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Sample records for temperature synthetic route

  1. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    recent years, autoclaved synthesis of TiN nanomaterials from titanium sources of TiO2, TiCl4 has been developed24–27. In the present work, we describe a simple chemical synthetic route to nanocrystalline TiN at 500-600 °C, using metallic Ti and sodium amide (NaNH2) as source materials. The reaction was carried out in ...

  2. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN | Cai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple chemical synthetic route has been developed to prepare nanocrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) in an autoclave, by the reaction of metallic Ti with NaNH2 at low temperature of 500–600 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron ...

  3. Synthetic Routes to Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway Intermediates and Downstream Isoprenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow-Choy, Sarah K; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T

    2014-04-01

    Isoprenoids constitute the largest class of natural products with greater than 55,000 identified members. They play essential roles in maintaining proper cellular function leading to maintenance of human health, plant defense mechanisms against predators, and are often exploited for their beneficial properties in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Most impressively, all known isoprenoids are derived from one of two C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In order to study the enzyme transformations leading to the extensive structural diversity found within this class of compounds there must be access to the substrates. Sometimes, intermediates within a biological pathway can be isolated and used directly to study enzyme/pathway function. However, the primary route to most of the isoprenoid intermediates is through chemical catalysis. As such, this review provides the first exhaustive examination of synthetic routes to isoprenoid and isoprenoid precursors with particular emphasis on the syntheses of intermediates found as part of the 2C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In addition, representative syntheses are presented for the monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), triterpenes (C30) and tetraterpenes (C40). Finally, in some instances, the synthetic routes to substrate analogs found both within the MEP pathway and downstream isoprenoids are examined.

  4. A simple and convenient synthetic route to Ulipristal acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongguo; He, Yun; Zhao, Yi; Hai, Li; Wu, Yong

    2013-12-11

    We set out to describe a new and efficient route for preparing Ulipristal acetate with a good yield. The selected epoxidization conditions gave out 80% of 5α,10α-epoxide 2a in the two diastereoisomers which greatly improved the yield of 11β-substituted isomer 4a. And phenyl-sulfinyl compound 6 was synthesized from ketone 5 directly treated with phenylsulfenyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. These synthetic procedures is only 8 steps, less than currently reported in the literature, but more suitable for industrial process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The development of an effective synthetic route of lesinurad (RDEA594)

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Qing; Zhao, Tong; Kang, Dongwei; Huang, Boshi; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2017-01-01

    Background Lesinurad is a novel selective uric acid salt transport protein 1 (URAT1) inhibitor which is approved in the USA for the treatment of gout. However, there are some shortcomings among the reported synthetic routes, such as expensive materials, environmental pollution and poor yield. Results In this study, an efficient, practical and environmentally-friendly synthetic route of lesinurad is reported. The main advantages of this route include inexpensive starting materials, mild condit...

  6. The development of an effective synthetic route of lesinurad (RDEA594).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing; Zhao, Tong; Kang, Dongwei; Huang, Boshi; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2017-09-05

    Lesinurad is a novel selective uric acid salt transport protein 1 (URAT1) inhibitor which is approved in the USA for the treatment of gout. However, there are some shortcomings among the reported synthetic routes, such as expensive materials, environmental pollution and poor yield. In this study, an efficient, practical and environmentally-friendly synthetic route of lesinurad is reported. The main advantages of this route include inexpensive starting materials, mild conditions and acceptable overall yield (38.8%). Generally, this procedure is reasonable, reliable and suitable for industrial production. Graphical abstract The improved synthetic procedure of lesinurad (I).

  7. Enhancing a Commercial Game Engine to Support Research on Route Realism for Synthetic Human Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg T. Hanold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating routes for entities in virtual environments, such as simulated vehicles or synthetic human characters, is a long-standing problem, and route planning algorithms have been developed and studied for some time. Existing route planning algorithms, including the widely used A* algorithm, are generally intended to achieve optimality in some metric, such as minimum length or minimum time. Comparatively little attention has been given to route realism, defined as the similarity of the algorithm-generated route to the route followed by real humans in the same terrain with the same constraints and goals. Commercial game engines have seen increasing use as a context for research. To study route realism in a game engine, two developments were needed: a quantitative metric for measuring route realism and a game engine able to capture route data needed to compute the realism metric. Enhancements for recording route data for both synthetic characters and human players were implemented within the Unreal Tournament 2004 game engine. A methodology for assessing the realism of routes and other behaviors using a quantitative metric was developed. The enhanced Unreal Tournament 2004 game engine and the realism assessment methodology were tested by capturing data required to calculate a metric of route realism.

  8. Synthetic biology routes to bio-artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbeth, Darren N; Zaikin, Alexey; Saka, Yasushi; Romano, M Carmen; Giuraniuc, Claudiu V; Kanakov, Oleg; Laptyeva, Tetyana

    2016-11-30

    The design of synthetic gene networks (SGNs) has advanced to the extent that novel genetic circuits are now being tested for their ability to recapitulate archetypal learning behaviours first defined in the fields of machine and animal learning. Here, we discuss the biological implementation of a perceptron algorithm for linear classification of input data. An expansion of this biological design that encompasses cellular 'teachers' and 'students' is also examined. We also discuss implementation of Pavlovian associative learning using SGNs and present an example of such a scheme and in silico simulation of its performance. In addition to designed SGNs, we also consider the option to establish conditions in which a population of SGNs can evolve diversity in order to better contend with complex input data. Finally, we compare recent ethical concerns in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and the future challenges raised by bio-artificial intelligence (BI). © 2016 The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).

  9. Performance Analysis of Synthetic Mobility Models and Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisrine IBADAH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Routing protocols heavily influenced by the node motion applied. Many performance analyses are already done with a lot of flaws. But, they do not look to all influenced constraints. Sometimes, they evaluate routing protocols without taken into consideration mobility models. They often analyze them using one routing protocol. Whereas, Simulation time employed is too short. It mainly impacts performance metrics of many mobility models. Or usually, simulation area used is small. It influences the number of packets received. In this study, we aim to summarize all these several parameters into 90 different scenarios with an average of 1350 simulated files. We will combine some well-known mobility models with the most prominent mobile Ad hoc routing protocols in order to analyze their accurate behaviors in one experimental synthesis paper. That shows results of three performance metrics combined with five mobile ad hoc routing protocols under three synthetic mobility models. All these parameters are applied to two dissimilar simulation areas, a small one with (220 m x 220 m and a large one with (1020 m x 1020 m. Basing on one exhaustive analysis with all these details like this paper; leads to well understand the accurate behaviors of routing protocols and mobility models used. By displaying the ability of every routing protocol to deal with some topology changes, as well as to ensure network performances.

  10. Profiling of Volatile Impurities in Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) for Synthetic-Route Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Wahl, Jon H.; Nunez, Stefanie P.

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated the feasibility of using volatile impurities from the rodenticide tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) for the discrimination of TETS produced by three synthetic routes. Each route was used to make one batch of TETS by reacting sulfamide with one of three formaldehyde analogs in the presence of either trifluroacetic acid (TFA) or hydrochloric acid. Ten impurities useful for differentiating the three TETS batches were sampled and tentatively identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC x CG-MS). Of the ten identified impurities, the alkyl trifluoroacetate and alkyl chloride impurities distinguished TETS routes based on their use of either TFA or HCl as catalyst. On the other hand, four 6-carbon ketone impurities appeared to be batch specific rather than route specific and hence potentially useful for sample matching. Interestingly, 1,3,5-trioxane was not found in the TETS batch where it was used as a reactant, but instead was found in the two batches that did not have 1,3,5-trioxane as the reactant. In summary, the limited work discussed in this paper supports: (1) the feasibility of sampling and detecting volatile organic impurities from a solid chemical-threat agent, (2) the probable forensic benefit of catalysts acting as reactants in side reactions, (3) the uniqueness of a synthetic batch’s impurity profile for potential sample matching, and (4) the possibility that some impurities, such as formaldehyde analogs, are not forensically helpful and may lead to an incorrect estimate about the synthetic route if not supported by sound chemical knowledge.

  11. Development of new synthetic routes to bile pigments and synthesis of deuterated porphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Y.K.

    1985-01-01

    New synthetic routes to pyrromethanones using hydrogen peroxide/pyridine upon alpha-free pyrromethanes and a synthesis of mesobiliverdin are described. The pyrromethanones were applied to the synthesis of mesobiliverdin using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) oxidation of mesourbilin, to give a high yield of the desired mesobiliverdin. New synthetic methodology to pyrrolinones using various oxidizing reagents were also described. Treatment of alpha-free pyrrole with thallium(III) trifluoroacetate (TTFA) gave a mixture of a pyrrolinone and a dimeric compound. The yield and the ratio of the two products were variable depending upon the solvents and the mole ratio of the TTFA used. Pyrrolinone syntheses using the other oxidizing reagents are also described. Syntheses of carbon-14 labelled biliverdins are also described. In addition, the preparation of biliverdin IX-BETA using b-bilene route is described. The second part of this study contains an introduction to porphyrins and syntheses of 6,7-bis(2-methoxycarbonyl-1,1-dideuteroethyl)-1,3,5,8-tetramethyl-2,4-divinylporphyrin. The latter is important in the study of heme protein reconstitution experiments. As a result of numerous synthetic approaches the desired product was obtained from the appropriately deuterated formylpyrrole using the a,c-biladiene route.

  12. Low temperature route to uranium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Darien, IL); Yeamans, Charles (Berkeley, CA); Hartmann, Thomas (Idaho Falls, ID); Silva, G. W. Chinthaka (Las Vegas, NV); Cerefice, Gary (Henderson, NV); Czerwinski, Kenneth R. (Henderson, NV)

    2009-09-01

    A method of preparing an actinide nitride fuel for nuclear reactors is provided. The method comprises the steps of a) providing at least one actinide oxide and optionally zirconium oxide; b) mixing the oxide with a source of hydrogen fluoride for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the oxide to a fluoride salt; c) heating the fluoride salt to remove water; d) heating the fluoride salt in a nitrogen atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the fluorides to nitrides; and e) heating the nitrides under vacuum and/or inert atmosphere for a period of time sufficient to convert the nitrides to mononitrides.

  13. N-acylsulfonamides: Synthetic routes and biological potential in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Giampietro, Letizia; Amoroso, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Sulfonamide is a common structural motif in naturally occurring and synthetic medicinal compounds. The rising interest in sulfonamides and N-acyl derivatives is attested by the large number of drugs and lead compounds identified in last years, explored in different fields of medicinal chemistry and showing biological activity. Many acylsulfonamide derivatives were designed and synthesized as isosteres of carboxylic acids, being the characteristics of these functional groups very close. Starting from chemical routes to N-acylsulfonamides, this review explores compounds of pharmaceutical interest, developed as enzymatic inhibitors or targeting receptors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Solid-Phase Synthetic Route to Multiple Derivatives of a Fundamental Peptide Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. O’Donnell

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are Nature’s combinatorial building blocks. When substituted on both the amino and carboxyl sides they become the basic scaffold present in all peptides and proteins. We report a solid-phase synthetic route to large combinatorial variations of this fundamental scaffold, extending the variety of substituted biomimetic molecules available to successfully implement the Distributed Drug Discovery (D3 project. In a single solid-phase sequence, compatible with basic amine substituents, three-point variation is performed at the amino acid a-carbon and the amino and carboxyl functionalities.

  15. Magnetic properties of nanoscale crystalline maghemite obtained by a new synthetic route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercante, L.A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Melo, W.W.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Granada, M.; Troiani, H.E. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche, RN (Argentina); Macedo, W.A.A.; Ardison, J.D. [Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vaz, M.G.F. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Novak, M.A., E-mail: mnovak@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    In this work we describe the synthesis and characterization of maghemite nanoparticles obtained by a new synthetic route. The material was synthesized using triethylamine as a coprecipitation agent in the presence of the organic ligand N,N Prime -bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-catechol)-2,4-diaminotoluene (LCH{sub 3}). Moessbauer spectrum at 4 K shows typical hyperfine parameters of maghemite and Transmission Electron Microscopy images reveal that the nanoparticles have a mean diameter of 3.9 nm and a narrow size distribution. AC magnetic susceptibility in zero field presents an Arrhenius behavior with unreasonable relaxation parameters due to the strong influence of dipolar interaction. In contrast when the measurements are performed in a 1 kOe field, the effect of dipolar interactions becomes negligible and the obtained parameters are in good agreement with the static magnetic properties. The dynamic energy barrier obtained from the AC susceptibility results is larger than the expected from the average size observed by HRTEM results, evidencing the strong influence of the surface contribution to the anisotropy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maghemite nanoparticles obtained by a new synthetic route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM images shown crystalline nanoparticles with average 3.9 nm diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Normal Arrhenius behavior restored with applied DC fields.

  16. TEMPERATURE-DEFORMATION CRITERION OF OPTIMIZATION OF FINE DRAWING HIGH CARBON WIRE ROUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Bobarikin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-deformation criterion of assessment and optimization of routes of the thin high-carbon wire drawing enabling to increase plastic properties of wire at retaining of its durability is offered.

  17. A survey on temperature-aware routing protocols in wireless body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Christian Henry Wijaya; Moh, Sangman

    2013-08-02

    The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node's circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  18. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  19. Rational synthetic combination genetic devices boosting high temperature ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth and production of yeast in the industrial fermentation are seriously restrained by heat stress and exacerbated by heat induced oxidative stress. In this study, a novel synthetic biology approach was developed to globally boost the viability and production ability of S. cerevisiae at high temperature through rationally designing and combing heat shock protein (HSP and superoxide dismutase (SOD genetic devices to ultimately synergistically alleviate both heat stress and oxidative stress. HSP and SOD from extremophiles were constructed to be different genetic devices and they were preliminary screened by heat resistant experiments and anti-oxidative experiments, respectively. Then in order to customize and further improve thermotolerance of S. cerevisiae, the HSP genetic device and SOD genetic device were rationally combined. The results show the simply assemble of the same function genetic devices to solve heat stress or oxidative stress could not enhance the thermotolerance considerably. Only S. cerevisiae with the combination genetic device (FBA1p-sod-MB4-FBA1p-shsp-HB8 solving both stress showed 250% better thermotolerance than the control and displayed further 55% enhanced cell density compared with the strains with single FBA1p-sod-MB4 or FBA1p-shsp-HB8 at 42 °C. Then the most excellent combination genetic device was introduced into lab S. cerevisiae and industrial S. cerevisiae for ethanol fermentation. The ethanol yields of the two strains were increased by 20.6% and 26.3% compared with the control under high temperature, respectively. These results indicate synergistically defensing both heat stress and oxidative stress is absolutely necessary to enhance the thermotolerance and production of S. cerevisiae.

  20. Two convenient low-temperature routes to single crystals of plutonium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meredith, Nathan A. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Wang, Shuao; Diwu, Juan [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E., E-mail: talbrechtschmitt@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Two low-temperature routes to the growth single crystals of plutonium dioxide. • Safer methods of preparing PuO{sub 2} single crystals that do not involve solid-state synthetic techniques. • Solvothermal crystal growth of plutonium dioxide. - Abstract: During the solvothermal synthesis of a low-dimensional borate, KB{sub 5}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2}⋅2H{sub 2}O, in the presence of Pu(III), single crystals of plutonium dioxide unexpectedly formed. Single crystals of PuO{sub 2} also formed during the hydrothermal synthesis of another borate, Na{sub 2}B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)⋅2H{sub 2}O, in the presence of Pu(III). The reactions were conducted at 170 °C and 150 °C, respectively, which are much lower temperature than previously reported preparations of crystalline PuO{sub 2}. Yellow–green crystals with a tablet habit were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and solid-state UV–vis–NIR absorption spectroscopy. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods with R{sub 1} = 1.26% for 19 unique observed reflections. PuO{sub 2} is cubic, space group Fm3{sup ‾}m, and adopts the fluorite structure type. The lattice parameter was determined to be a = 5.421(5) Å giving a volume of 159.3(2) Å{sup 3}. The absorption spectrum is consistent with Pu(IV)

  1. Simple synthetic route to manganese-containing nanowires with the spinel crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Hudak, Bethany M.; Wallace, Damon K.; Kim, Doo Young; Guiton, Beth S.

    2016-08-01

    This report describes a new route to synthesize single-crystalline manganese-containing spinel nanowires (NWs) by a two-step hydrothermal and solid-state synthesis. Interestingly, a nanowire or nanorod morphology is maintained during conversion from MnO2/MnOOH to CuMn2O4/Mg2MnO4, despite the massive structural rearrangement this must involve. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) curves of the products give preliminary demonstration that CuMn2O4 NWs are catalytically active towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solution, exhibiting five times the magnitude of current density found with pure carbon black.

  2. Synthetic Routes to N-9 Alkylated 8-Oxoguanines; Weak Inhibitors of the Human DNA Glycosylase OGG1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar R. Mahajan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase OGG1 is involved in base excision repair (BER, one of several DNA repair mechanisms that may counteract the effects of chemo- and radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. We envisage that potent inhibitors of OGG1 may be found among the 9-alkyl-8-oxoguanines. Thus we explored synthetic routes to 8-oxoguanines and examined these as OGG1 inhibitors. The best reaction sequence started from 6-chloroguanine and involved N-9 alkylation, C-8 bromination, and finally simultaneous hydrolysis of both halides. Bromination before N-alkylation should only be considered when the N-substituent is not compatible with bromination conditions. The 8-oxoguanines were found to be weak inhibitors of OGG1. 6-Chloro-8-oxopurines, byproducts in the hydrolysis of 2,6-halopurines, turned out to be slightly better inhibitors than the corresponding 8-oxoguanines.

  3. Synthetic Routes to N-9 Alkylated 8-Oxoguanines; Weak Inhibitors of the Human DNA Glycosylase OGG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Tushar R; Ytre-Arne, Mari Eknes; Strøm-Andersen, Pernille; Dalhus, Bjørn; Gundersen, Lise-Lotte

    2015-09-02

    The human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase OGG1 is involved in base excision repair (BER), one of several DNA repair mechanisms that may counteract the effects of chemo- and radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. We envisage that potent inhibitors of OGG1 may be found among the 9-alkyl-8-oxoguanines. Thus we explored synthetic routes to 8-oxoguanines and examined these as OGG1 inhibitors. The best reaction sequence started from 6-chloroguanine and involved N-9 alkylation, C-8 bromination, and finally simultaneous hydrolysis of both halides. Bromination before N-alkylation should only be considered when the N-substituent is not compatible with bromination conditions. The 8-oxoguanines were found to be weak inhibitors of OGG1. 6-Chloro-8-oxopurines, byproducts in the hydrolysis of 2,6-halopurines, turned out to be slightly better inhibitors than the corresponding 8-oxoguanines.

  4. Colloidal Magnetic Heterostructured Nanocrystals with Asymmetric Topologies: Seeded-Growth Synthetic Routes and Formation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Scarfiello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals, free-standing crystalline nanostructures generated and processed in solution phase, represent an important class of advanced nanoscale materials owing to the flexibility with which their physical–chemical properties can be controlled through synthetic tailoring of their compositional, structural and geometric features and the versatility with which they can be integrated in technological fields as diverse as optoelectronics, energy storage/ conversion/production, catalysis and biomedicine. In recent years, building upon mechanistic knowledge acquired on the thermodynamic and kinetic processes that underlie nanocrystal evolution in liquid media, synthetic nanochemistry research has made impressive advances, opening new possibilities for the design, creation and mastering of increasingly complex colloidal molecules, in which nanocrystal modules of different materials are clustered together via solid-state bonding interfaces into free-standing, easily processable multifunctional nanocomposite systems. This Review will provide a glimpse into this fast-growing research field by illustrating progress achieved in the wet-chemical development of last-generation breeds of all-inorganic heterostructured nanocrystals (HNCs in asymmetric non-onionlike geometries, inorganic analogues of polyfunctional organic molecules, in which distinct nanoscale crystalline modules are interconnected in hetero-dimer, hetero-oligomer and anisotropic multidomain architectures via epitaxial heterointerfaces of limited extension. The focus will be on modular HNCs entailing at least one magnetic material component combined with semiconductors and/or metals, which hold potential for generating enhanced or unconventional magnetic properties, while offering diversified or even new chemical-physical properties and functional capabilities. The available toolkit of synthetic strategies, all based on the manipulation of seeded-growth techniques

  5. Theoretical Studies of Possible Synthetic Routes for the High Energy Density Material Td N4: Excited Electronic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    Vertical electronic excitation energies for single states have been computed for the high energy density material (HEDM) Td N4 in order to assess possible synthetic routes that originate from excited electronic states of N2 molecules. Several ab initio theoretical approaches have been used, including complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF), state averaged CASSCF (SA-CASSCF), singles configuration interaction (CIS), CIS with second-order and third-order correlation corrections [CIS(D)) and CIS(3)], and linear response singles and doubles coupled-cluster (LRCCSD), which is the highest level of theory employed. Standard double zeta polarized (DZP) and triple zeta double polarized (TZ2P) one-particle basis sets were used. The CASSCF calculations are found to overestimate the excitation energies, while the SA-CASSCF approach rectifies this error to some extent, but not completely. The accuracy of the CIS calculations varied depending on the particular state, while the CIS(D), CIS(3), and LRCCSD results are in generally good agreement. Based on the LRCCSD calculations, the lowest six excited singlet states are 9.35(l(sup)T1), 10.01(l(sup)T2), 10.04(1(sup)A2), 10.07(1(sup)E), 10.12(2(sup)T1), and 10.42(2(sup)T2) eV above the ground state, respectively. Comparison of these excited state energies with the energies of possible excited states of N2+N2 fragments, leads us to propose that the most likely synthetic route for Td N4 involving this mechanism arises from combination of two bound quintet states of N2.

  6. Energy consumption and control response evaluations of AODV routing in WSANs for building-temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booranawong, Apidet; Teerapabkajorndet, Wiklom; Limsakul, Chusak

    2013-06-27

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved.

  7. Energy Consumption and Control Response Evaluations of AODV Routing in WSANs for Building-Temperature Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chusak Limsakul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs, focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved.

  8. Extending Synthetic Routes for Oligosaccharides by Enzyme, Substrate and Reaction Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Jürgen; Jördening, Hans-Joachim; Buchholz, Klaus

    The integration of all relevant tools for bioreaction engineering has been a recent challenge. This approach should notably favor the production of oligo- and polysaccharides, which is highly complex due to the requirements of regio- and stereoselectivity. Oligosaccharides (OS) and polysaccharides (PS) have found many interests in the fields of food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics due to different specific properties. Food, sweeteners, and food ingredients represent important sectors where OS are used in major amounts. Increasing attention has been devoted to the sophisticated roles of OS and glycosylated compounds, at cell or membrane surfaces, and their function, e.g., in infection and cancer proliferation. The challenge for synthesis is obvious, and convenient approaches using cheap and readily available substrates and enzymes will be discussed. We report on new routes for the synthesis of oligosaccharides (OS), with emphasis on enzymatic reactions, since they offer unique properties, proceeding highly regio- and stereoselective in water solution, and providing for high yields in general.

  9. Simple synthetic route to manganese-containing nanowires with the spinel crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Hudak, Bethany M.; Wallace, Damon K.; Kim, Doo Young; Guiton, Beth S.

    2016-08-15

    This report describes a new route to synthesize single-crystalline manganese-containing spinel nanowires (NWs) by a two-step hydrothermal and solid-state synthesis. Interestingly, a nanowire or nanorod morphology is maintained during conversion from MnO{sub 2}/MnOOH to CuMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Mg{sub 2}MnO{sub 4}, despite the massive structural rearrangement this must involve. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) curves of the products give preliminary demonstration that CuMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} NWs are catalytically active towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solution, exhibiting five times the magnitude of current density found with pure carbon black. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single-crystalline manganese-containing spinel nanowires. • Binary oxide nanowire converted to ternary oxide wire through solid state reaction. • Approach to structure conversion with shape retention could be generally applicable. • Copper and Manganese display multiple oxidation states with potential for catalysis. • CuMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanowires show promise as catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction.

  10. [5C + 1N] Annulation of 2,4-pentadienenitriles with hydroxylamine: a synthetic route to multi-substituted 2-aminopyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Peng; Xiang, Dexuan; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Fengyu; Zhang, Ning; Dong, Dewen

    2013-02-14

    A facile and efficient synthetic route to multi-substituted 2-aminopyridines has been developed via a formal [5C + 1N] annulation of readily available 2,4-pentadienenitriles with hydroxylamine (NH(2)OH) under very mild conditions, which involves sequential intermolecular aza-nucleophilic addition of hydroxylamine, intramolecular aza-cyclization, and dehydration reactions.

  11. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide towards synthetic natural gas. A route to effective future energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoder, M. [Hochschule Lausitz, Cottbus (Germany); Armbruster, U.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz Institute for Catalysis

    2012-07-01

    Ni- and Ru-based catalysts are best suited for the so-called Sabatier reaction, i.e., the hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} to synthetic natural gas (SNG). Besides using commercial materials, catalyst syntheses (5 wt% Ru or Ni) were carried out by incipient wetness impregnation of four carriers (TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Some pre-tests revealed that catalysts supported on TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} mostly produced CO, and therefore, they were not studied in detail. The catalyst tests were carried out in a continuously operated tube reactor at 623-723 K and 1-20 bar. Ru/ZrO{sub 2} and Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} revealed best catalytic performance at ambient pressure. Methane selectivities of 99.9% at 81.2% CO{sub 2} conversion for Ru/ZrO{sub 2} (623 K) and of 98.9% at 73.8% CO{sub 2} conversion for Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (673 K) were obtained. The conversion increased significantly with raising reaction pressure above 10 bar to reach more than 93% for the Ni-containing catalyst and more than 96% for the Zr catalysts. Methane as the target product was formed with a selectivity of 100%. In addition, the catalysts were characterized by various solid-state techniques such as BET, TPR, ICP-OES, XRD, XPS and TEM. (orig.)

  12. Investigation on structural properties of Al-substituted ZnS particle prepared from wet chemical synthetic route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyot Infahsaeng

    Full Text Available ZnS, a wide energy band gap semiconductor, is the potential candidates as a buffer layer for solar cells application. Here, ZnS and Al-substituted ZnS were prepared by simply chemical synthetic route with various high concentration of Al dopant from 0 at% to 40 at%. The structures of ZnS and Al-substituted ZnS powder are all in cubic zinc blende phase. Interestingly, the crystallite size slightly decreases with increasing of Al concentration. A presence of Al content is related with the absence of Zn atom indicate that aluminum is partially substituted into ZnS structure. However, the crystalline structure and morphology of Al-substituted ZnS are not dramatically affected by the aluminum dopant concentration. The band gap energy of the bulk ZnS is approximately at 3.62 eV and slightly increase with increasing of Al dopant. The photoluminescence of Al-substituted ZnS were slightly red-shift and broaden from that of bare ZnS. Keywords: ZnS, Al-substituted ZnS, Photoluminescence, Morphology

  13. Phosphine synthetic route features and postsynthetic treatment of InP quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordvinova, Natalia, E-mail: n.mordvinova@gmail.com; Vinokurov, Alexander; Dorofeev, Sergey; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Znamenkov, Konstantin

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Quantum dots with average diameter of 3–5 nm were synthesized. • PH{sub 3} was used as novel phosphorous precursor. • Electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective method of purification of QDs. • Photoeching leads to quantum yields about 20%. • The concentration and time dependencies for photoetching of QDs were obtained. -- Abstract: In this paper we report on the development of synthesis of InP quantum dots with a gaseous phosphine PH{sub 3} as a source of phosphorus and myristic acid and TOP/TOPO as stabilizers. Samples synthesized using myristic acid as stabilizer at relatively low temperatures were found to contain admixture of In(OH){sub 3}. We studied the influence of HF concentration and duration of illumination on luminescence properties of InP quantum dots during photoetching process. Quantum yields of photoetched samples reached about 20%. Additionally, electrophoresis as a new technique of purification and size-depended separation of synthesized quantum dots was developed.

  14. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  15. Nanosized tungsten carbide synthesized by a novel route at low temperature for high performance electrocatalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zaoxue; Cai, Mei; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is a widely used engineering material which is usually prepared at high temperature. A new mechanism for synthesizing nanoscaled WC at ultralow temperature has been discovered. This discovery opens a novel route to synthesize valuable WC and other carbides at a cost-efficient way. The novel formation mechanism is based on an ion-exchange resin as carbon source to locally anchor the W and Fe species. As an intermediate, FeWO4 can be formed at lower temperature, which can ...

  16. Temperature-responsive copolymeric hydrogel systems synthetized by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barriguete, Jesús Eduardo; Bucio, Emilio

    2017-06-01

    Eight different systems of hydrogel copolymers with diverse temperature responsiveness were prepared to elaborate membranes for their biomedical application. The hydrogels were synthesized using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL), which have a low critical solution temperature (LCST) close to that of the human body temperature. The networks were synthesized using gamma radiation at a dose rate of 11.2 kGy h-1, and dose of 50 kGy. The LCST of each system was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of using hydrophilic monomers of acrylic acid (AAc), methacrylic acid (MAAc), dimethyl acrylamide (DMAAm), and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) for the copolymerization on the critical point was evaluated. Five viable systems were obtained, with the best hydrogel being that of poly(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm), which an LCST at 39.8 °C. All the samples were characterized by FTIR-ATR, DSC, TGA, X-Ray Diffraction, and SEM. The proportion of monomers during the formation of the copolymers was decisive in the displacement of the LCST.

  17. Thermal equation of state of synthetic orthoferrosilite at lunar pressures and temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Jacobs, J.M.G.; van den Berg, A.P.; Wehber, M.; Lathe, C.; McCammon, C.A.; van Westrenen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Iron-rich orthopyroxene plays an important role in models of the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon, but its density at high pressure and high temperature is not well-constrained. We present in situ measurements of the unit-cell volume of a synthetic polycrystalline end-member

  18. Synthetic cannabinoids found in "spice" products alter body temperature and cardiovascular parameters in conscious male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Gramling, Benjamin R; Justinova, Zuzana; Thorndike, Eric B; Baumann, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The misuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a persistent public health concern. Because these drugs target the same cannabinoid receptors as the active ingredient of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), we compared the effects of synthetic cannabinoids and THC on body temperature and cardiovascular parameters. Biotelemetry transmitters for the measurement of body temperature or blood pressure (BP) were surgically implanted into separate groups of male rats. THC and the synthetic cannabinoids CP55,940, JWH-018, AM2201 and XLR-11 were injected s.c., and rats were placed into isolation cubicles for 3h. THC and synthetic cannabinoids produced dose-related decreases in body temperature that were most prominent in the final 2h of the session. The rank order of potency was CP55,940>AM2201=JWH-018>THC=XLR-11. The cannabinoid inverse agonist rimonabant antagonized the hypothermic effect of all compounds. Synthetic cannabinoids elevated BP in comparison to vehicle treatment during the first h of the session, while heart rate was unaffected. The rank order of potency for BP increases was similar to that seen for hypothermia. Hypertensive effects of CP55,940 and JWH-018 were not antagonized by rimonabant or the neutral antagonist AM4113. However, the BP responses to both drugs were antagonized by pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium or the α1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin. Our results show that synthetic cannabinoids produce hypothermia in rats by a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors, while they increase BP by a mechanism independent of these sites. The hypertensive effect appears to involve central sympathetic outflow. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  20. Synthesis of Bismuth Ferrite Nanoparticles via a Wet Chemical Route at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs of multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3 with narrow size distributions were synthesized via a wet chemical route using bismuth nitrate and iron nitrate as starting materials and excess tartaric acid and citric acid as chelating agent, respectively, followed by thermal treatment. It was found that BiFeO3 NPs crystallized at ∼350∘C when using citric acid as chelating agent. Such crystallization temperature is much lower than that of conventional chemical process in which other types of chelating agent are used. BiFeO3 NPs with different sizes distributions show obvious ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetization is increased with reducing the particle size.

  1. Nanosized tungsten carbide synthesized by a novel route at low temperature for high performance electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zaoxue; Cai, Mei; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-04-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is a widely used engineering material which is usually prepared at high temperature. A new mechanism for synthesizing nanoscaled WC at ultralow temperature has been discovered. This discovery opens a novel route to synthesize valuable WC and other carbides at a cost-efficient way. The novel formation mechanism is based on an ion-exchange resin as carbon source to locally anchor the W and Fe species. As an intermediate, FeWO4 can be formed at lower temperature, which can be directly converted into WC along with the carbonization of resin. The size of WC can be less than 2 nm. The catalyst made with Pt nanoparticles supported on nanosized WC-GC (WC-graphitized carbon) shows enhanced electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. The result also indicates that the Pt nanoparticles deposited on WC-GC are dominated by Pt (111) plane and shows a mass activity of 257.7 mA mg-1Pt@0.9 V.

  2. An Underground Air-Route Temperature Prediction Model for Ultra-Deep Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to modern mining methods deployed in recent years, production of coal mines has been expanded significantly compared to thirty years ago. As a consequence, the mining depth of coal mines is becoming ever deeper. A common world-wide problem that underground coal mines are currently experiencing is the hazard caused by the underground hot environment, which also promotes a great need of reliable mitigation measures to assist mine operators controlling the heat stress for miners as well as maintaining the normal operation of the mine. In this paper, a model for underground air-route temperature prediction in ultra-deep mines based on previous findings was developed. In developing this model, the idea of heat balance was used to establish the temperature calculation equation. Various underground heat sources (air compress, wall oxidation, underground heat, machinery, etc. are covered in the model to improve the prediction accuracy. In addition, a PC-based numerical tool was also developed to aid users using such a mathematical model. Finally, a few temperature measurements for an ultra-deep underground coal mine were performed to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed mathematical prediction model.

  3. Investigation of NdxY0.25-xZr0.75O1.88 inert matrix fuel materials made by a co-precipitation synthetic route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, John R.; Grosvenor, Andrew P. (Saskatchewan)

    2016-05-06

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a material that we are considering in our inert matrix fuel nuclear reactors, but a complete characterization of these materials is required for them to be licensed for use. A series of NdxY0.25–xZr0.75O1.88 materials have been synthesized using a co-precipitation method, and the thermal stability of these materials has been studied by annealing them at 1400 and 1500 °C. (Nd was used as surrogate for Am.) The long-range and local structures of the materials were characterized via powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zr K- and Y K-edges. These results were compared with the previous characterization of Nd-YSZ materials synthesized using a ceramic method. Moreover, the results indicated that the ordering in the local metal–oxygen polyhedral remains relatively unaffected by the synthetic method, but there was increased long-range disorder in the materials prepared by the co-precipitation method. Further, it was found that the materials produced by the co-precipitation method were unexpectedly unstable when annealed at high temperature. This study highlights the importance of determining the effect of synthetic method on material properties and demonstrates how the co-precipitation route could be used to produce inert matrix fuels.

  4. Elevated temperature viscous remanent magnetization of natural and synthetic multidomain magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Paul R.; Banerjee, Subir K.

    1994-01-01

    The time-temperature relationship of magnetization is a subject of much interest and debate by paleomagnetists, rock magnetists, and magnetic anomaly modellers. We have investigated this relationship by studying the viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) of coarse-grained multidomain (MD) magnetite. Our experiments covered the temperature range from 22 to 400 C, times from minutes to months, and included both Australian granulite samples and multidomain magnetite samples synthesized by the glass ceramic method. VRM acquisition was found to generally increase with temperature but not always at the rate predicted from classical thermal fluctuation theories. Thermal cycling between room temperature (at which the measurements were made) and the VRM acquisition temperature sharply decreased the temperature dependence of the VRM. Room temperature VRM acquisition accelerates with time when plotted on a semilog plot, whereas at elevated temperature the curves are quasilinear against log(time) for both the natural and synthetic samples. This change in behavior may suggest a variation in the VRM acquisition mechanism as a function of temperature for MD magnetite. The granulites have a nearly linear increase in VRM acquisition rate with temperature whereas the glass ceramics display little change in the acquisition rate between 22 and 200 C, but increase by nearly a factor of 3 by 400 C. The increase in VRM of the glass ceramics between 200 and 400 C is in general qualitative agreement with thermal fluctuation theory. There was no systematic change in the rate of VRM acquisition with grain size for the multidomain magnetites used in this study. Elevated temperature (e.g., 400 C) VRM acquisition by the deep crustal granulites, if extrapolated over the Brunhes chron, would produce a magnetization of several A/m which, if true, is of the order required by models for the source of long-wavelength magnetic anomalies.

  5. Palladium-catalyzed alkyne polyannulation of diphenols and unactivated internal diynes: a new synthetic route to functional heterocyclic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yun; Lam, Jacky W. Y.; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A new polymerization route for the preparation of functional heterocyclic polymers was developed from diphenol derivatives and unactivated internal diynes. The alkyne polyannulations of 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol and 4,4'-(α,ω-alkylenedioxy)bis(diphenylacetylene)s or 1,2-bis[4-(2-phenylethynyl)phenyl]-1,2-diphenylethene were catalyzed by Pd2(dba)3 in the presence of bathophenanthroline, silver acetate and copper(II) acetate monohydrate in 1,4-dioxane at 130 °C, affording polymers with benzofuran m...

