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Sample records for temperature swing adsorption

  1. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad E.; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA Subassembly (MTSAS) was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort was testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon's EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. Lunar environment testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 Nomenclature loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This exceeded any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  2. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is proposed for a Portable Life Support System to remove and reject heat and carbon dioxide...

  3. An adsorption of carbon dioxide on activated carbon controlled by temperature swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Korinek; Karel, Frana

    2017-09-01

    This work deals with a method of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) in indoor air. Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) on solid adsorbent was chosen for CO2 capture. Commercial activated carbon (AC) in form of extruded pellets was used as a solid adsorbent. There was constructed a simple device to testing effectiveness of CO2 capture in a fixed bed with AC. The TSA cycle was also simulated using the open-source software OpenFOAM. There was a good agreement between results obtained from numerical simulations and experimental data for adsorption process.

  4. Rational design of temperature swing adsorption cycles for post-combustion CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joss, Lisa; Gazzani, Matteo; Mazzotti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The design of temperature swing adsorption (TSA) cycles aimed at recovering the heavy product at high purity is investigated by model-based design and applied to the capture of CO2 from flue gases. This model based design strategy and an extensive parametric analysis enables gaining an understanding

  5. Design and Development of an air-cooled Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila M.

    2003-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no wearing parts. This paper discusses the design features of a TSAC hardware that uses air as the cooling medium and has Space Station application.

  6. Rapid Temperature Swing Adsorption using Polymeric/Supported Amine Hollow Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, Ronald [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Chen, Grace [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dai, Ying [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fan, Yanfang [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jones, Christopher [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kalyanaraman, Jayashree [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kawajiri, Yoshiaki [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lively, Ryan [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); McCool, Benjamin [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Pang, Simon [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Realff, Matthew [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Rezaei, Fateme [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Searcy, Katherine [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sholl, David [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Subramanian, Swernath [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Pang, Simon [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This project is a bench-scale, post-combustion capture project carried out at Georgia Tech (GT) with support and collaboration with GE, Algenol Biofuels, Southern Company and subcontract to Trimeric Corporation. The focus of the project is to develop a process based on composite amine-functionalized oxide / polymer hollow fibers for use as contactors in a rapid temperature swing adsorption post-combustion carbon dioxide capture process. The hollow fiber morphology allows coupling of efficient heat transfer with effective gas contacting, potentially giving lower parasitic loads on the power plant compared to traditional contacting strategies using solid sorbents.

  7. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, H.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA subassembly was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort is operations and testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon s EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of this testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. The lunar testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This had not been achieved in any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  8. Temperature Measurements to Characterize Dispersion Within Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Beds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buettner, L

    1997-01-01

    ...) as the feed contaminant and air as the carrier. In-bed, vapor-phase concentrations at each axial position were measured and correlated to the magnitude of the temperature swings during a cycle...

  9. Method for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  10. Apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  11. Air-Cooled Design of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.

    2004-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses air as the cooling medium.

  12. Sour pressure swing adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shubhra Jyoti; Wright, Andrew David; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Kloosterman, Jeffrey William; Amy, Fabrice; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis

    2017-11-07

    Methods and apparatuses for separating CO.sub.2 and sulfur-containing compounds from a synthesis gas obtained from gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock. The primary separating steps are performed using a sour pressure swing adsorption (SPSA) system, followed by an acid gas enrichment system and a sulfur removal unit. The SPSA system includes multiple pressure equalization steps and a rinse step using a rinse gas that is supplied from a source other than directly from one of the adsorber beds of the SPSA system.

  13. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve, Air-Cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and Sabatier Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.; Miller, Lee; Campbell, Melissa; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from the space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. The Sabatier Engineering Development Unit (EDU) processes waste CO2 to provide water to the crew. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS, air-cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor (TSAC), and Sabatier EDU testing. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of the 4BMS and Sabatier.

  14. Development and Testing of a Temperature-swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide in Closed-loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby dosing the air-loop. We have developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts for performing these tasks. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low- pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. This paper discusses the design and testing of a TSAC for carbon dioxide that has application in the ISS and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop.

  15. Integrated Testing of a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J. C.; Mulloth, Lila; Frederick, Kenneth; Affleck, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper describes the integrated test results of a flight-like CDRA and a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for carbon dioxide removal and compression. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

  16. Gas separation by pressure swing adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.; Gottzman, C.F.; Notaro, F.; Stewart, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past twenty years separation processes based upon pressure swing adsorption have replaced cryogenic processes in a number of selected applications such as air separation for production of moderate quantities of nitrogen and oxygen and recovery of hydrogen from refinery and chemical plant gases. Key events contributing to the emergence of PSA as an important process option have been the development of synthetic zeolite molecular sieves by Union Carbide Corporation in the USA and of carbon molecular sieves by Bergbau-Forschung in Germany. Today PSA processes enjoy significant commercial use producing oxygen from 0.1 Nm 3 /h for medical application to 1500 Nm 3 /h for steel mill use, for making nitrogen up to 1000 Nm 3 /h for inerting and in purifying hydrogen streams of up to 100,000 Nm 3 /h for refinery use. In this paper some of the principles of adsorptive separations are reviewed. The history of the technology is traced briefly with emphasis on key material, process and application events. The major commercial processes in the application of adsorption to bulk separation of air and hydrogen purification are reviewed in more detail with comparisons made to cryogenic alternatives in terms of specific characteristics, advantages and disadvantages where appropriate. Information on performance, reliability and comparative economics are discussed where available

  17. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design

  18. Concurrent separation of CO2 and H2O from air by a temperature-vacuum swing adsorption/desorption cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzbacher, Jan Andre; Gebald, Christoph; Piatkowski, Nicolas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2012-08-21

    A temperature-vacuum swing (TVS) cyclic process is applied to an amine-functionalized nanofibrilated cellulose sorbent to concurrently extract CO(2) and water vapor from ambient air. The promoting effect of the relative humidity on the CO(2) capture capacity and on the amount of coadsorbed water is quantified. The measured specific CO(2) capacities range from 0.32 to 0.65 mmol/g, and the corresponding specific H(2)O capacities range from 0.87 to 4.76 mmol/g for adsorption temperatures varying between 10 and 30 °C and relative humidities varying between 20 and 80%. Desorption of CO(2) is achieved at 95 °C and 50 mbar(abs) without dilution by a purge gas, yielding a purity exceeding 94.4%. Sorbent stability and a closed mass balance for both H(2)O and CO(2) are demonstrated for ten consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. The specific energy requirements of the TVS process based on the measured H(2)O and CO(2) capacities are estimated to be 12.5 kJ/mol(CO2) of mechanical (pumping) work and between 493 and 640 kJ/mol(CO2) of heat at below 100 °C, depending on the air relative humidity. For a targeted CO(2) capacity of 2 mmol/g, the heat requirement would be reduced to between 272 and 530 kJ/mol(CO2), depending strongly on the amount of coadsorbed water.

