    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rates during the growth and simulated harvest phases were determined for three different cultivars of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) using laboratory chamber measurements. Switchgrass is a candidate for use in second-generation (cellulosic) ethanol production and the acerage dedicated to its growth in the USA has already increased during the past decade. We estimate that the yearly emissions from switchgrass plantations, including both the growth and harvest phases, will be on the order of 3 kg C ha-1 methanol, 1 kg C ha-1 acetaldehyde, 1 kg C ha-1 acetone, 0.9 kg C ha-1 monoterpenes, 0.5 kg C ha-1 isoprene + 1-penten-3-ol, 0.2 kg C ha-1 hexenals, and 0.1 kg C ha-1 hexenols. These emission rates are lower than those expected from Eucalyptus or Poplar plantations, which are other potential biofuel crops and have significantly higher VOC emissions.

  6. Zero VOC, Coal Tar Free Splash Zone Coating (SZC) (United States)


    Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus D 476 Classification for Dry Pigmentary Titanium Dioxide Pigments D 512 Test Methods for Chloride Ion...system options include high VOC content, Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP’s) and may also include hazardous pigment content. The coal tar epoxy also...Organic Compounds (VOC’s), Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP’s) of Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) and Xylene, and the pigment Chromium Oxide. Each coat of

  7. Ethnicity, housing and personal factors as determinants of VOC exposures (United States)

    D'Souza, Jennifer C.; Jia, Chunrong; Mukherjee, Bhrarmar; Batterman, Stuart

    Previous studies investigating effects of personal, demographic, housing and other factors on exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOC) have focused on mean or median exposures, and generally not the high exposures that are of great interest. This paper identifies determinants of personal VOC exposures on a quantile-specific basis using a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 1999-2000 VOC dataset was merged with personal, demographic, housing, smoking and occupation variables. Bivariate analyses tested for differences in geometric means and quantiles across levels of potential exposure determinants. Multivariate sample-weighted ordinary least-squares (OLS) and quantile regression (QR) models were then used to adjust for covariates. We identify a number of exposure determinants, most of which varied by exposure quantile. The most striking finding was the much higher exposures experienced by Hispanics and Blacks for aromatic VOCs (BTEX: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Exposure to gasoline, paints or glues, and having a machine-related occupation also were associated with extremely high BTEX and MTBE exposures. Additional determinants included the presence of attached garages and open windows, which affected exposures of BTEX (especially at lower quantiles) and MTBE (especially at higher quantiles). Smoking also increased BTEX exposures. DCB was associated with air freshener use, and PERC with dry-cleaned clothing. After adjusting for demographic, personal and housing factors, age and gender were not significant predictors of exposure. The use of QR in conjunction with OLS yields a more complete picture of exposure determinants, and identifies subpopulations and heterogeneous exposure groups in which some individuals experience very elevated exposures and which are not well represented by changes in the mean. The high exposures of Hispanics and Blacks are perplexing and disturbing

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content... Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter Pounds VOC per gallon a Pretreatment wash primers 780 6.5 Primers/primer surfacers 580 4.8 Primer sealers 550...

  9. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel (United States)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Merritt, Sylvia A.


    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot. Increasing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anes Kazagić


    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimization of coal combustion conditions to support selection a sustainable combustion technology and an optimal furnace and boiler design. A methodology for optimization of coal combustion conditions is proposed and demonstrated on the example of Bosnian coals. The properties of Bosnian coals vary widely from one coal basin to the next, even between coal mines within the same basin. Very high percentage of ash (particularly in Bosnian brown coal makes clear certain differences between Bosnian coal types and other world coal types, providing a strong argument for investigating specific problems related to the combustion of Bosnian coals, as well as ways to improve their combustion behaviour. In this work, options of the referent energy system (boiler with different process temperatures, corresponding to the different combustion technologies; pulverised fuel combustion (slag tap or dry bottom furnace and fluidized bed combustion, are under consideration for the coals tested. Sustainability assessment, based on calculation economic and environment indicators, in combination with common low cost planning method, is used for the optimization. The total costs in the lifetime are presented by General index of total costs, calculated on the base of agglomeration of basic economic indicators and the economic indicators derived from environmental indicators. So, proposed methodology is based on identification of those combustion technologies and combustion conditions for coals tested for which the total costs in lifetime of the system under consideration are lowest, provided that all environmental issues of the energy system is fulfilled during the lifetime. Inputs for calculation of the sustainability indicators are provided by the measurements on an experimental furnace with possibility of infinite variation of process temperature, supported by good praxis from the power plants which use the fuels tested and by thermal