  6. Highly luminescent core-shell InP/ZnX (X = S, Se) quantum dots prepared via a phosphine synthetic route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvinova, Natalia; Vinokurov, Alexander; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Lebedev, Oleg I; Dorofeev, Sergey

    2017-01-24

    Here we report a simple method for the creation of highly luminescent core-shell InP/ZnX (X = S, Se) quantum dots (QDs) on the basis of a phosphine synthetic route. In this method a Zn precursor was added to the reaction mixture at the beginning of the synthesis to form an In(Zn)P alloy structure, which promoted the formation of a ZnX shell. Core-shell InP/ZnX QDs exhibit highly intensive emission with a quantum yield over 50%. The proposed method is primarily important for practical applications. Advantages of this method compared to the widely used SILAR technique are discussed. We further demonstrate that the SILAR approach consisting of consequent addition of Zn and chalcogen precursors to pre-prepared non-doped InP colloidal nanoparticles is not quite suitable for shell growth without the addition of special activator agents or the use of very reactive precursors.

  7. The use of a very high temperature nuclear reactor in the manufacture of synthetic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    The three parts of a program directed toward creating a cost-effective nuclear hydrogen production system are described. The discussion covers the development of a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) as a nuclear heat and power source capable of producing the high temperature needed for hydrogen production and other processes; the development of a hydrogen generation process based on water decomposition, which can utilize the outputs of the VHTR and be integrated with many different ultimate hydrogen consuming processes; and the evaluation of the process applications of the nuclear hydrogen systems to assess the merits and potential payoffs. It is shown that the use of VHTR for the manufacture of synthetic fuels appears to have a very high probability of making a positive contribution to meeting the nation's energy needs in the future.

  8. Comparison of wintertime asphalt and concrete pavement surface temperatures on U.S. Route 40 near Heber, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Asphalt and concrete pavement surface temperatures were compared at a location on U.S. Route 40 in : northern Utah where asphalt and concrete meet end to end at the base of the mountain pass. An environmental : sensor station was installed to facilit...

  9. Comparing density, electron temperature, and magnetic fluctuations with gyrokinetic simulations using new synthetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D. R.; Bergerson, W.; Ennever, P.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.; Irby, J.; Phillips, P.; Porkolab, M.; Rowan, W.; Terry, J. L.; Xu, P.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2013-10-01

    Three new synthetic turbulence diagnostics are implemented in GS2 and compared with measurements: phase contrast imaging, polarimetry, and electron-cyclotron (ECE) emission. Our new synthetic diagnostic framework is based on transforming to a real-space annulus in Cartesian coordinates. This allows straightforward convolution with diagnostic point-spread functions, or integration over viewing chords. Wavenumber spectra and fluctuation amplitudes, as well as transport fluxes, are compared with measurements. Both phase contrast imaging and newly observed ECE electron temperature fluctuations, closely follow the electron temperature in an internal transport barrier during on-axis heating pulses, consistent with the role of TEM turbulence. New C-Mod polarimetry measurements, showing strong broadband core magnetic fluctuations, will also be examined against gyrokinetic simulations. The new framework is readily extended to other fluctuation measurements such as two-color interferometry, beam emission spectroscopy, Doppler back-scattering, ECE imaging, and microwave imaging reflectometry. Supported by U.S. DoE awards DE-FC02-08ER54966, DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-FG03-96ER54373.

  10. Ga(III) chelates of amphiphilic DOTA-based ligands: synthetic route and in vitro and in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Andre [Centro de Quimica, Campus de Gualtar, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057, Braga (Portugal); Prata, M. Isabel M. [IBILI, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Coimbra, 3548, Coimbra (Portugal); Geraldes, Carlos F.G.C. [Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3001-401, Coimbra (Portugal); Centro de Neurociencias e Biologia Celular, Universidade de Coimbra, 3001-401, Coimbra (Portugal); Andre, Joao P., E-mail: jandre@quimica.uminho.p [Centro de Quimica, Campus de Gualtar, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057, Braga (Portugal)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, we report on a synthetic strategy using amphiphilic DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid)-based chelators bearing a variable-sized {alpha}-alkyl chain at one of the pendant acetate arms (from 6 to 14 carbon atoms), compatible with their covalent coupling to amine-bearing biomolecules. The amphiphilic behavior of the micelles-forming Ga(III) chelates (critical micellar concentration), their stability in blood serum and their lipophilicity (logP) were investigated. Biodistribution studies with the {sup 67}Ga-labeled chelates were performed in Wistar rats, which showed a predominant liver uptake with almost no traces of the radiochelates in the body after 24 h.

  11. Chemical Routes to Colloidal Chalcogenide Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaak, Raymond E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    This project began with an emphasis on developing new low-­temperature synthetic routes to intermetallic alloys in order to advance the synthesis and processing science of superconducting materials, as well as to potentially discover new materials that would be inaccessible using more traditional higher-­temperature methods. Our initial target materials, chosen as model systems for developing new low-­temperature solution-­based synthetic platforms, were based on well known superconducting alloys, including Nb3M (M = Ga, Ge, Sn), Bi-­M (M = In, Cu), and MgCNi3. Several key, fundamental synthetic challenges that underpinned the formation of these materials using solution chemistry routes were identified and investigated.

  12. Solvent-Assisted Metal Metathesis: A Highly Efficient and Versatile Route towards Synthetically Demanding Chromium Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Hao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Mian; Yan, Shu; Li, Dan; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Chromium(III)-based metal-organic frameworks (Cr-MOFs) are very attractive in a wide range of investigations because of their robustness and high porosity. However, reports on Cr-MOFs are scarce owing to the difficulties in their direct synthesis. Recently developed postsynthetic routes to obtain Cr-MOFs suffered from complicated procedures and a lack of general applicability. Herein, we report a highly efficient and versatile strategy, namely solvent-assisted metal metathesis, to obtain Cr-MOFs from a variety of Fe(III) -MOFs, including several well-known MOFs and a newly synthesized one, through judicious selection of a coordinating solvent. The versatility of this strategy was demonstrated by producing Cr-MIL-100, Cr-MIL-142A/C, Cr-PCN-333, and Cr-PCN-600 from their Fe(III) analogues and Cr-SXU-1 from a newly synthesized MOF precursor, Fe-SXU-1, in acetone as the solvent under very mild conditions. We have thus developed a general approach for the preparation of robust Cr-MOFs, which are difficult to synthesize by direct methods. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Silver(I)-Catalyzed Tandem Sigamatropic Rearrangement/1,3-H Shift/6π Aza-electrocyclization of N-Propargylic Hydrazones: A Mild Synthetic Route to 1,6-Dihydropyridazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zong-Cang; Ju, Lu-Chuan; Yang, Ying; An, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Yun-Bing; Li, Ren-Hao; Tang, Hai-Tao; Ding, Cheng-Ke; Zhan, Zhuang-Ping

    2016-05-06

    A highly efficient AgOTf catalyzed [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement/1,3-H shift/6π aza-electrocyclization cascade reaction of N-propargylic hydrazones has been developed. This method provides a new mild synthetic route to various polysubstituted 1,6-dihydropyridazines including the 3-CF3-substituted ones with high selectivity.

  14. Finite element method for temperature distribution in synthetic diamond cutters during orthogonal rock cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, V.

    1986-01-01

    The introduction of synthetic polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters for use as cutters on oil well drill bits by General Electric in 1973 was a significant advancement in drilling technology. To realize the full potential of this type of cutter a theoretical model of cutting heat transfer and wear for these cutters had to be developed. A cutting model developed in a previous study is used as the first step in developing a heat transfer model. The finite element method is used to solve the problem of simultaneous heat transfer in the rock chip and the tool. The model is verified by comparison with the single cutter experiments of Lee and Hibbs. The model suggested that a correlation existed in the experimental results of Lee and Hibbs between the velocity at which the wear of PDC drastically increased and the temperature at which the hardness decreased drastically. A significant conclusion from the results is that the heat flows from the tool into the chip and thus the chip actually helps in the cooling of the tool. Studies of the effect of film coefficient on the temperature of the tool suggest that there is an optimum cooling beyond which the decrease in temperature for an increase in cooling is insignificantly small. The maximum temperature is on the wear flat closer to the edge away from the cutting tip. The maximum temperature increased when the length of the wear flat increased. The largest contribution to the heat generation in the model is from the heat generation due to sliding friction on the wear flat.

  15. New synthetic route to Al4O4C reinforced Al-Al2O3 composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Sun, Jialin; Xue, Wendong; Chen, Junhong; Vasant Kumar, R.; Li, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Carbon free Al-Al2O3 composite sliding gate materials were successfully prepared by adding excess amount of Al powders through carbon burial sintering at 1450 °C for 6 h. Physical properties including apparent porosity, bulk density, ambient temperature crushing strength and hot rupture modulus were characterized for all the samples and addition of 9 at% aluminum powder was proved to exhibit optimal properties. The XRD and SEM results reveal that Al4O4C and AlN phases shown in the product samples are serving as reinforcement phase, contributing to better physical performances.

  16. Roles of adjuvant and route of vaccination in antibody response and protection engendered by a synthetic matrix protein 2-based influenza A virus vaccine in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudic Mare

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The M2 ectodomain (M2e of influenza A virus (IAV strains that have circulated in humans during the past 90 years shows remarkably little structural diversity. Since M2e-specific antibodies (Abs are capable of restricting IAV replication in vivo but are present only at minimal concentration in human sera, efforts are being made to develop a M2e-specific vaccine. We are exploring a synthetic multiple antigenic peptide (MAP vaccine and here report on the role of adjuvants (cholera toxin and immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide and route of immunization on Ab response and strength of protection. Results Independent of adjuvants and immunization route, on average 87% of the M2e-MAP-induced Abs were specific for M2e peptide and a variable fraction of these M2e(pep-specific Abs (average 15% cross-reacted with presumably native M2e expressed by M2-transfected cells. The titer of these cross-reactive M2e(pep-nat-specific Abs in sera of parenterally immunized mice displayed a sigmoidal relation to level of protection, with EC50 of ~20 μg Ab/ml serum, though experiments with passive M2e(pep-nat Abs indicated that serum Abs did not fully account for protection in parenterally vaccinated mice, particularly in upper airways. Intranasal vaccination engendered stronger protection and a higher proportion of G2a Abs than parenteral vaccination, and the strength of protection failed to correlate with M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Ab titers, suggesting a role of airway-associated immunity in protection of intranasally vaccinated mice. Intranasal administration of M2e-MAP without adjuvant engendered no response but coadministration with infectious IAV slightly enhanced the M2e(pep-nat Ab response and protection compared to vaccination with IAV or adjuvanted M2e-MAP alone. Conclusion M2e-MAP is an effective immunogen as ~15% of the total M2e-MAP-induced Ab response is of desired specificity. While M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Abs have an important

  17. Synthetic tests of passive microwave brightness temperature assimilation over snow covered land using machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    A novel data assimilation framework is evaluated that assimilates passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperature (Tb) observations into an advanced land surface model for the purpose of improving snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates across regional- and continental-scales. The multifrequency, multipolarization framework employs machine learning algorithms to predict PMW Tb as a function of land surface model state information and subsequently merges the predicted PMW Tb with observed PMW Tb from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E). The merging procedure is predicated on conditional probabilities computed within a Bayesian statistical framework using either an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) or an Ensemble Kalman Smoother (EnKS). The data assimilation routine produces a conditioned (updated) estimate of modeled SWE that is more accurate and contains less uncertainty than the model without assimilation. A synthetic case study is presented for select locations in North America that compares model results with and without assimilation against synthetic observations of snow depth and SWE. It is shown that the data assimilation framework improves modeled estimates of snow depth and SWE during both the accumulation and ablation phases of the snow season. Further, it is demonstrated that the EnKS outperforms the EnKF implementation due to its ability to better modulate high frequency noise into the conditioned estimates. The overarching findings from this study demonstrate the feasibility of machine learning algorithms for use as an observation model operator within a data assimilation framework in order to improve model estimates of snow depth and SWE across regional- and continental-scales.

  18. Characteristics of glass ionomer cements composed of glass powders in CaO-SrO-ZnO-SiO₂ system prepared by two different synthetic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill Yong; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Coughlan, Aisling; Placek, Lana; Wren, Anthony W; Towler, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are composed of an acid degradable glass, polyacrylic acid and water. Sol-gel processing to prepare the glass phase has certain advantages, such as the ability to employ lower synthesis temperatures than melt quenching and glasses that are reported to have higher purity. A previous study reported the effects of glass synthesis route on GIC fabrication. However, in that study, the sol-gel derived glass exhibited a reduced concentration of cations. This study investigates increasing the cation content of a sol-gel derived glass, 12CaO.4SrO.36ZnO.48SiO2 (molar ratio) by heating before aging to reduce dissolution of cations. This glass was prepared by both sol-gel and melt-quenched routes. GICs were subsequently prepared using both glasses. The resultant cement based on the sol-gel derived glass had a shorter working time than the cement based on the melt-quenched one. Contrary to this, setting time was considerably longer for the cement based on the sol-gel derived glass than for the cement based on the melt-quenched one. The cements based on the sol-gel derived glass were stronger in both compression and biaxial flexure than the cements prepared from the melt-quenched glass. The differences in setting and mechanical properties were associated with both cation content in the glass phase and the different surface area of the resultant cements.

  19. Optimizing solid oxide fuel cell cathode processing route for intermediate temperature operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Vitoriano, N.; Bernuy-Lopez, Carlos; Ruiz de Larramendi, I.

    2013-01-01

    (∼600°C) and electrode sintering (∼800°C) of LCFN electrodes, making them a cheaper alternative to conventional SOFC cathodes. An electrode polarization resistance as low as 0.10Ωcm2 at 800°C is reported, as determined by impedance spectroscopy studies of symmetrical cells sintered at a range...... of temperatures (800-1000°C). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies revealed porous electrode microstructures, even when sintered at a temperature of just 800°C. The competitive performance of the electrodes sintered at low temperatures, combined with the low raw material cost, make these electrodes...

  20. Stability of 11 prevalent synthetic cannabinoids in authentic neat oral fluid samples: glass versus polypropylene containers at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneisel, Stefan; Speck, Michael; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-07-01

    Although synthetic cannabinoids have been intensively investigated in recent years and oral fluid testing is becoming increasingly popular in suspected driving under the influence of drugs cases, only scarce data on their stability in authentic neat oral fluid (nOF) samples are yet available. However, especially for these new psychoactive drugs, investigations focusing on stability issues are necessary as inappropriate storage conditions may lead to considerable analytical problems. Since it has been shown for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol that adsorption to plastic surfaces may lead to considerable drug loss, we aimed to evaluate whether adsorption also has to be taken into account for synthetic cannabinoids in nOF samples. In this paper, the results of investigations on the recovery of 11 prevalent synthetic cannabinoids from authentic nOF samples stored over 72 h in RapidEASE (high quality borosilicate glass) and Sciteck Saliva Split Collector (polypropylene) tubes at 4 and 25 °C are presented. Our findings clearly demonstrate that lipophilic synthetic cannabinoids present in nOF samples adsorb to the surface of polypropylene containers when stored at room temperature, leading to considerable drug loss. Hence, when using polypropylene tubes, samples should be shipped cooled in order to avoid a substantial decrease of the analyte concentration during transportation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Chen; Krüger, Yves; Wilke, Max

    2016-01-01

    water with a density of 0.921 kg/m3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to the temperaure of −30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. iii) ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in absence of the vapour bubble, i......We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996−916 kg/m3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: i) Prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We...... used single ultrashort laser pulses to stimulate vapour bubble nucleation in initially monophase liquid inclusions. Water densities were calculated based on prograde homogenisation temperatures using the IAPWS-95 formulation. We found retrograde liquid-vapour homogenisation temperatures in excellent...

  2. The effect of different annealing temperatures on tin and cadmium telluride phases obtained by a modified chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Anderson Fuzer [Departamento de Química, CCE, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Campus Goiabeiras, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Porto, Arilza de Oliveira, E-mail: arilzaporto@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Magela de Lima, Geraldo [Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Paniago, Roberto [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ardisson, José Domingos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of cadmium and tin telluride. ► Chemical route to obtain pure crystalline cadmium and tin telluride. ► Effect of the annealing temperature on the crystalline phases. ► Removal of tin oxide as side product through thermal treatment. -- Abstract: In this work tin and cadmium telluride were prepared by a modification of a chemical route reported in the literature to obtain metallacycles formed by oxidative addition of tin-tellurium bonds to platinum (II). Through this procedure it was possible to obtain tin and cadmium telluride. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the crystalline phases obtained as well as the presence of side products. In the case of tin telluride it was identified potassium chloride, metallic tellurium and tin oxide as contaminants. The tin oxidation states were also monitored by {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The annealing in hydrogen atmosphere was chosen as a strategy to reduce the tin oxide and promote its reaction with the excess of tellurium present in the medium. The evolution of this tin oxide phase was studied through the annealing of the sample at different temperatures. Cadmium telluride was obtained with high degree of purity (98.5% relative weight fraction) according to the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The modified procedure showed to be very effective to obtain amorphous tin and cadmium telluride and the annealing at 450 °C has proven to be useful to reduce the amount of oxide produced as side product.

  3. Low temperature, template-free route to nickel thin films and nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shviro, Meital; Zitoun, David

    2012-02-07

    In this manuscript, we report on the elaboration of nickel thin films, isolated clusters and nanowires on silicon, glass and polymers by a low temperature deposition technique. The process is based on the thermal decomposition of Ni (η(4)-C(8)H(12))(2) at temperatures as low as 80 °C, which exclusively yields metallic Ni and a volatile by-product. The low temperature of the process makes it compatible with most of the substrates, even polymers and organic layers. Several deposition techniques are explored, among them spin coating of the organometallic complex in solution, which allows controlling nickel film thickness down to several nanometers. The density of the film can be varied by the speed of the spin coater with the formation of nanowires being observed for an optimized speed. The nanowires form a network of parallel lines on silicon and the phenomenon will be discussed as a selective dewetting of the organometallic precursor. All samples are fully characterized by SEM, EDS, cross-sectional HRTEM, ellipsometry, AFM, MFM and SQUID magnetic measurements. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  5. Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholence, F.; Norell, M.

    2005-02-01

    Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650 1050 °C for 50 h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (Ni-Resist in both dry and normal petrol whereas no nitrides were observed in Ni-Resist exposed to diesel gases.

  6. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  7. Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Daniel E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Collaborative Biotechnologies

    2016-08-29

    New materials are needed to significantly improve the efficiencies of energy harnessing, transduction and storage, yet the synthesis of advanced composites and multi-metallic semiconductors with nanostructures optimized for these functions remains poorly understood and even less well controlled. To help address this need, we proposed three goals: (1) to further investigate the hierarchical structure of the biologically synthesized silica comprising the skeletal spicules of sponges that we discovered, to better resolve the role and mechanism of templating by the hierarchically assembled silicatein protein filament; (2) to extend our molecular and genetic analyses and engineering of silicatein, the self-assembling, structure-directing, silica-synthesizing enzyme we discovered and characterized, to better understand and manipulate the catalysis and templating of semiconductor synthesis,; and (3) to further investigate, scale up and harness the biologically inspired, low-temperature, kinetically controlled catalytic synthesis method we developed (based on the mechanism we discovered in silicatein) to investigate the kinetic control of the structure-function relationships in magnetic materials, and develop new materials for energy applications. The bio-inspired catalytic synthesis method we have developed is low-cost, low temperature, and operates without the use of polluting chemicals. In addition to direct applications for improvement of batteries and fuel cells, the broader impact of this research includes a deeper fundamental understanding of the factors governing kinetically controlled synthesis and its control of the emergent nanostructure and performance of a wide range of nanomaterials for energy applications.

  8. A Novel Synthetic Route for Green-emitting Zn{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}SiO{sub 4} Phosphor using Colloidal Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Gu [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Chul [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We have synthesized Mn-doped Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phosphors by solgel method using colloidal silica. The adsorption characteristics of the citric acid molecules onto the silica surfaces enables us to use colloidal silica as a Si-source instead of TEOS which is generally utilized for the fine particle synthesis of the silicate based compounds. At a very low temperature (800 .deg. C), we could obtain the single phase of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, which is remarkable compared to that of the solid state reaction (about 1300 .deg. C). The mean size of particles prepared at 800 .deg. C, 900 .deg. C, and 1000 .deg. C is 100 nm, 200 nm, and 400 nm, respectively. The PL intensity of Zn{sub 1.92}Mn{sub 0.08}SiO{sub 4} prepared at different temperature between 800 .deg. C and 1200 .deg. C, increases as the synthetic temperature rises up. Moreover, the PL intensity of Zn{sub 1.92}Mn{sub 0.08}SiO{sub 4} prepared at 1200 .deg. C is remarkable compared to that of the commercial Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} : Mn (Kasei company, Japan). The PL intensity for Zn{sub 1.92}Mn{sub 0.08}SiO{sub 4} as a function of colloidal silica content, do not induces a considerable change in PL intensity, but a considerable modification in the morphology of particles. It might be said that colloidal silica is a promising chemical as a Si-source for the synthesis of fine particle of silicate compounds, instead of TEOS. The Mn{sup 2+}-doped Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phosphor has been used as a luminescent material for lamp and plasma panel display because of its high-luminescent efficiency and chemical stability. The emission of the Zn{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}SiO{sub 4} at 520 nm is attributed to d-level spin-forbidden transition for Mn(II). According to the earlier literatures, the photoluminescence (PL) process of Zn{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}SiO{sub 4} phosphors has been characterized by the transition of 3d{sup 5} electrons in the manganese ion acting as an activation center in the willemite structure. In particular, the transition

  9. Effect of oxidation on base liquids of oil and synthetic-based drilling fluids at high pressure and high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbazi, K.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G.; Ursenbach, M.G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Diesels and distillates are used as a base liquid for most oil-based drilling fluids in conventional drilling and as the liquid phase in gasified liquids in some underbalanced drilling operations. They are also used as friction reducing agents to free stuck pipes. It is important to understand the true downhole rheological properties because they affect equivalent circulating density, hole cleaning, barite sag, surge/swab pressures during tripping, pump pressure and bit hydraulics. Also, gelation and high viscosity are major concerns, particularly at high temperatures. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxidation on some base liquids for oil-based and synthetic-based drilling fluids at high pressures and high temperatures. Gas and liquid phases were characterized and the solid phase was measured along with viscosity measurements at temperatures and pressures ranging from 20 to 152 degrees C at atmospheric pressures to 103.4 MPa. The viscosity of the liquid samples after aging was compared with that of corresponding fresh samples. The results indicate that the degree of oxidation plays an important role in increasing the sample viscosity. The increase in viscosity depends on temperature, and is more significant at low temperatures. Agitation of samples during aging with air resulted in increased amounts of solid precipitation while lowering the viscosity of the liquid phase. This study demonstrated that oxidation has an important influence on rheological properties of the oil, because it affects the mobility of the oil and therefore the recovery factor. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 22 figs.

  10. Temperature and field dependent Mossbauer studies of the metallic inclusions in synthetic MDAS diamond grits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bharuth-Ram, K.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Mørup, Steen

    2001-01-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy of the metallic inclusions in diamond grits produced in high-temperature high-pressure synthesis have revealed varying but interesting results. The MDAS(1) grits synthesized with Fe/Ni solvent-catalysts show Mossbauer spectra that vary with grit size, with the ferromagnetic...... at temperatures of 300 K and 80 K, in zero field and in an external field of 0.60 T, on the metallic inclusions in these grits. The Mossbauer spectra of the inclusions are rather complex, reflecting the contributions of several different magnetic phases. Our results show that the temperature variation...... of the Mossbauer spectra is not due to superparamagnetic relaxation of ferromagnetic inclusions but rather to magnetic ordering temperatures of the order of room temperature. Based on the spectral lineshapes and elemental analyses, we suggest the inclusions in the 63-75 mum grits contain iron mainly in Fe...

  11. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, C; Krüger, Y; Wilke, M; Marti, D; Rička, J; Frenz, M

    2016-10-12

    We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996-916 kg m-3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: (i) prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We used single ultrashort laser pulses to stimulate vapour bubble nucleation in initially monophase liquid inclusions. Water densities were calculated based on prograde homogenisation temperatures using the IAPWS-95 formulation. We found retrograde liquid-vapour homogenisation temperatures in excellent agreement with IAPWS-95. (ii) Retrograde ice nucleation. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the nucleation of ice in the absence of the vapour bubble. Our ice nucleation data in the doubly metastable region are inconsistent with the low-temperature trend of the spinodal predicted by IAPWS-95, as liquid water with a density of 921 kg m-3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to a temperature of -30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. (iii) Ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in the absence of the vapour bubble, i.e. in the negative pressure region. (iv) Spontaneous retrograde and, for the first time, prograde vapour bubble nucleation. Prograde bubble nucleation occurred upon heating at temperatures above ice melting. The occurrence of prograde and retrograde vapour bubble nucleation in the same inclusions indicates a maximum of the bubble nucleation curve in the ϱ-T plane at around 40 °C. The new experimental data represent valuable benchmarks to evaluate and further improve theoretical models describing the p-V-T properties of metastable water in the low-temperature region.

  12. Porous organic polymers with anchored aldehydes: A new platform for post-synthetic amine functionalization en route for enhanced CO2 adsorption properties

    KAUST Repository

    Guillerm, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A novel porous organic polymer has been synthesized using the molecular building block approach to deliberately encompass aldehyde functionalities amenable to post functionalization. The resultant porous framework allows a facile, one-step quantitative and post-synthetic functionalization by amines, permitting enhanced CO2 sorption properties. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Study of Hopcalite (CuMnOx Catalysts Prepared Through A Novel Route for the Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Dey

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Dey, S., Dhal, G.C., Mohan, D., Prasad, R. (2017. Study of Hopcalite (CuMnOx Catalysts Prepared through A Novel Route for the Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide at Low Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 393-407 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.882.393-407

  14. High-performance zno transistors processed via an aqueous carbon-free metal oxide precursor route at temperatures between 80-180 °c

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Yenhung

    2013-06-25

    An aqueous and carbon-free metal-oxide precursor route is used in combination with a UV irradiation-assisted low-temperature conversion method to fabricate low-voltage ZnO transistors with electron mobilities exceeding 10 cm2/Vs at temperatures <180°C. Because of its low temperature requirements the method allows processing of high-performance transistors onto temperature sensitive substrates such as plastic. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. An effective route for the room temperature formation of Pd coatings on multiwalled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Joon [Dept. of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Im Kyu; Song, Jae Hee [Dept. of Chemistry, Sunc hon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We present an easy one-pot synthesis route for the production of palladium nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-supported Pd-nanomaterial composites by a simple proton beam irradiation process in an aqueous solution at room temperature. Pristine and surface-modified MWCNTs were used to prepare MWCNT–Pd hybrids. Pd nanoparticles on the surfaces of MWCNTs were produced in situ in an aqueous solution without the addition of any harsh reducing agent. Pristine and thiolated MWCNTs were both densely decorated with spherical Pd nanoparticles and eventually Pd nanowire formation on MWCNTs was realized when reaction times exceeded 60 min. The thicknesses of Pd coatings on MWCNT surfaces were controlled by varying the concentration of MWCNTs in the reaction mixture. MWCNT-Pd composites were characterized by time-resolved transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the results obtained showed that Pd coatings were continuous, and resulted in a MWCNT-supported Pd nanowire structure.

  16. A Simple and Green Route for Room-Temperature Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles and Selective Colorimetric Detection of Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Pelin Onsekizoglu; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized at room temperature following a simple, rapid, and green route using fresh-squeezed apple juice as a reducing reagent. The optimal AuNPs, based on the particle color, stability, and color change suitable for colorimetric detection of cysteine (Cys), are synthesized using 5 mL of 10% apple juice, 1 mL of 10 mM gold precursor solution, and 1 mL of 0.1 M NaOH. Under this set of parameters, the AuNPs are synthesized within 30 min at room temperature. The average size (11.1 ± 3.2 nm) and ζ potential (-36.5 mV) of the AuNPs synthesized were similar to those of AuNPs prepared via the conventional citrate-reduction method. In the presence of Cys, unlike with any other amino acid, the AuNPs aggregated, possibly due to the gold-sulfur covalent interaction, yielding red-to-purple color change of the sample solution. The red-shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the AuNPs responsible for the color change was recorded by UV-vis spectrometer. The effect of other potential interferents such as glucose, ascorbic acid, K(+) , Na(+) , Ca(2+) , Zn(2+) , Ag(+) , Ni(2+) , Cu(2+) , Co(2+) , and Hg(2+) were also examined. The results show that AuNPs can be used to selectively detect and measure Cys with a linear dependency in the range of 2 to 100 μM and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio > 3) of 50 nM. The results suggest that the green-synthesized AuNPs are useful for simple, rapid, and sensitive colorimetric detection of Cys, which is an essential amino acid in food and biological systems. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. An introduction of CO₂ conversion by dry reforming with methane and new route of low-temperature methanol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yang, Guohui; Tao, Kai; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Tan, Yisheng; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2013-08-20

    converted in situ via one of two main routes. The first is to use Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), a process that catalytically converts syngas to hydrocarbons of varying molecular weights. The second is methanol synthesis. The latter has better atomic economy, since the oxygen atom in CO is included in the product and CO₂ can be blended into syngas as a reactant. However, production of methanol is very inefficient in this reaction: only 10-15% one-pass conversion typically at 5.0-10.0 MPa and 523-573 K, due to the severe thermodynamic limitations of this exothermal reaction (CO + 2H₂ = CH₃OH). In this Account, we propose and develop a new route of low-temperature methanol synthesis from CO₂-containing syngas only by adding alcohols, including methanol itself. These alcohols act as homogeneous cocatalysts and the solvent, realizing 70-100% one-pass conversion at only 5.0 MPa and 443 K. The key step is the reaction of the adsorbed formate species with alcohols to yield ester species at low temperatures, followed by the hydrogenation of ester by hydrogen atoms on metallic Cu. This changes the normal reaction path of conventional, high-temperature methanol synthesis from formate via methoxy to methanol.

  18. Assimilating synthetic hyperspectral sounder temperature and humidity retrievals to improve severe weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas A.; Koch, Steven; Li, Zhenglong

    2017-04-01

    Assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models has proven vital to generating accurate model analyses of tropospheric temperature and humidity where few conventional observations exist. Applications to storm-scale models are limited since the low temporal resolution provided by polar orbiting sensors cannot adequately sample rapidly changing environments associated with high impact weather events. To address this limitation, hyperspectral sounders have been proposed for geostationary orbiting satellites, but these have yet to be built and launched in part due to much higher engineering costs and a lack of a definite requirement for the data. This study uses an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) approach to simulate temperature and humidity profiles from a hypothetical geostationary-based sounder from a nature run of a high impact weather event on 20 May 2013. The simulated observations are then assimilated using an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter approach, testing both hourly and 15 minute cycling to determine their relative effectiveness at improving the near storm environment. Results indicate that assimilating both temperature and humidity profiles reduced mid-tropospheric both mean and standard deviation of analysis and forecast errors compared to assimilating conventional observations alone. The 15 minute cycling generally produced the lowest errors while also generating the best 2-4 hour updraft helicity forecasts of ongoing convection. This study indicates the potential for significant improvement in short-term forecasting of severe storms from the assimilation of hyperspectral geostationary satellite data. However, more studies are required using improved OSSE designs encompassing multiple storm environments and additional observation types such as radar reflectivity to fully define the effectiveness of assimilating geostationary hyperspectral observations for high impact weather forecasting

  19. Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composite: The effects of nanocrystals synthetic route, film deposition and electrolyte composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrella, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Curri, M.L.; Striccoli, M. [CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Agostiano, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cosma, P., E-mail: pinalysa.cosma@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-11-30

    This paper reports a study on the photoelectrochemical processes occurring at the interface of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composites. Colloidal chemical routes were used to obtain size controlled non-hydrolytic ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) dispersible in organic solvents, while a low molecular weight poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), characterized by high degree of structural order, was synthesized via an organometallic method. The optical properties of the nanocomposite material were comprehensively investigated on solution and on films deposited by spin coating. Remarkably, a significant fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO junction was observed. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that the photoactivity of the composite material was significantly improved in the case of non-hydrolytic NCs with respect to hydrolytic route prepared ZnO. Moreover, the effective role of the organic/inorganic blend to improve the charge transfer with respect to the double layer hetero-junction was confirmed, thanks to the extended interfaces which enable an effective electron transfer between the hetero-junction components. The system was also studied at different film thicknesses and electrolyte compositions. The results indicated that film photoactivity increased with film thickness up to 300 nm due to the presence of a large number of interfaces, while the change of cation size influenced the ionic conductivity through the nanocomposite film. It was shown that efficient photoconductivity requires not only efficient charge separation, but also efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. - Highlights: • The photoelectrochemical processes at ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV hetero-junction were studied. • Fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO interface was observed. • Non-hydrolytic ZnO junction showed higher photocurrents than hydrolytic equivalent. • The blends showed

  20. High-temperature electrolysis of synthetic seawater using solid oxide electrolyzer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Kuan; Liu, Qinglin; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Qiang; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2017-02-01

    A Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSCF-GDC solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) is used to investigate the effects of seawater electrolysis for hydrogen production through electrolyzing steam produced from simulated seawater bath. Steam electrolysis using an SOEC with its fuel electrode contaminated by sea salt is also investigated. Steam produced from seawater is found to be free of contaminants, which are present in the seawater. Similar electrochemical performance is observed from the polarization curves and impedance spectra when using steam produced from pure water and seawater. Their short-term degradation rates are similar, which are registered at 15% 1000 h-1 for both cases. For the case of direct sea salt contamination in an SOEC's fuel electrode, both the uncontaminated and contaminated cells exhibit rather similar performance as observed from the polarization curves and impedance spectra. The difference in ASR values from the polarization curves and impedance spectra between the uncontaminated and contaminated cell are all within a 10% range. Rather similar short-term degradation rates of 15% 1000 h-1 and 16% 1000 h-1 are recorded for the uncontaminated and contaminated cells, respectively. Post-mortem analysis shows that the sea salt impregnated into the cell has been vaporized at a typical SOEC operating temperature of 800 °C over the period of operation.

  1. The effect of the synthetic route on the structural, textural, morphological and catalytic properties of iron(iii) oxides and oxyhydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Villa-García, María A; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2016-06-21

    A variety of iron(iii) oxides and oxyhydroxides were synthesised and characterised using three distinct methods of preparation: microemulsion, precipitation and sol-gel. The results clearly showed that the structure, textural properties, crystal morphology and catalytic performance of the phases obtained were highly dependent on the chemical routes used for the synthesis. Precipitation and microemulsion methods allowed obtaining mesoporous nanostructured iron(iii) oxides with mean particle sizes of 4 nm (amorphous hematite) and 7 nm (ferrihydrite), which exhibited a high surface area (291.4 m(2) g(-1) and 192.3 m(2) g(-1), respectively) and a very good catalytic behaviour in the advanced oxidation of highly non-biodegradable wastewaters. The different conditions employed in the synthesis of these materials through the sol-gel method yielded two goethites with practically the same catalytic properties, but dissimilar morphologies and texture. When soft agitation and slow addition of the precipitating agent were used, the resulting material (G1) was made up of shorter and finer particles, markedly acicular, with an average length of 400 ± 50 nm and width of 15 ± 5 nm. However, vigorous agitation and rapid addition of the precipitating agent led to the formation of longer and coarser particles, moderately acicular, the average length and width being 950 ± 100 nm and 140 ± 20 nm, respectively. The use of the sol-gel technique also resulted in the formation of a solid consisting of a mixture of hematite as the main crystalline phase and goethite particles dispersed among the hematite particles. This solid presented a low specific surface area (13.2 m(2) g(-1)) and lower catalytic activity. Therefore, precipitation and microemulsion proved to be the most suitable techniques to synthesise catalytically active disordered iron(iii) oxide nanoparticles, due to the presence of highly reactive non-stoichiometric iron(iii) ions, a higher surface area and smaller particle

  2. Various shaped-ZnO nanocrystals via low temperature synthetic methods: Surfactant and pH dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyeon Jin; Lee, Seulki; Choi, Hyun Chul; Choi, Myong Yong

    2013-07-01

    ZnO nanocrystals, rod-, carnation-, and flower-like structures, have been synthesized in a high yield through low-temperature synthetic methods. Well-aligned ZnO nanorods having hexagonal wurtzite structure were grown on the ZnO thin films assembled by a spin-coating method. The morphologies of ZnO seed films are affected by pHs of sol-gel solutions, resulting smaller sizes and homogeneous roughness at higher pHs and higher number of spin-coating times. The carnation-like structures, average size of about 2-3 μm, were assembled by tens of uniform ZnO nanosheet petals of ˜50 nm in thickness when a different volume ratio of the precursory solution was used. ZnO nanocrystals on the facets of the compact ZnO nanorods have grown to linear nanorods having an average diameter of ˜500 nm and length of ˜2 μm. Furthermore, a noticeable difference in the growth of ZnO nanocrystals in the presence of various surfactants, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylsulphonic acid, and polyethyleneimine, has been observed and discussed.

  3. Evaluation of powder metallurgical processing routes for multi-component niobium silicide-based high-temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemueller, Hans Christoph Maximilian

    2016-03-22

    Niobium silicide-based composites are potential candidates to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine applications. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility and differences in ensuing properties of various powder metallurgical processing techniques that are capable of manufacturing net-shape turbine components. Two routes for powder production, mechanical alloying and gas atomization were combined with compaction via hot isostatic pressing and powder injection molding.