  19. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  20. Long-Duration Testing of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Micha; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of long-duration testing of a temperature-swing adsorption compressor that has application in the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop. The air revitalization system of the ISS operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from Earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low-pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. The TSAC was developed and its operation was successfully verified in integration tests with the flight-like Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to the long-duration tests. Long-duration tests reveal the impacts of repeated thermal cycling on the compressor components and the adsorbent material.

  1. Pressure Swing Adsorption in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory in the Unit Operations Laboratory at the Colorado School of Mines: air separation by pressure swing adsorption. The flexibility of the system enables students to study the production of enriched nitrogen or oxygen streams. Automatic data acquisition permits the study of cycle steps and performance.…

  2. Multiphysics Modeling of Electric-Swing Adsorption System with In-Vessel Condensation (POSTPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petkovska, Menka; Antov-Bozalo, Danijela; Markovic, Ana; Sullivan, Patrick D

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of an Electric-Swing Adsorption (ESA) system (adsorption cycle with electrothermal desorption step, performed by direct heating of the adsorbent particles by passing electric current...

  3. Cycle development and design for CO2 capture from flue gas by vacuum swing adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A

    2008-01-15

    CO2 capture and storage is an important component in the development of clean power generation processes. One CO2 capture technology is gas-phase adsorption, specifically pressure (or vacuum) swing adsorption. The complexity of these processes makes evaluation and assessment of new adsorbents difficult and time-consuming. In this study, we have developed a simple model specifically targeted at CO2 capture by pressure swing adsorption and validated our model by comparison with data from a fully instrumented pilot-scale pressure swing adsorption process. The model captures nonisothermal effects as well as nonlinear adsorption and nitrogen coadsorption. Using the model and our apparatus, we have designed and studied a large number of cycles for CO2 capture. We demonstrate that by careful management of adsorption fronts and assembly of cycles based on understanding of the roles of individual steps, we are able to quickly assess the effect of adsorbents and process parameters on capture performance and identify optimal operating regimes and cycles. We recommend this approach in contrast to exhaustive parametric studies which tend to depend on specifics of the chosen cycle and adsorbent. We show that appropriate combinations of process steps can yield excellent process performance and demonstrate how the pressure drop, and heat loss, etc. affect process performance through their effect on adsorption fronts and profiles. Finally, cyclic temperature profiles along the adsorption column can be readily used to infer concentration profiles-this has proved to be a very useful tool in cyclic function definition. Our research reveals excellent promise for the application of pressure/vacuum swing adsorption technology in the arena of CO2 capture from flue gases.

  4. Pressure swing adsorption: experimental study of an equilibrium theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, J C; Knaebel, K S

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical model of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes that is based on local, linear equilibrium of a binary gas mixture with an adsorbent was experimentally tested under conditions supportive of the inherent assumptions and constraints. The components studied were nitrogen, oxygen and argon with 5A zeolite molecular sieve, at temperatures from 20 to 60/sup 0/C. Simple breakthrough experiments were analyzed to predict the slopes of the isotherms within 5.4% (mean absolute error) of actual equilibrium values. In two-bed PSA experiments at pressure ratios from 6.5 to 840, the recoveries of the light component (oxygen and argon) were within 7.1% (mean absolute error) of those predicted by theory. Typically, the feed rate to the process was about 2751 (STP)/kg h, based on the total mass of adsorbent. The light-component product purity averaged 99.6% (based on volume) and was never less than 99.2%, while theory predicts complete separation is possible. The results support the validity of the theoretical model for the conditions of the experiments.

  5. AIR SEPARATION BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING SUPERIOR ADSORBENTS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph T Yang

    2001-01-01

    Li-X zeolite (Si/Al= 1.0) is currently the best sorbent for use in the separation of air by adsorption processes. In particular, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using zeolite sorbents is being increasingly used for air separation. Silver is also known to strongly affect the adsorptive properties of zeolites; and it is known that thermal vacuum dehydration of silver zeolites leads to the formation of silver clusters within the zeolite. In this work we have synthesized type X zeolites containing Ag and also varying mixtures of Li and Ag. In this project, we developed the Ag-containing zeolite as the best sorbent for air separation. We have also studied Co-ligand compounds as oxygen-selective sorbents. Syntheses, structural characterization and adsorption properties have been performed on all sorbents. The results are described in detail in 5 chapters

  6. AIR SEPARATION BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING SUPERIOR ADSORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph T. Yang

    2001-08-31

    Li-X zeolite (Si/Al = 1.0) is currently the best sorbent for use in the separation of air by adsorption processes. In particular, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using zeolite sorbents is being increasingly used for air separation. Silver is also known to strongly affect the adsorptive properties of zeolites; and it is known that thermal vacuum dehydration of silver zeolites leads to the formation of silver clusters within the zeolite. In this work we have synthesized type X zeolites containing Ag and also varying mixtures of Li and Ag. In this project, we developed the Ag-containing zeolite as the best sorbent for air separation. We have also studied Co-ligand compounds as oxygen-selective sorbents. Syntheses, structural characterization and adsorption properties have been performed on all sorbents. The results are described in detail in 5 chapters.

  7. High pressure adsorption isotherms of nitrogen onto granular activated carbon for a single bed pressure swing adsorption refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodkar, Avinash V.; Anupam, Kumar; Roy, Zunipa; Saha, B. B.; Halder, G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Adsorption characteristics of nitrogen onto granular activated carbon for the wide range of temperature (303-323 K) and pressure (0.2027-2.0265 MPa) have been reported for a single bed pressure swing adsorption refrigeration system. The experimental data were fitted to Langmuir, Dubinin-Astakhov and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The Langmuir and D-R isotherm models were found appropriate in correlating experimental adsorption data with an average relative error of ±2.0541% and ±0.6659% respectively. The isosteric heat of adsorption data were estimated as a function of surface coverage of nitrogen and temperature using D-R isotherm. The heat of adsorption was observed to decrease from 12.65 to 6.98 kJ.mol-1 with an increase in surface concentration at 303 K and it followed the same pattern for other temperatures. It was found that an increase in temperature enhances the magnitude of the heat of adsorption.