  11. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China. (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m3; XB, 58.94 μg/m3) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m3; XB, 43.46 μg/m3), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Redox properties and VOC oxidation activity of Cu catalysts supported on Ce₁-xSmxOδ mixed oxides. (United States)

    Konsolakis, Michalis; Carabineiro, Sónia A C; Tavares, Pedro B; Figueiredo, José L


    A series of Cu catalysts supported on Ce1-xSmxOδ mixed oxides with different molar contents (x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1), was prepared by wet impregnation and evaluated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) abatement, employing ethyl acetate as model molecule. An extensive characterization study was undertaken in order to correlate the morphological, structural and surface properties of catalysts with their oxidation activity. The optimum performance was obtained with Cu/CeO2 catalyst, which offers complete conversion of ethyl acetate into CO2 at temperatures as low as 260°C. The catalytic performance of Cu/Ce1-xSmxOδ was interpreted on the basis of characterization studies, showing that incorporation of samarium in ceria has a detrimental effect on the textural characteristics and reducibility of catalysts. Moreover, high Sm/Ce atomic ratios (from 1 to 3) resulted in a more reduced copper species, compared to CeO2-rich supports, suggesting the inability of these species to take part in the redox mechanism of VOC abatement. Sm/Ce surface atomic ratios are always much higher than the nominal ratios indicating an impoverishment of catalyst surface in cerium oxide, which is detrimental for VOC activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  15. Combustion synthesis and structural characterization of Li–Ti mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    0.02 ≤ ≤ 0.1), were prepared by combustion method at lower temperatures compared to the conventional high temperature sintering for the first time at low temperatures, using PEG which acts as a new fuel and oxidant. XRD patterns reveal ...

  16. Microbial compositions and metabolic interactions in one- and two-phase partitioning airlift bioreactors treating a complex VOC mixture. (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Xu, Peilun; Xia, Yinfeng; Li, Wei; Li, Sujing; Wang, Xiangqian


    Engineered microbial ecosystems in bioscrubbers for the treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been complicated by complex VOC mixtures from various industrial emissions. Microbial associations with VOC removal performance of the bioscrubbers are still not definitive. Here, one- and two-phase partitioning airlift bioreactors were used for the treatment of a complex VOC mixture. Microbial characteristics in both bioreactors were uncovered by high-throughput metagenomics sequencing. Results showed that dominant species with specialized VOC biodegradability were mainly responsible for high removal efficiency of relative individual VOC. Competitive enzyme inhibitions among the VOC mixture were closely related to the deterioration of removal performance for individual VOC. Relative to the mass transfer resistance, the specialized biodegrading functions of microbial inoculations and enzymatic interactions among individual VOC biodegradation also must be carefully evaluated to optimize the treatment of complex VOC mixtures in bioreactors.

  17. Experiments in the EMRP project KEY-VOCs: Adsorption/desorption effects of VOCs in different tubing materials and preparation and analysis of a zero gas (United States)

    Englert, Jennifer; Claude, Anja; Kubistin, Dagmar; Tensing, Erasmus; Michl, Katja; Plass-Duelmer, Christian


    Atmospheric chemistry and composition are influenced by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources. Due to their toxicity and their crucial role in ozone and aerosol formation VOCs impact air quality and climate change and high quality observations are demanded. The European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project KEY-VOCs has targeted the improvement of VOC measurement capabilities with the focus on VOCs relevant for indoor air as well as for air quality and climate monitoring programmes. One major uncertainty is the influence of surface effects of the measurement devices. By developing a test system the adsorption/desorption effects of certain VOCs can be systematically examined. Different tubing materials e.g. stainless steel and PFA were analysed with the oxygenated VOC methanol and results of these experiments will be presented. In air quality monitoring very low levels of VOCs have to be measured. Purified air or nitrogen is widely used as a zero gas to characterize measurement systems and procedures as well as for instrument calibration. A high quality zero gas is an important contributor to the quality of the measurements and generally achieved by using state-of-the-art purification technologies. The efficiency of several air purifiers was assessed and the results have been analysed.

  18. Influence of Coal Quality on Combustion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim


    mixing pattern on NO formation under these conditions. Emissions from the opposed fired plant with all combustion air introduced through the burners could only be qualitatively reproduced by the pilot furnace. Under single stage conditions the test rig provided higher NO levels. Carbon in ash levels did...... not show any correlation between the coals and the furnaces. An engineering, mathematical model has been developed describing radiation heat transfer and coal combustion in full scale furnaces. The model has been validated against measured temperatures and the amount of carbon in fly ash. The model...... was well able to predict average temperature and carbon in ash levels, but failed to predict the influence of coal quality on both temperature and carbon in ash. A brief parametric study has been performed on important model parameters....