  4. Molten salts activated by high-energy milling: A useful, low-temperature route for the synthesis of multiferroic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Anayantzin; Martínez-Luévanos, Antonia [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, V. Carranza s/n, Saltillo, Coahuila 25280 (Mexico); Fuentes, Antonio F. [CINVESTAV Unidad Saltillo, Apdo. Postal 663, Saltillo, Coahuila 25000 (Mexico); Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Ewing, Rodney C. [Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Montemayor, Sagrario M., E-mail: smmontemayor@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, V. Carranza s/n, Saltillo, Coahuila 25280 (Mexico); Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • The synthesis route purposed demonstrates the formation of BiFeO{sub 3} at only 500 °C. • The magnetic and ferroelectric properties are comparable to those of bulk BiFeO{sub 3}. • By this route, several phases in Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} system are obtained at only 500 °C. • The route developed here could be useful to synthesize other perovskite-type oxides. -- Abstract: There are only a few multiferroic compounds, among which BiFeO{sub 3} is the most important. Research the synthesis of bismuth ferrite, with novel and improved magnetic and electrical properties, has been mainly based on the use of hydrothermal or sol gel methods. However, these methods require either rather extreme conditions or several steps for synthesis. We demonstrate that the use of molten salts, activated by high energy milling, results in pure nanometric BiFeO{sub 3}, LaFeO{sub 3} and intermediate phases in the Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} system. The chemical reagents used are Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅5H{sub 2}O, La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅6H{sub 2}O, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅9H{sub 2}O and NaOH. A brief milling process of the reagents creates an amorphous precursor and crystalline NaNO{sub 3}. The thermal treatment of the precursors, at 500 °C for two hours, produces a crystalline mixture of Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Simple washing eliminates the NaNO{sub 3}. The characterization of intermediates and final products, through thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy, allows the inference of possible mechanism. In addition, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and ferroelectric tests show the typical magnetic and electric polarization loops characteristic of these materials even when formed at the nano-scale.

  5. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Green synthetic route for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GDY13

    Catalyst synthesis: Predetermined quantities of fuel, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and alkali metal nitrate (as an oxidizer) were dissolved in minimum amount of water. Fuel to oxidizer ratio (F/O) was taken as 2 considering glycine as fuel. A mixture containing fuel and oxidizer was taken in a silica crucible and heated to ...

  6. Alternative synthetic route for the heterometallic CO-releasing [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− icosahedral carbonyl cluster and synthesis of its new unsaturated [Sb@Rh12(CO24]4− and dimeric [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO25}2Rh(CO2PPh3]7− derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Femoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The hetero-metallic [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− cluster has been known as for over three decades thanks to Vidal and co-workers, and represents the first example of an E-centered (E=heteroatom icosahedral rhodium carbonyl cluster. However, its synthesis required high temperature (140–160 °C and elevated CO pressure (400 atm. Applying the redox condensation method for cluster preparation, we herein report a new synthetic, high-yield route for preparing [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− under much milder conditions of temperature and pressure. Notably, when the same synthesis was carried out under N2 instead of CO atmosphere, the new isostructural but unsaturated derivative [Sb@Rh12(CO24]4− was obtained, for which we report the full X-ray structural characterization. This species represents one of the few examples of an icosahedral cluster disobeying the electron-counting Wade-Mingos rules, possessing less than the expected 170 cluster valence electrons (CVEs. Judging from IR monitoring, the two species can be obtained one from the other by switching between N2 and CO atmosphere, making [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− a spontaneous CO-releasing molecule. Finally, the study of the chemical reactivity of [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− with PPh3 allowed us to obtain the new [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO25}2Rh(CO2PPh3]7− dimeric compound, for which we herein report the full X-ray structural and 31P NMR analyses.

  7. Aqueous chemical route synthesis and the effect of calcination temperature on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramzan Parra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the controlled size of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via simple aqueous chemical route without the involvement of any capping agent. The effect of different calcination temperatures on the size of the ZnO nanoparticles was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD results indicated that all the samples have crystalline wurtzite phase, and peak broadening analysis was used to evaluate the average crystallite size and lattice strain using Scherrer's equation and Williamson–Hall (W–H method. Morphology and elemental compositions were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy. The average crystallite size of ZnO nanoparticles estimated from Scherrer's formula and W–H analysis was found to increase with the increase in calcination temperature. These results were in good agreement with AFM results. Optical properties were investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy in diffused reflectance (DR mode, with a sharp increase in reflectivity at 375 nm and the material has a strong reflective characteristic after 420 nm at 500 °C calcination temperature. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectroscopic results revealed intensive ultraviolet (UV emission with reduced defect concentrations and a slight shifting in band gap energies with increased calcination temperature from 200 °C to 500 °C. This study suggests that the as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles with bandgap tunability might be utilized as window layer in optoelectronic devices.

  8. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    The maximum electrostatic energy density of a capacitor is a function of the relative permittivity (epsilonr) and the square of the dielectric breakdown strength (Eb). Currently, state-of-the art high temperature (>200 °C), SiC-based power electronics utilize CaZrO3-rich NP0/C0G-type capacitors, which have low relative permittivities of epsilonr ˜ 30-40, high breakdown strengths (> 1.0 MV/cm), and are chosen for their minimal change in energy storage with temperature. However, with operating temperatures exceeding the rated temperatures for such capacitors, there is an opportunity to develop new dielectric ceramics having higher energy densities and volumetric efficiencies at high temperatures (>200 °C) by utilizing higher permittivity dielectrics while maintaining high breakdown strengths via doping. The solid solution behavior of was characterized in order to determine the optimal composition for balancing permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength to obtain high energy densities at elevated temperatures. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed Vegard's law behavior across the solid solution with minimal 2nd phases. To determine a Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 composition that will also minimize electronic or band conduction, the optical properties of the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 solid solution were investigated to identify a composition on the CaTiO3 - rich end of the solid solution with a large band gap. Both ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry were utilized to determine the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 band gaps and optical properties. The resistivity at 250 °C scaled with the band gap energy across the solid solution. Comparing the current-voltage (I--V) behavior at 250 °C for Ca(Tix-yMnyZr0.2)O3 (CTZ + Mn) where x = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and y = 0.005, it was found that the Ca(Ti 0.795Mn0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition showed the lowest current density and a decrease in current density of 5 orders of magnitude compared to the un

  9. Structural and microstructural characterization of tin(II oxide useful as anode material in lithium rechargeable batteries obtained from a different synthesis route at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Macías

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin (II oxide has been proposed as potential anode material in lithium rechargeable batteries. Different methods to obtain such compound have been developed with relative difficulty due to the fact that Sn(II is easily oxidized to Sn(IV. We have applied a different methodology to synthesize SnO-romarchite by modifying the solvent nature of the controlled precipitation route using acetic acid and not water. Although the formation of Sn(IV oxide could not be completely avoided, X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the synthesis of metastable tin(II oxide as major phase at room temperature. In depth analysis using Popa's model for Rietveld refinement allows to precise that the material corresponds to small and distorted crystallites, very anisotropic in size. SEM technique confirmed the microstructure is build of flower-like agglomerates of ~15 µm, in turn made of plate-like individual grains that remind the crystallite structure anisotropy.

  10. Study on Temperature and Synthetic Compensation of Piezo-Resistive Differential Pressure Sensors by Coupled Simulated Annealing and Simplex Optimized Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Yonghong; Zou, Chong; Peng, Wei; Alam Sm, Jahangir

    2017-04-19

    As a high performance-cost ratio solution for differential pressure measurement, piezo-resistive differential pressure sensors are widely used in engineering processes. However, their performance is severely affected by the environmental temperature and the static pressure applied to them. In order to modify the non-linear measuring characteristics of the piezo-resistive differential pressure sensor, compensation actions should synthetically consider these two aspects. Advantages such as nonlinear approximation capability, highly desirable generalization ability and computational efficiency make the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) a practical approach for this critical task. Since the KELM model is intrinsically sensitive to the regularization parameter and the kernel parameter, a searching scheme combining the coupled simulated annealing (CSA) algorithm and the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm is adopted to find an optimal KLEM parameter set. A calibration experiment at different working pressure levels was conducted within the temperature range to assess the proposed method. In comparison with other compensation models such as the back-propagation neural network (BP), radius basis neural network (RBF), particle swarm optimization optimized support vector machine (PSO-SVM), particle swarm optimization optimized least squares support vector machine (PSO-LSSVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM), the compensation results show that the presented compensation algorithm exhibits a more satisfactory performance with respect to temperature compensation and synthetic compensation problems.

  11. Synthesis of imogolite fibers from decimolar concentration at low temperature and ambient pressure: a promising route for inexpensive nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, Clément; Masion, Armand; Rose, Jérôme; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Borschneck, Daniel; Dominici, Christian; Ziarelli, Fabio; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2009-12-02

    To date, the successful low-temperature synthesis of the aluminosilicate imogolite nanotubes always involved initial concentrations of the reagents in the millimolar range, higher concentrations being reported to lead to the formation of the less well characterized allophane phase. The present work shows that reaction kinetics and not initial concentration control the formation of the nanotubes: substantial amounts of well formed imogolite were obtained from a decimolar initial concentration, i.e. 100 times higher than the "standard" protocol. The allophane-like spheroids expected from the high reagent concentration were not observed in this work, and proto-imogolite was obtained instead.

  12. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature, and Gas Mass Measurements with Modified Blackbody Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Dale, James E.

    2017-11-01

    We use a large data set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I of this series) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement physical properties of star-forming regions. In this part of the series (Paper II), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We find from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star formation sites and low-density regions, where for those “contaminated” pixels the surface densities can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost in the far-infrared background. When measuring the total gas mass of regions in moderate background, we find that modified blackbody fitting works well (absolute error: + 9%; ‑13%) up to 10 kpc distance (errors increase with distance). Commonly, the initial images are convolved to the largest common beam-size, which smears contaminated pixels over large areas. The resulting information loss makes this commonly used technique less verifiable as now χ 2 values cannot be used as a quality indicator of a fitted pixel. Our control measurements of the total gas mass (without the step of convolution to the largest common beam size) produce similar results (absolute error: +20%; ‑7%) while having much lower median errors especially for the high-mass stellar feedback phase. In upcoming papers (Paper III; Paper IV) of this series we test the reliability of measured star formation rate with direct and indirect techniques.

  13. Comparison of Reactive and Non-Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering Routes for the Fabrication of Monolithic and Composite Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Orrù

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A wider utilization of ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC materials strongly depends on the availability of efficient techniques for their fabrication as dense bodies. Based on recent results reported in the literature, it is possible to state that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS technology offers a useful contribution in this direction. Along these lines, the use of two different SPS-based processing routes for the preparation of massive UHTCs is examined in this work. One method, the so-called reactive SPS (R-SPS, consists of the synthesis and densification of the material in a single step. Alternatively, the ceramic powders are first synthesized by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS and then sintered by SPS. The obtained results evidenced that R-SPS method is preferable for the preparation of dense monolithic products, while the sintering of SHS powders requires relatively milder conditions when considering binary composites. The different kinetic mechanisms involved during R-SPS of the monolithic and composite systems, i.e., combustion-like or gradual solid-diffusion, respectively, provides a possible explanation. An important role is also played by the SHS process, particularly for the preparation of composite powders, since stronger interfaces are established between the ceramic constituents formed in situ, thus favoring diffusion processes during the subsequent SPS step.

  14. Interactive effects of increased temperature, pCO2and the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel on the fitness and breeding of the amphipod Gammarus locusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P G; Loganimoce, E M; Neuparth, T; Rocha, M J; Rocha, E; Arenas, F

    2017-10-25

    Given the lack of knowledge regarding climate change-chemical exposure interactions, it is vital to evaluate how these two drivers jointly impact aquatic species. Thus, for the first time, we aimed at investigating the combined effects of increased temperature, pCO 2 and the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel on survival, growth, consumption rate and reproduction of the amphipod Gammarus locusta. For that, a full factorial design manipulating temperature [ambient temperature and warming (+4 °C)], pCO 2 [normocapnia and hypercapnia (Δ pH 0.5 units)] and the progestin levonorgestrel (LNG: L1 - 10 ngLL -1 and L2 - 1000 ngLL -1 , control - no progestin and solvent control - vehicle ethanol (0.01%)) was implemented for 21 days. G. locusta was strongly negatively affected by warming, experiencing higher mortality rates (50-80%) than in any other treatments. Instead, growth rates were significantly affected by interactions of LNG with temperature and pCO 2 . It was observed, in the short-term (7d) that under ambient temperature (18 °C) and hypercapnic conditions (pH 7.6), the LNG presence promoted the amphipod's growth, while in the medium-term (21d) this response was not observed. Relative consumption rates (RCRs), during the first week were higher than in the third week. Furthermore, in the first week, RCRs were negatively affected by higher temperature while in the third week, RCRs were negatively affected by acidification. Furthermore, it was observed a negative effect of higher temperature and acidification on G. locusta fecundity, contrarily to LNG. Concluding, the impact of increased temperature and pCO 2 was clearly more adverse for the species than exposure to the synthetic progestin, however, some interactions between the progestin and the climate factors were observed. Thus, in a future scenario of global change, the presence of LNG (and other progestins alike) may modulate to a certain level the effects of climate drivers (and vice-versa) on the

  15. Low Temperature Synthesis of α-Fe2O3 Nano-rods Using Simple Chemical Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farahmandjou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide (Fe2O3 is widely used as a catalyst, pigment and gas sensitive material.  In this article, α-Fe2O3 nano-rods were first synthesized via a simple chemical method using iron(III nitrate 9- hydrate (Fe(NO33.9H2O as precursor. XRD pattern showed that the iron oxide nanoparticles exhibited alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite structure in nanocrystals. The single-phase α- Fe2O3 nano-rods were prepared when the samples calcined at 500 °C. The smallest particle size was found to be 18 nm in diameter. The SEM studies depicted rod-like shaped particles with formation of clusters by increasing annealing temperature. The sharp peaks in FTIR spectrum determined the purity of Fe2O3 nanoparticles and absorbance peak of UV-Vis spectrum showed the small bandgap energy of 2.77 ev. The VSM result showed a coercive field and saturation magnetism around 90 G and 9.95 emu/g, respectively.

  16. LOW TEMPERATURE FORMATION OF NITROGEN-SUBSTITUTED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PANHs)—BARRIERLESS ROUTES TO DIHYDRO(iso)QUINOLINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bera, Partha P.; Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Meteorites contain bio-relevant molecules such as vitamins and nucleobases, which consist of aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms. Questions remain over the chemical mechanisms responsible for the formation of nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) in extraterrestrial environments. By exploiting single collision conditions, we show that a radical mediated bimolecular collision between pyridyl radicals and 1,3-butadiene in the gas phase forms nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) 1,4-dihydroquinoline and to a minor amount 1,4-dihydroisoquinoline. The reaction proceeds through the formation of a van der Waals complex, which circumnavigates the entrance barrier implying it can operate at very low kinetic energy and therefore at low temperatures of 10 K as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1. The discovery of facile de facto barrierless exoergic reaction mechanisms leading to PANH formation could play an important role in providing a population of aromatic structures upon which further photo-processing of ice condensates could occur to form nucleobases.

  17. Transformation of Synthetic Allicin: The Influence of Ultrasound, Microwaves, Different Solvents and Temperatures, and the Products Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Dušica; Nikolić, Vesna; Stanković, Mihajlo; Nikolić, Ljubiša; Stanojević, Ljiljana; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana; Šmelcerović, Andrija

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the synthesized allicin, using conventional method, the influence of ultrasound and microwaves, in different organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, methanol, and chloroform), at various temperatures (room temperature, 45°C, and 55°C) was investigated. Allicin degradation kinetic was monitored by HPLC. Allicin transformation under the effect of microwaves is faster than transformations performed under the influence of ultrasound or by conventional method. Increase of the temperature accelerates allicin transformation. Pharmacologically active compounds of (E)-ajoene, (Z)-ajoene, 3-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin, 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin, and diallyl disulfide were isolated from the mixture of transformation products of allicin under the influence of microwaves in methanol at 55°C, which is according to kinetic parameters (highest values of the order of reaction and the lowest activation energy) the optimal method. PMID:22629145

  18. Transformation of Synthetic Allicin: The Influence of Ultrasound, Microwaves, Different Solvents and Temperatures, and the Products Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Ilić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the synthesized allicin, using conventional method, the influence of ultrasound and microwaves, in different organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, methanol, and chloroform, at various temperatures (room temperature, 45∘C, and 55∘C was investigated. Allicin degradation kinetic was monitored by HPLC. Allicin transformation under the effect of microwaves is faster than transformations performed under the influence of ultrasound or by conventional method. Increase of the temperature accelerates allicin transformation. Pharmacologically active compounds of (E-ajoene, (Z-ajoene, 3-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin, 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin, and diallyl disulfide were isolated from the mixture of transformation products of allicin under the influence of microwaves in methanol at 55∘C, which is according to kinetic parameters (highest values of the order of reaction and the lowest activation energy the optimal method.

  19. A Comparison of Dielectric Properties of Palm Oil with Mineral and Synthetic Types Insulating Liquid under Temperature Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rajab

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mineral oil is known to have a low biodegradability level and high susceptibility to the fire. These conditions motivate many researchers to look for alternative sources for insulating oil. One of the alternative liquid is palm oil. To verify the suitability of using palm oil as an insulating liquid, it is important to make dielectric properties comparison with the commonly used insulating liquid. This paper presents comparison of temperature effect on dielectric properties of palm oil with mineral type insulating liquid and silicone oil. The measured parameters were breakdown voltage, dissipation factor (tan δ, and dielectric constant. Breakdown voltage measurement was performed in accordance with IEC 156 standard, whereas, the dissipation factor and dielectric constant measurement were conducted based on IEC 60247 standard test methods. The results showed that variations of dielectric properties of palm oil to the temperature change, in general, have the same tendency with those of commonly used insulating liquids i.e. mineral oil and silicone oil. Breakdown voltages and dissipation factors of all tested oils were increased, while their dielectric constants were slightly decreased with the increase of temperature.

  20. n-Alcohol Length Governs Shift in Lo-Ld Mixing Temperatures in Synthetic and Cell-Derived Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Caitlin E; McCarthy, Nicola L C; Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya; Brooks, Nicholas J; Keller, Sarah L

    2017-09-19

    A persistent challenge in membrane biophysics has been to quantitatively predict how membrane physical properties change upon addition of new amphiphiles (e.g., lipids, alcohols, peptides, or proteins) in order to assess whether the changes are large enough to plausibly result in biological ramifications. Because of their roles as general anesthetics, n-alcohols are perhaps the best-studied amphiphiles of this class. When n-alcohols are added to model and cell membranes, changes in membrane parameters tend to be modest. One striking exception is found in the large decrease in liquid-liquid miscibility transition temperatures (Tmix) observed when short-chain n-alcohols are incorporated into giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). Coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases are observed at temperatures below Tmix in GPMVs as well as in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of ternary mixtures of a lipid with a low melting temperature, a lipid with a high melting temperature, and cholesterol. Here, we find that when GUVs of canonical ternary mixtures are formed in aqueous solutions of short-chain n-alcohols (n ≤ 10), Tmix increases relative to GUVs in water. This shift is in the opposite direction from that reported for cell-derived GPMVs. The increase in Tmix is robust across GUVs of several types of lipids, ratios of lipids, types of short-chain n-alcohols, and concentrations of n-alcohols. However, as chain lengths of n-alcohols increase, nonmonotonic shifts in Tmix are observed. Alcohols with chain lengths of 10-14 carbons decrease Tmix in ternary GUVs of dioleoyl-PC/dipalmitoyl-PC/cholesterol, whereas 16 carbons increase Tmix again. Gray et al. observed a similar influence of the length of n-alcohols on the direction of the shift in Tmix. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the relative partitioning of n-alcohols between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases evolves as the chain length of the n-alcohol increases

  1. Cationic Pd(II-catalyzed C–H activation/cross-coupling reactions at room temperature: synthetic and mechanistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nishikata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cationic palladium(II complexes have been found to be highly reactive towards aromatic C–H activation of arylureas at room temperature. A commercially available catalyst [Pd(MeCN4](BF42 or a nitrile-free cationic palladium(II complex generated in situ from the reaction of Pd(OAc2 and HBF4, effectively catalyzes C–H activation/cross-coupling reactions between aryl iodides, arylboronic acids and acrylates under milder conditions than those previously reported. The nature of the directing group was found to be critical for achieving room temperature conditions, with the urea moiety the most effective in promoting facile coupling reactions at an ortho C–H position. This methodology has been utilized in a streamlined and efficient synthesis of boscalid, an agent produced on the kiloton scale annually and used to control a range of plant pathogens in broadacre and horticultural crops. Mechanistic investigations led to a proposed catalytic cycle involving three steps: (1 C–H activation to generate a cationic palladacycle; (2 reaction of the cationic palladacycle with an aryl iodide, arylboronic acid or acrylate, and (3 regeneration of the active cationic palladium catalyst. The reaction between a cationic palladium(II complex and arylurea allowed the formation and isolation of the corresponding palladacycle intermediate, characterized by X-ray analysis. Roles of various additives in the stepwise process have also been studied.

  2. Stacking Defects in Synthetic and Meteoritic Hibonites: Implications for High-Temperature Processes in the Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Brearley, A. J.; Danielson, L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Hibonite (CaAl12O19) is a primary, highly refractory phase occurring in many Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from different chondrite groups, except CI chondrites. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest minerals to condense during cooling of the solar nebula at higher temperatures than any other major CAI mineral. Therefore, hibonite has great potential to reveal the processes and conditions of the very early, high-temperature stages of the solar nebular evolution. Previous microstructural studies of hibonite in CAIs and their Wark-Lovering (WL) rims showed the presence of numerous stacking defects in hibonite. These defects are interpreted as the modification of the stacking sequences of spinel and Ca-containing blocks within the ideal hexagonal hibonite structure, as shown by experimental studies of reaction-sintered ceramic CaO-Al2O3 compounds. We performed preliminary experiments in the CaO-Al2O3-MgO system to understand the formation processes and conditions of defect-structured hibonite found in meteorites.

  3. The effect of low-temperature pretreatment on the solubilization and biomethane potential of microalgae biomass grown in synthetic and wastewater media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, V; Rintala, J

    2016-12-01

    Microalgae have been suggested as a sustainable raw material for biofuel production in the form of methane via anaerobic digestion. Here, pretreatments at 60-80°C were investigated, aiming to study the impact of algae culture media on biomethane potential and pretreatment efficiency. Chlorella vulgaris and mixed culture of native algae species (dominating by Scenedesmus sp.) were grown in synthetic medium, wastewater (sterilized and non-sterilized) and digestate from anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper biosludge (sterilized and non-sterilized). The biomethane potential for native microalgal biomass varied between 154 and 252LCH4kg-1 VS depending on culture media. The efficiency of the low-temperature pretreatment (80°C, 3h) for solubilization (9-12%) of C. vulgaris and native algae biomass was similar for algae grown in sterilized and non-sterilized wastewater media. The pretreatment increased the biomethane potential of native algae biomass by 11-24%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  5. Lateralization of route continuation and route order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Ham, Ineke J M; Van Den Hoven, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Navigation is a complex cognitive ability and its structure is still poorly understood. Memory for route continuation and route order are hypothesized to be at least partially separate components of navigation ability. In the current experiment, participants studied a route in virtual reality. The

  6. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  7. Soft chemical routes to semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    synthesis of CdS and other metal chalcogenide nanocrystals by a solvothermal route. We also describe the synthesis of ... certain advantages over other techniques. The reaction is carried out in a closed .... solution-phase synthesis, where uniform nanorods were obtained, the same synthetic procedure under hydrothermal ...

  8. Routing of individual polymers in designed patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Liu, Lei; Kodal, Anne Louise Bank

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in the modern world, but our ability to exert control over the molecular conformation of individual polymers is very limited. In particular, although the programmable self-assembly of oligonucleotides and proteins into artificial nanostructures has been...... demonstrated, we currently lack the tools to handle other types of synthetic polymers individually and thus the ability to utilize and study their single-molecule properties. Here we show that synthetic polymer wires containing short oligonucleotides that extend from each repeat can be made to assemble...... into arbitrary routings. The wires, which can be more than 200 nm in length, are soft and bendable, and the DNA strands allow individual polymers to self-assemble into predesigned routings on both two- and three-dimensional DNA origami templates. The polymers are conjugated and potentially conducting, and could...

  9. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Murafuji, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF{sub 3} as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  10. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  11. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  12. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  13. Synthetic Jet Actuator Performance Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikcilingis, Lucia; Housley, Kevin; Whalen, Ed; Amitay, Michael; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Collaboration; Boeing Company Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    Over the last 20 years synthetic jets have been studied as a means for aerodynamic flow control. Specifically, synthetic jets provide momentum transfer with zero-net mass flux, which has been proven to be effective for controlling flow fields. A synthetic jet is created by the periodic formation of vortex rings at its orifice due to the periodic motion of a piezoelectric disk(s). The present study seeks to optimize the performance of a synthetic jet actuator by utilizing different geometrical parameters such as disk thickness, orifice width and length, cavity height and cavity diameter, and different input parameters such as voltage and frequency. Experiments were conducted using a synthetic jet apparatus designed for various geometrical parameters utilizing a dual disk configuration. Velocity and temperature measurements were acquired at the center of the synthetic jet orifice using a temperature compensated hotwire and thermocouple probe. The disk displacement was measured at the center of the disk with a laser displacement sensor. It was shown that the synthetic jet actuators are capable of exceeding peak velocities of 200 m/s with a relatively large orifice. Data suggests that jet velocities greater than 200 m/s are attainable.

  14. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  15. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Applying green chemistry to the photochemical route to artemisinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Zacharias; Bellamy, Jessica F. B.; Horvath, Raphael; Miller, Samuel J.; Beeby, Andrew; Burgard, Andreas; Rossen, Kai; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W.

    2015-06-01

    Artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug, but, at present, the environmental and economic costs of its semi-synthetic production are relatively high. Most of these costs lie in the final chemical steps, which follow a complex acid- and photo-catalysed route with oxygenation by both singlet and triplet oxygen. We demonstrate that applying the principles of green chemistry can lead to innovative strategies that avoid many of the problems in current photochemical processes. The first strategy combines the use of liquid CO2 as solvent and a dual-function solid acid/photocatalyst. The second strategy is an ambient-temperature reaction in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents, where the only inputs are dihydroartemisinic acid, O2 and light, and the output is pure, crystalline artemisinin. Everything else—solvents, photocatalyst and aqueous acid—can be recycled. Some aspects developed here through green chemistry are likely to have wider application in photochemistry and other reactions.

  17. A grid of synthetic spectra for the determination of effective temperature, gravity and metallicity of F, G, and K stars. I - Description of the method. II - Application to 41 stellar spectra taken in the Basel field of SA 141

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel, R.; Perrin, M.-N.; Barbuy, B.; Buser, R.

    1991-07-01

    The computation of a grid of synthetic spectra in the wavelength region λλ4780-5300 Å is described. With the use of this grid, a method is developed for deriving the stellar parameters temperature, gravity and metallicity from a low-resolution spectrum. The use of the grid is tested for 20 reference stars, in two ways. The stellar parameters for these 20 stars are derived (1) directly from the grid, (2) using the synthetic grid in conjunction with the observed spectrum of another reference star. A best fit is obtained by the second method, i.e., by using the grid in combination with a number of standard stars, in this way establishing corrections to the parameters obtained exclusively from the grid.

  18. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. Synthetic wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitcher, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Wisdom is a special kind of virtue. It is not to be identified with any outstanding cognitive ability-like having a prodigious memory or knowing a lot. Rather it consists in seeing what is most important and most valuable, either within a particular domain or in life as a whole. In the life of a wise person, that insight should be accompanied by traits of character, enabling the person to pursue what is seen as valuable. Viewing wisdom as a capacity for synthetic understanding, I argue for the need for philosophy, even at a time when all of us have much to learn from the sciences. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of axial velocity, velocity shear, and parallel ion temperature profiles during the route to plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Adriany, K.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental measurements of the axial plasma flow and the parallel ion temperature in a magnetized linear plasma device. We used laser induced fluorescence to measure Doppler resolved ion velocity distribution functions in argon plasma to obtain spatially resolved axial velocities and parallel ion temperatures. We also show changes in the parallel velocity profiles during the transition from resistive drift wave dominated plasma to a state of weak turbulence driven by multiple plasma instabilities.

  2. The Torus Routing Chip

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dally, William J; Seitz, Charles L

    1986-01-01

    The torus routing chip (TRC) is a self-timed chip that performs deadlock-free cut-through routing in k-ary n-cube multiprocessor interconnection networks using a new method of deadlock avoidance called virtual channels...

  3. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  4. Low temperature superplasticity through grain refinement in Ti-6Al-4V by a novel route of quench-roll-recrystallise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalumedi Babu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A ‘quench + roll + recrystallise’ method was simulated through compression testing of initially ‘water quenched’ Ti-6Al-4V alloy at a temperature of 973 K and rolling strain-rate 100 s−1 in order to achieve superplasticity at lower temperature through grain refinement, with a view to increase die life. Subsequent annealing of wire-cut specimens of a rolled sheet at temperatures 1023, 1073, 1123, and 1173 K revealed that, the structures became finer and equi-axial in the range of 1–2 μm, when annealed at 1073 and 1123 K. In compliance to this behavior, a tensile sample from industrially ‘quenched + rolled’ sheet at 973 K could produce an elongation of 740% at a temperature of 1073 K under a strain-rate of 10−3 s−1. Significant elongation of 652% was obtained at further lower temperature of 1023 K under a strain-rate of 10−3 s−1. Quench-roll-recrystallise technique pushes down superplastic forming temperature to 1023 K.

  5. Toward Compact Interdomain Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Krioukov, Dmitri; claffy, kc

    2005-01-01

    Despite prevailing concerns that the current Internet interdomain routing system will not scale to meet the needs of the 21st century global Internet, networking research has not yet led to the construction of a new routing architecture with satisfactory and mathematically provable scalability characteristics. Worse, continuing empirical trends of the existing routing and topology structure of the Internet are alarming: the foundational principles of the current routing and addressing archite...

  6. A comprehensive library-based, automated screening procedure for 46 synthetic cannabinoids in serum employing liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry with high-temperature electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Laura M; Kneisel, Stefan; Auwärter, Volker; Kempf, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Considering the vast variety of synthetic cannabinoids and herbal mixtures - commonly known as 'Spice' or 'K2' - on the market and the resulting increase of severe intoxications related to their consumption, there is a need in clinical and forensic toxicology for comprehensive up-to-date screening methods. The focus of this project aimed at developing and implementing an automated screening procedure for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids in serum using a liquid chromatography-ion trap-MS (LC-MS(n)) system and a spectra library-based approach, currently including 46 synthetic cannabinoids and 8 isotope labelled analogues. In the process of method development, a high-temperature ESI source (IonBooster(TM), Bruker Daltonik) and its effects on the ionization efficiency of the investigated synthetic cannabinoids were evaluated and compared to a conventional ESI source. Despite their structural diversity, all investigated synthetic cannabinoids benefitted from high-temperature ionization by showing remarkably higher MS intensities compared to conventional ESI. The employed search algorithm matches retention time, MS and MS(2)/MS(3) spectra. With the utilization of the ionBooster source, limits for the automated detection comparable to cut-off values of routine MRM methods were achieved for the majority of analytes. Even compounds not identified when using a conventional ESI source were detected using the ionBooster-source. LODs in serum range from 0.1 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml. The use of parent compounds as analytical targets offers the possibility of instantly adding new emerging compounds to the library and immediately applying the updated method to serum samples, allowing the rapid adaptation of the screening method to ongoing forensic or clinical requirements. The presented approach can also be applied to other specimens, such as oral fluid or hair, and herbal mixtures and was successfully applied to authentic serum samples. Quantitative MRM results of samples with

  7. Effects of Temperature on the Microstructure and Magnetic Property of Cr-Doped ZnO DMS Prepared by Hydrothermal Route Assisted by Pulsed Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Cr-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor was synthesized by hydrothermal method under pulsed magnetic fields. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, VSM, Raman, and XPS techniques. Results demonstrated that Zn ions in the ZnO crystal lattice were partially displaced by Chromium (III ions. All samples show room temperature ferromagnetism which was enhanced by pulsed magnetic fields. The mechanism of ferromagnetism of Cr-doped ZnO particles was discussed.

  8. Thermoregulation by kangaroos from mesic and arid habitats: influence of temperature on routes of heat loss in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and red kangaroos (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, T J; Blaney, C E; Munn, A J; Krockenberger, A; Maloney, S K

    2000-01-01

    We examined thermoregulation in red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) from deserts and in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from mesic forests/woodlands. Desert kangaroos have complex evaporative heat loss mechanisms, but the relative importance of these mechanisms is unclear. Little is known of the abilities of grey kangaroos. Our detailed study of these kangaroos' thermoregulatory responses at air temperatures (T(a)) from -5 degrees to 45 degrees C showed that, while some differences occur, their abilities are fundamentally similar. Both species show the basic marsupial characteristics of relatively low basal metabolism and body temperature (T(b)). Within the thermoneutral zone, T(b) was 36.3 degrees + or - 0.1 degrees C (X + or - SE) in both species, and except for a small rise at T(a) 45 degrees C, T(b) was stable over a wide range of T(a). Metabolic heat production was 25% higher in red kangaroos at T(a) -5 degrees C. At the highest T(a) (45 degrees C), both species relied on evaporative heat loss (EHL) to maintain T(b); both panting and licking were used. The eastern grey kangaroo utilised panting (76% of EHL) as the principal mode of EHL, and while this was so for red kangaroos, cutaneous evaporative heat loss (CEHL) was significant (40% of EHL). CEHL appeared to be mainly licking, as evidenced from surface temperatures. Both species utilised peripheral vascular adjustments to control heat flow, as indicated by changes in dry conductance (C(dry)). At lower temperatures, C(dry) was minimal, but it increased significantly at T(a) just below T(b) (33 degrees C); in these conditions, the C(dry) of red kangaroos was significantly higher than that of eastern grey kangaroos, indicating a greater reliance on dry heat loss. Under conditions where heat flows into the body from the environment (T(a) 45 degrees C), there was peripheral vasoconstriction to reduce this inflow; C(dry) decreased significantly from the values seen at 33 degrees C in both kangaroos. The

  9. Microwave-assisted route for synthesis of nanosized metal oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Lagashetty et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted route for the synthesis of nanomaterials has gained importance in the field of synthetic technology because of its faster, cleaner and cost effectiveness than the other conventional and wet chemical methods for the preparation of metal oxide nanoparticles. In the present work, synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles viz., γ-Fe2O3, NiO, ZnO, CuO and Co-γ-Fe2O3 were carried out by microwave-assisted route through the thermal decomposition of their respective metal oxalate precursors employing polyvinyl alcohol as a fuel. The metal oxide nanoparticles are then characterized for their size and γ to α (in γ-Fe2O3 transition and structure by employing powder X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern, high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD pattern and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectral studies. The morphology of the samples ranged from nanorods to irregular-shaped particles for different metal oxide samples on the basis of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. Frequency-dependent dielectric study of the ferrite samples (γ-Fe2O3 and Co-Fe2O3 showed a similar behaviour, where the dielectric constant decreased rapidly with increase in frequency. Possible explanation for this behaviour is given.

  10. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    of a connection between two locations. This could be an urban bus schedule where busses are routed and this routing creates a bus schedule which the passengers between locations use. In this thesis various routing and scheduling problems will be presented. The topics covered will be routing from an origin...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...... on the problems needed to be solved. The solution methods applied to the problems cover dynamic programming for multi constrained shortest paths, Branch-and-cut for liner shipping, Simulated annealing for transporting assisted passengers in airports, branch-cut-and-price for vehicle routing with time windows...

  11. Vehicle Routing in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2010-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. In industry and the public sector, vehicle routing tools provide substantial savings every day. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently ...

  12. Analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Tingrong

    2008-01-01

    In Kleinrock and Kamoun's paper, the inverse relation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model is illustrated. In this paper we give the analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model.

  13. Understanding Route Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    ERX Routing Protocols Configuration Guide, Vol. 2,” Juniper. [10] L. Gao and J. Rexford, “Stable Internet Routing Without Global Coor- dination,” in...Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, 2000. [11] T. Griffin, F. B. Shepherd, and G. T. Wilfong, “The stable paths problem and interdomain routing.” IEEE/ACM Trans...and G. Xie, “On Guidelines for Safe Route Redistributions,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Internet Network Management Workshop, 2007. [14] J. L. Sobrinho

  14. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  15. Route Availabililty Planning Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Route Availability Planning Tool (RAPT) is a weather-assimilated decision support tool (DST) that supports the development and execution of departure management...

  16. Field Division Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multihop communication objectives and constraints impose a set of challenging requirements that create difficult conditions for simultaneous optimization of features such as scalability and performance. Routing in wireless multihop networks represents a crucial component of the overall network efficacy because it is a lower layer that enables the actual functionality of networks. We have developed field division routing (FDR, a distributed and nonhierarchical routing protocol that aims to coordinated addressing of scalability, topology alternations, latency, throughput, energy efficiency, and local storage requirements. FDR is based upon two optimization mechanisms: a reactive and focused diffusion that collects only network topology information directly required for making localized routing decisions, and a protocol for sharing routing information among neighboring nodes. Routing table initialization and maintenance are scalable in terms of both storage and overhead traffic necessary for building routing tables. FDR provides guaranteed connectivity while providing near-optimal all-node-pairs message delivery. The protocol is also power-efficient to a wide spectrum of topology changes that induce relatively few messages to update routing tables network-wide. We analyzed the new routing protocol both theoretically and using simulation.