  8. Plasma exhaust purification by thermal swing adsorption: Experimental results and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricapito, I.; Malara, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    For several years at the Joint Research Centre-Ispra laboratories, cyclic adsorption processes have been developed for the purification of the plasma exhaust stream of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. A purification process consisting of two coupled thermal swing adsorption systems seemed to be the most convenient process. In this context, a screening study was carried out to select the most suitable adsorbent materials and appropriate working temperatures. This was mainly done by experimental measurements of adsorption isotherms of the single components of the plasma exhaust stream and by a careful evaluation of the multicomponent adsorption equilibria. Experiments on adsorption dynamics were carried out in a pilot plant to demonstrate the feasibility and to evaluate the performance of the process. The experimental apparatus was designed to treat gas mixture flow rates up to 20 to 30 standard temperature and pressure l/h. A mathematical model was developed and tested against the experimental results to describe the adsorption process and, in particular, to evaluate and to optimize the process cycle time. 27 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2012-03-21

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design and operation a challenging task. This work presents a detailed optimization-based approach for simultaneously incorporating PSA design, operational, and control aspects under the effect of time variant and invariant disturbances. It is applied to a two-bed, six-step PSA system represented by a rigorous mathematical model, where the key optimization objective is to maximize the expected H2 recovery while achieving a closed loop product H2 purity of 99.99%, for separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 feed. The benefits over sequential design and control approach are shown in terms of closed-loop recovery improvement of more than 3%, while the incorporation of explicit/multiparametric model predictive controllers improves the closed loop performance. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  10. CFD Simulation for Separation of Carbon Dioxide-Methane Mixture by Pressure Swing Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A developing technology for gas separations is pressure swing adsorption, which has been proven to be more economical and energy efficient compared to other separation methods like cryogenic distillation and membrane separation. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA column, with carbon dioxide-methane as feed mixture and 6-FDA based polyimides as the adsorbent, was modeled and simulated in this work. Ansys Fluent 12.1, along with supplementary user defined functions, was used to develop a 2D transient Eulerian laminar viscous flow model for the PSA column. The model was validated by comparing the simulated results with established analytical models for PSA. The developed numerical model was used to determine the carbon dioxide concentration in the column as a function of time based on different operating conditions. Effect of various operating parameters like pressure, temperature, and flow rate on the separation efficiency has been studied and reported. Optimization studies were carried out to obtain suitable operating conditions for the feed gases separation. Simulation studies were carried out to determine the separation length required for complete separation of the feed mixture corresponding to different inlet feed concentrations which were entering the column at a given flow rate.

  11. Separation of hydrogen isotopes via single column pressure swing adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.W.; Hill, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Separation of hydrogen isotopes based on kinetic isotope effects was studied. The mixture separated was hydrogen containing a trace of tritium as HT and the hydride was vanadium monohydride. The separation was achieved using the single-column pressure swing process. Stage separation factors are larger and product cuts smaller than for a two-column pressure swing process operated in the same monohydride phase

  12. Effects of Humidity Swings on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization: Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Air purification systems are necessary to provide clean air in the closed environments aboard spacecraft. Trace contaminants are removed using adsorption. One major factor concerning the removal of trace contaminants is relative humidity. Water can reduce adsorption capacity and, due to constant fluctuations, its presence is difficult to incorporate into adsorption column designs. The purpose of the research was to allow for better design techniques in trace contaminant adsorption systems, especially for feeds with water present. Experiments and mathematical modeling research on effects of humidity swings on adsorption columns for air revitalization were carried out.

  13. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  14. Performance of an electrothermal swing adsorption system with postdesorption liquefaction for organic gas capture and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouk, Kaitlin E; Rood, Mark J

    2013-07-02

    The use of adsorption on activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) followed by electrothermal swing adsorption (ESA) and postdesorption pressure and temperature control allows organic gases with boiling points below 0 °C to be captured from air streams and recovered as liquids. This technology has the potential to be a more sustainable abatement technique when compared to thermal oxidation. In this paper, we determine the process performance and energy requirements of a gas recovery system (GRS) using ACFC-ESA for three adsorbates with relative pressures between 8.3 × 10(-5) and 3.4 × 10(-3) and boiling points as low as -26.3 °C. The GRS is able to capture > 99% of the organic gas from the feed air stream, which is comparable to destruction efficiencies for thermal oxidizers. The energy used per liquid mole recovered ranges from 920 to 52,000 kJ/mol and is a function of relative pressure of the adsorbate in the feed gas. Quantifying the performance of the bench-scale gas recovery system in terms of its ability to remove organic gases from the adsorption stream and the energy required to liquefy the recovered organic gases is a critical step in developing new technologies to allow manufacturing to occur in a more sustainable manner. To our knowledge, this is the first time an ACFC-ESA system has been used to capture, recover, and liquefy organic compounds with vapor pressures as low as 8.3 × 10(-5) and the first time such a system has been analyzed for process performance and energy consumption.

  15. Pressure swing adsorption cycle for natural gas pretreatment for liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.E.

    1984-01-10

    An improved apparatus and method for a regeneration of a solid adsorbent used to pretreat a gas before liquefaction. The spent adsorbent is subjected to a two-step regenerative process, in the first of which the adsorbent is subjected to a low pressure produced by the use of mechanical vacuum pumps. When the pressure of the atmosphere in contact with the adsorbent has been reduced to a level sufficiently low to insure that the gas will flow under laminar rather than viscous conditions, the adsorbent is exposed to the action of a cryoplate condenser maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause any molecules of water which impinge thereon to condense and freeze, thereby reducing the partial pressure of water vapor within the chamber. The reduced partial pressure of the water vapor in turn causes adsorbed water on the adsorbent to be desorbed, thereby effectively removing the water from the adsorbent and depositing it as solid ice on the cryoplate condenser.