  19. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up. (United States)

    Rebollar-Perez, Georgette; Carretier, Emilie; Lesage, Nicolas; Moulin, Philippe


    Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (toluene-propylene-butadiene) from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS)/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ~21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10-4 m². Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID). The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry.

  20. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Moulin


    Full Text Available Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs (toluene-propylene-butadiene from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ~21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10−4 m². Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID. The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry.

  1. Volatile organic compound (VOC) determination in working atmospheres; Determinacion de compuestos organicos volatiles (VOC) en ambiente laboral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass A, Georgina; Panama T, Luz A; Corrales C, Deyanira [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    The present work describes, in a synthesized way, the implementation and application of procedures based on the normativity related to the subject of the volatile organic compounds (Volatile Organic Compounds VOC), that allow to sample, quantify and evaluate the present contamination in the working atmosphere of a refinery due to the fugitive emissions of VOC and other substances. In accordance with the corresponding normativity, more than 189 organic compounds denominated dangerous air polluting agents (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP) can be found in a working atmosphere, but they are the 11 main HAP that can be found in a refinery. In the present article the work made for the sampling and quantification of 5 of the 11 dangerous polluting agents of the air: benzene, toluene, xylene, iso-octane and naphthalene. [Spanish] El presente trabajo describe, de manera sintetizada, la implementacion y aplicacion de procedimientos basados en la normatividad relacionada al tema de los compuestos organicos volatiles (Volatil Organic Compounds, VOC), que permiten muestrear, cuantificar y evaluar la contaminacion presente en el ambiente laboral de una refineria debido a las emisiones fugitivas de VOC y otras sustancias. De acuerdo con la normatividad correspondiente, mas de 189 compuestos organicos denominados contaminantes peligrosos del aire (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP), pueden ser encontrados en un ambiente laboral, pero son 11 los principales HAP que pueden ser hallados en una refineria. En el presente articulo se informa el trabajo realizado para el muestreo y cuantificacion de 5 de los 11 contaminantes peligrosos del aire: benceno, tolueno, xileno, iso-octano y naftaleno.

  2. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-chung Chang


    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  3. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P. [and others


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  4. Durable Feedback Control System for Small Scale Wood Chip Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Bjoerkqvist, T.; Lautala, P. (Tampere Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Automation Science and Engineering, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)). E-mail:


    The purpose is to control wood chip combustion in an inexpensive and durable way. A control concept in order to reduce the effect of fluctuation of the fuel feed is introduced. The concept is based on temperature and lambda measurements. The main task of the control system is to set the fuel feed at a desired level after a change in the combustion conditions. Additionally, temporary fluctuations of the degree of filling of feeding screw are compensated. Test results of a 80 kW and a 200 kW commercial wood chip fired systems are introduced. The process experiments indicate that the high level control system is able to adapt to varying combustion conditions and to maintain low emission levels. Furthermore, passive means that can be exploited to stabilize the combustion are discussed. As the control concept is not dependent on the design of the combustion system, the concept is adaptable to present systems

  5. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage


    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  6. Modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen


    Quite some studies have been conducted in order to implement oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycle in conventional utility boilers as an effective effort of carbon capture and storage. However, combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is significantly different from conventional air-fuel firing......, among which radiative heat transfer under oxy-fuel conditions is one of the fundamental issues. This paper demonstrates the nongray-gas effects in modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes. Oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas in a 609MW utility boiler is numerically studied, in which...... calculation of the oxy-fuel WSGGM remarkably over-predicts the radiative heat transfer to the furnace walls and under-predicts the gas temperature at the furnace exit plane, which also result in a higher incomplete combustion in the gray calculation. Moreover, the gray and non-gray calculations of the same...

  7. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  8. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David


    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  9. Combustive management of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  10. Internal combustion engine (United States)

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.


    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  11. Fluidised Bed Combustion: A Novel Technology for the Combustion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A firing technology, which is increasingly becoming popular for the combustion of fuels with difficult combustion properties, is fluidised bed combustion (FBC). In the current paper, the special features of FBC have been reviewed and their advantages as compared to conventional firing systems highlighted. This has been ...