  17. Nanoparticles of nickel oxide: growth and organization on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix by one-pot route at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carja, Gabriela, E-mail: carja@uaic.r [Technical University ' Gh. Asachi' of Iasi, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection (Romania); Nakajima, Akira [Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science (Japan); Dranca, Cristian [Technical University ' Gh. Asachi' of Iasi, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection (Romania); Okada, Kiyoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A room temperature nanocarving strategy is developed for the fabrication of nanoparticles of nickel oxide on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix (Ni/ZnLDH). It is based on the growth and organization of nanoparticles of nickel oxide which occur during the structural reconstruction of the layered structure of the anionic clay in NiSO{sub 4} aqueous solution. No organic compounds are used during the fabrication. The described material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that the nickel-clay nanoarchitecture consists of small nanoparticles of nickel oxide (average size 7 nm) deposited on the larger nanoparticles (average size 90 nm) of zinc-substituted clay. The optical properties of the new nickel-zinc formulation are studied by UV-Vis.

  18. Green synthetic route for perfumery compound (2-methoxyethyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    POOJA R TAMBE

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... g/cm3 of catalyst loading, 1:10.5 mole ratio (2-Phenyl ethanol: DMC), 180. ◦. C, 95% conversion of ... 2-Phenyl ethanol; (2-methoxyethyl)benzene; Li/MgO; perfumery compound; kinetics; solid base catalyst. 1. Introduction ... this reaction is over the stoichiometry thus producing. *For correspondence.

  19. Green synthetic route for perfumery compound (2-methoxyethyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2-Methoxyethyl) benzene commonly known as phenyl ethyl methyl ether (PEME) is widely used in flavour and fragrance industries. Conventionally, synthesis of PEME involves the use of hazardous and polluting chemicals, whichin turn affects ...

  20. Boron-Based Nanostructures, Stability, Functionality and Synthetic Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakobson, Boris I. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Ajayan, Pulickel M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Boron (B) is one of the most intriguing elements not only because of its position between metals and nonmetals in periodic table but also because of its ability to form an enormous number of allotropes. Apart from several bulk three-dimensional (3D) phases, boron can form 0D clusters, 1D nanotubes and nanowires, and 2D layers. In particular, boron sheets of monoatomic thickness have raised interest as a potential new 2D-material and as a (conceptual) precursor, for example, so-called α-sheets, from which other boron structures - fullerene cages and tubes - might be constructed. In fact, a number of planar B clusters up to tens of atoms, found in experiments, appear as seeds for extended sheets. In this project we developed theoretical methods to guide synthesis, have successfully identified the material substrates (Ag, Au, Cu) to producing the pure boron layers, and further even predicted what atomistic structures should be expected. These guidelines have successfully led to discoveries in several labs and now have grown into an active line of research worldwide.

  1. A concise synthetic route to the conduritols from pentoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keinicke, Lise Edelmann; Madsen, Robert

    2005-01-01

    -bromopropenyl benzoate and occurs with good diastereoselectivity. An amino group can be introduced in the product by trapping the intermediate aldehyde as the imine prior to the allylation. The functionalised 1,7-octadienes, thus obtained, are converted into protected conduritols by ring-closing olefin...... metathesis....

  2. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  3. New Synthetic routes towards constrained cyclic peptides inspired by vancomycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, H.T. ten

    2007-01-01

    Vancomycin is the last resort antibiotic against MRSA. Vancomycin causes the bacteria to die by physically blocking a recognition site within the cell wall. This recognition site binds to the inner cavity of vancomycin, which consists of a rigid bicyclic structure. The objective of my research was

  4. A Short Synthetic Route to the Calystegine Alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    An efficient strategy is described for the synthesis of enantiopure calystegine alkaloids. The key step employs a zinc-mediated fragmentation of benzyl-protected methyl 6-iodo-glycosides followed by in situ formation of the benzyl imine and Barbier-type allylation with zinc, magnesium, or indium...... metal. Stereochemistry in the pivotal allylation is controlled by the choice of the metal. The functionalized 1,8-nonadienes, thus formed, are converted into cycloheptenes by ring-closing metathesis. Regioselective hydroboration and oxidation give the corresponding cycloheptanones, which are deprotected...

  5. The effect of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration on the remanent magnetization of synthetic titanomagnetites - A case for acquisition of chemical remanent magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Paul R.; Banerjee, Subir K.; Worm, Horst-Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were performed demonstrating that a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) can be acquired during the aqueous oxidation of synthetic titanomagnetites (TM40:Fe/2.6/Ti/0.4/O4) by the removal of iron, as it does in the oceanic crust basalts. Results showed that the CRM is acquired along the ambient field direction during oxidation, and that there is no coupling of the CRM and the thermoremanent magnetization. The rate of oxidation was found to be pH-dependent, with the amount of CRM acquired varying inversely with the pH of the oxidizing solution. The reaction produced nascent hydrogen gas. Results support the chemical equation for titanomagnetic oxidation proposed by Worm and Banerjee (1984).

  6. One crop breeding cycle from starvation? How engineering crop photosynthesis for rising CO2 and temperature could be one important route to alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromdijk, Johannes; Long, Stephen P

    2016-03-16

    Global climate change is likely to severely impact human food production. This comes at a time when predicted demand for primary foodstuffs by a growing human population and changing global diets is already outpacing a stagnating annual rate of increase in crop productivity. Additionally, the time required by crop breeding and bioengineering to release improved varieties to farmers is substantial, meaning that any crop improvements needed to mitigate food shortages in the 2040s would need to start now. In this perspective, the rationale for improvements in photosynthetic efficiency as a breeding objective for higher yields is outlined. Subsequently, using simple simulation models it is shown how predicted changes in temperature and atmospheric [CO2] affect leaf photosynthetic rates. The chloroplast accounts for the majority of leaf nitrogen in crops. Within the chloroplast about 25% of nitrogen is invested in the carboxylase, Rubisco, which catalyses the first step of CO2 assimilation. Most of the remaining nitrogen is invested in the apparatus to drive carbohydrate synthesis and regenerate ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate (RuBP), the CO2-acceptor molecule at Rubisco. At preindustrial [CO2], investment in these two aspects may have been balanced resulting in co-limitation. At today's [CO2], there appears to be over-investment in Rubisco, and despite the counter-active effects of rising temperature and [CO2], this imbalance is predicted to worsen with global climate change. By breeding or engineering restored optimality under future conditions increased productivity could be achieved in both tropical and temperate environments without additional nitrogen fertilizer. Given the magnitude of the potential shortfall, better storage conditions, improved crop management and better crop varieties will all be needed. With the short time-scale at which food demand is expected to outpace supplies, all available technologies to improve crop varieties, from classical crop breeding to

  7. ROUTES: a computer program for preliminary route location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.E. Reutebuch

    1988-01-01

    An analytical description of the ROUTES computer program is presented. ROUTES is part of the integrated preliminary harvest- and transportation-planning software package, PLANS. The ROUTES computer program is useful where grade and sideslope limitations are important in determining routes for vehicular travel. With the program, planners can rapidly identify route...

  8. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-06-06

    Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) are important materials that have been widely used in catalysis, supercapacitors, batteries, sensors, light-emitting diodes, and magnets. The physical and chemical structure of a metal phosphide varies with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes to prepare TMPs but they generally require high temperature and long reaction time. Here, a recently developed plasma-assisted conversion route for the preparation of TMPs is reviewed, along with their applications in energy conversion and storage, including water oxidation electrocatalysis, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. The plasma-assisted synthetic route should open up a new avenue to prepare TMPs with tailored structure and morphology for various applications. In fact, the process may be further extended to the synthesis of a wide range of transition-metal compounds such as borides and fluorides at low temperature and in a rapid manner.

  9. Evidence for single-chain magnet behavior in a Mn(III)-Ni(II) chain designed with high spin magnetic units: a route to high temperature metastable magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clérac, Rodolphe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masahiro; Coulon, Claude

    2002-10-30

    We herein present the synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of a new heterometallic chain of MnIII and NiII ions, [Mn2(saltmen)2Ni(pao)2(py)2](ClO4)2 (1) (saltmen2- = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene) bis(salicylideneiminate) and pao- = pyridine-2-aldoximate). The crystal structure of 1 was investigated by X-ray crystallographic analysis: compound 1 crystallized in monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15) with a = 21.140(3) A, b = 15.975(1) A, c = 18.6212(4) A, beta = 98.0586(4) degrees , V = 6226.5(7) A3, and Z = 4. This compound consists of two fragments, the out-of-plane dimer [Mn2(saltmen)2]2+ as a coordination acceptor building block and the neutral mononuclear unit [Ni(pao)2(py)2] as a coordination donor building block, forming an alternating chain having the repeating unit [-Mn-(O)2-Mn-ON-Ni-NO-]n. In the crystal structure, each chain is well separated with a minimum intermetallic distance between Mn and Ni ions of 10.39 A and with the absence of interchain pi overlaps between organic ligands. These features ensure a good magnetic isolation of the chains. The dc and ac magnetic measurements were performed on both the polycrystalline sample and the aligned single crystals of 1. Above 30 K, the magnetic susceptibility of this one-dimensional compound was successfully described in a mean field approximation as an assembly of trimers (Mn...Ni...Mn) with a NiII...MnIII antiferromagnetic interaction (J = -21 K) connected through a ferromagnetic MnIII...MnIII interaction (J'). However, the mean field theory fails to describe the magnetic behavior below 30 K emphasizing the one-dimensional magnetic character of the title compound. Between 5 and 15 K, the susceptibility in the chain direction was fitted to a one-dimensional Ising model leading to the same value of J'. Hysteresis loops are observed below 3.5 K, indicating a magnet-type behavior. In the same range of temperature, combined ac and dc measurements show a slow relaxation of the magnetization

  10. Low temperature synthesis of N-doped TiO{sub 2} with rice-like morphology through peroxo assisted hydrothermal route: Materials characterization and photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, Shahzad Abu, E-mail: shahzad.158@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, Washington Luiz Highway, km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Embrapa CNPDIA, XV de Novembro Street, 1452, CP 741, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Caue [Embrapa CNPDIA, XV de Novembro Street, 1452, CP 741, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • The N:TiO{sub 2} nanorice were prepared using facile peroxo-assisted hydrothermal method at low temperature. • The N:TiO{sub 2} exhibited rice-like morphology. • The nitrogen doping favoured UV/visible light photocatalytic activity. • The RhB and Atrazine were chosen as model pollutants. - Abstract: Nanorice-shaped N:TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts have been prepared by the peroxo assisted hydrothermal method using stabilized titanium complex as a precursor and urea as a N source. The N:TiO{sub 2} nanorices were characterised by XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, XPS, UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and measurements of photocatalytic degradation of organic molecules (atrazine and RhB dye) under the UV and visible-light irradiation. XRD analyses showed that pristine TiO{sub 2} crystallizes into anatase polymorph and that the N-doping process at 5% introduced a degree of disorder on the TiO{sub 2} crystalline structure. XPS study revealed the successful incorporation of the nitrogen atoms at the interstitial sites of the TiO{sub 2} crystal lattice. Microscopy studies revealed that the particle size was in the range 50–80 nm for the pristine TiO{sub 2}. The photocatalysts were assembled in the form of nanorices with a high surface area (102 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). The successful incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the TiO{sub 2} crystal lattice is expected to be responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples for the degradation of pollutants (RhB and atrazine) under UV and visible light irradiation. The rate of ·OH radicals formation under visible-light irradiation was examined and found to be correlated with the photocatalytic activity per unit surface area. The N:TiO{sub 2} particles with nanorice morphology was efficient photocatalysts for decomposition of organic dyes under UV and visible-light exposure while pristine TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst did not show any significant photocatalytic activity when stimulated by visible

  11. The inorganic route to the low temperature chemical vapor deposition of TiN for ultra large scale integration technologies: Process and material development and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltermeier, Cheryl Gail

    1997-11-01

    The demand for computers with more functionality, more memory, and higher speed are the major factors affecting the design of computer chips. This demand for increased capacity is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. In order to meet these demands, new material processes must be developed for computer chip fabrication. This thesis focuses on the identification, development, and optimization of a novel approach to a low temperature ({process for the deposition of TiN diffusion barrier liners for ULSI applications using the inorganic halide tetraiodotitanium, TiIsb4, as the source precursor. Correspondingly, Chapter 2 concentrated on establishing a fundamental understanding of precursor decomposition pathways and associated film nucleation and growth kinetics. As part of the study, key process parameters were varied systematically in order to establish functionality curves for film purity, growth rate, structure, and morphology. In the identified optimum process window, the TiN films were nitrogen-rich, with iodine concentrations below 2 at%, displayed resistivities in the range 100-150 muOmega-cm depending on thickness, and exhibited excellent step coverage-with better than 90% conformality in both nominal 0.45 mum, 3:1 aspect ratio and 0.25 mum, 4:1 aspect ratio contact structures. Chapter 3 describes and discusses mechanistic studies which used the profile emulator Stanford Profile Emulator for Etching and Deposition in IC Engineering (SPEEDIE) in combination with specialized cantilever structures. The purpose was to determine the underlying mechanisms (direct deposition, re-emission, and surface diffusion) which control the deposition profiles of TiN in steps, trenches, and via holes. Corresponding sticking coefficients were subsequently established for different process windows, and optimum processing conditions were identified for conformal step coverage in sub-quarter-micron device structures. In Chapter 4, the performance of TiN as diffusion

  12. A Critique of Adaptive Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Pertel, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    This report refutes claims that adaptive routing performs better than dimension-order routing. Simulation results are presented that show dimension-order routing achieves both higher throughput and lower latency than adaptive routing. Specious claims for the advantages of adaptive routing are critiqued.

  13. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  14. Dahomey Breeding Bird Survey Route

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Document contains route directions and map for the naitonal Dahomey BBS route. Includes milage for where specific listening stations are located along the route...

  15. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  16. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  17. Industrial Vehicle Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2008-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently solve VRP instances with more than 50-100 customers in reasonable time, which is generally a sma...

  18. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High Surface Area Tungsten Carbides: Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity towards the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Phosphoric Acid at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás García, Antonio Luis; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten carbide powders were synthesized as a potential electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction in phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures. With ammonium metatungstate as the precursor, two synthetic routes with and without carbon templates were investigated. Through the intermediate...... nitride route and with carbon black as template, the obtained tungsten carbide samples had higher BET area. In 100% H3PO4 at temperatures up to 185°C, the carbide powders showed superior activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction. A deviation was found in the correlation between the BET area...

  20. INFLUENCE OF SILANE HEAT TREATMENT ON THE TENSILE BOND STRENGTH BETWEEN EX-3 SYNTHETIC VENEERING PORCELAIN AND COMPOSITE RESIN USING FIVE DIFFERENT ACTIVATION TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartak Yanakiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to assess the effect of five different silane activation temperatures and eight activation methods on the tensile bond strength between one veneering porcelain and one composite resin material. Material and methods: A total of 81 ceramic rods were made of EX-3 veneering ceramic (Kuraray Noritake Dental, Japan. Sintered ceramic bars were grinded with diamond disks to size 10x2x2mm ± 0,05mm. The front part of each bar was polished. After ultrasonic cleaning in distilled water, the specimens were divided into nine groups. Silane was activated with air at room temperature, 38º С, 50º С, 100º С, 120º С using a custom made blow drier. In a silicone mold, a composite resin Z250 (3М ESPE, St. Paul, USA was condensed toward the bond ceramic surface. A total of 81 specimens approximately 2,0 cm long were prepared for tensile bond testing. One way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni and Games-Howell tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The lowest tensile bond strength was observed in the control group (3,51MPa. Group 2 yielded the highest bond strength among all groups (19,54MPa. Silane heat treatment enhanced the bond strength for all treatment methods. Within the polished specimens, the highest bond strength was yielded with warm air at 120ºС (11,31MPa. Conclusion: The most effective method for bonding Z250 composite resin to EX-3 veneering ceramic includes HF etching, silane, and adhesive resin. The most effective heat treatment method for bonding is hot air at 120ºС.

  1. Routing Slips from the Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Joan

    1972-01-01

    To facilitate the routing of periodicals, a computerized system of printing and updating routing lists was designed to replace a manual one. A computer program generates a data base of staff routing choices and prints out routing slips for each periodical. (Author/NH)

  2. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  3. Targeted expression of redesigned and codon optimised synthetic gene leads to recrystallisation inhibition and reduced electrolyte leakage in spring wheat at sub-zero temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Harjeet K; Daggard, Grant E

    2006-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to ice crystals and inhibit their growth, leading to non-colligative freezing point depression. Crops like spring wheat, that are highly susceptible to frost damage, can potentially be made frost tolerant by expressing AFPs in the cytoplasm and apoplast where ice recrystallisation leads to cellular damage. The protein sequence for HPLC-6 alpha-helical antifreeze protein from winter flounder was rationally redesigned after removing the prosequences in the native protein. Wheat nuclear gene preferred amino acid codons were used to synthesize a recombinant antifreeze gene, rAFPI. Antifreeze protein was targeted to the apoplast using a Murine leader peptide sequence from the mAb24 light chain or retained in the endoplasmic reticulum using C-terminus KDEL sequence. The coding sequences were placed downstream of the rice Actin promoter and Actin-1 intron and upstream of the nopaline synthase terminator in the plant expression vectors. Transgenic wheat lines were generated through micro projectile bombardment of immature embryos of spring wheat cultivar Seri 82. Levels of antifreeze protein in the transgenic lines without any targeting peptide were low (0.06-0.07%). The apoplast-targeted protein reached a level of 1.61% of total soluble protein, 90% of which was present in the apoplast. ER-retained protein accumulated in the cells at levels up to 0.65% of total soluble proteins. Transgenic wheat line T-8 with apoplast-targeted antifreeze protein exhibited the highest levels of antifreeze activity and provided significant freezing protection even at temperatures as low as -7 degrees C.

  4. The effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on performance, egg quality and blood constituents of laying hens grown under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 216 laying hens was kept at high ambient temperature (32±4°C, 60% relative humidity from week 24 to 32 of age. Birds were divided in 8 treatments with 9 replicates of 3 hens each. The groups were fed the same basal diet and submitted to these dietary treatments: control, un-supplemented; green tea (GT, fed GT at 1 g/kg diet; brown marine algae (BMA, fed BMA at 1 g/kg diet; vitamin E (vit. E, fed vit. E at 300 mg/kg diet; GT+BMA, fed GT and BMA at 1 g/kg of each; GT+vit. E, fed GT and vit. E at 1 g and 300 mg/kg, respectively; BMA+vit. E, fed BMA and vit. E at 1 g and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Feeding BMA at 0.1% increased laying rate by 1.2% and improved feed conversion ratio by 5.2% compared to the control. Vitamin E significantly increased shell thickness by 6.6% and Haugh unit by 4.6% compared to the control. In addition, BMA+vit. E or GT+vit. E increased yolk colour by 9.1 and 10.7%, and Haugh unit of stored eggs by 10.9 and 11.1%. Cholesterol of fresh eggs and plasma were significantly decreased by 16.0 and 9.4% due to supplementation with BMA, and by 19.2 and 8.1% with vit. E addition. Plasma phosphorus increased by 19.1% after vit. E+BMA supplementation. In conclusion, use of BMA or vit. E or GT in laying hens diets which grow under heat stress is recommended as it improves production performance and egg quality.

  5. Reliable Internet Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    subprefixes. We refer to this attack as sub-prefix hijacking. 66 There are other variants of prefix hijacking, such as wormhole [49] attacks. Wormhole attacks...are a countermeasure the adversary can employ against secure routing protocols. Wormhole attacks are not discussed in this chapter because in our

  6. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  7. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  8. Chemical Routes to Ceramics With Tunable Properties and Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sneddon, Larry G

    2006-01-01

    .... Research was focused on the development of new precursor routes to a number of ultra high temperature ceramics, including hafnium and zirconium -boride, -carbide and -nitride materials, and on the...

  9. Modeling synthetic lethality

    OpenAIRE

    Le Meur, Nolwenn; Gentleman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Synthetic lethality defines a genetic interaction where the combination of mutations in two or more genes leads to cell death. The implications of synthetic lethal screens have been discussed in the context of drug development as synthetic lethal pairs could be used to selectively kill cancer cells, but leave normal cells relatively unharmed. A challenge is to assess genome-wide experimental data and integrate the results to better understand the underlying biological processes. We...

  10. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  11. Novel Route to Transition Metal Isothiocyanate Complexes Using Metal Powders and Thiourea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Eckles, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj, Stan A.; Hehemann, David G.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Richardson, John

    2003-01-01

    A new synthetic route to isothiocyanate-containing materials is presented. Eight isothiocyanate- 4-methylpyridine (y-picoline) compounds were prepared by refluxing metal powders (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) with thiourea in y-picoline. With the exception of compound 5,prepared with Co, the isothiocyanate ligand was generated in situ by the isomerization of thiourea to NH4+SCN- at reflux temperatures. The complexes were characterized by x-ray crystallography. Compounds 1,2, and 8 are the first isothiocyanate- 4-methylpyridine anionic compounds ever prepared and structurally characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural with four equatorially bound isothiocyanate ligands and two axially bound y-picoline molecules. Compound 8 is a five-coordinate copper(II) molecule with a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Coordinated picoline and two isothiocyanates form the basal plane and the remaining isothiocyanate is bound at the apex. Structural data are presented for all compounds.

  12. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. New synthetic routes to catalytically active manganite, K-OMS-2 and K-OMS-2/silicon dioxide and a preliminary study on the use of a continuous flow microwave technique in the synthesis of nanosized manganese and cerium oxides and cobalt and iron oxyhydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisostomo, Vincent Mark B.

    The work presented here comprises three main parts. The first part is a new route to nano-sized gamma-MnOOH (manganite). gamma-MnOOH has been synthesized via the reduction of KMnO4 with sucrose and MnSO 4 in acidic medium under refluxing conditions for four and six hours. Characterization of these manganite materials using XRD, FESEM, TEM, TGA and IR were done. The obtained manganite samples using the new route were compared against a conventionally prepared one where synthesis involved the oxidation of MnSO4 with H2O2 in basic medium. Two new synthetic methods were developed, one involving addition of KMnO4 into a solution of both sucrose and MnSO4 while the other involved addition of KMnO4 solution into sucrose followed by addition of MnSO4 (s). The latter method yielded smaller particles (up to 30 nm) than the former method (up to 80 nm) and the conventionally prepared manganite (up to 50 nm). The synthesized manganite materials exhibited promising characteristics when tested as electrocatalysts in O2 reduction. The larger particles gave higher peak currents in CV than smaller particles. When incorporated in Yardney's medium-sized lithium-air battery, the larger (up to 80 nm) particles gave higher specific capacity (up to 2.2 Ah/g), which corresponds to about 38% increase in specific energy of the battery when compared to a battery where no manganite was incorporated. The second part of the research reported here involves the synthesis of K-OMS-2 and SiO2-supported K-OMS-2. K-OMS-2 (or OMS-2 from hereon) was successfully synthesized using a reflux method where, for the first time, oxone or KHSO5 was used as the oxidant. Nano-sized fibers with widths ranging from 8--40 nm were obtained. We also report for the first time the synthesis and catalytic activity of OMS-2 supported on SiO2 with surface area ranging from 228 to 513 m2/g and weight % OMS-2 ranging from 1.0 to 13.6%. An optimization study on styrene oxidation using OMS-2 and OMS-2/SiO2 as catalysts was

  14. Modeling synthetic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meur, Nolwenn; Gentleman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic lethality defines a genetic interaction where the combination of mutations in two or more genes leads to cell death. The implications of synthetic lethal screens have been discussed in the context of drug development as synthetic lethal pairs could be used to selectively kill cancer cells, but leave normal cells relatively unharmed. A challenge is to assess genome-wide experimental data and integrate the results to better understand the underlying biological processes. We propose statistical and computational tools that can be used to find relationships between synthetic lethality and cellular organizational units. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified multi-protein complexes and pairs of multi-protein complexes that share an unusually high number of synthetic genetic interactions. As previously predicted, we found that synthetic lethality can arise from subunits of an essential multi-protein complex or between pairs of multi-protein complexes. Finally, using multi-protein complexes allowed us to take into account the pleiotropic nature of the gene products. Modeling synthetic lethality using current estimates of the yeast interactome is an efficient approach to disentangle some of the complex molecular interactions that drive a cell. Our model in conjunction with applied statistical methods and computational methods provides new tools to better characterize synthetic genetic interactions.

  15. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im...

  16. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  17. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand inst...

  18. Characterization of Thermal Stability of Synthetic and Semi-Synthetic Engine Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Tripathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engine oils undergo oxidative degradation and wears out during service. Hence it is important to characterize ageing of engine oils at different simulated conditions to evaluate the performance of existing oils and also design new formulations. This work focuses on characterizing the thermo-oxidative degradation of synthetic and semi-synthetic engine oils aged at 120, 149 and 200 °C. Apparent activation energy of decomposition of aged oils evaluated using the isoconversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose technique was used as a thermal stability marker. The temporal variation of stability at different ageing temperatures was corroborated with kinematic viscosity, oxidation, sulfation and nitration indices, total base number, antiwear additive content and molecular structure of the organic species present in the oils. At the lowest temperature employed, synthetic oil underwent higher rate of oxidation, while semi-synthetic oil was stable for longer time periods. At higher temperatures, the initial rate of change of average apparent activation energy of synthetic oil correlated well with a similar variation in oxidation number. A mixture of long chain linear, branched, and cyclic hydrocarbons were observed when semi-synthetic oil was degraded at higher temperatures.

  19. Designing synthetic RNA for delivery by nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejczyk, Dominika; Gendaszewska-Darmach, Edyta; Pawlowska, Roza; Chworos, Arkadiusz

    2017-03-01

    The rapid development of synthetic biology and nanobiotechnology has led to the construction of various synthetic RNA nanoparticles of different functionalities and potential applications. As they occur naturally, nucleic acids are an attractive construction material for biocompatible nanoscaffold and nanomachine design. In this review, we provide an overview of the types of RNA and nucleic acid’s nanoparticle design, with the focus on relevant nanostructures utilized for gene-expression regulation in cellular models. Structural analysis and modeling is addressed along with the tools available for RNA structural prediction. The functionalization of RNA-based nanoparticles leading to prospective applications of such constructs in potential therapies is shown. The route from the nanoparticle design and modeling through synthesis and functionalization to cellular application is also described. For a better understanding of the fate of targeted RNA after delivery, an overview of RNA processing inside the cell is also provided.

  20. Research progress in synthetic technology of p-aminophenyl-β-sulfatoethylsulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue FENG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The p-aminophenyl-β-sulfatoethylsulfone is one of the most important intermediates of vinyl-sulfone reactive dyes, and the demanded quantity increases gradually. The synthetic routes of p-aminophenyl-β-sulfatoethylsulfone using acetanilide, p-nitrochlorobenzene, etc. as raw materials are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages and improved method of various kinds of synthetic routes are introduced, the objective evaluation is made for each synthetic route, and the esterification for synthesis of the intermediates of β-hydroxyethylsulfone esterification is analyzed. The prospect of p-aminophenyl-β-sulfatoethylsulfone is forecasted: Attaches great importance to the development of new routes, uses clean technology and new technology, develops the competitive products, speeds up the development of dye intermediates, and develops high value-added products.

  1. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  2. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  3. Experimental determination of the high temperature heat capacity of a natural xenotime-(Y) solid solution and synthetic DyPO{sub 4} and ErPO{sub 4} endmembers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gysi, Alexander P., E-mail: agysi@mines.edu [Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1516 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Harlov, Daniel [Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany); Filho, Deusavan Costa [Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1516 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Williams-Jones, Anthony E. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University St., Montreal, QC H3A 2A7 (Canada)

    2016-03-20

    Highlights: • A new DSC calibration method for minerals of geological interest is described. • The heat capacity of DyPO{sub 4}, ErPO{sub 4} and xenotime-(Y) were reliably determined using DSC. • The excess heat capacity of xenotime-(Y) indicates a non-ideal solution with other HREE. - Abstract: The heat capacity of natural xenotime-(Y) and synthetic DyPO{sub 4} and ErPO{sub 4} crystals was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at temperatures of 298.15 K to 868.15 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa. The aim of the study was to develop a method to accurately measure the isobaric heat capacity (C{sub P}) of rare earth element (REE) phosphates, compare the results to data from adiabatic calorimetric experiments, and evaluate the deviation from ideality of the C{sub P} of the natural xenotime-(Y) solid solution. The measured C{sub P} data (in J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}) can be described by the relationships: 185.5 − 751.9T{sup −0.5} − 3.261e + 06 T{sup −2} for DyPO{sub 4}; 207.2 − 1661T{sup −0.5} − 5.289e + 05 T{sup −2} for ErPO{sub 4}; and 208 − 1241T{sup −0.5} − 2.493e + 06 T{sup −2} for xenotime-(Y); where T is the temperature in K. The heat capacity data for natural xenotime-(Y) were used to determine the excess function for the solid solution, which yields an excess heat capacity ranging between 7.9 and 10.7%, well within the range of the DSC method used in this study. The experiments indicate that xenotime-(Y) forms a non-ideal solid solution. Future DSC studies will provide important data for developing a solid solution model for the incorporation of REE in xenotime-(Y).

  4. MKAD Synthetic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Synthetic data used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the MKAD algorithm with respect to detecting anomalies in both the continuous numerical data and binary...

  5. Models for synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaznessis Yiannis N

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  6. Synthetic Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  7. Hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, J.W.; Stiles, J.I.; Tye, B.K.; Sherman, F.; Wu, R.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for the use of synthetic oligonucleotides for Southern blot experiments and gene bank screening, and the effect of various mismatches on the efficiency of hybridization is demonstrated. The following topics are discussed: sensitivity vs. specificity, hybridization of a 12-mer to the lambda endolysin gene; hybridization of oligonucleotide probes to the E. coli lac operator; hybridization of synthetic probes to the CYC1 gene of yeast; and cloning eucaryotic genes. (HLW)

  8. Water-oxidation catalysis by synthetic manganese oxides--systematic variations of the calcium birnessite theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Carolin E; Wiechen, Mathias; Kurz, Philipp

    2014-03-21

    Layered manganese oxides from the birnessite mineral family have been identified as promising heterogeneous compounds for water-oxidation catalysis (WOC), a key reaction for the conversion of renewable energy into storable fuels. High catalytic rates were especially observed for birnessites which contain calcium as part of their structures. With the aim to systematically improve the catalytic performance of such oxide materials, we used a flexible synthetic route to prepare three series of calcium birnessites, where we varied the calcium concentrations, the ripening times of the original precipitates and the temperature of the heat treatment following the initial synthetic steps (tempering) during the preparation process. The products were carefully analysed by a number of analytical techniques and then probed for WOC activity using the Ce(4+)-system. We find that our set of twenty closely related manganese oxides shows large, but somewhat systematic alterations in catalytic rates, indicating the importance of synthesis parameters for maximum catalytic performance. The catalyst of the series for which the highest water-oxidation rate was found is a birnessite of medium calcium content (Ca : Mn ratio 0.2 : 1) that had been subjected to a tempering temperature of 400 °C. On the basis of the detailed analysis of the results, a WOC reaction scheme for birnessites is proposed to explain the observed trends in reactivity.

  9. Morphological and magnetic properties of sol-gel synthetized meso and macroporous spheres of barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Cadenas, S.; Reyes-Gasga, José; Bravo-Patiño, A.; Betancourt, I.; Contreras-García, M. E.

    2017-06-01

    Porous spherical aggregates of barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) with 1.5 μm in diameter were synthetized by the surfactant-assisted sol-gel method. The surfactant Tween20 (C58H114O26), which enables mesoporous structures, as well as polystyrene spheres (PS), as the template agent for the formation of macropores, were used. Two synthetic routes (hereafter named A and B), whose difference was the absence or presence of PS, were followed for synthesis. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in high resolution mode (HRTEM) were used for characterization. Size and morphology of the spheres were similar in both cases and they resemble a nest or ball-of-yarn type structure. Pore size and BaFe12O19 crystal size produced by the two routes are different. The magnetic properties of the spheres were evaluated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) as function of the calcination temperature. The spheres present ferromagnetic behavior in both routes.

  10. Morphological and magnetic properties of sol-gel synthetized meso and macroporous spheres of barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Cadenas, S., E-mail: storres_c@hotmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas y Materiales, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, Santiago Tapia 403, Colonia Centro, 58030 Morelia (Mexico); Reyes-Gasga, José, E-mail: jreyes@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Coyoacán, México, D.F. (Mexico); Bravo-Patiño, A., E-mail: brapal@hotmail.com [Centro Multidisciplinario de Estudios en Biotecnología (CMEB) de la FMVZ, UMSNH, Posta Zootécnica, km. 8.5 carretera Morelia-Zinapecuaro, C.P. 58890 col. La Palma, Tarimbaro, Michoacán (Mexico); Betancourt, I., E-mail: israelb@iim.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Ciudad de México C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Contreras-García, M.E., E-mail: eucontre@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas y Materiales, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, Santiago Tapia 403, Colonia Centro, 58030 Morelia (Mexico)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 1.5 µm porous spheres of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were synthetized by the sol-gel method. • Surfactant Tween20 (C{sub 58}H{sub 114}O{sub 26}) enabled the creation of the mesoporous structure. • Polystyrene spheres (PS) were used as the template for the formation of macropores. • Spheres resembled a nest or ball-of-yarn type of elongated BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} crystals. • Magnetic properties are evaluated as function of the calcination temperature. - Abstract: Porous spherical aggregates of barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) with 1.5 µm in diameter were synthetized by the surfactant-assisted sol-gel method. The surfactant Tween20 (C{sub 58}H{sub 114}O{sub 26}), which enables mesoporous structures, as well as polystyrene spheres (PS), as the template agent for the formation of macropores, were used. Two synthetic routes (hereafter named A and B), whose difference was the absence or presence of PS, were followed for synthesis. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in high resolution mode (HRTEM) were used for characterization. Size and morphology of the spheres were similar in both cases and they resemble a nest or ball-of-yarn type structure. Pore size and BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} crystal size produced by the two routes are different. The magnetic properties of the spheres were evaluated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) as function of the calcination temperature. The spheres present ferromagnetic behavior in both routes.

  11. 14 CFR 221.41 - Routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routing. 221.41 Section 221.41 Aeronautics... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Contents of Tariff § 221.41 Routing. (a) Required routing. The route or routes over which...) Individually stated routings—Method of publication. The routing required by paragraph (a) of this section shall...

  12. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  13. Improving routing efficiency through intermediate target based geographic routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Fei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The greedy strategy of geographical routing may cause the local minimum problem when there is a hole in the routing area. It depends on other strategies such as perimeter routing to find a detour path, which can be long and result in inefficiency of the routing protocol. In this paper, we propose a new approach called Intermediate Target based Geographic Routing (ITGR to solve the long detour path problem. The basic idea is to use previous experience to determine the destination areas that are shaded by the holes. The novelty of the approach is that a single forwarding path can be used to determine a shaded area that may cover many destination nodes. We design an efficient method for the source to find out whether a destination node belongs to a shaded area. The source then selects an intermediate node as the tentative target and greedily forwards packets to it, which in turn forwards the packet to the final destination by greedy routing. ITGR can combine multiple shaded areas to improve the efficiency of representation and routing. We perform simulations and demonstrate that ITGR significantly reduces the routing path length, compared with existing geographic routing protocols.

  14. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been p...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  15. A Primer of Multicast Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Whereas unicast routing determines a path from one source node to one destination node, multicast routing determines a path from one source to many destinations, or from many sources to many destinations. We survey multicast routing methods for when the set of destinations is static, and for when it is dynamic. While most of the methods we review are tree based, some non-tree methods are also discussed. We survey results on the shape of multicast trees, delay constrained multicast routing, aggregation of multicast traffic, inter-domain multicast, and multicast virtual private networks. We focu

  16. The Synthetic Cannabinoids Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Benyamina, Amine; Blecha, Lisa; Cottencin, Olivier; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    « Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic the effects of cannabis, appears to become increasingly popular, in the new psychoactive substances landscape. In 2014, the existence of 134 different types of synthetic cannabinoids were reported by the European Union Early Warning System. These drugs are mainly sold online as an alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. They appear to have a life cycle of about 1-2 years before being replaced by a next wave of products. Legislation controlling these designer drugs has been introduced in many countries with the objective to limit the spread of existing drugs and control potential new analogs. The majority of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists at the CB1 receptor and do not contain tobacco or cannabis. They are becoming increasingly popular in adolescents, students and clubbers as an abused substance. Relatively high incidence of adverse effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids use has been documented in the literature. Numerous fatalities linked with their use and abuse have been reported. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were: "synthetic cannabinoids", "spice", "new psychoactive substances", and/or "substance use disorder", and/or "adverse effects", and/or "fatalities". The search was limited to years 2005 to 2016 due to emerging scientific literature at

  17. a Strategy of Designing Routing Algorithms Based on Ideal Routings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, K.; Shimogawa, S.; Yamada, J.; Oida, K.

    This paper proposes a strategy of designing routing algorithms for connectionless packet-switched networks. This strategy consists of three design elements as follows: [A] the notion of ideal routings is introduced to provide the upper performance limits attained by improving routing algorithm and it serves as a standard to measure the performance of other algorithms; [B] a method of constructing simple algorithms is presented under implementation conditions from ideal routings; [C] a method is described to enhance the performance limits of [A]. By using these elements, simple algorithms with a maximum degree of performance attainment are realized. By "degree of performance attainment", we mean that we can see how much room is left for the improvement of algorithms. We develop [A] and [B] with the performance measures of throughput and average packet delay and the M/M/1 queuing network. We decide ideal static routings and their performance limits from [A]. We obtain a new simple algorithm from [B] based on the notion of the ideal routings in implementation conditions. The designed algorithm improves the throughput and the average delay, which are comparable to those from ideal static routings. This improvement is contrasted to the adaptive and distributed OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), a standard Internet routing protocol.

  18. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Espaux, L; Mendez-Perez, D; Li, R; Keasling, JD

    2015-10-23

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here in this paper we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. Lastly, we further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing.