  16. Development of Pressure Swing Adsorption Technology for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, William; Paul, Heather; Thomas, Gretchen

    2006-01-01

    Metabolically produced carbon dioxide (CO2) removal in spacesuit applications has traditionally been accomplished utilizing non-regenerative Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) canisters. In recent years, regenerative Metal Oxide (MetOx) has been developed to replace the Extravehicular Mobility Unity (EMU) LiOH canister for extravehicular activity (EVA) missions in micro-gravity, however, MetOx may carry a significant weight burden for potential use in future Lunar or planetary EVA exploration missions. Additionally, both of these methods of CO2 removal have a finite capacity sized for the particular mission profile. Metabolically produced water vapor removal in spacesuits has historically been accomplished by a condensing heat exchanger within the ventilation process loop of the suit life support system. Advancements in solid amine technology employed in a pressure swing adsorption system have led to the possibility of combining both the CO2 and humidity control requirements into a single, lightweight device. Because the pressure swing adsorption system is regenerated to space vacuum or by an inert purge stream, the duration of an EVA mission may be extended significantly over currently employed technologies, while markedly reducing the overall subsystem weight compared to the combined weight of the condensing heat exchanger and current regenerative CO2 removal technology. This paper will provide and overview of ongoing development efforts evaluating the subsystem size required to manage anticipated metabolic CO2 and water vapor generation rates in a spacesuit environment.

  17. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

  18. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts,Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) concentrations in the vapor phase of a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfortability, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxides (MetOx). Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material and requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications which control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through a fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed and documented from experimental and theoretical perspectives. To support developmental efforts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing adsorption technology. The efforts documented herein summarize performance characterization and simulation results for several variable metabolic profiles subjected to the RCA. Furthermore, a variety of control methods are explored including timed swing cycles, instantaneous CO2 feedback control, and time-averaged CO2 feedback control. A variety of off-nominal tests are also explored including high/low suit temperatures, increasingly high humidity cases, and dynamic pressure cases simulating the suit pre-breathe protocol. Consequently, this work builds on efforts previous efforts to fully bound the performance of the rapid cycle amine under a variety of nominal and off-nominal conditions.

  19. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m −3 . This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m −3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m −3

  20. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ˜0.2 Bq m-3. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m-3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m-3.

  1. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, J., E-mail: joseph.street@mines.sdsmt.edu; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D. [Department of Physics, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m{sup −3}. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m{sup −3} to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup −3}.

  2. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effect of process parameters on power requirements of vacuum swing adsorption technology for CO2 capture from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A.; Xiao, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of process and operating parameters - feed gas temperature, evacuation pressure and feed concentration - on the performance of carbon dioxide vacuum swing adsorption (CO 2 VSA) processes for CO 2 capture from gas, especially as it affects power consumption. To obtain reliable data on the VSA process, experimental work was conducted on a purposely built three bed CO 2 VSA pilot plant using commercial 13X zeolite. Both 6 step and 9 step cycles were used to determine the influences of temperature, evacuation pressure and feed concentration on process performance (recovery, purity, power and corresponding capture cost). A simple economic model for CO 2 capture was developed and employed herein. Through experiments and analysis, it is found that the feed gas temperature, evacuation pressure and feed concentration have significant effects on power consumption and CO 2 capture cost. Our data demonstrate that the CO 2 VSA process has good recovery (>70%), purity (>90%) and low power cost (4-10 kW/TPDc) when operating with 40 C feed gas provided relatively deep vacuum is used. Enhanced performance is obtained when higher feed gas concentration is fed to the plant, as expected. Our data indicates large potential for application of CO 2 VSA to CO 2 capture from flue gas. (author)

  4. Dynamic modeling and explicit/multi-parametric MPC control of pressure swing adsorption systems

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2011-01-01

    Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a flexible, albeit complex gas separation system. Due to its inherent nonlinear nature and discontinuous operation, the design of a model based PSA controller, especially with varying operating conditions, is a challenging task. This work focuses on the design of an explicit/multi-parametric model predictive controller for a PSA system. Based on a system involving four adsorbent beds separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 mixture into high purity hydrogen, the key controller objective is to fast track H2 purity to a set point value of 99.99%. To perform this task, a rigorous and systematic framework is employed. First, a high fidelity detailed dynamic model is built to represent the system\\'s real operation, and understand its dynamic behavior. The model is then used to derive appropriate linear models by applying suitable system identification techniques. For the reduced models, a model predictive control (MPC) step is formulated, where latest developments in multi-parametric programming and control are applied to derive a novel explicit MPC controller. To test the performance of the designed controller, closed loop simulations are performed where the dynamic model is used as the virtual plant. Comparison studies of the derived explicit MPC controller are also performed with conventional PID controllers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing either non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative but heavy metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for spacesuit environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 while concomitantly managing humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating constraints imposed with the traditional technologies. Prototype air revitalization units employing this technology have been fabricated in both a rectangular and cylindrical geometry. Experimental results for these test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug flow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of flow rates (110-170 ALM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The testing and model results lend insight into the operational capabilities of these devices as well as the influence the geometry of the device has on performance. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new metabolic conditions. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply

  6. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.; Bessho, Naoki; Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  7. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  8. Effect of Junction Temperature Swing Durations on a Lifetime of a Transfer Molded IGBT Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jorgensen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    results under 6 different conditions and it may improve a lifetime model for lifetime prediction of IGBT modules under various mission profiles of converters. The power cycling tests are performed by an advanced power cycling test setup which enables tested modules to be operated under more realistic......In this paper, the effect of junction temperature swing duration on the lifetime of a transfer molded Intelligent Power IGBT Module is studied and a relevant lifetime factor is modeled. A temperature swing duration dependent lifetime factor is defined based on 38 accelerated power cycling test...

  9. Development of a facility for the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas by pressure swing adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Saida, K; Uenoyama, K; Sugishita, M; Imokawa, K

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports 1) a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system comprising three towers, each packed with three different adsorbents; and 2) studies of the application of this system to the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas. Running the adsorption plant at 35 C and 9.5 kg/cm/sup 2/ gives optimum operating stability and economy. In addition, an optimum time cycle for the three-tower system has been developed. Gas from the PSA equipment proper still contains traces of oxygen. This is removed in a further tower packed with Pd catalyst. The ultimate recovery of hydrogen is closely related to its concentration in the raw coke oven gas and to the degree of purity attained. 3 references.

