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Sample records for temperature technical note

  1. Technical Note: Using DEG CPCs at upper tropospheric temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, D; Nieminen, T; Duplissy, J; Ehrhart, S; Almeida, J; Rondo, L; Franchin, A; Kreissl, F; Manninen, H E; Kulmala, M; Curtius, J; Petäjä, T

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, several Condensation Particle Counters (CPC) capable of measuring in the sub-3 nm size range have been developed. Here we study the performance of Diethylene glycol (DEG) based CPCs at different temperatures during Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) measurements at CERN. The data shown here is the first set of verification measurements for sub-3 nm CPCs under upper tropospheric temperatures using atmospherically relevant aerosol particles. To put the results in perspective we calibrated the DEG-CPC at room temperature, resulting in a cut-off diameter of 1.4 nm. All diameters refer to mobility equivalent diameters in this manuscript. At upper tropospheric temperatures between −25 °C and −65 °C, we found cut-off sizes in the range of 2.5 and 2.8 nm. Due to low number concentration after size classification, the cut-off diameters have a high uncertainty (±0.3 nm) associated with them. Operating two laminar flow DEG CPCs with different cut-off sizes together with other aeroso...

  2. Technical Note: Bias correcting climate model simulated daily temperature extremes with quantile mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thrasher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When applying a quantile mapping-based bias correction to daily temperature extremes simulated by a global climate model (GCM, the transformed values of maximum and minimum temperatures are changed, and the diurnal temperature range (DTR can become physically unrealistic. While causes are not thoroughly explored, there is a strong relationship between GCM biases in snow albedo feedback during snowmelt and bias correction resulting in unrealistic DTR values. We propose a technique to bias correct DTR, based on comparing observations and GCM historic simulations, and combine that with either bias correcting daily maximum temperatures and calculating daily minimum temperatures or vice versa. By basing the bias correction on a base period of 1961–1980 and validating it during a test period of 1981–1999, we show that bias correcting DTR and maximum daily temperature can produce more accurate estimations of daily temperature extremes while avoiding the pathological cases of unrealistic DTR values.

  3. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  4. Technical note: Assessment of an alternative technique for measuring body temperature in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, A; McGilvray, W; Rakhshandeh, A R; Rakhshandeh, A

    2017-07-01

    Core body temperature (CBT) is one of the main vital signs that is used to evaluate the health status of pigs. The most common and feasible method for assessing CBT in pigs is rectal temperature (RT). Obtaining RT is stressful for animals, may generate inaccurate results, and has the risk of spreading disease. Infrared imaging (IR) thermography of the body of pigs may be a safer and less stressful alternative to RT. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of using IR as an alternative for monitoring CBT in pigs. Twenty-three gilts (30.5 ± 5.62 kg BW) were housed in metabolism crates in an environmentally controlled facility and fed an 860 g/d grower diet. After 4 d of adaptation, the febrile response was induced by intramuscular injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25 µg/kg BW). Each pig's body temperature was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 h after LPS challenge using the following 3 methods: 1) RT, 2) IR of the eye and ear, and 3) CBT using an orally administered digital temperature sensor. Statistical analysis was performed in a completely randomized design in SAS using Mixed, Correlation, and Regression procedures. Relative to time 0 h, LPS increased the eye temperature, CBT, and RT by 0.92, 1.32, and 1.48°C, respectively ( alternative to RT measurements for monitoring CBT in swine.

  5. submitter Technical Note: Using DEG-CPCs at upper tropospheric temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, D; Nieminen, T; Duplissy, J; Ehrhart, S; Almeida, J; Rondo, L; Franchin, A; Kreissl, F; Bianchi, F; Manninen, H E; Kulmala, M; Curtius, J; Petäjä, T

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, several condensation particle counters (CPCs) capable of measuring in the sub-3 nm size range have been developed. Here we study the performance of CPCs based on diethylene glycol (DEG) at different temperatures during Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) measurements at CERN. The data shown here are the first set of verification measurements for sub-3 nm CPCs under upper tropospheric temperatures using atmospherically relevant aerosol particles. To put the results in perspective we calibrated the DEG-CPC at room temperature, resulting in a cut-off diameter of 1.4 nm. All diameters refer to mobility equivalent diameters in this paper. At upper tropospheric temperatures ranging from 246.15 K to 207.15 K, we found cut-off sizes relative to a particle size magnifier in the range of 2.5 to 2.8 nm. Due to low number concentration after size classification, the cut-off diameters have a high uncertainty (±0.3 nm) associated with them. Operating two laminar flow DEG-CPCs with different c...

  6. TECHNICAL NOTE: Temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system utilizing a magneto-rheological fan clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, Young-Gee; Lee, Soojin

    2010-10-01

    In this note, the temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system is undertaken using a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid-based fan clutch (MR fan clutch in short). In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate size of controllable fan clutch using an MR fluid is firstly devised by considering the design parameters of a conventional fan clutch to reflect the practical application. Then, the principal design parameters of the MR fan clutch such as the length of the disc are optimally determined through finite element analysis. The drum-type MR fan clutch is manufactured and its time response to input current is experimentally evaluated. A robust sliding mode controller is then formulated by treating the time constant of the fan clutch system as an uncertain parameter. After identifying the relationship between angular velocity of the MR fan clutch and the temperature of the cooling system, the sliding mode controller is experimentally realized for the cooling system. It has been clearly demonstrated that the proposed sliding mode controller follows well the desired temperature with a small regulating error. It is expected from this feasibility work that the proposed control system associated with an MR fan clutch can be effectively utilized for the automotive cooling system to improve the fuel efficiency.

  7. Technical Note: How accurate can stalagmite formation temperatures be determined using vapour bubble radius measurements in fluid inclusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Spadin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stalagmites are natural archives containing detailed information on continental climate variability of the past. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures allow determination of stalagmite formation temperatures by measuring the radius of stable laser-induced vapour bubbles inside the inclusions. A reliable method for precisely measuring the radius of vapour bubbles is presented. The method is applied to stalagmite samples for which the formation temperature is known. An assessment of the bubble radius measurement accuracy and how this error influences the uncertainty in determining the formation temperature is provided. We demonstrate that the nominal homogenisation temperature of a single inclusion can be determined with an accuracy of ±0.25 °C, if the volume of the inclusion is larger than 105 μm3. With this method, we could measure in a proof-of-principle investigation that the formation temperature of 10–20 yr old inclusions in a stalagmite taken from the Milandre cave is 9.87 ± 0.80 °C, while the mean annual surface temperature, that in the case of the Milandre cave correlates well with the cave temperature, was 9.6 ± 0.15 °C, calculated from actual measurements at that time, showing a very good agreement. Formation temperatures of inclusions formed during the last 450 yr are found in a temperature range between 8.4 and 9.6 °C, which corresponds to the calculated average surface temperature. Paleotemperatures can thus be determined within ±1.0 °C.

  8. Technical Note: How accurate can stalagmite formation temperatures be determined using vapour bubble radius measurements in fluid inclusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spadin, F.; Marti, Dominik; Hidalgo-Staub, R.

    2015-01-01

    -induced vapour bubbles inside the inclusions. A reliable method for precisely measuring the radius of vapour bubbles is presented. The method is applied to stalagmite samples for which the formation temperature is known. An assessment of the bubble radius measurement accuracy and how this error influences......Stalagmites are natural archives containing detailed information on continental climate variability of the past. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures allow determination of stalagmite formation temperatures by measuring the radius of stable laser...... the uncertainty in determining the formation temperature is provided. We demonstrate that the nominal homogenisation temperature of a single inclusion can be determined with an accuracy of ±0.25 ◦C, if the volume of the inclusion is larger than 105 µm3 . With this method, we could measure in a proof...

  9. Technical Note: Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation of carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bockmon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic changes on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 at values between approximately 500 and 1400 μatm and O2 at values from 80 to 240 μmol kg−1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10–17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, the system has achieved variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration of less than 3.5 μmol kg−1. Longer experiments, over a month in duration, have been completed with control to better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg−1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  10. Technical Note: Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation of carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockmon, E. E.; Frieder, C. A.; Navarro, M. O.; White-Kershek, L. A.; Dickson, A. G.

    2013-09-01

    As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic changes on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 at values between approximately 500 and 1400 μatm and O2 at values from 80 to 240 μmol kg-1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10-17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, the system has achieved variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration of less than 3.5 μmol kg-1. Longer experiments, over a month in duration, have been completed with control to better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg-1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  11. Bibliography - Technical Reports, Special Reports, and Technical Notes, FY 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    AD-A113 798 NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SAN D--ETC F/6 5/9 BIBLIOGRAPHY - TECHNICAL REPORTS. SPECIAL REPORTS. AND TECHNICA-ETC( U ...TH4IS PAGE ( MOM , Dole gnto,.d) FOREWORD This report lists all technical reports, special reports, and technical notes that were published by this Center...TR 81-16. July 1981. J. I. Borack and K. W. Gay . (AD-A102 910) A new computerized management system, the structured accession planning (STRAP) system

  12. Germany; Technical Note on Banking Sector Structure

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This Technical Note focuses on banking sector structure in Germany. Germany’s banking system comprises three “pillars†—private commercial banks, public sector banks, and cooperative banks—distinguished by the ownership structure and business orientation. The German banking system includes a large number of institutions in both absolute and relative terms. This note describes the evolution of Germany’s three-pillar banking system. It analyzes capitalization, credit and the intermed...

  13. Technical note: Development of a gradient tube method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note: Development of a gradient tube method for examining microbial population structures in floating sulphur biofilms. ... parameters within the system. Keywords: gradient tube method, floating biofilms, floating sulphur biofilms, microbial ecology, sulphur biotechnology, acid mine drainage wastewaters ...

  14. Technical Note: DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTOBIOREACTOR FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... In view of the technical and biological limitations of open pond systems, a study was conducted to develop a cost-effective experimental ... from food crops such as maize, soybean and vegetable oils whose competition with edible .... Biological Conservation, 141: 2008,. 2450-2460. 2. Mata, T.M., Martins ...

  15. Earth-covered buildings: technical notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, F L; Higgs, F; Shih, J [eds.

    1978-01-01

    John Cable, Architectural and Engineering Systems Branch, Division of Buildings and Community Systems, Department of Energy, kicked off the conference and spelled out the role of DOE in this area. One of his points was that the technical problems are easier than the institutional problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 18 papers of this volume; all of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and 16 were selected for Energy Abstractss for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (DCK)

  16. Technical Note A note on the occuffence of mycotoxins in cereals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci.1996,26(2). Technical Note. A note on the occuffence of mycotoxins in cereals and animal feedstuffs in Kwazulu. Natal, South Africa 1984-1993. Michael F. Dutton and Ann Kinsey. Department of Physiology, University of Natal, Congella,. Kwazulu Natal,4013 South Africa. Received I5 August 1995; accepted 2 April 1996.

  17. Technical note: A noniterative approach to modelling moist thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisseeva, Nadya; Stull, Roland

    2017-12-01

    Formulation of noniterative mathematical expressions for moist thermodynamics presents a challenge for both numerical and theoretical modellers. This technical note offers a simple and efficient tool for approximating two common thermodynamic relationships: temperature, T, at a given pressure, P, along a saturated adiabat, T(P, θw), as well as its corresponding inverse form θw(P, T), where θw is wet-bulb potential temperature. Our method allows direct calculation of T(P, θw) and θw(P, T) on a thermodynamic domain bounded by -70 ≤ θw 1 kPa and -100 ≤ T 1 kPa, respectively. The proposed parameterizations offer high accuracy (mean absolute errors of 0.016 and 0.002 °C for T(P, θw) and θw(P, T), respectively) on a notably larger thermodynamic region than previously studied. The paper includes a method summary and a ready-to-use tool to aid atmospheric physicists in their practical applications.

  18. Technical Note: VUV photodesorption rates from water ice in the 120–150 K temperature range – significance for Noctilucent Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kulikov

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies have been carried out with the aim to improve our understanding of physicochemical processes which take place at the water ice/air interface initiated by solar irradiation with a wavelength of 121.6 nm. It was intended to mimic the processes of ice particles characteristic of Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs. The experimental set-up used includes a high-vacuum chamber, a gas handling system, a cryostat with temperature controller, an FTIR spectrometer, a vacuum ultraviolet hydrogen lamp, and a microwave generator. We report the first results of measurements of the absolute photodesorption rate (loss of substance due to the escape of photoproducts into gas phase from thin (20–100 nm water ice samples kept in the temperature range of 120–150 K. The obtained results show that a flow of photoproducts into the gas phase is considerably lower than presumed in the recent study by Murray and Plane (2005. The experiments indicate that almost all photoproducts remain in the solid phase, and the principal chemical reaction between them is the recombination reaction H + OH → H2O which is evidently very fast. This means that direct photolysis of mesospheric ice particles seems to have no significant impact on the gas phase chemistry of the upper mesosphere.

  19. Control damage by seedling debarking weevil. Technical note No. 271

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidt, D.C.; Weaver, C.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Technical note describing a method of controlling the damage to seedlings by the seedling debarking weevil by using nematodes. Information is given on the damage involved, the nematodes to be used, treatment methods, planting procedures, benefits and costs, and results of earlier trials.

  20. Irrigation endoscopic assisted percutaneous pars repair: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hesham Magdi

    2016-10-01

    Spondylolysis is a common source of low back pain in children and adolescents. Despite the benign natural history of the pathology, however, it should be noted that as part of conservative management many young individuals are forced to discontinue their routine sports activities. In cases resistant to conservative management, direct repair of a pars defect is considered a safe and effective option in young adults with preserved discs. Recently, some reports of minimally invasive pars repair have been described, aiming at preservation of the paraspinal muscles and improvement of the postoperative course. The study aimed to present a new minimally invasive endoscopic technique for pars repair. This is a technical note. Seven consecutive patients complaining of back pain due to spondylolysis and resistant to conservative management were included. Outcome was assessed using the modified Macnab criteria, and bone union was assessed on postoperative radiographs. Two portals of 0.5 cm were used on each side, 1 cm lateral to the midline. One portal is used for the endoscope and the second for the surgical instruments. Following endoscopic debridement of the defect, the inferior portal was used for percutaneous placement of the Buck screw. There was no source for external funding for this study and no potential conflict of interest to disclose. Outcome was excellent in six cases and good in one case. All patients returned back to their normal level of activities. Complete radiographic union was seen in all patients. The mean period of postoperative hospital stay and follow-up was 8 hours and 21 months, respectively. The irrigation endoscopic technique has previously shown promising results in lumbar discectomy and laminectomy. Similar results were observed in the current study on the ability to achieve minimally invasive pars defect debridement and a smooth postoperative course. This is a pilot study and larger patient series and different surgeons' experience are

  1. [Combined approach of parotid lithiasis. A technical note].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvrier, A; Foletti, J-M; Guyot, L; Chossegros, C

    2015-06-01

    Sialendoscopy, extracorporeal lithotripsy and transoral removal are the usual treatments for parotid lithiasis. These techniques cannot treat all the patients. In fact, removal of lithiasis bigger than the ductal diameter and situated in the middle or posterior third of the duct may fail with such techniques. For this reason the combined approach has been developed. Our technical note describes this procedure. Preoperative check-up needs an ultrasound or a CT scan of the parotid region. The procedure is conducted under general anesthesia. It begins with the localization of the lithiasis with help of the sialendoscope light visible through the skin. A face lift approach is performed giving access to the SMAS that is opened over the lithiasis and the transilluminated area. A window is opened on the duct and the lithiasis is removed. Proximal duct permeability is assessed with the sialendoscope. The different layers are sutured and a suction drainage is left in place. Combined approach is indicated in case of failure of conservative techniques. It provides good results in removal of lithiasis located in the posterior or middle thirds of the duct. Its morbidity is low. It can avoid performing a parotidectomy and lowers the risk of facial palsy. In case of failure, botulinum toxin injection may be indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Minimally invasive tethered cord release in children: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kağan Başarslan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tethered cord release is commonly performed in pediatric neurosurgery. Nowadays, minimally invasive procedures are created growing interest due to its highly tolerable nature for surgery. It has been main purpose a minimal damaging on access route and maximum protection of normal structures in surgery. We present a surgical treatment of tethered cord syndrome, by which is provided the cord releasing unlike the many methods being applied with tissue removal. The main advantage of performing this surgery through 2 cm hole is to avoid removing ligamentum flavum and bony structure like lamina in addition to reduce the length of the incision and the related scar tissue. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 115-117 Technical note: the patient was taken on the operating table in the sitting-prone position, and L5-S1 distance was determined by fluoroscopy. The skin and subcutaneous tissues was passed via a 2 cm vertical incision settled in 0.5 cm laterally from midline. L5-S1 distance and its covering ligamentum flavum are displayed by the guidance of L5 lamina. Williams’s retractor was placed in the distance after fetching microscope. The foregoing procedures are the same with microdiscectomic surgery. By a vertical incision made on the flavum, its both layer was lifted up and hanged with simple suture on the back tissue for a comfortable exposure of the Dura. Thecal sac was opened by 0.5 cm long vertical incision on the Dura after obtaining secure CSF drainage with the help of yellow-tipped syringe needle. With finding by a nerve hook, the phylum was burned and released securely. Then the Dura was sutured primarily for the closure by means of microsurgery instruments, and flavum was laid on it again.

  3. Notes for course 36100 at Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis

    1998-01-01

    Notes and examples for selected subjects in chemical engineering such as mass balances, stepwise operations (absorption, distillation)and energy balances.......Notes and examples for selected subjects in chemical engineering such as mass balances, stepwise operations (absorption, distillation)and energy balances....

  4. NOTES: issues and technical details with introduction of NOTES into a small general surgery residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavic, Michael S; Mirza, Brian; Horne, Walter; Moskowitz, Jesse B

    2008-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a development of recent origin. In 2004, Kalloo et al first described NOTES investigation in an animal model. Since then, several investigators have pursued NOTES study in animal survival and nonsurvival models. Our objectives for this project included studying NOTES intervention in a laboratory environment using large animal (swine) models and learning to do so in a safe, controlled manner. Ultimately, we intend to introduce NOTES methodology into our surgical residency training program. The expertise of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, fellowship-trained laparoendoscopic surgeon, and veterinarian along with a senior surgical resident was utilized to bring the input of several disciplines to this study. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy (NEOUCOM/COP) approved this study. A series of 5 laboratory sessions using mixed breed farm swine varying in weight from 37 kg to 43.1 kg was planned for the initial phase of NOTES introduction into our residency program. Animals were not kept alive in this investigation. All animals were anesthetized using a standard swine protocol and euthanized following guidelines issued by the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel on Euthanasia. Equipment included a Fujinon EVE endoscope 0.8 cm in diameter with a suction/irrigation channel and one working channel. Initially, a US Endoscopy gastric overtube, 19.5 mm OD and 50 cm in length, was used to facilitate passage of the endoscope. However, this device was found to have insufficient length. Subsequently, commercially available 5/8" diameter clear plastic tubing, 70 cm to 80 cm in length, was adapted for use as an overtube. Standard endoscopic instruments included Boston Scientific biopsy forceps, needle-knife, papillotome, endoscopic clip applier, and Valley Lab electrosurgical unit. A Karl Storz laparoscope and tower were used for

  5. Sentence Perception in Listening and Reading. Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, David P.; Coots, James H.

    Noting that the lack of prosodic information in printed text may be a source of difficulty for children who are learning to read, this paper explores the features of language underlying the acoustic and perceptual segmentation of sentences into meaningful units. Using evidence from studies in speech production and perception, the paper addresses…

  6. Technical Note: Development of a Photobioreactor for Microalgae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the technical and biological limitations of open pond systems, a study was conducted to develop a cost-effective experimental photobioreactor that would permit efficient cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production. The photobioreactor was developed using low cost materi- als, cylindrical translucent tubes ...

  7. Undocumented College Students, Taxation, and Financial Aid: A Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A surprising amount of litigation and legislation has erupted over undocumented college students. Victims at the federal level are the DREAM Act and immigration reform. Financial aid raises technical issues for undocumented college applicants and for the citizen children of undocumented parents. Generally, the undocumented are ineligible for…

  8. Technical note: measurement of collapse cavitation in ultrasound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, M; Duck, F A; Lenz, E J; Price, G J

    1995-11-01

    This note describes a method for the measurement of hydroxyl free radical concentration due to collapse acoustic cavitation in medical ultrasound fields using aqueous terephthalic acid (TA) solution. An enclosed cylindrical chamber with acoustically transparent membranes at either end was used. Control of cavitation activity was achieved by seeding the solution with polystyrene microspheres to provide cavitation centres. Insonation experiments using unseeded TA previously exposed to air gave very variable results, sometimes detecting cavitation activity and at other times detecting nothing, under the same exposure conditions. Introduction of polystyrene microsphere seeds into the TA enabled it to detect reproducibly levels of cavitation activity at least one order of magnitude higher than in unseeded solutions. An experiment using the seeded TA in a standing wave ultrasound field, set up using a brass reflecting plate, demonstrated that the presence of a standing wave inhibited the measured cavitation yield.

  9. Technical note: the humeral canal approach to the brachial plexus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Frizelle, H P

    2012-02-03

    Many variations to the axillary approach to the brachial plexus have been described. However, the success rate varies depending on the approach used and on the definition of success. Recent work describes a new approach to regional anaesthesia of the upper limb at the humeral\\/brachial canal using selective stimulation of the major nerves. This report outlines initial experience with this block, describing the technique and results in 50 patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. All patients were assessed for completeness of motor and sensory block. The overall success rate was 90 percent. Motor block was present in 80 percent of patients. Completion of the block was necessary in 5 patients. Two patients required general anaesthesia. The preponderance of ulnar deficiencies agrees with previously published data on this technique. No complications were described. Initial experience confirms the high success rate described using the Dupre technique. This technically straightforward approach with minimal complications can be recommended for regional anaesthesia of the upper limb.

  10. Technical note: stress analysis of cellulosic-manure composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.H. Ro; J.F. Hunt; R.E. Rowlands

    2017-01-01

    Ability to determine stresses in loaded, perforated cellulosic-manure composites from recorded temperature information was demonstrated. Being able to stress analyze such green materials addresses several societal issues. These include providing engineering members fabricated from materials that are suitable for developed and developing nations, relieving a troubling...

  11. Technical note On modifying the Arrhenius equation to compensate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this communiqué, we discuss the use of the Arrhenius relationship to describe the temperature dependence of reacting biological systems, such as those treating wastewater. We also discuss the use of the modified Arrhenius function, and those instances where its applicability is limited. We show that the error when ...

  12. NOTE: Effects of temperature variation on MOSFET dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2004-07-01

    This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown that the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 °C up to 40 °C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependent on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However, the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry, the detector should be placed for approximately 60 s on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 s after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established.

  13. Technical Note: Calibration device for the krypton hygrometer KH20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foken

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A calibration device for krypton hygrometers (KH20, Campbell Scientific, Inc. with variable path length is presented. This unit allows for in-situ calibrations of the krypton hygrometer, which is typically not very stable over time, during measuring campaigns. It was constructed mainly for application at high altitudes and low temperatures, where further improvements are needed to the IR-hygrometers which are normally used. The changing path length requires that a changing concentration of the absorber be simulated. Because oxygen absorbs more strongly than water vapour, the calibration is made against oxygen and transferred to water vapour. The design of the calibration instrument is made as one unit containing a stepper motor system, PC and humidity sensor. For the calibration, it is necessary to install the krypton hygrometer on this unit.

  14. Technical Note: On The Usage and Development of the AWAKE Web Server and Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Dillon Tanner

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to give a brief explanation of the AWAKE Web Server, the current web applications it serves, and how to edit, maintain, and update the source code. The majority of this paper is dedicated to the development of the server and its web applications.

  15. Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonas S; Fonslet, Jesper; Søndergaard, Lasse R

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide a faster and more intuitive way of designing shielding for PET facilities, while still relying on the principles of the AAPM 108 Taskforce guidelines, as well as illustrating the calculation output using dose maps that are easily evaluated. METHODS: A graphical user interface...... was developed, implementing an inverse AAPM method, wherein radiation sources and shield barriers are manually defined. Simulations are calculated using a user defined control mesh grid. DoseMapper simulations were verified against manual calculations using the AAPM guidelines, as well as compared with in......-situ dose rate measurements using four different dosemeters. RESULTS: DoseMapper simulations were virtually identical to manual calculations using AAPM guidelines, with a maximum relative error of

  16. Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, S F; Bexiga, R; Cavaco, L M

    2007-01-01

    , respectively, 4, 0.5, 1, 1, 0.25, 0.25, and 0.06 microg/mL for Staph. aureus and > or = 64, 8, 1, 32, > or = 64, > or = 64, and 0.06 microg/mL for Staph. epidermidis. All Staph. aureus isolates showed susceptibility to oxacillin, cefazolin, gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and enrofloxacin. Beta......-lactamase production was detected in 20 of these isolates (66.7%), all of which were resistant to penicillin. Of the 31 Staph. epidermidis tested, 24 (77.4%) were beta-lactamase positive. All isolates were susceptible to both cefazolin and enrofloxacin. Nine Staph. epidermidis isolates were resistant to oxacillin...

  17. Technical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    1. Akman RY, Sargin S, Ozdemir G: Vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistulas: a review of 39 cases. Int Urol. Nephrol 1999; 31(3): 321-6. 2. Elkins TE: Fistula surgery: past, present and future directions. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1997;. 8(1):30-5. 3. Tahzib F. Epidemiological determinants of vesicovaginal fistula.

  18. Program distribution for unclassified scientific and technical reports: Instructions and category scope notes: Revision 75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, W.F. Jr.; Amburn, D. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    The DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in conjunction with DOE Program Offices establishes distribution categories for research, development, and technological reports emanating from DOE programs. The revised category numbers and scope notes contained in this publication were coordinated between OSTI and DOE Program Offices with input from DOE Field Offices. Decisions regarding whether reports will be distributed are made by Program Offices in conjunction with DOE Field Offices and OSTI. This revision of DOE/OSTI-4500 contains the revised distribution category numbers and scope notes along with the printed copy requirement, which shows the number of copies required to make program distribution.

  19. Technical Note for 8D Likelihood Effective Higgs Couplings Extraction Framework in the Golden Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [Caltech; Di Marco, Emanuele [Caltech; Lykken, Joe [Fermilab; Spiropulu, Maria [Caltech; Vega-Morales, Roberto [Northwestern U.; Xie, Si [Caltech

    2014-10-17

    In this technical note we present technical details on various aspects of the framework introduced in arXiv:1401.2077 aimed at extracting effective Higgs couplings in the $h\\to 4\\ell$ `golden channel'. Since it is the primary feature of the framework, we focus in particular on the convolution integral which takes us from `truth' level to `detector' level and the numerical and analytic techniques used to obtain it. We also briefly discuss other aspects of the framework.

  20. Mexico; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update: Technical Note: Industrial Organization and Competition: Pension System in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    The technical note on Mexico’s Financial Sector Assessment Program update analyzes that the private pension system’s regulator in Mexico has introduced innovate rules. Mexico, as with many other countries in Latin America, has adopted an individual capitalization pension system. The design of these pension reforms confers the administration of pension funds to private companies. Under these schemes, competition plays a key role, keeping prices low, a good quality of service, and an efficient ...

  1. Malaysia; Financial Sector Assessment Program Monetary Liquidity Frameworks-Technical Note

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This technical note on Monetary Liquidity Frameworks on Malaysia’s inflation analyzes that it has returned to a more stable path, after some wider fluctuations before and during the global financial crisis. On the liability side, Malaysian banks’ liquidity is based largely on deposits. The increase in foreign reserves at the Central Bank is a major driver of the growth of the Bank Negara Malaysia’s balance sheet. Monetary operations with Islamic banks are carried out through specific Shariah-...

  2. Development of a Multifunctional Needle for Percutaneous Heart Biopsy and Cell Therapy. A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubihe, Nathan Valle; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite S; Arcêncio, Livia; Thomazini, José Antonio; Schmidt, Andre; Evora, Paulo Roberto B

    2016-01-01

    Validation of transendocardial injection as a method for delivering therapeutic agents to the diseased heart is increasing. Puncture heart biopsies should re-emerge as a possible alternative method to allow access to the myocardium and implantable biomaterial for cell therapy. Therefore, this work aims to present a percutaneous puncture device for biopsy and intramyocardial biomaterial injection, standardize the technique and attest to the safety of the method. The adaptation consists of creating myocardial microlesions that allow for better fixation of stem cells. The objective of this technical note covers only the development of the needle and the histological quality of the biopsies. It has not been used in humans yet.

  3. Technical Note: Introduction of variance component analysis to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to introduce variance component analysis to the estimation of systematic and random components in setup error of radiotherapy. Balanced data according to the one-factor random effect model were assumed. Analysis-of-variance (anova)-based computation was applied to estimate the values and their confidence intervals (CIs) for systematic and random errors and the population mean of setup errors. The conventional method overestimates systematic error, especially in hypofractionated settings. The CI for systematic error becomes much wider than that for random error. The anova-based estimation can be extended to a multifactor model considering multiple causes of setup errors (e.g., interpatient, interfraction, and intrafraction). Variance component analysis may lead to novel applications to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

  4. Technical note on using CNTs as reinforcements in reinforced concrete structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, C. Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    The disasters whether man made or natural dominates all types of structures and has ever been attention to researchers, academicians and scientists. Concrete had been reinforced with steel, macro fibers and microfibers which bridges the cracks. The advantages of microfibers are to delay the development of cracks. Numerous researches focused on arresting the initiation of micro cracks and delay in the macro cracks. However the initiation of the cracks could not be avoided. It is quite fruitful and needy for the present scenario in a country like India to carry out research by reinforcing concrete with fibers/nanomaterials at nano scale which would provide crack free materials and structures. This technical note explores the possibilities of impregnating concrete with CNTs (Carbon Nano Tubes) and also as reinforcement bars at macro level in reinforced concrete structural elements.

  5. Development of a Multifunctional Needle for Percutaneous Heart Biopsy and Cell Therapy. A Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Valle Soubihe Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Validation of transendocardial injection as a method for delivering therapeutic agents to the diseased heart is increasing. Puncture heart biopsies should re-emerge as a possible alternative method to allow access to the myocardium and implantable biomaterial for cell therapy. Therefore, this work aims to present a percutaneous puncture device for biopsy and intramyocardial biomaterial injection, standardize the technique and attest to the safety of the method. The adaptation consists of creating myocardial microlesions that allow for better fixation of stem cells. The objective of this technical note covers only the development of the needle and the histological quality of the biopsies. It has not been used in humans yet.

  6. Short Note Ground cavity nest temperatures and their relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue Swallows Hirundo atrocaerulea are Critically Endangered within South Africa. They nest in natural underground holes in mist-belt grasslands. Temperature dataloggers were used to record ground cavity nest (Tn) and ambient temperature (Ta) for one artificial and 11 natural Blue Swallow nests. Mean ground cavity Tn ...

  7. Note: Motor-piezoelectricity coupling driven high temperature fatigue device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z. C.; Du, X. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Ma, X. X.; Jiang, D. Y.; Liu, Y.; Ren, L. Q.

    2018-01-01

    The design and performance evaluation of a novel high temperature fatigue device simultaneously driven by servo motor and piezoelectric actuator is our focus. The device integrates monotonic and cyclic loading functions with a maximum tensile load of 1800 N, driving frequency of 50 Hz, alternating load of 95 N, and maximum service temperature of 1200 °C. Multimodal fatigue tests with arbitrary combinations of static and dynamic loads are achieved. At temperatures that range from RT to 1100 °C, the tensile and tensile-fatigue coupling mechanical behaviors of UM Co50 alloys are investigated to verify the feasibility of the device.

  8. Note: A wide temperature range MOKE system with annealing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahil, Narpinder Singh; Mankey, G. J.

    2017-07-01

    A novel sample stage integrated with a longitudinal MOKE system has been developed for wide temperature range measurements and annealing capabilities in the temperature range 65 K < T < 760 K. The sample stage incorporates a removable platen and copper block with inserted cartridge heater and two thermocouple sensors. It is supported and thermally coupled to a cold finger with two sapphire bars. The sapphire based thermal coupling enables the system to perform at higher temperatures without adversely affecting the cryostat and minimizes thermal drift in position. In this system the hysteresis loops of magnetic samples can be measured simultaneously while annealing the sample in a magnetic field.

  9. A note on the pulay force at finite temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Anders M N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Pulay's original expression for the basis-set dependent adjustment term to the Hellmann-Feynman force in electronic structure theory, which occurs for nonorthogonal local basis-set representations, is based on the idempotency condition of a pure ensemble. At finite electronic temperatures with a fractional occupation of the states, the conventional expression of the Pulay force is therefore no longer valid. Here we derive a simple and computationally efficient expression for a generalized Pulay force, which is suitable for large-scale ab initio simulations at finite electronic temperatures using local nonorthogonal basis-set representations. The generalized Pulay force expression is given in terms of the temperature-dependent density matrix. For the construction of the density matrix, we propose a recursive Fermi operator expansion algorithm that automatically converges to the correct chemical potential.

  10. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  11. Technical note: A note on the differential impact of wrong and missing sire information on reliability and gain

    OpenAIRE

    Woolliams, John

    2006-01-01

    This note analytically derives the impact that wrong and missing sire information (WSI and MSI, respectively) has on the reliability of predicting merit and gain compared with perfect information. In particular, for small WSI and MSI, WSI was shown to have twice the impact of MSI for both reliability and gain, and the impact of both WSI and MSI increased as the reliability of predicting merit with perfect information decreased. The overall impact on the efficiency of gain for small WSI and MS...

  12. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Embolized Using a Micro Vascular Plug System: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatta, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.boatta@yahoo.it; Jahn, Christine, E-mail: christine.jahn@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Canuet, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.canuet@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service Service de Pneumologie, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2017-02-15

    AIMTo report our preliminary experience using a Micro Vascular Plug (MVP) deployed through a 2.8Fr micro-catheter for the treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in a cohort of patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT).Materials and MethodsFour consecutive female patients (mean age 38.0 years; range 25–55 years) with PAVMs diagnosed on echocardiogram/bubble test and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) underwent MVP embolization. One patient was symptomatic with recent transient ischaemic attack. Follow-up was undertaken at 1-month post-procedure with CECT to assess PAVMs permeability and MVP positioning and at 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-procedure, with echocardiography/bubble test and standard neurological history, to confirm absence of right-to-left shunts and recurrent symptoms.ResultsEight PAVMs were treated in 4 patients over 5 interventional sessions (mean 1.6 PAVMs per session). All PAVMs were simple, with mean feeding artery diameter of 4.25 mm. Eight 6.5 mm MVPs were deployed in total (one per lesion). Technical success was 100%. Mean procedural time and patient dose per session were 70 min (range 40–70 min) and 53418 mGy.cm{sup 2} (range 6113–101628 mGy.cm{sup 2}), respectively. No signs of reperfusion neither of MPV migration were noted at 1-month CECT follow-up. At early follow-up (mean 3.75 months; range 1–12 months), clinical success was 100% with no evidence of recurrent right-to-left shunt, and no neurological symptoms. No immediate or late complications were observed.ConclusionsMVP embolization of PAVMs appears technically feasible, safe, and effective at early follow-up. Further prospective studies are required to confirm long-term safety and efficacy of this promising technique.

  13. Time Value of Money and Its Applications in Corporate Finance: A Technical Note on Linking Relationships between Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeng-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Time Value of Money (TVM) is the most important chapter in the basic corporate finance course. It is imperative to understand TVM formulas because they imply important TVM concepts. Students who really understand TVM concepts and formulas can learn better in chapters of TVM applications. This technical note intends to present more complete TVM…

  14. Technical note: a note on the differential impact of wrong and missing sire information on reliability and gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolliams, J A

    2006-12-01

    This note analytically derives the impact that wrong and missing sire information (WSI and MSI, respectively) has on the reliability of predicting merit and gain compared with perfect information. In particular, for small WSI and MSI, WSI was shown to have twice the impact of MSI for both reliability and gain, and the impact of both WSI and MSI increased as the reliability of predicting merit with perfect information decreased. The overall impact on the efficiency of gain for small WSI and MSI was half the overall impact on reliability.

  15. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  16. Computer-aided flapless implant surgery and immediate loading. A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffaldi, Alfonso; Poli, Pier Paolo; Baruffaldi, Andrea; Giberti, Lorenzo; Pigozzo, Maurizio; Maiorana, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present technical note was to describe a prosthetic technique developed to increase the predictability of immediately loaded implants supporting a fixed prosthesis after computer-aided template-guided flapless implant placement. During a 2-year period, eight patients presenting partial edentulism underwent computer-aided template-guided implant placement. The presented technique was used during the prosthetic procedures to directly transfer the data obtained with the facebow to the surgical environment, allowing for accurate repositioning of the temporary prosthesis on the implants as previously planned with the digital software. A total of 78 dental implants were immediately loaded with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis after flapless template-guided implant placement. A survival and success rate of 100 % was reported after a mean follow-up of 1 year from the prosthetic loading. Neither major complications nor dropouts were observed during the healing time. From both clinical and radiological evaluations, implants appeared stable with no signs of soft tissue inflammation or infection and no evidence of pathological peri-implant bone resorption. The proposed technique associated with computer-aided implant placement and immediate loading protocol provided a high implant and prosthetic survival and success rate. No complications were reported during the recalls, suggesting predictability and reliability of the present technique over a short-term period.

  17. Orbitozygomatic Craniotomy with Modified Zabramski's Technique: A Technical Note and Anatomic and Clinical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Toshiaki; Arishima, Hidetaka; Yamada, Shinsuke; Arai, Hiroshi; Akazawa, Ayumi; Higashino, Yoshifumi; Kitai, Ryuhei; Iino, Satoshi; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    The surgical technique of orbitozygomatic craniotomy reported by Zabramski et al. is an excellent procedure, facilitating wide surgical exposure, easy orbital reconstruction, and a satisfactory postsurgical aesthetic outcome; however, it is anatomically complicated and technically difficult. We introduce a simplified technique of Zabramski's orbitozygomatic craniotomy and present the anatomic and clinical findings with cadaveric photos, illustrations, and a video. The orbitozygomatic craniotomy was performed on 20 sides of 11 cadaveric heads, in which the cut between the inferior orbital fissure and superior orbital fissure was modified and simplified, and the shortest distance between them was measured. This technique was applied to 13 clinical cases, and craniotomy-associated aesthetic and functional complications were evaluated. The average of the shortest distance from the inferior orbital fissure to superior orbital fissure was 21.3 mm (range, 19-23 mm) on the 20 sides of the 11 cadaveric heads. In all 13 clinical cases, orbitozygomatic craniotomy could be achieved in a short time, while preserving the structure of the orbital wall. A hollow at the temple was noted in 1 patient, cerebrospinal fluid leak occurred in 2 patients, and transient facial pain occurred in 1 patient; however, no other craniotomy-associated aesthetic or functional complications, including enophthalmos, were found in any of the 13 patients. With this modified technique, Zabramski's ideal orbitozygomatic craniotomy could be achieved easily with only minimal complications, while realizing all advantages of the technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical note: An inverse method to relate organic carbon reactivity to isotope composition from serial oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Jordon D.; Rothman, Daniel H.; Rosengard, Sarah Z.; Galy, Valier V.

    2017-11-01

    Serial oxidation coupled with stable carbon and radiocarbon analysis of sequentially evolved CO2 is a promising method to characterize the relationship between organic carbon (OC) chemical composition, source, and residence time in the environment. However, observed decay profiles depend on experimental conditions and oxidation pathway. It is therefore necessary to properly assess serial oxidation kinetics before utilizing decay profiles as a measure of OC reactivity. We present a regularized inverse method to estimate the distribution of OC activation energy (E), a proxy for bond strength, using serial oxidation. Here, we apply this method to ramped temperature pyrolysis or oxidation (RPO) analysis but note that this approach is broadly applicable to any serial oxidation technique. RPO analysis directly compares thermal reactivity to isotope composition by determining the E range for OC decaying within each temperature interval over which CO2 is collected. By analyzing a decarbonated test sample at multiple masses and oven ramp rates, we show that OC decay during RPO analysis follows a superposition of parallel first-order kinetics and that resulting E distributions are independent of experimental conditions. We therefore propose the E distribution as a novel proxy to describe OC thermal reactivity and suggest that E vs. isotope relationships can provide new insight into the compositional controls on OC source and residence time.

  19. Technical note: An inverse method to relate organic carbon reactivity to isotope composition from serial oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Hemingway

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serial oxidation coupled with stable carbon and radiocarbon analysis of sequentially evolved CO2 is a promising method to characterize the relationship between organic carbon (OC chemical composition, source, and residence time in the environment. However, observed decay profiles depend on experimental conditions and oxidation pathway. It is therefore necessary to properly assess serial oxidation kinetics before utilizing decay profiles as a measure of OC reactivity. We present a regularized inverse method to estimate the distribution of OC activation energy (E, a proxy for bond strength, using serial oxidation. Here, we apply this method to ramped temperature pyrolysis or oxidation (RPO analysis but note that this approach is broadly applicable to any serial oxidation technique. RPO analysis directly compares thermal reactivity to isotope composition by determining the E range for OC decaying within each temperature interval over which CO2 is collected. By analyzing a decarbonated test sample at multiple masses and oven ramp rates, we show that OC decay during RPO analysis follows a superposition of parallel first-order kinetics and that resulting E distributions are independent of experimental conditions. We therefore propose the E distribution as a novel proxy to describe OC thermal reactivity and suggest that E vs. isotope relationships can provide new insight into the compositional controls on OC source and residence time.

  20. Some technical notes on using UAV-based remote sensing for post disaster assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhmana, Catur Aries; Andaru, Ruli

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is located in an area prone to disasters, which are various kinds of natural disasters happen. In disaster management, the geoinformation data are needed to be able to evaluate the impact area. The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-Based remote sensing technology is a good choice to produce a high spatial resolution of less than 15 cm, while the current resolution of the satellite imagery is still greater than 50 cm. This paper shows some technical notes that should be considered when using UAV-Based remote sensing system in post disaster for rapid assessment. Some cases are Aceh Earthquake in years 2013 for seeing infrastructure damages, Banjarnegara landslide in year 2014 for seeing the impact; and Kelud volcano eruption in year 2014 for seeing the impact and volumetric material calculation. The UAV-Based remote sensing system should be able to produce the Orthophoto image that can provide capabilities for visual interpretation the individual damage objects, and the changes situation. Meanwhile the DEM (digital Elevation model) product can derive terrain topography, and volumetric calculation with accuracy 3-5 pixel or sub-meter also. The UAV platform should be able for working remotely and autonomously in dangerous area and limited infrastructures. In mountainous or volcano area, an unconventional flight plan should implemented. Unfortunately, not all impact can be seen from above such as wall crack, some parcel boundaries, and many objects that covered by others higher object. The previous existing geoinformation data are also needed to be able to evaluate the change detection automatically.