  12. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani


    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  13. Scramjet Combustion Processes (United States)


    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...entrance to the combustion duct, where the production of the chemical radicals, which are a first stage in Scramjet Combustion Processes RTO-EN-AVT-185...314KM) Nosecone Eject (47SEC,73KM,M7.7) Orion Burnout (39SEC,56KM,M7.1) Orion Ignition (12SEC,9.4KM,M3.2) Terrier Ignition (0SEC,0KM,M0) Stage

  14. Radiative Augmented Combustion. (United States)


    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  15. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  16. Mesoporous Silica Based Gold Catalysts: Novel Synthesis and Application in Catalytic Oxidation of CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta


    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles, particularly with the particle size of 2–5 nm, have attracted increasing research attention during the past decades due to their surprisingly high activity in CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs oxidation at low temperatures. In particular, CO oxidation below room temperature has been extensively studied on gold nanoparticles supported on several oxides (TiO2, Fe2O3, CeO2, etc.. Recently, mesoporous silica materials (such as SBA-15, MCM-41, MCM-48 and HMS possessing ordered channel structures and suitable pore diameters, large internal surface areas, thermal stabilities and excellent mechanical properties, have been investigated as suitable hosts for gold nanoparticles. In this review we highlight the development of novel mesoporous silica based gold catalysts based on examples, mostly from recently reported results. Several synthesis methods are described herein. In detail we report: the modification of silica with organic functional groups; the one-pot synthesis with the incorporation of both gold and coupling agent containing functionality for the synthesis of mesoporous silica; the use of cationic gold complexes; the synthesis of silica in the presence of gold colloids or the dispersion of gold colloids protected by ligands or polymers onto silica; the modification of silica by other metal oxides; other conventional preparation methods to form mesoporous silica based gold catalysts. The gold based catalysts prepared as such demonstrate good potential for use in oxidation of CO and VOCs at low temperatures. From the wide family of VOCs, the oxidation of methanol and dimethyldisulfide has been addressed in the present review.

  17. Exchange of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) at the Atmosphere-Soil Interface under Ambient Conditions: a Coated-Wall Flow Tube Study (United States)

    Su, H.; Li, G.; Kuhn, U.; Meusel, H.; Poeschl, U.; Shao, M.; Cheng, Y.


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a large fraction of organic carbon in the atmosphere and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Deep insight into the VOCs-related tropospheric chemistry requires a profound understanding of sources and sinks of different VOCs species. Multiphase processes on the surface of soil and airborne soil-derived particles have been suggested as an important mechanism for the production/removal of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. In this work, we investigated the exchange of 13 species of VOCs at the atmosphere-soil interface using a coated-wall flow tube system coupled to a PTR-MS, under ambient conditions at an urban background site in Beijing. The results show that most of the species tend to be absorbed/adsorbed and further retained or converted into other products by soil (net influx into soil) while formic acid can most probably be produced by soil either due to chemical transformation of other absorbed/adsorbed species or emission from soil itself (net efflux from soil). For the species showing noticeable uptake, their uptake coefficients display a gradually decrease along the measurement time, suggesting a progressive saturation of the soil surface. The uptake of several species (e.g., methanol, acetic acid and formaldehyde), however, don't exhibit marked dependence on time. Correlation studies show a dependence of uptake on temperature or relative humidity for several species: the uptake of methanol, acetic acid and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) decreases with increasing temperature; and the uptake of isoprene, acetaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone/methacrolein (MVK+MACR) increases with increasing relative humidity. Based on our results, mineral soil serves as a sink rather than a source for most VOC species.

  18. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  19. Comparative assessments of VOC emission rates and associated health risks from wastewater treatment processes. (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Ben; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Yang, Jun-Chen; Zhao, Qing-Liang


    With the growing concern regarding emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the relationship between the VOC emission rates and the associated public health risks has been rarely discussed. The objective of this study was to examine and compare the VOC emission rates and cancer and non-cancer risks by inhalation intake, using a municipal WWTP in China as an example, with respect to the effects of treatment technologies, VOC species, and seasonal variation. Given the treatment technology considered, the emission rates of VOCs in this study were estimated by means of mass balance or calculated on the molecular level. From the viewpoints of both emission rates and cancer and non-cancer risks, sedimentation was the treatment technology with the highest health risks to the workers. Slightly lower VOC emission rates and health risks than those for sedimentation were observed in anaerobic treatment. Although the aeration significantly enhanced the VOC emission rates in the aerobic treatment process, the associated health risks were limited due to the low VOC concentrations in the gas phase, which were likely attributed to the strong mixing and dilution with fresh air by aeration. Amongst the VOCs investigated, benzene was the VOC with both a relatively high emission rate and health risk, while trichloroethylene possessed a high emission rate but the lowest health risk. Without strong interfacial aeration and turbulence between the water and atmosphere, the effects of treatment technology and seasonal variation on the health risks might be connected to the VOC emission rates, while the effect of VOC species depended considerably on the respective cancer slope factors and reference concentrations; the employment of aeration provided a different conclusion in which the emission rates were enhanced without a significant increase in the related cancer risks. These findings can provide insight into future health risk management and