  19. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Li, Rachel; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. We further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume outlines key steps associated with the design, building, and testing of synthetic metabolic pathways for optimal cell factory performance and robustness, and illustrates how data-driven learning from these steps can be used for rational cost-effective engineering of cell factories...... topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  1. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  2. Practical synthesis of 1,3-oleoyl 2-docosahexaenoylglycerol by lipase-catalyzed reactions: An evaluation of different reaction routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Onal, G.; Wijesundera, C.

    2009-01-01

    Three new synthetic routes were critically evaluated for the lipase-catalyzed production of 1,3-oleoyl-2 docosahexaenoylglycerol (ODD) in relatively large-scale (approximately 200 g). First, the production of 1,3-diolein by the reaction of glycerol and oleic acid followed by incorporation...... of docosahexaenoic (DHA) ethyl ester at the sn-2 position was studied. 1,3-Diolein was produced in 68.3% and 84.6% yield when stoichiometric amounts of the Substrates were reacted at 25 degrees C for 8 h in the presence of 10% Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM, respectively. Further increase in reaction temperature...... and time led to decrease in the 1,3-diolein yield. However, only a 9.4% yield of triacylglycerol was obtained in the subsequent reaction step when the 1,3-diolein was reacted with DHA ethyl ester in the presence of Novozym 435. Secondly, the feasibility of direct acidolysis was studied. Acidolysis...

  3. The future of route survey?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, H.H.; Groot, T. de

    1995-01-01

    Several NATO Navies carry out route survey operations as a peace time operation aimed to improve the MCM efficiency in times of crisis or war. The main result of route survey operations is information about the environmental conditions of an area, and about the mine like contacts present in the

  4. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  5. APPROXIMATE MODELS FOR FLOOD ROUTING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. For rapid calculation of the downstream effects» of the propagation of floods due to the collapse of a dam or intense rainfall, two appmximateflood routing models are presented in this paper. A nonlinear technique for. flood routing is developed that respects the physics of floods in waterways. The models are ...

  6. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  7. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074806777

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  8. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  9. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation.

  10. Caffeine in your drink: natural or synthetic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Federherr, Eugen; Schmidt, Torsten C; Jochmann, Maik A

    2012-03-20

    Owing to possible adulteration and health concerns, it is important to discriminate between natural and synthetic food ingredients. A new method for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) by coupling high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HT-RPLC/IRMS) was developed for discrimination of natural and synthetic caffeine contained in all types of drinks. The analytical parameters such as stationary phase, column inner diameter, and column temperature were optimized for the separation of caffeine directly from drinks (without extraction). On the basis of the carbon isotope analysis of 42 natural caffeine samples including coffee beans, tea leaves, guaraná powder, and maté leaves, and 20 synthetic caffeine samples from different sources by high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry, it is concluded that there are two distinguishable groups of caffeine δ(13)C-values: one between -25 and -32‰ for natural caffeine, and the other between -33 and -38‰ for synthetic caffeine. Isotope analysis by HT-RPLC/IRMS has been applied to identify the caffeine source in 38 drinks. Four mislabeled products were detected due to added but nonlabeled synthetic caffeine with δ(13)C-values lower than -33‰. This work is the first application of HT-RPLC/IRMS to real-world food samples, which showed several advantages: simple sample preparation (only dilution), high throughput, long-term column stability, and high precision of δ(13)C-value. Thus, HT-RPLC/IRMS can be a very promising tool in stable isotope analysis of nonvolatile compounds.

  11. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  12. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  13. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Koussis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses; therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised. Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  14. Mesoporous Vanadium Nitride Synthesized by Chemical Routes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Pragnya P; Theerthagiri, J; Panda, Rabi N

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline vanadium nitride (VN) materials are synthesized by two different routes, namely, the urea route and the ammonia route, using various V2O5 precursors obtained by citric acid–based sol–gel method...

  15. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shapefile of Transit Routes - Please refer to each resource for active dates of the route information. Routes change over time,

  16. Synthetic cannabinoids: the hidden side of Spice drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintori, Nicholas; Loi, Barbara; Mereu, Maddalena

    2017-09-01

    Spice drugs are herbal mixtures sprayed with synthetic cannabinoids designed to mimic the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana [Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC)] and synthesized by introducing modifications to the chemical structure of parental compounds aiming to circumvent legal regulations. Synthetic cannabinoid use/abuse can be devastating as toxicological effects and adverse reactions cannot be entirely predicted and may vary with the dose, route of administration, individual vulnerability and concomitant intake with other drugs. The absence of validated testing procedures in the clinical field makes difficult the adoption of a therapeutic approach effective in coping with the synthetic cannabinoid phenomenon, posing a significant challenge for prevention, treatment and public health in general. The aim of this review is to gain insights into the epidemiological, pharmacological and toxicological properties of synthetic cannabinoids, aiming to provide a reliable background needed for the management of synthetic cannabinoid-related adverse effects. Consumers, competent authorities and medical care professionals should be aware of the risks associated with synthetic cannabinoid use.

  17. Facile hydrothermal route to the controlled synthesis of α-Fe2O3 1-D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    step hydrothermal synthetic route. It was found that the introduction of SnCl4 played a key role in determining the composition and morphology of -Fe2O3. The addition of SnCl4 favours the formation of Fe2O3 rather than FeOOH, and the ...

  18. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  19. Synthetic Space Vector Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    controller. The VSI controller has traditionally been operated by hardwired pulse-width modulation (PWM) or the use of a programmable microprocessor ...frequency. The primary difference between SVM and synthetic SVM is the implementation strategy of software versus inexpensive hardware, respectively. A...resistors and capacitors. There are no microcontrollers or FPGAs necessary to produce Alt-Rev SVM. F. DUAL OUTPUT VARIABLE FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR After

  20. Biopolymers Versus Synthetic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Adriana Cziple; António J. Velez Marques

    2008-01-01

    This paper present an overview of important synthetic and natural polymers with emphasis on polymer structure, the chemistry of polymer formation. an introduction to polymer characterization. The biodegradation process can take place aerobically and anaerobically with or without the presence of light. These factors allow for biodegradation even in landfill conditions which are normally inconducive to any degradation. The sheeting used to make these packages differs...

  1. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  2. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: selective modification of the furan ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Wayne W; Schmidt, Matthew; Tidgewell, Kevin; Kannan, Pavitra; Holden, Kenneth G; Dersch, Christina M; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2006-06-15

    A synthetic sequence has been developed to selectively functionalize the furan ring of the natural product salvinorin A (2a). The synthetic routes described convert the furan ring in 2a into an N-sulfonylpyrrole, oxazole or an oxadiazole. In addition, a procedure has been found to remove the furan skeleton completely. Biological results indicate that replacement of the furan ring with an N-sulfonylpyrrole leads to reduced affinity and efficacy at kappa opioid receptors.

  3. One new route to optimize the oxidation resistance of TiC/hastelloy (Ni-based alloy) composites applied for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnect by increasing graphite particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lujie; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Jian; Huang, Zhengren

    2017-09-01

    TiC/hastelloy composites with suitable thermal expansion and excellent electrical conductivity are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect. In this paper, the TiC/hastelloy composites are fabricated by in-situ reactive infiltration, and the oxidation resistance of composites is optimized by increasing graphite particle size. Results show that the increase of graphite particles size from 1 μm to 40 μm reduces TiC particle size from 2.68 μm to 2.22 μm by affecting the formation process of TiC. Moreover, the decrease of TiC particles size accelerates the fast formation of dense and continuous TiO2/Cr2O3 oxide layer, which bring down the mass gain (800 °C/100 h) from 2.03 mg cm-2 to 1.18 mg cm-2. Meanwhile, the coefficient of thermal expansion decreases from 11.15 × 10-6 °C-1 to 10.80 × 10-6 °C-1, and electrical conductivity maintains about 5800 S cm-1 at 800 °C. Therefore, the decrease of graphite particle size is one simple and effective route to optimize the oxidation resistance of composites, and meantime keeps suitable thermal expansion and good electrical conductivity.

  4. Exploration of mid-temperature alkali-metal-ion extraction route using PTFE (AEP): transformation of α-NaFeO2-type layered oxides into rutile-type binary oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Tadashi C; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2012-07-02

    Alkali-metal-ion extraction reactions using poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE; AEP reactions) were performed on two kinds of α-NaFeO(2)-type layered compounds: Na(0.68)(Li(0.68/3)Ti(1-0.68/3))O(2) and K(0.70)(Li(0.70/3)Sn(1-0.70/3))O(2). At 400 °C in flowing argon, these layered compounds were reacted with PTFE. By these reactions, alkali-metal ions in the layered compounds were successfully extracted, and TiO(2) and SnO(2) with rutile-type structure were formed. The structural similarity between the alkali-metal-ion-extracted layered compounds and the binary metal oxide products in these unique alkali-metal-ion extraction reactions was interpreted in terms of their interatomic distance distribution by atomic pair distribution function analysis. The results of this study indicate that PTFE is an effective agent to extract alkali-metal ions from layered compounds, and AEP reaction is not limited to the previously reported γ-FeOOH-type layered titania K(0.8)(Li(0.27)Ti(1.73))O(4), but is also applicable to other layered titania and other non-titanium-based layered metal oxides. Therefore, it was clarified that AEP reactions are widely applicable routes to prepare various compounds, including those that are difficult to synthesize by other reactions.

  5. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  6. How to Increase the h-BN Crystallinity of Microfilms and Self-Standing Nanosheets: A Review of the Different Strategies Using the PDCs Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN is a well-known material whose use is almost restricted to lubricating applications in domains ranging from metallurgy to cosmetics. Howover, h-BN displays many other interesting properties, opening new perspectives for other engineering applications, such as as a solid lubricant in aeronautics, as the perfect substrate to graphene for electronic devices, etc. However, all these promising developments require tailored h-BN shapes displaying a high level of crystallization, ensuring its properties for the long term. Here, we developed three strategies, all associated with the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs route, to prepare highly crystallized supported thick coatings and self-standing nanosheets. The first strategy concerns the innovative implementation of a Rapid Thermal Annealing to prepare micrometric h-BN coatings on thermal sensitive substrates. Compared to conventional treatment the crystallization of h-BN has successfully lowered to about 300 °C. The second strategy consists of an additivation of the used polymer precursor. Effect of lithium nitride as a crystallization promoter was investigated lowering the onset crystallization temperature from 1400 °C (traditionally to 1000 °C. This novel synthetic route allows preparing self-standing highly crystallized h-BN nanolayers. Finally, the third strategy is based on a unique combination of the PDCs route with Spark Plasma Sintering to profit of both approaches. This original method leads to large and well-crystallized flakes available for a subsequent exfoliation.

  7. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  8. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  9. Synthetic cannabinoids revealing adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Avi; Benninger, Felix; Djaldetti, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    We report a 41-year-old man who presented with a first generalized tonic-clonic seizure after recent consumption of a synthetic cannabinoid. MRI showed extensive bilateral, mainly frontal, white matter lesions. Blood analysis for very long chain fatty acids was compatible with adrenoleukodystrophy, and a missense mutation in the ABCD1 gene confirmed the diagnosis. We hypothesize that cannabinoid use might have contributed to metabolic decompensation with subacute worsening of the underlying condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biopolymers Versus Synthetic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Adriana Cziple

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper present an overview of important synthetic and natural polymers with emphasis on polymer structure, the chemistry of polymer formation. an introduction to polymer characterization. The biodegradation process can take place aerobically and anaerobically with or without the presence of light. These factors allow for biodegradation even in landfill conditions which are normally inconducive to any degradation. The sheeting used to make these packages differs significantly from other “degradable plastics” in the market as it does not attempt to replace the current popular materials but instead enhances them by rendering them biodegradable.

  11. High Temperature Hybrid Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kerry Anthony

    Conventional high temperature elastomers are produced by chain polymerization of olefinic or fluorinated olefinic monomers. Ultimate thermal stabilities are limited by backbone bond strengths, lower thermal stability of cross-link sites relative to backbone bonds, and depolymerization or "unzipping" at high temperatures. In order to develop elastomers with enhanced thermal stability, hybrid thermally cross-linkable polymers that consisted only of organic-inorganic and aromatic bonds were synthesized and evaluated. The addition of phenylethynyl or phenylacetylinic functional groups to these polymers resulted in conversion of the polymers into high temperature elastomers when cross-linked by thermal curing. Polyphenyoxydiphenylsilanes were synthesized via several different condensation reactions. Results of these synthetic reactions, which utilized both hydroquinone and biphenol as monomers, were systematically evaluated to determine the optimal synthetic conditions for subsequent endcapping reactions. It was determined that dichlorodiphenylsilane condensations with biphenol in toluene or THF were best suited for this work. Use of excess dichlorodiphenylsilane yielded polymers of appropriate molecular weights with terminal reactive chlorosilane groups that could be utilized for coupling with phenylethynyl reagents in a subsequent reaction. Two new synthetic routes were developed to endcap biphenoxysilanes with ethynyl containing substituents, to yield polymers with cross-linkable end groups. Endcapping by lithiumphenylacetylide and 4[(4-fluorophenylethynyl))phenol yielded two new polymers that could be thermally cross-linked on heating above 300 °C. Successful endcapping was verified chemically by 13C NMR, FTIR and Raman analysis. Exothermic peaks consistent with ethynyl curing reactions were observed in endcapped polymers by DSC. A new diacetylinic polymer was prepared through reaction of 4,4'-buta-1,3-diyne-1,4-diyldiphenol and dichlorodiphenylsilane. This

  12. Effects of Vegetated and Synthetic (Impervious) Surfaces on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present paper shows the considerable impacts of both vegetated and synthetic surfaces on the microclimate of urban area. Vegetation of a particular place affects the microclimate through reduced solar radiation and lower air temperature due to shading and evapotranspiration. Lower air temperatures are essential ...

  13. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neithe...

  14. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  15. Synthetic collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Conde-Pueyo, Núria; Carbonell-Ballestero, Max; Montañez, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent systems have emerged in our biosphere in different contexts and achieving different levels of complexity. The requirement of communication in a social context has been in all cases a determinant. The human brain, probably co-evolving with language, is an exceedingly successful example. Similarly, social insects complex collective decisions emerge from information exchanges between many agents. The difference is that such processing is obtained out of a limited individual cognitive power. Computational models and embodied versions using non-living systems, particularly involving robot swarms, have been used to explore the potentiality of collective intelligence. Here we suggest a novel approach to the problem grounded in the genetic engineering of unicellular systems, which can be modified in order to interact, store memories or adapt to external stimuli in collective ways. What we label as Synthetic Swarm Intelligence defines a parallel approach to the evolution of computation and swarm intelligence and allows to explore potential embodied scenarios for decision making at the microscale. Here, we consider several relevant examples of collective intelligence and their synthetic organism counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. STRATEGI DAN ALGORITMA ROUTING DALAM JARINGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufadhol Mufadhol

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungsi routing memiliki hubungan dengan nilai nilai misalnya: tanpa kesalahan, sederhana, kokoh, stabil, optimal dan adil. Selain itu harus diingat juga faktor perhitungan efisiensi. Fungsi utama dari jaringan packet-switched adalah menerima paket dari stasiun pengirim yang akan didistribusikan ke stasiun penerima. Ada beberapa strategi routing antara lain: : fixed routing, flooding, random routing dan adaptive routing. Mekanisme Perilaku konsep lalu lintas jaringan memiliki tiga jenis tipe umum, yaitu aliran kontrol, kontrol kemacetan dan menghindari kebuntuan.

  17. Optimization of OSPF Routing in IP Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Andreas; Fortz, Bernard; Gourdin, Eric; Holmberg, Kaj; Klopfenstein, Olivier; Pióro, Michał; Tomaszewski, Artur; Ümit, Hakan

    The Internet is a huge world-wide packet switching network comprised of more than 13,000 distinct subnetworks, referred to as Autonomous Systems (ASs) autonomous system AS . They all rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) internet protocol IP for transport of packets across the network. And most of them use shortest path routing protocols shortest path routing!protocols , such as OSPF or IS-IS, to control the routing of IP packets routing!of IP packets within an AS. The idea of the routing is extremely simple — every packet is forwarded on IP links along the shortest route between its source and destination nodes of the AS. The AS network administrator can manage the routing of packets in the AS by supplying the so-called administrative weights of IP links, which specify the link lengths that are used by the routing protocols for their shortest path computations. The main advantage of the shortest path routing policy is its simplicity, allowing for little administrative overhead. From the network engineering perspective, however, shortest path routing can pose problems in achieving satisfactory traffic handling efficiency. As all routing paths depend on the same routing metric routing!metric , it is not possible to configure the routing paths for the communication demands between different pairs of nodes explicitly or individually; the routing can be controlled only indirectly and only as a whole by modifying the routing metric. Thus, one of the main tasks when planning such networks is to find administrative link weights that induce a globally efficient traffic routing traffic!routing configuration of an AS. It turns out that this task leads to very difficult mathematical optimization problems. In this chapter, we discuss and describe exact integer programming models and solution approaches as well as practically efficient smart heuristics for such shortest path routing problems shortest path routing!problems .

  18. 49 CFR 356.9 - Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route carriers. 356.9 Section 356.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS MOTOR CARRIER ROUTING REGULATIONS § 356.9 Elimination of routing restrictions—regular route...

  19. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  20. Solvothermal synthesis: a new route for preparing nitrides

    CERN Document Server

    Demazeau, G; Denis, A; Largeteau, A

    2002-01-01

    Solvothermal synthesis appears to be an interesting route for preparing nitrides such as gallium nitride and aluminium nitride, using ammonia as solvent. A nitriding additive is used to perform the reaction and, in the case of gallium nitride, is encapsulated by melt gallium. The syntheses are performed in the temperature range 400-800 deg. C and in the pressure range 100-200 MPa. The synthesized powders are characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Finely divided gallium nitride GaN and aluminium nitride AlN, both with wurtzite-type structure, can be obtained by this route.

  1. Nanocrystalline TiO2 by three different synthetic approaches: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comparison of the efficiency of three different synthetic routes viz. sol–gel method involving templating, mechanochemical synthesis and combustion synthesis for the production of nanostructured TiO2, is reported. In the sol–gel method, nanocrystalline TiO2 is produced when titanium tetraisopropoxide is templated onto ...

  2. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  3. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  4. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  5. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2017-01-01

    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  6. Variation and Synthetic Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, C; Massey, N; Miller, Corey; Karaali, Orhan; Massey, Noel

    1997-01-01

    We describe the approach to linguistic variation taken by the Motorola speech synthesizer. A pan-dialectal pronunciation dictionary is described, which serves as the training data for a neural network based letter-to-sound converter. Subsequent to dictionary retrieval or letter-to-sound generation, pronunciations are submitted a neural network based postlexical module. The postlexical module has been trained on aligned dictionary pronunciations and hand-labeled narrow phonetic transcriptions. This architecture permits the learning of individual postlexical variation, and can be retrained for each speaker whose voice is being modeled for synthesis. Learning variation in this way can result in greater naturalness for the synthetic speech that is produced by the system.

  7. Evolutionary synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisajovich, Sergio G

    2012-06-15

    Signaling networks process vast amounts of environmental information to generate specific cellular responses. As cellular environments change, signaling networks adapt accordingly. Here, I will discuss how the integration of synthetic biology and directed evolution approaches is shedding light on the molecular mechanisms that guide the evolution of signaling networks. In particular, I will review studies that demonstrate how different types of mutations, from the replacement of individual amino acids to the shuffling of modular domains, lead to markedly different evolutionary trajectories and consequently to diverse network rewiring. Moreover, I will argue that intrinsic evolutionary properties of signaling proteins, such as the robustness of wild type functions, the promiscuous nature of evolutionary intermediates, and the modular decoupling between binding and catalysis, play important roles in the evolution of signaling networks. Finally, I will argue that rapid advances in our ability to synthesize DNA will radically alter how we study signaling network evolution at the genome-wide level.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... of SA imaging. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have both dynamic transmit and receive focusing to improve contrast and resolution. It is also possible to improve penetration depth by employing codes during ultrasound transmission. Data sets for vector flow imaging can be acquired using...... short imaging sequences, whereby both the correct velocity magnitude and angle can be estimated. A number of examples of both phantom and in-vivo SA images will be presented measured by the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS to demonstrate the many benefits of SA imaging....

  9. Canadian synthetic resins industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeson, J. [Industry Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The growth of the synthetic resin industry in Canada is described. In 1999 the industry had shipments totalling $6.3 billion and employed about 9,000 people in 105 establishments. The industry is concentrated in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Plants in Alberta produce commodity-grade thermoplastic resins from raw materials derived mainly from natural gas, whereas plants in Ontario and Quebec produce both thermoplastic and thermoset resins using raw materials derived from both crude oil and natural gas. Sixty-four per cent of the synthetic reins produced in Canada, worth about $4.1 billion, are exported. This is offset by imports of 68 per cent of domestic consumption, (valued at $5.0 billion) reflecting rationalization and specialization of the resin industry on a continental basis. Process and product technologies used in Canada are up-to-date and licensed from parent or other foreign chemical companies. Capital investment in the Canadian resin industry is lagging behind investment in the United States, however, this is expected to change once the impact of recent investments in the industry in Alberta is reflected in the statistics. A five to seven per cent real average annual growth in world-wide consumption is predicted over the next five years. Growth in North America is projected to be in the three to four per cent range. The Alberta-based component of the industry, being relatively new, is expected to improve its ability to compete globally in commodity thermoplastics. In contrast, the plants in Ontario and Quebec suffer from the fact that they were built prior to the Free Trade Agreement and were designed to satisfy domestic requirements. They are attempting to compensate for their lack of economics of scale by developing strategies to supply niche products. 8 figs.

  10. The routed inventory pooling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Harmen Willem

    2013-01-01

    In supply chains vloeit een groot deel van de kosten voort uit voorraden en transport. Om deze reden wordt veel onderzoek gedaan naar technieken en concepten die de voorraad- en transportkosten helpen te verlagen. Twee populaire onderzoeksgebieden zijn Inventory Routing, waarbij het doel is optimale

  11. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  12. Anticipatory routing of police helicopters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Urk, Rick; van Urk, Rick; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Hans, Elias W.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a decision support application for the Dutch Aviation Police and Air Support unit for routing their helicopters in anticipation of unknown future incidents. These incidents are not known in advance, yet do require a swift response. A response might include the dispatch of a police

  13. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  14. A facile room temperature route to ternary Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} compounds and their photovoltaic properties based on elemental copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jiamei [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Jia, Huimin, E-mail: zhengzhi99999@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Lei, Yan [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Liu, Songzi [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Gao, Yuanhao [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Hou, Hongwei [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001 (China); Zheng, Zhi, E-mail: zzheng@xcu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China)

    2017-06-01

    A one-pot synthesis of novel hierarchical flower-like Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} nanocrystals was developed based on the direct metal surface elemental reaction (DMSER) method. This new room temperature synthesis is an economic and environmentally friendly soft chemical approach. The prepared Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} nanocrystals uniformly cover the surface of the Cu substrates. The mechanism of formation was investigated by observing the materials produced from changing the reaction time, the molar ratio of Na{sub 2}S to elemental selenium, and the volume of solvent. The crystal structure, surface morphologies and light absorption properties were collected by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–visible spectroscopy. The results show that the as-prepared ternary nanocrystals are face-centered cubic and have an optical bandgap of 1.58 eV, which is ideal for potential solar cell applications. Transient photovoltage spectroscopy (TPV) was used to evaluate the photovoltaic performance of pure Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} nanocrystalline powder as well as in-situ generated Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2}/ZnO heterojunctions. The current work offers a novel and simple approach for preparing ternary chalcogenide semiconductors for photoelectric and photocatalytic applications. - Highlights: • A one-pot synthesis of novel hierarchical flower-like Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2} was developed. • This work offers a facile way for prepare ternary chalcogenide at room temperature. • TPV was firstly used to evaluate the photovoltaic performance of Cu{sub 7.2}S{sub 2}Se{sub 2}.

  15. A Novel Constructive Routing Algorithm for Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenan Karagul

    2014-01-01

      In this study, a new constructive routing algorithm for fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem is proposed in which residual costs rather than vehicle types are considered for route selection...

  16. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  17. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...... route is defined as a route on which the vehicle first visits customers in increasing order of customer index, and on the remaining part of the route visits customers in decreasing order of customer index. Provided that customers are indexed in nondecreasing order of distance from the depot, the shape...

  18. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...... route is defined as a route on which the vehicle first visits customers in increasing order of customer index, and on the remaining part of the route visits customers in decreasing order of customer index. Moreover, this paper develops an exact branch-and-cut-and-price (BCP) algorithm for the PCVRP...

  19. The Time Window Vehicle Routing Problem Considering Closed Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsa Syahputri, Nenna; Mawengkang, Herman

    2017-12-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) determines the optimal set of routes used by a fleet of vehicles to serve a given set of customers on a predefined graph; the objective is to minimize the total travel cost (related to the travel times or distances) and operational cost (related to the number of vehicles used). In this paper we study a variant of the predefined graph: given a weighted graph G and vertices a and b, and given a set X of closed paths in G, find the minimum total travel cost of a-b path P such that no path in X is a subpath of P. Path P is allowed to repeat vertices and edges. We use integer programming model to describe the problem. A feasible neighbourhood approach is proposed to solve the model

  20. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  1. Secondary structure of fluorescence labelled synthetic peptides

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A S

    2000-01-01

    A series of eight synthetic oligopeptides has been prepared and their secondary structures investigated using various techniques. The project represents a continuation of an investigation into thermally induced changes in secondary structure. Following the previously reported results, the change in structure was initially thought to represent a change from an alpha-helix at low temperature to 3 sub 1 sub 0 -helix at high temperature. However, the results reported herein suggest the peptides retain an alpha-helical configuration at all temperatures studied, but that this helix can adopt at least two related forms. The difference in the structures relates to the nature of the H-bonds which may or may not involve an additional interaction from water molecules or side-chains. The peptides were encouraged to adopt a helical configuration by the inclusion of alpha- aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) residues. Also, modified forms of glutamic acid were included in the sequences. These had pendant donor (4-methoxy naphthalen...

  2. Route Scherrer and Route Einstein closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March and that part of Route Einstein will be closed for two weeks from the end of February.   Figure 1. The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure 1) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works.   The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. Figure 2. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the ca...

  3. Synthetic strategies for controlling inter- and intramolecular interactions: Applications in single-molecule fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and palladium catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Nicholas R.

    The field of synthetic organic chemistry has reached such maturity that, with sufficient effort and resources, the synthesis of virtually any small molecule which exhibits reasonable stability at room temperature can be realized. While representing a monumental achievement for the field, the ability to exert precise control over molecular structure is just a means to an end, and it is frequently the responsibility of the synthetic chemist to determine which molecules should actually be synthesized. For better or worse, there exists no competitive free market in academia for new molecules, and as a result, the decision of which compounds should be synthesized is seldom driven by the forces of supply and demand; rather, it is guided by the synthetic chemist's interest in an anticipated structure-function relationship or in the properties of a previously unstudied class of molecules. As a consequence, there exists a pervasive need for chemists with synthetic expertise in fields (e.g., molecular imaging) and subdisciplines of chemistry (e.g., physical chemistry) in which the identification of promising synthetic targets dramatically outpaces the synthetic output in that field or subdiscipline, and ample opportunities are available for synthetic chemists who choose to pursue such cross-disciplinary research. This thesis describes synthetic efforts that leverage these opportunities to realize applications in biological imaging and in palladium catalysis. In Part I, the synthesis and characterization of three novel luminophores and their imaging applications are discussed. The first is a molecular beacon that utilizes a fluorophorefluorophore pair which exhibits H-dimer quenching in the closed conformation. This probe offers several advantages over conventional fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons in the detection of oligonucleotides, both in bulk and at the single-molecule level. Secondly, a fluorescent, Cy3-Cy5 covalent heterodimer is reported, which on account of the

  4. Anisotropic annealing of fission fragments in synthetic quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Sawamura, T; Narita, M

    1999-01-01

    A study on the thermal annealing behavior of fission fragments in synthetic quartz crystals was performed for application of synthetic quartz to track detectors under high temperature circumstances: x-, y-, and z-cut quartz plates were exposed to fission fragments from sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and were annealed up to 750 deg. C. It was found that track retention depended on the crystallographic structure: the annealing temperature, where the number of etched tracks was sharply reduced, was 550 deg. C for the x- and y-cut plates and 750 deg. C for z-cut plates. Track sizes decrease and disperse with reductions in the track retention.

  5. En route air traffic flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The report covers the conception, design, development, and initial implementation of an advanced simulation technique applied to a study of national air traffic flow and its control by En Route Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC). It is intende...

  6. Multicast Routing of Hierarchical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Nachum

    1992-01-01

    The issue of multicast of broadband, real-time data in a heterogeneous environment, in which the data recipients differ in their reception abilities, is considered. Traditional multicast schemes, which are designed to deliver all the source data to all recipients, offer limited performance in such an environment, since they must either force the source to overcompress its signal or restrict the destination population to those who can receive the full signal. We present an approach for resolving this issue by combining hierarchical source coding techniques, which allow recipients to trade off reception bandwidth for signal quality, and sophisticated routing algorithms that deliver to each destination the maximum possible signal quality. The field of hierarchical coding is briefly surveyed and new multicast routing algorithms are presented. The algorithms are compared in terms of network utilization efficiency, lengths of paths, and the required mechanisms for forwarding packets on the resulting paths.

  7. Data-Centric Routing for Intra Wireless Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan

    2015-09-01

    A significant proportion of the worldwide population is of the elderly people living with chronic diseases that result in high health-care cost. To provide continuous health monitoring with minimal health-care cost, Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) has been recently emerged as a promising technology. Depending on nature of sensory data, WBSNs might require a high level of Quality of Service (QoS) both in terms of delay and reliability during data reporting phase. In this paper, we propose a data-centric routing for intra WBSNs that adapts the routing strategy in accordance with the nature of data, temperature rise issue of the implanted bio-medical sensors due to electromagnetic wave absorption, and high and dynamic path loss caused by postural movement of human body and in-body wireless communication. We consider the network models both with and without relay nodes in our simulations. Due to the multi-facet routing strategy, the proposed data-centric routing achieves better performance in terms of delay, reliability, temperature rise, and energy consumption when compared with other state-of-the-art.

  8. Interdomain Routing Security (BGP-4)

    OpenAIRE

    Zouaghi, Rostom

    2008-01-01

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the most important protocol for the interconnectivity of the Internet. Although it has shown acceptable performance, there are many issues about its capability to meet the scale of the growth of the Internet, mainly because of the security issues that surround interdomain routing. The Internet is important to many organisations in various contexts. Thus, it is required to provide a highly secure protocol to keep the normal operation of the Internet. BGP...

  9. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  10. On Guidelines for Safe Route Redistributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    for enterprise networks. Company mergers , multi-vendor environments, and business expansions all contribute to the existence of multiple routing...the system transitions to a different state. In addition, we color a routing instance in white when it does not have a route to the destination, and in...expressed or implied, of the U.S. government. 7. REFERENCES [1] Bhandari. Survivable networks, algorithms for diverse routing. Springer, 1999. [2] Cisco

  11. Cultural Routes and Intangible Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Zabbini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical interpretation of thematic routes helps to predict the effects on the territories visited by cultured tourists who want to enrich their cultural and emotional baggage. After the analysis of some interpretations, this paper will examine how the practical implementation of an itinerary approved by the Council of Europe has evolved over the years. And it will also reflect on the practical results in the areas involved in that project. "The Hannibal Pathway ", the main overland walk on the "Phoenician Route - Cultural Route recognized by the Council of Europe" – represents a case of study that allows to reflect over the impact of cultural tourism based on immaterial heritage. In fact, in the areas where the battle of 21 June 217 BC took place, nothing tangible is left, except the landscape that has kept its conformation intact. In these areas, thanks to the foresight of the local governments in the last three decades, the landscape of the plain has been preserved. This makes possible today to propose an historical path precisely based on the landscape and on the new techniques for the valorization of the heritage. In the Tuoro plain it is possible to see the battlefields, thus retracing the various stages of the battle, supported by the Documentation Centre of the Capra Palace and virtual reconstructions of high technical quality.

  12. Spicing things up: synthetic cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-08-01

    Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. The availability, acute subjective effects-including self-reports posted on Erowid-laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available.

  13. Spicing thing up: Synthetic cannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. Objectives The availability, acute subjective effects—including self-reports posted on Erowid—laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Results Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike THC, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid-receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. Conclusions There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug-detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available. PMID:23836028

  14. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    2004-01-01

    .Mobile users frequently follow the same route to a destination as they did during previous trips to the destination, and the route and destination are important aspects of the context for a range of services. This paper presents key concepts underlying a software component that discovers the routes of a user...

  15. 76 FR 766 - Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1011, 1034, 1102, 1104, and 1115 Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders... Transportation Board (Board or STB) proposes to establish regulations governing the issuance of emergency routing... regulations governing the issuance of emergency routing orders upon application of the National Railroad...

  16. 45 CFR 1310.20 - Trip routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip routing. 1310.20 Section 1310.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.20 Trip routing. (a) Each agency providing... routing are adhered to: (1) The time a child is in transit to and from the Head Start or Early Head Start...

  17. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so t...

  18. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  19. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  20. Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankish, Julian S.; Roberts, Richard G.; Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Frankish J. S., Roberts R. G., Coad A. and Storey D. J. Is entrepreneurship a route out of deprivation?, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. The measure of income/wealth used is based...... the wealth distribution. Hence, entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation....

  1. Synthetic Cathinones and Their Rewarding and Reinforcing Effects in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Watterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cathinones, colloquially referred to as “bath salts,” are derivatives of the psychoactive alkaloid cathinone found in Catha edulis (Khat. Since the mid-to-late 2000s, these amphetamine-like psychostimulants have gained popularity amongst drug users due to their potency, low cost, ease of procurement, and constantly evolving chemical structures. Concomitant with their increased use is the emergence of a growing collection of case reports of bizarre and dangerous behaviors, toxicity to numerous organ systems, and death. However, scientific information regarding the abuse liability of these drugs has been relatively slower to materialize. Recently we have published several studies demonstrating that laboratory rodents will readily self-administer the “first generation” synthetic cathinones methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV and methylone via the intravenous route, in patterns similar to those of methamphetamine. Under progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, the rank order of reinforcing efficacy of these compounds is MDPV ≥ methamphetamine > methylone. MDPV and methylone, as well as the “second generation” synthetic cathinones α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP and 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC, also dose-dependently increase brain reward function. Collectively, these findings indicate that synthetic cathinones have a high abuse and addiction potential and underscore the need for future assessment of the extent and duration of neurotoxicity induced by these emerging drugs of abuse.

  2. Synthetic biology for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abil, Zhanar; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-02-02

    Synthetic biology is a relatively new field with the key aim of designing and constructing biological systems with novel functionalities. Today, synthetic biology devices are making their first steps in contributing new solutions to a number of biomedical challenges, such as emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance and cancer therapy. This review discusses some synthetic biology approaches and applications that were recently used in disease mechanism investigation and disease modeling, drug discovery and production, as well as vaccine development and treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

  3. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially......) popular responsesto them succeed, and whether the objections are ultimately persuasive.2. Given that synthetic biology is a new technology, there is a certain degree of uncertainty about its ultimate effects, and many perceive the technology as risky. I discuss two common approaches in risk regulation...

  4. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses important characteristics seen within dynamic vehicle routing problems. We discuss the differences between the traditional static vehicle routing problems and its dynamic counterparts. We give an in-depth introduction to the degree of dynamism measure which can be used...... to classify dynamic vehicle routing systems. Methods for evaluation of the performance of algorithms that solve on-line routing problems are discussed and we list some of the most important issues to include in the system objective. Finally, we provide a three-echelon classification of dynamic vehicle routing...... systems based on their degree of dynamism and the system objective....

  5. Designing synthetic networks in silico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Robert W.; Sluijs, van Bob; Fleck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evolution has led to the development of biological networks that are shaped by environmental signals. Elucidating, understanding and then reconstructing important network motifs is one of the principal aims of Systems & Synthetic Biology. Consequently, previous research has focused

  6. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB....... The first part of the scientific contribution investigates an implementation of pulse inversion for THI on the experimental ultrasound system SARUS. The technique is initially implemented for linear array transducers and then expanded for convex array transducers. The technique is evaluated based on spatial...

  7. Toward engineering synthetic microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, George H; Fong, Stephen S

    2010-01-01

    The generation of well-characterized parts and the formulation of biological design principles in synthetic biology are laying the foundation for more complex and advanced microbial metabolic engineering. Improvements in de novo DNA synthesis and codon-optimization alone are already contributing to the manufacturing of pathway enzymes with improved or novel function. Further development of analytical and computer-aided design tools should accelerate the forward engineering of precisely regulated synthetic pathways by providing a standard framework for the predictable design of biological systems from well-characterized parts. In this review we discuss the current state of synthetic biology within a four-stage framework (design, modeling, synthesis, analysis) and highlight areas requiring further advancement to facilitate true engineering of synthetic microbial metabolism.

  8. Toward Engineering Synthetic Microbial Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. McArthur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of well-characterized parts and the formulation of biological design principles in synthetic biology are laying the foundation for more complex and advanced microbial metabolic engineering. Improvements in de novo DNA synthesis and codon-optimization alone are already contributing to the manufacturing of pathway enzymes with improved or novel function. Further development of analytical and computer-aided design tools should accelerate the forward engineering of precisely regulated synthetic pathways by providing a standard framework for the predictable design of biological systems from well-characterized parts. In this review we discuss the current state of synthetic biology within a four-stage framework (design, modeling, synthesis, analysis and highlight areas requiring further advancement to facilitate true engineering of synthetic microbial metabolism.