  1. Biplanar Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Lead Implantation for Spinal Cord Stimulation: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson McLean, Aaron; Frank, Susanne; Staribacher, Daniel; Kalff, Rolf; Reichart, Rupert

    2017-09-01

    The correct positioning of spinal cord stimulator leads is assessed radiographically during their percutaneous implantation for trial stimulation. Usually the C-arm is repositioned several times to allow imaging in different planes, which may extend the total duration of surgery. The study aimed to evaluate whether the concurrent intraoperative use of 2 C-arms could safely reduce the duration of surgery. This retrospective study included cases of percutaneous implantation of a spinal cord stimulation (SCS) lead for trial neurostimulation between 2006 and 2011. The duration of the surgical intervention was recorded, along with the duration of the preparation stage in the operating room. In addition, total radiation exposure time per case was recorded. Ninety-four patients underwent percutaneous implantation of an SCS lead (72 thoracolumbar, 22 cervical). In 73 cases 2 C-arms were used, with 21 cases performed with a single C-arm. In both the cervical and thoracolumbar groups, a biplanar configuration was associated with significant reduction in the mean length of the surgical phase, by 29 minutes (P = 0.017) and 14 minutes, respectively (P = 0.016), albeit while increasing the duration of the preoperative preparation stage. There was no significant difference in the total duration in the operating room or in the total radiation exposure time between groups. Here we present a technical note on the use of a biplanar fluoroscopy configuration for percutaneous implantation of SCS leads. This arrangement correlated with a reduction in surgery duration without increasing total radiation exposure, representing a practical and safe adjustment to current practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Minimally invasive lateral mass screws in the treatment of cervical facet dislocations: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael Y; Prusmack, Chad J; Green, Barth A; Gruen, J Peter; Levi, Allan D O

    2003-02-01

    The technique of lateral mass screw and rod or plate fixation is a major advancement in the posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine. This technique provides rigid three-dimensional fixation, restores the dorsal tension band, and provides highly effective stabilization in patients with many types of traumatic injuries. Patient 1 was a 32-year-old man who had been in a motor vehicle accident. He presented with right C5 radiculopathy. X-ray findings included 45% anterolisthesis of C4 on C5, bilateral facet disruption, and right unilateral C4-C5 facet fracture and dislocation. The patient was placed in Gardner-Wells tongs, and the fracture was reduced with 25 pounds of traction. Patient 2 was a 56-year-old woman who had been in a motor vehicle accident that resulted in complete quadriplegia. Her initial imaging studies revealed a C3-C4 right unilateral facet fracture with subluxation. She was placed in traction, and her neurological status was reassessed. The findings of her neurological examination revealed improvement: she was found to have Brown-Séquard syndrome. Patient 3 was a 33-year-old man who was involved in a diving accident that resulted in bilaterally jumped facets at C3-C4. The patient was neurologically intact, and attempts at closed reduction were not successful. Patients 1 and 2 underwent anterior cervical discectomy with iliac crest autograft fusion and plating. They were then placed in the prone position, and a dilator tubular retractor system was used to access the facet joint at the level of interest. The facet joints were then denuded and packed with autograft. Lateral mass screws were then placed by means of the Magerl technique, and a rod was used to connect the top-loading screws. Patient 3 underwent posterior surgery that included only removal of the superior facet, intraoperative reduction, and bilateral lateral mass screw and rod placement. This technical note describes the successful placement of lateral mass screw and rod

  3. Trans-falcine and contralateral sub-frontal electrode placement in pediatric epilepsy surgery: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindrik, Jonathan; Hoang, Nguyen; Tubbs, R Shane; Rocque, Brandon J; Rozzelle, Curtis J

    2017-08-01

    Phase II monitoring with intracranial electroencephalography (ICEEG) occasionally requires bilateral placement of subdural (SD) strips, grids, and/or depth electrodes. While phase I monitoring often demonstrates a preponderance of unilateral findings, individual studies (video EEG, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], and positron emission tomography [PET]) can suggest or fail to exclude a contralateral epileptogenic onset zone. This study describes previously unreported techniques of trans-falcine and sub-frontal insertion of contralateral SD grids and depth electrodes for phase II monitoring in pediatric epilepsy surgery patients when concern about bilateral abnormalities has been elicited during phase I monitoring. Pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing stage I surgery for phase II monitoring involving sub-frontal and/or trans-falcine insertion of SD grids and/or depth electrodes at the senior author's institution were retrospectively reviewed. Intra-operative technical details of sub-frontal and trans-falcine approaches were studied, while intra-operative complications or events were noted. Operative techniques included gentle subfrontal retraction and elevation of the olfactory tracts (while preserving the relationship between the olfactory bulb and cribriform plate) to insert SD grids across the midline for coverage of the contralateral orbito-frontal regions. Trans-falcine approaches involved accessing the inter-hemispheric space, bipolar cauterization of the anterior falx cerebri below the superior sagittal sinus, and sharp dissection using a blunt elevator and small blade scalpel. The falcine window allowed contralateral SD strip, grid, and depth electrodes to be inserted for coverage of the contralateral frontal regions. The study cohort included seven patients undergoing sub-frontal and/or trans-falcine insertion of contralateral SD strip, grid, and/or depth electrodes from February 2012 through June 2015. Five

  4. Technical note: easy graft passage without posterior portals in PCL reconstruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, C.M. van den; Tienen, T.G. van; Defoort, K.C.; Wymenga, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Graft passage during arthroscopically assisted, single-bundle transtibial PCL reconstruction is a technically demanding surgical procedure. We propose the use of a so called Deschamps clamp, originally designed for cerclage wire transport, in combination with a meniscal repair needle with an eye.

  5. Precision in robotic rectal surgery using the da Vinci Xi system and integrated table motion, a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Harper, Mick; Hall, Stuart; Figueiredo, Nuno; Qureshi, Tahseen; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2017-09-15

    Robotic rectal surgery is becoming increasingly more popular among colorectal surgeons. However, time spent on robotic platform docking, arm clashing and undocking of the platform during the procedure are factors that surgeons often find cumbersome and time consuming. The newest surgical platform, the da Vinci Xi, coupled with integrated table motion can help to overcome these problems. This technical note aims to describe a standardised operative technique of single docking robotic rectal surgery using the da Vinci Xi system and integrated table motion. A stepwise approach of the da Vinci docking process and surgical technique is described accompanied by an intra-operative video that demonstrates this technique. We also present data collected from a prospectively maintained database. 33 consecutive rectal cancer patients (24 male, 9 female) received robotic rectal surgery with the da Vinci Xi during the preparation of this technical note. 29 (88%) patients had anterior resections, and four (12%) had abdominoperineal excisions. There were no conversions, no anastomotic leaks and no mortality. Median operation time was 331 (249-372) min, blood loss 20 (20-45) mls and length of stay 6.5 (4-8) days. 30-day readmission rate and re-operation rates were 3% (n = 1). This standardised technique of single docking robotic rectal surgery with the da Vinci Xi is safe, feasible and reproducible. The technological advances of the new robotic system facilitate the totally robotic single docking approach.

  6. Technical note on the linearity and power dependence of the diffusion coefficient in W7-AS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, M.; Zwart, H. J.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; de Baar, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Transient electron temperature measurements of a step power experiment at W7-AS are reassessed by direct comparison of the up- and downward responses of the electron temperature. The analysis shows that the response at some distance to the center behaves linearly and the model predicted responses

  7. Technical note: Evaluation of three machine learning models for surface ocean CO2 mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiye; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saigusa, Nobuko; Shirai, Tomoko; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Tan, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing surface ocean CO2 from scarce measurements plays an important role in estimating oceanic CO2 uptake. There are varying degrees of differences among the 14 models included in the Surface Ocean CO2 Mapping (SOCOM) inter-comparison initiative, in which five models used neural networks. This investigation evaluates two neural networks used in SOCOM, self-organizing maps and feedforward neural networks, and introduces a machine learning model called a support vector machine for ocean CO2 mapping. The technique note provides a practical guide to selecting the models.

  8. Treatment of movement disorders using deep brain stimulation – illustrative case reports and technical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Strojnik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Operative neuromodulation is the field of electrically or chemically altering the signal transmission in the nervous system by implanted devices in order to excite, inhibit or tune the activities of neurons or neural networks to produce therapeutic effects. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an important component of the therapy of movement disorders and has almost completely replaced high-frequency coagulation of brain tissue in stereotactic neurosurgery. This article presents the first DBS cases in Slovenia. In the article the technical features and adjustments of magnetic resonance (MR imaging and development of a new microdrive, which was clinically successfully tested, are described and discussed.

  9. Technical note: Applicability of infrared thermography as a non invasive measurements of stress in rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    F. Luzi; Carenzi, C.; Gargano, M.; Verga, M; Ludwig, N.

    2007-01-01

    Among the main physiological stress indicators, the temperature evaluation is very important and innovative because it may be monitored without directly interacting with the animal. The use of a thermographic system, which is based on the detection of infrared radiation emitted by a subject, is a suitable method in order to measure temperature without any contact. In this research, a thermographic system was employed in order to single out the rabbit skin's zones most suitable for...

  10. Technical Note: Design of rockfall net fences and the new ETAG 027 European guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peila

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for protection against rockfall has led to the development of different types of technological solutions that are able to both prevent blocks from detaching from rock walls and to control, intercept or deviate the blocks during movement. Of the many devices that are able to intercept and stop a block, one of the most frequently used is net fence. Many different types of full-scale tests have been carried out, with different test site geometries and procedures to study their behaviour and to certify these devices. This has led to a series of data and information that are not easy to compare. The recent endorsement, by the European Organization for Technical Approvals (EOTA, of a European Technical Approval Guideline (ETAG, which defines how to test and assess the performance of a net fence, is therefore a great innovation that will change both the market and the design procedures of these devices. The most important innovations introduced by this new guideline are here presented and discussed and a net fence design procedure for protection against rockfall is provided.

  11. Technical Note: Design of rockfall net fences and the new ETAG 027 European guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, D.; Ronco, C.

    2009-07-01

    The need for protection against rockfall has led to the development of different types of technological solutions that are able to both prevent blocks from detaching from rock walls and to control, intercept or deviate the blocks during movement. Of the many devices that are able to intercept and stop a block, one of the most frequently used is net fence. Many different types of full-scale tests have been carried out, with different test site geometries and procedures to study their behaviour and to certify these devices. This has led to a series of data and information that are not easy to compare. The recent endorsement, by the European Organization for Technical Approvals (EOTA), of a European Technical Approval Guideline (ETAG), which defines how to test and assess the performance of a net fence, is therefore a great innovation that will change both the market and the design procedures of these devices. The most important innovations introduced by this new guideline are here presented and discussed and a net fence design procedure for protection against rockfall is provided.

  12. TECHNICAL NOTE: Design and development of electromagnetic absorbers with carbon fiber composites and matching dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, C. P.; Varadan, V. K.

    2001-10-01

    Radar absorbing materials are designed and developed with carbon fibers and suitable matching layers. Complex permittivities of carbon fiber composite are predicted on the basis that the modulus of permittivity obeys a logarithmic law of mixtures and the dielectric loss tangents are related through a linear law of mixtures. Linear regression analysis performed on the data points provides the constants which are used to predict the effective permittivities of carbon fiber composite at different frequencies. Using the free space measurement system, complex permittivities of the lossy dielectric at different frequencies are obtained. These complex permittivities are used to predict the reflectivity of a thin lossy dielectric layer on carbon fiber composite substrate. The predicted results agree quite well with the measured data. It is interesting to note that the thin lossy dielectric layer, about 0.03 mm thick, has helped to reduce the reflectivity of the 5.2 mm thick carbon fiber composite considerably.

  13. Technical note: An R package for fitting Bayesian regularized neural networks with applications in animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, P; Gianola, D; Weigel, K A; Rosa, G J M; Crossa, J

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, several statistical models have been developed for predicting genetic values for complex traits using information on dense molecular markers, pedigrees, or both. These models include, among others, the Bayesian regularized neural networks (BRNN) that have been widely used in prediction problems in other fields of application and, more recently, for genome-enabled prediction. The R package described here (brnn) implements BRNN models and extends these to include both additive and dominance effects. The implementation takes advantage of multicore architectures via a parallel computing approach using openMP (Open Multiprocessing) for the computations. This note briefly describes the classes of models that can be fitted using the brnn package, and it also illustrates its use through several real examples.

  14. Technical note: a novel method for routine genotyping of horse coat color gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, L J; Fernández, I; Azor, P J; Alvarez, I; Pérez-Pardal, L; Goyache, F

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this note is to describe a reliable, fast, and cost-effective real-time PCR method for routine genotyping of mutations responsible for most coat color variation in horses. The melanocortin-1 receptor, Agouti-signaling peptide, and membrane-associated transporter protein alleles were simultaneously determined using 2 PCR protocols. The assay described here is an alternative method for routine genotyping of a defined number of polymorphisms. Allelic variants are detected in real time and no post-PCR manipulations are required, therefore limiting costs and possible carryover contamination. Data can be copied to a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for semiautomatic determination of the genotype using a macro freely available at http://www.igijon.com/personales/fgoyache/software_i.htm (last accessed February 26, 2007). The performance of the method is demonstrated on 156 Spanish Purebred horses.

  15. Technical Note: 30 years of HIRS data of upper tropospheric humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gierens

    2014-07-01

    Radiation Sounder data to produce a 30-year data set of upper tropospheric humidity with respect to ice (UTHi. Since the required brightness temperatures (channels 12 and 6, T12 and T6 are intercalibrated to different versions of the HIRS sensors (HIRS/2 and HIRS/4 it is necessary to convert the channel 6 brightness temperatures which are intercalibrated to HIRS/4 into equivalent brightness temperatures intercalibrated to HIRS/2, which is achieved using a linear regression. Using the new regression coefficients we produce daily files of UTHi, T12 and T6, for each NOAA satellite and METOP-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite Programme, which carry the HIRS instrument. From this we calculate daily and monthly means in 2.5° × 2.5° resolution for the northern midlatitude zone 30–60° N. As a first application we calculate decadal means of UTHi and the brightness temperatures for the two decades 1980–1989 and 2000–2009. We find that the humidity mainly increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and that this increase is highly statistically significant in large regions of the considered midlatitude belt. The main reason for this result and its statistical significance is the corresponding increase of the T12 variance. Changes of the mean brightness temperatures are less significant.

  16. Day surgery awake craniotomy for removing brain tumours: technical note describing a simple protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrabba, G; Venkatraghavan, L; Bernstein, M

    2008-08-01

    Day surgery awake craniotomy has been recently proposed for patients harbouring supratentorial brain tumours. This technique has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in a large cohort of patients operated by one neurosurgeon at the University of Toronto. The aim of this paper is to present a technical description of the protocol that has been adopted for these patients and a discussion of relevant practical issues which may arise. In particular, patient eligibility criteria are briefly discussed and intra- and post-operative management are presented. Key messages for those who are going to start to perform day surgery awake craniotomies include the preparation of a fast, simple and standardized protocol for the treatment of these patients and cooperation among patients and their care-givers (surgeon, anesthetist, nurses, family members).

  17. Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Diskectomy with Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty in Lumbar Disk Herniation: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sung; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik

    2017-02-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar diskectomy and percutaneous epidural neuroplasty is a commonly used minimally invasive spinal surgery in lumbar disk herniation. But to our knowledge, there is no report about the results of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar diskectomy with percutaneous epidural neuroplasty. We did this study to evaluate the effect of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar diskectomy with percutaneous epidural neuroplasty in lumbar disk herniation. We report a series of cases about techniques and results of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar diskectomy with percutaneous epidural neuroplasty in lumbar disk herniation, as well as introduce technical procedures and advantages. Seven patients improved axial back pain with percutaneous endoscopic lumbar diskectomy with percutaneous epidural neuroplasty and had no complications. The percutaneous endoscopic lumbar diskectomy with percutaneous epidural neuroplasty has many advantages with removing lumbar disk herniation in procedures. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar diskectomy with percutaneous epidural neuroplasty is a safe and effective surgical method in lumbar disk herniation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Anti-aging medicine: notes on a socio-technical controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Antônio Nogueira; Pedro, Rosa Maria Leite Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    After some decades of struggle, geriatrics and gerontology have become the legitimate sciences of aging. Today, their status is being questioned. In its short history, anti-aging medicine has taken root as a medical practice that questions how to address biological aging. In so doing, all medicine is questioned. Here, we explore in particular how this controversy is structured around the founding principles of the sciences of aging. Is there any basis for these questionings? How have they been treated by those who have received them? Taking a socio-technical viewpoint, it is worth considering that for geriatricians and gerontologists, the need to criticize anti-aging medicine also raises some important reflections about how the sciences of aging address their subject.

  19. Technical note: Towards a continuous classification of climate using bivariate colour mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate is often defined in terms of discrete classes. Here I use bivariate colour mapping to show that the global distribution of K¨oppen-Geiger climate classes can largely be reproduced by combining the simple means of two key states of the climate system 5 (i.e., air temperature and relative

  20. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, ageddynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative.

  1. The flying buttress construct for posterior spinopelvic fixation: a technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ooij Bas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posterior fusion of the spine to the pelvis in paediatric and adult spinal deformity is still challenging. Especially assembling of the posterior rod construct to the iliac screw is considered technically difficult. A variety of spinopelvic fixation techniques have been developed. However, extreme bending of the longitudinal rods or the use of 90-degree lateral offset connectors proved to be difficult, because the angle between the rod and the iliac screw varies from patient to patient. Methods We adopted a new spinopelvic fixation system, in which iliac screws are side-to-side connected to the posterior thoracolumbar rod construct, independent of the angle between the rod and the iliac screw. Open angled parallel connectors are used to connect short iliac rods from the posterior rod construct to the iliac screws at both sides. The construct resembles in form and function an architectural Flying Buttress, or lateral support arches, used in Gothic cathedrals. Results and discussion Three different cases that illustrate the Flying Buttress construct for spinopelvic fixation are reported here with the clinical details, radiographic findings and surgical technique used. Conclusion The Flying Buttress construct may offer an alternative surgical option for spinopelvic fixation in circumstances wherein coronal or sagittal balance cannot be achieved, for example in cases with significant residual pelvic obliquity, or in revision spinal surgery for failed lumbosacral fusion.

  2. Technical Note: Surface water velocity observations from a camera: a case study on the Tiber River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, F.; Olivieri, G.; Petroselli, A.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring surface water velocity during flood events is a challenging task. Techniques based on deploying instruments in the flow are often unfeasible due to high velocity and abundant sediment transport. A low-cost and versatile technology that provides continuous and automatic observations is still not available. LSPIV (large scale particle imaging velocimetry) is a promising approach to tackle these issues. Such technique consists of developing surface water velocity maps analyzing video frame sequences recorded with a camera. In this technical brief, we implement a novel LSPIV experimental apparatus to observe a flood event in the Tiber river at a cross-section located in the center of Rome, Italy. We illustrate results from three tests performed during the hydrograph flood peak and recession limb for different illumination and weather conditions. The obtained surface velocity maps are compared to the rating curve velocity and to benchmark velocity values. Experimental findings confirm the potential of the proposed LSPIV implementation in aiding research in natural flow monitoring.

  3. Frameless stereotactic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson′s disease: A case report and technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because deep brain stimulation (DBS implantations and other stereotactic and functional surgical procedures require accurate, precise, and safe targeting of the brain structure, the technical aids for preoperative planning, intervention, and postoperative follow-up have become increasingly important. In this paper, we introduce a case of advanced Parkinson′s disease with 10 years of medical control in which the patient received subthalamic nuclei (STN DBS therapy through frameless surgery. A preliminary outcomes analysis is also provided. The STN DBS was implanted using a frameless stereotaxy protocol. After identifying the STN by microelectrode recording (MER, the DBS electrodes were implanted and connected to an implanted programmable generator. Programming started 1 month after the operation, and the patient was followed up on regularly and 12 months of post-STN DBS unified Parkinson′s disease rating scale were recorded. After 12 months of follow-up, the patient who received the frameless surgery showed a significant improvement in clinical motor functions compared with his preoperative scores. The frameless system has the advantage of providing accuracy in postoperative lead position survey and target deviation measurements with comparison to the preoperative planning image. The outcomes of frameless DBS surgery are similar to those of frame-based surgery, with the advantages being that frameless surgery can reduce the patient′s discomfort, shorten the operation and MER time, and decrease the MER trajectory number.

  4. Endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fuminari; Imai, Masaaki; Shigematsu, Hideaki; Aoki, Rie; Oda, Shinri; Shimoda, Masami; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2017-08-25

    The authors' initial experience with the endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area is reported. Fully endoscopic surgery using the extradural space via a supraorbital keyhole was performed for tumors in or around the temporal pole, including temporal pole cavernous angioma, sphenoid ridge meningioma, and cavernous sinus pituitary adenoma, mainly using 4-mm, 0° and 30° endoscopes and single-shaft instruments. After making a supraorbital keyhole, a 4-mm, 30° endoscope was advanced into the extradural space of the anterior cranial fossa during lifting of the dura mater. Following identification of the sphenoid ridge, orbital roof, and anterior clinoid process, the bone lateral to the orbital roof was drilled off until the dura mater of the anterior aspect of the temporal lobe was exposed. The dura mater of the temporal lobe was incised and opened, exposing the temporal pole under a 4-mm, 0° endoscope. Tumors in or around the temporal pole were safely removed under a superb view through the extradural corridor. The endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach was technically feasible and safe. The anterior trajectory to the temporal pole using the extradural space under endoscopy provided excellent visibility, allowing minimally invasive surgery. Further surgical experience and development of specialized instruments would promote this approach as an alternative surgical option.

  5. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management – a regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rauch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  6. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management - a regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Fleischhacker, E.; Rauch, W.

    2008-01-01

    Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter) tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  7. Technical Note: Statistical dependences between channels in radiochromic film readings. Implications in multichannel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-López, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.gonzalez7@carm.es [Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra. Madrid-Cartagena, El Palmar, Murcia 30120 (Spain); Vera-Sánchez, Juan Antonio [Servicio de Protección Radiológica y Física Médica Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus, Av. del Dr. Josep Laporte, 2, Reus, Tarragona 43204 (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, Carmen [Hospital IMED Elche, Max Planck No. 3, Elche, Alicante 03203 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: This note studies the statistical relationships between color channels in radiochromic film readings with flatbed scanners. The same relationships are studied for noise. Finally, their implications for multichannel film dosimetry are discussed. Methods: Radiochromic films exposed to wedged fields of 6 MV energy were read in a flatbed scanner. The joint histograms of pairs of color channels were used to obtain the joint and conditional probability density functions between channels. Then, the conditional expectations and variances of one channel given another channel were obtained. Noise was extracted from film readings by means of a multiresolution analysis. Two different dose ranges were analyzed, the first one ranging from 112 to 473 cGy and the second one from 52 to 1290 cGy. Results: For the smallest dose range, the conditional expectations of one channel given another channel can be approximated by linear functions, while the conditional variances are fairly constant. The slopes of the linear relationships between channels can be used to simplify the expression that estimates the dose by means of the multichannel method. The slopes of the linear relationships between each channel and the red one can also be interpreted as weights in the final contribution to dose estimation. However, for the largest dose range, the conditional expectations of one channel given another channel are no longer linear functions. Finally, noises in different channels were found to correlate weakly. Conclusions: Signals present in different channels of radiochromic film readings show a strong statistical dependence. By contrast, noise correlates weakly between channels. For the smallest dose range analyzed, the linear behavior between the conditional expectation of one channel given another channel can be used to simplify calculations in multichannel film dosimetry.

  8. TECHNICAL NOTE: Thermal modelling of shape memory alloy fixator for medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C.; Campbell, P. A.; Frank, T. G.; Cuschieri, A.

    2002-04-01

    Shape memory alloy has been recently used for tissue fixation in minimal access surgery (MAS). It offers an alternative to conventional thread-based suturing of human tissue, with the advantage that its deployment is faster and requires fewer surgical skills. To minimize the damage to surrounding tissue, thermal analysis of tissue-fixator interactions has been done to optimize the heating method, and to predict the heating effect and affected range. The finite-difference method has been used to solve the one-dimensional transient heat transfer problem, with fixator-tissue conduction boundary condition, and the finite-element method was used to build a three-dimensional model for the design optimization. The predicted temperature responses of tissue are considered within a safety range. Tissue temperature drops quickly after heating, and the affected tissue is limited to a layer 1 mm thick next to the fixator. Further in vivo animal studies on the use of the shape memory alloy fixator are ongoing for future applications of tissue suturing in MAS.

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon autograft for adolescents with open physes- a technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauch Christian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One major concern in the treatment of ACL lesions in children and adolescents with open physes is the risk of iatrogenic damage to the physes and a possibly resulting growth disturbance. Purpose The primary purpose of this article is to describe our technique of a transphyseal ACL reconstruction using quadriceps tendon-bone autograft in children and adolescents with open growth plates. The secondary aim is to report our early results in terms of postoperative growth disturbances which are considered to be a major concern in this challenging group of patients. It was our hypothesis that with our proposed technique no significant growth disturbances would occur. Methods From January 1997 to December 2007 49 consecutive children and adolescents with open growth plates were treated for a torn ACL using the aforementioned surgical technique. The patients (28 males and 21 females with a median age at surgery of 13 (range 8-15 years were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome measures were follow-up radiographs (weight-bearing long leg radiographs of the injured and uninjured knee, anteroposterior and lateral views, a tangential view of the patella and a tunnel view of the injured knee and follow-up notes (6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 months and until closing of physes for occurrence of any tibial and/or femoral growth changes. Results: All of the 49 patients had a sufficient clinical and radiological follow-up (minimum 5 years, rate 100%. 48 cases did not show any clinical and radiological growth disturbance. One case of growth disturbance in a 10.5 years old girl was observed. She developed a progressive valgus-flexion deformity which was attributed to a malplacement of the autograft bone block within the femoral posterolateral epiphyseal plate leading to an early localized growth stop. None of the patients were reoperated due to ACL graft failure. Five of the patients underwent revision ACL surgery due to another adequate sports trauma after

  10. Technical Note: Formal blind intercomparison of OH measurements: results from the international campaign HOxComp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schlosser

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals (OH are the major oxidizing species in the troposphere. Because of their central importance, absolute measurements of their concentrations are needed to validate chemical mechanisms of atmospheric models. The extremely low and highly variable concentrations in the troposphere, however, make measurements of OH difficult. Three techniques are currently used worldwide for tropospheric observations of OH after about 30~years of technical developments: Differential Optical Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS, Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF, and Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (CIMS. Even though many measurement campaigns with OH data were published, the question of accuracy and precision is still under discussion.

    Here, we report results of the first formal, blind intercomparison of these techniques. Six OH instruments (4~LIF, 1~CIMS, 1~DOAS participated successfully in the ground-based, international HOxComp campaign carried out in Jülich, Germany, in summer 2005. Comparisons were performed for three days in ambient air (3~LIF, 1 CIMS and for six days in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (3~LIF, 1~DOAS. All instruments were found to measure tropospheric OH concentrations with high sensitivity and good time resolution. The pairwise correlations between different data sets were linear and yielded high correlation coefficients (r2=0.75−0.96. Excellent absolute agreement was observed for the instruments at the SAPHIR chamber, yielding slopes between 1.01 and 1.13 in the linear regressions. In ambient air, the slopes deviated from unity by factors of 1.06 to 1.69, which can partly be explained by the stated instrumental accuracies. In addition, sampling inhomogeneities and calibration problems have apparently contributed to the discrepancies. The absolute intercepts of the linear regressions did not exceed 0.6×106 cm−3, mostly being insignificant and of

  11. Technical Note: Mesocosm approach to quantify dissolved inorganic carbon percolation fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jessen, S.; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    unplanted soil. Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO(2)), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured with depth and time, and DIC in the percolate was quantified using a sodium hydroxide trap. Results showed good reproducibility between two replicate mesocosms. The pCO(2) varied between 0.......2 and 1.1 %, and the alkalinity was 0.1-0.6 meq L-1. The measured cumulative effluent DIC flux over the 78-day experimental period was 185-196 mg L-1 m(-2) and in the same range as estimates derived from pCO(2) and alkalinity in samples extracted from the side of the mesocosm column and the drainage flux......Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fluxes across the vadose zone are influenced by a complex interplay of biological, chemical and physical factors. A novel soil mesocosm system was evaluated as a tool for providing information on the mechanisms behind DIC percolation to the groundwater from...

  12. Ethylene oxide gas sterilization: a simple technique for storing explanted skull bone. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, David H; Neckrysh, Sergey; Hardman, Julian; Charbel, Fady T; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh

    2007-08-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of a simple technique using ethylene oxide (EtO) gas sterilization and room temperature storage of autologous bone grafts for reconstructive cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy. The authors retrospectively analyzed data in 103 consecutive patients who underwent cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy for any cause at the University of Illinois at Chicago between 1999 and 2005. Patients with a pre-existing intracranial infection prior to craniectomy or lost to follow-up before reconstruction were excluded. Autologous bone grafts were cleansed of soft tissue, hermetically sealed in sterilization pouches for EtO gas sterilization, and stored at room temperature until reconstructive cranioplasty was performed. Cranioplasties were performed an average of 4 months after decompressive craniectomy, and the follow-up after reconstruction averaged 14 months. Excellent aesthetic and functional results after single-stage reconstruction were achieved in 95 patients (92.2%) as confirmed on computed tomography. An infection of the bone flap occurred in eight patients (7.8%), and the skull defects were eventually reconstructed using polymethylmethacrylate with satisfactory results. The mean preservation interval was 3.8 months in patients with uninfected flaps and 6.4 months in those with infected flaps (p = 0.02). A preservation time beyond 10 months was associated with a significantly increased risk of flap infection postcranioplasty (odds ratio [OR] 10.8, p = 0.02). Additionally, patients who had undergone multiple craniotomies demonstrated a trend toward increased infection rates (OR 3.0, p = 0.13). Data in this analysis support the effectiveness of this method, which can be performed at any institution that provides EtO gas sterilization services. The findings also suggest that bone flaps preserved beyond 10 months using this technique should be discarded or resterilized prior to reconstruction.

  13. Technical note: Headspace analysis of explosive compounds using a novel sampling chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGreeff, Lauryn; Rogers, Duane A; Katilie, Christopher; Johnson, Kevin; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan

    2015-03-01

    The development of instruments and methods for explosive vapor detection is a continually evolving field of interest. A thorough understanding of the characteristic vapor signatures of explosive material is imperative for the development and testing of new and current detectors. In this research a headspace sampling chamber was designed to contain explosive materials for the controlled, reproducible sampling and characterization of vapors associated with these materials. In a detonation test, the chamber was shown to contain an explosion equivalent to three grams of trinitrotoluene (TNT) without damage to the chamber. The efficacy of the chamber in controlled headspace sampling was evaluated in laboratory tests with bulk explosive materials. Small quantities of TNT, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) were separately placed in the sampling chamber, and the headspace of each material was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with online cryogenic trapping to yield characteristic vapor signatures for each explosive compound. Chamber sampling conditions, temperature and sampling time, were varied to demonstrate suitability for precise headspace analysis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Technical Note: Correcting for signal attenuation from noisy proxy data in climate reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Ammann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Regression-based climate reconstructions scale one or more noisy proxy records against a (generally short instrumental data series. Based on that relationship, the indirect information is then used to estimate that particular measure of climate back in time. A well-calibrated proxy record(s, if stationary in its relationship to the target, should faithfully preserve the mean amplitude of the climatic variable. However, it is well established in the statistical literature that traditional regression parameter estimation can lead to substantial amplitude attenuation if the predictors carry significant amounts of noise. This issue is known as "Measurement Error" (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006. Climate proxies derived from tree-rings, ice cores, lake sediments, etc., are inherently noisy and thus all regression-based reconstructions could suffer from this problem. Some recent applications attempt to ward off amplitude attenuation, but implementations are often complex (Lee et al., 2008 or require additional information, e.g. from climate models (Hegerl et al., 2006, 2007. Here we explain the cause of the problem and propose an easy, generally applicable, data-driven strategy to effectively correct for attenuation (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006, even at annual resolution. The impact is illustrated in the context of a Northern Hemisphere mean temperature reconstruction. An inescapable trade-off for achieving an unbiased reconstruction is an increase in variance, but for many climate applications the change in mean is a core interest.

  15. Technical note: Late Pliocene age control and composite depths at ODP Site 982, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khélifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 982 provided a key sediment section at Rockall Plateau for reconstructing northeast Atlantic paleoceanography and monitoring benthic δ18O stratigraphy over the late Pliocene to Quaternary onset of major Northern Hemisphere glaciation. A renewed hole-specific inspection of magnetostratigraphic reversals and the addition of epibenthic δ18O records for short Pliocene sections in holes 982A, B, and C, crossing core breaks in the δ18O record published for Hole 982B, now imply a major revision of composite core depths. After tuning to the orbitally tuned reference record LR04, the new composite δ18O record results in a hiatus, where the Kaena magnetic subchron might have been lost, and in a significant age reduction for all proxy records by 130 to 20 ky over the time span 3.2–2.7 million years ago (Ma. Our study demonstrates the general significance of reliable composite-depth scales and δ18O stratigraphies in ODP sediment records for generating ocean-wide correlations in paleoceanography. The new concept of age control makes the late Pliocene trends in SST (sea surface temperature and atmospheric pCO2 at Site 982 more consistent with various paleoclimate trends published from elsewhere in the North Atlantic.

  16. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Renbaum-Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions. The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η ranging between 10−3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  17. Technical Note: Correcting for signal attenuation from noisy proxy data in climate reconstructions

    KAUST Repository

    Ammann, C. M.

    2010-04-20

    Regression-based climate reconstructions scale one or more noisy proxy records against a (generally) short instrumental data series. Based on that relationship, the indirect information is then used to estimate that particular measure of climate back in time. A well-calibrated proxy record(s), if stationary in its relationship to the target, should faithfully preserve the mean amplitude of the climatic variable. However, it is well established in the statistical literature that traditional regression parameter estimation can lead to substantial amplitude attenuation if the predictors carry significant amounts of noise. This issue is known as "Measurement Error" (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006). Climate proxies derived from tree-rings, ice cores, lake sediments, etc., are inherently noisy and thus all regression-based reconstructions could suffer from this problem. Some recent applications attempt to ward off amplitude attenuation, but implementations are often complex (Lee et al., 2008) or require additional information, e.g. from climate models (Hegerl et al., 2006, 2007). Here we explain the cause of the problem and propose an easy, generally applicable, data-driven strategy to effectively correct for attenuation (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006), even at annual resolution. The impact is illustrated in the context of a Northern Hemisphere mean temperature reconstruction. An inescapable trade-off for achieving an unbiased reconstruction is an increase in variance, but for many climate applications the change in mean is a core interest.

  18. Technical note: A procedure to estimate glucose requirements of an activated immune system in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvidera, S K; Horst, E A; Abuajamieh, M; Mayorga, E J; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Baumgard, L H

    2016-11-01

    Infection and inflammation impede efficient animal productivity. The activated immune system ostensibly requires large amounts of energy and nutrients otherwise destined for synthesis of agriculturally relevant products. Accurately determining the immune system's in vivo energy needs is difficult, but a better understanding may facilitate developing nutritional strategies to maximize productivity. The study objective was to estimate immune system glucose requirements following an i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Holstein steers (148 ± 9 kg; = 15) were jugular catheterized bilaterally and assigned to 1 of 3 i.v. control (CON; 3 mL saline; = 5), LPS-administered controls (LPS-C; 055:B5; 1.5 mg/kg BW; = 5), and LPS + euglycemic clamp (LPS-Eu; 1.5 mg/kg BW; 50% dextrose infusion to maintain euglycemia; = 5). In LPS-Eu steers, postbolus blood samples were analyzed for glucose every 10 min. Dextrose infusion rates were adjusted to maintain euglycemia for 720 min. All steers were fasted during the challenge. Samples for later analysis were obtained at 180, 360, 540, and 720 min relative to LPS administration. Rectal temperature was increased ∼0.5°C in both LPS treatments relative to CON steers ( = 0.01). Steers in both LPS treatments were hyperglycemic for ∼3 h postbolus; thereafter, blood glucose was markedly decreased (30%; large amount of glucose needed to maintain euglycemia indicates extensive repartitioning of nutrients away from growth and the importance of glucose as a fuel for the immune system.

  19. Technical Note: Alterations in the stone masonry of the Capitol Room of Sevilla City Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Navarro, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work has been to determine the causes of stone loss (small particles and one larger piece and mortar loss in the coffered vault of the Capitol Room in the City Hall of Seville. The analyses and assays carried out during the course of this research have revealed that this masonry comprises a covering of oil paints over mortar-stucco of calcite, quartz, gypsum,and lead white with linseed oil when the walls were not covered. In addition, it was confirmed that the installation of air-conditioning caused a change in the humidity and temperature in the vault, aggravated by the elimination of the cross-ventilation that the structure had since it was built. The combination of these two circumstances likely triggered the pathology in the masonry.Este trabajo ha tenido como objetivo principal determinarlas causas que han originado desprendimientos de partículas y un fragmento importante de las piedras y del mortero que conforman la bóveda-artesonado de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla. Los diferentes análisis y ensayos realizados evidencian que estas fábricas tienen un revestimiento realizado a base de pinturas al óleo sobre estuco-mortero de calcita, cuarzo, yeso y presencia de blanco de plomo con impregnación de aceite de linaza, en tanto que las fábricas de los muros no tienen revestimiento alguno. Igualmente se ha constatado el cambio de la humedad-temperatura ambiental en la bóveda, generado por la implantación de aire acondicionado y la eliminación de la ventilación cruzada natural que tenía desde su construcción. La conjunción de ambas acciones parece ser el desencadenante de las anomalías reseñadas.

  20. Technical Note: The single particle soot photometer fails to reliably detect PALAS soot nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gysel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The single particle soot photometer (SP2 uses laser-induced incandescence (LII for the measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC particles. The BC mass concentration is obtained by combining quantitative detection of BC mass in single particles with a counting efficiency of 100% above its lower detection limit. It is commonly accepted that a particle must contain at least several tenths of a femtogram BC in order to be detected by the SP2.

    Here we show the result that most BC particles from a PALAS spark discharge soot generator remain undetected by the SP2, even if their BC mass, as independently determined with an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM, is clearly above the typical lower detection limit of the SP2. Comparison of counting efficiency and effective density data of PALAS soot with flame generated soot (combustion aerosol standard burner, CAST, fullerene soot and carbon black particles (Cabot Regal 400R reveals that particle morphology can affect the SP2's lower detection limit. PALAS soot particles are fractal-like agglomerates of very small primary particles with a low fractal dimension, resulting in a very low effective density. Such loosely packed particles behave like "the sum of individual primary particles" in the SP2's laser. Accordingly, most PALAS soot particles remain undetected as the SP2's laser intensity is insufficient to heat the primary particles to their vaporisation temperature because of their small size (Dpp ≈ 5–10 nm. Previous knowledge from pulsed laser-induced incandescence indicated that particle morphology might have an effect on the SP2's lower detection limit, however, an increase of the lower detection limit by a factor of ∼5–10, as reported here for PALAS soot, was not expected.

    In conclusion, the SP2's lower detection limit at a certain laser power depends primarily on the total BC mass per particle for compact particles with sufficiently high effective

  1. Clinically Relevant Subregions of Articular Cartilage of the Hip for Analysis and Reporting Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Rachel K; Lucas, Erin P; Wilson, Katharine J; Saroki, Adriana J; Ho, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    Before quantitative imaging techniques can become clinically valuable, the method, and more specifically, the regions of locating and reporting these values should be standardized toward reproducibility comparisons across centers and longitudinal follow-up of individual patients. The purpose of this technical note is to describe a rigorous and reproducible method of locating, analyzing, and reporting quantitative MRI values in hip articular cartilage with an approach that is consistent with current orthopedic literature. To demonstrate this localization and documentation, 3 patients (age, 23 ± 5.1 years; 2 males, 1 female) who presented with symptomatic mixed-type femoroacetabular impingement (α angle, 63.3° ± 2.1°; center edge angle, 39° ± 4.2°) were evaluated with T2-mapping at 3 T MRI prior to hip arthroscopy. Manual segmentation was performed and cartilage of the acetabulum and femur was divided into 12 subregions adapted from the geographic zone method. Bone landmarks in the acetabulum and femur, identifiable both in arthroscopy and MR images, were manually selected and the coordinates exported for division of cartilage. Mean T2 values in each zone are presented. The current work outlines a standardized system to locate and describe quantitative mapping values that could aid in surgical decision making, planning, and the noninvasive longitudinal follow-up of implemented cartilage preservation and restoration techniques.

  2. A Technical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thirdly, it is available for only six months each year. The objectives of the processing and marketing were to address these problems. Tanzania J.Agric.~c. (2006) Vol.7 No.2 .... The bamboo wine (p2). In: IDRC BamboolRattan Networks News. No 14. February 1993, IDRC- South Asia. Regional Office, New Delhi. Kants, Sand ...

  3. Electroencephalographic changes using virtual reality program: technical note condensed title: a study using a mobile EEG device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Síria Monyelle Silva de; Medeiros, Candice Simões Pimenta de; Pacheco, Thaiana Barbosa Ferreira; Bessa, Nathalia Priscilla Oliveira Silva; Silva, Fernanda Gabrielle Mendonça; Tavares, Nathália Stéphany Araújo; Rego, Isabelle Ananda Oliveira; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Cavalcanti, Fabrícia Azevedo da Costa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the technique of an electroencephalographic (EEG) assessment using the Emotiv EPOC® during the performance of a virtual reality motor task and compare theta, alpha, beta and gamma power frequencies between left and right hemispheres. This is technical note in which 9 healthy young subjects were submitted to an evaluation with Emotiv EPOC® during the Nintendo® Wii 'Basic Step' virtual game using the Wii Balance Board (WBB) on a support 13 centimeters high. The Wilcoxon statistical test was applied and pairing between the cerebral hemispheres was performed. Participants had a mean age of 22.55 ± 2.78 years, 77.8% were right-handed, and 22.8% had no experience with the selected virtual game. According to dominancy (right handed n = 7; and left handed n = 2), it was observed that the right-handed individuals showed significantly greater difference in the right hemisphere in the EEG in front region (gamma power in channels AF4, p = 0.028 and F4, p = 0.043) and parietal region (theta and beta power in P8 channel, p = 0.043), while alpha power showed a greater activity in the left hemisphere (P7 channel, p = 0.043). Considering the inter-hemispheric analysis, it was observed that the right hemisphere presented a higher activation potential in the frontal lobe for gamma waves (p = 0.038 for AF3-AF4 channels), and in the temporal lobe for beta and alpha waves (p = 0.021). This study showed that the virtual environment can provide distinct cortical activation patterns considering an inter-hemispheric analysis, highlighting greater activation potential in the right hemisphere.