  20. Determinants of personal, indoor and outdoor VOC concentrations: an analysis of the RIOPA data. (United States)

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart


    Community and environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been associated with a number of emission sources and activities, e.g., environmental tobacco smoke and pumping gasoline. Such factors have been identified from mostly small studies with relatively limited information regarding influences on VOC levels. This study uses data from the Relationship of Indoor Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study to investigate environmental, individual and social determinants of VOC concentrations. RIOPA included outdoor, indoor and personal measurements of 18 VOCs from 310 non-smoking households and adults in three cities and two seasons, and collected a wide range of information pertaining to participants, family members, households, and neighborhoods. Exposure determinants were identified using stepwise regressions and linear mixed-effect models. Most VOC exposure (66 to 78% of the total exposure, depending on VOC) occurred indoors, and outdoor VOC sources accounted for 5 (d-limonene) to 81% (carbon tetrachloride) of the total exposure. Personal exposure and indoor measurements had similar determinants, which depended on the VOC. Gasoline-related VOCs (e.g., benzene, methyl tertiary butyl ether) were associated with city, residences with attached garages, self-pumping of gas, wind speed, and house air exchange rate (AER). Odorant and cleaning-related VOCs (e.g., 1,4-dichlorobenzene and chloroform) also were associated with city and AER, and with house size and family members showering. Dry-cleaning and industry-related VOCs (e.g., tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene) were associated with city, residence water supply type, and dry-cleaner visits. These and other relationships were significant, explained from 10 to 40% of the variation, and are consistent with known emission sources and the literature. Outdoor concentrations had only two common determinants: city and wind speed. Overall, personal exposure was dominated by the home setting, although a

  1. Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs Measured in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Qiang Zhou


    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD from July 2006 to February 2010. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted (eight samples per day with a 3 hour interval during May 2009. The comparison of ambient VOCs collected in different regions of Shanghai shows that the concentrations are slightly higher in the busy commercial area (28.9 ppbv at Xujiaui than in the urban administrative area (24.3 ppbv at Pudong. However, during the intensive measurement period, the concentrations in the large steel industrial area (28.7 ppbv at Baoshan were much higher than in the urban administrative area (18 ppbv at Pudong, especially for alkanes, alkenes, and toluene. The seasonal variations of ambient VOC concentrations measured at the Xujiahui sampling site indicate that the VOC concentrations are significantly affected by meteorological conditions (such as wind direction and precipitation. In addition, although alkanes are the most abundant VOCs at the Xujiahui measurement site, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP are aromatics, accounting for 57% of the total OFP. The diurnal variations of VOC concentrations show that VOC concentrations are higher on weekdays than in weekends at the Xujiahui sampling site, suggesting that traffic condition and human activities have important impacts on VOC emissions in Shanghai. The evidence also shows that the major sources of isoprene are mainly resulted from gasoline evaporation at a particular time (06:00–09:00 in the busy commercial area. The results gained from this study provide useful information for better understanding the characteristics of ambient VOCs and the sources of VOCs in Shanghai.

  2. Status and Needs Research for On-line Monitoring of VOCs Emissions from Stationary Sources (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Zhao, Jinbao; Yang, Kai


    Based on atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution control requirements during the twelfth-five year plan and the current status of monitoring and management at home and abroad, instrumental architecture and technical characteristics of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for VOCs emission from stationary sources are investigated and researched. Technological development needs of VOCs emission on-line monitoring techniques for stationary sources in china are proposed from the system sampling pretreatment technology and analytical measurement techniques.

  3. Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader


    This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

  4. Novel approaches in advanced combustion characterization of fuels for advanced pressurized combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J. [VTT Energy (Finland); Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    This project is a part of the EU Joule 2 (extension) programme. The objective of the research of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) is to produce experimental results of the effects of pressure and other important parameters on the combustion of pulverized coals and their char derivates. The results can be utilized in modelling of pressurized combustion and in planning pilot-scale reactors. The coals to be studied are Polish hvb coal, French lignite (Gardanne), German anthracite (Niederberg) and German (Goettelbom) hvb coal. The samples are combusted in an electrically heated, pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR), where the experimental conditions are controlled with a high precision. The particle size of the fuel can vary between 100 and 300 {mu}m. The studied things are combustion rates, temperatures and sizes of burning single coal and char particles. The latter measurements are performed with a method developed by Tampere University of Technology, Finland. In some of the experiments, mass loss and elemental composition of the char residue are studied in more details as the function of time to find out the combustion mechanism. Combustion rate of pulverized (140-180 {mu}m) Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite were measured and compared with the data obtained earlier with Polish hvb coal at various pressures, gas temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in the second working period. In addition, particle temperatures were measured with anthracite. The experimental results were treated with multivariable partial least squares (PLS) method to find regression equation between the measured things and the experimental variables. (author)

  5. Secondary organic aerosol formation through fog processing of VOCs (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Hutchings, J. W.