  10. Temperature-dependent gate-swing hysteresis of pentacene thin film transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yow-Jon Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-dependent hysteresis-type transfer characteristics of pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs were researched. The temperature-dependent transfer characteristics exhibit hopping conduction behavior. The fitting data for the temperature-dependent off-to-on and on-to-off transfer characteristics of OTFTs demonstrate that the hopping distance (ah and the barrier height for hopping (qϕt control the carrier flow, resulting in the hysteresis-type transfer characteristics of OTFTs. The hopping model gives an explanation of the gate-swing hysteresis and the roles played by qϕt and ah.

  11. Vacuum Exhaust Process in Pilot-Scale Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption for Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery and treatment of methane from coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM with cost-effective technologies have been an ongoing challenge due to low methane concentrations. In this study, a type of coconut shell-based active carbon was employed to enrich VAM with a three-bed vacuum pressure swing adsorption unit. A new vacuum exhaust step for the VPSA process was introduced. The results show that the vacuum exhaust step can increase the methane concentration of the product without changing adsorption and desorption pressure. Under laboratory conditions, the concentration of product increased from 0.4% to 0.69% as the vacuum exhaust ratio increased from 0 to 3.1 when the feed gas concentration was 0.2%. A 500 m³/h pilot-scale test system for VAM enrichment was built rendering good correlation with the laboratory results in terms of the vacuum exhaust step. By using a two-stage three-bed separation unit, the VAM was enriched from 0.2% to over 1.2%.

  12. Hydrogen recovery by pressure swing adsorption. [From ammonia purge-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A pressure swing absorption process (PSA) designed to recover H/sub 2/ from ammonia purge-gas streams developed by Bergbarr-Forschung GmbH of West Germany is reviewed. The PSA unit is installed in the process stream after the ammonia absorber unit which washes the ammonia-containing purge gas which consists of NH/sub 3/, H/sub 2/O, CH/sub 4/, Ar, N/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/. Usually 4 absorber units containing carbon molecular sieves make up the PSA unit; however, only one unit is generally used to absorb all components except H/sub 2/ while the other units are being regenerated by depressurization. Economic comparisons of the PSA process with a cryogenic process indicate that for some ammonia plants there may be a 30% saving in fuel gas requirements with the PSA system. The conditions of the purge gas strongly influence which system of recovery is more suitable.

  13. Air separation by pressure swing adsorption on a carbon molecular sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M M; Ruthven, D M; Raghaven, N S

    1986-01-01

    A simplified dynamic model for a PSA air separation process is developed based on linearized mass transfer rate expressions and binary Langmuir equilibrium. Constant pressure is assumed during adsorption and desorption steps but the variation in flow rate through the column due to adsorption is accounted for. The model predictions, using independently measured kinetic and equilibrium data are compared with experimental results obtained in a simple two-bed air separation PSA system packed with a carbon molecular sieve adsorbent. The model is shown to provide a good representation of the experimentally observed behavior over a wide range of conditions.

  14. Adsorption Isotherms from Temperature-Programmed Physiosorption - Equilibrium & Kinetics -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The separation of gas mixtures is a major operation in the process industry for hydrocarbon separation, removal of pollutant from effluent streams, and purification of process streams. The work in this thesis is related to gas separation by pressure swing adsorption (PSA); a well-known example is

  15. Study on Effect of Junction Temperature Swing Duration on Lifetime of Transfer Molded Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    levels are presented. This study enables to include the tΔTj effect on lifetime model of IGBT modules for its lifetime estimation and it may result in improved lifetime prediction of IGBT modules under given mission profiles of converters. A postfailure analysis of the tested IGBT modules is also......In this paper, the effect of junction temperature swing duration on lifetime of transfer molded power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules is studied and a relevant lifetime factor is modeled. This study is based on 39 accelerated power cycling test results under six different...

  16. Green Hydrogen Production from Raw Biogas: A Techno-Economic Investigation of Conventional Processes Using Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioele Di Marcoberardino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from biogas with conventional systems. The work is part of the European project BIONICO, whose purpose is to develop and test a membrane reactor (MR for hydrogen production from biogas. Within the BIONICO project, steam reforming (SR and autothermal reforming (ATR, have been identified as well-known technologies for hydrogen production from biogas. Two biogases were examined: one produced by landfill and the other one by anaerobic digester. The purification unit required in the conventional plants has been studied and modeled in detail, using Aspen Adsorption. A pressure swing adsorption system (PSA with two and four beds and a vacuum PSA (VPSA made of four beds are compared. VPSA operates at sub-atmospheric pressure, thus increasing the recovery: results of the simulations show that the performances strongly depend on the design choices and on the gas feeding the purification unit. The best purity and recovery values were obtained with the VPSA system, which achieves a recovery between 50% and 60% at a vacuum pressure of 0.1 bar and a hydrogen purity of 99.999%. The SR and ATR plants were designed in Aspen Plus, integrating the studied VPSA model, and analyzing the behavior of the systems at the variation of the pressure and the type of input biogas. The SR system achieves a maximum efficiency, calculated on the LHV, of 52% at 12 bar, while the ATR of 28% at 18 bar. The economic analysis determined a hydrogen production cost of around 5 €/kg of hydrogen for the SR case.

  17. Effect of Gas Recycling on the Performance of a Moving Bed Temperature-Swing (MBTSA Process for CO2 Capture in a Coal Fired Power Plant Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Mondino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a continuous moving-bed temperature-swing adsorption (MBTSA process for post-combustion CO2 capture in a coal-fired power plant context has been developed. Process simulations have been done using single component isotherms and measured gas diffusion parameters of an activated carbon adsorbent. While a simple process configuration with no gas re-circulation gives quite low capture rate and CO2 purity, 86% and 65%, respectively, more advanced process configurations where some of the captured gas is recirculated to the incoming flue gas drastically increase both the capture rate and CO2 purity, the best configuration reaching capture rate of 86% and CO2 purity of 98%. Further improvements can be achieved by using adsorbents with higher CO2/N2 selectivity and/or higher temperature of the regeneration section.