  4. Technical note: Analysis of claims and disputes in contracts for oil and gas development projects in Iran with solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah Sajedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contracts for oil and gas development projects are naturally complex, they are explained with some of maps and technical specifications. To supply the goals of contracts, it is necessary to construct by a team having owner, consulting engineer and contractor. The unique aspects of each project and team working are resulting to disagreements. It should be noted that the majority of team workers have not previously worked together. It may not be expected to forecast all project aspects in design and preparation of tender documents process. However, in some cases it will occur inconsistencies in contract documents and possibly may be disagreements on commentary of the cases which there are in the provisions of the contract. Every root of disagreement resulted in to claim and finally dispute. Lack of foresight and/or existing ambiguous texts in some provisions of contract, not being aware of components of the project to conditions and obligations and rules of contract will complex and sometimes impossible the agreement on implementation problems. Therefore, the claims will be resulted in disputes and inflict financial losses to contractors and/or owners and then the projects will not be completed. In Iran many activities have not been carried out about claims and disputes in different orientations especially in areas futures and hence, it was studied in this research. Firstly, research history was considered and the causes of claims and disputes were identified in process of different levels of oil projects construction from primary to exploitation and then a questionnaire was prepared using the comments of experts. Finally, the questionnaire was analysed by SPSS and the approved factors in creation of claims and disputes and in their roots were ranked.

  5. Oregon Low-Temperature-Resource Assessment Program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.; Woller, N.M.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous low-temperature hydrothermal systems are available for exploitation throughout the Cascades and eastern Oregon. All of these areas have heat flow significantly higher than crustal averages and many thermal aquifers. In northeastern Oregon, low temperature geothermal resources are controlled by regional stratigraphic aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group at shallow depths and possibly by faults at greater depths. In southeastern Oregon most hydrothermal systems are of higher temperature than those of northeastern Oregon and are controlled by high-angle fault zones and layered volcanic aquifers. The Cascades have very high heat flow but few large population centers. Direct use potential in the Cascades is therefore limited, except possibly in the cities of Oakridge and Ashland, where load may be great enough to stimulate development. Absence of large population centers also inhibits initial low temperature geothermal development in eastern Oregon. It may be that uses for the abundant low temperature geothermal resources of the state will have to be found which do not require large nearby population centers. One promising use is generation of electricity from freon-based biphase electrical generators. These generators will be installed on wells at Vale and Lakeview in the summer of 1982 to evaluate their potential use on geothermal waters with temperatures as low as 80/sup 0/C (176/sup 0/F).

  6. TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR: High Temperature Superconductors: Progress and Issues

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    Monday 24 June from 14:30 to 15:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593-11 High Temperature Superconductors: Progress and Issues Prof. Jan Evetts / UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, UK Grappling with grain boundaries: Current transport processes in granular High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) The development of High Temperature Superconductors, seen from a materials scientist's point of view, is relevant to the superconductivity community at CERN: their possible high current applications can include high performance magnets for future accelerators. There is an urgent need to develop a quantitative description of HTS conductors in terms of their complex anisotropy, inhomogeneity and dimensionality. This is essential both for the practical specification of a conductor and for charting routes to conductor optimisation. The critical current, the n-value, dissipation and quenching characteristics are amongst most important parameters that make up an engineering specifi...

  7. High Temperature Chemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Lawrence T. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Merkert Chemistry Center, Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-05-15

    The primary goal of this research was to uncover the principal reaction channels available to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperatures in the gas phase and to establish the factors that determine which channels will be followed in varying circumstances. New structure-property relationships for PAHs were also studied. The efficient production of clean energy from fossil fuels will remain a major component of the DOE mission until alternative sources of energy eventually displace coal and petroleum. Hydrocarbons constitute the most basic class of compounds in all of organic chemistry, and as the dominant species in fossil fuels, they figure prominently into the programs of the DOE. Much is already known about the normal chemistry of hydrocarbons under ambient conditions, but far less is known about their intrinsic chemistry at temperatures close to those reached during combustion. An understanding of the fundamental molecular transformations, rearrangements, and interconversions of PAHs at high temperatures in the gas phase, as revealed by careful studies on small, well-designed, molecular systems, provides insights into the underlying chemistry of many important processes that are more complex, such as the generation of energy by the combustion of fossil fuels, the uncatalyzed gasification and liquefaction of coal, the production of fullerenes in fuel-rich flames, and the formation of soot and carcinogenic pollutants in smoke (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene). The rational control of any of these processes, whether it be the optimization of a desirable process or the minimization of an undesirable one, requires a clear knowledge of the basic chemistry that governs the fate of the species involved. Advances in chemistry at the most fundamental level come about primarily from the discovery of new reactions and from new insights into how reactions occur. Harnessing that knowledge is the key to new technologies. The recent commercialization of a combustion

  8. Note: Temperature effects in the modified Howland current source for electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Santos, S.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to show how the modified Howland current source (MHCS) is affected by temperature changes. The source has been tested in a temperature range from 20 to 70 °C and frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. Parameters like output current, output impedance, total harmonic distortion, and oscillation have been measured. The measurements were made inside a temperature controlled environment. It was showed that the MHCS is stable at temperatures below 70 °C. Operational amplifiers with a low temperature drift and matching resistor should be carefully considered in order to prevent oscillations at high temperatures.

  9. Technical Note: The Effect of The Fed’s Quantitative Easing Policy on the Performance of Listed Companies and the Banking Sector in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Rizky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While the efficient market hypothesis suggests that stock price reflects the fundamental condition of companies, which could affect investors’ decisions, this technical note reports empirical evidence that stock price is also influenced by the public’s perception of the market situation. This note shows that the source of funds circulating in the Indonesia Stock Exchange is related to excess liquidity resulting from the policy of quantitative easing (QE by developed countries’ central banks. Banks funding assets with debt results in leverage relationships with the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR negatively affected. Thus it is evident that the Indonesian banking strategy is "reactive" and is influenced by external factors. External factors can be influenced by global issues as well as internal (enterprise performance issues. Therefore foreign and global issues may be important (perhaps dominant in determining the perceptions of the Indonesian stock market.

  10. Note: Production of stable colloidal probes for high-temperature atomic force microscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditscherlein, L; Peuker, U A

    2017-04-01

    For the application of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy at high temperatures (>500 K), stable colloidal probe cantilevers are essential. In this study, two new methods for gluing alumina particles onto temperature stable cantilevers are presented and compared with an existing method for borosilicate particles at elevated temperatures as well as with cp-cantilevers prepared with epoxy resin at room temperature. The durability of the fixing of the particle is quantified with a test method applying high shear forces. The force is calculated with a mechanical model considering both the bending as well as the torsion on the colloidal probe.

  11. Note: A temperature-stable low-noise transimpedance amplifier for microcurrent measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Shi, Xueyou; Zhao, Kai; Guo, Lixin; Zhang, Hanlu

    2017-02-01

    Temperature stability and noise characteristics often run contradictory in microcurrent (e.g., pA-scale) measurement instruments because low-noise performance requires high-value resistors with relatively poor temperature coefficients. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier with high-temperature stability, which involves an active compensation mechanism to overcome the temperature drift mainly caused by high-value resistors, is presented. The implementation uses a specially designed R-2R compensating network to provide programmable current gain with extra-fine trimming resolution. The temperature drifts of all components (e.g., feedback resistors, operational amplifiers, and the R-2R network itself) are compensated simultaneously. Therefore, both low-temperature drift and ultra-low-noise performance can be achieved. With a current gain of 1011 V/A, the internal current noise density was about 0.4 fA/√Hz, and the average temperature coefficient was 4.3 ppm/K at 0-50 °C. The amplifier module maintains accuracy across a wide temperature range without additional thermal stabilization, and its compact size makes it especially suitable for high-precision, low-current measurement in outdoor environments for applications such as electrochemical emission supervision, air pollution particles analysis, radiation monitoring, and bioelectricity.

  12. Note: Heated sample platform for in situ temperature-programmed XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander; Tatarchuk, Bruce J

    2011-07-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and performance of the multi-specimen heated platform for linear in situ heating during the Temperature-Programmed XPS (TPXPS). The platform is versatile, compatible with high vacuum (HV) and bakeout. The heater platform is tested under in situ linear heating of typical high surface area sorbent∕catalyst support--nanoporous TiO(2). The platform allows the TPXPS of multiple samples located on specimen disk that can be transferred in and out of the TPXPS chamber. Electric characteristics, temperature and pressure curves are provided. Heating power supply, PID temperature controller, data-logging hardware and software are described.

  13. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  14. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybeł, Piotr; Wałach, Daniel; Jaskowska-Lemańska, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  15. Creating protective appliances for preventing dental injury during endotracheal intubation using intraoral scanning and 3D printing: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Hyung; Park, Wonse; Park, Kyeong-Mee; Kim, Seo-Yul; Kim, Kee-Deog

    2017-03-01

    Digital dentistry has influenced many dental procedures, such as three-dimensional (3D) diagnosis and treatment planning, surgical splints, and prosthetic treatments. Patient-specific protective appliances (PSPAs) prevent dental injury during endotracheal intubation. However, the required laboratory work takes time, and there is the possibility of tooth extraction while obtaining the dental impression. In this technical report, we utilized new digital technology for creating PSPAs, using direct intraoral scanners and 3D printers for dental cast fabrication.

  16. Creating protective appliances for preventing dental injury during endotracheal intubation using intraoral scanning and 3D printing: a technical note

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jin-Hyung; Park, Wonse; Park, Kyeong-Mee; Kim, Seo-Yul; Kim, Kee-Deog

    2017-01-01

    Digital dentistry has influenced many dental procedures, such as three-dimensional (3D) diagnosis and treatment planning, surgical splints, and prosthetic treatments. Patient-specific protective appliances (PSPAs) prevent dental injury during endotracheal intubation. However, the required laboratory work takes time, and there is the possibility of tooth extraction while obtaining the dental impression. In this technical report, we utilized new digital technology for creating PSPAs, using dire...

  17. Note: A method for minimizing oxide formation during elevated temperature nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, I. C.; Hodge, A. M., E-mail: ahodge@usc.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, 3650 McClintock Avenue OHE430, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Garcia-Sanchez, E. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, 3650 McClintock Avenue OHE430, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, NL 66450 (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    A standardized method to protect metallic samples and minimize oxide formation during elevated-temperature nanoindentation was adapted to a commercial instrument. Nanoindentation was performed on Al (100), Cu (100), and W (100) single crystals submerged in vacuum oil at 200 °C, while the surface morphology and oxidation was carefully monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results were compared to room temperature and 200 °C nanoindentation tests performed without oil, in order to evaluate the feasibility of using the oil as a protective medium. Extensive surface characterization demonstrated that this methodology is effective for nanoscale testing.

  18. A Note on Unsteady Temperature Equation For Gravity Flow of A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present an analytical study of unsteady temperature energy equation for gravity of a fluid with non – Newtonian behaviour through a porous medium. For the case of radial axisymmetric flow, the governing partial differential equation is transformed into an ordinary differential equation through similarity variables.

  19. Notes on the temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation by aerobic CH(4)-oxidising bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihous, Gerard C

    2010-06-01

    While the importance of environmental analyses based on isotope discrimination has been growing, uncertainties remain about underlying phenomena. Published results on the temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation during methane oxidation in various media show different trends. A decrease in fractionation is generally expected with temperature, but some data for methane oxidation in aqueous media show an inverse relationship. This apparent contradiction was probed by representing the first methane oxidation step as three elementary processes: the adsorption of methane on the bacterial cell wall, the desorption of methane from the wall, and the conversion of methane into methanol mediated by methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes. Assuming that the proportion of vacant adsorption sites is stationary, a formula for the composite fractionation factor alpha was obtained. It was shown that alpha not only expresses the fractionation that may occur in each elementary process, but that it also depends on the ratio of the kinetic rates for conversion into methanol and desorption. This result and experimental data were used to estimate the activation energy for the desorption of methane from methanotroph cell wall in aqueous medium ( approximately 200 kJ/mol). Simple Rosso models of bacterial maximal-specific growth rate were then used to demonstrate that alpha and the isotope fractionation from the MMO-mediated conversion into methanol alone could vary in opposite ways as temperature changes, but that care must be exercised when using fitted relationships across wide temperature ranges.

  20. Insight into the da Vinci® Xi - technical notes for single-docking left-sided colorectal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, James Chi-Yong; Sim, Sarah; Yusof, Sulaiman; Ng, Chee-Yung; Wong, Andrew Siang-Yih

    2017-12-01

    The adoption of robot-assisted laparoscopic colorectal surgery has been hampered by issues with docking, operative duration, technical difficulties in multi-quadrant access, and cost. The da Vinci® Xi has been designed to overcome some of these limitations. We describe our experience with the system and offer technical insights to its application in left-sided colorectal procedures. Our initial series of left-sided robotic colorectal procedures was evaluated. Patient demographics and operative outcomes were recorded prospectively using a predefined database. Between March 2015 and April 2016, 54 cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic left-sided colorectal procedures were successfully completed with no cases of conversion. The majority were low anterior resections for colorectal malignancies. Using the da Vinci® Xi Surgical System, multi-quadrant surgery involving dissection from the splenic flexure to the pelvis was possible without redocking. The da Vinci® Xi simplifies the docking procedure and makes single-docking feasible for multi-quadrant left-sided colorectal procedures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Vacuum-assisted closure of necrotic and infected cranial wound with loss of dura mater: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osama; Storey, Christopher M; Zhang, Shihao; Chelly, Marjorie R; Yeoh, Melvin S; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Complex cranial wounds can be a problematic occurrence for surgeons. Vacuum-assisted closure devices have a wide variety of applications and have recently been used in neurosurgical cases involving complex cranial wounds. There is only one report regarding the use of a vacuum-assisted closure device with loss of dura mater. We report a complicated case of a necrotic cranial wound with loss of dura mater. A 68-year-old female underwent an evacuation of a subdural hematoma. Postoperatively, the patient developed a wound infection that required removal of the bone flap. The wound developed a wedge-shaped necrosis of the scalp with exposure of brain tissue due to loss of dura mater from previous surgeries. She underwent debridement and excision of the necrotic tissue with placement of a synthetic dural graft (Durepair®, Medtronic, Inc.) and placement of a wound vac. The patient underwent a latissismus dorsi muscle flap reconstruction that subsequently failed. After the wound vac was replaced, the synthetic dural graft was replaced with a fascia lata graft and an anterolateral thigh free flap reconstruction. We describe the technical nuances of this complicated case, how the obstacles were handled, and the literature that discusses the utility. We describe a case of a complex cranial wound and technical nuances on how to utilize a wound-vac with loss of dura mater.

  2. Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xinyu; Yin, Longfei; Zhuang, Wei; Luo, Bin; Dang, Anhong; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate an external-cavity laser system using an anti-reflection coated laser diode as gain medium with about 60 nm fluorescence spectrum, and a Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as frequency-selecting element with a transmission bandwidth of 1.3 GHz. With 6.4% optical feedback, a single stable longitudinal mode is obtained with a linewidth of 69 kHz. The wavelength of this laser is operating within the center of the highest transmission peak of FADOF over a diode current range from 55 mA to 142 mA and a diode temperature range from 15 °C to 35 °C, thus it is immune to the fluctuations of current and temperature.

  3. Some Notes About Medical Vocabulary in 18th Century New Spain: Technical and Colloquial Words for the Denomination of Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the 18th Century medical vocabulary is something that has been studied during recent years in Spain, the situation is very different in Latin America, where papers on this subject are very limited. In this case, this paper aims to study the denominations for illnesses that were discovered in a 18th Century New Spain document corpus: to do so, the corpus will be described and then the vocabulary used in the documents will be analysed; the paper will pay special attention to questions such as neologisms, fluctuating words and the presence of colloquial vocabulary. Thus, the purposes of the paper are three: 1 to demonstrate the importance of official documents for the study of medical vocabulary; 2 to provide some data for writing the history of this vocabulary; and 3 to note some analyses that should be done in the future. 

  4. Notes for a pedagogical approach to skills training for entrepreneurship in technical and technological institutes of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Roxana Chiquito-Chilán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise value has increased with the passage of time; and today has special significance especially in countries as in the case of Ecuador; where efforts to changing the productive matrix, a process that involves a productive revolution through the development of knowledge and human talent develop. The achievement of the purposes of this strategy depends largely on the quality of the formation of enterprising professionals. A technical and technological institutes are in business technologists have a key role in such training, in this sense the author of this article as part of the doctoral studies performed in Cuba works, this article contains the fundamentals and Ideas around which develops a pedagogical approach to skills training for entrepreneurship.

  5. Higher magnification microsurgical repair of donor artery dissection in superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis--technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Nobuhisa; Shibata, Takashi; Kamiyama, Hironaga; Tomita, Takahiro; Okamoto, Soushi; Kubo, Michiya; Horie, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Donor artery dissection is a known cause of technical failure in microvascular anastomosis. A method for detection and direct repair of donor artery dissection before superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis is described using a high magnification operating microscope (maximum 50.4× magnification). Before STA-MCA anastomosis, the stump of the STA is stained using methylrosaniline chloride (pyoctaninum blue) and is observed under higher magnifications. Microsurgical suturing of the arterial dissection is performed before the anastomosis procedure under the high magnification microscope. This method was used in two patients with symptomatic hemodynamic cerebrovascular occlusive disease. Postoperative angiography revealed good patency and no complications occurred. This method may be useful for detection and direct repair of arterial dissection in small vessel walls before STA-MCA anastomosis.

  6. Affordable self-regulating irrigation device for microsurgery using readily available malleable wire and a Silastic tube: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeongu; Lee, Sung Ho; Ryu, Jiwook; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Seok Keun

    2017-12-01

    A relevant irrigating and flushing maneuver during cerebral microsurgical procedures allows for a neat and optimal operative field. However, when operating on the deep region of the brain, a delicately created slim surgical corridor could unintentionally hinder the assisting surgeon from properly performing this routine maneuver. To address this problem, the authors devised a useful and convenient irrigation system that can be used during cerebral microsurgery. This system only necessitates a readily available silastic feeding tube and a malleable wire. The advantages of our devised system include the convenience of free molding, good endurance of the molded contour, and easy control over the amount of irrigation. In this report, the authors demonstrated technical tips for using this newly devised system.

  7. Technical Note: System for evaluating local hypothermia as a radioprotector of the rectum in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycushko, Brian A; Bing, Chenchen; Futch, Cecil; Wodzak, Michelle; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Medin, Paul M; Chopra, Rajiv

    2017-08-01

    The protective effects of induced or even accidental hypothermia on the human body are widespread with several medical uses currently under active research. In vitro experiments using human cell lines have shown hypothermia provides a radioprotective effect that becomes more pronounced at large, single-fraction doses common to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments. This work describes the development of a system to evaluate local hypothermia for a radioprotective effect of the rat rectum during a large dose of radiation relevant to prostate SBRT. This includes the evaluation of a 3D-printed small animal rectal cooling device and the integration with a small animal irradiator. A 3-cm long, dual-lumen rectal temperature control apparatus (RTCA) was designed in SOLIDWORKS CAD for 3D printing. The RTCA was capable of recirculating flow in a device small enough for insertion into the rat rectum, with a metal support rod for strength as well as visibility during radiation treatment planning. The outer walls of the RTCA comprised of thin heat shrink plastic, achieving efficient heat transfer into adjacent tissues. Following leak-proof testing, fiber optic temperature probes were used to evaluate the temperature over time when placed adjacent to the cooling device within the rat rectum. MRI thermometry characterized the relative temperature distribution in concentric ROIs surrounding the probe. Integration with an image-guided small animal irradiator and associated treatment planning system included evaluation for imaging artifacts and effect of brass tubing on dose calculation. The rectal temperature adjacent to the cooling device decreased from body temperature to 15°C within 10-20 min from device insertion and was maintained at 15 ± 3°C during active cooling for the evaluated time of one hour. MR thermometry revealed a steep temperature gradient with increasing distance from the cooling device with the desired

  8. A short note on the inclusion of sultriness issues in perceived temperature in mild climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Henning; Laschewski, Gudrun; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Sultriness is a specific case in thermal perception under warm/humid environments and frequently applied in German operational weather forecast and is assumed if the dew-point temperature t d exceeds a threshold of 16.5 °C. In perceived temperature ( PT), which is based on the ASHRAE two-node-model, a Central European climatology was prepared of the classical predicted mean vote ( PMV), exclusively linked to thermal stress, and the so-called rational PMV* that additionally accounts for the humidity in the meteorological environment and is closely linked to thermal strain. The standard deviation of the difference Δ PMV = PMV* - PMV over PMV reveals a similarity to the appearance of sultriness that suggests as side effect of the PT parameterisation a thermophysiologically based definition of sultriness: "Under warm/humid conditions a subject adapted to mild climatologic conditions perceives sultriness if the actual value of Δ PMV exceeds the long-term mean by more than its single standard deviation". This definition accounts for all environmental and subject related variables influencing the thermal state of the body and is in accordance with all in the literature described properties in the perception of sultriness. The two definitions coincide more or less at daylight hours for t d values markedly beyond the threshold. However, in the t d threshold region, the PT-derived definition offers stronger differentiated patterns and is significantly less frequent at nighttime than the mono-causal definition. For given PT values, the sensible heat flux via the skin shows an increase under a sultry environment, whereas the latent is reduced; skin and core temperatures as well as the skin blood flow are also less. In any case, PT-derived sultriness is linked with an increased thermal strain on the body temperatures, which is a measure of discomfort caused by increased humidity and/or dissatisfaction with the thermal environment. This confirms the thermal uncomfortable

  9. Note: A versatile mass spectrometer chamber for molecular beam and temperature programmed desorption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonks, James P., E-mail: james.tonks@awe.co.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); AWE Plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Galloway, Ewan C., E-mail: ewan.galloway@awe.co.uk; King, Martin O. [AWE Plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Kerherve, Gwilherm [VACGEN Ltd, St. Leonards-On-Sea, East Sussex TN38 9NN (United Kingdom); Watts, John F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    A dual purpose mass spectrometer chamber capable of performing molecular beam scattering (MBS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is detailed. Two simple features of this design allow it to perform these techniques. First, the diameter of entrance aperture to the mass spectrometer can be varied to maximize signal for TPD or to maximize angular resolution for MBS. Second, the mass spectrometer chamber can be radially translated so that it can be positioned close to the sample to maximize signal or far from the sample to maximize angular resolution. The performance of this system is described and compares well with systems designed for only one of these techniques.

  10. Technical note: An experimental set-up to measure latent and sensible heat fluxes from (artificial plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes that operate at small scales yet exert a significant influence on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and climate. Surprisingly, experimental capabilities required to quantify the energy–transpiration coupling at the leaf scale are lacking, challenging our ability to test basic questions of importance for resolving large-scale processes. The present study describes an experimental set-up for the simultaneous observation of transpiration rates and all leaf energy balance components under controlled conditions, using an insulated closed loop miniature wind tunnel and artificial leaves with pre-defined and constant diffusive conductance for water vapour. A range of tests documents the above capabilities of the experimental set-up and points to potential improvements. The tests reveal a conceptual flaw in the assumption that leaf temperature can be characterized by a single value, suggesting that even for thin, planar leaves, a temperature gradient between the irradiated and shaded or transpiring and non-transpiring leaf side can lead to bias when using observed leaf temperatures and fluxes to deduce effective conductances to sensible heat or water vapour transfer. However, comparison of experimental results with an explicit leaf energy balance model revealed only minor effects on simulated leaf energy exchange rates by the neglect of cross-sectional leaf temperature gradients, lending experimental support to our current understanding of leaf gas and energy exchange processes.

  11. Technical note: PaGELL v.1.5: A flexible parametric program for the Bayesian analysis of longevity data within the context of animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J; Brito, L C

    2017-10-01

    This technical note presents the program PaGELL v.1.5 (Parametric Genetic Evaluation of Lifespan in Livestock), a flexible software program to analyze (right-censored) longevity data in livestock populations, with a special emphasis on the genetic evaluation of the breeding stock. This software relies on a parametric generalization of the proportional hazard model; more specifically, the baseline hazard function follows a Weibull process and flexibility is gained by including an additional time-dependent effect with the number of change points defined by the user. The program can accommodate 3 different sources of variation (i.e., systematic, permanent environmental, and additive genetic effects) and both fixed and time-dependent patterns (only for systematic and permanent environmental effects). Analyses are performed within a Bayesian context by sampling from the joint posterior distribution of the model, and model fit can be easily determined by the calculation of the deviance information criterion. Although this software has already been used on field data sets, its performance has been double-checked on simulated data set, and results are presented in this technical note. PaGELL v.1.5 was written in Fortran 95 language and, after compiling with the GNU Fortran Compiler v.4.7 and later, it has been tested in Windows, Linux, and MacOS operating systems (both 32- and 64-bit platforms). This program is available at http://www.casellas.info/files/pageII.zip. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical Note: Experimental determination of the effective point of measurement of two cylindrical ionization chambers in a clinical proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Yuya, E-mail: yuya.sugama@gmail.com [Proton Therapy Center, Aizawa Hospital, Nagano 390-0821, Japan and Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898 (Japan); Nishio, Teiji [Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: IAEA TRS-398 notes that cylindrical ionization chambers are preferred for reference proton dosimetry. If a cylindrical ionization chamber is used in a phantom to measure the dose as a function of depth, the effective point of measurement (EPOM) must be taken into account. IAEA TRS-398 recommends a displacement of 0.75 times the inner cavity radius (0.75R) for heavy ion beams. Theoretical models by Palmans and by Bhullar and Watchman confirmed this value. However, the experimental results vary from author to author. The purpose of this study is to accurately measure the displacement and explain the past experimental discrepancies. Methods: In this work, we measured the EPOM of cylindrical ionization chambers with high accuracy by comparing the Bragg-peak position obtained with cylindrical ionization chambers (PTW 30013, PTW 31016) to that obtained using a plane-parallel ionization chamber (PTW 34045). Results: The EPOMs of PTW 30013 and 31016 were shifted by 0.92 ± 0.07 R with R = 3.05 mm and 0.90 ± 0.14 R with R = 1.45 mm, respectively, from the reference point toward the source. Conclusions: The EPOMs obtained were greater than the value of 0.75R proposed by the IAEA TRS-398 and the analytical results.

  13. Technical note: Preservation of Trichomonas vaginalis viability in urine for laboratorial diagnosis by the wet mount examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Dias, Mariana; Menezes, Camila Braz; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-11-01

    This study compared preservative solutions at different temperatures aiming to improve the wet mount for trichomoniasis diagnosis. The glucose-saline pH6.0 solution preserved the trophozoites up to 6h. The urine samples preservation is crucial for diagnosis and we suggest this solution as part of the clinical laboratorial routine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An Operating Microscope with Higher Magnification and Higher Resolution for Cerebral Aneurysm Surgery: Preliminary Experience—Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUMURA, Nobuhisa; SHIBATA, Takashi; HORI, Emiko; KAMIYAMA, Hironaga; TANI, Mariko; OKAMOTO, Soushi; KUBO, Michiya; HORIE, Yukio; ENDO, Shunro; KURODA, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a higher magnifying power operating microscope system to improve one method of high-quality microsurgical clipping for cerebral aneurysm in some cases. This higher magnification is achieved by a new lens design in the optical system, which makes the image of the object very clear at high magnifications (distinctiveness of 7 μm). This higher-resolution operating microscope system provides the surgeon with higher-magnified images (at the maximum of more than 30× magnifications as each working distance) in the operating field. The magnifications can be changed from low power (2.9×) to high power (62.0×) depending on the circumstances in a given procedure. We have used this operating microscope system on 11 patients with microsurgical clipping for cerebral aneurysms. Microsurgical treatment could be performed safely and precisely. All aneurysms were treated without any technical complications. We think that the use of this microscope would have potential benefits for microsurgical treatment for cerebral aneurysms because of better visualization. PMID:24097097

  15. An operating microscope with higher magnification and higher resolution for cerebral aneurysm surgery: preliminary experience-technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Nobuhisa; Shibata, Takashi; Hori, Emiko; Kamiyama, Hironaga; Tani, Mariko; Okamoto, Soushi; Kubo, Michiya; Horie, Yukio; Endo, Shunro; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2014-06-17

    We describe a higher magnifying power operating microscope system to improve one method of high-quality microsurgical clipping for cerebral aneurysm in some cases. This higher magnification is achieved by a new lens design in the optical system, which makes the image of the object very clear at high magnifications (distinctiveness of 7 μm). This higher-resolution operating microscope system provides the surgeon with higher-magnified images (at the maximum of more than 30× magnifications as each working distance) in the operating field. The magnifications can be changed from low power (2.9×) to high power (62.0×) depending on the circumstances in a given procedure. We have used this operating microscope system on 11 patients with microsurgical clipping for cerebral aneurysms. Microsurgical treatment could be performed safely and precisely. All aneurysms were treated without any technical complications. We think that the use of this microscope would have potential benefits for microsurgical treatment for cerebral aneurysms because of better visualization.

  16. Technical Note: Guidelines for the digital computation of 2D and 3D enamel thickness in hominoid teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Panetta, Daniele; Fornai, Cinzia; Toussaint, Michel; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-02-01

    The study of enamel thickness has received considerable attention in regard to the taxonomic, phylogenetic and dietary assessment of human and non-human primates. Recent developments based on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) digital techniques have facilitated accurate analyses, preserving the original object from invasive procedures. Various digital protocols have been proposed. These include several procedures based on manual handling of the virtual models and technical shortcomings, which prevent other scholars from confidently reproducing the entire digital protocol. There is a compelling need for standard, reproducible, and well-tailored protocols for the digital analysis of 2D and 3D dental enamel thickness. In this contribution we provide essential guidelines for the digital computation of 2D and 3D enamel thickness in hominoid molars, premolars, canines and incisors. We modify previous techniques suggested for 2D analysis and we develop a new approach for 3D analysis that can also be applied to premolars and anterior teeth. For each tooth class, the cervical line should be considered as the fundamental morphological feature both to isolate the crown from the root (for 3D analysis) and to define the direction of the cross-sections (for 2D analysis). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Vertical extraventricular functional hemispherotomy: a new variant for hemispheric disconnection. Technical notes and results in three patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Flavio; Spacca, Barbara; Barba, Carmen; Mari, Francesco; Pisano, Tiziana; Guerrini, Renzo; Genitori, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    Hemispherectomy and disconnective hemispherotomy are the most effective epilepsy surgical procedures for the treatment of epilepsy due to hemispheric pathologies such as Sturge-Weber syndrome, diffuse hemispheric cortical dysplasia, and posttraumatic and postischemic focal lesions. Disconnective hemispherotomy is nowadays preferred to reduce surgical morbidity in term of early and late complications (i.e., cerebral superficial hemosiderosis). Despite the number of existing technical variants conceived to further reduce the amount of brain tissue to be removed, postoperative hydrocephalus still persists and may account for an average incidence of 15-41% according to different series and reviews. A new variant of disconnective vertical hemispherotomy we termed vertical extraventricular parasagittal hemispherotomy is described aiming to further reduce the amount of removed brain tissue and so the risk of postoperative hydrocephalus in favor of a pure hemispheric disconnection. Three patients affected by drug-resistant epilepsy due to different hemispheric pathologies (posttraumatic epilepsy, Sturge-Weber syndrome, diffuse hemispheric cortical dysplasia) were considered to be candidates for vertical extraventricular parasagittal hemispherotomy disconnective based on presurgical evaluation protocol. The oldest patient was 15 years old, the two youngest were both 2 years old. None of the patients experienced early and late surgical complications. After a mean follow-up of 36 months (range 12-60 months), two patients were seizure free, one relapsed seizures 18 months later. Postoperative hydrocephalus never occurred. Vertical extraventricular parasagittal hemispherotomy may be an efficacious and less invasive technique as it consists in a pure disconnection of the hemisphere with less amount of brain tissue removed and a theoretical reduced risk of postoperative hydrocephalus.

  18. Technical Note: Particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations and their association with environmental conditions in an urban, subtropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, S. S.; Siegel, J. A.; Kinney, K. A.

    2014-07-01

    Reactions between hydrocarbons and ozone or hydroxyl radicals lead to the formation of oxidized species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the troposphere. ROS can be carried deep into the lungs by small aerodynamic particles where they can cause oxidative stress and cell damage. While environmental studies have focused on ROS in the gas phase and rainwater, it is also important to determine concentrations of ROS on respirable particles. Samples of PM2.5 collected over 3 h at midday on 40 days during November 2011 and September 2012 show that the particulate ROS concentration in Austin, Texas, ranged from a minimum value of 0.02 nmoles H2O2 m-3 air in December to 3.81 nmoles H2O2 m-3 air in September. Results from correlation tests and linear regression analysis on particulate ROS concentrations and environmental conditions (which included ozone and PM2.5 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and solar radiation) indicate that ambient particulate ROS is significantly influenced by the ambient ozone concentration, temperature and incident solar radiation. Particulate ROS concentrations measured in this study were in the range reported by other studies in the US, Taiwan and Singapore. This study is one of the first to assess seasonal variations in particulate ROS concentrations and helps explain the influence of environmental conditions on particulate ROS concentrations.

  19. Uncooled infrared camera for the noninvasive visualization of the vascular flow in an anastomotic vessel during neurological surgery: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naoki; Ishihara, Miya; Nakai, Kanji; Fujita, Masanori; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2014-06-17

    We herein present our experience to assess intraoperative confirmation of vascular patency with an uncooled infrared camera in extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. This camera had distinguishing characteristics, including its small size, light weight, and adequate temperature resolution (camera to assess the vascular flow of the end-to-side anastomosis model in rats. In addition, we evaluated the vascular flow in continuous clinical series using this infrared camera during EC-IC bypass in 14 patients (17 sides). This infrared camera offers real-time information on the vascular patency of end-to-side anastomosis vessels of all relevant diameters. The spatial resolution and image quality are satisfactory, and the procedure can be safely repeatable. We have shown that the infrared camera could be a new and feasible technology for intraoperative imaging of the vascular flow and is considered to be clinically useful during cerebrovascular surgery.

  20. Technical Note: A new global database of trace gases and aerosols from multiple sources of high vertical resolution measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bodeker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new database of trace gases and aerosols with global coverage, derived from high vertical resolution profile measurements, has been assembled as a collection of binary data files; hereafter referred to as the "Binary DataBase of Profiles" (BDBP. Version 1.0 of the BDBP, described here, includes measurements from different satellite- (HALOE, POAM II and III, SAGE I and II and ground-based measurement systems (ozonesondes. In addition to the primary product of ozone, secondary measurements of other trace gases, aerosol extinction, and temperature are included. All data are subjected to very strict quality control and for every measurement a percentage error on the measurement is included. To facilitate analyses, each measurement is added to 3 different instances (3 different grids of the database where measurements are indexed by: (1 geographic latitude, longitude, altitude (in 1 km steps and time, (2 geographic latitude, longitude, pressure (at levels ~1 km apart and time, (3 equivalent latitude, potential temperature (8 levels from 300 K to 650 K and time.

    In contrast to existing zonal mean databases, by including a wider range of measurement sources (both satellite and ozonesondes, the BDBP is sufficiently dense to permit calculation of changes in ozone by latitude, longitude and altitude. In addition, by including other trace gases such as water vapour, this database can be used for comprehensive radiative transfer calculations. By providing the original measurements rather than derived monthly means, the BDBP is applicable to a wider range of applications than databases containing only monthly mean data. Monthly mean zonal mean ozone concentrations calculated from the BDBP are compared with the database of Randel and Wu, which has been used in many earlier analyses. As opposed to that database which is generated from regression model fits, the BDBP uses the original (quality controlled measurements with no smoothing applied in any

  1. Technical Note: Linking climate change and downed woody debris decomposition across forests of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Matthew B.; Woodall, Christopher W.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play a critical role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Forest carbon (C) is stored through photosynthesis and released via decomposition and combustion. Relative to C fixation in biomass, much less is known about C depletion through decomposition of woody debris, particularly under a changing climate. It is assumed that the increased temperatures and longer growing seasons associated with projected climate change will increase the decomposition rates (i.e., more rapid C cycling) of downed woody debris (DWD); however, the magnitude of this increase has not been previously addressed. Using DWD measurements collected from a national forest inventory of the eastern United States, we show that the residence time of DWD may decrease (i.e., more rapid decomposition) by as much as 13% over the next 200 years, depending on various future climate change scenarios and forest types. Although existing dynamic global vegetation models account for the decomposition process, they typically do not include the effect of a changing climate on DWD decomposition rates. We expect that an increased understanding of decomposition rates, as presented in this current work, will be needed to adequately quantify the fate of woody detritus in future forests. Furthermore, we hope these results will lead to improved models that incorporate climate change scenarios for depicting future dead wood dynamics in addition to a traditional emphasis on live-tree demographics.

  2. Technical note: Fu-Liou-Gu and Corti-Peter model performance evaluation for radiative retrievals from cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Campbell, James R.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Gu, Yu; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2017-06-01

    We compare, for the first time, the performance of a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer algorithm package, the Corti-Peter (CP) model, versus the more complex Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG) model, for resolving top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing characteristics from single-layer cirrus clouds obtained from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network database in 2010 and 2011 at Singapore and in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, in 2012. Specifically, CP simplifies calculation of both clear-sky longwave and shortwave radiation through regression analysis applied to radiative calculations, which contributes significantly to differences between the two. The results of the intercomparison show that differences in annual net top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative forcing can reach 65 %. This is particularly true when land surface temperatures are warmer than 288 K, where the CP regression analysis becomes less accurate. CP proves useful for first-order estimates of TOA cirrus cloud forcing, but may not be suitable for quantitative accuracy, including the absolute sign of cirrus cloud daytime TOA forcing that can readily oscillate around zero globally.

  3. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical experiment at Kamaishi mine. Technical note 15-99-02. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka; Fujita, Tomoo [Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Amemiya, Kiyoshi [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    It is an important part of the near field performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal to evaluate coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena, e.g., thermal effects on groundwater flow through rock matrix and water seepage into the buffer material, the generation of swelling pressure of the buffer material, and thermal stresses potentially affecting porosity and fracture apertures of the rock. An in-situ T-H-M experiment named Engineered Barrier Experiment' has been conducted at the Kamaishi Mine, of which host rock is granodiorite, in order to establish conceptual models of the coupled T-H-M processes and to build confidence in mathematical and computer codes. In 1995, fourteen boreholes were excavated in order to install the various sensors. After the hydraulic tests, mechanical tests were carried out to obtain the rock properties. After that, a test pit, 1.7 m in diameter and 5.0 m in depth, was excavated. During the excavation, the change of pore pressure, displacement and temperature of rock mass were measured. In 1996, the buffer material and heater were set up in the test pit, and then coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical test was started. The duration of heating phase was 250 days and that of cooling phase was 180 days. The heater surface was controlled to be 100degC during heating phase. Measurement was carried out by a number of sensors installed in both buffer and rock mass during the test. The field experiment leads to a better understanding of the behavior of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near field. (author)

  4. Technical Note: Fast two-dimensional GC-MS with thermal extraction for anhydro-sugars in fine aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A fast two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC-MS method that uses heart-cutting and thermal extraction (TE and requires no chemical derivatization was developed for the determination of anhydro-sugars in fine aerosols. Evaluation of the TE-GC-GC-MS method shows high average relative accuracy (≥90%, reproducibility (≤10% relative standard deviation, detection limits of less than 3 ng/μL, and negligible carryover for levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan markers. TE-GC-GC-MS- and solvent extraction (SE-GC-MS-measured levoglucosan concentrations correlate across several diverse types of biomass burning aerosols. Because the SE-GC-MS measurements were taken 8 years prior to the TE-GC-GC-MS ones, the stability of levoglucosan is established for quartz filter-collected biomass burning aerosol samples stored at ultra-low temperature (−50 °C. Levoglucosan concentrations (w/w in aerosols collected following atmospheric dilution near open fires of varying intensity are similar to those in biomass burning aerosols produced in a laboratory enclosure. An average levoglucosan-mannosan-galactosan ratio of 15:2:1 is observed for these two aerosol sets. TE-GC-GC-MS analysis of atmospheric aerosols from the US and Africa produced levoglucosan concentrations (0.01–1.6 μg/m3 well within those reported for aerosols collected globally and examined using different analytical techniques (0.004–7.6 μg/m3. Further comparisons among techniques suggest that fast TE-GC-GC-MS is among the most sensitive, accurate, and precise methods for compound-specific quantification of anhydro-sugars. In addition, an approximately twofold increase in anhydro-sugar determination may be realized when combining TE with fast chromatography.

  5. Technical Note: Initial assessment of a multi-method approach to spring-flood forecasting in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, J.; Uvo, C. B.; Foster, K.; Yang, W.

    2016-02-01

    Hydropower is a major energy source in Sweden, and proper reservoir management prior to the spring-flood onset is crucial for optimal production. This requires accurate forecasts of the accumulated discharge in the spring-flood period (i.e. the spring-flood volume, SFV). Today's SFV forecasts are generated using a model-based climatological ensemble approach, where time series of precipitation and temperature from historical years are used to force a calibrated and initialized set-up of the HBV model. In this study, a number of new approaches to spring-flood forecasting that reflect the latest developments with respect to analysis and modelling on seasonal timescales are presented and evaluated. Three main approaches, represented by specific methods, are evaluated in SFV hindcasts for the Swedish river Vindelälven over a 10-year period with lead times between 0 and 4 months. In the first approach, historically analogue years with respect to the climate in the period preceding the spring flood are identified and used to compose a reduced ensemble. In the second, seasonal meteorological ensemble forecasts are used to drive the HBV model over the spring-flood period. In the third approach, statistical relationships between SFV and the large-sale atmospheric circulation are used to build forecast models. None of the new approaches consistently outperform the climatological ensemble approach, but for early forecasts improvements of up to 25 % are found. This potential is reasonably well realized in a multi-method system, which over all forecast dates reduced the error in SFV by ˜ 4 %. This improvement is limited but potentially significant for e.g. energy trading.