    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) have been determined in highly concentrated amounts (>1 ug/L) in intercepted clouds in northern Arizona (USA). These VOCs are found in concentrations much higher than predicted by partitioning alone. The reactivity of BTEX in the fog/cloud aqueous phase was investigated through laboratory studies. BTEX species showed fast degradation in the aqueous phase in the presence of peroxides and light. Observed half-lives ranged from three and six hours, substantially shorter than the respective gas phase half-lives (several days). The observed reaction rates were on the order of 1 ppb/min but decreased substantially with increasing concentrations of organic matter (TOC). The products of BTEX oxidation reactions were analyzed using HPLC-UV and LCMS. The first generation of products identified included phenol and cresols which correspond to the hydroxyl-addition reaction to benzene and toluene. Upon investigating of multi-generational products, smaller, less volatile species are predominant although a large variety of products is found. Most reaction products have substantially lower vapor pressure and will remain in the particle phase upon droplet evaporation. The SOA generation potential of cloud and fog processing of BTEX was evaluated using simple calculations and showed that in ideal situations these reactions could add up to 9% of the ambient aerosol mass. In more conservative scenarios, the contribution of the processing of BTEX was around 1% of ambient aerosol concentrations. Overall, cloud processing of VOC has the potential to contribute to the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the contribution will depend upon many factors such as the irradiation, organic matter content in the droplets and droplet lifetime.

  6. Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino

    Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and α-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in

  7. Vehicular Emission Ratios of VOCs in a Megacity Impacted by Extensive Ethanol Use: Results of Ambient Measurements in São Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Brito, Joel; Wurm, Florian; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana Maria; de Assunção, João Vicente; Godoy, José Marcus; Artaxo, Paulo


    The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) is a megacity with 20 million people and over 8 million vehicles. Over the past decade a large increase in biofuel usage, more notably ethanol by light-duty vehicles, has made Brazil, and in particular São Paulo, a unique case worldwide. This study presents the first assessment of emission ratios of a selected group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) relative to carbon monoxide (CO) under ambient conditions. The VOCs studied here include aromatics such as benzene (1.03 pptv/ppbv CO), toluene (3.10 pptv/ppbv CO) and Oxygenated VOCs such as methanol (5.39 pptv/ppbv CO), acetaldehyde (3.93 pptv/ppbv CO), acetone (3.59 pptv/ppbv CO), methyl ethyl ketone (1.42 pptv/ppbv CO), and others. Despite the specificity of the fuel composition, emission ratios were in surprisingly close agreement with other megacities in Europe or in North America. Such results include species whose emission factors have been previously reported to decline (e.g., benzene) or increase (e.g., acetaldehyde) with ethanol usage. Furthermore, diurnal profiles and temperature analysis aid separating the primary anthropogenic, secondary or biogenic components of the species studied here. This study shows that a significant fraction of ethanol in gasoline blends does not result in a well-defined trend in VOC emission profile and certainly motivates further studies.

  8. High temperature thermoelectric properties of Ca3Co4O9+δ by auto-combustion synthesis and spark plasma sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, NingYu; Holgate, Tim; Van Nong, Ngo


    A rapid method for the synthesis of Ca3Co4O9+δpowder is introduced. The procedure is a modification of the conventional citric-nitrate sol–gelmethod where an auto-combustion process is initiated by a controlled thermal oxidation–reduction reaction. The resulting powders inherit theadvantages...... of a wet chemical synthesis, such as morphological and compositional homogeneity, and fine, well-defined particle sizes comingfrom the controlled nature of the auto-combustion. Optimized spark plasma sintering (SPS) processing conditions were determined and used tofabricate dense and highly c-axis oriented...

  9. VoCS : Sistema de almacenamiento voluntario en la nube


    Schiavón Raineri, Ignacio Nicolás


    La computación en la nube responde a las necesidades del aumento de dispositivos conectados a Internet y el creciente volumen de datos manejados, ofreciendo acceso ubicuo y transparente a la información de forma segura. Esto ha tenido como consecuencia la apertura del mercado, ofreciendo muchas aplicaciones basadas en la nube como SkyDrive, Google Drive o Dropbox. VoCS (Volunteer Cloud Storage) es un sistema de almacenamiento voluntario en la nube de código abierto y seguro, que pretende ofre...