  18. Arsenite adsorption on goethite at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, Michael; Vlasova, Nataliya

    2009-01-01

    Experimental closed-system ΔT acid-base titrations between 10 deg. C and 75 deg. C were used to constrain a temperature-dependent 1-pK basic Stern model of the goethite surface complexation reactions. Experimental data for the temperature dependence of pH PZC determined by the one-term Van't Hoff extrapolation yield a value for goethite surface protonation enthalpy of -49.6 kJ mol -1 in good agreement with literature data. Batch titration data between 10 deg. C and 75 deg. C with arsenite concentrations between 10 μM and 100 μM yield adsorption curves, which increases with pH, peak at a pH of 9, and decrease at higher pH values. The slope of this bend becomes steeper with increasing temperature. A 1-pK charge distribution model in combination with a basic Stern layer option could be established for the pH-dependent arsenite adsorption. Formation of two inner-sphere bidentate surface complexes best matched the experimental data in agreement with published EXAFS spectroscopic information. The temperature behaviour of the thus derived intrinsic equilibrium constants can be well represented by the linear Van't Hoff logK T int vs. 1/T plot. Adsorption of arsenite on the goethite surface is exothermic (negative Δ r H 298 values) and therefore becomes weaker with increasing temperature. Application of the new constants with the aqueous speciation code VMINTEQ predicts that the As(III) concentration in presence of goethite sorbent decreases by 10 times once the hydrothermal solution is cooled from 99 deg. C to 1 deg. C. The model curve matches data from a natural thermal water spring system. The increase of adsorption efficiency for As along the temperature gradient may well serve as an additional process to prevent ecosystem contamination by As-rich water seepage from geothermal energy generation facilities

  19. Arsenite adsorption on goethite at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, Michael [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz 55099 (Germany)], E-mail: kersten@uni-mainz.de; Vlasova, Nataliya [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz 55099 (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Experimental closed-system {delta}T acid-base titrations between 10 deg. C and 75 deg. C were used to constrain a temperature-dependent 1-pK basic Stern model of the goethite surface complexation reactions. Experimental data for the temperature dependence of pH{sub PZC} determined by the one-term Van't Hoff extrapolation yield a value for goethite surface protonation enthalpy of -49.6 kJ mol{sup -1} in good agreement with literature data. Batch titration data between 10 deg. C and 75 deg. C with arsenite concentrations between 10 {mu}M and 100 {mu}M yield adsorption curves, which increases with pH, peak at a pH of 9, and decrease at higher pH values. The slope of this bend becomes steeper with increasing temperature. A 1-pK charge distribution model in combination with a basic Stern layer option could be established for the pH-dependent arsenite adsorption. Formation of two inner-sphere bidentate surface complexes best matched the experimental data in agreement with published EXAFS spectroscopic information. The temperature behaviour of the thus derived intrinsic equilibrium constants can be well represented by the linear Van't Hoff logK{sub T}{sup int} vs. 1/T plot. Adsorption of arsenite on the goethite surface is exothermic (negative {delta}{sub r}H{sub 298} values) and therefore becomes weaker with increasing temperature. Application of the new constants with the aqueous speciation code VMINTEQ predicts that the As(III) concentration in presence of goethite sorbent decreases by 10 times once the hydrothermal solution is cooled from 99 deg. C to 1 deg. C. The model curve matches data from a natural thermal water spring system. The increase of adsorption efficiency for As along the temperature gradient may well serve as an additional process to prevent ecosystem contamination by As-rich water seepage from geothermal energy generation facilities.

  20. Dynamic analysis of the CTAR (constant temperature adsorption refrigeration) cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.Z.; Mohamad, A.A.; Al-Ansary, H.A.; Alyousef, Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    The basic SAR (solar-driven adsorption refrigeration) machine is an intermittent cold production system. Recently, the CO-SAR (continuous operation solar-powered adsorption refrigeration) system is developed. The CO-SAR machine is based on the theoretical CTAR (constant temperature adsorption refrigeration) cycle in which the adsorption process takes place at a constant temperature that equals the ambient temperature. Practically, there should be a temperature gradient between the adsorption bed and the surrounding atmosphere to provide a driving potential for heat transfer. In the present study, the dynamic analysis of the CTAR cycle is developed. This analysis provides a comparison between the theoretical and the dynamic operation of the CTAR cycle. The developed dynamic model is based on the D-A adsorption equilibrium equation and the energy and mass balances in the adsorption reactor. Results obtained from the present work demonstrate that, the idealization of the constant temperature adsorption process in the theoretical CTAR cycle is not far from the real situation and can be approached. Furthermore, enhancing the heat transfer between the adsorption bed and the ambient during the bed pre-cooling process helps accelerating the heat rejection process from the adsorption reactor and therefore approaching the isothermal process. - Highlights: • The dynamic analysis of the CTAR (constant temperature adsorption refrigeration) cycle is developed. • The CTAR theoretical and dynamic cycles are compared. • The dynamic cycle approaches the ideal one by enhancing the bed precooling

  1. Java Swing

    CERN Document Server

    Loy, Marc; Eckstein, Robert; Elliott, James; Wood, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Swing is a fully-featured user interface development kit for Java applications. Building on the foundations of the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT), Swing enables cross-platform applications to use any of several pluggable look-and-feels. Swing developers can take advantage of its rich, flexible features and modular components, building elegant user interfaces with very little code. This second edition of Java Swing thoroughly covers all the features available in Java 2 SDK 1.3 and 1.4. More than simply a reference, this new edition takes a practical approach. It is a book by developers for

  2. (Amino acid + silica) adsorption thermodynamics: Effects of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebben, Damien; Pendleton, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High resolution, low concentration Gly, Lys and Glu solution adsorption isotherms. • All isotherms fitted with Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm model. • Gly, Lys and Glu show exothermic adsorption processes. • Isosteric heat analyses reveal changes in interaction strength with surface coverage. - Abstract: A thorough understanding of amino acid adsorption by mineral and oxide surfaces has a major impact on a variety of industrial and biomedical applications. Little information currently exists regarding temperature effects on most of these adsorption processes. Deeper thermodynamic analyses of their multiple temperature adsorption isotherms would aid the interpretation of the interfacial interactions. Low solution concentration adsorption isotherms for glycine, lysine and glutamic acid on a silica adsorbent were generated for T = (291, 298 and 310) K. Data analysis via the Clausius–Clapeyron method yielded the isosteric heat of adsorption as a function of fractional monolayer coverage for each adsorptive. Each amino acid showed an exothermic adsorption response. Glycine and lysine experienced a greater negative effect of increased temperature compared with glutamic acid, indicating a greater number of adsorbed molecules than glutamic acid, with the former undergoing intermolecular clustering within the adsorbed phase. Isosteric heat analyses suggest ionic interactions for lysine and hydrogen bonding for glutamic acid, both weakening with increased coverage. In contrast, initial hydrogen bonding led to ionic bonding for glycine with increasing coverage