  6. Technical note: A hydrological routing scheme for the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2+R) tested in the Tapajós River basin in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Fabio F.; Farinosi, Fabio; Arias, Mauricio E.; Lee, Eunjee; Briscoe, John; Moorcroft, Paul R.

    2017-09-01

    Land surface models are excellent tools for studying how climate change and land use affect surface hydrology. However, in order to assess the impacts of Earth processes on river flows, simulated changes in runoff need to be routed through the landscape. In this technical note, we describe the integration of the Ecosystem Demography (ED2) model with a hydrological routing scheme. The purpose of the study was to create a tool capable of incorporating to hydrological predictions the terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate, carbon dioxide, and land-use change, as simulated with terrestrial biosphere models. The resulting ED2+R model calculates the lateral routing of surface and subsurface runoff resulting from the terrestrial biosphere models' vertical water balance in order to determine spatiotemporal patterns of river flows within the simulated region. We evaluated the ED2+R model in the Tapajós, a 476 674 km2 river basin in the southeastern Amazon, Brazil. The results showed that the integration of ED2 with the lateral routing scheme results in an adequate representation (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency up to 0.76, Kling-Gupta efficiency up to 0.86, Pearson's R up to 0.88, and volume ratio up to 1.06) of daily to decadal river flow dynamics in the Tapajós. These results are a consistent step forward with respect to the no river representation common among terrestrial biosphere models, such as the initial version of ED2.

  7. Testing REACH draft technical guidance notes for conducting chemical safety assessments-the experience of a downstream user of a preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Anne Lill; Ovrebø, Steinar; Hylland, Ketil

    2008-07-01

    The goal of REACH is the safe use of chemicals. This study examines the efficiency and usefulness of two draft technical guidance notes in the REACH Interim Project 3.2-2 for the development of the chemical safety report and exposure scenarios. A case study was carried out for a paint system for protection of structural steel. The focuses of the study were risk assessment of preparations based on Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) and Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) and on effective and accurate communication in the supply chain. Exposure scenarios and generic descriptions of uses, risk management measures, and exposure determinants were developed. The study showed that communication formats, software tools, and guidelines for chemical risk assessment need further adjustment to preparations and real-life situations. Web platforms may simplify such communication. The downstream formulator needs basic substance data from the substance manufacturer during the pre-registration phase to develop exposure scenarios for preparations. Default values need to be communicated in the supply chain because these were critical for the derivation of applicable risk management demands. The current guidelines which rely on the available toxicological knowledge are insufficient to advise downstream users on how to develop exposure scenarios for preparations.

  8. Hacienda. Technical Note No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxeng, James

    This paper describes a simulation game, "Hacienda," designed to replicate the economic and social realities of the peasants' situation in rural Ecuador. The game involves three to 15 players (and often more), one of whom, by a roll of the dice, takes the role of "hacendado," or hacienda owner, who gains title to all the…

  9. Radiosurgical third ventriculostomy: Technical note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Aceves, Guillermo Axayacalt; Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio; Celis, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Bojórquez, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Background: We describe a minimally invasive technique to perform a radiosurgical third ventriculostomy in a patient with mild obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to malignant pathology. Methods: A 42 years old woman with diagnosis of clear cells renal carcinoma and with right nefrectomy performed last year. Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed two brain metastasis: one right temporal, and other in the pons with Sylvian aqueduct partial obliteration and mild ventricular enlargement. The patient received radiosurgical treatment for brain metastasis; after this procedure a new target was defined on the floor of the third ventricle, in the midpoint between the mamillary bodies and the infundibular recess where we delivered 100 Gy delivered by an isocentric multiple noncoplanar arcs technique, with a 6 MV Novalis® dedicated LINAC. A series of 21 arcs was arranged with a radiation field generated by a 4 mm circular collimator. Results: One week pos-irradiation in the head CT we did not find significant changes in the metastatic lesions; however the VSI diminished 4%, despite of persistent aqueduct obliteration. At three months we perform 3.0 T MRI where we confirmed the presence of the third ventriculostomy (2.63 mm diameter). Conclusion: This report demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of a dedicated LINAC to perform a precise third ventriculostomy without associate morbility in short term. PMID:23226607

  10. Technical Note: Phantom study to evaluate the dose and image quality effects of a computed tomography organ-based tube current modulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat, E-mail: taly.gilat-schmidt@marquette.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Crotty, Dominic J.; Stevens, Grant M. [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: This technical note quantifies the dose and image quality performance of a clinically available organ-dose-based tube current modulation (ODM) technique, using experimental and simulation phantom studies. The investigated ODM implementation reduces the tube current for the anterior source positions, without increasing current for posterior positions, although such an approach was also evaluated for comparison. Methods: Axial CT scans at 120 kV were performed on head and chest phantoms on an ODM-equipped scanner (Optima CT660, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, England). Dosimeters quantified dose to breast, lung, heart, spine, eye lens, and brain regions for ODM and 3D-modulation (SmartmA) settings. Monte Carlo simulations, validated with experimental data, were performed on 28 voxelized head phantoms and 10 chest phantoms to quantify organ dose and noise standard deviation. The dose and noise effects of increasing the posterior tube current were also investigated. Results: ODM reduced the dose for all experimental dosimeters with respect to SmartmA, with average dose reductions across dosimeters of 31% (breast), 21% (lung), 24% (heart), 6% (spine), 19% (eye lens), and 11% (brain), with similar results for the simulation validation study. In the phantom library study, the average dose reduction across all phantoms was 34% (breast), 20% (lung), 8% (spine), 20% (eye lens), and 8% (brain). ODM increased the noise standard deviation in reconstructed images by 6%–20%, with generally greater noise increases in anterior regions. Increasing the posterior tube current provided similar dose reduction as ODM for breast and eye lens, increased dose to the spine, with noise effects ranging from 2% noise reduction to 16% noise increase. At noise equal to SmartmA, ODM increased the estimated effective dose by 4% and 8% for chest and head scans, respectively. Increasing the posterior tube current further increased the effective dose by 15% (chest) and 18% (head

  11. Low-Temperature Microbial Activity in River Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, K

    2001-01-01

    This technical note examines dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and changes in river microbiology during winter, low temperatures, and periods of ice cover with the objective of providing guidance for winter water quality modeling...

  12. Note: A simple system for low-temperature experiments in a large-volume multi-anvil press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, W.; Secco, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    A simple cooling system for a 3000-ton multi-anvil press was developed for temperatures below room temperature at high pressures. It is much simpler in design, easier to make and use, and has the same cooling capability as the previous design. The new system uses a steel ring surrounding the module wedges, which contains liquid nitrogen (LN2) that flows freely through a port to flood the interior of the pressure module. O-rings on the steel ring seal in LN2 while permitting compression. Two different cooling systems reach ˜220 K which suggests that thermal equilibrium for this press is reached between the removal and influx of heat.

  13. Final Technical Report - 300°C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System For Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng-Po; Shaddock, David; Sandvik, Peter; Saia, Rich; Amita Patil, Alexey Vert; Zhang, Tan

    2012-11-30

    A silicon carbide (SiC) based electronic temperature sensor prototype has been demonstrated to operate at 300°C. We showed continuous operation of 1,000 hours with SiC operational amplifier and surface mounted discreet resistors and capacitors on a ceramic circuit board. This feasibility demonstration is a major milestone in the development of high temperature electronics in general and high temperature geothermal exploration and well management tools in particular. SiC technology offers technical advantages that are not found in competing technologies such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI) at high temperatures of 200°C to 300°C and beyond. The SiC integrated circuits and packaging methods can be used in new product introduction by GE Oil and Gas for high temperature down-hole tools. The existing SiC fabrication facility at GE is sufficient to support the quantities currently demanded by the marketplace, and there are other entities in the United States and other countries capable of ramping up SiC technology manufacturing. The ceramic circuit boards are different from traditional organic-based electronics circuit boards, but the fabrication process is compatible with existing ceramic substrate manufacturing. This project has brought high temperature electronics forward, and brings us closer to commercializing tools that will enable and reduce the cost of enhanced geothermal technology to benefit the public in terms of providing clean renewable energy at lower costs.

  14. Novel Multisensor Probe for Monitoring Bladder Temperature During Locoregional Chemohyperthermia for Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Technical Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional hyperthermia delivery necessitates adequate thermal dosimetry; thus, optimal thermometry methods are needed to monitor accurately the temperature distribution throughout the bladder wall. The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a novel intravesical device (multi-sensor probe) developed to monitor the local bladder wall temperatures during loco-regional C-HT. Materials and Methods: A multisensor thermocouple probe was designed for deployment in the human bladder, using special sensors to cover the bladder wall in different directions. The deployment of the thermocouples against the bladder wall was evaluated with visual, endoscopic, and CT imaging in bladder phantoms, porcine models, and human bladders obtained from obduction for bladder volumes and different deployment sizes of the probe. Finally, porcine bladders were embedded in a phantom and subjected to locoregional heating to compare probe temperatures with additional thermometry inside and outside the bladder wall. Results: The 7.5 cm thermocouple probe yielded optimal bladder wall contact, adapting to different bladder volumes. Temperature monitoring was shown to be accurate and representative for the actual bladder wall temperature. Conclusions: Use of this novel multisensor probe could yield a more accurate monitoring of the bladder wall temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia. PMID:24112045

  15. Debriefing Note Secondary Education Support Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, Neil; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen; Thomsen, Thomas J.

    Debriefing note regarding joint programming for the Secondary Education Support Programme (2003- 2007). The note specifies preparation of SIP Physical Guidelines; Training needs assessment for Physical School Status and Rapid Technical Assessments; SIP/DEP preparation; Selection criteria for dist......Debriefing note regarding joint programming for the Secondary Education Support Programme (2003- 2007). The note specifies preparation of SIP Physical Guidelines; Training needs assessment for Physical School Status and Rapid Technical Assessments; SIP/DEP preparation; Selection criteria...

  16. Research Note:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behuria, Pritish; Buur, Lars; Gray, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    about its core conceptual and methodological features. This Research Note starts by setting out our understanding of political settlements and provides an overview of existing political settlements literature on African countries. The note then explores how the key concept of ‘holding power’ has been...

  17. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate temperatures in decontaminating soils containing organic compounds with different volatilities (boiling points). The da...

  18. Note: Second osmotic virial coefficients of short alkanes and their alcohol counterparts in water as a function of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Du; Delpo, Courtney; Blackmon, Odella; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2018-01-07

    While molecular-scale hydrophobic interactions are readily evaluable from molecular simulations, it is challenging to compare these predictions against experiment as a result of the sparing solubility of purely non-polar species. Recent theoretical and simulation advances have enabled the determination of second osmotic virial coefficients for solutes in aqueous solution, providing an alternate route for experimental validation. Here we report simulation predictions for the second osmotic virial coefficients for methane and ethane as well as those for their alcohol counterparts, methanol and ethanol, in water over a broad temperature range. The results for the alcohols quantitatively agree with available experimental results, providing support for simulation predictions for molecular-scale hydrophobic interactions.

  19. Unenhanced Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Fusion Imaging in Direct Percutaneous Sac Injection for Treatment of Type II Endoleak: Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@gmail.com; Ierardi, Anna Maria [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy); Radaelli, Alessandro [Philips Healthcare (Netherlands); Marchi, Giuseppe De; Floridi, Chiara [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy); Piffaretti, Gabriele [University of Insubria, Vascular Surgery Department (Italy); Federico, Fontana [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    AimTo evaluate safety, feasibility, technical success, and clinical success of direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) for the treatment of type II endoleaks (T2EL) using anatomical landmarks on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fusion imaging (FI).Materials and MethodsEight patients with T2EL were treated with DPSI using CBCT as imaging guidance. Anatomical landmarks on unenhanced CBCT were used for referencing T2EL location in the first five patients, while FI between unenhanced CBCT and pre-procedural computed tomography angiography (CTA) was used in the remaining three patients. Embolization was performed with thrombin, glue, and ethylene–vinyl alcohol copolymer. Technical and clinical success, iodinated contrast utilization, procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and mean radiation dose were registered.ResultsDPSI was technically successful in all patients: the needle was correctly positioned at the first attempt in six patients, while in two of the first five patients the needle was repositioned once. Neither minor nor major complications were registered. Average procedural time was 45 min and the average administered iodinated contrast was 13 ml. Mean radiation dose of the procedure was 60.43 Gy cm{sup 2} and mean fluoroscopy time was 18 min. Clinical success was achieved in all patients (mean follow-up of 36 months): no sign of T2EL was reported in seven patients until last CT follow-up, while it persisted in one patient with stability of sac diameter.ConclusionsDPSI using unenhanced CBCT and FI is feasible and provides the interventional radiologist with an accurate and safe alternative to endovascular treatment with limited iodinated contrast utilization.

  20. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumours: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Garnon, Julien; Ramamurthy, Nitin; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Imperiale, Alessio; Namer, Izzie Jacques; Bachellier, Philippe; Caudrelier, Jean; Rao, Pramod; Koch, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin

    2016-09-01

    To review our preliminary experience with 6-L-18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET/CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Three patients (mean age 51.3 years; range 43-56) with gastro-entero pancreatic NET (GEP-NET) liver metastases underwent 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA. Patients were referred with oligometastatic hepatic-confined disease (1-6 metastases; visualisation on US, CT, and MR; and ongoing symptoms. Procedures were performed in an interventional PET/CT scanner under general anaesthesia using a split-dose protocol. Lesion characteristics, procedural duration and technical success (accurate probe placement and post-procedural ablation-zone photopaenia), complications, patient and operator dose, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Thirteen liver metastases (mean size 11.4 mm, range 8-16) were treated in three patients (two presented with "carcinoid syndrome"). Technical success was 100 % with a mean procedural duration of 173.3 min (range 90-210) and no immediate complications. Mean patient dose was 2844 mGy·cm (range 2104-3686). Operator and radiographer doses were acceptable other than the operator's right hand in the first case (149 µSv); this normalised in the second case. There was no local tumour or extra-hepatic disease progression at mid-term follow-up (mean 12.6 months; range 6-20); however, two cases progressed with new liver metastases at different sites. There was 100 % clinical success (n = 2) in resolving carcinoid syndrome symptoms. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA appears technically feasible, safe, and effective in patients with GEP-NETs and low-burden hepatic metastases. Further prospective studies are required to elucidate its precise role in tailored multimodality management of GEP-NET liver metastases.

  1. Research Note:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behuria, Pritish; Buur, Lars; Gray, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    its core conceptual and methodological features. This Research Note starts by setting out our understanding of political settlements and provides an overview of existing political settlements literature on African countries. The note then explores how the key concept of ‘holding power’ has been...... the importance of studying economic structure, ideology, violence rights, and rents as sources of holding power. The overall contribution of the note is to illustrate the varied strategies used in studying political settlements and to place them in conversation with one another....

  2. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumours: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Imperiale, Alessio, E-mail: alessio.imperiale@chru-strasbourg.fr; Namer, Izzie Jacques, E-mail: izzie.jacques.namer@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpital de Hautepierre (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine (France); Bachellier, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.bachellier@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpital de Hautepierre (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation (France); Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Rao, Pramod, E-mail: pramodrao@me.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2016-09-15

    AimTo review our preliminary experience with 6-l-18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET/CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).Materials and MethodsThree patients (mean age 51.3 years; range 43–56) with gastro-entero pancreatic NET (GEP-NET) liver metastases underwent 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA. Patients were referred with oligometastatic hepatic-confined disease (1–6 metastases; <3 cm) on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT; poor lesion visualisation on US, CT, and MR; and ongoing symptoms. Procedures were performed in an interventional PET/CT scanner under general anaesthesia using a split-dose protocol. Lesion characteristics, procedural duration and technical success (accurate probe placement and post-procedural ablation-zone photopaenia), complications, patient and operator dose, and clinical outcomes were evaluated.ResultsThirteen liver metastases (mean size 11.4 mm, range 8–16) were treated in three patients (two presented with “carcinoid syndrome”). Technical success was 100 % with a mean procedural duration of 173.3 min (range 90–210) and no immediate complications. Mean patient dose was 2844 mGy·cm (range 2104–3686). Operator and radiographer doses were acceptable other than the operator’s right hand in the first case (149 µSv); this normalised in the second case. There was no local tumour or extra-hepatic disease progression at mid-term follow-up (mean 12.6 months; range 6–20); however, two cases progressed with new liver metastases at different sites. There was 100 % clinical success (n = 2) in resolving carcinoid syndrome symptoms.Conclusion18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA appears technically feasible, safe, and effective in patients with GEP-NETs and low-burden hepatic metastases. Further prospective studies are required to elucidate its precise role in tailored multimodality management of GEP-NET liver metastases.

  3. Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

  4. Editorial note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Ahlbäck

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note of Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis, vol. 12, Saami Religion, based on papers read at the symposium on Saami Religion held at Åbo/Turku, Finland, on 16-18 August 1984.

  5. Safety Note

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Note no 29 (NS 29) entitled 'Fire Prevention for Insulating Core (Sandwich) Panel Structures for Inside Use Guidelines for Selection, Installation and Use' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/475438/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit secretariat, e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  6. State-coupled low temperature geothermal resource assessment program, fiscal year 1982. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, Larry

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from June 15, 1981 through September 30, 1983, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contract DE-AS07-78ID01717). The report is divided into four chapters which correspond to the tasks delineated in the contract. Chapter 5 is a brief summary of the tasks performed under this contract during the period October 1, 1978, through June 30, 1983. This work extends the knowledge of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications in New Mexico. The research effort focused on compiling basic geothermal data throughout selected areas in New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for use with New Mexico geothermal resources maps.

  7. The use of a pedicle screw-cortical screw hybrid system for the surgical treatment of a patient with congenital multilevel spinal non-segmentation defect and spinal column deformity: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashayeri, Kimberly; Nasser, Rani; Nakhla, Jonathan; Yassari, Reza

    2016-11-01

    This technical note presents, to the authors' knowledge, the first reported case of a hybrid pedicle-cortical screw system for instrumented fusion in a patient with congenital vertebral column deformity. Cortical screws were navigated using stereotactic guidance to extend a prior non-segmented fusion mass, facilitating instrumentation in a circumstance with completely distorted anatomy. This technique provided a safe trajectory with excellent cortical purchase in an anatomically deformed spine. Cortical screw fixation may serve to be helpful in augmenting pedicle screw fixation and in circumstances in which the bone quality is suboptimal or the pedicles are compromised. Cortical screw fixation is a relatively new technology, but it may prove to be invaluable in providing an adjunct to pedicle screw constructs in anatomically distorted or osteoporotic spines.

  8. Flat-Panel Cone-Beam Ct-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Very Small (≤1.5 cm) Liver Tumors: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: r.cazzato@unicampus.it; Buy, Xavier, E-mail: x.buy@bordeaux.unicancer.fr; Alberti, Nicolas, E-mail: nicoalbertibdx@gmail.com; Fonck, Mariane, E-mail: m.fonk@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié 229 Cours de l’Argonne, Department of Radiology (France); Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it [Università “Campus Bio-Medico di Roma”, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Italy); Palussière, Jean, E-mail: j.palussiere@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié 229 Cours de l’Argonne, Department of Radiology (France)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThe aim of the present study was to investigate the technical feasibility of flat-panel cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of very small (<1.5 cm) liver tumors.Materials and MethodsPatients included were candidates for hepatic percutaneous RFA as they had single biopsy-proven hepatic tumors sized ≤1.5 cm and poorly defined on ultrasonography. Following apnea induction, unenhanced CBCT scans were acquired and used to deploy the RF electrode with the aid of a virtual navigation system. If the tumor was not clearly identified on the unenhanced CBCT scan, a right retrograde arterial femoral access was established to carry out hepatic angiography and localize the tumor. Patients’ lesions and procedural variables were recorded and analyzed.ResultsThree patients (2 male and 1 female), aged 68, 76, and 87 years were included; 3 lesions (2 hepato-cellular carcinoma and 1 metastasis from colorectal cancer) were treated. One patient required hepatic angiography. Cycles of apnea used to acquire CBCT images and to deploy the electrode lasted <120 s. Mean fluoroscopic time needed to deploy the electrode was 36.6 ± 5.7 min. Mean overall procedural time was 66.0 ± 22.9 min. No peri- or post-procedural complications were noted. No cases of incomplete ablation were noted at 1-month follow-up.ConclusionPercutaneous CBCT-guided liver RFA with or without arterial hepatic angiography is technically feasible.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward for 750–800°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Collins

    2009-08-01

    This document presents the NGNP Critical PASSCs and defines their technical maturation path through Technology Development Roadmaps (TDRMs) and their associated Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). As the critical PASSCs advance through increasing levels of technical maturity, project risk is reduced and the likelihood of within-budget and on-schedule completion is enhanced. The current supplier-generated TRLs and TDRMs for a 750–800°C reactor outlet temperature (ROT) specific to each supplier are collected in Appendix A.

  10. Technical Note: Evolution, current capabilities, and future advance in satellite nadir viewing ultra-spectral IR sounding of the lower atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Smith Sr.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Infrared ultra-spectral spectrometers have brought in a new era in satellite remote atmospheric sounding capability. During the 1970s, after the implementation of the first satellite sounding instruments, it became evident that much higher vertical resolution sounding information was needed to be able to forecast life and property threatening localized severe weather. The demonstration of the ultra-spectral radiance measurement technology required to achieve higher vertical resolution began in 1985, with the aircraft flights of the High resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS instrument. The development of satellite instruments designed to have a HIS-like measurement capability was initiated in the late 1980's. Today, after more than a decade of development time, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI are now operating successfully from the Aqua and MetOp polar orbiting satellites. The successful development and ground demonstration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS, during this decade, is now paving the way toward the implementation of the ultra-spectral sounding capability on the international system of geostationary environmental satellites. This note reviews the evolution of the satellite ultra-spectral sounding systems, shows examples of current polar satellite sounding capability, and discusses future advances planned for geostationary orbit.

  11. Technical note on results of production test IP-628-AI: Crosstie flow test and flushing calibration, and the earlier production tests IP-573-AI and IP-499-AI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.S.

    1964-06-15

    A series of three experimental tests was conducted on the operation and adequacy of the K-Reactors` third, or last-ditch, cooling system. The first test showed considerable line corrosion the second test was performed directly after line cleaning, and the third test showed a significant amount of additional line corrosion after only nine months of service. The present cooling adequacy of this last-ditch system at the KE and KW reactors is summarized these show the power levels for which we have adequate last-ditch cooling as a function of the crosstie coolant temperature. These figures include the effects of increasing the number of pumps that remain in operation at the other K-Reactor, and various other operating or emergency conditions. These curves are for diesel pump speeds of 750 rpm which are planned for June of this year. In these figures the crosstie temperature is assumed to be a conservative 5{degrees}C above the process water inlet temperature.

  12. Arthroscopic reconstruction of chronic AC joint dislocations by transposition of the coracoacromial ligament augmented by the Tight Rope device: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hamid; Friedmann, Svenja; Tröger, Markus; Lobenhoffer, Philipp; Agneskirchner, Jens D

    2009-01-01

    We present a new arthroscopic technique for chronic AC joint dislocations with coracoacromial ligament transposition and augmentation by the Tight Rope device (Arthrex, Naples, USA). First the glenohumeral joint is visualised to repair concomitant lesions, such as SLAP lesions, if needed. Once the rotator interval is opened and the coracoid is identified, the arthroscope is moved to an additional anterolateral portal. A 1.5 cm incision is made 2 cm medial to the AC joint. After drilling a 4 mm hole with a cannulated drill through the clavicle and coracoid a Tight Rope is inserted, the clavicule is reduced and stabilized with the implant. The arthroscope is moved to the subacromial space and a partial bursectomy is performed to visualise the CA ligament and lateral clavicle. The CA ligament is armed with a strong braided suture using a Lasso stitch and dissected from the undersurface of the acromion. It is then reattached to the distal part of the clavicle by transosseous suture fixation after abrasion of its undersurface. Although this combined arthroscopic procedure of AC joint augmentation with a Tight Rope combined with a ligament transposition is technically demanding, it is a safe method to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligaments and achieve a sufficient reduction of the clavicle without the need of further implant removal or autologous tendon transplantation.

  13. Percutaneous Biopsy and Radiofrequency Ablation of Osteoid Osteoma with Excess Reactive New Bone Formation and Cortical Thickening Using a Battery-Powered Drill for Access: A Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippiadis, D., E-mail: dfilippiadis@yahoo.gr; Gkizas, C., E-mail: chgkizas@gmail.com; Kostantos, C., E-mail: drkarpen@yahoo.gr; Mazioti, A., E-mail: argyromazioti@yahoo.gr; Reppas, L., E-mail: l.reppas@yahoo.com; Brountzos, E., E-mail: ebrountz@med.uoa.gr; Kelekis, N., E-mail: kelnik@med.uoa.gr; Kelekis, A., E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr [University General Hospital “ATTIKON”, 2nd Radiology Department (Greece)

    2016-10-15

    PurposeTo report our experience with the use of a battery-powered drill in biopsy and radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteoma with excess reactive new bone formation. The battery-powered drill enables obtaining the sample while drilling.Materials and MethodsDuring the last 18 months, 14 patients suffering from painful osteoid osteoma with excess reactive new bone formation underwent CT-guided biopsy and radiofrequency ablation. In order to assess and sample the nidus of the osteoid osteoma, a battery-powered drill was used. Biopsy was performed in all cases. Then, coaxially, a radiofrequency electrode was inserted and ablation was performed with osteoid osteoma protocol. Procedure time (i.e., drilling including local anesthesia), amount of scans, technical and clinical success, and the results of biopsy are reported.ResultsAccess to the nidus through the excess reactive new bone formation was feasible in all cases. Median procedure time was 50.5 min. Histologic verification of osteoid osteoma was performed in all cases. Radiofrequency electrode was coaxially inserted within the nidus and ablation was successfully performed in all lesions. Median amount CT scans, performed to control correct positioning of the drill and precise electrode placement within the nidus was 11. There were no complications or material failure reported in our study.ConclusionsThe use of battery-powered drill facilitates access to the osteoid osteoma nidus in cases where excess reactive new bone formation is present. Biopsy needle can be used for channel creation during the access offering at the same time the possibility to extract bone samples.

  14. Technical note: Differences in the diurnal pattern of soil respiration under adjacent Miscanthus × giganteus and barley crops reveal potential flaws in accepted sampling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Keane, J.; Ineson, Phil

    2017-03-01

    For convenience, measurements used to compare soil respiration (Rs) from different land uses, crops or management practices are often made between 09:00 and 16:00 UTC, convenience which is justified by an implicit assumption that Rs is largely controlled by temperature. Three months of continuous data presented here show distinctly different diurnal patterns of Rs between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus) grown on adjacent fields. Maximum Rs in barley occurred during the afternoon and correlated with soil temperature, whereas in Miscanthus after an initial early evening decline, Rs increased above the daily average during the night and in July maximum daily rates of Rs were seen at 22:00 and was significantly correlated with earlier levels of solar radiation, probably due to delays in translocation of recent photosynthate. Since the time of the daily mean Rs in Miscanthus occurred when Rs in the barley was 40 % greater than the daily mean, it is vital to select appropriate times to measure Rs especially if only single daily measurements are to be made.

  15. Technical Note: Aeolian dust proxies produce visible luminescence upon intense laser-illumination that results from incandescence of internally mixed carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Cao, T.; Thompson, J. E.

    2013-06-01

    Mineral dust mimics dispersed in air produced visible luminescence between 550-800 nm when illuminated with a high peak power (MW range) Nd:YAG laser beam at 532 or 1064 nm. The luminescence persists for a few microseconds after the laser pulse and the measured emission spectrum is roughly consistent with a blackbody emitter at ≈4300 K. Both observations are consistent with assigning laser-induced incandescence (LII) as the source of the luminescence. However, light emission intensity from the mineral dust proxies is 240-4600 less intense than incandescence from fresh kerosene soot on a per-mass basis at laser pulse energies 90% on average. Heating to 350 °C reduced emission by 45-72%. Since black carbon soot and char (BC) oxidizes at elevated temperatures and BC is known to be present in soils, we conclude emission of light from the mineral dust aerosol proxies is likely a result of black carbon or char internally mixed within the soil dust sample. The reduction in LII response for samples heated to temperatures of 250-350 °C may result from partial oxidation of BC, but alternatively, could implicate a role for carbon present within organic molecules. The study suggests laser-induced incandescence measurements may allow quantitation of black carbon in soils and that soil dust is not truly an interferent in BC analysis by LII, but rather, a BC containing material.

  16. Field Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field Note. First Observation of the Slow Dragonet Callionymus aagilis Fricke,. 1999 in Its Natural Environment. M. Pinault1,2, A. Daydé3, R. Fricke4. 1USR 3278 CNRS-EPHE, CRIOBE & CBETM, University of Perpignan. 66860 Perpignan, France; 2Laboratory of Marine Ecology (ECOMAR), University of Reunion Island, ...

  17. EDITORIAL NOTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    Editorial Note. African Journal of Social Work, 4(1), June 2014 ... Data collected were analysed through frequency counts and percentages. Findings showed that the majority of the girls were aware of their burden, even though they did ... author constructed questionnaires with 0.713 reliability coefficient and 0.71 construct ...

  18. Editor's note

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Editor's note. It gives me immense pleasure to present this first issue of the Journal for the year 2004. You may notice several changes. The most important one is the change in the name; the Journal is renamed as Journal of Chemical. Sciences. We have also introduced the publication of. Perspective articles highlighting ...

  19. Technical Notes: Notes and Proposed Guidelines on Updated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In specific terms, the last three seismic codes are reviewed and a comprehensive set of discussions on seismic zoning and PGA (peak ground acceleration), special provisions in concrete and steel beams and columns design, and seismic analysis are provided through a comparison with major international building codes.

  20. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  1. Anterior transcorporeal approach of percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy for disc herniation at the C4-C5 levels: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhong-Liang; Chu, Lei; Chen, Liang; Yang, Jun-Song

    2016-05-01

    With the continuous development of the spinal endoscopic technique in recent years, percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) has emerged, which bridges the gap between conservative therapy and traditional surgery and has been mainly divided into the anterior transdiscal approach and the posterior interlaminar access. Because of the relatively greater violation to the anterior nucleus pulposus, there is a higher potential of postoperative intervertebral space decrease in the anterior transdiscal approach than in the posterior interlaminar access. In addition, when the herniated lesion is migrated upward or downward behind the vertebral body, both approaches, and even anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, are impractical, and corpectomy is commonly considered as the only efficacious treatment. Anterior transcorporeal approach under endoscopy could enable an individual and adjustable trajectory within the vertebral body under different conditions of disc herniation preserving the motion of adjacent segment, especially in a migrated or sequestered lesion. This report aimed to first describe a novel anterior transcorporeal approach under endoscopy in which we addressed a migrated disc herniation at the C4-C5 levels. A technical report was carried out. A 37-year-old woman presented with posterior neck pain and weakness of extremities for 9 months. On neurologic examination, tingling sensation and numbness were not obvious. However, the power of extremities was dramatically decreased at a level of 3. Hoffmann sign was positive in the bilateral hand. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a huge herniation of the C4-C5 disc compressing the median area of the spinal cord. Besides the C4-C5 disc herniation, preoperative computer tomography (CT) also detected that the herniated disc had partial calcification. A novel anterior transcorporeal approach of PECD, through the vertebral body of C5, was performed to address a migrated disc herniation at the C4-C5 levels

  2. Technical note: Intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reliabilities of an assessment of vaginal discharge from cows with and without acute puerperal metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannmann, I; Heuwieser, W

    2015-08-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows is a common disease occurring in the first 10 d after calving. According to a widely accepted definition, the diagnosis is primarily based on body temperature and sensorial assessment of vaginal discharge. The scope of this study was to evaluate the reliability for color, smell, and viscosity of vaginal discharge from healthy cows and cows with APM. Fifteen investigators evaluated 6 vaginal discharge samples 10 times. Subsequently, the investigators rated the health status of the cows and the diagnostic value of color, smell, and viscosity. In a final questionnaire, the investigators estimated their ability to diagnose APM correctly and the influence of experience. Reliability was tested using Cohen's kappa (κ). Our study revealed slight to moderate reliabilities concerning the assessment of vaginal discharge. Overall interobserver reliability for color, smell, and viscosity was κ=0.15, 0.27, and 0.44, respectively. Overall intraobserver reliability for color, smell, and viscosity was κ=0.35, 0.39, and 0.6, respectively. By means of a questionnaire, overall personal expertise to detect cows suffering from APM correctly as such was estimated to be 59%, whereas the diagnostic value of a combination of color, smell, and viscosity to detect cows with APM correctly was estimated to be 91.1% perfect. We found a discrepancy between reliability and the personal perception of diagnostic value. Our study shows that the sensorial assessment of color, smell, and viscosity of vaginal discharge in cows postpartum is subjective. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical Note: A fully automated purge and trap GC-MS system for quantification of volatile organic compound (VOC fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Andrews

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater–air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample stream, and high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis. Here we describe a system that was developed for the fully automated analysis of dissolved very short-lived halogenated species (VSLS sampled from an under-way seawater supply. The system can also be used for semi-automated batch sampling from Niskin bottles filled during CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles. The essential components comprise a bespoke, automated purge and trap (AutoP & T unit coupled to a commercial thermal desorption and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS. The AutoP & T system has completed five research cruises, from the tropics to the poles, and collected over 2500 oceanic samples to date. It is able to quantify >25 species over a boiling point range of 34–180 °C with Henry's law coefficients of 0.018 and greater (CH22l, kHcc dimensionless gas/aqueous and has been used to measure organic sulfurs, hydrocarbons, halocarbons and terpenes. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the high sensitivity and sampling frequency provided new information regarding the distribution of VSLS, including novel measurements of a photolytically driven diurnal cycle of CH22l within the surface ocean water.

  4. Correction note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Correction note for Sanders, M., Calam, R., Durand, M., Liversidge, T. and Carmont, S. A. (2008), Does self-directed and web-based support for parents enhance the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P - Positive Parenting Programme?. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49: 924-932. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01901.x. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Application note :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  6. Technical Note: Harmonized retrieval of column-integrated atmospheric water vapor from the FTIR network – first examples for long-term records and station trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Servais

    2009-11-01

    regional scale (≈250 km in spite of homogeneous surface temperature trends. This paper provides a basis for future exploitation of more than a dozen existing, multi-decadal FTIR measurement records around the globe for climate studies.

  7. Technical Note: Harmonized retrieval of column-integrated atmospheric water vapor from the FTIR network - first examples for long-term records and station trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmann, R.; Borsdorff, T.; Rettinger, M.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Demoulin, P.; Duchatelet, P.; Mahieu, E.; Servais, C.

    2009-11-01

    .s.l.) and Jungfraujoch (46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) NDACC sites. Station-trend analysis comprises a linear fit after subtracting an intra-annual model (3 Fourier components) and constructing an uncertainty interval [95% confidence] via bootstrap resampling. For the Zugspitze a significant trend of 0.79 [0.65, 0.92] mm/decade is found for the time interval [1996-2008], whereas for the Jungfraujoch no significant trend is found. This confirms recent findings that strong variations of IWV trends do occur above land on the local to regional scale (≍250 km) in spite of homogeneous surface temperature trends. This paper provides a basis for future exploitation of more than a dozen existing, multi-decadal FTIR measurement records around the globe for climate studies.

  8. OpenLabNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    the longevity of the providers. Turning towards free alternatives, however, raises questions about data protection, which are not sufficiently addressed by available solutions. To serve as legal documents, ELNs must prevent scientific fraud through technical means such as digital signatures. It would also......LabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management...... be advantageous if an ELN was Integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to Open...

  9. OpenLabNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    the longevity of the providers. Turning towards free alternatives, however, raises questions about data protection, which are not sufficiently addressed by available solutions. To serve as legal documents, ELNs must prevent scientific fraud through technical means such as digital signatures. It would also......LabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management...

  10. A note on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie-Fern Hsu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wee et al. (2007 developed an optimal inventory model. In this technical note, we point out a contradiction between Wee et al.'s model and their assumption. A corrected model is developed based on their assumption. Numerical examples show that in terms of the two decision variables, there is a significant difference between the corrected model and Wee et al.'s model. The results also show that that the penalty of using Wee et al.'s model can be significant under certain situations.

  11. "Technical note. Harmonization of the multi-scale multi-model activities HTAP, AQMEII and MICS-Asia: simulations, emission inventories, boundary conditions and output formats." For submission to ACP Special Issue on "Global and regional assessment of intercontinental transport of air pollution: results from HTAP, AQMEII and MICS"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ACP Special Issue is being organized to draw together analysis of a set of cooperative modeling experiments (referred to as HTAP2). The purpose of this technical note is to provide a common description of the experimental design and set up for HTAP2 that can be referred to b...

  12. Germany; Technical Note on Crisis Management Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Germany’s challenges and measures to strengthen crisis management arrangements. Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (BaFin) and the Bundesbank have closely coordinated with the interagency risk committee on banking matters, which also encompasses BaFin representatives for all three financial sectors. The Bundesbank maintains an internal crisis committee and a steering committee. The crisis committee is chaired by a board member and combines expertise from vari...

  13. Technical note: simple vibroacoustic foetal stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, D; Frković, A; Filiplić-Stojanović, H; Kirincić, N

    2001-01-01

    To build and test a simple vibroacoustic foetal stimulator. A vibroacoustic foetal stimulator was constructed and subjected to bench testing. Clinical trial was carried out in comparison to an electro laynx. Screening specificity of 98% and 100% sensitivity was achieved, with no decrease in specificity due to user's maladjustments. The device was characterized by simple use, maintenance and disinfection. The device is a good screening instrument for foetal health in prenatal care, despite its simplicity and low price.

  14. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  15. Technical note: Design flood under hydrological uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Anna; Ganora, Daniele; Claps, Pierluigi; Laio, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Planning and verification of hydraulic infrastructures require a design estimate of hydrologic variables, usually provided by frequency analysis, and neglecting hydrologic uncertainty. However, when hydrologic uncertainty is accounted for, the design flood value for a specific return period is no longer a unique value, but is represented by a distribution of values. As a consequence, the design flood is no longer univocally defined, making the design process undetermined. The Uncertainty Compliant Design Flood Estimation (UNCODE) procedure is a novel approach that, starting from a range of possible design flood estimates obtained in uncertain conditions, converges to a single design value. This is obtained through a cost-benefit criterion with additional constraints that is numerically solved in a simulation framework. This paper contributes to promoting a practical use of the UNCODE procedure without resorting to numerical computation. A modified procedure is proposed by using a correction coefficient that modifies the standard (i.e., uncertainty-free) design value on the basis of sample length and return period only. The procedure is robust and parsimonious, as it does not require additional parameters with respect to the traditional uncertainty-free analysis. Simple equations to compute the correction term are provided for a number of probability distributions commonly used to represent the flood frequency curve. The UNCODE procedure, when coupled with this simple correction factor, provides a robust way to manage the hydrologic uncertainty and to go beyond the use of traditional safety factors. With all the other parameters being equal, an increase in the sample length reduces the correction factor, and thus the construction costs, while still keeping the same safety level.

  16. [Suture of lingual nerve: Technical note].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garconnet, J; Foletti, J-M; Guyot, L; Chossegros, C

    2015-06-01

    Because of its anatomical position, the lingual nerve may be severed during oral surgical procedures, such as third molar removal. Early suturing of the nerve promotes better recovery. We describe the end-to-end suture of this nerve. The suture is carried-out under general anesthesia. The approach is made in the mouth floor, in the same way as for submandibular gland lithiasis transoral removal. This approach allows good exposure and some laxity to displace the nerve stumps. The latter can then be sutured under microscope assistance before closing the mucosa. Lingual nerve suture is a simple, quick and inexpensive procedure. Unlike other procedures, it cannot be used in case of large loss of substance because of the small amount of laxity of the nerve. Nerve function recovery is better if performed before the 6th post-traumatic month, and in young patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. TECHNICAL NOTES SEISMIC SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    less known by many, is inertial SSI, which often has the beneficial effect of reducing design spectral values or base shear in the seismic design of a large class of building structures. It is observed that the effects of both site amplification and SSI increase. 0. 1. 2. 3. 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. S e/. A g. T (s). Found. Damp. 15%. Site Class A ...

  18. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load

  19. Technical note Biological treatment of industrial wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biological treatment of wastewater from an aminoplastic resin-producing industry was studied in a pre-denitrification system. This study reports results on the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds from wastewater which contained high levels of formaldehyde and formic acid. The formaldehyde ...

  20. Atraumatic suction tip for microsurgery: technical note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Vries, J. de

    2004-01-01

    During microneurosurgery, frequent suction is essential for a successful operative course. A new self-made disposable suction tip is described which facilitates atraumatic suction, even near vital anatomical structures. The efficacy of this suction tip was confirmed in selected operative procedures.

  1. TECHNICAL NOTE Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA), introduced in 1988, is the first paramagnetic contrast agent approved for clinical use in MR imaging. The frequency of adverse reactions is low. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), unknown before March 1997 and first described in. 2000, is a systemic disorder characterised by widespread ...

  2. TECHNICAL NOTES SEISMIC SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    construction costs associated with the stringent requirements of contemporary ... as a result of inertial forces, mostly horizontal, triggered by the ... the Ethiopian Association of Civil Engineers, about the associated escalation of material and construction cost. With due account to this legitimate concern, the paper attempts to ...

  3. Lecture Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    This note discusses multi-sensor fusion. Through sensor fusion we may combine readings from different sensors, remove inconsistencies and combine the information into one coherent structure. This kind of processing is a fundamental feature of all animal and human navigation, where multiple...... information sources such as vision, hearing and balance are combined to determine position and plan a path to a goal. While the concept of data fusion is not new, the emergence of new sensors, advanced processing techniques, and improved processing hardware make real-time fusion of data increasingly possible....... Despite advances in electronic components, however, developing data processing applications such as automatic guidance systems has proved difficult. Systems that are in direct contact and interact with the real world, require reliable and accurate information about their environment. This information...