  9. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  10. Production of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite using various precipitation routes

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, David; Best, Serena M.

    2013-01-01

    Substituted hydroxyapatites have been investigated for use as bone grafts have been investigated for many years. Zinc is of interest due to it’s potential to reduce bone resorption and antibacterial properties. However, it has proven problematic to substitute biologically significant levels of zinc into the crystal structure through wet chemical routes, whilst retaining the high temperature phase stability required for processing. The aim of this study is to investigate two different precipit...

  11. Building a Synthetic Transcriptional Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz-Schilling, Matthaeus; Kim, Jongmin; Cuba, Christian; Weitz, Maximilian; Franco, Elisa; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2016-01-01

    Reaction circuits mimicking genetic oscillators can be realized with synthetic, switchable DNA genes (so-called genelets), and two enzymes only, an RNA polymerase and a ribonuclease. The oscillatory behavior of the genelets is driven by the periodic production and degradation of RNA effector molecules. Here, we describe the preparation, assembly, and testing of a synthetic, transcriptional two-node negative-feedback oscillator, whose dynamics can be followed in real-time by fluorescence read-out.

  12. A Genetic Algorithm on Inventory Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problem can be defined as forming the routes to serve to the retailers from the manufacturer, deciding on the quantity of the shipment to the retailers and deciding on the timing of the replenishments. The difference of inventory routing problems from vehicle routing problems is the consideration of the inventory positions of retailers and supplier, and making the decision accordingly. Inventory routing problems are complex in nature and they can be solved either theoretically or using a heuristics method. Metaheuristics is an emerging class of heuristics that can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we provide the relationship between vendor-managed inventory and inventory routing problem. The proposed genetic for solving vehicle routing problem is described in detail.

  13. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  14. Preparation and CO2 adsorption of amine modified Mg-Al LDH via exfoliation route

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiawei; Stevens, Lee A.; Drage, Trevor C.; Wood, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In response to the recent focus on reducing carbon dioxide emission, the preparation and characterization of organically functionalized materials for use in carbon capture have received considerable attention. In this paper the synthesis of amine modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs) via an exfoliation and grafting synthetic route is reported. The materials were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectr...

  15. An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad Nikbin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a comprehensive overview on selected synthetic routes towards commercial drug compounds as published in both journal and patent literature. Owing to the vast number of potential structures, we have concentrated only on those drugs containing five-membered heterocycles and focused principally on the assembly of the heterocyclic core. In order to target the most representative chemical entities the examples discussed have been selected from the top 200 best selling drugs of recent years.

  16. Sea ice monitoring in the northern sea route by satellite radar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannessen, O.M.; Sandven, S.; Pettersson, L.H. [and others

    1997-06-01

    A project to implement satellite monitoring of ice in the Northern Sea Route between the Barents Sea and the Bering Strait is described. The project objectives are to support ice navigation, offshore oil exploration and production, and global climate change studies. Satellite monitoring will include synthetic-aperture radar, sidelooking radar, and other remote sensing data. The joint project between the Russian Space Agency and the European Space Agency is outlined, and major project elements are described.

  17. Chemical synthesis using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, James M; Goler, Jonathan A; Keasling, Jay D

    2009-08-01

    An immense array of naturally occurring biological systems have evolved that convert simple substrates into the products that cells need for growth and persistence. Through the careful application of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, this biotransformation potential can be harnessed to produce chemicals that address unmet clinical and industrial needs. Developing the capacity to utilize biology to perform chemistry is a matter of increasing control over both the function of synthetic biological systems and the engineering of those systems. Recent efforts have improved general techniques and yielded successes in the use of synthetic biology for the production of drugs, bulk chemicals, and fuels in microbial platform hosts. Synthetic promoter systems and novel RNA-based, or riboregulator, mechanisms give more control over gene expression. Improved methods for isolating, engineering, and evolving enzymes give more control over substrate and product specificity and better catalysis inside the cell. New computational tools and methods for high-throughput system assembly and analysis may lead to more rapid forward engineering. We highlight research that reduces reliance upon natural biological components and point to future work that may enable more rational design and assembly of synthetic biological systems for synthetic chemistry.

  18. Generating realistic synthetic meteoroid orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Denis; Brown, Peter G.; Campbell-Brown, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    Context. Generating a synthetic dataset of meteoroid orbits is a crucial step in analysing the probabilities of random grouping of meteoroid orbits in automated meteor shower surveys. Recent works have shown the importance of choosing a low similarity threshold value of meteoroid orbits, some pointing out that the recent meteor shower surveys produced false positives due to similarity thresholds which were too high. On the other hand, the methods of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation introduce additional biases into the data, thus making the final decision on an appropriate threshold value uncertain. Aims. As a part of the ongoing effort to determine the nature of meteor showers and improve automated methods, it was decided to tackle the problem of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation, the main goal being to reproduce the underlying structure and the statistics of the observed data in the synthetic orbits. Methods. A new method of generating synthetic meteoroid orbits using the Kernel Density Estimation method is presented. Several types of approaches are recommended, depending on whether one strives to preserve the data structure, the data statistics or to have a compromise between the two. Results. The improvements over the existing methods of synthetic orbit generation are demonstrated. The comparison between the previous and newly developed methods are given, as well as the visualization tools one can use to estimate the influence of different input parameters on the final data.

  19. One-pot noninjection route to CdS quantum dots via hydrothermal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulaich, Abdelhay; Billaud, Denis; Abyan, Mouhammad; Balan, Lavinia; Gaumet, Jean-Jacques; Medjadhi, Ghouti; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Schneider, Raphaël

    2012-05-01

    Water-dispersible CdS quantum dots (QDs) emitting from 510 to 650 nm were synthesized in a simple one-pot noninjection hydrothermal route using cadmium chloride, thiourea, and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as starting materials. All these chemicals were loaded at room temperature in a Teflon sealed tube and the reaction mixture heated at 100 °C. The effects of CdCl(2)/thiourea/MPA feed molar ratios, pH, and concentrations of precursors affecting the growth of the CdS QDs, was monitored via the temporal evolution of the optical properties of the CdS nanocrystals. High concentration of precursors and high MPA/Cd feed molar ratios were found to lead to an increase in the diameter of the resulting CdS nanocrystals and of the trap state emission of the dots. The combination of moderate pH value, low concentration of precursors and slow growth rate plays the crucial role in the good optical properties of the obtained CdS nanocrystals. The highest photoluminescence achieved for CdS@MPA QDs of average size 3.5 nm was 20%. As prepared colloids show rather narrow particle size distribution, although all reactants were mixed at room temperature. CdS@MPA QDs were characterized by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. This noninjection one-pot approach features easy handling and large-scale production with excellent synthetic reproducibility. Surface passivation of CdS@MPA cores by a wider bandgap material, ZnS, led to enhanced luminescence intensity. CdS@MPA and CdS/ZnS@MPA QDs exhibit high photochemical stability and hold a good potential to be applied in optoelectronic devices and biological applications.

  20. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 Project: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. PMID:26272997

  1. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Meta-analysis of choice set generation effects on route choice model estimates and predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Large scale applications of behaviorally realistic transport models pose several challenges to transport modelers on both the demand and the supply sides. On the supply side, path-based solutions to the user assignment equilibrium problem help modelers in enhancing the route choice behavior...... modeling, but require them to generate choice sets by selecting a path generation technique and its parameters according to personal judgments. This paper proposes a methodology and an experimental setting to provide general indications about objective judgments for an effective route choice set generation....... Initially, path generation techniques are implemented within a synthetic network to generate possible subjective choice sets considered by travelers. Next, ‘true model estimates’ and ‘postulated predicted routes’ are assumed from the simulation of a route choice model. Then, objective choice sets...

  3. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  4. Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade. Many routing protocols are based on classic shortest path algorithms. However, shortest path-based routing protocols suffer from uneven load distribution in the network, such as crowed center effect where the center nodes have more load than the nodes in the periphery. Aiming to balance the load, we propose a novel routing method, called Circular Sailing Routing (CSR, which can distribute the traffic more evenly in the network. The proposed method first maps the network onto a sphere via a simple stereographic projection, and then the route decision is made by a newly defined "circular distance" on the sphere instead of the Euclidean distance in the plane. We theoretically prove that for a network, the distance traveled by the packets using CSR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path. We also extend CSR to a localized version, Localized CSR, by modifying greedy routing without any additional communication overhead. In addition, we investigate how to design CSR routing for 3D networks. For all proposed methods, we conduct extensive simulations to study their performances and compare them with global shortest path routing or greedy routing in 2D and 3D wireless networks.

  5. Composite polymer nanoarchitectures from a one-pot hydrothermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shirong; Chang, Ying; Yuan, Conghui; Wang, Shuang; Mao, Jie; Chen, Guorong; Luo, Weiang; Xu, Yiting; Dai, Lizong

    2015-11-13

    Exploitation of facile and versatile synthetic approaches to polymeric nanoarchitectures is of great interest in polymer science and engineering. Herein, we show that a simple hydrothermal route using double-solvents as reaction media has the ability to generate polymer nanospheres with tunable morphologies and components. In this one-pot approach, condensation polymerization of a resol precursor and radical polymerization of styrene are allowed to occur simultaneously under hydrothermal treatment. The synergistic self-organization of phenol-formaldehyde crosslinked networks and polystyrene chains leads to the formation of well-defined hollow nanospheres with adjustable shell thickness or even Janus particles comprising a solid hemisphere and a hollow hemisphere. Furthermore, control over the composition of the hollow polymer nanospheres can be easily achieved by introducing a third monomer into the hydrothermal system.

  6. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  7. Alternative synthetic routes for the preparation of PLA/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronco, Simona; Beatrice Coltelli, Maria; Castiello, Stefania; Ciardelli, Francesco; Taburoni, Elisa; Conzatti, Lucia

    2010-06-01

    Although the improvement of tensile Modulus and thermal stability due to the addition of innovative organoclays to PLA were negligible, our investigation allowed to evidence that the preliminary preparation of an inorganic rich composite through in situ polymerization of lactyde gave a final morphology improved with respect to that achieved by simply melt dispersing organoclay powder. Anyway the former preparation method should be further investigated in order to control PLA structural features resulting from the ring opening polymerization synthesis.

  8. Synthetic routes to ruthenium (ii) species containing carboxylate-functionalized 2,2`-bipyridine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, T.; Patterson, A.; Keene, F.R. [James Cook University, Townsville, QLD (Australia). School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences

    1998-12-31

    Two methods are reported for the incorporation of carboxylate substituents on polypyridyl ligands coordinated to ruthenium(ll) centres. In the first, a precursor complex is synthesized with ethoxycarbonyl groups which are subsequently base-hydrolysed to produce the carboxylate in high yield (-CO{sub 2}Et{yields} -CO{sub 2}H). In the second method, ruthenyl species were used to chemically catalyse the electochemical oxidation of methyl substituents on the ligands of a precursor complex to produce the target carboxylate species (-CH{sub 3} {yields} -CO{sub 2}H). Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia 21 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  9. Determining Synthetic Routes to Consumer Product Ingredients through the Use of Electronic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brian E.; Bennett, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    An activity is described in which students in the first semester of a two semester organic chemistry laboratory class are introduced to the use of SciFinder. Students are required to determine the structures of three compounds as well as additional information regarding the synthesis of one of them using some of the features available in SciFinder.

  10. Synthetic routes to degradable copolymers deriving from the biosynthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates are a family of natural polyesters being produced as intracellular carbon and energy reserves by a wide variety of microorganisms. They have developed rapidly in both research and development efforts globally in the last 15 years. Till now, over 100 different types of PHAs have been successfully biosynthesized using both genetic engineering and fermentation techniques. Their unique biodegradable, biocompatible and thermoplastic characteristics make PHAs promising candidates for the commodity and biomedical applications. This review focused on the chemical synthesis of the derivatives of the biosynthesized PHAs.

  11. HIGHLY FLEXIBLE SYNTHETIC ROUTES TO FUNCTIONALIZED PHOSPHOLANES FROM CARBOHYDRATES. (R826120)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Synthetic routes contaminate graphene materials with a whole spectrum of unanticipated metallic elements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wong, C. H. A.; Sofer, Z.; Kubešová, Marie; Kučera, Jan; Matějková, Stanislava; Pumera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 38 (2014), s. 13774-13779 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * chemical reduction * doped graphene Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014

  13. Synthetic routes contaminate graphene materials with a whole spectrum of unanticipated metallic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colin Hong An; Sofer, Zdeněk; Kubešová, Marie; Kučera, Jan; Matějková, Stanislava; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-23

    The synthesis of graphene materials is typically carried out by oxidizing graphite to graphite oxide followed by a reduction process. Numerous methods exist for both the oxidation and reduction steps, which causes unpredictable contamination from metallic impurities into the final material. These impurities are known to have considerable impact on the properties of graphene materials. We synthesized several reduced graphene oxides from extremely pure graphite using several popular oxidation and reduction methods and tracked the concentrations of metallic impurities at each stage of synthesis. We show that different combinations of oxidation and reduction introduce varying types as well as amounts of metallic elements into the graphene materials, and their origin can be traced to impurities within the chemical reagents used during synthesis. These metallic impurities are able to alter the graphene materials' electrochemical properties significantly and have wide-reaching implications on the potential applications of graphene materials.

  14. New synthetic routes to polyoxometalate containing ionic liquids an investigation of their properties

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In his Master project Sven Herrmann for the first time carried out fundamental investigations into the development of polyoxometalate based ionic liquids (POM-ILs). The POM-ILs were obtained by charge balancing inorganic polyoxometalate (POM) anions with sterically demanding tetraalkylammonium or tetraalkylphosphonium cations. By functionalization of lacunary Keggin clusters with 3d-transition metals and charge balancing with tetraalkylammonium cations of differing chain length, a model system for the correlation of the molecular structure with macroscopic materials properties was obtained. In

  15. Detection, isolation and characterization of principle synthetic route indicative impurity in telmisartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Srinivasan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An unknown impurity was detected in the telmisartan bulk drug (active pharmaceutical ingredient – API using an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. This impurity was isolated by preparative HPLC. Spectral data of the isolated impurity were collected. Based on the spectral data deriving from two dimensional nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (2D-NMR and mass spectrometry (MS, the impurity was characterized as “methyl 4′,4′-dibromo methyl biphenyl-2-carboxylate”. The arrived structure was further confirmed by theoretical studies.

  16. Near real-time traffic routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  17. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  18. Zone routing in a torus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  19. Reconstruction of recycling flux from synthetic camera images, evaluated for the Wendelstein 7-X startup limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, H.; Effenberg, F.; Feng, Y.; Schmitz, O.; Stephey, L.; Reiter, D.; Börner, P.; The W7-X Team

    2017-12-01

    The interpretation of spectroscopic measurements in the edge region of high-temperature plasmas can be guided by modeling with the EMC3-EIRENE code. A versatile synthetic diagnostic module, initially developed for the generation of synthetic camera images, has been extended for the evaluation of the inverse problem in which the observable photon flux is related back to the originating particle flux (recycling). An application of this synthetic diagnostic to the startup phase (inboard) limiter in Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is presented, and reconstruction of recycling from synthetic observation of \\renewcommand{\

  20. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  1. Northern Sea Route and Icebreaking Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Bering: Coming to grips with a circumpolar giant. Northern Perspectives, July-August, 16(4): 4-5. Armstrong, T. (1988b) Soviet proposals for the Arctic: A... geopolitics of the Northern Sea Route. Interna- tional Challenges, 12(1): 21-25. Ostreng, W. and A. Jorgensen-Dahl (1991) The Northern Sea Route pro- ject...ronment in the context of circumpolar cooperation. In Proceedings from the Northern Sea Route Expert Meeting, 13-14 October, 1992, Tromso, Norway (H

  2. Production of BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} doped with Eu{sup 3+} in low temperature: research of the influence of the synthesis route, temperature and calcination time in the optical properties; Producao do BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} dopado com Eu{sup 3+} em baixa temperatura: investigacao da influencia da rota de sintese, temperatura e tempo de calcinacao nas propriedades opticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Manasses Almeida

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the synthesis condition (complexing agent and temperature and time of calcination) were studied aiming to produce BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples in the ferroelectric hexagonal phase. Pure and Eu{sup 3+} - doped samples were produced and its luminescent properties were investigated. BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared using several thermal treatment conditions, via an alternative sol-gel route, using coconut water or PVA as the complexing agents. The sample production at 600 °C/5h is quite interesting, since to date the lowest calcination temperatures found in the literature was 650 ° C using reagents with high degree of toxicity DTA / TG measurements indicated a possible start of the crystallization of the material at approximately 600 ° C, and the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) confirm the formation of the desired phase of the calcined barium aluminate at that temperature. The results of the Rietveld refinements showed the occurrence of secondary phase in the samples produced at 600 ° C / 5h, presenting 5% of phase Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, while single phase was found for samples calcined at 1200 ° C for 2 and 5h. Analysis of the diffractogram by the Scherrer equation showed smaller crystallite size for samples calcified at 600 °C/5h, but apparently with a lower degree of crystallinity than the sample prepared at 1200 ° C/ 2 and 5h. The photoluminescence measurements showed that the emission spectra of the samples have great dependence on the times, temperatures and complexing agents used. In particular, samples calcined at 600 ° C have very different characteristics with regard to the probabilities of emissions associated with Eu{sup 3+} when compared with samples produced at higher temperatures. Differences observed in the spectra of samples produced via different complexing agents are possibly due to defects created in the materials by impurities present in the coconut water. Samples produced using PVA present sites with higher symmetry, which was

  3. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance use disorder treatment centers. Urine Drug Testing is utilized as a clinical diagnostic tool in substance use disorder treatment centers, and the furious pace at which new synthetic stimulants are introduced to the black market are making the detection via urine increasingly difficult. This article will discuss the prevalence, pharmacology and difficulty developing laboratory assays to detect synthetic stimulants.

  4. Synthetic biology advancing clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folcher, Marc; Fussenegger, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The 'omics' era, with its identification of genetic and protein components, has combined with systems biology, which provided insights into network structures, to set the stage for synthetic biology, an emerging interdisciplinary life science that uses engineering principles. By capitalizing on an iterative design cycle that involves molecular and computational biology tools to assemble functional designer devices from a comprehensive catalogue of standardized biological components with predictable functions, synthetic biology has significantly advanced our understanding of complex control dynamics that program living systems. Such insights, collected over the past decade, are priming a variety of synthetic biology-inspired biomedical applications that have the potential to revolutionize drug discovery and production technologies, as well as treatment strategies for infectious diseases and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. M.; Jensen, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic...... property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected...... from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from...

  6. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  7. Chemical routes to discharging graphenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Stephen A; Buckley, David J; Yau, Hin Chun; Skipper, Neal T; Howard, Christopher A; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2017-03-02

    Chemical and electrochemical reduction methods allow the dispersion, processing, and/or functionalization of discrete sp(2)-hybridised nanocarbons, including fullerenes, nanotubes and graphenes. Electron transfer to the nanocarbon raises the Fermi energy, creating nanocarbon anions and thereby activating an array of possible covalent reactions. The Fermi level may then be partially or fully lowered by intended functionalization reactions, but in general, techniques are required to remove excess charge without inadvertent covalent reactions that potentially degrade the nanocarbon properties of interest. Here, simple and effective chemical discharging routes are demonstrated for graphenide polyelectrolytes and are expected to apply to other systems, particularly nanotubides. The discharging process is inherently linked to the reduction potentials of such chemical discharging agents and the unusual fundamental chemistry of charged nanocarbons.

  8. Routing in double layered satellite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Fei, Gao

    2009-07-01

    With the fast development of aviation technology and network, satellite communication systems are not limited to a signal satellite any more, they are now oriented to network. Double LEO/MEO network can separate network manage from traffic in physical layer in order to manage total network and operate central routing. At last, aiming at the problem of the frequency link switch, we give a new routing protocol (OSPF_SAT) based on OSPF routing protocol. The optimized strategy routing algorithm and is applied to the model, with the result of getting less link switch ratio.

  9. Computerized routing: Its time has come

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Miller

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The costs of commercial fleet management in South Africa continue to rise ahead of the inflation rate. Computerised routing and scheduling promises to alleviate the situation provided it is judiciously applied. This article describes the nature of the routing problem and ways to cope with its complexity. Some results of research into South African firms are presented and this leads to a discussion of computer-based routing and scheduling. The authors offer a framework for assessing routing situations and apply it to cases in South Africa. The relative benefits of the application of computer solutions are discussed and recommendations are made.

  10. A Machine Learning Concept for DTN Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.

  11. Aircraft route forecasting under adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hauf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper storm nowcasts in the terminal manoeuvring area (TMA of Hong Kong International Airport are used to forecast deviation routes through a field of storms for arriving and departing aircraft. Storms were observed and nowcast by the nowcast system SWIRLS from the Hong Kong Observatory. Storms were considered as no-go zones for aircraft and deviation routes were determined with the DIVSIM software package. Two days (21 and 22 May 2011 with 22 actual flown routes were investigated. Flights were simulated with a nowcast issued at the time an aircraft entered the TMA or departed from the airport. These flights were compared with a posteriori simulations, in which all storm fields were known and circumnavigated. Both types of simulated routes were then compared with the actual flown routes. The qualitative comparison of the various routes revealed generally good agreement. Larger differences were found in more complex situations with many active storms in the TMA. Route differences resulted primarily from air traffic control measures imposed such as holdings, slow-downs and shortcuts, causing the largest differences between the estimated and actual landing time. Route differences could be enhanced as aircraft might be forced to circumnavigate a storm ahead in a different sense. The use of route forecasts to assist controllers coordinating flights in a complex moving storm field is discussed. The study emphasises the important application of storm nowcasts in aviation meteorology.

  12. An Asymmetric Synthetic Approach to the A-ring of the Taxol Family of Anti-Cancer Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Marin

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic route developed for the preparation of the A-ring of Taxol family of molecules is reported. By means of an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction an asymmetric approach to this ring has been accomplished. Also, initial studies to prepare the A ring using an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction have been successful.

  13. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  14. [Urethral substitution with synthetic material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, E A; Zungri Telo, E

    2000-03-01

    In spite of the numerous surgical techniques described, management of urethral stenosis continues to be an unresolved problem. Free graft urethroplasty is indicated in selected cases and several organic and synthetic materials have been described for this use. Our group reviews the synthetic alloplasts used for partial or total replacement of the male urethra. The search for an appropriate alloplast for urethral replacement has been rather frustrating. Complication rates are still too high to allow routine usage. The most encouraging results are those with new absorbable materials which cause minimal inflammatory reactions of a foreign body type. These are readily available and allow urethral replacement using tissues regenerated from removed ends.

  15. Synthetic biology: integrated gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Nagarajan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2011-09-02

    A major goal of synthetic biology is to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles from the bottom up, by building circuits and studying their behavior in cells. Investigators initially sought to design circuits "from scratch" that functioned as independently as possible from the underlying cellular system. More recently, researchers have begun to develop a new generation of synthetic circuits that integrate more closely with endogenous cellular processes. These approaches are providing fundamental insights into the regulatory architecture, dynamics, and evolution of genetic circuits and enabling new levels of control across diverse biological systems.

  16. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  17. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  18. An experimental study of glaucophanic amphiboles in the system Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-SiF4 (NMASF): some implications for glaucophane stability in natural and synthetic systems at high temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mark D.; Graham, Colin M.

    1992-06-01

    The phase relations of glaucophanic amphiboles have been studied at 18 31 kbar/680 950°C in the synthetic system Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-SiF4 (NMASF) using the bulk composition of fluor-glaucophane, Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22F2. Previous experimental studies of glaucophane in the water-bearing system (NMASH) have been hampered by problems of fine grain size (electron microprobe analyses with low oxide totals and contamination by other phases), and consequently good compositional data are lacking. Fluor-amphiboles, on the other hand, generally have much higher thermal stabilities than their hydrous counterparts. By using the fluorine-analogue system NMASF, amphibole crystals sufficiently coarse for electron microprobe analysis have been obtained. Furthermore, NMASH amphibole phase relations are directly analogous to those of the NMASF system because SiF4 fills the role of H2O as the fluid species. High-pressure NMASF amphibole parageneses are comparable to those obtained for NMASH amphiboles under similar pressure-temperature conditions, except that the NMASF solidus was not encountered. In the pressure-temperature range of the NMASF experiments, fluor-glaucophane is unstable relative to glaucophanenyböite-Mg-magnesio-katophorite amphiboles. Variations in synthetic fluor-amphibole composition with P and T are discussed in terms of changes in the thermodynamic activities of the principal amphibole end-members, such as glaucophane (aGp) and nyböite (aNy) using an ideal-mixing-on-sites model. The most glaucophanic amphiboles analysed have aGp=0.50 0.60 and coexist with jadeite and coesite at 30 kbar/800°C. Amphiboles become increasingly nyböitic with decreasing pressure through the NaAlSi-1 exchange, which is the principal variation observed. The most nyböitic amphiboles have aNy =0.65 0.70 and coexist with fluor-sodium-phlogopite and quartz at 21 24 kbar/800 850°C. At 800°C amphiboles are essentially glaucophane-nyböite solid solutions. At 850°C there is some minor

  19. Synthetic Biology: Rational Pathway Design for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A

    2016-01-01

    Rational pathway design is the invention of an optimally efficient route from one state (e.g. chemical structure, state of differentiation, physiological state) to another, based on knowledge of biological processes: it contrasts with the use of natural pathways that have evolved by natural selection. Synthetic biology is a hybrid discipline of biology and engineering that offers a means for rationally designed pathways to be realized in living cells. Several areas of regenerative medicine could benefit from rational pathway design, including derivation of patient-specific stem cells, directed differentiation of stem cells, replicating physiological function in an alternative cell type, construction of custom interface tissues and building fail-safe systems into transplanted tissues. Synthetic biological approaches offer the potential for construction of these, for example controllable ex vivo stem cell niches, genetic networks for direct transdifferentiation from adult fibroblast to restricted stem cell without going via induced pluripotent stem cells, signalling pathways for realizing physiological regulation in alternative cell types, morphological modules for producing self-constructing novel 'tissues' and 'kill-switches' for therapeutically applied stem cells. Given the potential of this approach, a closer convergence of the regenerative medicine and synthetic biology research fields seems timely. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. US Hazardous Materials Routes, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [hazardous_material_routes_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  1. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs.

  2. THE NORTHERN SEA ROUTE: PRESENT CONDITION AND DEVELIPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Bryzgalov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Sea Route (NSR represents a serious alternative to traditional so-called «southern» sea transportation routes passing through the Suez Canal. Data on the present and on most optimistic prospective scopes of transportation over NSR for different types of goods are presented in the article. Among main factors working for the optimistic perspective with respect of NSR there are measurements stipulated in several Russian governmental decrees, global rise in temperature and feasibility to develop natural resources abundantly available in the arctic areas of Russia. Still, there are negative factors such as the need of massive investment to transportation means and to local infrastructure, risks associated with the probability of particularly severe arctic natural phenomena and provision for safety in many aspects.

  3. Phosphate valorization by dry chlorination route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanari N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the extraction of phosphorus chlorinated compounds from phosphate materials using chlorination with gaseous chlorine. An industrial sample of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, after transformation into calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7, is subjected to reactions with Cl2+CO+N2 and Cl2+C+N2 at temperatures ranging from 625 to 950°C using boat experiments. Gathering results of the thermodynamic predictions and TG/DT analysis with those of SEM and XRD examinations of the chlorinated residues allowed the interpretation of phenomena and reactions mechanism occurring during the calcium pyrophosphate carbochlorination. Reaction rate of Ca2P2O7 by Cl2+CO+N2 at 950°C is slowed down due to the formation of a CaCl2 liquid layer acting as a barrier for the diffusion of the reactive gases and further reaction progress. While, the carbochlorination with Cl2+C+N2 led to almost full chlorination of Ca2P2O7 at 750°C and the process proceeds with an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol between 625 and 750°C. Carbochlorination technique can be considered as an alternative and selective route for the valorization of low grade phosphates and for the phosphorus extraction from its bearing materials.

  4. ESecRout: An Energy Efficient Secure Routing for Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Yin; Madria, Sanjay K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Energy Efficient Secure Routing Protocol for Sensor Networks (ESecRout). The protocol uses the symmetric cryptography to secure messages, and uses a small cache in sensor nodes to record the partial routing path (previous and next nodes) to the destination. It guarantees that the destination will be able to identify and discard the tampered messages and ensure that the messages received are not tampered with. Simulation shows ESecRout's performance comparison with...

  5. Spatial Cognition in Synthetic Environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The current dissertation discussed the use of Virtual Reality in product design, referred to as the use of Synthetic Environments (SEs). The research of two basic and two case studies focused on investigating the effectiveness of SEs for the users. We expected that the users’ insight in the

  6. Synthetic Aperture Radar - Hardware Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rosner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental real and synthetic aperture radar are developed from the base-band digital unit to the analogue RF parts, based on solid state units, using pulse compression for radar imaging. Proper QPSK code is found for matched filter.

  7. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  8. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal r...

  9. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  10. Digital 'faces' of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Kathrin

    2013-06-01

    In silicio design plays a fundamental role in the endeavour to synthesise biological systems. In particular, computer-aided design software enables users to manage the complexity of biological entities that is connected to their construction and reconfiguration. The software's graphical user interface bridges the gap between the machine-readable data on the algorithmic subface of the computer and its human-amenable surface represented by standardised diagrammatic elements. Notations like the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), together with interactive operations such as drag & drop, allow the user to visually design and simulate synthetic systems as 'bio-algorithmic signs'. Finally, the digital programming process should be extended to the wet lab to manufacture the designed synthetic biological systems. By exploring the different 'faces' of synthetic biology, I argue that in particular computer-aided design (CAD) is pushing the idea to automatically produce de novo objects. Multifaceted software processes serve mutually aesthetic, epistemic and performative purposes by simultaneously black-boxing and bridging different data sources, experimental operations and community-wide standards. So far, synthetic biology is mainly a product of digital media technologies that structurally mimic the epistemological challenge to take both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of biological systems into account in order to understand and produce new and functional entities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  12. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  13. Perspectives on Illegal Routes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    region as a result of economic, social and political problems. Africans have through the ages moved .... The aim of this study is to look into perspectives on illegal routes in Nigeria as it relates to the Nigeria Immigration ... proliferation of illegal routes and ways of managing and curbing such. The data collected will assist the ...

  14. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  15. Express Routing Transportation Surveys. Research Department Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter D.

    Express routing, under consideration by San Diego (California) Public Schools, is a form of bus transportation that picks up and drops off students at centralized points instead of driving through residential neighborhoods. This report examines other, similar districts' experiences in applying express routing in integration and other school…

  16. Biocatalytic Route to Surface Active Lipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipid can be structurally modified in order to attain improved functional properties. This work look into the possibilities of developing surface active lipids with improved functional properties through biocatalytic route. Biocatalytic route to surface active lipid are usually complex involving ...... distinct self assembling property and find useful application in surfactant industry....

  17. Routing in Optical and Stochastic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most types of networks (e.g., optical or transportation networks), finding one or more best paths from a source to a destination, is one of the biggest concerns of network users and providers. This process is known as routing. The routing problems differ accordingly depending on different

  18. Suitable Route Recommendation Inspired by Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Jiajin; Zhou, Erzhong; Huang, Zhisheng; Zhong, Ning; Zhong, Ning; Ma, Jianhua; Liu, Jiming; Huang, Runhe; Tao, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, large amounts of real and reliable mobile phone data are being generated every day. These mobile phone data represent the practical travel routes of users and imply the intelligence of them in selecting a suitable route. Usually, an experienced user

  19. Joint Route Planning under Varying Market Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Braysy, O.; Dullaert, W.; Fleuren, H.A.; Salomon, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence on the level of savings that can be attained by joint route planning and how these savings depend on specific market characteristics.Design/methodology/approach - Joint route planning is a measure that companies can take to decrease the costs of their

  20. Inventory routing for dynamic waste collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of collecting waste from sensor equipped underground containers. These sensors enable the use of a dynamic collection policy. The problem, which is known as a reverse inventory routing problem, involves decisions regarding routing and container selection. In more dense

  1. Inventory routing for dynamic waste collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of collecting waste from sensor equipped underground containers. These sensors enable the use of a dynamic collection policy. The problem, which is known as a reverse inventory routing problem, involves decisions regarding routing and container selection. In more dense

  2. 7 CFR 1000.3 - Route disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.3 Route disposition. Route disposition means a delivery to a retail or wholesale outlet...

  3. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  4. Improvement of thermoelectric properties of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 1}.8O{sub x} through solution synthetic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M. A.; Sotelo, A.; Raskeh, S. H.; Serrano, I.; Constantinescu, C.; Madre, M. A.; Diez, J. C.

    2012-07-01

    Several solution synthetic methods, sol-gel and a polymeric route, have been studied in order to obtain Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 1}.8O{sub x} ceramics with improved thermoelectric properties, compared to the classical solid state reaction. The products obtained by these different methods have been compared using DTA-TGA, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermoelectric characterizations. All the samples obtained by solution synthesis show higher homogeneity and lower content of secondary phases. The main differences in thermo electrical properties are due to the decrease of electrical resistivity in samples obtained by solution methods, compared with the solid state obtained samples. Between them, the decrease is especially high for those samples prepared by the polymer solution method. Therefore, the polymeric solution synthesis route is shown to yield a power factor four times higher than the obtained for the solid state and sol-gel methods at room temperature. (Author) 17 refs.

  5. Production of Synthetic Nuclear Melt Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgaard, Joshua J; Auxier, John D; Giminaro, Andrew V; Oldham, Colton J; Gill, Jonathan; Hall, Howard L

    2016-01-04

    Realistic surrogate nuclear debris is needed within the nuclear forensics community to test and validate post-detonation analysis techniques. Here we outline a novel process for producing bulk surface debris using a high temperature furnace. The material developed in this study is physically and chemically similar to trinitite (the melt glass produced by the first nuclear test). This synthetic nuclear melt glass is assumed to be similar to the vitrified material produced near the epicenter (ground zero) of any surface nuclear detonation in a desert environment. The process outlined here can be applied to produce other types of nuclear melt glass including that likely to be formed in an urban environment. This can be accomplished by simply modifying the precursor matrix to which this production process is applied. The melt glass produced in this study has been analyzed and compared to trinitite, revealing a comparable crystalline morphology, physical structure, void fraction, and chemical composition.

  6. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  7. Thermoluminescence of natural and synthetic diopside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, N.F. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.br; Yauri, J.M. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); University of Alas Peruanas, Environmental Engineering, Arequipa (Peru); Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mittani, J.C.R. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-3072 (United States); Blak, A.R. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Diopside, a natural silicate mineral of formula CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}, has been investigated concerning its thermoluminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties. Glow curves and TL vs. {gamma}-dose were obtained irradiating natural samples to additional dose varying from 50 to 10,000 Gy. Except for a 410 deg. C peak found in the Al-doped artificial diopside, all the other peaks grow linearly with radiation dose, but saturate beyond {approx}1 kGy. To investigate high-temperature effect before irradiation, measurements of TL intensity in samples annealed at 500-900 deg. C and then irradiated to 1 kGy {gamma}-dose were carried out. Also the TL emission spectrum has been obtained. To compare with natural diopside, a synthetic pure polycrystal was produced and further those doped with iron, aluminum and manganese were also produced.

  8. Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2017-10-27

    We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.

  9. Design of a routing controller in ASON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dongfeng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Aiping; Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoyi; Gu, Wanyi

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, according to the ITU-T recommendation G.8080, we present a novel architecture of RC based on the extended GMPLS, which consists of interface component, OSPF-TE component, route computation component and routing information database. The RC is emulated in the ASON simulation software developed by us, where the OSPF is extended as the routing protocol and GMPLS RSVP-TE is adopted as signalling protocol. In the simulation, the RWA scheme, the fixed shortest path routing way and first fit wavelength algorithm, is used. The simulation results of RC have been presented in terms of flooding time (FT), flooding overhead (FO) and route computing time. The FT and FO just have a very little change under different traffic load, which indicates that re-flooding is rare and the RC works efficiently.

  10. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    A behaviourally realistic description of the route choice process should consider variables that are both observable, such as travel time and cost, and unobservable, such as attitudes, perceptions, spatial abilities and network knowledge. This manuscript focuses on automotive route choice behaviour...... by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic....... A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...

  11. User habits and multimodal route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Katona

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of route planning researches are monitored by logistic and automotive industries. The economic aspects of the cost saving are in the focus of the attention. An optimal route could cause time or fuel savings. An effective driving or an optimal route is a good basis to achieve an economical aim. Moreover the spread of new automotive solutions especially in case of electric cars the optimisation has particular significance regarding the limited battery storage. Additionally the autonomous car development could not be neglected. As a result the society could expect safer roads, better space usage and effective resource management. Nevertheless the requirements of users are extremely diverse, which is not negligible. Supporting these aims, in this paper the connection between the multimodal route planning and the user requirements are investigated. The examination is focused to a sensitivity analysis and a survey to evaluate the data and support the settings of a user habit effect to the final route.