  3. Relationship between carbon microstructure, adsorption energy and hydrogen adsorption capacity at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacek Jagiello; Matthias Thommes

    2005-01-01

    Various microporous materials such as activated carbons, nano-tubes, synthetic microporous carbons as well as metal organic framework materials are being considered for hydrogen storage applications by means of physical adsorption. To develop materials of practical significance for hydrogen storage it is important to understand the relationships between pore sizes, adsorption energies and adsorption capacities. The pore size distribution (PSD) characterization is traditionally obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 K. However, a portion of the pores accessible to H 2 may not be accessible to N 2 at this temperature. Therefore, it was recently proposed to use the DFT analysis of H 2 adsorption isotherms to characterize pore structure of materials considered for hydrogen storage applications. In present work, adsorption isotherms of H 2 and N 2 at cryogenic temperatures are used for the characterization of carbon materials. Adsorption measurements were performed with Autosorb 1 MP (Quantachrome Instruments, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA). As an example, Fig 1 compares PSDs calculated for the activated carbon sample (F400, Calgon Carbon) using combined H 2 and N 2 data, and using N 2 isotherm only. The nitrogen derived PSD does not include certain amount of micropores which are accessible to H 2 but not to N 2 molecules. Obviously, the difference in the calculated PSDs by the two methods will depend on the actual content of small micropores in a given sample. Carbon adsorption properties can also be characterized by the isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, related to the adsorption energy and dependent on the carbon pore/surface structure. Fig 2 shows Qst data calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation from H 2 isotherms measured at 77 K and 87 K for the carbon molecular sieve CMS 5A (Takeda), oxidized single wall nano-tubes (SWNT), and graphitized carbon black (Supelco). The Qst values decrease with increasing pore sizes. The

  4. Black Phosphorus Based Field Effect Transistors with Simultaneously Achieved Near Ideal Subthreshold Swing and High Hole Mobility at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinke; Ang, Kah-Wee; Yu, Wenjie; He, Jiazhu; Feng, Xuewei; Liu, Qiang; Jiang, He; Dan Tang; Wen, Jiao; Lu, Youming; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Shun; Wu, Jing; Liu, Wenjun; Wang, Xi; Zhu, Deliang; He, Zhubing

    2016-04-22

    Black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising two-dimensional (2D) material for next generation transistor applications due to its superior carrier transport properties. Among other issues, achieving reduced subthreshold swing and enhanced hole mobility simultaneously remains a challenge which requires careful optimization of the BP/gate oxide interface. Here, we report the realization of high performance BP transistors integrated with HfO2 high-k gate dielectric using a low temperature CMOS process. The fabricated devices were shown to demonstrate a near ideal subthreshold swing (SS) of ~69 mV/dec and a room temperature hole mobility of exceeding >400 cm(2)/Vs. These figure-of-merits are benchmarked to be the best-of-its-kind, which outperform previously reported BP transistors realized on traditional SiO2 gate dielectric. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis further reveals the evidence of a more chemically stable BP when formed on HfO2 high-k as opposed to SiO2, which gives rise to a better interface quality that accounts for the SS and hole mobility improvement. These results unveil the potential of black phosphorus as an emerging channel material for future nanoelectronic device applications.

  5. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MTSA technology specifically addresses the thermal, CO2 and humidity control challenges faced by Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS) to be used in NASA's...

  6. Experimental investigation of CO_2 separation by adsorption methods in natural gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.J.; Fu, Y.; Huang, Y.X.; Tao, Z.C.; Zhu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The ideal swing adsorption tank can improve the adsorption performance. • Pure CO_2 adsorption experimental data agrees well with extended Langmuir model. • Langmuir-Freundlich model correlates CO_2/CH_4 mixture adsorption data fairly well. • The temperature increases in the order swing 2 > swing1 > static for pure CO_2 adsorption. • Swinging the adsorption tank can improve the separation efficiency. - Abstract: CO_2 separation for natural gas purification by the adsorption method was studied in detail using volumetric adsorption apparatus. The crystalline phase and microstructure of the experimental sample were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Micromeritics ASAP 2020 instrument. The XRD pattern proves that the experimental sample consists of 13X zeolites. The SEM images show that the 13X zeolites expose a large number of micro-channels on the surface of the particles. The microporous volume is 0.22 cm"3 (STP)/g. The ideal swing frequency for the adsorption tank can improve the adsorption performance of an adsorbent compared with a static adsorption tank. The pure CO_2 adsorption experimental data agrees well with the extended Langmuir model. The Langmuir-Freundlich model correlates the CO_2/CH_4 mixture adsorption experimental data fairly well. The relative errors between the simulated results and the experimental data are very little, which indicates that these fitted models are correct. The average selectivity of CO_2/CH_4 in a static and swing adsorption tank are, respectively, 3.57 and 3.93, considerably higher than 1, indicating preferential CO_2 adsorption over CH_4 in CO_2/CH_4 mixtures. This also shows that the swing can improve CO_2 separation for natural gas purification. For the three types of motion status, the temperature of the adsorption tank increased in the order swing 2 > swing1 > static state for pure CO_2 adsorption in 13X zeolites. The temperature variation decreased as the

  7. Adsorption isotherms of pear at several temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrevski Vangelče; Lutovska Monika; Mijakovski Vladimir; Pavkov Ivan S.; Babić Mirko M.; Radojčin Milivoje T.

    2015-01-01

    The moisture adsorption isotherms of pear were determined at 15ºC, 30ºC and 45ºC using the standard static gravimetric method over a range of water activity from 0.112 to 0.920. The experimental data were fitted with isotherm equations recommended in ASAE Standard D245.5. In order to find which equation gives the best results, large number of numerical experiments were performed. After that, several statistical criteria proposed in scientific literature for...

  8. Equilibrium adsorption data from temperature-programmed desorption measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeth, F.; Mugge, J.M.; van der Vaart, R.; van der Vaart, Rick; Bosch, H.; Reith, T.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a novel method that enables the calculation of a series of adsorption isotherms basically from a single Temperature-Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiment. The basic idea is to saturate an adsorbent packed in a fixed bed at a certain feed concentration and temperature and to

  9. Relationship between carbon microstructure, adsorption energy and hydrogen adsorption capacity at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagiello, J.; Thommes, M.