  4. Editorial Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, F.; Ommen Kloeke, E.

    2015-07-01

    With this editorial note we would like to update you on the performance of the International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (JAG) and inform you about changes that have been made to the composition of the editorial team. Our Journal publishes original papers that apply earth observation data for the management of natural resources and the environment. Environmental issues include biodiversity, land degradation, industrial pollution and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and landslides. As such the scope is broad and ranges from conceptual and more fundamental work on earth observation and geospatial sciences to the more problem-solving type of work. When I took over the role of Editor-in-Chief in 2012, I together with the Publisher set myself the mission to position JAG in the top-3 of the remote sensing and GIS journals. To do so we strived at attracting high quality and high impact papers to the journal and to reduce the review turnover time to make JAG a more attractive medium for publications. What has been achieved? Have we reached our ambitions? We can say that: The submissions have increased over the years with over 23% for the last 12 months. Naturally not all may lead to more papers, but at least a portion of the additional submissions should lead to a growth in journal content and quality.

  5. Note & Recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available VolumiVito Campanelli, Web Aesthetics. How Digital Media Affect Culture and Society; Id., Remix It Yourself. Analisi socio-estetica delle forme comunicative del Web [Emanuele Crescimanno] • Jean-François Bordron, Image et vérité. Essais sur les dimensions iconiques de la connaissance [Veronica Estay Stange] • Stéphane Dumas, Les peaux créatrices – Esthétique de la sécrétion [Marc-Vincent Howlett]NoteQuidam veritatis effectus. A proposito di A Plea for Balance in Philosophy. Essays in honour of Paolo Parrini [Fabrizio Desideri] • A Single Face to Capture the Whole World: Literary Shapes and Shadows. An Interview With Tolm Coibin [Fabrizia Abbate] •Convegno Le sensible a l’oeuvre: savoirs du corps entre esthetique et neurosciences, Parigi, 15 Maggio 2014 [Jessica Murano] 

  6. Books Noted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edward J.

    1999-10-01

    .00. Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry: Principles and Applications V. P. Evangelou. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1998. xix + 564 pp. ISBN 0-471-16515-8. 79.95. 1001 Chemicals in Everyday Products, 2nd edition Grace Ross Lewis. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. x + 388 pp. ISBN 0-471-29212-5. 39.95. Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, 2nd edition Zeno W. Wicks Jr., Frank N. Jones, and S. Peter Pappas. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. xxi + 630 pp. ISBN 0-471-24507-0. 125.00. Progress in Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 48 Kenneth D. Karlin, Ed. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. vi + 603 pp. ISBN 0-471-32623-2. 145.00. Occupational Biomechanics, 3rd edition Don B. Chaffin, Gunnar B. Andersson, and Bernard J. Martin. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. xvii + 579 pp. ISBN 0-471-24697-2. 69.95. Advances in Photochemistry, Vol. 25 Douglas C. Neckers, David H. Volman, and Gunther Von Bünau. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. xi + 238 pp. ISBN 0-471-32708-5. 110.00. Distillation Johann G. Stichlmair and James R. Fair. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1998. xiii + 524 pp. ISBN 0-471-25241-7. 94.95. Ammonia - Principles and Industrial Practice Maz Appl. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. ix + 301 pp. ISBN 3-527-29593-3. 160.00. Precursor-Derived Ceramics: Synthesis, Structure, and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties Fritz Aldinger, Fumihiro Wakai, and Joachim Bill, Eds. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. xv + 298 pp. ISBN 3-527-29814-2. 180.00. Advances in Sonochemisty, Vol. 5 Timothy J. Mason. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. xi + 311 pp. ISBN 0-7623-0331-x. 109.50. Fluid Metals: The Liquid-Vapor Transition of Metals Friedrich Hensel and William W. Warren Jr. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ. 1999. xvii + 243 pp. ISBN 0-691-05830-x. 69.50. Direct Phasing in Crystallography: Fundamentals and Applications Carmelo Giacovazzo. Oxford University Press: New York, 1999. xxiii + 767 pp. ISBN 0-19-850072-6. 140.00. Practical Environmental Analysis M. Radojevic and V. N. Bashkin. Royal Society of

  7. Note: Buffer gas temperature inhomogeneities and design of drift-tube ion mobility spectrometers: Warnings for real-world applications by non-specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Maestre, R

    2017-09-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separates gas phase ions moving under an electric field according to their size-to-charge ratio. IMS is the method of choice to detect illegal drugs and explosives in customs and airports making accurate determination of reduced ion mobilities (K0) important for national security. An ion mobility spectrometer with electrospray ionization coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to study uncertainties in buffer gas temperatures during mobility experiments. Differences up to 16°C were found in the buffer gas temperatures in different regions of the drift tube and up to 42°C between the buffer gas and the drift tube temperatures. The drift tube temperature is used as an approximation to the buffer gas temperature for the calculation of K0 because the buffer gas temperature is hard to measure. This is leading to uncertainties in the determination of K0 values. Inaccurate determination of K0 values yields false positives that delay the cargo and passengers in customs and airports. Therefore, recommendations are issued for building mobility tubes to assure a homogeneous temperature of the buffer gas. Because the temperature and other instrumental parameters are difficult to measure in IMS, chemical standards should always be used when calculating K0. The difference of 42°C between the drift tube and buffer gas temperatures found in these experiments produces a 10.5% error in the calculation of K0. This large inaccuracy in K0 shows the importance of a correct temperature measurement in IMS.

  8. Note: Buffer gas temperature inhomogeneities and design of drift-tube ion mobility spectrometers: Warnings for real-world applications by non-specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Maestre, R.

    2017-09-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separates gas phase ions moving under an electric field according to their size-to-charge ratio. IMS is the method of choice to detect illegal drugs and explosives in customs and airports making accurate determination of reduced ion mobilities (K0) important for national security. An ion mobility spectrometer with electrospray ionization coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to study uncertainties in buffer gas temperatures during mobility experiments. Differences up to 16°C were found in the buffer gas temperatures in different regions of the drift tube and up to 42°C between the buffer gas and the drift tube temperatures. The drift tube temperature is used as an approximation to the buffer gas temperature for the calculation of K0 because the buffer gas temperature is hard to measure. This is leading to uncertainties in the determination of K0 values. Inaccurate determination of K0 values yields false positives that delay the cargo and passengers in customs and airports. Therefore, recommendations are issued for building mobility tubes to assure a homogeneous temperature of the buffer gas. Because the temperature and other instrumental parameters are difficult to measure in IMS, chemical standards should always be used when calculating K0. The difference of 42°C between the drift tube and buffer gas temperatures found in these experiments produces a 10.5% error in the calculation of K0. This large inaccuracy in K0 shows the importance of a correct temperature measurement in IMS.

  9. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  10. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource assessment program, Fiscal Year 1979. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N. (eds.)

    1980-10-01

    The results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from 1 October 1978 to 30 June 1980 are summarized. The results of the efforts to extend the inventory of geothermal energy resources in New Mexico to low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications are given. These efforts focused on compiling basic geothermal data and new hydrology and temperature gradient data throughout New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and for preparation of New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources maps. The results of geothermal reservoir confirmation studies are presented. (MHR)

  11. Note: Vectorial-magneto optical Kerr effect technique combined with variable temperature and full angular range all in a single setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuñado, Jose Luis F.; Pedrosa, Javier; Ajejas, Fernando; Bollero, Alberto; Perna, Paolo; Teran, Francisco J.; Miranda, Rodolfo; Camarero, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report on a versatile full angular resolved/broad temperature range/vectorial magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometer, named TRISTAN. Its versatility relies on its capacity to probe temperature and angular dependencies of magnetization reversal processes without the need to do any intervention on the apparatus during measurements. The setup is a combination of a vectorial MOKE bench and a cryostat with optical access. The cryostat has a motorized rotatable sample holder with azimuthal correction. It allows for simultaneous and quantitative acquisition of the two in-plane magnetization components during the hysteresis loop at different temperatures from 4 K up to 500 K and in the whole angular range, without neither changing magnet orientation nor opening the cryostat. Measurements performed in a model system with competing collinear biaxial and uniaxial contributions are presented to illustrate its capabilities.

  12. Note: Vectorial-magneto optical Kerr effect technique combined with variable temperature and full angular range all in a single setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuñado, Jose Luis F; Pedrosa, Javier; Ajejas, Fernando; Bollero, Alberto; Perna, Paolo; Teran, Francisco J; Miranda, Rodolfo; Camarero, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report on a versatile full angular resolved/broad temperature range/vectorial magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometer, named TRISTAN. Its versatility relies on its capacity to probe temperature and angular dependencies of magnetization reversal processes without the need to do any intervention on the apparatus during measurements. The setup is a combination of a vectorial MOKE bench and a cryostat with optical access. The cryostat has a motorized rotatable sample holder with azimuthal correction. It allows for simultaneous and quantitative acquisition of the two in-plane magnetization components during the hysteresis loop at different temperatures from 4 K up to 500 K and in the whole angular range, without neither changing magnet orientation nor opening the cryostat. Measurements performed in a model system with competing collinear biaxial and uniaxial contributions are presented to illustrate its capabilities.

  13. High temperature fracture and fatigue of ceramics. Annual technical progress report No. 6, August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.

    1996-04-01

    This report covers work done in the first year of our new contract {open_quotes}High Temperature Fracture and Fatigue of Ceramics,{close_quotes} which commenced in August, 1995 as a follow-on from our prior contract {open_quotes}Mechanisms of Mechanical Fatigue in Ceramics.{close_quotes} Our activities have consisted mainly of studies of the failure of fibrous ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) at high temperature; with a little fundamental work on the role of stress redistribution in the statistics of fracture and cracking in the presence of viscous fluids.

  14. High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification (HTAG). Technical report no. 2: High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification of biomass and wastes - Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasiak, W.; Kalisz, S.; Szewczyk, D.; Lucas, C.; Abeyweera, R. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dep of Materials Science and Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This report aims to provide information on activity of Division of Energy and Furnace Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology in the field of solid biomass conversion into fuel gas within year 2003. Contrary to the conventional gasification, in this work highly preheated air and steam is used as a gasifying agent and supplied to newly designed continuous gasifier. Preheating of air and steam is realised by means of the modern high-cycle regenerative Air/steam preheater. Maximum temperature of preheated air or steam is raised up to 1600 deg C. In this work the laboratory test facility called High Temperature Air/steam Gasification (HTAG) plant with flow rate of preheated air or steam up to 110 Nm{sup 3}/h is used. Use of highly preheated gasifying media provides additional energy into the gasification, which enhances the thermal decomposition of solids being gasified. Together with continuous operation mode of the new gasifier, a stable process producing relatively clean fuel gas is reported. High Temperature Air/steam Gasification has very clear economical and environmental benefits. It will increase consumption of biomass (like wood pellets) thus decreases CO{sub 2} emissions from energy intensive industries. Apart from CO{sub 2} reduction possibility, the new process, High Temperature Gasification of wastes, fulfils all new regulations proposed by European Commission on wastes incineration since: no landfilling of ash residues is required, no need to treat ashes from gasification since there is no ash produced but slag which is non leachable and can be used as building material, clean gas for combustion and production of heat or electricity. In this work only gasification of wood pellets is reported but all efforts are targeted on later continuous gasification of other kinds of biomass and wastes.

  15. Ensino técnico: uma necessidade ou uma falácia? Notas para a compreensão da filosofia do ensino técnico em Portugal e no Brasil - Technical teaching: a necessity or a fallacy? Notes for the comprehension of the philosophy of technical teaching in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alberto Marques Alves, Portugal.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 Falar de ensino técnico obriga a cruzar vertentes científicas diversas - história, sociologia, economia - e contextualizar a informação no âmbito da História da Educação. A herança recebida do sistema corporativo, a partilha de responsabilidades entre público e privado, as expectativas sociais e económicas, a sua relação com o desenvolvimento e a difícil relação entre o nacional e o internacional são algumas das vertentes que importa analisar quando procuramos fazer um trajeto breve na dimensão mais alargada no tempo. Inserir ainda uma preocupação comparativa entre Portugal e Brasil, ainda que pontual, exige uma síntese das ideias nucleares marginalizando o acessório. Procura este artigo, numa cronologia que vai do século 18 aos fins do 20, elencar as mudanças de filosofia, de investimento, de credibilidade social e de necessidade económica.Palavras-chave: ensino técnico, profissionalização, capitalismo industrial, neoprofissionalismo, Portugal, Brasil, ensino secundário. TECHNICAL TEACHING: A NECESSITY OR A FALLACY? NOTES FOR THE COMPREHENSION OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNICAL TEACHING IN PORTUGAL AND BRAZILAbstractTo talk about technical teaching forces us to cross several scientific fields - history, sociology, economy - and to contextualize the information regarding the History of Education. The inheritance received from the corporative system, the share of responsibilities between public and private, the social and economical expectations, its relation with development and the difficult relation between national and international are some of the fields that we must analyse when we aim to create a path brief in its dimension but stretched in time. To also insert a comparative concern between Portugal and Brazil, even if punctual, demands a synthesis of the nuclear ideas marginalizing the accessory. This article aims to, in a chronology going from the 18 century to the late 20th, specify the changes in the

  16. Scientific and Technical English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  17. Writing a Condolence Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grief at Work Working Through Grief About Us Writing a Condolence Note By Helen Fitzgerald, CT Focusing ... to write an anniversary or birthday greeting. But writing a condolence note is something altogether different because, ...

  18. Thin film system with integrated load and temperature sensors for the technical application in deep drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Saskia; Paetsch, Nancy; Meyer-Kornblum, Eike

    2017-05-01

    In these days industry 4.0 resounded throughout the land and means the fourth industrial revolution. The industry has to tackle the task of a flexible and customer-oriented production. Therefor the need of sensor systems for the measurement of temperature and load, the two most important categories in production, is rising. For getting the real specification during the production process the integration of sensor elements in high load regions of machinery is very important. Thus wear resistant thin film sensor systems directly applied onto the surface of plant components are in development. These multilayer systems combine excellent wear resistance with sensory behaviour. The sensor data will lead to a deeper process understanding, to optimization of simulation tools, to reduction of rejects and to an improvement of flexibility in production.

  19. District space heating potential of low temperature hydrothermal geothermal resources in the southwestern United States. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, P.K.; Rao, C.R.

    1978-10-01

    A computer simulation model (GIRORA-Nonelectric) is developed to study the economics of district space heating using geothermal energy. GIRORA-Nonelectric is a discounted cashflow investment model which evaluates the financial return on investment for space heating. This model consists of two major submodels: the exploration for and development of a geothermal anomaly by a geothermal producer, and the purchase of geothermal fluid by a district heating unit. The primary output of the model is a calculated rate of return on investment earned by the geothermal producer. The results of the sensitivity analysis of the model subject to changes in physical and economic parameters are given in this report. Using the results of the economic analysis and technological screening criteria, all the low temperature geothermal sites in Southwestern United States are examined for economic viability for space heating application. The methodology adopted and the results are given.

  20. Kingdom of Morocco : Climate Change Strategy Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the individual reports produced under the World Bank program of economic and sector work (P-ESW) on supporting Morocco's climate change strategy. In 2008 the Government of Morocco asked the Bank's analytical and technical assistance on the policy implications of climate change. An initial policy note outlining the main drivers of climate vulnerability, as well as the r...

  1. High temperature gas cooled reactor applications and future prospects. Proceedings of an IAEA Technical Committee Meeting held in Petten, the Netherlands, 10-12 November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, B.R.W. [ed.

    1998-09-01

    From 10-12 November, 1997, the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) in Petten, Netherlands hosted a Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR). This meeting has been organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and was entitled: `HTGR Applications and Future Prospects`. During the meeting a review of the status of national programmes, including the design and construction of HTGR plants, status of R and D programmes and related activities in support of the advancement and applications of the HTGR have been reported. 21 papers were presented in three sessions, respectively: nine papers in the first session Status of GCR Programmes, seven papers in the session HTGR Applications and five papers in the last session HTGR Development Activities. The meeting has been attended by approximately fifty participants from nine countries all over the world. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the OECD and the European Commission have also attended this TCM. The IAEA TCM was followed, from 12-14 November, 1997, by an OECD/NEA workshop on High Temperature Engineering Research Facilities and Experiments to complement and support the IAEA activities in the HTGR field. The proceedings of this workshop have also been published by ECN as report ECN-R-98-005. 15 refs.

  2. Technical Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle System Using Low-Temperature Source to Generate Electricity in Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the shipping sector has growth rapidly as followed by the increasing of world population and the demands for public transportation via sea. This issue entails the large attention on emission, energy efficiency and fuel consumption on the ship. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR is one of the solution to overcome the mentioned issue and one of the WHR method is by installing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system in ship. ORC demonstrate to recover and exploit the low temperature waste heat rejected by the ship power generation plant. The main source of heat to be utilized is obtained from container ship (7900 kW BHP, DWT 10969 mt ship jacket water cooling system and use R-134a as a refrigerant. The main equipment consists of evaporator, condenser, pump and steam turbine to generate the electricity. The main objective is to quantifying the estimation of electrical power which can be generated at typical loads of the main engine. As the final result of analysis, the ORC system is able to generate the electricity power ranged from 77,5% - 100% of main engine load producing power averagely 57,69 kW.

  3. Notes on instrumentation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, G J

    2013-01-01

    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  4. Sticky-Note Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a sticky-note mural project that originated from his desire to incorporate contemporary materials into his assignments as well as to inspire collaboration between students. The process takes much more than sticking sticky notes to the wall. It takes critical thinking skills and teamwork to design and complete…

  5. Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lagos Notes and Records is an annual, interdisciplinary journal of the humanities. It is devoted to the publication of well-researched articles in all the subjects in the Arts, Social Sciences, and Law. In addition to original articles, the journal publishes review articles, brief accounts of work in progress, notes and comments on ...

  6. Review Essay: Research in Technical Communication: A Bibliographic Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagge, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes "Research in Technical Communication" as a superb resource appropriate for anyone interested in business, technical, even legal communication. Notes that the book contains a wealth of bibliographic citations as well as comprehensive coverage of a diversity of topics. (JD)

  7. LHC Availability 2017: Technical Stop 1 to Technical Stop 2

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 1 (TS1) to Technical Stop 2 (TS2) in 2017. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  8. Prototipagem como forma alternativa para realização de cranioplastia com metilmetacrilato: nota técnica Prototyping as an alternative to cranioplasty using methylmethacrylate: technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Yacubian-Fernandes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A prototipagem, método de reconstrução de segmentos do corpo humano através de programas de computação, tem sido usada na neurocirurgia para reproduzir o crânio de pacientes permitindo a programação de atos cirúrgicos e a produção de próteses para reconstruir falhas ósseas no crânio. Apresentamos dois casos de cranioplastia realizadas com o uso de próteses de acrílico construídas por prototipagem. Após 10 meses de acompanhamento, os pacientes não apresentaram sinais de infecção e apresentam bom resultado estético. As vantagens apontadas na literatura para este método (redução do tempo cirúrgico, facilidade técnica e bom resultado estético foram observadas.The prototyping is a method for reconstruction of human body segments by computer software. It has been used in neurosurgery for cranial reproduction in patients allowing the programming of surgical procedures and the production of prosthesis to reconstruct bone failures in the skull. We present two cases of cranioplasty performed with the use of acrylic prosthesis constructed by prototyping. After 10 months of follow-up, they donot present signs of infection and show good aesthetic result. The advantages pointed at the literature for this method (reduction of surgical time, easy technical handle, and good aesthetic result were confirmed.

  9. Physicians’ progress notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...

  10. MixedNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokela, Tero; Lucero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Affinity Diagramming is a technique to organize and make sense of qualitative data. It is commonly used in Contextual Design and HCI research. However, preparing notes for and building an Affinity Diagram remains a laborious process, with a wide variety of different approaches and practices....... In this paper, we present MixedNotes, a novel technique to prepare physical paper notes for Affinity Diagramming, and a software tool to support this technique. The technique has been tested with large real-life Affinity Diagrams with overall positive results....

  11. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

  12. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein`s mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

  13. Final Technical Report: Metal—Organic Surface Catalyst for Low-temperature Methane Oxidation: Bi-functional Union of Metal—Organic Complex and Chemically Complementary Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, Steven L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Stabilization and chemical control of transition metal centers is a critical problem in the advancement of heterogeneous catalysts to next-generation catalysts that exhibit high levels of selectivity, while maintaining strong activity and facile catalyst recycling. Supported metal nanoparticle catalysts typically suffer from having a wide range of metal sites with different coordination numbers and varying chemistry. This project is exploring new possibilities in catalysis by combining features of homogeneous catalysts with those of heterogeneous catalysts to develop new, bi-functional systems. The systems are more complex than traditional heterogeneous catalysts in that they utilize sequential active sites to accomplish the desired overall reaction. The interaction of metal—organic catalysts with surface supports and their interactions with reactants to enable the catalysis of critical reactions at lower temperatures are at the focus of this study. Our work targets key fundamental chemistry problems. How do the metal—organic complexes interact with the surface? Can those metal center sites be tuned for selectivity and activity as they are in the homogeneous system by ligand design? What steps are necessary to enable a cooperative chemistry to occur and open opportunities for bi-functional catalyst systems? Study of these systems will develop the concept of bringing together the advantages of heterogeneous catalysis with those of homogeneous catalysis, and take this a step further by pursuing the objective of a bi-functional system. The use of metal-organic complexes in surface catalysts is therefore of interest to create well-defined and highly regular single-site centers. While these are not likely to be stable in the high temperature environments (> 300 °C) typical of industrial heterogeneous catalysts, they could be applied in moderate temperature reactions (100-300 °C), made feasible by lowering reaction temperatures by better catalyst control. They also

  14. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  15. NOTES in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meining, A; Spaun, G; Fernández-Esparrach, G

    2013-01-01

    The sixth EURO-NOTES workshop (4 - 6 October 2012, Prague, Czech Republic) focused on enabling intensive scientific dialogue and interaction between surgeons, gastroenterologists, and engineers/industry representatives and discussion of the state of the practice and development of natural orifice...... transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) in Europe. In accordance with previous meetings, five working groups were formed. In 2012, emphasis was put on specific indications for NOTES and interventional endoscopy. Each group was assigned an important indication related to ongoing research in NOTES...... and interventional endoscopy: cholecystectomy and appendectomy, therapy of colorectal diseases, therapy of adenocarcinoma and neoplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract, treating obesity, and new therapeutic approaches for achalasia. This review summarizes consensus statements of the working groups....

  16. Walrus parts collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The attached field diary notes provide documentation of walrus parts collection activities which occurred in the Nome and surrounding area during the periods of May...

  17. Seed collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  18. Analytical dynamics course notes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenbaum, Samuel D

    1994-01-01

    This book comprises a set of lecture notes on rational mechanics, for part of the graduate physics curriculum, delivered by the late Prof. Shirley L. Quimby during his tenure at Columbia University, New York. The notes contain proofs of basic theorems, derivations of formulae and amplification of observations, as well as the presentation and solution of illustrative problems. Collateral readings from more than 50 source references are indicated at appropriate places in the text.

  19. "Plug" ósseo autógeno para orifícios de trepanação: nota técnica Autogenic bone plug to seal burr holes: technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSUÉ GUIMARÃES GRANHA VIALOGO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários materiais são utilizados para ocluir os orifícios de trepanação em neurocirurgia, por motivos variados: para evitar fístula liquórica após trepanações, para auxiliar a fixação do "flap" ósseo e por motivos estéticos, na região frontal. Dentre estes materiais citamos os heterólogos (botões de silicone, miniplacas de metal, cera de osso, metilmetacrilato, gelfoam, cimento de polímero vegetal, cerâmica de hidroxiapatita, e os autólogos (pó de osso originado da trepanação, gordura, músculo, aponeurose. Os materiais heterólogos ou sintéticos podem provocar reação de corpo estranho com erosão da pele e exposição do material, tornando necessária sua retirada, em tempo variável no pós-operatório. Há cerca de três anos, o autor vem utilizando um botão ou "plug" ósseo autólogo, feito com surgicel e o pó de osso proveniente da trepanação, com bom resultado estético eliminando as desconfortáveis depressões cranianas pós-trepanação. Apresentamos a técnica de confecção deste prático `plug ósseo autólogo'. Nas neuroendoscopias, praticamente sanou-se o problema da fístula liquórica e reação de corpo estranho. Encorajamos a utilização deste botão ósseo autólogo em nosso meio, como método eficiente, econômico e biologicamente aceitável para ocluir orifícios cranianos de trepanação.Many neurosurgical procedures can be performed by a single burr hole: neuroendoscopy, microvascular decompression, stereotactic procedures, chronic subdural haematomas. It is technically difficult to suture and close the dura, located at the bottom of such holes, which can lately lead to CSF leakage. On the other hand, the surgical material used to seal the burr holes can be divided in heterogenic (metal screws, silicon plugs, gelfoam, bone wax, metilmetacrilate, hidroxiapatite, and autogenic (fat, aponeurosis, muscle, and bone dust from trephination. The heterogenic group always brings the possibility of

  20. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  1. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    2013-01-01

      Since the last report, much visible progress has been made, as the LS1 programme approaches the halfway point. From early October, technical and safety shift-crew have been present around the clock, allowing detectors to stay switched on overnight, ensuring that safety systems are operational and instructions for non-expert shift-crew are clear. LS1 progress Throughout the summer, whilst the solenoid vacuum tank and YB0 surfaces were accessible, an extensive installation programme took place to prepare for Tracker colder operation and the PLT installation, in 2014, the Phase 1 Pixel Tracker installation, in 2016–’17, and the HCAL Phase 1 upgrade completion, ending in LS2. This included pipework for N2 or dry air to flush the Tracker bulkhead region, many sensors to monitor temperature and dew point in the Tracker and its service channels, heating wires outside the Tracker cooling bundles, supports for the new vacuum-jacketed, concentric, CO2 Pixel cooling lines, the PLT cool...

  2. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  3. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2017-01-01

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  4. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  5. Notes on noncommutative geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The book covers basics of noncommutative geometry and its applications in topology, algebraic geometry and number theory. A brief survey of main parts of noncommutative geometry with historical remarks, bibliography and a list of exercises is attached. Our notes are intended for the graduate students and faculty with interests in noncommutative geometry; they can be read by non-experts in the field.

  6. Herpetological Notes X - XII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1935-01-01

    X. NOTES ON THE NEWLY DESCRIBED GENUS CACOPHRYNE DAVIS Recently Davis (1935) pointed out that the toad known in literature as Bufo borbonicus (Tschudi) or Nectophryne borbonica (Tschudi) does not belong to either of these genera, and that it even does not belong to the Bufonidae, for the species

  7. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  8. Technical note: Combining quantile forecasts and predictive distributions of streamflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bogner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced availability of many different hydro-meteorological modelling and forecasting systems raises the issue of how to optimally combine this great deal of information. Especially the usage of deterministic and probabilistic forecasts with sometimes widely divergent predicted future streamflow values makes it even more complicated for decision makers to sift out the relevant information. In this study multiple streamflow forecast information will be aggregated based on several different predictive distributions, and quantile forecasts. For this combination the Bayesian model averaging (BMA approach, the non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR, also known as the ensemble model output statistic (EMOS techniques, and a novel method called Beta-transformed linear pooling (BLP will be applied. By the help of the quantile score (QS and the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS, the combination results for the Sihl River in Switzerland with about 5 years of forecast data will be compared and the differences between the raw and optimally combined forecasts will be highlighted. The results demonstrate the importance of applying proper forecast combination methods for decision makers in the field of flood and water resource management.

  9. Technical note: An inorganic water chemistry dataset (1972–2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A national dataset of inorganic chemical data of surface waters (rivers, lakes, and dams) in South Africa is presented and made freely available. The dataset comprises more than 500 000 complete water analyses from 1972 up to 2011, collected from more than 2 000 sample monitoring stations in South Africa. The dataset ...

  10. Technical note An investigation of the franchising option for water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need in South Africa for institutional innovations aimed at increasing the coverage of water services, and sustaining those services. The paper describes an investigation of an alternative service delivery institutional concept, viz. the franchising of the operation of water services, and outlines the need to formulate a ...

  11. Technical Note: Universal Specific Energy Curve For Parabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the general relationship between specific energy and flow depth for all open channels, the specific relationship for parabolic open channels was obtained here. By introducing suitable scaling parameters of the same length dimensions as the specific energy and flow depth, a rela-tionship was obtained between a ...

  12. Technical notes. Spherical harmonics approximations of neutron transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demeny, A.; Dede, K.M.; Erdei, K.

    1976-12-01

    A double-range spherical harmonics approximation obtained by expanding the angular flux separately in the two regions combined with the conventional single-range spherical harmonics is found to give superior description of neutron transport.

  13. Technical Note: How to use Winbugs to infer animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with Bayesian inferences of animal models using Gibbs sampling. First, we suggest a general and efficient method for updating additive genetic effects, in which the computational cost is independent of the pedigree depth and increases linearly only with the size of the pedigree....... Second, we show how this approach can be used to draw inferences from a wide range of animal models using the computer package Winbugs. Finally, we illustrate the approach in a simulation study, in which the data are generated and analyzed using Winbugs according to a linear model with i.i.d errors...... having Student's t distributions. In conclusion, Winbugs can be used to make inferences in small-sized, quantitative, genetic data sets applying a wide range of animal models that are not yet standard in the animal breeding literature...

  14. Technical note A simple tool to help decision making in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ experimental studies were carried out aimed at the quantitative estimation of biological processes involved in nitrogen removal such as macro-algal assimilation and bacterial denitrification and their optimisation in two experimental phyto-treatment ponds colonised by the macro-algae Ulva rigida in central Italy.

  15. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover......Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested...... grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43 ± 3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy...

  16. Technical Note on Performance of Macro-Catchment Rainwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ~Centre for Lan~ Use and Water Resources Research, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, ... produce runoff for a CB which has received no .... and lo~er field (F2).MC-RWH and' WC treatments produced a higher' grain yield than. Macro-catchment rainwater harvesting 241. FC. However, there was significant difterence.

  17. Palliative dual iliac screw fixation for lumbosacral metastasis. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2007-07-01

    Spinal fixation for destructive metastatic lesions at the lumbosacral junction is challenging because of the large and unique load-bearing characteristics present. In particular, caudal fixation is difficult in cases of sacral destruction because of insufficient S-1 pedicle screw anchorage. The authors describe their surgical technique for secure iliac screw placement and the clinical results obtained in five patients with metastatic spinal disease. All patients in this study underwent palliative operations with dual iliac screw fixation between April 1999 and October 2002, and the clinical and radiological findings were assessed. In all five patients, spinal metastases extended into the sacrum. The metastases were from renal cell carcinomas in two patients, lung cancer in two, and a paraganglioma in one patient. Postoperative follow-up periods ranged from 3 months to 6 years (mean 28.4 months). Preoperatively, four patients could not walk due to severe pain or neurological compromise. Postoperatively, all patients reported a reduction in pain and regained the ability to walk. Complications included one case of early wound infection. In the patients with long survival after the operation, there was one case of iliac screw loosening and one case of rod breakage. The dual iliac screw fixation technique provided sufficient immediate stability for destructive lumbosacral metastasis.

  18. Technical Notes: Glare pollution in Urban areas | Gelan | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glare pollution is an unnatural element in the global environment that has emerged as a result of human beings inefficient and destructive use of technology and resources. It refers to the tangible and the intangible interaction of natural light reflecting off synthetic materials, for example sunlight on rooftops, walls, windows, ...

  19. Infusion of intrathecal baclofen for acute withdrawal. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhon, Bradley S; MacDonald, Joel D

    2007-10-01

    Acute baclofen withdrawal syndrome is a life-threatening situation that demands early recognition and urgent treatment. The current therapy of choice for this syndrome is administration of intravenous benzodiazepines, propofol, and chemical paralytic drugs until the intrathecal system can be restored. The authors present a novel technique for administering baclofen intrathecally using a lumbar drain and a standard patient-controlled analgesia pump (in continuous infusion mode). In one case, this method was used to wean the patient from high-dose intrathecal baclofen treatment. In a second case, this method was used as a temporizing measure until the indwelling pump system could be repaired. In both cases, the patients recovered to their neurological baseline level, and lasting consequences of serious withdrawal were avoided.

  20. Technical note AIVC 68: residential ventilation and health

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Exposures in homes constitute the major part of exposures to airborne pollutants experienced through the human lifetime. They can constitute from 60 to 95% of our total lifetime exposures, of which 30% occurs when we sleep. The airborne pollutants constituting these exposures have sources outdoors and indoors. Pollutants having sources outdoors penetrate building envelope through cracks, gaps, slots and leakages, as well as through open windows and ventilation systems. Indoor pollutant source...

  1. Quantifying ataxia: ideal trajectory analysis--a technical note

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, M. D.; Krebs, D. E.; Wall, C. 3rd

    2000-01-01

    We describe a quantitative method to assess repeated stair stepping stability. In both the mediolateral (ML) and anterioposterior (AP) directions, the trajectory of the subject's center of mass (COM) was compared to an ideal sinusoid. The two identified sinusoids were unique in each direction but coupled. Two dimensionless numbers-the mediolateral instability index (IML) and AP instability index (IAP)-were calculated using the COM trajectory and ideal sinusoids for each subject with larger index values resulting from less stable performance. The COM trajectories of nine nonimpaired controls and six patients diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral vestibular labyrinth hypofunction were analyzed. The average IML and IAP values of labyrinth disorder patients were respectively 127% and 119% greater than those of controls (panalysis distinguishes persons with labyrinth disorder from those without. The COM trajectories also identify movement inefficiencies attributable to vestibulopathy.

  2. Construction cost forecast model : model documentation and technical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Construction cost indices are generally estimated with Laspeyres, Paasche, or Fisher indices that allow changes : in the quantities of construction bid items, as well as changes in price to change the cost indices of those items. : These cost indices...

  3. Transforaminal Endoscopic Solution to a Kyphoplasty Complication: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ralf; Telfeian, Albert E; Iprenburg, Menno; Krzok, Guntram; Gokaslan, Ziya; Choi, David B; Pucci, Francesco G; Oyelese, Adetkumbo

    2016-07-01

    Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive spine surgical procedure performed to stabilize and treat the pain caused by a spine compression fracture. Complications are rare with kyphoplasty and include cement extrusion into the vertebral canal leading to spinal cord or nerve root compression. Herein, the authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of a right L2 radiculopathy after a kyphoplasty procedure. Computed tomography imaging showed leakage of the kyphoplasty cement into the neural foramen above and medial to the right L2 pedicle. A transforaminal endoscopic surgical approach was used to remove the cement and decompress the L2 nerve. The patient's postoperative clinical course was uneventful. Clinicians should be aware that for the treatment of complications to vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures, minimally invasive transforaminal endoscopic surgery is one option to avoid the destabilizing effects of laminectomy and facetectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stereotactic ventriculoperitoneal shunt for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N; Lavin, P J; Copeland, M

    1998-07-01

    Lumboperitoneal shunting is the bastion of neurosurgical management for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). However, recent studies document a high failure rate for this procedure. The present study was designed to explore the feasibility of placing ventriculoperitoneal shunts under stereotactic control into patients with IIH as an alternative to lumboperitoneal shunting. Seven patients with IIH for whom medical management had failed underwent stereotactic implantation of ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Shunt placement was successful and uncomplicated in each case. Five of seven patients experienced complete resolution of papilledema. The remaining two patients showed resolving papilledema. Six of seven patients experienced resolution of headache. The remaining patient continued to have headaches despite a radionuclide study demonstrating normal shunt function. Our results suggest that stereotactic ventriculoperitoneal shunting may be a reasonable alternative to lumboperitoneal shunting in those patients with IIH who require surgical intervention.

  5. Technical note: River modelling to infer flood management framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River hydraulic models have successfully identified the weaknesses and areas for improvement with respect to flooding in the Sarawak River system, and can also be used to support decisions on flood management measures. Often, the big question is 'how'. This paper demonstrates a theoretical flood management ...

  6. Technical note: Combining quantile forecasts and predictive distributions of streamflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Liechti, Katharina; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2017-11-01

    The enhanced availability of many different hydro-meteorological modelling and forecasting systems raises the issue of how to optimally combine this great deal of information. Especially the usage of deterministic and probabilistic forecasts with sometimes widely divergent predicted future streamflow values makes it even more complicated for decision makers to sift out the relevant information. In this study multiple streamflow forecast information will be aggregated based on several different predictive distributions, and quantile forecasts. For this combination the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) approach, the non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR), also known as the ensemble model output statistic (EMOS) techniques, and a novel method called Beta-transformed linear pooling (BLP) will be applied. By the help of the quantile score (QS) and the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS), the combination results for the Sihl River in Switzerland with about 5 years of forecast data will be compared and the differences between the raw and optimally combined forecasts will be highlighted. The results demonstrate the importance of applying proper forecast combination methods for decision makers in the field of flood and water resource management.

  7. Technical Note: Universal Specific Energy Curve For Parabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Puppets and the Theater. Technical Note No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carlos; And Others

    This report examines a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Ecuador Ministry of Education which used puppet and "campesino" (folk) theater as a creative form for the presentation of numeracy and literacy programs and for introducing social consciousness concepts. It focuses on the use of the puppet theater in…

  9. TECHNICAL NOTE LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL IN URBAN LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    income from malted grain production which is then sold in Medcato, a large open market nearby, for the eventual production of• Tela • a mild alcholic drinlc. In the production of malted grain or •biJcil•, as it is locally called, from wheat or barley a large amount of water is used, and hence a substantial amo\\Ult of liquid wastes.

  10. Supplemental List of Naval Oceanographic Office Technical Notes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Bahamas - Site 1 Deep Reef, by J.G. McDermid. 7210-5-80 Data Report: Moored Current Meter Measurements Unimak Pass, August 1974 7300-5-80 Procedures for the...Moored Current Meter Measurements Unimak Pass 7210-5-80 Data Report: Physical Oceanographic Observation on the Southern California Shelf (July) 7100-11...Loss 3440-C15-78, 3700-86-79, 9000-91-79, 7300-SI-80, 7300-C8-80, 7300-9-80 Unimak Pass 7210-5-80 United Kingdom 3700-008-78 UNIVAC 1108 3700-77-78

  11. Technical Note: Filler and superplasticizer usage on high strength concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümer, M.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of filler (rock-dust usage on high strength concrete have been investigated through lab experiments and some results have been obtained. The experiments involved three series of concrete with different cement proportions of 375 kg/m3, 400 kg/m3, and 425 kg/m3. For each series of concrete, three different groups of samples have been prepared, the first one being the reference concrete which contained 0% chemical admixture and 0% filler, the second one contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 0% filler and finally the last group contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 5% filler to the weight of cement used. The chemical admixture used was a type of Super plasticizer with a brand name of “DARACEM 190”, and the cement used was Ordinary Portland Cement of target compressive strength 42.5 N/mm2, obtained from Nuh Cement Plant. For each batch, Slump Tests and Unit Weight Tests were performed. For each stage and group, two 15 cm cubic samples have been tested for Compressive Strength after being cured in water at 20 ± 2 °C for ages of 3 days, 7 days, 28 and 60 days. The total number of samples was 72. As a result, filler usage was found to reduce the porosity of Concrete, increase the Unit Weight of Concrete, increase the need for water and improve the Compressive Strength Properties of Concrete.En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia de la utilización de un “filler” (polvo mineral en el comportamiento del hormigón de altas prestaciones. Para ello, se realizan ensayos de laboratorio en los que se emplean tres series de hormigón, cada una con una dosificación de cemento distinta, de 375, 400 y 425 kg/m3. Se preparan tres grupos de probetas de cada serie, el primero o de referencia con 0% de aditivo químico y 0% de “filler”, el segundo con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y 0% de “filler” y el tercero con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y un 5% de “filler” en peso del cemento. Como aditivo se utiliza un superplastificante de nombre comercial “DARACEM 190”, siendo el cemento, suministrado por la Nuh Cement Plant, de tipo Portland con una resistencia a la compresión característica de 42,5 N/mm2. En todas las amasadas se realizan los ensayos del cono de Abrams y de densidad. Para cada serie y grupo, se fabrican dos probetas cúbicas de 15 x 15 x 15 cm que se someten a ensayos de resistencia a la compresión, previo curado en agua a 20 ± 2 ºC durante 3, 7, 28 y 60 días. En total, se fabrican 72 probetas. Los resultados confirman que la utilización del “filler” reduce la porosidad del hormigón, aumentando tanto su densidad como su demanda de agua y mejorando sus propiedades mecánicas.

  12. Technical Note. A Clamped Bar Model for the Sompoton Vibrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tee Hao Wong; Jedol Dayou; M.C.D. Ngu; Jackson H.W. Chang; Willey Y.H. Liew

    2013-01-01

    .... In this paper, the vibrator is modeled as a clamped bar with a uniformly distributed mass. By means of this model, the fundamental frequency is analyzed with the use of an equivalent single degree of freedom system (SDOF) and exact analysis...

  13. Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four synthetic media compositions were formulated consisting of different ratios of meat extract, vegetable extract, sodium chloride, potassium phosphate, urea, ammonium chloride, iron sulphate, magnesium sulphate and glucose. The media composition with BOD and COD measurements closest to that of anaerobic ...

  14. Technical notes: when all things are not equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John H

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses 2 questions. First, how useful is adult patients' information about health and healthcare when they use the Internet for a "health checkup"? We find that patietns' reports are very strongly associated with medical record information for blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose. Second, what are the biases in information from Internet respondents? Although we find that "health checkup" Internet users seem to be representative for patients in actual practice, much more research will be needed to fully address this question.

  15. Technical Note: Assessment of Impact Damage to Apple Fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of height and surfaces on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely: Cardboard (E), wood (F), metal (G), plastic (H) and foam (I) were used for the experiment. The weighed fruits were dropped from different ...

  16. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...... of the anatomy and pathoanatomical status of the osteo-cartilagenous structures, including the facet joints from where a major portion of chronic whiplash patients experience their pain symptoms....

  17. TECHNICAL NOTE: PERFORMANCE OF A PERSONAL ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR PARTICLE SAMPLER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filter-based methods used to measure aerosols with semi-volatile constituents are subject to biases from adsorption and volatilization that may occur during sampling (McDow et al., 1990, Turpin et al., 1994, Volckens et al., 1999; Tolocka et al. 2001). The development and eval...