  12. Biobased and Sustainable Alternative Route to Long-Chain Cellulose Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebrane, Mohamed; Terziev, Nasko; Heinmaa, Ivo

    2017-02-13

    Fatty acid cellulose esters (FACEs), which have been identified recently as sustainable film materials, are conventionally synthesized by the use of the reaction with acyl chloride/anhydride pyridine in the presence of LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide. In this study, we have developed a new synthetic route to FACEs using a vinyl ester of long chain fatty acid, which is an excellent biobased and highly reactive reagent, for the functionalization of cellulose. The developed method involves the synthesis of the long aliphatic fatty acid vinyl ester via a transition-metal-catalyzed transvinylation reaction between vinyl acetate and the fatty acid, followed by its subsequent reaction with cellulose to yield FACEs. In this work, we have used vinyl oleate as a model precursor to introduce the fatty acid chain to cellulose. The covalent grafting of the fatty acid chain to the free hydroxyl groups of cellulose was achieved through potassium carbonate (K2CO3)-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl oleate in the presence of N-methyl pyrrolidone as solvent with low toxicity. Successful functionalization of cellulose was confirmed by FTIR, 13C CP-MAS NMR, X-ray diffraction, and the thermogravimetric analysis. The results obtained showed that the functionalization efficiency of the cellulose increased with higher temperature and prolonged reaction times. The strategy proposed in the present work is an important step onward in terms of sustainability because the long-chain vinyl ester can be synthesized from a renewable and biobased source, and the toxic and corrosive chemicals commonly employed for cellulose esterification are avoided.

  13. Critical Routes: Women Facing Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.

  14. Aircraft en route noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from a laboratory experiment conducted in order to quantify the annoyance experienced by people on the ground in response to en route noise (ERN) generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. Objectives included the comparison of annoyance responses to ERN with the annoyance responses to takeoff and landing noise; the comparison of the annoyance responses to advanced turboprop aircraft ERN with those of the turbofan ERN; and also the ability of aircraft noise measurement procedures and corrections to predict annoyance to ERN. Tests were conducted at the Langley Acoustics Research Laboratory on 32 human subjects selected at random. Subjects judged the annoyance level of 24 Propfan Test Assessment advanced turboprop ERN stimuli, 18 conventional turbofan ERN stimuli, and 60 conventional turboprop and turbofan takeoff and landing noise stimuli. Analysis of resulting data compared annoyance responses to different aircraft types and operations, examined the ability of current noise measurement and correction procedures to predict annoyance ERN, and calculated optimum duration correction magnitudes for ERN.

  15. Single-crystalline ZnGa2O4 spinel phosphor via a single-source inorganic precursor route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lu; Xiang, Xu; Wei, Min; Li, Feng; Evans, David G

    2008-02-18

    The synthesis of single-crystalline ZnGa 2O 4 spinel phosphor with intense ultraviolet-emitting properties through a novel single-source inorganic precursor route is reported. This synthetic approach involves the calcination of a Zn-Ga layered double hydroxide precursor followed by selective leaching of the self-generated zinc oxide. Material characterization has been presented by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, UV-vis, and photoluminescence measurements. The results indicate that a single-crystalline ZnGa 2O 4 spinel with an average particle size of around 150 nm has been obtained at a lower calcination temperature and shorter calcination time compared with that with the high-temperature solid-state reaction method, based on the fact that the large amount of highly dispersed ZnO particles generated during the high-temperature calcination of the single-source inorganic precursor has a remarkable segregation and inhibition effect on the growth of ZnGa 2O 4 spinel. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that that Ga (3+) ions locate not only on the octahedral sites but also on the tetrahedral sites in the matrix of the ZnGa 2O 4 spinel structure, and the Ga-O coordination environment has a great influence on the photoluminescence of ZnGa 2O 4 phosphors.

  16. Polyethylenimine-mediated synthetic insertion of gold nanoparticles into mesoporous silica nanoparticles for drug loading and biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prem C; Pandey, Govind; Narayan, Roger J

    2017-03-27

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) have been used as an efficient and safe carrier for drug delivery and biocatalysis. The surface modification of MSNPs using suitable reagents may provide a robust framework in which two or more components can be incorporated to give multifunctional capabilities (e.g., synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles within mesoporous architecture along with loading of a bioactive molecule). In this study, the authors reported on a new synthetic route for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) within (1) unmodified MSNPs and (2) 3-trihydroxysilylpropyl methylphosphonate-modified MSNPs. A cationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), and formaldehyde were used to mediate synthetic incorporation of AuNPs within MSNPs. The AuNPs incorporated within the mesoporous matrix were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. PEI in the presence of formaldehyde enabled synthetic incorporation of AuNPs in both unmodified and modified MSNPs. The use of unmodified MSNPs was associated with an increase in the polycrystalline structure of the AuNPs within the MSNPs. The AuNPs within modified MSNPs showed better catalytic activity than those within unmodified MSNPs. MSNPs with an average size of 200 nm and with a pore size of 4-6 nm were used for synthetic insertion of AuNPs. It was found that the PEI coating enabled AuNPs synthesis within the mesopores in the presence of formaldehyde or tetrahydrofuran hydroperoxide at a temperature between 10 and 25 °C or at 60 °C in the absence of organic reducing agents. The as-made AuNP-inserted MSNPs exhibited enhanced catalytic activity. For example, these materials enabled rapid catalytic oxidation of the o-dianisidine substrate to produce a colored solution in proportion to the amount of H2O2 generated as a function of glucose oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of glucose; a linear concentration range from 80 to 800

  17. 49 CFR 397.103 - Requirements for State routing designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Preferred Highway Routes for Highway Route Controlled Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials,” or an... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS; DRIVING AND PARKING RULES Routing of Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 397.103 Requirements for State routing designations. (a) The State routing agency, as defined in...

  18. Vaping Synthetic Cannabinoids: A Novel Preclinical Model of E-Cigarette Use in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy W Lefever

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the most common route of administration for cannabis; however, vaping cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids (“fake marijuana” in electronic cigarette devices has become increasingly popular. Yet, most animal models used to investigate biological mechanisms underlying cannabis use employ injection as the route of administration. This study evaluated a novel e-cigarette device that delivers aerosolized cannabinoids to mice. The effects of aerosolized and injected synthetic cannabinoids (CP 55,940, AB-CHMINACA, XLR-11, and JWH-018 in mice were compared in a battery of bioassays in which psychoactive cannabinoids produce characteristic effects. The most potent cannabinoids (CP 55,940 and AB-CHMINACA produced the full cannabinoid profile (ie, hypothermia, hypolocomotion, and analgesia, regardless of the route of administration. In contrast, aerosolized JWH-018 and XLR-11 did not produce the full profile of cannabimimetic effects. Results of time course analysis for hypothermia showed that aerosol exposure to CP 55,940 and AB-CHMINACA produced faster onset of effects and shorter duration of action than injection. The ability to administer cannabinoids to rodents using the most common route of administration among humans provides a method for collecting preclinical data with enhanced translational relevance.

  19. Vaping Synthetic Cannabinoids: A Novel Preclinical Model of E-Cigarette Use in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Timothy W; Marusich, Julie A; Thomas, Brian F; Barrus, Daniel G; Peiper, Nicholas C; Kevin, Richard C; Wiley, Jenny L

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the most common route of administration for cannabis; however, vaping cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids ("fake marijuana") in electronic cigarette devices has become increasingly popular. Yet, most animal models used to investigate biological mechanisms underlying cannabis use employ injection as the route of administration. This study evaluated a novel e-cigarette device that delivers aerosolized cannabinoids to mice. The effects of aerosolized and injected synthetic cannabinoids (CP 55,940, AB-CHMINACA, XLR-11, and JWH-018) in mice were compared in a battery of bioassays in which psychoactive cannabinoids produce characteristic effects. The most potent cannabinoids (CP 55,940 and AB-CHMINACA) produced the full cannabinoid profile (ie, hypothermia, hypolocomotion, and analgesia), regardless of the route of administration. In contrast, aerosolized JWH-018 and XLR-11 did not produce the full profile of cannabimimetic effects. Results of time course analysis for hypothermia showed that aerosol exposure to CP 55,940 and AB-CHMINACA produced faster onset of effects and shorter duration of action than injection. The ability to administer cannabinoids to rodents using the most common route of administration among humans provides a method for collecting preclinical data with enhanced translational relevance.

  20. In situ Precursor-Template Route to Semi-Ordered NaNbO3 Nanobelt Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junshu; Xue, Dongfeng

    2011-12-01

    We exploited a precursor-template route to chemically synthesize NaNbO3 nanobelt arrays. Na7(H3O)Nb6O19·14H2O nanobelt precursor was firstly prepared via a hydrothermal synthetic route using Nb foil. The aspect ratio of the precursor is controllable facilely depending on the concentration of NaOH aqueous solution. The precursor was calcined in air to yield single-crystalline monoclinic NaNbO3 nanobelt arrays. The proposed scheme for NaNbO3 nanobelt formation starting from Nb metal may be extended to the chemical fabrication of more niobate arrays.

  1. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchiades, F. G.; Daros, M. T.; Boschi, A. O.

    2010-07-01

    In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. NABUCCO pipeline route selection through Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Volkan [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Geomatics Engineering; Yomralioglu, Tahsin [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Geomatics Engineering

    2011-03-15

    Pipelines are one of the most effective methods of transferring energy sources like petroleum and gas. In pipeline projects, decreasing the cost, reducing environmental issues and shortening the construction time are related to determining the right route at the beginning of the project. Route determination is usually carried out manually with the help of traditional methods. However, this technique is not effective in many situations because it does not evaluate the factors that affect the route as a whole. In fact, technique, economy, environmental and sociological issues should be examined as a whole in the route determination process. Evaluation of the factors affecting the route is possible with the analysis of many spatial datasets from the same system. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been shown to be an effective way for analyzing these types of intensive datasets. In this study, a suggestion related to the NABUCCO Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline project has been made using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is a technique using GIS and multi-criteria decision making. The effectiveness of this method was proven by comparing part of the determined Optimal Route with a length of 557 km with the Proposed Route, which has currently been planned. (orig.)

  3. Optimizing Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Spatial compound images are constructed from synthetic aperture data acquired using a linear phased-array transducer. Compound images of wires, tissue, and cysts are created using a method, which allows both transmit and receive compounding without any loss in temporal resolution. Similarly...... to conventional imaging, the speckle reduction achieved by spatial compounding comes at the cost of a reduced detail resolution and a compromise must be made. Using a performance indicator, which can be measured from an image of a phantom without cysts, it is demonstrated how a compromise can be made, which...... is optimal for lesion detection. Synthetic aperture data are acquired from unfocused emissions and 154 compound images are constructed by synthesizing different aperture configurations with more or less compounding, all maintaining a constant resolution across depth corresponding to an f-number of 2...

  4. Engineering Ecosystems and Synthetic Ecologies#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Michael T; Wang, Harris H

    2012-01-01

    Microbial ecosystems play an important role in nature. Engineering these systems for industrial, medical, or biotechnological purposes are important pursuits for synthetic biologists and biological engineers moving forward. Here, we provide a review of recent progress in engineering natural and synthetic microbial ecosystems. We highlight important forward engineering design principles, theoretical and quantitative models, new experimental and manipulation tools, and possible applications of microbial ecosystem engineering. We argue that simply engineering individual microbes will lead to fragile homogenous populations that are difficult to sustain, especially in highly heterogeneous and unpredictable environments. Instead, engineered microbial ecosystems are likely to be more robust and able to achieve complex tasks at the spatial and temporal resolution needed for truly programmable biology. PMID:22722235

  5. Synthetic microbial ecosystems for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhal, Jagroop; Noirel, Josselin

    2014-06-01

    Most highly controlled and specific applications of microorganisms in biotechnology involve pure cultures. Maintaining single strain cultures is important for industry as contaminants can reduce productivity and lead to longer "down-times" during sterilisation. However, microbes working together provide distinct advantages over pure cultures. They can undertake more metabolically complex tasks, improve efficiency and even expand applications to open systems. By combining rapidly advancing technologies with ecological theory, the use of microbial ecosystems in biotechnology will inevitably increase. This review provides insight into the use of synthetic microbial communities in biotechnology by applying the engineering paradigm of measure, model, manipulate and manufacture, and illustrate the emerging wider potential of the synthetic ecology field. Systems to improve biofuel production using microalgae are also discussed.

  6. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  7. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Droplet microfluidics for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Philip C; Iwai, Kosuke; Kim, Peter W; Hillson, Nathan J; Singh, Anup K

    2017-10-11

    Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to engineer biological systems for useful purposes. Organism engineering often requires the optimization of individual genes and/or entire biological pathways (consisting of multiple genes). Advances in DNA sequencing and synthesis have recently begun to enable the possibility of evaluating thousands of gene variants and hundreds of thousands of gene combinations. However, such large-scale optimization experiments remain cost-prohibitive to researchers following traditional molecular biology practices, which are frequently labor-intensive and suffer from poor reproducibility. Liquid handling robotics may reduce labor and improve reproducibility, but are themselves expensive and thus inaccessible to most researchers. Microfluidic platforms offer a lower entry price point alternative to robotics, and maintain high throughput and reproducibility while further reducing operating costs through diminished reagent volume requirements. Droplet microfluidics have shown exceptional promise for synthetic biology experiments, including DNA assembly, transformation/transfection, culturing, cell sorting, phenotypic assays, artificial cells and genetic circuits.

  9. Synthetic approaches to aromatic belts: building up strain in macrocyclic polyarenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David; Shenhar, Roy; Rabinovitz, Mordecai

    2010-08-01

    This tutorial review discusses synthetic strategies towards aromatic belts, defined here as double-stranded conjugated macrocycles, such as [n]cyclacenes, [n]cyclophenacenes, Schlüter belt, and Vögtle belt. Their appeal stems, firstly, from the unique nature of their conjugation, having p orbitals oriented radially rather than perpendicular to the plane of the macrocycle. Secondly, as aromatic belts are model compounds of carbon nanotubes of different chiralities, a synthetic strategy towards the buildup of structural strain in these compounds could finally open a route towards rational chemical synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The elusiveness of these compounds has stimulated fascinating and ingenious synthetic strategies over the last decades. The various strategies are classified here by their approach to the buildup of structural strain, which is the main obstacle in the preparation of these curved polyarenes.

  10. The path to next generation biofuels: successes and challenges in the era of synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Volatility of oil prices along with major concerns about climate change, oil supply security and depleting reserves have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Recent advances in synthetic biology provide new tools for metabolic engineers to direct their strategies and construct optimal biocatalysts for the sustainable production of biofuels. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology efforts entailing the engineering of native and de novo pathways for conversion of biomass constituents to short-chain alcohols and advanced biofuels are herewith reviewed. In the foreseeable future, formal integration of functional genomics and systems biology with synthetic biology and metabolic engineering will undoubtedly support the discovery, characterization, and engineering of new metabolic routes and more efficient microbial systems for the production of biofuels. PMID:20089184

  11. Routing problems based on hils system platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Adamski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The logistic systems are very complex socio-technical systems. In this paper the proposal of application of the hierarchical multi-layers system platform HILS approach for the solution of the complex vehicle routing problems is presented. The interactive system functional structure was proposed which by intelligent dedicated inter-layers interactions enables the professional solutions of these practical problems. To illustrate these capabilities the complex example of the real-time VRP-SPD-TW routing problem was presented in which upper layers offers the context-related real-time updating network specifications that stimulates the adequate routing parameters and specifications updating for problem solution in optimization layer. At the bottom dispatching control layer the DISCON (Dispatching CONtrol method from public transport was adopted to logistics applications in which the actual routing is treated as obligatory reference schedule to be stabilized. The intelligence aspects are related among others to HILS based decomposition, context-related trade-offs between routing modifications and corrective dispatching control capabilities e.g. priority or route guidance actions. Methods: Decomposition of the vehicle routing problem for the HILS layers tasks creating the ILS system hierarchical structure. Dedicated solution method for the VRP-SPD-TW routing problem. The recognition of the control preferences structure by AHP-Entropy methods. DISCON and PIACON multi-criteria interacting control methods. Results: Original formulation and solution of the vehicle routing problem by system-wide approach with essential practical advantages: consistency, lack of redundancy, essential reduction of dimension, dedicated formulation, multi-criteria approach, exploration of the integration and intelligence features supported by the intelligent PIACON-DISCON methods control activities Conclusions: The presented proposal creates the professional

  12. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    James Fratantonio; Lawrence Andrade; Marcelo Febo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance...

  13. Experimental research of the synthetic jet generator designs based on actuation of diaphragm with piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimasauskiene, R.; Matejka, M.; Ostachowicz, W.; Kurowski, M.; Malinowski, P.; Wandowski, T.; Rimasauskas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental analyses of four own developed synthetic jet generator designs were presented in this paper. The main task of this work was to find the most appropriate design of the synthetic jet generator. Dynamic characteristics of the synthetic jet generator's diaphragm with piezoelectric material were measured using non-contact measuring equipment laser vibrometer Polytec®PSV 400. Temperatures of the piezoelectric diaphragms working in resonance frequency were measured with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor. Experimental analysis of the synthetic jet generator amplitude-frequency characteristics were performed using CTA (hot wire anemometer) measuring techniques. Piezoelectric diaphragm in diameter of 27 mm was excited by sinusoidal voltage signal and it was fixed tightly inside the chamber of the synthetic jet generator. The number of the synthetic jet generator orifices (1 or 3) and volume of cavity (height of cavity vary from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm) were changed. The highest value of the synthetic jet velocity 25 m/s was obtained with synthetic jet generator which has cavity 0.5 mm and 1 orifice (resonance frequency of the piezoelectric diaphragm 2.8 kHz). It can be concluded that this type of the design is preferred in order to get the peak velocity of the synthetic jet.

  14. Cell microencapsulation with synthetic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Ronke M

    2015-02-01

    The encapsulation of cells into polymeric microspheres or microcapsules has permitted the transplantation of cells into human and animal subjects without the need for immunosuppressants. Cell-based therapies use donor cells to provide sustained release of a therapeutic product, such as insulin, and have shown promise in treating a variety of diseases. Immunoisolation of these cells via microencapsulation is a hotly investigated field, and the preferred material of choice has been alginate, a natural polymer derived from seaweed due to its gelling conditions. Although many natural polymers tend to gel in conditions favorable to mammalian cell encapsulation, there remain challenges such as batch to batch variability and residual components from the original source that can lead to an immune response when implanted into a recipient. Synthetic materials have the potential to avoid these issues; however, historically they have required harsh polymerization conditions that are not favorable to mammalian cells. As research into microencapsulation grows, more investigators are exploring methods to microencapsulate cells into synthetic polymers. This review describes a variety of synthetic polymers used to microencapsulate cells. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 21 CFR 178.3500 - Glycerin, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glycerin, synthetic. 178.3500 Section 178.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3500 Glycerin, synthetic. Synthetic glycerin may be safely...

  16. 21 CFR 175.250 - Paraffin (synthetic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Paraffin (synthetic). 175.250 Section 175.250 Food... for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.250 Paraffin (synthetic). Synthetic paraffin may be safely... process from carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are catalytically converted to a mixture of paraffin...

  17. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    . Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones......On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology...

  18. A Graphical Method for Great Circle Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Tien-Pen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great circle route (GCR is the shortest route on a spherical earth model. Do we have a visual diagram to handle the shortest route? In this paper, a graphical method (GM is proposed to solve the GCR problems based on the celestial meridian diagram (CMD in celestial navigation. Unlike developed algebraic methods, the GM is a geometric method. Appling computer software to graph, the GM does not use any equations but is as accurate as using algebraic methods. In addition, the GM, which emphasizes the rotational surface, can depict a GCR and judge its benefit.

  19. Rich Vehicle Routing Problems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min

    . We first consider a vehicle routing problem with cross-docking options, in which products are picked up from suppliers by vehicles, consolidated at the depot and immediately delivered to customers by the same set of vehicles. It is more complex than the traditional vehicle routing problems...... the company’s solution in terms of all the objectives, including the travel time, customer waiting and daily workload balances, under the given constraints considered in the work. Finally, we address an integrated vehicle routing and driver scheduling problem, in which a large number of practical constraints...

  20. Synthesis of Zeolites Using the ADOR (Assembly-Disassembly-Organization-Reassembly) Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Paul S; Čejka, Jiří; Morris, Russell E

    2016-04-03

    Zeolites are an important class of materials that have wide ranging applications such as heterogeneous catalysts and adsorbents which are dependent on their framework topology. For new applications or improvements to existing ones, new zeolites with novel pore systems are desirable. We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of novel zeolites using the ADOR route. ADOR is an acronym for Assembly, Disassembly, Organization and Reassembly. This synthetic route takes advantage of the assembly of a relatively poorly stable that which can be selectively disassembled into a layered material. The resulting layered intermediate can then be organized in different manners by careful chemical manipulation and then reassembled into zeolites with new topologies. By carefully controlling the organization step of the synthetic pathway, new zeolites with never before seen topologies are capable of being synthesized. The structures of these new zeolites are confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction and further characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. This new synthetic pathway for zeolites demonstrates its capability to produce novel frameworks that have never been prepared by traditional zeolite synthesis techniques.

  1. Quantum spin liquids: a large-S route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchernyshyov, Oleg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2004-03-24

    This paper explores the large-S route to quantum disorder in the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the pyrochlore lattice and its homologues in lower dimensions. It is shown that zero-point fluctuations of spins shape up a valence-bond solid at low temperatures for one two-dimensional lattice and a liquid with very short-range valence-bond correlations for another. A one-dimensional model demonstrates potential significance of quantum interference effects (as in Haldane's gap): the quantum melting of a valence-bond order yields different valence-bond liquids for integer and half-integer values of S.

  2. Children's route choice during active transportation to school: difference between shortest and actual route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessing, Dirk; de Vries, Sanne I; Hegeman, Geertje; Verhagen, Evert; van Mechelen, Willem; Pierik, Frank H

    2016-04-12

    The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible route to school. Children (n = 184; 86 boys, 98 girls; age range: 8-12 years) from seven schools in suburban municipalities in the Netherlands participated in the study. Actual walking and cycling routes to school were measured with a GPS-device that children wore during an entire school week. Measurements were conducted in the period April-June 2014. Route characteristics for both actual and shortest routes between home and school were determined for a buffer of 25 m from the routes and divided into four categories: Land use (residential, commercial, recreational, traffic areas), Aesthetics (presence of greenery/natural water ways along route), Traffic (safety measures such as traffic lights, zebra crossings, speed bumps) and Type of street (pedestrian, cycling, residential streets, arterial roads). Comparison of characteristics of shortest and actual routes was performed with conditional logistic regression models. Median distance of the actual walking routes was 390.1 m, whereas median distance of actual cycling routes was 673.9 m. Actual walking and cycling routes were not significantly longer than the shortest possible routes. Children mainly traveled through residential areas on their way to school (>80% of the route). Traffic lights were found to be positively associated with route choice during ATS. Zebra crossings were less often present along the actual routes (walking: OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05-0.58; cycling: OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14-0.67), and streets with a high occurrence of accidents were less often used during cycling to school (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.76). Moreover, percentage of visible surface water along the actual route was higher

  3. Pyrolytic gasification characteristics of waste tires and waste synthetic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Nam-Sun; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Shin, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Chan [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejeon(Korea)

    2000-02-28

    Characteristics of pyrolytic gasification were examined for the waste tire and 7 types of waste synthetic resin, using a bench scale experimental facility. The product gas temperature of waste tires was 150-300 deg.C and the temperature profile in the combustion zone of the lower reactor part tended to be clearly distinguished from that in the gasification zone of the upper part. However, in the case of waste synthetic resins, there were no clear distinction and temperature fluctuation was severe, depending on the reaction time. Product gas quantity, which depends on that of supplied (1st) air, was found to be 105-135% of the 1st air amount at the steady state. The concentration of noncombustible components in product gas was 80-90 vol.% and the high heating value of the product gas calculated from gas compositions was 1,500-3,000 kcal/Nm{sup 3} for waste tire, and 300-2,900 kcal/Nm{sup 3} for waste synthetic resins, respectively. Heating value of product gas and combustible gas concentration were increased in proportion to 1st air amount when 1st air amount is below 0.35 Nm{sup 3}/min. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. Interpolative Boolean algebra based multicriteria routing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Marina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality-of-service of distributed applications, we propose a multi-criteria algorithm based on interpolative Boolean algebra for routing in an overlay network. We use a mesh topology because it can be easily implemented, and it makes addressing of the cores quite simple during routing. In this paper, we consider four criteria: buffer usage, the distance between peers, bandwidth, and remaining battery power. The proposed routing algorithm determines the path which satisfies quality-of service requirements using interpolative Boolean algebra; the decision at each node is made based on the ranking of available options considering multiple constraints. The simulation shows that the proposed approach provides better results than the standard shortest path routing algorithm.

  5. State Route 60 automated truck facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A research was conducted to evaluate a dedicated automated truck lane along a case study route 60 (Pomona : Freeway) to accommodate higher truck volume using AHS technologies and to estimate the associated costs of : such technologies. A cost analysi...

  6. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Alternative Administration Routes of Melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D.; Andersen, L. P.H.; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melatonin is traditionally administered orally but has a poor and variable bioavailability. This study aims to present an overview of studies investigating the pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed...... and included experimental or clinical studies, investigating pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin in vivo. Alternative administration routes were defined as all administration routes except oral and intravenous. Results: 10 studies were included in the review. Intranasal...... administration exhibited a quick absorption rate and high bioavailability. Transdermal administration displayed a variable absorption rate and possible deposition of melatonin in the skin. Oral transmucosal administration of melatonin exhibited a high plasma concentration compared to oral administration...

  8. A Multistage Method for Multiobjective Route Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Gen, Mitsuo

    The multiobjective route selection problem (m-RSP) is a key research topic in the car navigation system (CNS) for ITS (Intelligent Transportation System). In this paper, we propose an interactive multistage weight-based Dijkstra genetic algorithm (mwD-GA) to solve it. The purpose of the proposed approach is to create enough Pareto-optimal routes with good distribution for the car driver depending on his/her preference. At the same time, the routes can be recalculated according to the driver's preferences by the multistage framework proposed. In the solution approach proposed, the accurate route searching ability of the Dijkstra algorithm and the exploration ability of the Genetic algorithm (GA) are effectively combined together for solving the m-RSP problems. Solutions provided by the proposed approach are compared with the current research to show the effectiveness and practicability of the solution approach proposed.

  9. Coordinated Platoon Routing in a Metropolitan Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Jeffrey; Munson, Todd; Sokolov, Vadim

    2016-10-10

    Platooning vehicles—connected and automated vehicles traveling with small intervehicle distances—use less fuel because of reduced aerodynamic drag. Given a network de- fined by vertex and edge sets and a set of vehicles with origin/destination nodes/times, we model and solve the combinatorial optimization problem of coordinated routing of vehicles in a manner that routes them to their destination on time while using the least amount of fuel. Common approaches decompose the platoon coordination and vehicle routing into separate problems. Our model addresses both problems simultaneously to obtain the best solution. We use modern modeling techniques and constraints implied from analyzing the platoon routing problem to address larger numbers of vehicles and larger networks than previously considered. While the numerical method used is unable to certify optimality for candidate solutions to all networks and parameters considered, we obtain excellent solutions in approximately one minute for much larger networks and vehicle sets than previously considered in the literature.

  10. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  11. Human BDCM Mulit-Route PBPK Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains the code for the BDCM human multi-route model written in the programming language acsl. The final published manuscript is provided since it...

  12. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  13. Light olefins - challenges from new production routes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, H. [Linde Engineering, Pullach (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Light Olefins are the building blocks for many modern plastic products and are produced in large quantities. Driven by high crude oil prices, production is shifted to regions with low cost raw materials. Alternatives to the traditional production from Naphta, AGO and other crude products are becoming attractive. This paper evaluates several methods Ethylene and Pro-pylene production economically and also the regional advantageous routes. The analysis includes Steamcracking, dehydrogenation, dehydration of Ethanol, Methanol based routes and olefin conversion by Metathesis. (orig.)

  14. Criteria for Solar Car Optimized Route Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Hasicic, Mehrija; Bilic, Damir; Siljak, Harun

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives a thorough overview of Solar Car Optimized Route Estimation (SCORE), novel route optimization scheme for solar vehicles based on solar irradiance and target distance. In order to conduct the optimization, both data collection and the optimization algorithm itself have to be performed using appropriate hardware. Here we give an insight to both stages, hardware and software used and present some results of the SCORE system together with certain improvements of its fusion and op...

  15. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    on the contingency. For instance, if an enemy weapon is expected to hit a particular section of the ship, routes can be configured to avoid that...used to access fan rooms, storerooms, and spaces where interior bulkheads are required to be airtight. These doors prevent the spread of fire, toxic ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DYNAMIC ESCAPE ROUTES

  16. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  17. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  18. ACO Agent Based Routing in AOMDV Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is a group of moving nodes which can communicate with each other without the help of any central stationary node. All the nodes in the MANET act as router for forwarding data packets. The nodes in the network also move randomly and there exists no fixed infrastructure. So, path breaks are the frequent problem in MANET. The routing protocol faces a lot of problem due these path breaks. Therefore, the routing protocol which is multipath in nature is more reliable than a unipath routing protocol. Ant colony optimization is a relatively new technique which is suitable for the optimization problems. AOMDV is a multipath routing protocol. Thus, if there happens to be path break, the packets can start following the new path which has already been selected. In this paper, we are trying to add ant’s agents into AOMDV behavior. In this way, the new protocol will be benefited by the dual properties i.e. of ant’s nature and multipath nature of AOMDV. The modified concept is simulated and the outcomes are compared with AOMDV, AODV and DSR routing protocols for few performance parameters. Results obtained are encouraging; the new algorithm performs better than traditional unipath and multipath routing protocols.

  19. Annoyance caused by aircraft en route noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance response of people on the ground to enroute noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The en route noises were ground level recordings of eight advanced turboprop aircraft flyovers and six conventional turbofan flyovers. The eight advanced turboprop enroute noises represented the NASA Propfan Test Assessment aircraft operating at different combinations of altitude, aircraft Mach number, and propeller tip speed. The conventional turbofan en route noises represented six different commercial airliners. The overall durations of the en route noises varied from approximately 40 to 160 sec. In the experiment, 32 subjects judged the annoyance of the en route noises as well as recordings of the takeoff and landing noises of each of 5 conventional turboprop and 5 conventional turbofan aircraft. Each of the noises was presented at three sound pressure levels to the subjects in an anechoic listening room. Analysis of the judgments found small differences in annoyance between three combinations of aircraft type and operation. Current tone and corrections did not significantly improve en route annoyance prediction. The optimum duration-correction magnitude for en route noise was approximately 1 dB per doubling of effective duration.

  20. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  1. A route to hydroxylfluorenes: TsOH-mediated condensation reactions of 1,3-diketones with propargylic alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Liangfeng

    2012-01-01

    An efficient method of preparing hydroxylfluorenes by TsOH-mediated tandem alkylation/rearrangements of propargylic alcohols with 1,3-diketones is described. These reactions are accomplished in moderate to good yields under mild conditions to offer a straightforward and convenient one step synthetic route to hydroxylfluorene derivatives through a plausible mechanism involving a sequence of dehydration, addition, rearrangement and aromatization. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  2. Study of barytocalcite as a conditioning matrix for carbon 14: Comparison of several synthesis routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoni, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.massoni@cea.fr; Rosen, Jeremy; Chartier, Myriam; Cozzika, Théodore

    2013-10-15

    Carbon-14 arising from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing can disseminate into natural cycles and then its sequestration could be advantageous. In this study, we focus on the ceramic phase barytocalcite BaCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (8.08 wt.% C) obtained from different synthesis routes. We show that several elaboration routes are possible but only two emerge ensuring a high reaction yield for a fast process. The first is a room temperature aqueous precipitation with nitrated precursors and the other is a double salt high temperature reaction with carbonated starting compounds, both of these precursors being compatible with the usual carbon-14 trapping process. The sensibility to experimental conditions of reference synthesis route and the reaction mechanisms are investigated and discussed.

  3. Synthetic cornea: biocompatibility and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Kaminski, Stefan; Fernandez, Viviana; Alfonso, E.; Lamar, Peggy; Lacombe, Emmanuel; Duchesne, Bernard; Dubovy, Sander; Manns, Fabrice; Rol, Pascal O.

    2002-06-01

    Purpose. Experimentally find a method to provide a safe surgical technique and an inexpensive and long lasting mesoplant for the restoration of vision in patients with bilateral corneal blindness due to ocular surface and stromal diseases. Methods. Identify the least invasive and the safest surgical technique for synthetic cornea implantation. Identify the most compatible biomaterials and the optimal shape a synthetic cornea must have to last a long time when implanted in vivo. Results. Penetrating procedures were deemed too invasive, time consuming, difficult and prone to long term complications. Therefore a non-penetrating delamination technique with central trephination was developed to preserve the integrity of Descemet's membrane and the anterior segment. Even though this approach limits the number of indications, it is acceptable since the majority of patients only have opacities in the stroma. The prosthesis was designed to fit in the removed tissue plane with its skirt fitted under the delaminated stroma. To improve retention, the trephination wall was made conical with the smallest opening on the anterior surface and a hat-shaped mesoplant was made to fit. The skirt was perforated in its perimeter to allow passage of nutrients and tissues ingrowths. To simplify the fabrication procedure, the haptic and optic were made of the same polymer. The intrastromal biocompatibility of several hydrogels was found superior to current clinically used PMMA and PTFE materials. Monobloc mesoplants made of 4 different materials were implanted in rabbits and followed weekly until extrusion occurred. Some remained optically clear allowing for fundus photography. Conclusions. Hydrogel synthetic corneas can be made to survive for periods longer than 1 year. ArF excimer laser photoablation studies are needed to determine the refractive correction potential of these mesoplants. A pilot FDA clinical trial is needed to assess the mesoplant efficacy and very long-term stability.

  4. Synthetic geopolymers for controlled delivery of oxycodone: adjustable and nanostructured porosity enables tunable and sustained drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Johan; Pedersen, Christian; Strømme, Maria; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-03-15

    In this article we for the first time present a fully synthetic mesoporous geopolymer drug carrier for controlled release of opioids. Nanoparticulate precursor powders with different Al/Si-ratios were synthesized by a sol-gel route and used in the preparation of different geopolymers, which could be structurally tailored by adjusting the Al/Si-ratio and the curing temperatures. In particular, it was shown that the pore sizes of the geopolymers decreased with increasing Al/Si ratio and that completely mesoporous geopolymers could be produced from precursor particles with the Al/Si ratio 2:1. The mesoporosity was shown to be associated with a sustained and linear in vitro release profile of the opioid oxycodone. A clinically relevant release period of about 12 h was obtained by adjusting the size of the pellets. The easily fabricated and tunable geopolymers presented in this study constitute a novel approach in the development of controlled release formulations, not only for opioids, but whenever the clinical indication is best treated with a constant supply of drugs and when the mechanical stability of the delivery vehicle is crucial.

  5. Synthetic Geopolymers for Controlled Delivery of Oxycodone: Adjustable and Nanostructured Porosity Enables Tunable and Sustained Drug Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Johan; Pedersen, Christian; Strømme, Maria; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    In this article we for the first time present a fully synthetic mesoporous geopolymer drug carrier for controlled release of opioids. Nanoparticulate precursor powders with different Al/Si-ratios were synthesized by a sol-gel route and used in the preparation of different geopolymers, which could be structurally tailored by adjusting the Al/Si-ratio and the curing temperatures. In particular, it was shown that the pore sizes of the geopolymers decreased with increasing Al/Si ratio and that completely mesoporous geopolymers could be produced from precursor particles with the Al/Si ratio 2∶1. The mesoporosity was shown to be associated with a sustained and linear in vitro release profile of the opioid oxycodone. A clinically relevant release period of about 12 h was obtained by adjusting the size of the pellets. The easily fabricated and tunable geopolymers presented in this study constitute a novel approach in the development of controlled release formulations, not only for opioids, but whenever the clinical indication is best treated with a constant supply of drugs and when the mechanical stability of the delivery vehicle is crucial. PMID:21423616

  6. Synthetic geopolymers for controlled delivery of oxycodone: adjustable and nanostructured porosity enables tunable and sustained drug release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Forsgren

    Full Text Available In this article we for the first time present a fully synthetic mesoporous geopolymer drug carrier for controlled release of opioids. Nanoparticulate precursor powders with different Al/Si-ratios were synthesized by a sol-gel route and used in the preparation of different geopolymers, which could be structurally tailored by adjusting the Al/Si-ratio and the curing temperatures. In particular, it was shown that the pore sizes of the geopolymers decreased with increasing Al/Si ratio and that completely mesoporous geopolymers could be produced from precursor particles with the Al/Si ratio 2:1. The mesoporosity was shown to be associated with a sustained and linear in vitro release profile of the opioid oxycodone. A clinically relevant release period of about 12 h was obtained by adjusting the size of the pellets. The easily fabricated and tunable geopolymers presented in this study constitute a novel approach in the development of controlled release formulations, not only for opioids, but whenever the clinical indication is best treated with a constant supply of drugs and when the mechanical stability of the delivery vehicle is crucial.

  7. Synthesis of functional poly(disubstituted acetylene)s through the post-polymerization modification route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Jing Zhi; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-04-01

    We report the recent progress in the preparation of functional poly(disubstituted acetylene)s (PDSAs) through post-polymerization modification routes. The metathesis polymerization of disubstituted acetylene monomers activated by Mo/W-Sn complex catalysts, which do not tolerate highly polar functionalities, was assumed to be a key step in the polymer synthetic procedures. We and other groups have explored several approaches to prepare PDSAs with latent reactive functionalities, which are inactive to Mo/W-Sn complex catalysts but can be used as highly reactive sites for post-polymerization modification. Click chemistry, Michael-type addition reactions, the use of activated esters and other strategies are demonstrated by recently published examples. These works indicate that post-polymerization modification is an efficient route to the synthesis of various functional PDSAs. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A novel one-pot route for the synthesis of water-soluble cadmium selenide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwafemi, S. O.; Revaprasadu, N.; Ramirez, A. J.