  10. Chemical Kinetic Models for HCCI and Diesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Sarathy, S M


    Predictive engine simulation models are needed to make rapid progress towards DOE's goals of increasing combustion engine efficiency and reducing pollutant emissions. These engine simulation models require chemical kinetic submodels to allow the prediction of the effect of fuel composition on engine performance and emissions. Chemical kinetic models for conventional and next-generation transportation fuels need to be developed so that engine simulation tools can predict fuel effects. The objectives are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for diesel and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate fuel models to represent real fuels and model low temperature combustion strategies in HCCI and diesel engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on low temperature combustion modes of advanced combustion engines.

  11. Implementation of VOC source reduction practices in a manufactured house and in school classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Apte, M.G.; Shendell, D.G.; Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.E.R.


    Detailed studies of a new manufactured house and four new industrialized relocatable school classrooms were conducted to determine the emission sources of formaldehyde and other VOCs and to identify and implement source reduction practices. Procedures were developed to generate VOC emission factors that allowed reasonably accurate predictions of indoor air VOC concentrations. Based on the identified sources of formaldehyde and other aldehydes, practices were developed to reduce the concentrations of these compounds in new house construction. An alternate ceiling panel reduced formaldehyde concentrations in the classrooms. Overall, the classrooms had relatively low VOC concentrations.

  12. Plant leaves as indoor air passive samplers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (United States)

    Wetzel, Todd A; Doucette, William J


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) enter indoor environments through internal and external sources. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs vary greatly but are generally higher than outdoors. Plants have been promoted as indoor air purifiers for decades, but reports of their effectiveness differ. However, while air-purifying applications may be questionable, the waxy cuticle coating on leaves may provide a simple, cost-effective approach to sampling indoor air for VOCs. To investigate the potential use of plants as indoor air VOC samplers, a static headspace approach was used to examine the relationship between leaf and air concentrations, leaf lipid contents and octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) for six VOCs and four plant species. The relationship between leaf and air concentrations was further examined in an actual residence after the introduction of several chlorinated VOC emission sources. Leaf-air concentration factors (LACFs), calculated from linear regressions of the laboratory headspace data, were found to increase as the solvent extractable leaf lipid content and Koa value of the VOC increased. In the studies conducted in the residence, leaf concentrations paralleled the changing air concentrations, indicating a relatively rapid air to leaf VOC exchange. Overall, the data from the laboratory and residential studies illustrate the potential for plant leaves to be used as cost effective, real-time indoor air VOC samplers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram


    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  14. VOC-Induced Flexing of Single and Multilayer Polyethylene Films As Gas Sensors. (United States)

    Alipour, Nazanin; Andersson, Richard L; Olsson, Richard T; Gedde, Ulf W; Hedenqvist, Mikael S


    The differential swelling and bending of multilayer polymeric films due to the dissimilar uptake of volatile organic compounds (VOCs; n-hexane, limonene) in the different layers was studied. Motions of thin polyethylene films triggered by the penetrant were investigated to learn more about how their deformation is related to VOC absorption. Single layers of metallocene or low-density polyethylene, and multilayers (2-288 layers) of these in alternating positions were considered. Single-, 24-, and 288-layer films displayed no motion when uniformly subjected to VOCs, but they could display simple curving modes when only one side of the film was wetted with a liquid VOC. Two-layer films displayed simple bending when uniformly subjected to VOCs due to the different swelling in the two layers, but when the VOC was applied to only one side of the film, more complex modes of motion as well as dynamic oscillations were observed (e.g., constant amplitude wagging at 2 Hz for ca. 50 s until all the VOC had evaporated). Diffusion modeling was used to study the transport behavior of VOCs inside the films and the different bending modes. Finally a prototype VOC sensor was developed, where the reproducible curving of the two-layer film was calibrated with n-hexane. The sensor is simple, cost-efficient, and nondestructive and requires no electricity.

  15. Basic Aerodynamics of Combustion Chambers, (United States)


    n layer, an- its rhti re ai ei ar td . te II- to vortical wraXes which are also cplled "vo-tical rolls." r, and r,~=the er-temal 142 GaI M6.12 *%AAtM...8217-2XCC, UMn Th-~ t tr’.~t in ain~zttfror tecit vr’ 0 7 fij74,it ~r ~ h-t >2 h’’tof the jeb ,;p ~ ’ - ~~ *~~~k -. A--w.- - -- Chaptler 8 Tur~l.flftece Jet...G, is very small (the straight line AD), then, it is only possible to have combustion when one has temperature TD ; no other condition will do. If one

  16. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.