  18. Technical note: plastic mats prevent footpad injuries in rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Jong, de I.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, welfare regulations indicate that rabbits should be housed on 3 mm wire floors. In a pilot study, 3 mm wire floors did not decrease footpad injuries as expected, whereas a plastic mat fixed to the 3 mm wire did improve footpad quality. However, more data were necessary to support

  19. Customised Cranioplasty Implant for Decompressive Craniectomy Patients -A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Kaif

    2017-03-25

    Cranioplasty is a commonly performed procedure following decompressive craniectomy. The patients are usually young earning persons and increasing cost of treatment is difficult to bear especially in low and middle income countries. A variety of options are available for cranioplasty ranging from autologus bone graft to xenograft and synthetic materials. Presently the autologous cryopreserved or subcutaneously preserved bone graft is considered as preferred choice but is has its drawback of bone resorption and infection . Custom made titanium implants and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants using 3D printing technologies are also being used but its use is limited because of its high cost and lack of availability of this these technologies in the developing world which have maximum number of such cases. The authors present an easy and low cost technique for making customised cranioplasty implant by Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using the craniotomy bone flap of the patient as a template.

  20. Three-dimensional digital projection in neurosurgical education: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina; Ribas, Eduardo Carvalhal; Rhoton, Albert L; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional images have become an important tool in teaching surgical anatomy, and its didactic power is enhanced when combined with 3D surgical images and videos. This paper describes the method used by the last author (G.C.R.) since 2002 to project 3D anatomical and surgical images using a computer source. Projecting 3D images requires the superposition of 2 similar but slightly different images of the same object. The set of images, one mimicking the view of the left eye and the other mimicking the view of the right eye, constitute the stereoscopic pair and can be processed using anaglyphic or horizontal-vertical polarization of light for individual use or presentation to larger audiences. Classically, 3D projection could be obtained by using a double set of slides, projected through 2 slide projectors, each of them equipped with complementary filters, shooting over a medium that keeps light polarized (a silver screen) and having the audience wear appropriate glasses. More recently, a digital method of 3D projection has been perfected. In this method, a personal computer is used as the source of the images, which are arranged in a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. A beam splitter device is used to connect the computer source to 2 digital, portable projectors. Filters, a silver screen, and glasses are used, similar to the classic method. Among other advantages, this method brings flexibility to 3D presentations by allowing the combination of 3D anatomical and surgical still images and videos. It eliminates the need for using film and film developing, lowering the costs of the process. In using small, powerful digital projectors, this method substitutes for the previous technology, without incurring a loss of quality, and enhances portability.

  1. Technical note: Significance and determination of fraction of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method to determine the quantity of non-separable particles in water, together with the calculations for the determination of the conditions of centrifugation under which the quantity of the non-separable particles can be determined, are dealt with in this paper. It is shown that for the determination of the quantity of ...

  2. Technical note Flood map development by coupling satellite maps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flood maps are important for local authorities in designing mitigation plans to minimise damage and loss due to flooding. In recent years, flood events in the Sarawak River Basin, Malaysia have caused damage to property, loss of life and disruption of productive activities. Currently, the available flood map for Sarawak River ...

  3. Technical Note: Comparative Effects of Screw Press for Honey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey extraction is the removal of honey from the honey bearing combs. Different local methods of honey extraction, their strengths and weaknesses were discussed. A screw press was fabricated to facilitate honey extraction. The fabricated screw honey extractor is good alternative to the existing methods of extraction.

  4. Anchor coil technique for arteriovenous fistula embolization. A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Ezura, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Yoshihisa; Yagi, Takashi; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Fukumoto, Yuichiro; Horikoshi, Toru; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) successfully treated by coil embolization with an anchor coil inserted in the varix to facilitate dense packing at the shunting site. AVF of the left anterior choroidal artery (AChoA) draining into the ipsilateral basal vein of Rosenthal was incidentally found in a newborn female. A single detachable coil was inserted as an anchor into the varix adjacent to the shunt, and the microcatheter was pulled back to the shunting point. Three more detachable coils were delivered at the shunting point without migration under the support of the anchor coil, and the AVF was successfully obliterated with preservation of AChoA blood flow. The anchor coil technique can reduce the risk of coil migration and the number of coils required.

  5. Technical note AIVC 68: residential ventilation and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    Exposures in homes constitute the major part of exposures to airborne pollutants experienced through the human lifetime. They can constitute from 60 to 95% of our total lifetime exposures, of which 30% occurs when we sleep. The airborne pollutants constituting these exposures have sources outdoors

  6. Technical note: The yield stress: An engineering reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnett, J.P.; Hu, R.Y.Z.

    1989-05-01

    A simple experiment using the falling ball technique was used to demonstrate unambiguously that a 2500 wppm aqueous Carbopol 960 solution has a yield stress. A series of photographs taken over a period of several months revealed that a nylon ball with a density of 1.156 g/cm/sup 3/ showed no measurable movement when placed well within a Carbopol solution having a density of 1.008 g/cm/sup 3/.

  7. Technical Note: Accurate, Explicit Pipe Sizing Formula For Turbulent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper develops an explicit formula for computing the diameter of pipes, which is applicable to all turbulent flows. The formula not only avoids iteration but still estimates pipe diameters over the entire range of turbulent flows with an error of less than 4% in the worst cases. This is superior to (without requiring a higher ...

  8. Technical Note: Application of Decision Theory Based Criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the earlier paper, a simple probabilistic model was formulated to predict the reliability of concrete in a structure during construction, a case study of laboratory block for College of Continuing Education, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. In this paper, the reliability of the structure is predicted using decision theory ...

  9. Bipolar diathermy forceps with automatic irrigation. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T; Funatsu, N; Kuroiwa, T; Matsui, T

    1985-06-01

    A method for providing a saline drip during bipolar diathermy is described. Stainless steel tubing is incorporated in both blades of standard bipolar forceps and connected to the irrigating line. Irrigation is started when the forceps are closed and is stopped when they are open.

  10. Technical note: Measurement and expression of granular filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To aid the systematic analysis of filter media and the troubleshooting of problem filters, this paper firstly proposes a standard procedure for quantification of the specific deposit on filter media, including tentative guidelines for the interpretation of the results. Secondly, a standard procedure is proposed for the characterisation ...

  11. Technical note: A linear model for predicting δ13 Cprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, William J; Hubbe, Mark; Smith, Erin K; Stevenson, Joseph M

    2015-08-01

    Development of a model for the prediction of δ(13) Cprotein from δ(13) Ccollagen and Δ(13) Cap-co . Model-generated values could, in turn, serve as "consumer" inputs for multisource mixture modeling of paleodiet. Linear regression analysis of previously published controlled diet data facilitated the development of a mathematical model for predicting δ(13) Cprotein (and an experimentally generated error term) from isotopic data routinely generated during the analysis of osseous remains (δ(13) Cco and Δ(13) Cap-co ). Regression analysis resulted in a two-term linear model (δ(13) Cprotein (%) = (0.78 × δ(13) Cco ) - (0.58× Δ(13) Cap-co ) - 4.7), possessing a high R-value of 0.93 (r(2)  = 0.86, P < 0.01), and experimentally generated error terms of ±1.9% for any predicted individual value of δ(13) Cprotein . This model was tested using isotopic data from Formative Period individuals from northern Chile's Atacama Desert. The model presented here appears to hold significant potential for the prediction of the carbon isotope signature of dietary protein using only such data as is routinely generated in the course of stable isotope analysis of human osseous remains. These predicted values are ideal for use in multisource mixture modeling of dietary protein source contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Suction Filter in Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Matteo; Marucci, Gianluca; Milanese, Laura; Bonfatti, Rocco; Sturiale, Carmelo; Ernesto, Pasquini; Frank, Giorgio; Mazzatenta, Diego

    2016-11-01

    The collection of the greatest possible amount of pathologic tissue is of paramount importance in neurosurgery to achieve the most accurate histopathologic diagnosis, to perform all of the necessary biomolecular tests on the pathologic specimen, and to collect biological material for basic or translational science studies. This problem is particularly relevant in pituitary surgery because of the possible small size and soft consistency of tumors, which make them suitable for removal through suction, reducing the amount of available pathologic tissue. To solve this issue, we adopted a filter connected to the suction tube, which allows the surgeon to collect all of the tissue aspirated during surgery. Our experience of 1734 endoscopic endonasal procedures, performed adopting this device since 1998 to December 2015, has been revised to assess its advantages and limitations. This system is easy-to-use, does not impair the surgical maneuvers, and does not add any relevant cost to the surgery. The tissue collected through the filter proved useful for diagnostic histologic and biomolecular analyses and for research purposes, without any relevant artifacts as a result of this method of collection. The use of a filter has allowed us to obtain the greatest amount possible of pathologic tissue at each surgery. This surgical material has revealed to be helpful both for diagnostic and basic science purposes. The use of the filter has proven to be of particular importance for microadenomas, soft tumors, and supradiaphragmatic or skull base lesions with heterogeneous features, improving the accuracy of histopathologic diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Technical note: Guide to groundwater monitoring for the coal industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established in literature that the environmental impacts associated with the coal industry are numerous. In respect of South Africa's groundwater resources the major impact of the coal industry is a reduction in groundwater quantity and quality. There is therefore a need to proactively prevent or minimise these ...

  14. Technical note: Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where sulphate removal is targeted in the biological treatment of acid mine drainage wastewaters, a step additional to sulphate reduction is required to prevent the complete oxidation of sulphide back to sulphate. This linearisation of the biological sulphur cycle has presented a technological bottleneck, particularly in ...

  15. Technical Note: Trend estimation from irregularly sampled, correlated data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of a trend of an atmospheric state variable is usually performed by fitting a linear regression line to a set of data of this variable sampled at different times. Often these data are irregularly sampled in space and time and clustered in a sense that error correlations among data points cause a similar error of data points sampled at similar times. Since this can affect the estimated trend, we suggest to take the full error covariance matrix of the data into account. Superimposed periodic variations can be jointly fitted in a straightforward manner, even if the shape of the periodic function is not known. Global data sets, particularly satellite data, can form the basis to estimate the error correlations. State-dependent amplitudes of superimposed periodic corrections result in a non-linear optimization problem which is solved iteratively.

  16. Graphic representation of pharyngeal wall motion during swallow: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, O; Borgstrom, P S

    1989-01-01

    Movements of the pharyngeal wall were measured at 12 transverse levels, on consecutive cineradiograms obtained during swallowing of thin, liquid barium, in a single nondysphagic volunteer. By graphic representation of these measurements on the IBM personal computer, it was possible to analyze in detail pharyngeal motor activity in terms of displacement of the pharyngeal wall. The contraction created a fairly steep narrowing of the lumen. The peristaltic wave was more difficult to analyze. Movements of the pharyngeal wall in posteroanterior projection gave good information about the constrictors. Although this technique has several inherent methodologic difficulties, its use may expand our knowledge of pharyngeal peristalsis.

  17. TECHNICAL NOTE Integrated imaging – the complementary roles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slice diagnostic units. Adding contrast enhancement affords the potential for performing a single comprehensive diagnostic study. PET/. MRI, a recent development, is currently being clinically evaluated. This article highlights clinical scenarios where radiology and nuclear medicine are combined to address specific clinical ...

  18. Technical Note: Computation of Electric Field Strength Necessary for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of this field on the objects lying within its vicinity depend on its intensity. In this paper, the electric field of 33kV overhead line is considered. The aim of the paper is to determine the maximum electric field strength or potential gradient, E of the 33kV overhead line at the surface of the ground above an underground ...

  19. A note on Marx

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Finn; Jensen, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Throughout all his life Karl Marx wrote angrily about capitalism. By use of a dialectic approach he was convinced that the working class had to unite and make a social revolution and thereby free them selves from exploitation. Marx himself was in many ways a dialectic person as we try to show in the note. So in some sense he became one with his scientific methodology.

  20. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  1. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  2. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...

  3. A Technical Note A Short Note on Processing of Bamboo Juice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A taste panel was held and the product was found acceptable although not as good as the unprocessed product. On storage, there was no significant change in taste and lor flavour but signs of corrosion of the containers were evident after one year. Alternatively, the bamboo juice was placed in amber coloured bottles, ...

  4. A Technical Note A Short Note on Processing of Bamboo Juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yrraditional Foods Progressing Venture (TFPV) P. O. Box 200, Iringa, Tanzania. ... ensures a hygienic product, its availability throughout the year and maintenance of constant prices .... contributed to the fast sales given that the sensory.

  5. Notes on functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    These notes are a record of a one semester course on Functional Analysis given by the author to second year Master of Statistics students at the Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi. Students taking this course have a strong background in real analysis, linear algebra, measure theory and probability, and the course proceeds rapidly from the definition of a normed linear space to the spectral theorem for bounded selfadjoint operators in a Hilbert space. The book is organised as twenty six lectures, each corresponding to a ninety minute class session. This may be helpful to teachers planning a course on this topic. Well prepared students can read it on their own.

  6. En Note om Programmering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Denne note er en introduktion til programmering. Formålet er at give dig et indblik i hvad programmering egentlig er for noget. Jeg vil vise at programmering kan foregå på forskellige måder, og at der er mange forskellige udfordringer forbundet med at programmere. Noten vil ikke knytte sig til et...... bestemt programmeringssprog. Noten vil kunne supplere et egentlig undervisningsmateriale, der støtter dig i en bestemt form for programmering i et udvalgt programmeringssprog....

  7. Note on RHIC polarimetry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.

    1999-11-12

    For physics measurements with polarized colliding beams, beam polarizations and relative luminosities must both be determined. Predictions for spin observables of many interesting physics processes at RHIC are quite small in magnitude. This requires high statistics measurements of relative luminosities and careful control of systematic errors. Discussions about the polarized beams at RHIC often presume that the polarization and intensity of each bunch within a will be known quite well from measurements by the RHIC polarimeters. The purpose of this note is to give a description of the knowledge that can actually be obtained from these polarimeters.

  8. Note e Recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a cura di Mariagrazia Portera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volumi Winfried Menninghaus, La promessa della bellezza, [Fabrizio Desideri, p. 272] • David Rothenberg, Survival of the Beautiful. Art, Science and Evolution [Danae Crocchiola, p. 274] • Lev Manovich, Software Takes Command [Angela Maiello, p. 277]. Note Method in Aesthetics: Philosophy, Evolution and the Cognitive Sciences [Aaron Meskin, Matthew Kieran, Gregory Currie, p. 280] • L’Abitare possibile. Estetica, Architettura e New Media, Ravello, Auditorium Oscar Niemeyer, 28-30 maggio 2013 [Sara Matetich, p. 282] • Copenhagen Summer School in Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind, University of Copenhagen, 12-16 Agosto 2013 [Raoul Frauenfelder, p. 289] • Ciò che è vivo e ciò che è morto nell’estetica di Archibald Ali- son. Nota a margine del convegno: Neoestetica ed emozione. Archibald Alison e l’estetica con- temporanea, Palermo, 4-5 ottobre 2013 [Giuseppe Pucci, p. 294

  9. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  10. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience Since the closure of the detector in February, the technical operation of CMS has been quite smooth and reliable. Some minor interventions in UXC were required to cure failures of power supplies, fans, readout boards and rack cooling connections, but all these failures were repaired in scheduled technical stops or parasitically during access dedicated to fixing LHC technical problems. The only occasion when CMS had to request an access between fills was to search for the source of an alarm from the leak-detection cables mounted in the DT racks. After a few minutes of diagnostic search, a leaking air-purge was found. Replacement was complete within 2 hours. This incident demonstrated once more the value of these leak detection cables; the system will be further extended (during the end of year technical stop) to cover more racks in UXC and the floor beneath the detector. The magnet has also been operating reliably and reacted correctly to the 14s power cut on 29 May (see below). In or...

  11. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Monday 9 February 2004 From 10:00 to 12:00 - IT Auditorium - bldg. 31, 3rd floor ANSOFT High-Frequency Seminar David Prestaux, Application Engineer, ANSOFT F-78535 BUC, France This Technical Training seminar will present two Ansoft application products: Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer. Ansoft HFSS makes use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate field solutions from first principles. It can accurately predict all high-frequency behaviours such as dispersion, mode conversion, and losses due to materials and radiation. Ansoft Designer is a suite of design tools to fully integrate high-frequency, physics-based electromagnetic simulations into a seamless system-level simulation environment. Ansoft Designer uses a simple interface to give complete control over every design task, by a method allowing multiple solvers, Solver on Demand. • Introduction • Overview of the Ansoft Total solution • Ansoft HFSS 9...

  12. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Hou, L.; Saini, A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-06-01

    Residues of two subbituminous coals from their liquefaction at 300-425{degrees}C were analyzed using cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) and dipolar dephasing (DD) solid-state {sup 13}C NMR techniques. The DDMAS and CPMAS NMR analysis of a Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9) indicate that it has 63-64% aromatic carbons among total carbons; 34-35% of the aromatic carbons are protonated carbons, and 23-24% of the aromatic carbons are oxygen-bound carbons, with the remaining 31-33% bound primarily to other carbon atoms. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectrum of Wyodak subbituminous coal (DECS-8) is similar to that of Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9). CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR of the residues from DECS-9 coal revealed that catechol-like structures and phenolic structures in the coal are thermally sensitive and diminish gradually with increasing temperature. The carbon aromaticity increased monotonically with increasing reaction temperature, whereas hydrogen aromaticity reached a maximum for residue from a 300{degrees}C run and then declines with further increase in temperature. The increase in carbon aromaticity is mainly driven by temperature, rather than by the adduction of aromatic solvents. DDMAS NMR analysis indicates that the degree of protonation of aromatic carbons decreased from 35% (for THF-extracted but unreacted DECS-9 coal) to 13% (for residue from a non-catalytic run) with increasing reaction temperature up to 375{degrees}C. DDMAS {sup 13}C NMR of the residues from DECS-8 Wyodak coal revealed that the degree of protonation of aromatic carbons (f{sub a}{sup ah}) is lower with the residues from catalytic liquefaction a 350{degrees}C.

  13. Heuristic Evaluation of eNote: an Electronic Notes System

    OpenAIRE

    Bright, Tiffani J.; Bakken, Suzanne; Johnson, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    eNote is an electronic health record (EHR) system based on semi-structured narrative documents. A heuristic evaluation was conducted with a sample of five usability experts. eNote performed highly in: 1)consistency with standards and 2)recognition rather than recall. eNote needs improvement in: 1)help and documentation, 2)aesthetic and minimalist design, 3)error prevention, 4)helping users recognize, diagnosis, and recover from errors, and 5)flexibility and efficiency of use. The heuristic ev...

  14. What's In a Note: Construction of a Suicide Note Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestian, John P; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Linn-Gust, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an initiative to create and annotate a corpus of suicide notes that can be used for machine learning. Ultimately, the corpus included 1,278 notes that were written by someone who died by suicide. Each note was reviewed by at least three annotators who mapped words or sentences to a schema of emotions. This corpus has already been used for extensive scientific research.

  15. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Schobert, H.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: (1) spectroscopic and chemical reaction studies on the effects of drying and mild oxidation of a Wyodak subbituminous coal on its structure and pretreatment/liquefaction at 350{degrees}C; and (2) effects of dispersed catalyst and solvent on conversion and structural changes of a North Dakota lignite. Drying and oxidation of Wyodak subbituminous coal at 100-150{degrees}C have been shown to have significant effects on its structure and on its catalytic and non-catalytic low-severity liquefaction at 350{degrees}C for 30 min under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2}. Spectroscopic analyses using solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, Pyrolysis-GC-MS, and FT-IR revealed that oxidative drying at 100-150{degrees}C causes the transformation of phenolics and catechol into other related structures (presumably via condensation) and high-severity air drying at 150{degrees}C for 20 h leads to disappearance of catechol-like structure. Increasing air drying time or temperature increases oxidation to form more oxygen functional groups at the expense of aliphatic carbons. Such a clearly negative impact of severe oxidation is considered to arise from significantly increased oxygen functionality which enhances the cross-link formation in the early stage of coal liquefaction. Physical, chemical, and surface physicochemical aspects of drying and oxidation and the role of water are also discussed. A North Dakota lignite (DECS-1) coal was studied for its behaviors in non-catalytic and catalytic liquefaction. Reactions were carried out at temperatures between 250 and 450{degrees}C. Regardless the reaction solvents and the catalyst being used, the optimum temperature was found to be 400{degrees}C. The donor solvent has a significant effect over the conversion especially at temperatures higher than 350{degrees}C.

  16. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  17. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

    In this report we will review the main achievements of the Technical Stop and the progress of several centrally-managed projects to support CMS operation and maintenance and prepare the way for upgrades. Overview of the extended Technical Stop  The principal objectives of the extended Technical Stop affecting the detector itself were the installation of the TOTEM T1 telescopes on both ends, the readjustment of the alignment link-disk in YE-2, the replacement of the light-guide sleeves for all PMs of both HFs, and some repairs on TOTEM T2 and CASTOR. The most significant tasks were, however, concentrated on the supporting infrastructure. A detailed line-by-line leak search was performed in the C6F14 cooling system of the Tracker, followed by the installation of variable-frequency drives on the pump motors of the SS1 and SS2 tracker cooling plants to reduce pressure transients during start-up. In the electrical system, larger harmonic filters were installed in ...

  18. Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Emmett Reid

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia.

  19. Saisonal heat storage in mine caverns. Concepts and technical solutions. Second technical report. Saisonal heat storage of solar low temperature heat in mines. Solar mining; Saisonale Waermespeicherung in Grubenraeumen. Konzepte und technische Loesungen. 2. Technischer Fachbericht. Saisonale Speicherung solarer Niedertemperaturwaerme in Bergwerken. Solarenergiebergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmeier, B.; Mohr, M.; Unger, H.

    1999-03-01

    The Second Technical Report of the project `Saisonal Storage of Solar Low Temperature Heat in Mines` describes different concepts to realize seasonal storage in mines and suitable district heat systems. The different storage designs and concepts are presented and evaluated in detail. The fundamental differences between the use of a tunnel or a shaft are discussed as well as the storage filling with a fluid or a mineral material. Technical solutions for the integration of a seasonal storage in mines are examined. Different solutions for storage sealing stand for choice. It is shown that the use of air-placed concrete represents a particularly suitable method due to the cost advantages and the flexible operation of the procedure compared with other seal systems. An exemplary system design leads to specific investment costs of 115 DM/m{sup 3} to 300 DM/m{sup 3} for the saisonal storage depending on the boundary conditions (tightness of the surrounding rock, use of available pipework etc.). The latter amount equals the height of the costs payed for the concrete underground tanks in Hamburg-Bramfeld and Friedrichshafen. It is shown that the costs for the use of mines for saisonal storage is comparable to those of existing systems at least; in favorable cases definitely lower costs may be achievable. In any case, a specific evaluation, taking account of local boundary conditions and circumstances, is necessay. On the basis of the boundary conditions below and the situation above ground, many locations in the Ruhr area were estimated concerning their suitability for this project. Favorable locations could be found within almost all coal industry areas. The plan for house buildings at these locations is suitable for the application of a district heat network. Although the examination of seasonal heat storage in mines is not concluded up to now, the presently achieved information indicates very positive results in all sections (i.e. investment costs, technical feasibility

  20. Technical basis for the reduction of the maximum temperature TGA-MS analysis of oxide samples from the 3013 destructive examination program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-24

    Thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopy of the evolved gas (TGA-MS) is used to quantify the moisture content of materials in the 3013 destructive examination (3013 DE) surveillance program. Salts frequently present in the 3013 DE materials volatilize in the TGA and condense in the gas lines just outside the TGA furnace. The buildup of condensate can restrict the flow of purge gas and affect both the TGA operations and the mass spectrometer calibration. Removal of the condensed salts requires frequent maintenance and subsequent calibration runs to keep the moisture measurements by mass spectroscopy within acceptable limits, creating delays in processing samples. In this report, the feasibility of determining the total moisture from TGA-MS measurements at a lower temperature is investigated. A temperature of the TGA-MS analysis which reduces the complications caused by the condensation of volatile materials is determined. Analysis shows that an excellent prediction of the presently measured total moisture value can be made using only the data generated up to 700 °C and there is a sound physical basis for this estimate. It is recommended that the maximum temperature of the TGA-MS determination of total moisture for the 3013 DE program be reduced from 1000 °C to 700 °C. It is also suggested that cumulative moisture measurements at 550 °C and 700°C be substituted for the measured value of total moisture in the 3013 DE database. Using these raw values, any of predictions of the total moisture discussed in this report can be made.

  1. Low-Temperature, High Throughput Process for Thin, Large-Grained Poly Si: Final Technical Report, 24 May 1999--25 July 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwater, H. A.

    2003-09-01

    The overall project goal is to understand the fundamental gas phase, and surface and interface science issues relevant to low-temperature (T< 600 C) synthesis of polycrystalline silicon films on low-cost (e.g., glass) substrates. This understanding will be used to delineate the path to break through existing barriers to high-rate synthesis of high-quality thin films for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic applications. In this context,''high quality P'' refers to large grain size (> film thickness) and long (> film thickness) minority-carrier diffusion length.

  2. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Switzerland (please sp...

  3. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Swi...

  4. Consolidated Bibliography--Unclassified Technical Reports, Special Reports, and Technical Notes: FY 1974 through FY 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    groups of Navy enlisted men participated in an experiment on memory for words. Both groups were presented with four 3-trial blocks of categorized- noun ...a clean, cheerful environment and in helping others. It was concluded that these feminine values were not consistent with the nontraditional jobs to...attitudes toward social life and military commitment were very similar. Also, the feminine role orientation of the two groups of wives was similar, with

  5. Mild temperature gasification: Partitioning sulfur to gas as H{sub 2}S. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stencel, J.M.; Neathery, J.K.; Schaefer, J.L.; Yang, Jidong [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1993-09-01

    Bench-scale, mild temperature fluidized bed gasification (MTFBG) will be performed on three high sulfur Illinois basin coals after mixing with phosphoric acid. The research initiates development of an advanced processing technology which partitions coal sulfur to the gas phase as H{sub 2}S. Influences of coal type, coal agglomeration, and steam injection on the properties of the solid, condensible and gaseous products produced during MTFBG will be examined. Analytical measurements of the products will be obtained and are designed to provide product quality and quantity data. Combustion reactivity testing of the char, and pressurized, hot water extraction of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} from the char, will be performed to provide information for design of a continuous and integrated process for the removal and recovery of coal sulfur. MTFBG experiments were performed on Illinois coals IBC-101, -106 and -110. The yields of char, tar and gaseous products varied between 60--85% char, 0.4--1.3% tar, and 15--43% gas for IBC-101 and -106. Gas yields were sensitive to the coal/phosphoric acid mixing ratio and also dependent on the residence time within the gasifier. The mean residence time was low ({approximately}6 seconds), and was influenced by the mean particle size of the coals. The total sulfur removal was as high as 83% for IBC-106 at a temperature of 500{degrees}C. In comparison with previous fixed bed testing, it is believed that the sulfur is removed as H{sub 2}S. Experiments planned for the next quarter should define the concentration and type of sulfur in the gas.

  6. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-02-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: The influences of temperature, dispersed Mo catalyst, and solvent on the liquefaction conversion and composition of products from low-rank coals; and the hydrous pyrolysis of a lignite and spectroscopic characterization of its structural transformation during the hydrous pyrolysis. The analytical work described in this quarter also represents molecular-level characterization of products. The purpose of the first part of the work described in this quarter is to study the influences of temperature, solvent and dispersed Mo catalyst on the liquefaction conversion and chemical composition of the products. Many specialty chemicals, including one- to four-ring aromatics, could potentially be produced by liquefying coal. To achieve this goal, not only a high coal conversion but also a desirable product distribution is necessary. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the structural changes of the coal during reaction and to investigate the conditions under which the aliphatics or aromatics can be removed from the macromolecular structure of coal. This quarterly report also describes the hydrous pyrolysis of Potapsco lignite and spectroscopic characterization of its structural transformation during the hydrous pyrolysis. This work has some implications both on the structural changes of low-rank coals during pretreatment and on the geochemical reactions during coalification stage. Vitrinite, a major component of most coals, is derived from degraded wood in ancient peat swamps. Organic geochemical studies conducted on a series of coalified wood samples derived mostly from gymnosperms have allowed the development of a chemical reaction series to characterize the major coalification reactions which lignin, the major coal-producing component of wood, undergoes.

  7. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2013-01-01

    For the reporting period, the CMS common systems and infrastructure worked well, without failures that caused significant data losses. One more disconnection of the magnet cold box occurred in the shadow of interruptions in data taking, caused by a series of technical faults. The recognition during 2012 that re-connection can only safely be done at around 2 T implies a minimum magnet recovery time of 12 hours and raises serious concerns about the number of ramping cycles of the magnet these incidents cause. This has triggered studies of how to make the cryo-system of the magnet more robust against failures. The proton-proton run ended just before the end-of-year CERN closure, during which CASTOR was installed on the negative end of CMS and both ZDC calorimeters were installed in TAN absorbers the LHC tunnel, in preparation for the heavy-ion run. The installation of CASTOR was an excellent “engineering test” of procedures for working in an activated environment. Despite some technical pr...

  8. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

      Operational experience 2011 CMS is approaching the end of a very successful year of operation. Proton- proton running ended in the late afternoon of 30th October with a stunning 5.73 fb–1 delivered by LHC, of which CMS recorded 5.22 fb–1. During heavy-ion operation, which continues until 7th December, both the accelerator and the CMS detector have also performed very well. Despite the encouraging overall reliability of technical operation, several infrastructure failures which occurred since the last Bulletin are worthy of mention, with one leading for the first time to significant data-loss. On 10th July, a CERN-wide power failure brought down essentially all services including the magnet, due to an MCS setting being left in “manual” after the recent technical stop, but there was no significant damage and the detector was operational before the LHC, despite a slow and tortuous recovery (one of several indications this year that there is room for improve...

  9. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    Summary of progress since last CMS week. Ten years of construction work have been completed. CMS is closed, in very close to the ideal low luminosity configuration, and performed well in the first tests with LHC beam. Behind this encouraging news is the story of a summer of intense commitment by many teams (from the collaboration and 3 CERN departments) working together, against the clock and despite many minor setbacks, to ensure that the experiment was ready to play a leading role in the excitement of September 10. Following beampipe bakeout and refill with pure neon, a magnificent effort by the ECAL group and the pt 5 technical crew made it possible to install and commission all 4 ECAL endcap Dees before the end of August. In the shadow of this activity, the barrel and forward pixel trackers and part of the beam monitoring were installed within the vac tank. The pt 5 technical teams then succeeded in safely removing the 20t installation tables and their support blocks from beneath the already installed ...

  10. Heuristic evaluation of eNote: an electronic notes system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Tiffani J; Bakken, Suzanne; Johnson, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    eNote is an electronic health record (EHR) system based on semi-structured narrative documents. A heuristic evaluation was conducted with a sample of five usability experts. eNote performed highly in: 1)consistency with standards and 2)recognition rather than recall. eNote needs improvement in: 1)help and documentation, 2)aesthetic and minimalist design, 3)error prevention, 4)helping users recognize, diagnosis, and recover from errors, and 5)flexibility and efficiency of use. The heuristic evaluation was an efficient method of evaluating our interface.

  11. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    07 April 2009 Technical presentation by Leuze Electronics: 14.00 – 15.00, Main Building, Room 61-1-017 (Room A) Photoelectric sensors, data identification and transmission systems, image processing systems. We at Leuze Electronics are "the sensor people": we have been specialising in optoelectronic sensors and safety technology for accident prevention for over 40 years. Our dedicated staff are all highly customer oriented. Customers of Leuze Electronics can always rely on one thing – on us! •\tFounded in 1963 •\t740 employees •\t115 MEUR turnover •\t20 subsidiaries •\t3 production facilities in southern Germany Product groups: •\tPhotoelectric sensors •\tIdentification and measurements •\tSafety devices

  12. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2010-01-01

    Overview Once again, the bulk of this article reviews the intense activity of a recently completed shutdown, which, although quite unforeseeable until a few weeks before it started, proved by its success that our often advertised capability to conduct major maintenance within a two month period is real. Although safely completed, on-time to remarkable precision, the activity was not without incident, and highlighted our dependence on many experienced, specialist teams and their precise choreography. Even after the yoke was safely closed, magnet re-commissioning and beampipe pumpdown showed new and thought-provoking behaviour. The struggle to maintain adequate technical resources will be a pre-occupation over the coming months, in parallel with the start of truly sustained operation, for which various procedures are still being put in place. Planning for future shutdowns must now become a high priority, with many working groups and task forces already in existence to prepare infrastructure improvements and to...

  13. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    RADIOSPARES, the leading catalogue distributor of components (electronic, electrical, automation, etc.) and industrial supplies will be at CERN on Friday 3 October 2008 (Main Building, Room B, from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.) to introduce its new 2008/2009 catalogue. This will be the opportunity for us to present our complete range of products in more detail: 400 000 part numbers available on our web site (Radiospares France, RS International, extended range of components from other manufacturers); our new services: quotations, search for products not included in the catalogue, SBP products (Small Batch Production: packaging in quantities adapted to customers’ requirements); partnership with our focus manufacturers; demonstration of the on-line purchasing tool implemented on our web site in conjunction with CERN. RADIOSPARES will be accompanied by representatives of FLUKE and TYCO ELECTRONICS, who will make presentations, demonstrate materials and answer any technical questio...

  14. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    10 March 2010 DYNEOS 10:00 – 12:00 - Main Building, Room B, 61-1-009 Dyneos AG is active in the fields of photonics, laser and high-precision positioning. Our highly qualified engineer team has more than 30 years of experience in electro-optical solutions sales. The engineers are supported by a technical and administrative team. We are focused on the Swiss market and represent six suppliers (Coherent, PI Physik Instrumente, SIOS, Nanonics Imaging, APE, Ekspla) in order to give a qualified sales and service support to our customers. Our products are dedicated to the research field as well as to industry. In addition to standard catalog products, we offer custom designs to fulfill the specific needs of OEM customers or specific applications.

  15. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  16. Downsizing Technical Communication Staff: The Risk to Corporate Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that companies responding to the struggling economy are downsizing staff, including technical communicators. Maintains that such cutbacks affect not only employee confidence and productivity but also product quality, customer satisfaction, and future sales. States that technical communicators' critical knowledge is an asset that companies…

  17. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR A CANDIDATE BUILDING MATERIALS RADIUM STANDARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a candidate building materials radium standard. It contains the standard and a summary of the technical basis for the standard. (NOTE: The Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the...

  18. NOTES, hybrid NOTES, NOTES-assisted kidney surgery: what has been achieved so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, R; Ribal, Maria J; Sotelo, Rene; Fernández, G; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    With improved technologies and the development of new techniques, has emerged the concept of "scarless surgery" in an attempt to treat certain diseases obviating the need for incisions to access the peritoneal cavity, resulting in direct benefit to patients and assuming an improvement in quality of life and offering an advantage over conventional laparoscopy. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) are evolutions of laparoscopy, and they are complementary techniques that should be included in this new concept. NOTES is an emerging surgical modality that uses endoscopic instruments through hollow viscera to enter the peritoneal cavity and allow surgical procedures without incisions. The NOTES procedure may provide additional benefits when compared with current minimally invasive procedures. Potential advantages include no skin incisions, improved cosmetic result, reduced postoperative pain, diminished risk of postoperative hernias, and earlier recovery. NOTES surgery has still some inconvenient regarding instrumentals, viewing orientation, control of complications. Attempts to overcome the current limitations of the technique have given rise to the concept of hybrid NOTES, which is performed with the assistance of transabdominal ports for the use of conventional laparoscopy equipment. NOTES is a very promising technique although further investigation is necessary until implementing NOTES surgery in the common clinical practice.

  19. Lecture Notes in Lie Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Ivancevic, Tijana T.

    2011-01-01

    These lecture notes in Lie Groups are designed for a 1--semester third year or graduate course in mathematics, physics, engineering, chemistry or biology. This landmark theory of the 20th Century mathematics and physics gives a rigorous foundation to modern dynamics, as well as field and gauge theories in physics, engineering and biomechanics. We give both physical and medical examples of Lie groups. The only necessary background for comprehensive reading of these notes are advanced calculus ...

  20. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  1. Two notes about Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Honohan, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    A Ponzi scheme is an arrangement whereby a promoter offers an investment opportunity with attractive dividends, but where the only basis for the dividends is the future receipts from new investors. The first of these two notes explores some of the analytical properties of a Ponzi scheme, addressing in particular the question whether it is possible for a Ponzi scheme to exist if all the participants are rational. The second note briefly examines the collapse of the PMPA insurance company whos...

  2. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Schobert, Harold H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  3. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2011-01-01

    1 Operational experience 2011 1.1 Overview Starting on a positive note, it is encouraging that, for the period of this report, the operation of CMS and its entire infrastructure at Point 5 was remarkably stable and efficient. No luminosity was lost due to failures of common systems or infrastructure. The major faults were two failures of rack ventilation turbines, a leak in a water pump in the endcap circuit and the first fast dump of the magnet since underground commissioning. As the rack ventilation units have two turbines, these single turbine failures were tolerated until the next possible access. The water pump survived until the end of the fill after which the circuit was switched to a reserve pump (which in principle is also possible “on the fly”). A faulty position controller of a cryo-valve serving the cryo-power leads caused a spontaneous closure of the valve leading to the fast dump of the magnet. In this case, CMS was lucky once again, since the incident happened on the first ...

  4. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      UXC + detectors As explained in detail in the November 2011 bulletin, the bellows unit at −18.5 m from the CMS interaction point was identified as a prime candidate for the regularly occurring pressure spikes which occasionally led to sustained severe background conditions in 2011, affecting dead time and data quality. Similar regions in LHC with vacuum instabilities were observed to be close to bellows, which radiography showed to have distorted RF-fingers — on removal, they proved to have been severely overheated. The plans for the Year-End Technical Stop were adapted to prioritise radiography of the bellows at 16 m to 18 m either end of CMS. Excellent work by the beam pipe, survey and heavy mechanical teams allowed the X-rays to be taken as planned on 20th December, showing that the bellow at −18.5m had an obvious non-conformity. The RF-fingers were found inside the end of the opposing flared pipe instead of outside. In addition, the overlap between fingers and...

  5. 12 CFR 561.33 - Note account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Note account. 561.33 Section 561.33 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.33 Note account. The term note account means a note, subject to the right of... States Treasury Department regulations. Note accounts are not savings accounts or savings deposits. ...

  6. Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullman, Mikael; Campillo, Javier; Dahlquist, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Globally, more than 50% of all people are living in cities today. Enhancing sustainability and efficiency of urban energy systems is thus of high priority for global sustainable development. The European research project PLEEC (Planning for Energy Efficient Cities) focuses on technological......, innovative, behavioural and structural capacities of European medium-sized cities in their transition towards Energy Smart Cities. The variation of strengths and weaknesses of cities’ capabilities as well as practices and tools for enhancing energy efficient performance of urban energy systems were...

  7. NOTES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on a donkey carcass beside the bolong. A. Gambian bird—guide and I realised this was an exceptional sighting (though Barlow et al. 1987 mention one record of eight birds). 20 and we thus spent a considerable amount of time carefully scrutinising the various vultures in view from our Land Rover parked only 3040 m away ...

  8. Applicable technical method for lower temperature freeze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryo-fixation and freeze substitution followed by microscopy are commonly used sample preparation methods for visualizing the morphology of intracellular organelles. Freeze substitution is an especially important preparative step because it enables the preservation of intracellular structures in cryo-fixed cells close to the ...

  9. Fiscal year 1981 scientific and technical reports, articles, papers, and presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S. S. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography lists approximately 503 formal NASA technical reports, papers published in technical journals, and presentations by MSFC personnel in FY-1981. It also includes papers of MSFC contractors. Citations announced in the NASA scientific and technical information system are noted.

  10. Philippines Urbanization Review Policy Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This policy note assesses the performance of existing land administration and management (LAM) system in the Philippines in creating an environment for competitive cities. It looks at the influence of LAM (including property rights) in the proper functioning of land markets in urban areas; the effectiveness of land use planning and regulations in shaping urban growth, reducing informality,...

  11. Churchill on Stalin: A note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to draw attention to two limitations of Churchill's war memoirs as a source of accurate information about Stalin, his views ans actions. they concern, first Stalin's alleged remarks in 1942 about collectivisation, and second Stalin's allleged response to Churchill's

  12. Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Newton D.

    This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids…

  13. Lecture Notes on Multigrid Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilevski, P S

    2010-06-28

    The Lecture Notes are primarily based on a sequence of lectures given by the author while been a Fulbright scholar at 'St. Kliment Ohridski' University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria during the winter semester of 2009-2010 academic year. The notes are somewhat expanded version of the actual one semester class he taught there. The material covered is slightly modified and adapted version of similar topics covered in the author's monograph 'Multilevel Block-Factorization Preconditioners' published in 2008 by Springer. The author tried to keep the notes as self-contained as possible. That is why the lecture notes begin with some basic introductory matrix-vector linear algebra, numerical PDEs (finite element) facts emphasizing the relations between functions in finite dimensional spaces and their coefficient vectors and respective norms. Then, some additional facts on the implementation of finite elements based on relation tables using the popular compressed sparse row (CSR) format are given. Also, typical condition number estimates of stiffness and mass matrices, the global matrix assembly from local element matrices are given as well. Finally, some basic introductory facts about stationary iterative methods, such as Gauss-Seidel and its symmetrized version are presented. The introductory material ends up with the smoothing property of the classical iterative methods and the main definition of two-grid iterative methods. From here on, the second part of the notes begins which deals with the various aspects of the principal TG and the numerous versions of the MG cycles. At the end, in part III, we briefly introduce algebraic versions of MG referred to as AMG, focusing on classes of AMG specialized for finite element matrices.

  14. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...... technical, but are started with a summary of the conclusions. The aim of the lecture notes is to give an understanding of the technique, its assumptions, and its limitations. A specific BIS device is analyzed with references to peer-reviewed literature....

  15. Notes on modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    These notes present a high-level overview of how modeling and simulation are carried out by practitioners. The discussion is of a general nature; no specific techniques are examined but the activities associated with all modeling and simulation approaches are briefly addressed. There is also a discussion of validation and verification and, at the end, a section on why modeling and simulation are useful.

  16. Technical specifications, Hanford production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.D. [comp.

    1962-06-25

    These technical specifications are applicable to the eight operating production reactor facilities, B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE, and KW. Covered are operating and performance restrictions and administrative procedures. Areas covered by the operating and performance restrictions are reactivity, reactor control and safety elements, power level, temperature and heat flux, reactor fuel loadings, reactor coolant systems, reactor confinement, test facilities, code compliance, and reactor scram set points. Administrative procedures include process control procedures, training programs, audits and inspections, and reports and records.

  17. Teaching Technical Writing - Towards Technical Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm that ...... of technical writing....