    2008-06-01

    A novel, facile one-pot synthetic route to highly water dispersible and potentially biocompatible CdSe nanoparticles is reported. The monodispersed CdSe particles are passivated by cysteine, with water being the solvent. This route involves the reaction of selenium powder with sodium borohydride to produce selenide ions, followed by the addition of a cadmium salt and L-cysteine ethyl ester hydrochloride. The nanoparticles formed show quantum confinement fluorescing in the blue region. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study shows that CdSe nanoparticles are capped through mercapto group of the amino acid cysteine whilst its free amino and carboxylate groups make it amenable to bioconjugation establishing the possibility of using these as fluorescent biomarkers. High-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy images of these materials show well-defined, crystalline nanosized particles. Energy dispersive spectroscopy spectra confirm the presence of the corresponding elements.

  9. Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeoreh; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Youngchan; Hillman, Timothy R; Min, Bumki; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-09-23

    We present synthetic Fourier transform light scattering, a method for measuring extended angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual microscopic samples. By measuring the light fields scattered from the sample plane and numerically synthesizing them in Fourier space, the angle range of the ARLS patterns is extended up to twice the numerical aperture of the imaging system with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Extended ARLS patterns of individual microscopic polystyrene beads, healthy human red blood cells (RBCs), and Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs are presented.

  10. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  11. Protease-Sensitive Synthetic Prions

    OpenAIRE

    Colby, David W.; Wain, Rachel; Baskakov, Ilia V.; Legname, Giuseppe; Palmer, Christina G.; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Lemus, Azucena; Cohen, Fred E.; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2010-01-01

    Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrPC) undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrPSc. Frequently, PrPSc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s) prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec) PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but no...

  12. Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of a three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere.

  13. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael R.; Atsumi, Shota

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges. PMID:20827393

  14. Electrocoagulation of synthetic dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczynski, Lech; Munska, Kamilla; Pierozynski, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of pollutant removal from synthetic dairy wastewater electrocoagulated by means of aluminum and iron anodic dissolution. A method based on the cubic function (third degree polynomial) was proposed for electrocoagulant dosing. Mathematical methods for calculating the optimal electrocoagulant doses proved to be quite precise and useful for practical applications. The results of gravimetric measurements of electrocoagulant (electrode) consumption demonstrated that theoretical doses of Al determined based on Faraday's law were substantially lower than those produced by electrode weighing. The above phenomenon was also discussed in the light of the results of polarization resistance measurements for Al and Fe electrodes used in the study.

  15. Salinity, temperature, oxygen, sediment characterization, hydrocarbon characterization, heavy metal contaminant concentration, total organic carbon, porewater chemistry, and infaunal taxonomic identifications and counts collected during the Gulf of Mexico Comprehensive Synthetic Based Muds Monitoring Program between July 29, 2000 and May 20, 2002 (NODC Accession 0069470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study was to assess the fate and physical, chemical, and biological effects of synthetic based drilling mud cuttings discharged from offshore...

  16. Recovery of Actinides from Actinide-Aluminium Alloys: Chlorination Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Soucek, P.; Jardin, R.; Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cassayre, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR CNRS 5503, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France)

    2008-07-01

    A method for recovery of actinides (An) from An-Al alloys formed by electrochemical separation of metallic spent nuclear fuel on solid aluminium electrodes in molten chloride salts is described. The proposed route consists of three main steps: -) vacuum distillation of salt adhered on the electrodes, -) chlorination of An-Al alloy by pure chlorine gas and -) sublimation of formed AlCl{sub 3}. A thermochemical study of the route was performed to determine important chemical reactions and to find optimum experimental conditions for all process steps. Vacuum distillation of the electrode is efficient for complete removal of remaining salt and most fission products, full chlorination of the An-Al alloys is possible at any working temperature and evaporation of AlCl{sub 3} is achieved by heating under argon. Experiments have been carried out using U-Al alloy in order to define parameters providing full alloy chlorination without formation of volatile UCl{sub 5} and UCl{sub 6}. It was shown that full chlorination of An-Al alloys without An losses should be possible at a temperature approx. 150 deg. C. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of calcination temperature and phase composition ratio for new hyroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M. N. Ahmad; Chin, H. S.

    2017-10-01

    The demand of production of hydroxyapatite (HA) has been increasing for the purpose of medical and dental application. HA possesses the excellent properties leads to the priority choice for ceramic bone replacement. Synthesis route by wet chemical precipitation is commonly practised in industrial scale. Calcium hydroxide and Orthophosphoric acid are the precursors for production scale. The synthesis of HA is conducted by varying the synthetic condition: stirring rate, calcium-phosphate and calcination temperature. This paper is focused on the properties of HA produced by regulating the synthetic condition so that the qualities of HA can be well performed. Characterization studies were also carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for functional group identification, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology analysis and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for phase composition and crystallinity respectively. Narrow particle size distribution contributed to better quality of hydroxyapatite for bone replacement. Both calcium-phosphate ratio and calcination temperature would affect the phase composition of calcium phosphate.

  18. Predicting the Operational Acceptability of Route Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Antony; Lee, Paul

    2017-01-01

    NASA envisions a future Air Traffic Management system that allows safe, efficient growth in global operations, enabled by increasing levels of automation and autonomy. In a safety-critical system, the introduction of increasing automation and autonomy has to be done in stages, making human-system integrated concepts critical in the foreseeable future. One example where this is relevant is for tools that generate more efficient flight routings or reroute advisories. If these routes are not operationally acceptable, they will be rejected by human operators, and the associated benefits will not be realized. Operational acceptance is therefore required to enable the increased efficiency and reduced workload benefits associated with these tools. In this paper, the authors develop a predictor of operational acceptability for reroute advisories. Such a capability has applications in tools that identify more efficient routings around weather and congestion and that better meet airline preferences. The capability is based on applying data mining techniques to flight plan amendment data reported by the Federal Aviation Administration and data on requested reroutes collected from a field trial of the NASA developed Dynamic Weather Routes tool, which advised efficient route changes to American Airlines dispatchers in 2014. 10-Fold cross validation was used for feature, model and parameter selection, while nested cross validation was used to validate the model. The model performed well in predicting controller acceptance or rejection of a route change as indicated by chosen performance metrics. Features identified as relevant to controller acceptance included the historical usage of the advised route, the location of the maneuver start point relative to the boundaries of the airspace sector containing the maneuver start (the maneuver start sector), the reroute deviation from the original flight plan, and the demand level in the maneuver start sector. A random forest with forty

  19. Microbial synthetic biology for human therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aastha; Bhatia, Pooja; Chugh, Archana

    2012-06-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology holds tremendous potential for developing novel drugs to treat various human conditions. The current study discusses the scope of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach. In this context, synthetic biology aims at designing, engineering and building new microbial synthetic cells that do not pre-exist in nature as well as re-engineer existing microbes for synthesis of therapeutic products. It is expected that the construction of novel microbial genetic circuitry for human therapeutics will greatly benefit from the data generated by 'omics' approaches and multidisciplinary nature of synthetic biology. Development of novel antimicrobial drugs and vaccines by engineering microbial systems are a promising area of research in the field of synthetic biology for human theragnostics. Expression of plant based medicinal compounds in the microbial system using synthetic biology tools is another avenue dealt in the present study. Additionally, the study suggest that the traditional medicinal knowledge can do value addition for developing novel drugs in the microbial systems using synthetic biology tools. The presented work envisions the success of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach in a holistic manner. Keeping this in view, various legal and socio-ethical concerns emerging from the use of synthetic biology via microbial approach such as patenting, biosafety and biosecurity issues have been touched upon in the later sections.

  20. Shape analysis of synthetic diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Mullan, C

    1997-01-01

    Two-dimensional images of synthetic industrial diamond particles were obtained using a camera, framegrabber and PC-based image analysis software. Various methods for shape quantification were applied, including two-dimensional shape factors, Fourier series expansion of radius as a function of angle, boundary fractal analysis, polygonal harmonics, and comer counting methods. The shape parameter found to be the most relevant was axis ratio, defined as the ratio of the minor axis to the major axis of the ellipse with the same second moments of area as the particle. Axis ratio was used in an analysis of the sorting of synthetic diamonds on a vibrating table. A model was derived based on the probability that a particle of a given axis ratio would travel to a certain bin. The model described the sorting of bulk material accurately but it was found not to be applicable if the shape mix of the feed material changed dramatically. This was attributed to the fact that the particle-particle interference was not taken int...

  1. Repurposing ribosomes for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Kim, Do Soon; Jewett, Michael C

    2017-10-01

    The translation system is the cell's factory for protein biosynthesis, stitching together hundreds to thousands of amino acids into proteins, which are required for the structure, function, and regulation of living systems. The extraordinary synthetic capability of this system, which includes the ribosome and its associated factors required for polymerization, has driven extensive efforts to harness it for societal use in areas as diverse as energy, materials, and medicine. A powerful example is recombinant protein production, which has impacted the lives of patients through the synthesis of biopharmaceuticals such as insulin. In nature, however, only limited sets of monomers are utilized, thereby resulting in limited sets of biopolymers (i.e., proteins). Expanding nature's repertoire of ribosomal monomers could yield new classes of enzymes, therapeutics, materials, and chemicals with diverse, genetically encoded chemistry. Here, we discuss recent progress towards engineering ribosomes both in vivo and in vitro. These fundamental and technical breakthroughs open doors for advanced applications in biotechnology and synthetic biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Towards developing algal synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Mark Aden; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-06-15

    The genetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microalgae has driven fundamental research into photosynthesis, flagella structure and function, and eukaryotic evolution. Within the last 10 years these organisms have also been investigated as potential biotechnology platforms, for example to produce high value compounds such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants, and for biodiesel precursors, in particular triacylglycerols (TAGs). Transformation protocols, molecular tools and genome sequences are available for a number of model species including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, although for both species there are bottlenecks to be overcome to allow rapid and predictable genetic manipulation. One approach to do this would be to apply the principles of synthetic biology to microalgae, namely the cycle of Design-Build-Test, which requires more robust, predictable and high throughput methods. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in the areas of improving transgene expression, genome editing, identification and design of standard genetic elements (parts), and the use of microfluidics to increase throughput. We suggest that combining these approaches will provide the means to establish algal synthetic biology, and that application of standard parts and workflows will avoid parallel development and capitalize on lessons learned from other systems. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. ELECTROOXIDATION OF USED SYNTHETIC ENGINE OIL IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF H2SO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Piotr Włodarczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using used synthetic engine oil to direct electricity production. The measurements conducted in the temperature range 293-333 K. Were measured electrooxidation of used synthetic engine oil emulsion on a smooth platinum electrode in an aqueous solution of H2SO4. The emulsion prepared on the basis of a nonionic surfactant Syntanol DS-10. The maximum current density reached the level of 22 mA/cm2 (temp. 333 K. Measurements shows possibility of direct electricity production from used synthetic engine oil emulsion, so powering fuel cell of this oil.

  5. Nanostructured aluminium oxide powders obtained by aspartic acid-nitrate gel-combustion routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardey Merino, Maria Celeste, E-mail: mcgardey@frm.utn.edu.a [Laboratorio de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales Mendoza (LISAMEN) - CCT - CONICET, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n, Parque Gral. San Martin, (M5502IRA) Ciudad de Mendoza, Prov. de Mendoza (Argentina); Grupo CLIOPE, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Mendoza, Rodriguez 273, (M5502AJE) Ciudad de Mendoza, Prov. de Mendoza (Argentina); Lascalea, Gustavo E. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales Mendoza (LISAMEN) - CCT - CONICET, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n, Parque Gral. San Martin, (M5502IRA) Ciudad de Mendoza, Prov. de Mendoza (Argentina); Sanchez, Laura M. [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA - CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, (B1603ALO) Villa Martelli, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vazquez, Patricia G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. Jorge J. Ronco' (CINDECA), CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 47 nro. 257, (B1900AJK) La Plata, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabanillas, Edgardo D. [CONICET and Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gral. Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lamas, Diego G. [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA - CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, (B1603ALO) Villa Martelli, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-04-16

    In this work, two new gel-combustion routes for the synthesis of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders with aspartic acid as fuel are presented. The first route is a conventional stoichiometric process, while the second one is a non-stoichiometric, pH-controlled process. These routes were compared with similar synthesis procedures using glycine as fuel, which are well-known in the literature. The samples were calcined in air at different temperatures, in a range of 600-1200 {sup o}C. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and BET specific surface area. Different phases were obtained depending on the calcination temperature: amorphous, {gamma} (metastable) or {alpha} (stable). The amorphous-to-{gamma} transition was found for calcination temperatures in the range of 700-900 {sup o}C, while the {gamma}-to-{alpha} one was observed for calcination temperatures of 1100-1200 {sup o}C. The retention of the metastable {gamma} phase is probably due to a crystallite size effect. It transforms to the {alpha} phase after the crystallite size increases over a critical size during the calcination process at 1200 {sup o}C. The highest BET specific surface areas were obtained for both nitrate-aspartic acid routes proposed in this work, reaching values of about 50 m{sup 2}/g.

  6. Quality of Service routing: state of the art report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Martin; Heijenk, Geert

    Quality of Service (QoS) routing is concerned with routing traffic such that the QoS requirements of the carried traffic are met. This report gives an overview of the different proposals for QoS-based routing. Moreover it provides a state of the art of QoS-based routing solutions in both the IETF

  7. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of information traffic over scale-free networks has been investigated systematically. A series of routing strategies of data packets have been proposed, including the local routing strategy, the next-nearest-neighbour routing strategy, and the mixed routing strategy based on local static and dynamic information.

  8. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  9. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  10. Routing algorithms in networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshtalab, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation.  Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.   ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip and NoC-based, manycore systems; ·         Describe...

  11. Children's route choice during active transportation to school: Difference between shortest and actual route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, D.; Vries, S.I. de; Hegeman, G.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Pierik, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible

  12. Routes to Reading and Spelling: Testing the Predictions of Dual-Route Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriston, Lee; Critten, Sarah; Jones, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Dual-route theory, which emphasizes the importance of lexical and nonlexical routes, makes specific predictions about the kinds of strategies that young students might adopt when attempting to correctly read and spell regular and irregular words. The current study tests these predictions by assessing strategy choice on regular, irregular, and…

  13. Children's route choice during active transportation to school : difference between shortest and actual route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Pierik; G. Hegeman; D. Dessing; S.I. (Sanne) de Vries; W. van Mechelen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible

  14. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brianna; Snell, Sam; Bye-Nagel, Kyri; Tonidandel, Scott; Heyer, Laurie J; Campbell, A Malcolm

    2011-07-21

    Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008). Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  15. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  16. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  17. Towards synthetic fuels via electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanov, Zarko

    to Fischer-Tropsch fuel synthesis. The thesis encompasses electrochemical CO2 and CO reduction on pure metals consisting of polycrystalline copper and gold, as well as the bimetallic catalysts consisting of copper overlayers on platinum single crystals and bulk and surface alloys of gold......The storage of electricity in chemical bonds in form of fuels is a promising route for leveling the intermittent production of renewable energy. The present PhD thesis is concerned with the electrocatalysis of CO2 reduction in aqueous media at ambient conditions, as an alternative process...... amounts of formaldehyde and methanol. The observation that adsorbed, strongly bound *CO is not reduced further, suggests the existence of additional kinetic barriers. Guided by the theoretical models, we followed a strategy of alloying to break the existing scaling relations between the key CO2 reduction...

  18. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  19. Highly effective synthetic methods for substituted 2-arylbenzofurans using [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement: short syntheses of stemofuran a and eupomatenoid 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Okiko; Takeda, Norihiko; Naito, Takeaki

    2004-05-27

    A new and efficient synthesis of 2-arylbenzofurans has been achieved via a route involving acylation and subsequent [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of oxime ethers. Its synthetic utility is demonstrated by a short synthesis of stemofuran A and eupomatenoid 6 in which no procedure for protection of the phenolic hydroxyl groups is needed. [reaction--see text

  20. Evolution Strategies in the Multipoint Connections Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krulikovska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Routing of multipoint connections plays an important role in final cost and quality of a found connection. New algorithms with better results are still searched. In this paper, a possibility of using the evolution strategies (ES for routing is presented. Quality of found connection is evaluated from the view of final cost and time spent on a searching procedure. First, parametrical analysis of results of the ES are discussed and compared with the Prim’s algorithm, which was chosen as a representative of the deterministic routing algorithms. Second, ways for improving the ES are suggested and implemented. The obtained results are reviewed. The main improvements are specified and discussed in conclusion.

  1. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an issue which has caused wide public concern in modern societies, not only for the quantitative rise of the amount of waste generated, but also for the increasing complexity of some products and components. Waste collection is a highly relevant activity in the reverse logistics system and how to collect waste in an efficient way is an area that needs to be improved. This paper analyzes the major contribution about Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem (WCVRP in literature. Based on a classification of waste collection (residential, commercial and industrial, firstly the key findings for these three types of waste collection are presented. Therefore, according to the model (Node Routing Problems and Arc Routing problems used to represent WCVRP, different methods and techniques are analyzed in this paper to solve WCVRP. This paper attempts to serve as a roadmap of research literature produced in the field of WCVRP.

  3. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  4. Classification of deadlock recovery routings in interconnection networks

    OpenAIRE

    高畠, 俊徳

    2004-01-01

    In interconnection networks of massively parallel computer systems, deadlock recovery has been studied in routing strategy. However, there has not been established the proper classification of deadlock recovery routings. The routing strategy for the deadlock recovery is intended to optimize the routing performance when deadlocks do not occur. On the other hand, it is important to improve the routing performance by handling deadlocks if they occur. For this purpose, suitable criterion is neede...

  5. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Current ultrasonic blood flow velocity measurement systems are subject to a number of limitations, including limited frame rate, aliasing artifacts, and that only the velocity component along the ultrasound beam is estimated. This dissertation aims at solving some of these problems. The main part...... of the thesis considers a method for estimating the two-dimensional velocity vector within the image plane. This method, called synthetic aperture vector flow imaging, is first shortly reviewed. The main contribution of this work is partly an analysis of the method with respect to focusing effects, motion...... estimation. The method can be used for increasing the frame rate of color flow maps or alternatively for a new imaging modality entitled quadroplex imaging, featuring a color flow map and two independent spectrograms at a high frame rate. The second is an alternative method for ultrasonic vector velocity...

  6. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  7. SYNTHETIC STRANDS OF CARDIAC MUSCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Joyce E.; Lieberman, Melvyn; Roggeveen, Anne E.; Kirk, R. Gary

    1972-01-01

    Spontaneously active bundles of cardiac muscle (synthetic strands) were prepared from isolated cells of 11–13-day old embryonic chick hearts which were disaggregated with trypsin. Linear orientation of the cells was obtained by plating them on agar-coated culture dishes in which either grooves were cut in the agar film or a thin line of palladium was deposited over the agar. The influence of cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate interactions was observed with time lapse cinematography and the formation of the synthetic strand was shown to involve both random and guided cell movements, enlargement of aggregates by accretion and coalescence, and the compact linear arrangement of cells along paths of preferential adhesion. Electron microscope investigations of these strands showed that a dispersed population of heart cells organized into an inner core of muscle cells and an outer sheath of fibroblast-like cells. The muscle cells contained well-developed, but widely spaced myofibrils, a developing sarcoplasmic reticulum associated in part with the myofibrils and in part with the sarcolemma, an abundance of nonmembrane bound ribosomes and glycogen, and a prominent Golgi complex. Numerous specialized contacts were observed between the muscle cells in the strand, e.g., fasciae adherentes, desmosomes, and nexuses. A distinct type of muscle cell characterized by its pale appearance was regularly observed in the strand and was noted to be similar to Purkinje cells described in the adult avian conduction system and in developing chick myocardium. The present findings were compared with other observations of the developing myocardium, in situ, and it was concluded that, by a number or criteria, the muscle cells of the strand were differentiating normally and suitably organized for electrophysiological studies. PMID:4656702

  8. Green-Aware Routing in GMPLS Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2012-01-01

    -TE) protocol and a greenaware routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithm for minimizing the GHG emissions by routing connection requests through green network elements (NE). The network behavior and the performance of the algorithm are analyzed through simulations under different scenarios, and results...... show that it is possible to reduce GHGs emissions at the expense of an increase in the path length, and, in some cases, in the blocking probability. The trade-off between emissions and performance is studied. To the authors knowledge, this is the first work that provides a detailed study of a green...

  9. Multipath inter-domain policy routing

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Pedro Miguel Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação submetida para a obtenção do grau de Doutor em Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores Routing can be abstracted to be a path nding problem in a graph that models the network. The problem can be modelled using an algebraic approach that describes the way routes are calculated and ranked. The shortest path problem is the most common form and consists in nding the path with the smallest cost. The inter-domain scenario introduces some new challenges to the routin...

  10. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  11. A Survey of Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wujun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vehicle routing problem (VRP has become an important content in logistics management research, and has been widely used in transportation system, logistics distribution system and express delivery system. In this paper, we discuss the classification of VRP, and summarize the common constraints of VRP, model algorithm and the main research results in recent years. Finally, we analyzes the future of VRP, and it is considered that the intelligent vehicle routing problem and intelligent heuristic algorithm will be an important field of future research.

  12. Vessels Route Planning Problem with Uncertain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Neumann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to find a solution for route planning in a transport networks, where the costs of tracks, factor of safety and travel time are ambiguous. This approach is based on the Dempster-Shafer theory and well known Dijkstra's algorithm. In this approach important are the influencing factors of the mentioned coefficients using uncertain possibilities presented by probability intervals. Based on these intervals the quality intervals of each route can be determined. Applied decision rules can be described by the end user.

  13. Mathematical Aspects of Network Routing Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Carlos AS

    2011-01-01

    Before the appearance of broadband links and wireless systems, networks have been used to connect people in new ways. Now, the modern world is connected through large-scale, computational networked systems such as the Internet. Because of the ever-advancing technology of networking, efficient algorithms have become increasingly necessary to solve some of the problems developing in this area. "Mathematical Aspects of Network Routing Optimization" focuses on computational issues arising from the process of optimizing network routes, such as quality of the resulting links and their reli

  14. Optimizing rotary processes in synthetic molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Edzard M.; van der Molen, Sense Jan; Martens, Marco; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    We deal with the issue of quantifying and optimizing the rotation dynamics of synthetic molecular motors. For this purpose, the continuous four-stage rotation behavior of a typical light-activated molecular motor was measured in detail. All reaction constants were determined empirically. Next, we developed a Markov model that describes the full motor dynamics mathematically. We derived expressions for a set of characteristic quantities, i.e., the average rate of quarter rotations or “velocity,” V, the spread in the average number of quarter rotations, D, and the dimensionless Péclet number, Pe = V/D. Furthermore, we determined the rate of full, four-step rotations (Ωeff), from which we derived another dimensionless quantity, the “rotational excess,” r.e. This quantity, defined as the relative difference between total forward (Ω+) and backward (Ω−) full rotations, is a good measure of the unidirectionality of the rotation process. Our model provides a pragmatic tool to optimize motor performance. We demonstrate this by calculating V, D, Pe, Ωeff, and r.e. for different rates of thermal versus photochemical energy input. We find that for a given light intensity, an optimal temperature range exists in which the motor exhibits excellent efficiency and unidirectional behavior, above or below which motor performance decreases. PMID:19805100

  15. Improvement of the synthetic process of fluopyram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to find an alternative reduction method, making the 2 - trifluoromethyl pyridine - 2- yl] acetonitrile to be reduced to 2-[3-chlor-5 - (trifluoromethyl pyridini-2- yl] ethane under mild conditions,the key intermediate 2-(3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethylpyridin-2-ylethan-1-amine hydrochloride is obtained through condensation of the starting material 2,3-dichloro-5-(trifluoromethyl pyridine with ethyl-2-cyanoacetate, decarboxylation, reduction, and deprotection reaction; then the targeted compound fluopyram is synthesized through the reaction of 2-(3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethylpyridin-2-ylethan-1-amine hydrochloride with 2-(trifluoromethylbenzoyl chloride. The reaction factors and parameters are optimized. The optimized conditions are as follows: in reduction reaction, n(substrate∶n(NiCl2∶n(NaBH4=1∶1∶2; in deprotection reaction, the deprotection reagent is hydrogen chloride in ethyl acetate solution; in amidation reaction, the reaction solvent is dichloromethane, the proton scavenger is triethylamine and the reaction temperature is 10~15 ℃. Under the optimized conditions, the total yield of fluopyram reaches 48.1% (counted based on 2,3-dichloro-5-(trifluoromethylpyridine. The structure of fluopyram is confirmed by ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. This synthetic method is mild in response, simple in operation and has high yield of target products.

  16. Alkoxide routes to Inorganic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George Harrison [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-12-01

    An all alkoxide solution chemistry utilizing metal 2-methoxyethoxide complexes in 2-methoxyethanol was used to deposit thin-films of metal oxides on single-crystal metal oxide substrates and on biaxially textured metal substrates. This same chemistry was used to synthesize complex metal oxide nanoparticles. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was used to study precursor solutions of the alkaline niobates and tantalates. Film crystallization temperatures were determined from x-ray diffraction patterns of powders derived from the metal oxide precursor solutions. Film structure was determined via x-ray diffraction. Film morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Epitaxial thin-films of strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}, SBT) and strontium bismuth niobate (SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}, SBN) were deposited on single crystal [1 0 0] magnesium oxide (MgO) buffered with lanthanum manganate (LaMnO{sub 3}, LMO). Epitaxial thin films of LMO were deposited on single crystal [100] MgO via Rf-magnetron sputtering and on single crysal [100] lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO{sub 3}) via the chemical solution deposition technique. Epitaxial thin-films of sodium potassium tantalate (na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}TaO{sub 3}, NKT), sodium potassium niobate (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}, NKN) and sodium potassium tantalum niobate (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, NKTN) were deposited on single crystal [1 0 0] lanthanum aluminate and [1 0 0] MgO substrates (NKT and NKN) and biaxially textured metal substrates via the chemical solution deposition technique. Epitaxial growth of thin-films of NKT, NKN and NKTN was observed on LAO and Ni-5% W. Epitaxial growth of thin-films of NKN and the growth of c-axis aligned thin-films of NKT was observed on MgO. Nanoparticles of SBT, SBN, NKT and NKN were synthesized in reverse micelles from alkoxide precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron

  17. Synthetic Multivariate Models to Accommodate Unmodeled Interfering Components During Quantitative Spectral Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, David M.

    1999-07-14

    The analysis precision of any multivariate calibration method will be severely degraded if unmodeled sources of spectral variation are present in the unknown sample spectra. This paper describes a synthetic method for correcting for the errors generated by the presence of unmodeled components or other sources of unmodeled spectral variation. If the spectral shape of the unmodeled component can be obtained and mathematically added to the original calibration spectra, then a new synthetic multivariate calibration model can be generated to accommodate the presence of the unmodeled source of spectral variation. This new method is demonstrated for the presence of unmodeled temperature variations in the unknown sample spectra of dilute aqueous solutions of urea, creatinine, and NaCl. When constant-temperature PLS models are applied to spectra of samples of variable temperature, the standard errors of prediction (SEP) are approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of the original cross-validated SEPs of the constant-temperature partial least squares models. Synthetic models using the classical least squares estimates of temperature from pure water or variable-temperature mixture sample spectra reduce the errors significantly for the variable temperature samples. Spectrometer drift adds additional error to the analyte determinations, but a method is demonstrated that can minimize the effect of drift on prediction errors through the measurement of the spectra of a small subset of samples during both calibration and prediction. In addition, sample temperature can be predicted with high precision with this new synthetic model without the need to recalibrate using actual variable-temperature sample data. The synthetic methods eliminate the need for expensive generation of new calibration samples and collection of their spectra. The methods are quite general and can be applied using any known source of spectral variation and can be used with any multivariate

  18. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. I. Reliable Mock Observations from SPH Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Biscani, Francesco [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    Through synthetic observations of a hydrodynamical simulation of an evolving star-forming region, we assess how the choice of observational techniques affects the measurements of properties that trace star formation. Testing and calibrating observational measurements requires synthetic observations that are as realistic as possible. In this part of the series (Paper I), we explore different techniques for mapping the distributions of densities and temperatures from the particle-based simulations onto a Voronoi mesh suitable for radiative transfer and consequently explore their accuracy. We further test different ways to set up the radiative transfer in order to produce realistic synthetic observations. We give a detailed description of all methods and ultimately recommend techniques. We have found that the flux around 20 μ m is strongly overestimated when blindly coupling the dust radiative transfer temperature with the hydrodynamical gas temperature. We find that when instead assuming a constant background dust temperature in addition to the radiative transfer heating, the recovered flux is consistent with actual observations. We present around 5800 realistic synthetic observations for Spitzer and Herschel bands, at different evolutionary time-steps, distances, and orientations. In the upcoming papers of this series (Papers II, III, and IV), we will test and calibrate measurements of the star formation rate, gas mass, and the star formation efficiency using our realistic synthetic observations.

  19. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. I. Reliable Mock Observations from SPH Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Dale, James E.; Biscani, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Through synthetic observations of a hydrodynamical simulation of an evolving star-forming region, we assess how the choice of observational techniques affects the measurements of properties that trace star formation. Testing and calibrating observational measurements requires synthetic observations that are as realistic as possible. In this part of the series (Paper I), we explore different techniques for mapping the distributions of densities and temperatures from the particle-based simulations onto a Voronoi mesh suitable for radiative transfer and consequently explore their accuracy. We further test different ways to set up the radiative transfer in order to produce realistic synthetic observations. We give a detailed description of all methods and ultimately recommend techniques. We have found that the flux around 20 μm is strongly overestimated when blindly coupling the dust radiative transfer temperature with the hydrodynamical gas temperature. We find that when instead assuming a constant background dust temperature in addition to the radiative transfer heating, the recovered flux is consistent with actual observations. We present around 5800 realistic synthetic observations for Spitzer and Herschel bands, at different evolutionary time-steps, distances, and orientations. In the upcoming papers of this series (Papers II, III, and IV), we will test and calibrate measurements of the star formation rate, gas mass, and the star formation efficiency using our realistic synthetic observations.

  20. A facile route to aqueous Ag:ZnCdS and Ag:ZnCdSeS quantum dots: Pure emission color tunable over entire visible spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ruosheng, E-mail: zengrsh@gznu.edu.cn [Key Lab for Functional Materials Chemistry of Guizhou Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Sun, Zhiguo [Key Lab for Functional Materials Chemistry of Guizhou Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Cao, Sheng [Institute of Materials, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016 (China); Shen, Rongan; Liu, Zuoji; Long, Jintao [Key Lab for Functional Materials Chemistry of Guizhou Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Zheng, Jinju [Institute of Materials, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016 (China); Shen, Yayun; Lin, Xiangnan [Key Lab for Functional Materials Chemistry of Guizhou Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • For the first time, a highly reactive and aqueous sulfur precursor was obtained. • The obtained Ag-doped QDs exhibited high PL QY as high as 40%. • The emission color was tunable and could span entire visible spectrum. • We provided a versatile approach to other aqueous multinary chalcogenide QDs. - Abstract: Aqueous Ag:ZnCdS quantum dots (QDs) with pure, color-tunable fluorescence were prepared based on co-nucleation doping strategy by using a highly reactive S powder precursor, which was reduced by NaBH{sub 4} at high temperature of 180 °C in a closed hydrothermal autoclave. For a meaningful comparison, thiourea as a relatively low reactive precursor was employed to test the advantages of this highly reactive S powder precursor in synthetic chemistry. The influences of various experimental variables, including the Zn/Cd ratio and Ag-doping concentration, on the optical properties of Ag:ZnCdS QDs were systematically investigated. The color-tunable quarternary Ag:ZnCdSeS QDs were also successfully prepared via the variation of Se/S precursor ratio based on the similar reactivity of the Se and S powder precursors. Further, the highly efficient Ag:ZnCdS/ZnS and Ag:ZnCdSeS/ZnS core/shell QDs were constructed by the deposition of the ZnS shell around the crude Ag:ZnCdS and Ag:ZnCdSeS core QDs. The results indicated that this facile synthetic route would provide a versatile approach for preparation of other aqueous multinary metal chalcogenide QDs.

  1. The synthetic xylulose-1 phosphate pathway increases production of glycolic acid from xylose-rich sugar mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Trichez, Débora; Cam, Yvan; Spina, Lucie; François, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glycolic acid (GA) is a two-carbon hydroxyacid with applications in the cosmetic, textile, and medical industry. Microbial GA production from all sugars can be achieved by engineering the natural glyoxylate shunt. The synthetic (D)-xylulose-1 phosphate (X1P) pathway provides a complementary route to produce GA from (D)-xylose. The simultaneous operation of the X1P and glyoxylate pathways increases the theoretical GA yield from xylose by 20 %, which may strongly improve GA producti...

  2. Phone Routing using the Dynamic Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Claus Nicolaj; Krink, Thiemo

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies a genetic algorithm (GA) extended with the dynamic memory model has shown remarkable performance on real-world-like problems. In this paper we experiment with routing in communication networks and show that the dynamic memory GA performs remarkable well compared to ant colony...... optimization algorithms that are specially designed for this problem....

  3. Survey: Matheuristics for Rich Vehicle Routing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, Karl F.; Schmid, Verena

    This paper surveys recent developments of hybrid solution techniques for different vehicle routing problems. Only hybridizations of heuristic and exact solution techniques are considered. Most of the existing hybrid approaches are based on set-covering formulations, local branching or different decomposition techniques.

  4. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  5. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-08-01

    The continuing decline in Arctic sea-ice will likely lead to increased human activity and opportunities for shipping in the region, suggesting that seasonal predictions of route openings will become ever more important. Here we present results from a set of ‘perfect model’ experiments to assess the predictability characteristics of the opening of Arctic sea routes. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts show lower skill before a May ‘predictability barrier’. We demonstrate that in forecasts started from January, predictions of route opening date are twice as uncertain as predicting the closing date and that the Arctic shipping season is becoming longer due to climate change, with later closing dates mostly responsible. We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than medium ice years. Forecasting the fastest open water route through the Arctic is accurate to within 200 km when predicted from July, a six-fold increase in accuracy compared to forecasts initialised from the previous November, which are typically no better than climatology. Finally we find that initialisation of accurate summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts, further motivating investment into sea-ice thickness observations, climate models, and assimilation systems.

  6. Energy-Efficient Routing in GMPLS Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a GMPLS controlled core network model that takes energy efficiency into account is built using OPNET MODELER. By extending the standard GMPLS routing protocol -- OSPF-TE, we are able to spread desired energy related information over the local area, and subsequently use RSVP...

  7. Variable-speed, portable routing skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight, portable, variable-speed routing skate is used on heavy metal subassemblies which are impractical to move to a stationary machine. The assembly, consisting of the housing with rollers, router, and driving mechanism with transmission, weighs about forty pounds. Both speed and depth of cut are adjustable.

  8. Issues of Simulation-Based Route Assignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K.; Rickert, M.

    1999-07-20

    The authors use an iterative re-planning scheme with simulation feedback to generate a self-consistent route-set for a given street network and origin-destination matrix. The iteration process is defined by three parameters. They found that they have influence on the speed of the relaxation, but not necessarily on its final state.

  9. 7 CFR 1033.3 - Route disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Route disposition. 1033.3 Section 1033.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  10. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Urquiza-Aguiar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation.

  11. Partially dynamic vehicle routing - models and algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework for dynamic routing systems based on their degree of dynamism. Next, we consider its impact on solution methodology and quality. Specifically, we introduce the Partially Dynamic Travelling Repairman Problem and describe several dynamic policies to minimize rou...

  12. A Decentralized Approach to Formation Flight Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.G.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.; Verhagen, C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an optimization-based cooperative planning system for the efficient routing and scheduling of flight formations. This study considers the use of formation flight as a means to reduce the overall fuel consumption of civil aviation in long-haul operations. It

  13. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    philosophically interesting for their own sake. By pursuing ambitious aims such as the development of multiscale computational models and synthetic life forms, they uncover new ground for philosophical analysis. Systems and synthetic biology raise fundamental questions about how far research can be taken through...

  14. Characterization of Synthetic Peptides by Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala K; Mirza, Osman; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI...

  15. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units In Concert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves eTrosset

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancellation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multidrug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  16. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  17. Immunization with a synthetic robustoxin derivative lacking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Considerable effort has been devoted to employing synthetic peptides as vaccines (Lerner 1982; Arnon 1987; Fischer et al 2007). Attempts to use synthetic peptides to stimulate the production of antibodies that are protective in vivo have not always been successful because such peptides are often weak immunogens from ...

  18. Synthetic Biology in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Lam, C.M.C.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Suarez Diez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology draws on the understanding from genetics, biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computational sciences to (re-)design and (re-)engineer biological functions. Here we address how synthetic biology can be possibly deployed to promote health and tackle disease. We discuss how

  19. Routing Based on Length of Time of Available Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandappan, Thanga (Inventor); Roy, Aloke (Inventor); Malve, Sharath Babu (Inventor); Toth, Louis T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In an embodiment, a method of routing packets at a first node in an ad-hoc network is provided. The method includes receiving, at the first node, a plurality of route-alive messages corresponding to a destination, each of the plurality of route-alive messages including a route time indicating a length of time in which a communicative connection is available between the second node that sent the respective route-alive message and the destination. The method also includes determining an updated route time for each second node. The updated route time corresponds to a length of time in which a communication connection is available between the first node and the destination through the respective second node. A second node is selected for sending a packet to based on the updated route time for each of the second nodes, wherein a node having a longer updated route time is given higher priority for selection.

  20. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c