    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  17. Nonlinear Combustion Instability Prediction (United States)

    Flandro, Gary


    The liquid rocket engine stability prediction software (LCI) predicts combustion stability of systems using LOX-LH2 propellants. Both longitudinal and transverse mode stability characteristics are calculated. This software has the unique feature of being able to predict system limit amplitude.

  18. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research (United States)


    engine). As noted above in USAF scramjet flight scenarios , high vehicle heat loads will ensure that the fuel (initially a liquid hydrocarbon such as a... cinema stereoscopic PIV system for the measurement of micro- and meso-scale turbulent premixed flame dynamics,” Paper B13, 5th US Combustion

  19. Development, validation and application of a process for the generation of long-term stable VOC gas mixtures; Entwicklung, Validierung und Anwendung eines Verfahrens zur Erzeugung langzeitstabiler VOC-Gasgemische

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Matthias


    The development as well as the validation of a gas mixing system (GMS) that enables dynamic and traceable production of stable long-term VOC gas mixtures within the range between a few {mu}g/m{sup 3} and a few 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, is discussed. In this method pure liquid substances that are filled into stainless steel bottles are kept separately at a constant temperature, evaporated according to their vapour pressure and removed by a small inert gas flow. They are finally united in a gas mixing chamber. The carrier gas must be as small as possible so that the quasi-equilibrium between the gas space and the liquid phase in the substance bottles will not be disturbed. The carrier gas is assumed to be saturated with substance gas due to a long residence time in the bottles and a fast phase transition. Any concentration level of the gas mixture can be generated by a combination of vaporization temperature, carrier and dilution gas flows. With the GMS a mixture of 25 VOCs was prepared. For 16 compounds stable and reproducible gas concentrations were realized. Due to not completely removed leakage of some substance bottles and the tubing respectively, variation of the concentration of the remaining compounds was found. A sink effect as another reason for this variation could be expelled and the chemical stability of the vaporized substances proved with the exception of some aldehydes. The procedure was successfully applied in a round robin test and a material test. In the latter adsorption of VOCs on building products was scrutinized. In this way the applicability of the GMS could be shown. (orig.)

  20. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  1. Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion Experiment-2 (United States)

    Colantonio, Renato O.


    A major portion of the energy produced in the world today comes from the burning of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in the form of droplets. Understanding the fundamental physical processes involved in droplet combustion is not only important in energy production but also in propulsion, in the mitigation of combustion-generated pollution, and in the control of the fire hazards associated with handling liquid combustibles. Microgravity makes spherically symmetric combustion possible, allowing investigators to easily validate their droplet models without the complicating effects of gravity. The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC-2) investigation was conducted in the Microgravity Glovebox facility of the shuttles' Spacelab during the reflight of the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL- 1R) on STS-94 in July 1997. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and duo droplets with and without forced air convection. FSDC-2 is sponsored by the NASA Lewis Research Center, whose researchers are working in cooperation with several investigators from industry and academia. The rate at which a droplet burns is important in many commercial applications. The classical theory of droplet burning assumes that, for an isolated, spherically symmetric, single-fuel droplet, the gas-phase combustion processes are much faster than the droplet surface regression rate and that the liquid phase is at a uniform temperature equal to the boiling point. Recent, more advanced models predict that both the liquid and gas phases are unsteady during a substantial portion of the droplet's burning history, thus affecting the instantaneous and average burning rates, and that flame radiation is a dominant mechanism that can extinguish flames in a microgravity environment. FSDC-2 has provided well-defined, symmetric droplet burning data including radiative emissions to validate these theoretical

  2. Corrosion performance of materials for advanced combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.


    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high-temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operating at more elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitates development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. This report characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over the wide temperature range that is of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials (alumina, Hexoloy, SiC/SiC, SiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, ZIRCONIA, INCONEL 677 and 617) with potential for application in these systems.

  3. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries


    Full Text Available This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a, we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004 for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA. That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM

  4. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas (United States)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.


    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  5. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter


    Most fossil fuels contain sulphur and also biofuels and household waste have a sulphur content. As a consequence sulphur species will often be present in combustion processes. In this paper the fate and influence of fuel sulphur species in combustion will be treated. First a description...... of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...

  6. Low emission internal combustion engine (United States)

    Karaba, Albert M.


    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  7. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome. (United States)

    Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali


    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.