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-08-04

    OAK B202 Final Technical Report. The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  19. Note sur l'automatisation des bibliothèques

    OpenAIRE

    Pochet, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    This paper présents a short survey of scientific and technical informa­tion resources and international information policy, and introduces libraries automation and information science developments. The last achievements of the central library automation at the Faculty of Agriculture of Gembloux (Belgium) are described. Cette note donne un bref aperçu de l'état de la question concernant la documentation scientifique et technique et l'informatisation des biblio­thèques. Elle donne ensuite...

  20. Key Note: Living with droughts?

    OpenAIRE

    Erdbrink, C. D.; van Beek, Eelco; van Os, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands Center for River Research (NCR) in its first 10 years of existence has focused its activities on flooding. Climate change might cause that droughts will become as important as or even more important than floods. The dry year 2003 in Europe has shown the huge socio-economic impacts of droughts. New concepts are emerging on how to deal with droughts. This key-note addresses the issues of droughts and scarcity and makes a plea to include more drought research in NCR.

  1. Notes on elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Muirhead, William Hugh

    1972-01-01

    Notes of Elementary Particle Physics is a seven-chapter text that conveys the ideas on the state of elementary particle physics. This book emerged from an introductory course of 30 lectures on the subject given to first-year graduate students at the University of Liverpool. The opening chapter deals with pertinent terminologies in elementary particle physics. The succeeding three chapters cover the concepts of transition amplitudes, probabilities, relativistic wave equations and fields, and the interaction amplitude. The discussion then shifts to tests of electromagnetic interactions, particul

  2. Technical Report Writing Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riordan, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Section 1: Technical Communication Basics (8 chapters on tech com, audiences, tech com process, tech com style, researching, designing pages, using visual aids, describing). Section 2: Technical Communication Applications (7 chapters on sets of instructions, informal reports and email, developing...

  3. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  4. Technical training: places available

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  5. Technical training - places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  6. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Marie Lahchimi, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  7. Technical training: places available

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tél : 74924)  

  8. 2013 Technical Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 9, 2013, EPA reconvened the study’s Technical Roundtable. Subject-matter experts discussed the outcomes of the 2013 Technical Workshops, stakeholder engagement, and plans for draft assessment report.

  9. Technical Tarining: C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 7-11 March. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page : http://cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/ENSTEC/p2002/Software/cpppp_e.asp Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the ‘C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  10. Technical Training: C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 7-11 March. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page : http://cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/ENSTEC/p2002/Software/cpppp_e.asp Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the ‘C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  11. Notes--"state of the art" surgical gastroenterology: the beginning of the voyage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlin, Valeriu; Saftoiu, Adrian; Rimbas, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Since its birth, already 5 years ago, the interest for NOTES is still growing among surgeons and gastroenterologists. From the first report of transgastric peritoneoscopy, many interventions have been achieved in experimental animal models. Technical progress is mandatory to allow more complex in...

  12. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November 29... addressing risks to reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences. The...

  13. 34 CFR 674.31 - Promissory note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the note on one page, front and back; or (ii) The institution may print the note on more than one page... contains both the total number of pages in the complete note as well as the number of each page, e.g., page... normally ends 10 years later; (B) For NDSLs made before October 1, 1980 and Federal Perkins Loans, begins 9...

  14. Revised Editor's Note pp.i-iii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jimmy Gitonga

    Editor's Note i. Editor's Note. Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK). New Series, Vol.3 No.1, June 2011, pp.i-iii thoughtandpractice@gmail.com http://ajol.info/index.php/tp/index. More than thirty years ago, Frantz Fanon correctly noted, with regard to the invasion and subjugation of ...

  15. Technical-Vocational Students’ Reading Competence and Technical Skills in Iloilo City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gerald Arbias Pilar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the relationship between reading competence in English and performance in technical skills among students in TESDA-Supervised Institutions. This study was limited to the students enrolled in the institutions under TESDA supervision and to provide information to the beneficiaries. A descriptive-correlational research design was employed. A researcher-made test on the reading competence in English had undergone validity and reliability testing through item analysis and Kuder-Richardson formula 21 while the grades of the students were utilized for technical skills. It found out that the reading competence in English showed “fair competent”. Technical skills, on the other hand, performed as “good”. It also revealed that there was no significant difference and relationship in the level of reading competence in English and performance in technical skills. It is concluded that the students in technical-vocational schools were skillful technicians in terms of practical skills regardless of their reading competence in English. It noted that the performance in technical skills cannot be measured through the reading competence in English of the students. It is observed that reading competence in English and a technical skill was learned separately. Thus, it is strongly argued that TESDA education focuses on the practical area of learning for a certain competency.

  16. Linking Bibliographic Data Bases: A Discussion of the Battelle Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. Lee

    This document establishes the context, summarizes the contents, and discusses the Battelle technical report, noting certain constraints of the study. Further steps for the linking of bibliographic databases for use by academic and public libraries are suggested. (RAA)

  17. Fiscal year 1977 scientific and technical reports, articles, papers, and presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, O. L. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography lists 78 NASA technical memoranda, notes, papers, and reports presented by Marshall Space Flight Center personnel in FY 1977. In addition, 525 papers by contractors to that facility are cited along with 129 papers cleared for presentation.

  18. Lecture notes on wavelet transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic exposition of the basic ideas and results of wavelet analysis suitable for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers alike. The primary goal of this text is to show how different types of wavelets can be constructed, illustrate why they are such powerful tools in mathematical analysis, and demonstrate their use in applications. It also develops the required analytical knowledge and skills on the part of the reader, rather than focus on the importance of more abstract formulation with full mathematical rigor.  These notes differs from many textbooks with similar titles in that a major emphasis is placed on the thorough development of the underlying theory before introducing applications and modern topics such as fractional Fourier transforms, windowed canonical transforms, fractional wavelet transforms, fast wavelet transforms, spline wavelets, Daubechies wavelets, harmonic wavelets and non-uniform wavelets. The selection, arrangement, and presentation of the material in these ...

  19. Lecture notes on diophantine analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zannier, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes originate from a course delivered at the Scuola Normale in Pisa in 2006. Generally speaking, the prerequisites do not go beyond basic mathematical material and are accessible to many undergraduates. The contents mainly concern diophantine problems on affine curves, in practice describing the integer solutions of equations in two variables. This case historically suggested some major ideas for more general problems. Starting with linear and quadratic equations, the important connections with Diophantine Approximation are presented and Thue's celebrated results are proved in full detail. In later chapters more modern issues on heights of algebraic points are dealt with, and applied to a sharp quantitative treatment of the unit equation. The book also contains several Supplements, hinted exercises and an Appendix on recent work on heights.

  20. A note on neglect defaulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Margolis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I introduce the notion of ``neglect defaulting,'' which labels the propensity to neglect possibilities which are ordinarily sensibly neglected. In familiar contexts we are well-tuned to recognize when to override the default. But outside the range of familiar experience --- here in the artificial context of puzzles --- these ordinarily benign defaults can make it difficult for even sophisticated subjects, such as readers of this note, to avoid responses which on reflection will be seen as obviously mistaken. A detail of particular importance is that, although subjects are easily prompted to take one step in the direction of reaching a sound response, the tendency to then neglect to consider that another step may be needed is remarkably strong. In each of the five examples the needed but usually neglected second step is quite trivial. Concluding remarks point to consequences for larger questions outside the range of familiar experience, in politics and other contexts out of scale with everyday experience.

  1. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  2. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  3. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi, E-mail: lingy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China); School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: liup51@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin, E-mail: jianpinwu@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2017-05-10

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  4. Notes on the Spatial Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ever-mounting evidence, amongst which is the “zone” problematic of the Zadar conference that occassioned these notes, it can be concluded that the spatial turn has insinuated itself as an all-pervading heuristic tool throughout the humanities and the social sciences. The extent to which space and spatiality have usurped the central stage in the various branches of reasearch can be gauged by admonishments that what we are witnessing is a new fundamentalism that has simply inverted the terms of the dualism of time and space (May and Thrift 2001: “Introduction”. According to Michael Dear the sway of space is manifested in multifold ways: in the ubiquity of spatial analysis in social theories and practices; in the explosion of publications devoted to the exploration of the interface of the social and the spatial; in the reintegration of human geography into various domains of knowledge; in the focus given to difference and the consequent diversification of theoretical and empirical practices; in a theoretically informed exploration of the relation between geographical knowledge and social action; and, finally, in the unprecedented proliferation of research agendas and publications pertaining to these isuuses (Dear 2001: 24. Two recent collections of papers are indicative of the ubiquity of spatial issues in scholarly work.

  5. Technical Conduct of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Martin A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the technical conduct of the child-sexual-abuse medical examination and offers a research agenda. Introduction of the colposcope in the early 1980s is noted, as are other technological advances, such as the videocolposcopy and linkage with computer technology. Achievement highlights in the last 20 years of research are identified, along…

  6. Note: cryogenic coaxial microwave filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G; Schmidlin, S; Meeson, P J

    2014-02-01

    The careful filtering of microwave electromagnetic radiation is critical for controlling the electromagnetic environment for experiments in solid-state quantum information processing and quantum metrology at millikelvin temperatures. We describe the design and fabrication of a coaxial filter assembly and demonstrate that its performance is in excellent agreement with theoretical modelling. We further perform an indicative test of the operation of the filters by making current-voltage measurements of small, underdamped Josephson junctions at 15 mK.

  7. High Temperature Bell Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Research Council (NRC) has identified the need for motors and actuators that can operate in extreme high and low temperature environments as a technical...

  8. Expanding the Scope of Technical Communication: Examples from the Department of Technical Communication at the University of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselkorn, Mark P.; Sauer, Geoffrey; Turns, Jennifer; Illman, Deborah L.; Tsutsui, Michio; Plumb, Carolyn; Williams, Tom; Kolko, Beth; Spyridakis, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Presents eight current projects involving faculty in the University of Washington's Department of Technical Communication that illustrate the broadening of the field. Notes these projects address: the cognitive processing of visual material; Web-based education; strategic management of information; communicating science and technology in the…

  9. Clinical Note Creation, Binning, and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Deliberato, Rodrigo Oct?vio; Celi, Leo Anthony; Stone, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree. We suggest that artifici...

  10. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  11. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  12. activeNotes: Computer-Assisted Creation of Patient Progress Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Lauren; Lu, Jie; Lai, Jennifer; Feiner, Steven; Jordan, Desmond

    2009-04-04

    We present activeNotes, a prototype application that supports the creation of Critical Care Notes by physicians in a hospital intensive care unit. activeNotes integrates automated, context-sensitive patient data retrieval and user control of automated data updates and alerts into the note-creation process. In a user study at New York Presbyterian Hospital, we gathered qualitative feedback on the prototype from 15 physicians. The physicians found activeNotes to be valuable and said they would use it to create both formal notes for medical records and informal notes. One surprising finding is that while physicians have rejected template-based clinical documentation systems in the past, they expressed a desire to use activeNotes to create personalized, physician-specific note templates to be reused with a given patient, or for a given condition.

  13. Technical efficiency, efficiency change, technical progress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In May 2006, the Ministers of Health of all the countries on the African continent, at a special session of the African Union, undertook to institutionalise efficiency monitoring within their respective national health information management systems. The specific objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the technical efficiency of ...

  14. Technical feasibility study on polycarbonate solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackmann, M.M.; Meuwissen, M.H.H.; Bots, T.L.; Buijs, J.A.H.M.; Broek, K.M.; Kinderman, R.; Tanck, O.B.F.; Schuurmans, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a technical feasibility study on the application of polycarbonate (PC) plates in a superstrate photovoltaic module design. The lamination process was performed in a conventional laminator apparatus using low temperature curing (100°C) ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) as the potting

  15. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  16. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  17. Developing Technical Skill Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…

  18. Summer Technical Students 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    About 100 technical and doctoral students arrive each year, undergraduates and post-graduates who are preparing diploma or doctoral theses in applied science and technology. They spend up to two years at the Laboratory, as technical students as part of their formal training for a recognised degree or its equivalent.

  19. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  20. Technical Agency in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    ) description of hybrid networks in which human and non-human actants are granted agency without differentiating different kinds of agency, EMCA focuses on the member's perspectives and the situated construction of technical agency that is made relevant within an ongoing interaction. Based on an EMCA analysis......The paper combines the discussion of technical agency and hybrid networks of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) with an ethnomethodological/conversation analytical (EMCA) perspective on situated practices in which participants ascribe agency to technical artefacts. While ANT works with (ethnographic...... of three video recordings of situations in which technical agency is made relevant by the human participants, the paper demonstrates different ways in which agency is granted to technical artefacts. Human participants can treat a technology as communication partner, as an active part (and actant...

  1. Technical Training: C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 15 - 19 November. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page: Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the 'C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  2. Technical Training: C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 15 - 19 November. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page. Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the 'C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  3. Note on subregion holographic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2017-07-01

    The volume inside a Ryu-Takayanagi surface has been conjectured to be related to the complexity of subregions of the boundary field theory. Here, we study the behavior of this volume analytically, when the entangling surface has a strip geometry. We perform systematic expansions in the low- and high-temperature regimes for AdS-Schwarzschild and RN-AdS black holes. In the latter regime, we point out spurious divergences that might occur due to the limitations of a near horizon expansion. A similar analysis is performed for extremal black holes and, at large charge, we find that there might be some new features of the volume as compared to the area. Finally, we numerically study a four-dimensional RN-AdS black hole in global AdS, the entangling surface being a sphere. We find that the holographic complexity captures essentially the same information as the entanglement entropy, as far as phase transitions are concerned.

  4. EndNote 3.0

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin Tessler

    1998-01-01

      Niles Software's EndNote 3.0 is reviewed. With version 3.0, Niles has managed to make an indispensable tool even more powerful by letting users access Internet- or intranet-based databases from within EndNote...

  5. Note Sheets: A Reliable Predictor of Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian; Ceglie, Robert; Puopolo, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study where students in a large introductory-level biology course brought one page of notes to their exams. Reports that student performance on exams showed a very limited correlation with the format or content of note sheets. (MM)

  6. Notes on Loricata (Mollusca) 11-14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1985-01-01

    Four new species of chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) are described, viz Leptochiton (L.) dispersus and L. (L.) permodestus from Transkei, L. (L.) meiringae from the eastern Cape Province, S Africa (note 11) and Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) vanbellei from the Mediterranean Sea (note 14). New records

  7. Stalin and Marxism: a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    1997-01-01

    This article concerns the research done by the author in Stalin‘s private library. The notes made in the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin suggest that until the end of his life Stalin felt himself in general agreement with these "classics." The choice of books and the notes support the thesis that,

  8. Observing professionals taking notes on screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study 38 participants wrote a piece of advice based on reading and annotating information from an extensive Web site. Half of the participants took notes in a separate window, the other half used an advanced annotation tool. In text annotations were far more used than separate notes. The

  9. Idea Bank: Duct Tape Note Twister

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Molly

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she observed a middle school math teacher deliver a miserable class. She realized that she did the same thing to her music students. To engage her students, she developed "Note Twister," a music reading game using duct tape to form musical notes and the basic premise behind the game,…

  10. Lecture Notes in Statistics. 3rd Semester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements of the curriculum for the 3rd smester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business.......The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements of the curriculum for the 3rd smester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business....

  11. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  12. Superconducting Machines at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2011-01-01

    Two high temperature superconducting (HTS) machine prototypes constructed at the Technical University of Denmark are presented. The construction process is presented and the excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental results are presented for one of the prototypes.......Two high temperature superconducting (HTS) machine prototypes constructed at the Technical University of Denmark are presented. The construction process is presented and the excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental results are presented for one of the prototypes....

  13. Impact of different vinification techniques on the formation of reductive notes in Vitis vinifera cv. Vernatsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pixner Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape variety Vernatsch is prone to the formation of severe reductive notes during alcoholic fermentation (AF, spoiling the fruity aroma characteristic for this variety. We investigated the impact of eight different vinification treatments on the formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs and their impact on the sensorial quality of the wines in this susceptible grape variety. Without the addition of sulfur under the form of potassium metabisulfite (K2S2O5 to the crushed grapes, wines were significant less reductive. The clarification treatment showed promising results for the diminution of reductive notes, but might not be a feasible strategy for commercial wineries. Changing fermentation temperature, adding air, bentonite or copper to fermenting wines increased the appearance of reductive notes. The addition sulfur prior AF increased reductive notes in Vernatsch wines and needs to be considered as a crucial factor for the formation of reductive notes.

  14. Socio-technical Betwixtness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    the intrinsically social and technical interwovenness of design, and the necessity of including affected people and stakeholders in the design process. This betwixtness of socio-technical design is demonstrated by the analysis of two IT systems for healthcare: a foundational model for electronic healthcare records......This chapter focusses on two challenges for socio-technical design: Having to choose between different rationales for design, and the adequate understanding and depiction of the work to be redesigned. These two challenges betwixt the otherwise strong tenets of socio-technical design of pointing out......, and an IT system organizing hospital porters’ work. The conceptual background for the analysis of the cases is provided by a short introduction to different rationales for organizational design, and by pointing to the differences between a linear, rationalistic versus an interactional depiction of work....

  15. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  16. NCDC Technical Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCDC Technical Reports is a set of retrospective analyses produced by the Research Customer Service Group and the National Climatic Data Center from 1995 to 2008....

  17. Applying technical versatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1970-01-01

    The breadth and depth of the diversified technical programs at Mound Laboratory since its inception are characterized by a record of competence and versatility during the past generation. A spectrum of mission assignments has been completed successfully in such diverse technical areas as process development and manufacturing of explosive components, research on fuels for the Civilian Power Reactor Program, separation of radioactive materials, fabrication of radioisotopic heat sources, stable gaseous isotope separation and purification, and many other areas. Mound Laboratory is one of the key U.S. Atomic Energy Commission sites that has demonstrated its technical competence in both weapons and non-weapons activities. This report has been prepared to complement the AEC’s vigorous program of scientific information dissemination. Three broad areas of technical competence are highlighted here: explosive technology, radionuclide technology, and stable gaseous isotope separation, which encompass a broad variety of techniques and supporting disciplines.

  18. Technical report writing today

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    "Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...

  19. Technical knowledge creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to amend shortcomings of existing theory concerning organizational learning and knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews and refines existing theory. Findings - Findings from cognitive neuroscience suggest that technical knowledge...

  20. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  1. Retention of technical professionals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. The loss of skills and knowledge of technical professionals experienced by many organizations in South Africa has serious implications on the competitiveness of these organizations in the local and international markets. Organizations should come to realize that they should find creative ways to retain critical skills and knowledge and ensure continuity in terms of succession management. Technical professionals play a crucial role in society. They are responsible for maintaining the...

  2. EndNote 7.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Bell Raj

    2006-01-01

    EndNote is a useful software for online literature search and efficient bibliography management. It helps to format the bibliography according to the citation style of each journal. EndNote stores references in a library file, which can be shared with others. It can connect to online resources like PubMed and retrieve search results as per the search criteria. It can also effortlessly integrate with popular word processors like MS Word. The Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology website has a provision to import references to EndNote.

  3. EndNote 7.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EndNote is a useful software for online literature search and efficient bibliography management. It helps to format the bibliography according to the citation style of each journal. EndNote stores references in a library file, which can be shared with others. It can connect to online resources like PubMed and retrieve search results as per the search criteria. It can also effortlessly integrate with popular word processors like MS Word. The Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology website has a provision to import references to EndNote.

  4. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9, 2013... to the webcast. The Capitol Connection provides technical support for webcasts and offers the option...

  5. Notes--"state of the art" surgical gastroenterology: the beginning of the voyage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlin, Valeriu; Săftoiu, Adrian; Rimbaş, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Since its birth, already 5 years ago, the interest for NOTES is still growing among surgeons and gastroenterologists. From the first report of transgastric peritoneoscopy, many interventions have been achieved in experimental animal models. Technical progress is mandatory to allow more complex in...... interventions for the development of this new field of surgery and interventional gastroenterology. This paper aims to summarize the achievements made so far and set the ground for future directions of improvement....

  6. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...

  7. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  8. NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS H. Johnson Nenty, Professor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS. H. Johnson Nenty, Professor, Educational Research, Measurement and Evaluation, Department of Educational. Foundations, University of Botswana Idowu Biao, Professor of Lifelong learning, Department of Adult Education,. University of Botswana. Cletus K. Mbowura, Lecturer, Department of ...

  9. Concrete pavement construction basics : tech notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    This tech note has been produced for developers, consultants, and engineers planning concrete pavement construction projects, superintendents and supervisors who want a basic training aid and reference, and crew members new to the concrete paving ind...

  10. A study of actions in operative notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  11. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with transgastric visualization: another step toward totally NOTES procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazary, Ram; Schlager, Avraham; Khalaileh, Abed; Mintz, Yoav

    2014-10-01

    Laparoendoscopic single-site sleeve gastrectomy is gaining acceptance. However, totally natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) in morbidly obese patients is still controversial due to safety and technical issues. To this end, we have developed a technique for sleeve gastrectomy in which the surgical field view is achieved through transgastric approach and the operating channel will eventually be through the vagina to form a dual lumen totally NOTES procedure for sleeve gastrectomy. As a step toward this approach, we performed a single abdominal incision in order to simulate the transvaginal route. This study is another step toward combined transvaginal and transgastric totally NOTES sleeve gastrectomy. A combined NOTES and single trocar sleeve gastrectomy was performed on 8 porcine animal models. The endoscope was inserted through the gastric wall and served as the vision source for the procedure. A second endoscope was inserted via the transabdominal trocar together with the surgical instruments. Sleeve gastrectomy was performed on 8 porcine models. The operative time for the first procedure was 5 hours, but after determining the technique, the time was reduced by half. Combined NOTES and single trocar sleeve gastrectomy is feasible in a porcine model. We achieved an excellent view of the surgical field through the transgastric approach. We believe that in the near future, combining the transgastric visualization of the surgical field together with a transvaginal approach may enable performing a total NOTES sleeve gastrectomy procedure. This hypothesis will be studied in further animal experiments before implementation in humans. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Lecture Notes in Statistics. 3rd Semester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models.......The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models....

  13. EndNote 7.0

    OpenAIRE

    Eapen Bell

    2006-01-01

    EndNote is a useful software for online literature search and efficient bibliography management. It helps to format the bibliography according to the citation style of each journal. EndNote stores references in a library file, which can be shared with others. It can connect to online resources like PubMed and retrieve search results as per the search criteria. It can also effortlessly integrate with popular word processors like MS Word. The Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Lepr...

  14. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Gary; Albritton, John; Denton, David; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

    2018-01-31

    In September 2010, RTI and the DOE/NETL signed a cooperative agreement (DE-FE000489) to design, build, and operate a pre-commercial syngas cleaning system that would capture up to 90% of the CO2 in the syngas slipstream, and demonstrate the ability to reduce syngas contaminants to meet DOE’s specifications for chemical production application. This pre-commercial syngas cleaning system is operated at Tampa Electric Company’s (TEC) 250-MWe integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant at Polk Power Station (PPS), located near Tampa, Florida. The syngas cleaning system consists of the following units: Warm Gas Desulfurization Process (WDP) - this unit processes a syngas flow equivalent of 50 MWe of power (50 MWe equivalent corresponds to about 2.0 MM scfh of syngas on dry basis) to produce a desulfurized syngas with a total sulfur (H2S+COS) concentration ~ 10 ppmv. Water Gas Shift (WGS) Reactor - this unit converts sufficient CO into CO2 to enable 90% capture of the CO2 in the syngas slipstream. This reactor uses conventional commercial shift catalyst technologies. Low Temperature Gas Cooling (LTGC) - this unit cools the syngas for the low temperature activated MDEA process and separates any condensed water. Activated MDEA Process (aMDEA) - this unit employs a non-selective separation for the CO2 and H2S present in the raw syngas stream. Because of the selective sulfur removal by the upstream WDP unit, the CO2 capture target of 90% CO2 can be achieved with the added benefit that total sulfur concentration in the CO2 product is < 100 ppmv. An additional advantage of the activated MDEA process is that the non-selective sulfur removal from the treated syngas reduces sulfur in the treated gas to very low sub-ppmv concentrations, which are required for chemical production applications. Testing to date of this pre-commercial syngas cleaning system has shown that the technology has great potential to provide clean syngas from coal and petcoke

  15. Educational Excursions in Technical Schools of Pre-revolutionary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Magsumov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, using the data of pre-revolutionary technical schools, traces the genesis and trends of educational excursions development in the Russian Empire. Special attention is attached to the types, organizational forms and methods of excursion activities, educational policy, concerning its development. The article presents author’s classification of educational excursions, notes that educational excursions have become traditional and were operated systematically by the early XX century. Field excursions, which in fact displaced introductive training, prevailed in technical schools

  16. Technical training - Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924)   Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Availability Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer (CLAD) 06-Dec-12 to 06-Dec-12 1 hour English One more place available Compatibilité électromagnetique (CEM): Applications 23-Nov-12 to 23-Nov-12 3.5 hours English 3 places available Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM): Introduction 23-Nov-12 to 23-Nov-12 3 hours English 43 places available Effets des Radiations sur les composants et systèmes électroniques 11-Dec-12 to 12-Dec-12 1 day 4 hours French 9 places available LabVIEW for beginners ...

  17. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924)   Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Introduction to VHDL 21-Feb-13 to 22-Feb-13 2 days English Mechanical design Next Session Duration Language ANSYS - Introduction à ANSYS Mechanical APDL 04-Feb-13 to 07-Feb-13 4 days English Applications de la cotation fonctionnelle et du langage ISO 06-Feb-13 to 08-Feb-13 2 days 4 hours French CATIA V5 – Surfacique 14-Jan-13 to 15-Jan-13 2 days French Office software Next Session Duration Language ACCESS 2010 - niveau 2 : ECDL 06-Feb-13 to 07-Feb-13 2 days French Dreamweaver CS3 - Niveau 1 14-Jan-13 to 15-Jan-13 2 d...

  18. Technical training - places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924) HR Department »Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Availability Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design 08-Oct-12 to 12-Oct-12 5 days English 3 places available Foundations of Electromagnetism and Magnet Design (EMAG) 14-Nov-12 to 27-Nov-12 6 days English 20 places available Impacts de la suppression du plomb (RoHS) en électronique 26-Oct-12 to 26-Oct-12 8 hours French 15 places available Introduction to VHDL 10-Oct-12 to 11-Oct-12 2 days English 7 places available LabVIEW Real Time and FPGA 13-Nov-12 to 16-Nov-12 5 days French 5 places available »Mechanical design Next Se...

  19. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  20. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one workshop......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  1. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    You are running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  2. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are you planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual session of this course will take place on 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  3. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are you planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  4. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    You are running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced using Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on December 12, 2008 and January 30, 2009. Register using our catalogue : http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at Technical.Training@cern.ch

  5. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at Technical.Training@cern.ch

  6. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  7. Technical Note: Implementation of a geodatabase of published and unpublished data on the catastrophic Vaiont landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Superchi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available On 9 October 1963 a catastrophic landslide suddenly occurred on the southern slope of the Vaiont dam reservoir. A mass of approximately 270 million m3 collapsed into the reservoir generating a wave that overtopped the dam and hit the town of Longarone and other villages nearby. Several investigations and interpretations of the slope collapse have been carried out during the last 45 years, however, a comprehensive explanation of both the triggering and the dynamics of the phenomenon has yet to be provided.

    In order to re-evaluate the currently existing information on the slide, an electronic bibliographic database and an ESRI-geodatabase have been developed. The chronology of the collected documentation showed that most of the studies for re-evaluating the failure mechanisms were conducted in the last decade, as a consequence of knowledge, methods and techniques recently acquired. The current contents of the geodatabase will improve definition of the structural setting that influenced the slide and led to the the propagation of the displaced rock mass.

    The objectives, structure and contents of the e-bibliography and Geodatabase are indicated, together with a brief description on the possible use of the alphanumeric and spatial contents of the databases.

  8. Technical Note: Implementation of a geodatabase of published and unpublished data on the catastrophic Vaiont landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superchi, L.; Floris, M.; Ghirotti, M.; Genevois, R.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Stead, D.

    2010-04-01

    On 9 October 1963 a catastrophic landslide suddenly occurred on the southern slope of the Vaiont dam reservoir. A mass of approximately 270 million m3 collapsed into the reservoir generating a wave that overtopped the dam and hit the town of Longarone and other villages nearby. Several investigations and interpretations of the slope collapse have been carried out during the last 45 years, however, a comprehensive explanation of both the triggering and the dynamics of the phenomenon has yet to be provided. In order to re-evaluate the currently existing information on the slide, an electronic bibliographic database and an ESRI-geodatabase have been developed. The chronology of the collected documentation showed that most of the studies for re-evaluating the failure mechanisms were conducted in the last decade, as a consequence of knowledge, methods and techniques recently acquired. The current contents of the geodatabase will improve definition of the structural setting that influenced the slide and led to the the propagation of the displaced rock mass. The objectives, structure and contents of the e-bibliography and Geodatabase are indicated, together with a brief description on the possible use of the alphanumeric and spatial contents of the databases.

  9. Technical Note: Solving the "Chinese postman problem" for effective contour deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingqian; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Lei; Balter, Peter A; Court, Laurence E; Yang, Jinzhong

    2017-11-27

    To develop a practical approach for accurate contour deformation when deformable image registration (DIR) is used for atlas-based segmentation or contour propagation in image-guided radiotherapy. We developed a contour deformation approach based on 3D mesh operations. The 2D contours represented by a series of points in each slice were first converted to a 3D triangular mesh, which was deformed by the deformation vectors resulting from DIR. A set of parallel 2D planes then cut through the deformed 3D mesh, generating unordered points and line segments, to be reorganized into a set of 2D contour points. The reorganization problem was equivalent to solving the "Chinese postman problem" (CPP) by traversing a graph built from the unordered points with the least cost. Alternatively, deformation could be applied to a binary image converted from the original contours. The deformed binary image was then converted back into contours at the CT slice locations. We validated the mesh-based contour deformation approach using lung and heart contours from 10 patients with thoracic cancer. DIR could change the 3D mesh considerably, complicating 2D contour representations after deformation. CPP could effectively reorganize the points in 2D planes regardless of how complicated the 2D contours were. Among the 10 patients, the Dice similarity coefficient between the mesh-based contour and binary image-based contour was 97.6% ± 0.3% for lung and 97.5% ± 0.7% for heart, and the Hausdoroff distance between them was 19.8 ± 5.1 mm for lung and 6.1 ± 2.2 mm for heart. Subjective evaluation showed that the mesh-based approach could keep fine details, especially for the lung. The image-based approach seemed to overprocess contours and suffered from image resolution limits. We developed a practical approach for accurate contour deformation and demonstrated its effectiveness for both clinical and research applications. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Technical Note: Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. David

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new technique that overcomes the obstacles of the existing methods for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks.

    Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition – many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements.

    We present results from real-data measurements taken from two microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show convincing correlation to surface station humidity measurements. The measurements were taken daily in two sites, one in northern Israel (28 measurements, the other in central Israel (29 measurements. The correlation between the microwave link measurements and the humidity gauges were 0.9 and 0.82 for the north and central sites, respectively. The Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD were 1.8 g/m3 and 3.4 g/m3 for the northern and central site measurements, respectively.

  11. Technical note: prediction of sex based on five skull traits using decision analysis (CHAID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Joan C; Mahoney, Eldon R; Walker, Phillip L; Everson, Phillip M

    2009-07-01

    Osteologists commonly assess the sex of skeletal remains found in forensic and archaeological contexts based on ordinal scores of subjectively assessed sexually dimorphic traits. Using known-sex samples, logistic regression (LR) discriminant functions have been recently developed, which allow sex probabilities to be determined. A limitation of LR is that it emphasizes main effects and not interactions. Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) is an alternative classification strategy that emphasizes the information in variable interactions and uses decision trees to maximize the probability of correct sex determinations. We used CHAID to analyze the predictive value of the 31 possible combinations of five sexually dimorphic skull traits that Walker used previously to develop logistic regression sex determination equations. The samples consisted of 304 individuals of known sex of English, African American, and European American origin. Based on practical considerations, selection criteria for the best sex predictive trait combinations (SPTCs) were set at accuracies for both sexes of 75% or greater and sex biases lower than 5%. Although several of the trees meeting these criteria were produced for the English and European American samples, none met them for the African American sample. In the series of out-of-sample tests we performed, the trees from the English and combined sample of all groups predicted best.

  12. Technical note: Time lag correction of aquatic eddy covariance data measured in the presence of waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, P.; Reimers, C. E.; Rosman, J. H.; Huettel, M.; Delgard, M. L.; Reidenbach, M. A.; Özkan-Haller, H. T.

    2015-11-01

    Extracting benthic oxygen fluxes from eddy covariance time series measured in the presence of surface gravity waves requires careful consideration of the temporal alignment of the vertical velocity and the oxygen concentration. Using a model based on linear wave theory and measured eddy covariance data, we show that a substantial error in flux can arise if these two variables are not aligned correctly in time. We refer to this error in flux as the time lag bias. In one example, produced with the wave model, we found that an offset of 0.25 s between the oxygen and the velocity data produced a 2-fold overestimation of the flux. In another example, relying on nighttime data measured over a seagrass meadow, a similar offset reversed the flux from an uptake of -50 mmol m-2 d-1 to a release of 40 mmol m-2 d-1. The bias is most acute for data measured at shallow-water sites with short-period waves and low current velocities. At moderate or higher current velocities (> 5-10 cm s-1), the bias is usually insignificant. The widely used traditional time shift correction for data measured in unidirectional flows, where the maximum numerical flux is sought, should not be applied in the presence of waves because it tends to maximize the time lag bias or give unrealistic flux estimates. Based on wave model predictions and measured data, we propose a new time lag correction that minimizes the time lag bias. The correction requires that the time series of both vertical velocity and oxygen concentration contain a clear periodic wave signal. Because wave motions are often evident in eddy covariance data measured at shallow-water sites, we encourage more work on identifying new time lag corrections.

  13. Bintang Anda: A Game Process for Community Development. Technical Note No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Saleh; Dilts, Russ

    Bintang Anda (Your Star) is not a single game, but is rather a format for a family of simulation games which was developed in 1975 when the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture began a search for innovations in educational technology that could be applied to problems of rural development. Indonesia's development goals emphasize improvement…

  14. Technical Note: Dose gradients and prescription isodose in orthovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerstrom, Jessica M., E-mail: fagerstrom@wisc.edu; Bender, Edward T.; Culberson, Wesley S. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to examine the trade-off between prescription isodose and dose gradients in orthovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Point energy deposition kernels (EDKs) describing photon and electron transport were calculated using Monte Carlo methods. EDKs were generated from 10  to 250 keV, in 10 keV increments. The EDKs were converted to pencil beam kernels and used to calculate dose profiles through isocenter from a 4π isotropic delivery from all angles of circularly collimated beams. Monoenergetic beams and an orthovoltage polyenergetic spectrum were analyzed. The dose gradient index (DGI) is the ratio of the 50% prescription isodose volume to the 100% prescription isodose volume and represents a metric by which dose gradients in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be evaluated. Results: Using the 4π dose profiles calculated using pencil beam kernels, the relationship between DGI and prescription isodose was examined for circular cones ranging from 4 to 18 mm in diameter and monoenergetic photon beams with energies ranging from 20 to 250 keV. Values were found to exist for prescription isodose that optimize DGI. Conclusions: The relationship between DGI and prescription isodose was found to be dependent on both field size and energy. Examining this trade-off is an important consideration for designing optimal SRS systems.

  15. Technical note: Water vapour concentration and flux measurements with PTR-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ammann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most direct approach for measuring the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is the eddy covariance technique. It has been applied several times in the last few years using fast response proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present an independent validation of this technique by applying it to measure the water vapour flux in comparison to a common reference system comprising an infra-red gas analyser (IRGA. Water vapour was detected in the PTR-MS at mass 37 (atomic mass units corresponding to the cluster ion H3O+·H2O. During a five-week field campaign at a grassland site, we obtained a non-linear but stable calibration function between the mass 37 signal and the reference water vapour concentration. With a correction of the high-frequency damping loss based on empirical ogive analysis, the eddy covariance water vapour flux obtained with the PTR-MS showed a very good agreement with the flux of the reference system. The application of the empirical ogive method for high-frequency correction led to significantly better results than using a correction based on theoretical spectral transfer functions. This finding is attributed to adsorption effects on the tube walls that are presently not included in the theoretical correction approach. The proposed high-frequency correction method can also be used for other trace gases with different adsorption characteristics.

  16. Technical note: Assessing lameness in tie-stalls using live stall lameness scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, S; Peignier, L; Pachoud, C; Nash, C; Adam, S; Bergeron, R; Pellerin, D; de Passillé, A M; Rushen, J; Haley, D; DeVries, T J; Vasseur, E

    2017-08-01

    Video stall lameness scoring (SLS) has been shown to be comparable to video locomotion scoring for evaluating lameness in dairy cows housed in tie-stalls and may be a more practical and easier method to measure lameness in a herd. We compared live SLS to video SLS and to live locomotion scoring. A total of 685 lactating cows subsampled from 27 commercial dairy herds were examined for lameness through live and video SLS. Cows scored with the live or video SLS system were scored for 4 behavioral indicators while still in their stall: weight shifting (shift), standing on the edge of the stall (edge), uneven weight bearing while standing (rest), and uneven weight bearing while moving from side to side (uneven). Two observers live scored and video scored for SLS. Lameness prevalence from video SLS and live SLS were similar (31 vs. 30%, respectively). Prevalence of the behavioral indicators varied from 0.59 to 58.2%. Sensitivity and specificity of live SLS was calculated using video SLS as the gold standard for lameness detection in tie-stalls. Sensitivity of live SLS was 0.83 and specificity was 0.94. False positives and false negatives for lameness were 14.4 and 16.8%, respectively. When comparing the prevalence of lameness measured through video or live SLS at the herd level, live SLS for lameness was correlated to video SLS (r = 0.91) with a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.79 (95% confidence limit = 0.73-0.84). Average exact agreement in the behavior indicators observed ranged from 80 to 100%. A subsample of 250 cows from 5 herds were scored for live SLS and live locomotion by a third observer. Intra- and interobserver reliability for live SLS and live locomotion scoring were found to have a kappa coefficient of 0.53 (95% confidence limit = 0.43-0.64) when determining a cow as lame through SLS or locomotion scoring. Live SLS was correlated with live locomotion scoring (r = 0.92). However, lameness prevalence was lower when using live SLS (28.4%) compared with locomotion scoring (38%). In summary, live SLS may be an acceptable method to replace video SLS to identify lame cows and rank tie-stall herds in terms of lameness prevalence without having to remove the cows from their stalls or view videos to score; however, it may underestimate lameness prevalence compared with locomotion scoring methods. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Technical Note: Quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of a 3-dimensional artificial capillary network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaass, Thomas; Schneider, Moritz Jörg; Dietrich, Olaf; Ingrisch, Michael; Dinkel, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Variability across devices, patients, and time still hinders widespread recognition of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) as quantitative biomarker. The purpose of this work was to introduce and characterize a dedicated microchannel phantom as a model for quantitative DCE-MRI measurements. A perfusable, MR-compatible microchannel network was constructed on the basis of sacrificial melt-spun sugar fibers embedded in a block of epoxy resin. Structural analysis was performed on the basis of light microscopy images before DCE-MRI experiments. During dynamic acquisition the capillary network was perfused with a standard contrast agent injection system. Flow-dependency, as well as inter- and intrascanner reproducibility of the computed DCE parameters were evaluated using a 3.0 T whole-body MRI. Semi-quantitative and quantitative flow-related parameters exhibited the expected proportionality to the set flow rate (mean Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.991, P quantitative parameters. All evaluated parameters were well in the range of known in vivo results for the applied flow rates. The constructed phantom enables reproducible, flow-dependent, contrast-enhanced MR measurements with the potential to facilitate standardization and comparability of DCE-MRI examinations. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Technical note: A significance test for data-sparse zones in scatter plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrova, V. V.; Bardsley, W. E.

    2012-04-01

    Data-sparse zones in scatter plots of hydrological variables can be of interest in various contexts. For example, a well-defined data-sparse zone may indicate inhibition of one variable by another. It is of interest therefore to determine whether data-sparse regions in scatter plots are of sufficient extent to be beyond random chance. We consider the specific situation of data-sparse regions defined by a linear internal boundary within a scatter plot defined over a rectangular region. An Excel VBA macro is provided for carrying out a randomisation-based significance test of the data-sparse region, taking into account both the within-region number of data points and the extent of the region. Example applications are given with respect to a rainfall time series from Israel and also to validation scatter plots from a seasonal forecasting model for lake inflows in New Zealand.

  19. Endoscopic approach for a delayed post-traumatic ethmoidal mucocele: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerer, Mahmoud; Cossu, Giulia; Daniel, Roy Thomas

    2017-03-15

    Delayed post-traumatic mucoceles are rare. We describe the surgical treatment of a post-traumatic ethmoidal mucocele with intra-orbital extension. A uninostril endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) was performed. The access was contralateral to the lesion to provide a wider lateral view. After a large sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses opening, the collection was drained and the optic nerve precociously identified. The orbital roof was eroded and the frontal dura mater directly visible. The uninostril contralateral approach allows a good exposure of the lateral fields and is conservative towards the nasal mucosa. A favorable skull base anatomy is the prerequisite for its efficacy.

  20. Closing a Tracheal Defect with an Omental Pedicled Gastric Flap; A Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Holger; Ghidau, Marius; Gaab, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Due to an adenocarcinoma of the right upper lobe with infiltration of the main bronchus a 49-years-old female patient underwent an upper bilobectomy with sleeve resection. After two completed chemotherapy bouts and signs of sepsis another thoracotomy was inevitable.  As a complicating factor a supracarinal, necrotic and perforating lesion of the trachea appeared. The defect can be initially repaired with a suture and covered with azygos vein material. However surgical revision showed an enlargement of the tracheal necrosis. Then the lesion was occluded with a diaphragmatic pedicled flap. Nevertheless after the operation a tracheal insufficiency with massive ventilation leakage was observed. It was generated by the death of the diaphragmatic flap. As an ultimate therapeutic measure a transplantation of a pedicled omental gastric flap was performed, which in case of a failure of the conventional operative techniques, is an additional option in closing tracheal defects caused by infections. Especially in cases of massive infected thoracic cavity and tracheal necrosis omentum majus is, compared to muscle flaps, the better biological tissue to close and heal the tracheal defect. This case report firstly describes a successfully closure of a tracheal defect using the technique mentioned above. PMID:28508001

  1. A Technical Note on Fabrication and Thermal Performance Studies of a Solar Pond Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar pond has been fabricated to analyze the thermal behavior of it, in the climatic conditions of Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh. Sodium chloride (NaCl has been used to form a salt gradient for better performance, and a dark-colored (blackened rigid surface bottom with 1 mm irregularities has been considered for trapping the heat in a good amount. A solar pond with a surface area of 2.56 m2 and a depth of 1 m has been filled with salty water of various densities to form three salty water zones (upper convective, nonconvective, and heat storage. A few investigations have been carried out to evaluate the thermal efficiencies of three different zones of the solar pond. An attempt is also made to improve the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond.

  2. Technical Note: Use of remote sensing for landslide studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tofani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of FP7, an EU-funded SafeLand project, a questionnaire was prepared to collect information about the use of remote sensing for landslide study and to evaluate its actual application in landslide detection, mapping and monitoring. The questionnaire was designed using a Google form and was disseminated among end-users and researchers involved in landslide studies in Europe. In total, 49 answers from 17 different European countries were collected. The outcomes showed that landslide detection and mapping is mainly performed with aerial photos, often associated with optical and radar imagery. Concerning landslide monitoring, satellite radars prevail over the other types of data. Remote sensing is mainly used for detection/mapping and monitoring of slides, flows and lateral spreads with a preferably large scale of analysis (1:5000–1:25 000. All the compilers integrate remote sensing data with other thematic data, mainly geological maps, landslide inventory maps and DTMs and derived maps. According to the research and working experience of the compilers, remote sensing is generally considered to have a medium effectiveness/reliability for landslide studies.

    The results of the questionnaire can contribute to an overall sketch of the use of remote sensing in current landslide studies and show that remote sensing can be considered a powerful and well-established instrument for landslide mapping, monitoring and hazard analysis.

  3. Technical Note: On methodologies for determining the size-normalised weight of planktic foraminifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Beer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The size-normalised weight (SNW of planktic foraminifera, a measure of test wall thickness and density, is potentially a valuable palaeo-proxy for marine carbon chemistry. As increasing attention is given to developing this proxy it is important that methods are comparable between studies. Here, we compare SNW data generated using two different methods to account for variability in test size, namely (i the narrow (50 μm range sieve fraction method and (ii the individually measured test size method. Using specimens from the 200–250 μm sieve fraction range collected in multinet samples from the North Atlantic, we find that sieving does not constrain size sufficiently well to isolate changes in weight driven by variations in test wall thickness and density from those driven by size. We estimate that the SNW data produced as part of this study are associated with an uncertainty, or error bar, of about ±11%. Errors associated with the narrow sieve fraction method may be reduced by decreasing the size of the sieve window, by using larger tests and by increasing the number tests employed. In situations where numerous large tests are unavailable, however, substantial errors associated with this sieve method remain unavoidable. In such circumstances the individually measured test size method provides a better means for estimating SNW because, as our results show, this method isolates changes in weight driven by variations in test wall thickness and density from those driven by size.

  4. Technical note: real-time web-based wireless visual guidance system for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danny; Kim, Siyong; Palta, Jatinder R; Kim, Taeho

    2017-06-01

    Describe a Web-based wireless visual guidance system that mitigates issues associated with hard-wired audio-visual aided patient interactive motion management systems that are cumbersome to use in routine clinical practice. Web-based wireless visual display duplicates an existing visual display of a respiratory-motion management system for visual guidance. The visual display of the existing system is sent to legacy Web clients over a private wireless network, thereby allowing a wireless setting for real-time visual guidance. In this study, active breathing coordinator (ABC) trace was used as an input for visual display, which captured and transmitted to Web clients. Virtual reality goggles require two (left and right eye view) images for visual display. We investigated the performance of Web-based wireless visual guidance by quantifying (1) the network latency of visual displays between an ABC computer display and Web clients of a laptop, an iPad mini 2 and an iPhone 6, and (2) the frame rate of visual display on the Web clients in frames per second (fps). The network latency of visual display between the ABC computer and Web clients was about 100 ms and the frame rate was 14.0 fps (laptop), 9.2 fps (iPad mini 2) and 11.2 fps (iPhone 6). In addition, visual display for virtual reality goggles was successfully shown on the iPhone 6 with 100 ms and 11.2 fps. A high network security was maintained by utilizing the private network configuration. This study demonstrated that a Web-based wireless visual guidance can be a promising technique for clinical motion management systems, which require real-time visual display of their outputs. Based on the results of this study, our approach has the potential to reduce clutter associated with wired-systems, reduce space requirements, and extend the use of medical devices from static usage to interactive and dynamic usage in a radiotherapy treatment vault.

  5. Technical Note: Detection of gas bubble leakage via correlation of water column multibeam images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider von Deimling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydroacoustic detection of natural gas release from the seafloor has been conducted in the past by using singlebeam echosounders. In contrast, modern multibeam swath mapping systems allow much wider coverage, higher resolution, and offer 3-D spatial correlation. Up to the present, the extremely high data rate hampers water column backscatter investigations and more sophisticated visualization and processing techniques are needed. Here, we present water column backscatter data acquired with a 50 kHz prototype multibeam system over a period of 75 seconds. Display types are of swath-images as well as of a "re-sorted" singlebeam presentation. Thus, individual and/or groups of gas bubbles rising from the 24 m deep seafloor clearly emerge in the acoustic images, making it possible to estimate rise velocities. A sophisticated processing scheme is introduced to identify those rising gas bubbles in the hydroacoustic data. We apply a cross-correlation technique adapted from particle imaging velocimetry (PIV to the acoustic backscatter images. Temporal and spatial drift patterns of the bubbles are assessed and are shown to match very well to measured and theoretical rise patterns. The application of this processing to our field data gives clear results with respect to unambiguous bubble detection and remote bubble rise velocimetry. The method can identify and exclude the main source of misinterpretations, i.e. fish-mediated echoes. Although image-based cross-correlation techniques are well known in the field of fluid mechanics for high resolution and non-inversive current flow field analysis, we present the first application of this technique as an acoustic bubble detector.

  6. Technical note: Scintillations of the double star α Cru observed by GOMOS/Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gurvich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss scintillation time-spectra of the double star α Cru, which were measured by the GOMOS/Envisat photometer. The components of α Cru are not resolved by the angular field of view of the detector. The double structure of the light source reveals itself in the modulation of the observed scintillation spectra; this modulation is caused by anisotropic irregularities of the stratospheric air density. We present a qualitative and quantitative explanation of the properties of the double-star scintillation spectra. Possibilities of using double star scintillations for studying atmospheric air density irregularities are also discussed in the paper.

  7. Technical note: Application of geophysical tools for tree root studies in forest ecosystems in complex soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, Ulises; Arredondo, Tulio; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Alfredo Ramos-Leal, José; Yépez, Enrico A.

    2017-11-01

    While semiarid forests frequently colonize rocky substrates, knowledge is scarce on how roots garner resources in these extreme habitats. The Sierra San Miguelito Volcanic Complex in central Mexico exhibits shallow soils and impermeable rhyolitic-rock outcrops, which impede water movement and root placement beyond the soil matrix. However, rock fractures, exfoliated rocks and soil pockets potentially permit downward water percolation and root growth. With ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), two geophysical methods advocated by Jayawickreme et al. (2014) to advance root ecology, we advanced in the method development studying root and water distribution in shallow rocky soils and rock fractures in a semiarid forest. We calibrated geophysical images with in situ root measurements, and then extrapolated root distribution over larger areas. Using GPR shielded antennas, we identified both fine and coarse pine and oak roots from 0.6 to 7.5 cm diameter at different depths into either soil or rock fractures. We also detected, trees anchoring their trunks using coarse roots underneath rock outcroppings. With ERT, we tracked monthly changes in humidity at the soil-bedrock interface, which clearly explained spatial root distribution of both tree species. Geophysical methods have enormous potential in elucidating root ecology. More interdisciplinary research could advance our understanding in belowground ecological niche functions and their role in forest ecohydrology and productivity.

  8. Technical note: Cascade of submerged reservoirs as a rainfall-runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Jacek

    2017-09-01

    The rainfall-runoff conceptual model as a cascade of submerged linear reservoirs with particular outflows depending on storages of adjoining reservoirs is developed. The model output contains different exponential functions with roots of Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind as exponents. The model is applied to instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) and recession curve problems and compared with the analogous results of the Nash cascade. A case study is performed on a basis of 46 recession periods. Obtained results show the usefulness of the model as an alternative concept to the Nash cascade.

  9. Haemodynamic simulation of aneurysm coiling in an anatomically accurate computational fluid dynamics model: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsos, Aristotelis P. [University of Oxford, Department of Neuroradiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Wolfson College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kakalis, Nikolaos M.P.; Ventikos, Yiannis P. [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, Department of Neuroradiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a numerical technique that is used for studying haemodynamic parameters in cerebral aneurysms. As it is now possible to represent an anatomically accurate intracranial aneurysm in a computational model, we have attempted to simulate its endosaccular occlusion with coils and demonstrate the haemodynamic changes induced. This is the first attempt to use this particular porous medium-based method for coiling simulation in a CFD model, to our knowledge. Datasets from a rotational 3-D digital subtraction angiogram of a recently ruptured anterior communicating aneurysm were converted into a 3-D geometric model and the discretized data were processed using the computational technique developed. Coiling embolisation simulation was achieved by impediment of flow through a porous medium with characteristics following a series of embolisation coils. Haemodynamic parameters studied were: pressure distribution on the vessel wall, blood velocity and blood flow patterns. Significant haemodynamic changes were detected after deployment of the first coil. Similar, but less dramatic changes occurred during subsequent stages of coiling. The blood flow patterns became less vortical in the aneurysm sac as velocity decreased to stagnation and the wall pressure at the fundus was gradually reduced. Furthermore, the haemodynamic characteristics developed at the area of the neck remnant could form the basis for assessing the likelihood of delayed coil compaction and aneurysm regrowth. Appropriate computational techniques show great promise in simulating the haemodynamic behaviour of the various stages in coil embolisation and may be a potentially valuable tool in interventional planning and procedural decision-making. (orig.)

  10. Use of a small-bore catheter for enteroclysis: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, T.J. [Univ. of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffer, N.; Margolis, M. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ho, C.-S. [Toronto General Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-12-01

    Enteroclysis is a well-accepted method for the detailed visualization of the small bowel. This examination is especially valuable in patients with Crohn's disease, small bowel obstruction, and occult gastrointestinal bleeding. One of the main drawbacks for patients who undergo enteroclysis is discomfort related to intubation with large-bore (12- to 14-French), polyvinylchloride catheters. The use of a smaller tube with a hydrophilic coating may therefore reduce the level of discomfort and render this examination more acceptable to patients and clinicians. We report our initial experience with this approach. (author)

  11. Technical note: A new surgical technique for ovariohysterectomy during early pregnancy in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, K J; Dahlen, C R; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Crosswhite, M R; Neville, B W; Walden, S D; Caton, J S

    2016-12-01

    We hypothesized that a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure could be developed in beef heifers that would provide high quality tissues for addressing critical questions during early pregnancy, while concomitantly keeping livestock stewardship a high priority. To test the hypothesis, we: 1) developed a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure for use in beef heifers, and 2) implemented this procedure in a cohort of heifers up to d 50 of pregnancy for tissue collections, documentation of post-surgical recovery, and assessment of feedlot finishing performance. Ovariectomy and cesarean section protocols are well established in research and veterinary medicine and were used as starting points for procedural development. Crossbred Angus heifers ( = 46; ∼ 15 mo of age; BW = 362.3 ± 34.7 kg) were used to develop this new surgical tissue collection technique. Heifers were subjected to the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR estrous synchronization protocol so ovariohysterectomy occurred at d 16, 22, 28, 34, 40, and 50 of gestation. Key aspects of the standing flank ovariohysterectomy technique included 1) use of local anesthetic for a standing flank incision, 2) locate the uterine and ovarian arteries via blind palpation and ligate them through the broad ligament via an improved clinch knot, 3) cut the ovaries and uterus free from the broad ligament, 4) ligate the cervix and uterine branch of the vaginal artery, and 5) cut through the cervix and remove the reproductive tract. Surgical times, from skin incision to placement of the last suture, were influenced ( = 0.04) by stage of gestation. In pregnant heifers, time decreased from d 22 (120.0 ± 12.0 min) of gestation to d 40 (79.5 ± 12.0 min) of gestation; then increased at d 50 (90.5 ± 14.7 min) of gestation. Using this procedure, we obtained uterine, placental, and embryo/fetal tissues that had experienced limited hypoxia, little or no trauma, and thus were excellent quality for scientific study. All heifers recovered from surgery quickly and were moved to a finishing period. During the finishing period, ovariohysterectomized heifers had a DMI of 13.8 kg, gained 1.99 ± 0.35 kg/d, and had a G:F of 0.145 over 132-d. The standing flank ovariohysterectomy technique represents a new and viable model to economically obtain high quality tissues for investigating critical biological mechanisms during early pregnancy in beef heifers.

  12. Technical Note: Response time evolution of XR-QA2 GafChromic™ film models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldelaijan, Saad; Tomic, Nada; Papaconstadopoulos, Pavlos; Schneider, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Shih, Shelley; Lewis, David; Devic, Slobodan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the response of the newest XR-QA2 GafChromic™ film model in terms of postexposure signal growth and energy response in comparison with the older XR-QA (Version 2) model. Pieces of film were irradiated to air kerma in air values up to 12 cGy with several beam qualities (5.3-8.25 mm Al) commonly used for CT scanning. Film response was scored in terms of net reflectance from scanned film images at various points in time postirradiation ranging from 1 to 7 days and 5 months postexposure. To reconstruct the measurement signal changes with postirradiation delay, we irradiated one film piece and then scanned it at different point times starting from 2" min and up to 3 days postexposure. For all beam qualities and dose range investigated, it appears that the XR-QA2 film signal completely saturated after 15 h. Compared to 15 h postirradiation scanning time, the observed variation in net reflectance were 3%, 2%, and 1% for film scanned 2" min, 20 min, and 3 h after exposure, respectively, which is well within the measurement uncertainty of the XR-QA2 based reference radiochromic film dosimetry system. A comparison between the XR-QA (Version 2) and the XR-QA2 film response after several months (relative to their responses after 24 h) show differences in up to 8% and 1% for each film model respectively. The replacement of cesium bromide in the older XR-QA (Version 2) film model with bismuth oxide in the newer XR-QA2 film, while keeping the same single sensitive layer structure, lead to a significantly more stable postexposure response. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Technical Note: Correction for the effect of breathing variations in CT pulmonary ventilation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kabus, Sven

    2017-10-26

    The accuracy and precision of computed tomography (CT) pulmonary ventilation imaging with conventional CT scanners are limited by breathing variations. We propose a method to correct for the effect of breathing variations in CT ventilation imaging based on external respiratory signals acquired throughout a scan. The proposed method is based on: (a) calculating voxel-by-voxel abdominal surface motion ranges using four-dimensional (4D) CT image datasets spatiotemporally correlated with external respiratory monitor data, and (b) applying the correction factor, which is defined as the ratio of the overall mean of the abdominal surface motion range in the lungs to that of each voxel, to the CT ventilation value. The performance of the proposed method was investigated by comparing voxel-wise correlations of the uncorrected and corrected CT ventilation images with single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images as a ground truth for nine patients. CT ventilation images were calculated by deformable image registration of the 4D-CT image datasets, followed by calculation of regional volume changes. A Steiger's Z-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the difference between the correlations for the uncorrected and corrected CT ventilation images. The proposed correction method resulted in significant increases (P ventilation in three patients, trends toward significant increase (P: 0.13-0.18) in two patients, no significant differences in three patients, and a significantly decreased correlation in one patient. The average standard deviation of the abdominal surface motion range in three patients showing significant increases was 0.27 (range 0.10-0.37), which was greater than 0.17 (range 0.07-0.38) in the other six patients. The proposed method to correct for the effect of breathing variations could be readily implemented and has the potential to improve the accuracy of CT ventilation imaging as demonstrated in a nine-patient study. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Use of neural networks in the capacitance imaging system. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasching, G.E.; Loudin, W.J.; Paton, D.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has developed a capacitance imaging system (CIS) to support its fluidized-bed research programs. The CIS uses 400 electric displacement current measurements taken between combinations of pairs of 32 electrodes to obtain a measure of the fluidized-bed material density in the volume between the electrodes. The measurements are simultaneously made for three other sets of horizontally-oriented 32 electrodes with the four sets evenly spaced vertically. This report describes the development of a method of using the 400 current measurements per level as the input to a neural network to produce the 193-pixel density estimates defined for each level. A 417-neuron subnetwork using 4,047 weights is defined as the system used to determine a set of 32-pixel densities in one of the annular regions of the fluidized-bed cross section. The same subnetwork with different values of weights is used for the other five annular regions that cover the rest of the cross section. An averaging technique is used to determine the density of the small central region. The methods used to optimize the set of weights for each of the six subnetworks are described. The results of tests using calibration electric current data as inputs to the neural system showed that these density estimates have less error than three previously developed methods of converting current measurements into pixel density maps. A comparison of the density maps produced by the neural system and the alternate three methods using input fluidization data also indicates the superior performance of the neural network approach.

  15. The optimal contrast media policy in CT of the liver. Part I: Technical notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide (Dept. of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Univ. of Rome Sapienza (Italy); Polo Pontino, ICOT, Latina (Italy)); De Cecco, Carlo N. (Dept. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Rome ' Sapienza' , St Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)), email: andlaghi@gmail.com (and others)

    2011-06-15

    Latest developments of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), which is today considered a real volumetric technique, have revolutionized abdominal imaging. Technological improvements such as higher spatial resolution, larger volume coverage and higher temporal resolution, have reduced scan times allowing CT studies of the abdomen within a single breath-hold. Furthermore, the increased number of slices, the submillimetric collimation, and the use of multiple dynamic post-contrast phases per single examination, may all contribute to increase the radiation exposure of single patients. The aim of this review is to discuss different parameters affecting contrast media enhancement, as vascular enhancement, parenchymal enhancement and timing, in order to minimize the amount of contrast medium injected and the radiation exposure

  16. Three-Dimensional Endoscopic Magnification for Treatment of Thoracic Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alexander G; Obaid, Sami; Chaalala, Chiraz; Shedid, Daniel; Magro, Elsa; Seizeur, Romuald; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2018-03-01

    Treatment of thoracic spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) by microsurgery has recently been approached using minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS). The advantages of such an approach are offset by difficult maneuverability within the tubular retractor and by the creation of "tunnel vision" with reduced luminosity to a remote surgical target. To demonstrate how the pitfalls of MISS can be addressed by applying 3-D endoscopy to the minimally invasive approach of spinal DAVFs. We present 2 cases of symptomatic thoracic DAVFs that were not amenable to endovascular treatment. The DAVFs were excluded solely via a minimally invasive approach using a 3-D endoscope. Two patients underwent exclusion of a DAVF following laminotomy, one through a midline 5-cm incision and the other through a paramedian 3-cm incision using minimally invasive nonexpandable tubular retractors. The dura opening, intradural exploration, fistula exclusion, and closure were performed solely under endoscopic 3-D magnification. No incidents were recorded and the postoperative course was marked by clinical improvement. Postoperative imaging confirmed the exclusion of the DAVFs. Anatomical details are exposed using intraoperative videos. When approaching DAVFs via MISS, replacing the microscope with the endoscope remedies the limitations related to the "tunnel vision" created by the tubular retractor, but at the expense of losing binocular vision. We show that the 3-D endoscope resolves this latter limitation and provides an interesting option for the exclusion of spinal DAVFs.

  17. Technical Note: Characterization of a static thermal-gradient CCN counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The static (parallel-plate thermal-gradient diffusion chamber (SDC was one of the first instruments designed to measure cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations as a function of supersaturation. It has probably also been the most widely used type of CCN counter. This paper describes the detailed experimental characterization of a SDC CCN counter, including calibration with respect to supersaturation and particle number concentration. In addition, we investigated the proposed effect of lowered supersaturation because of water vapor depletion with increasing particle concentration. The results obtained give a better understanding why and in which way it is necessary to calibrate the SDC CCN counter. The calibration method is described in detail and can, in parts, be used for calibrations also for other types of CCN counters.

    We conclude the following: 1 it is important to experimentally calibrate SDC CCN counters with respect to supersaturation, and not only base the supersaturation on the theoretical description of the instrument; 2 the number concentration calibration needs to be performed as a function of supersaturation, also for SDC CCN counter using the photographic technique; and 3 we observed no evidence that water vapor depletion lowered the supersaturation.

  18. Technical note: Conversion of isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOHs) on metal environmental simulation chamber walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Breitenlechner, Martin; Keutsch, Frank N.; Hansel, Armin

    2017-03-01

    Sources and sinks of isoprene oxidation products from low-NOx isoprene chemistry have been studied at the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber with a custom-built selective reagent ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer (SRI-ToF-MS), which allows quantitative measurement of isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOHs). The measured concentrations of the main oxidation products were compared to chemical box model simulations based on the Leeds Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) v3.3. The modeled ISOPOOH concentrations are a factor of 20 higher than the observed concentrations, and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) concentrations are up to a factor of 2 lower compared to observations, despite the artifact-free detection method. Addition of catalytic conversion of 1,2-ISOPOOH and 4,3-ISOPOOH to methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) on the stainless-steel surface of the chamber to the chemical mechanism resolves the discrepancy between model predictions and observation. This suggests that isoprene chemistry in a metal chamber under low-NOx conditions cannot be described by a pure gas phase model alone. Biases in the measurement of ISOPOOH, MVK, and MACR can be caused not only intra-instrumentally but also by the general experimental setup. The work described here extends the role of heterogeneous reactions affecting gas phase composition and properties from instrumental surfaces, described previously, to general experimental setups. The role of such conversion reactions on real environmental surfaces is yet to be explored.

  19. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of the myocardium: a technical note on improvement of image quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Muenzel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To improve image and diagnostic quality in dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI by using motion compensation and a spatio-temporal filter. METHODS: Dynamic CT MPI was performed using a 256-slice multidetector computed tomography scanner (MDCT. Data from two different patients-with and without myocardial perfusion defects-were evaluated to illustrate potential improvements for MPI (institutional review board approved. Three datasets for each patient were generated: (i original data (ii motion compensated data and (iii motion compensated data with spatio-temporal filtering performed. In addition to the visual assessment of the tomographic slices, noise and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR were measured for all data. Perfusion analysis was performed using time-density curves with regions-of-interest (ROI placed in normal and hypoperfused myocardium. Precision in definition of normal and hypoperfused areas was determined in corresponding coloured perfusion maps. RESULTS: The use of motion compensation followed by spatio-temporal filtering resulted in better alignment of the cardiac volumes over time leading to a more consistent perfusion quantification and improved detection of the extend of perfusion defects. Additionally image noise was reduced by 78.5%, with CNR improvements by a factor of 4.7. The average effective radiation dose estimate was 7.1±1.1 mSv. CONCLUSION: The use of motion compensation and spatio-temporal smoothing will result in improved quantification of dynamic CT MPI using a latest generation CT scanner.

  20. Technical note: A stereological analysis of the cross-sectional variability of the femoral osteon population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    to stereological principles on a sample of 28 femoral cross sections of Caucasoid males aged 20-89 years. A regular grid was overlaid on the cross section, and the ROIs were selected as close as possible to the periosteum in the anterior, lateral, and medial regions. The areas consisting of all intact secondary...

  1. Technical Note: Robust measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile in breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Aili K; Mainprize, James G; Yaffe, Martin J

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to improve the repeatability of the measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile (SSP) in reconstructed breast tomosynthesis volumes. A grid of aluminum ball-bearings (BBs) within a PMMA phantom was imaged on breast tomosynthesis systems from three different manufacturers. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values were measured for the SSPs of the BBs in the reconstructed volumes. The effect of transforming the volumes from a Cartesian coordinate system (CCS) to a cone-beam coordinate system (CBCS) on the variability in the FWHM values was assessed. Transforming the volumes from a CCS to a CBCS before measuring the SSPs reduced the coefficient of variation (COV) in the measurements of FWHM in repeated measurements by 56% and reduced the dependence of the FWHM values on the location of the BBs within the reconstructed volume by 76%. Measuring the SSP in the volumes in a CBCS improves the robustness of the measurement.

  2. Intraoperative Evaluation of Reverse Bypass Using a Naturally Formed "Bonnet" Superficial Temporal Artery: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Takatoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    In reverse bypass that used a naturally formed "bonnet" superficial temporal artery, intraoperative volume flow measurement quantifies flow augmentation after revascularization, confirms flow preservation, and identifies inadvertent vessel compromise. A 75-year-old man presented with transient ischemic attacks attributed to right internal carotid artery stenosis. He underwent successful reverse bypass via a naturally formed "bonnet" superficial temporal artery middle cerebral artery bypass. As the result of proper intraoperative volume flow evaluation, a successful reverse bypass was achieved. Modification of the intraoperative stroke risk and prediction of the long-term patency after reverse bypass can be achieved by meticulous intraoperative blood flow evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bony surface registration of navigation system in the lateral or prone position: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Goto, Tetsuya; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Nagm, Alhusain; Yamamoto, Yasunaga; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Navigation systems have become essential tools in neurosurgery. Precise registration is indispensable for the accuracy of navigation. The rapid and precise registration by surface matching on the facial skin is possible using the landmarks of the face in the supine position. On the other hand, incomplete registration often occurs in the lateral or prone position due to the direction of the face and displacement of the skin by headpins and obscuring of the skin by the bispectral index monitor and many electrodes on the forehead as well as the eye patch. Surface matching on the occipital scalp is not suitable for registration because the shape of the occipital scalp is flat and it is compressed in the supine position when obtaining preoperative neuroimaging. To overcome this problem, the authors have developed a new method of registration designated as "bony surface registration" in which surface matching is achieved using the bony surface of the skull after exposure. Between June and December 2014, this technique was used in 23 patients and its effectiveness was examined. Registration time was markedly shortened and useful navigation was achieved due to accurate registration in all patients. This is the first report of a registration methodology for a navigation system in the lateral or prone position. This bony surface registration method is useful for navigation system image-guided surgery in the lateral or prone position.

  4. Technical Note: The normal quantile transformation and its application in a flood forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bogner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Normal Quantile Transform (NQT has been used in many hydrological and meteorological applications in order to make the Cumulated Distribution Function (CDF of the observed, simulated and forecast river discharge, water level or precipitation data Gaussian. It is also the heart of the meta-Gaussian model for assessing the total predictive uncertainty of the Hydrological Uncertainty Processor (HUP developed by Krzysztofowicz. In the field of geo-statistics this transformation is better known as the Normal-Score Transform. In this paper some possible problems caused by small sample sizes when applying the NQT in flood forecasting systems will be discussed and a novel way to solve the problem will be outlined by combining extreme value analysis and non-parametric regression methods. The method will be illustrated by examples of hydrological stream-flow forecasts.

  5. Shadow analysis via the C+K Visioline: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, T; Zerweck, C; Grove, G; Wickett, R

    2017-11-01

    This research investigated the ability of shadow analysis (via the Courage + Khazaka Visioline and Image Pro Premiere 9.0 software) to accurately assess the differences in skin topography associated with photo aging. Analyses were performed on impressions collected from a microfinish comparator scale (GAR Electroforming) as well a series of impressions collected from the crow's feet region of 9 women who represent each point on the Zerweck Crow's Feet classification scale. Analyses were performed using a Courage + Khazaka Visioline VL 650 as well as Image Pro Premiere 9.0 software. Shadow analysis showed an ability to accurately measure the groove depth when measuring impressions collected from grooves of known depth. Several shadow analysis parameters showed a correlation with the expert grader ratings of crow's feet when averaging measurements taken from the North and South directions. The Max Depth parameter in particular showed a strong correlation with the expert grader's ratings which improved when a more sophisticated analysis was performed using Image Pro Premiere. When used properly, shadow analysis is effective at accurately measuring skin surface impressions for differences in skin topography. Shadow analysis is shown to accurately assess the differences across a range of crow's feet severity correlating to a 0-8 grader scale. The Visioline VL 650 is a good tool for this measurement, with room for improvement in analysis which can be achieved through third party image analysis software. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour

  7. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1994. Technical note No. 310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1995-11-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches` broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  8. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1992. Technical note No. 276. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormier, J.R.; McPhee, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park in 1992, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Balsam gall midge, balsam twig aphid, birch casebearer, gypsy moth, porcupines, sirococcus shoot blight, white pine weevil, whitespotted sawyer beetle, yellowheaded spruce sawfly, leaf blister of yellow birch, snow damage, yellow witches' broom of balsam fir, and fall webworm.

  9. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1993. Technical note No. 296

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches' broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  10. A portable, 8-channel transcutaneous stimulator for paraplegic muscle training and mobility--a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Scott; Davis, Glen; Barriskill, Andrew; Middleton, James; Bruinsma, Ian; Duncan, Michael; Smith, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an 8-channel transcutaneous neuromuscular stimulator, called ExoStim, which was designed and developed to provide stimulation to the lower-limb muscles of spinal cord injured individuals. The intended purposes of the ExoStim were to act as a skin-surface precursor to an implantable neuromuscular stimulator for the specific tasks of increasing paralyzed leg strength and endurance, enabling the performance of basic lower-limb functional tasks, and familiarizing patients with functional electrical stimulation training. The initial design specifications included portability (approximately 500 g), battery-powered output, constant current control (0-300 mA), 8 channels of biphasic stimulation (charge-balanced, constant current), and microprocessor control of all stimulation parameters. Various tests, including output power characteristics, environmental, mechanical, and battery life, were performed on three prototype units to validate our design specifications. Having successfully passed all tests, the ExoStim is now ready to be deployed to clinical trial sites for further evaluation with spinal cord injured subjects.

  11. [Surgical kyphoplasty for management of axis metastasis: technical note kyphoplastie de C2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, S; Métellus, P; Pech-Gourg, G; Dufour, H; Grisoli, F

    2009-06-01

    C2 vertebral metastases are seldom encountered. They usually cause disabling pain at the upper cervical level and can also result in life-threatening spinal instability. The technique described herein may provide a valuable minimally invasive option for treating this condition. We report a case of C2 metastasis resulting from gastric adenocarcinoma in a 58-year-old male; since there was no spinal instability, open kyphoplasty was performed at C2, resulting in the healing of the body and the base of the odontoid of the C2 vertebra. The X-ray follow-up more than six months after surgery confirmed the absence of any spinal instability at the craniocervical junction. Open kyphoplasty at C2 provides a means to manage a metastasis located in the body of the C2 vertebra. This method maintains the rotatory function of the upper cervical spine, which seems to be a crucial factor, given the poor prognosis usually associated with this condition.

  12. Balloon humeroplasty reconstruction for acute Hill-Sachs injury: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, F; Zbili, D; Feron, J-M; Sautet, A; Doursounian, L; Masquelet, A-C

    2016-09-01

    Posterior Hill-Sachs humeral defects are present in 80% to 100% of cases of anterior shoulder dislocation and are a factor in recurrent instability. Several techniques have been described to fill the defect and avoid recurrence. We developed a percutaneous technique to fill the newly created defect in which a percutaneous balloon, analogous to the one used in vertebral kyphoplasty, is used to reduce the defect, which is then filled with calcium phosphate cement. One patient with an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder with no previous history was treated using this method. Early imaging results showed adequate reduction of the defect and no cement resorption. The patient was followed for 12 months; he had normal function of the shoulder and no recurrent dislocation. Shoulder computed tomography (CT) arthrography with contrast after 3 months showed an intact capsule and no recurrence of the defect. While this technique is certainly in its infancy, we have demonstrated that emergency reduction of the defect in acute first occurrence anterior shoulder dislocation is feasible, helps to restore normal anatomy of the humeral head and leads to good clinical results. Whether it can improve clinical results and prevent recurrent shoulder dislocation remains to be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Percutaneous Retrieval of Foreign Bodies Around Vital Vessels Aided with Vascular Intervention: A Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiu-Jun, E-mail: woothingyang2008@126.com [Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (China); Xing, Guang-Fu, E-mail: xgf8848@126.com [Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Department of General Surgery (China)

    2015-10-15

    ObjectiveTo describe a new interventional technique to remove foreign bodies (FBs) embedded in soft tissues around vital vessels.MethodsUnder fluoroscopic guidance and using local anesthesia, percutaneous removal of FBs was performed using forceps in nine patients. All patients suffered from a metallic soft tissue FB located in close proximity to important vessels and one also had a small traumatic pseudoaneurysm adjacent to the FB. Prior to removal of the FB, the position of the nearest vessel was identified using a guide wire or catheter placed into the vessel. Balloon catheter was also simultaneously used to temporarily stop the blood flow of the nearest artery during the FB removal in three of the nine patients.ResultsAll of the nine FBs with 0–2 mm interval to the nearest vessel were successfully removed in the nine patients without any serious complications. The removed FBs measured 3–12 mm in length and 1–3 mm in width. The total fluoroscopic time of retrieval of each FB was 5–9 min (mean, 6.4 min). The volume of intraoperative bleeding ranged from 5 to 12 ml (mean, 7.5 ml). The length of hospital stay for each patient ranged from 4 to 8 days (mean, 5.5 days).ConclusionVascular intervention-aided percutaneous FB removal is minimally invasive and an effective method for removal of FBs around vital vessels.

  14. Development of a relocatable frame technique for gamma knife radiosurgery. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, L; Hampshire, A; Roper, A; Mitchell, P; Vaughan, P; Forster, D M; Kemeny, A A; Radatz, M W

    2000-12-01

    One of the limiting factors in gamma knife radiosurgery is the restriction to one treatment imposed by the fixed stereotactic frame. The ability, in selected cases, to remove the frame and replace it on a subsequent occasion in the same location would facilitate fractionated treatments and provide flexibility in the timing of treatment delivery. It is the purpose of this work to investigate techniques for frame fixation and for essential verification of frame position once it has been reapplied. A technique is proposed that requires four surgical self-tapping screws to be inserted into the skull. Aluminum pins are inserted through the frame pillars and are tightened against the head of the screws, providing a firm fixation of the frame. Pin lengths are recorded on gauges to ensure reproducibility of the position. In phantom tests, test objects were localized (using the angiographic localizer) before and after each of five frame removal/reapplications to test the reproducibility of frame position. The mean error in the observed target coordinates was 0.3 mm and the maximum error observed was 0.7 mm, indicating that the frame can be reapplied with some confidence. Repetition of bubble skull measurements has been investigated as a means of verifying that the frame was repositioned correctly; however, reproducibility of patient measurements was found to be poor even when no frame movement had occurred. In contrast, the use of a radiotherapy simulator to obtain repeated lateral and anteroposterior projections of the head was shown to be capable of detecting frame movements of as little as 1 mm. Using this technique of frame application facilitates the reapplication of the frame with an accuracy of plus or minus 0.7 mm. Bubble measurements are inadequate for the detection of frame movement. Simple techniques in which a radiotherapy simulator is used can verify correct frame placement and indicate frame movements of less than 1 mm.

  15. Technical Note: Coupling of chemical processes with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) submodel TRACER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Buchholz-Dietsch, J.; Tost, H.; Sander, R.; Pozzer, A.

    2008-03-01

    The implementation of processes related to chemistry into Earth System Models and their coupling within such systems requires the consistent description of the chemical species involved. We provide a tool (written in Fortran95) to structure and manage information about constituents, hereinafter referred to as tracers, namely the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) generic (i.e., infrastructure) submodel TRACER. With TRACER it is possible to define a multitude of tracer sets, depending on the spatio-temporal representation (i.e., the grid structure) of the model. The required information about a specific chemical species is split into the static meta-information about the characteristics of the species, and its (generally in time and space variable) abundance in the corresponding representation. TRACER moreover includes two submodels. One is TRACER_FAMILY, an implementation of the tracer family concept. It distinguishes between two types: type-1 families are usually applied to handle strongly related tracers (e.g., fast equilibrating species) for a specific process (e.g., advection). In contrast to this, type-2 families are applied for tagging techniques. Tagging means the artificial decomposition of one or more species into parts, which are additionally labelled (e.g., by the region of their primary emission) and then processed as the species itself. The type-2 family concept is designed to conserve the linear relationship between the family and its members. The second submodel is TRACER_PDEF, which corrects and budgets numerical negative overshoots that arise in many process implementations due to the numerical limitations (e.g., rounding errors). The submodel therefore guarantees the positive definiteness of the tracers and stabilises the integration scheme. As a by-product, it further provides a global tracer mass diagnostic. Last but not least, we present the submodel PTRAC, which allows the definition of tracers via a Fortran95 namelist, as a complement to the standard tracer definition by application of the TRACER interface routines in the code. TRACER with its submodels and PTRAC can readily be applied to a variety of models without further requirements. The code and a documentation are included in the electronic supplement.

  16. Brief Technical Note: A Markov Chain Approach to Measure Investment Rating Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Fenech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore two approaches (cohort versus hazard to measure the probability of investment rate migrations of pension funds in Australia. We also develop validation procedures pertinent to each approach and find that the cohort method is more stable in its forecasts and reports a lesser migration probability to lower investment grades with minimal statistical significance. Conversely, the hazard approach reports a higher migration probability to lower investment grades with statistical significance. This finding has considerable consequences for fund managers as they seek to mitigate any downward trends in their investment appraisals, especially as the cohort approach is the industry’s preferred approach in calculating rating migrations. The fund manager has a choice to make regarding measuring probability investment rate migrations, one between: stability (cohort or accuracy (hazard.

  17. Percutaneous thoracic intervertebral disc nucleoplasty: technical notes from 3 patients with painful thoracic disc herniations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chua Hai Liang, N.; Gultuna, I.; Riezebos, P.; Beems, T.; Vissers, K.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation is an uncommon condition and early surgical approaches were associated with significant morbidity and even mortality. We are the first to describe the technique of percutaneous thoracic nucleoplasty in three patients with severe radicular pain due to thoracic

  18. Technical Note: Experimental carbon ion range verification in inhomogeneous phantoms using prompt gammas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Dedes, G.; Krimmer, J.; Ray, C.; Testa, E., E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Testa, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 |(France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); De Rydt, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Freud, N.; Létang, J. M. [CREATIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, INSA-Lyon, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to experimentally assess the possibility to monitor carbon ion range variations—due to tumor shift and/or elongation or shrinking—using prompt-gamma (PG) emission with inhomogeneous phantoms. Such a study is related to the development of PG monitoring techniques to be used in a carbon ion therapy context. Methods: A 95 MeV/u carbon ion beam was used to irradiate phantoms with a variable density along the ion path to mimic the presence of bone and lung in homogeneous humanlike tissue. PG profiles were obtained after a longitudinal scan of the phantoms. A setup comprising a narrow single-slit collimator and two detectors placed at 90° with respect to the beam axis was used. The time of flight technique was applied to allow the selection between PG and background events. Results: Using the positions at 50% entrance and 50% falloff of the PG profiles, a quantity called prompt-gamma profile length (PGPL) is defined. It is possible to observe shifts in the PGPL when there are absolute ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. Quantitatively, for an ion range shift of −1.33 ± 0.46 mm (insertion of a Teflon slab), a PGPL difference of −1.93 ± 0.58 mm and −1.84 ± 1.27 mm is obtained using a BaF{sub 2} and a NaI(Tl) detector, respectively. In turn, when an ion range shift of 4.59 ± 0.42 mm (insertion of a lung-equivalent material slab) is considered, the difference is of 4.10 ± 0.54 and 4.39 ± 0.80 mm for the same detectors. Conclusions: Herein, experimental evidence of the usefulness of employing PG to monitor carbon ion range using inhomogeneous phantoms is presented. Considering the homogeneous phantom as reference, the results show that the information provided by the PG emission allows for detecting ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. When considering the expected PG emission from an energy slice in a carbon ion therapy scenario, the experimental setup would allow to retrieve the same PGPL as the high statistics of the full experimental dataset in 58% of the times. However, this success rate increases to 93% when using a better optimized setup by means of Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Technical Note: Does Core Inflation Help Forecast Total Inflation? Evidence from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    John Thornton

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia core and total inflation are both (1) series, and core inflation is cointegrated with total inflation. Granger causality tests using error correction methodology indicate that divergence of total inflation from core inflation is quickly revers

  20. Technical Note: MRI only prostate radiotherapy planning using the statistical decomposition algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siversson, Carl, E-mail: carl.siversson@med.lu.se [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmö 205 02, Sweden and Spectronic Medical AB, Helsingborg 254 67 (Sweden); Nordström, Fredrik [Spectronic Medical AB, Helsingborg 254 67 (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund 214 28 (Sweden); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund 214 28 (Sweden); Nilsson, Terese [Spectronic Medical AB, Helsingborg 254 67 (Sweden); Nyholm, Tufve; Jonsson, Joakim [Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå 901 85 (Sweden); Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn [Department of Oncology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund 214 28 (Sweden); Olsson, Lars E. [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmö 205 02 (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: In order to enable a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only workflow in radiotherapy treatment planning, methods are required for generating Hounsfield unit (HU) maps (i.e., synthetic computed tomography, sCT) for dose calculations, directly from MRI. The Statistical Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is a method for automatically generating sCT images from a single MR image volume, based on automatic tissue classification in combination with a model trained using a multimodal template material. This study compares dose calculations between sCT generated by the SDA and conventional CT in the male pelvic region. Methods: The study comprised ten prostate cancer patients, for whom a 3D T2 weighted MRI and a conventional planning CT were acquired. For each patient, sCT images were generated from the acquired MRI using the SDA. In order to decouple the effect of variations in patient geometry between imaging modalities from the effect of uncertainties in the SDA, the conventional CT was nonrigidly registered to the MRI to assure that their geometries were well aligned. For each patient, a volumetric modulated arc therapy plan was created for the registered CT (rCT) and recalculated for both the sCT and the conventional CT. The results were evaluated using several methods, including mean average error (MAE), a set of dose-volume histogram parameters, and a restrictive gamma criterion (2% local dose/1 mm). Results: The MAE within the body contour was 36.5 ± 4.1 (1 s.d.) HU between sCT and rCT. Average mean absorbed dose difference to target was 0.0% ± 0.2% (1 s.d.) between sCT and rCT, whereas it was −0.3% ± 0.3% (1 s.d.) between CT and rCT. The average gamma pass rate was 99.9% for sCT vs rCT, whereas it was 90.3% for CT vs rCT. Conclusions: The SDA enables a highly accurate MRI only workflow in prostate radiotherapy planning. The dosimetric uncertainties originating from the SDA appear negligible and are notably lower than the uncertainties introduced by variations in patient geometry between imaging sessions.