    2005-01-01

    Various microporous materials such as activated carbons, nano-tubes, synthetic micro-porous carbons as well as metal organic framework materials are being considered for hydrogen storage applications by means of physical adsorption. To develop materials of practical significance for hydrogen storage it is important to understand the relationships between pore sizes, adsorption energies and adsorption capacities. The pore size distribution (PSD) characterization is traditionally obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 K. However, a portion of the pores accessible to H 2 may not be accessible to N 2 at this temperature. Therefore, it was recently proposed to use the DFT analysis of H 2 adsorption isotherms to characterize pore structure of materials considered for hydrogen storage applications [1]. In present work, adsorption isotherms of H 2 and N 2 at cryogenic temperatures are used for the characterization of carbon materials. Adsorption measurements were performed with Autosorb 1 MP [Quantachrome Instruments, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA]. As an example, Fig 1 compares PSDs calculated for the activated carbon sample (F400, Calgon Carbon) using combined H 2 and N 2 data, and using N 2 isotherm only. The nitrogen derived PSD does not include certain amount of micro-pores which are accessible to H 2 but not to N 2 molecules. Obviously, the difference in the calculated PSDs by the two methods will depend on the actual content of small micro-pores in a given sample. Carbon adsorption properties can also be characterized by the isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, related to the adsorption energy and dependent on the carbon pore/surface structure. Fig 2 shows Qst data calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation from H 2 isotherms measured at 77 K and 87 K for the carbon molecular sieve CMS 5A (Takeda), oxidized single wall nano-tubes (SWNT) [2], and graphitized carbon black (Supelco). The Qst values decrease with increasing pore

  10. The influence of temperature on selenate adsorption by goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, M.; Vlasova, N. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Geosciences Inst.

    2013-08-01

    Acid-base batch titration data up to 75 C were used to constrain a temperature-dependent 1-pK basic Stern model of the surface protonation reactions of goethite. Experimental data for the temperature dependence of pH{sub PZC} (as determined using the two-term Van't Hoff extrapolation) yielded a negative value of -44.9 kJ/mol for the surface protonation enthalpy, and therefore a shift of the zero point of charge towards lower pH values with increasing temperature. Batch titrations at selenate concentrations of between 10 and 100 {mu}M showed an increased degree of adsorption in the acidic pH range, which appeared to be sensitive to the ionic strength of the solution. The selenate adsorption edges shifted towards more acidic pH values with increasing temperature. A 1-pK charge distribution multi-site surface complexation (CD-MUSIC) model was applied, assuming the formation of an outer-spheric surface complex together with an inner-spheric one, in agreement with published spectroscopic information. The temperature behaviour of the intrinsic equilibrium constants were well represented by a linear Van't Hoff log K vs. 1/T plot, from which negative enthalpy values could be derived for both adsorption reactions. The adsorption of the selenate was therefore exothermic and became weaker with increasing temperature. The bidentate inner-spheric complex was more sensitive to rises in temperature (-70 kJ/mol), compared to the outer-spheric complex (-36 kJ/mol). The latter ultimately became the dominating adsorption process at the highest temperature studied. (orig.)

  11. The influence of temperature on selenate adsorption by goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, M.; Vlasova, N.

    2013-01-01

    Acid-base batch titration data up to 75 C were used to constrain a temperature-dependent 1-pK basic Stern model of the surface protonation reactions of goethite. Experimental data for the temperature dependence of pH PZC (as determined using the two-term Van't Hoff extrapolation) yielded a negative value of -44.9 kJ/mol for the surface protonation enthalpy, and therefore a shift of the zero point of charge towards lower pH values with increasing temperature. Batch titrations at selenate concentrations of between 10 and 100 μM showed an increased degree of adsorption in the acidic pH range, which appeared to be sensitive to the ionic strength of the solution. The selenate adsorption edges shifted towards more acidic pH values with increasing temperature. A 1-pK charge distribution multi-site surface complexation (CD-MUSIC) model was applied, assuming the formation of an outer-spheric surface complex together with an inner-spheric one, in agreement with published spectroscopic information. The temperature behaviour of the intrinsic equilibrium constants were well represented by a linear Van't Hoff log K vs. 1/T plot, from which negative enthalpy values could be derived for both adsorption reactions. The adsorption of the selenate was therefore exothermic and became weaker with increasing temperature. The bidentate inner-spheric complex was more sensitive to rises in temperature (-70 kJ/mol), compared to the outer-spheric complex (-36 kJ/mol). The latter ultimately became the dominating adsorption process at the highest temperature studied. (orig.)

  12. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The CO2 adsorption by calcium zirconate was explored at pre- and post- combustion temperature condition. The several samples of the calcium zirconate were prepared by different methods such as sol-gel, solid-solid fusion, template and micro-emulsion. The samples of the calcium zirconate were characterized by measurement of surface area, alkalinity/acidity, and recording the XRD patterns and SEM images. The CO2 adsorptions by samples of the calcium zirconate were studied in the temperature range 100 to 850 oC and the CO2 adsorptions were observed in the ranges of 6.88 to 40.6 wt % at 600 0C and 8 to 16.82 wt% at in between the temperatures 200 to 300 oC. The effect of Ca/Zr mol ratio in the samples of the calcium zirconate on the CO2 adsorption and alkalinity were discussed. The adsorbed moisture by the samples of the calcium zirconate was found to be useful for the CO2 adsorption. The promoted the samples of the calcium zirconate by K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, Ag+ and La3+ showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The exposure time of CO2 on the samples of the calcium zirconate showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The samples of the calcium zirconate were found to be regenerable and reusable several times for the adsorption of CO2 for at the post- and pre-combustion temperature condition. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC Undip. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd June 2012, Revised: 28th August 2012, Accepted: 30th August 2012[How to Cite: K. B. Kale, R. Y. Raskar, V. H. Rane and A. G.  Gaikwad (2012. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 124-136. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3686.124-136] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3686.124-136 ] | View in 

  13. Adsorption isotherms of pear at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrevski Vangelče

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture adsorption isotherms of pear were determined at 15ºC, 30ºC and 45ºC using the standard static gravimetric method over a range of water activity from 0.112 to 0.920. The experimental data were fitted with isotherm equations recommended in ASAE Standard D245.5. In order to find which equation gives the best results, large number of numerical experiments were performed. After that, several statistical criteria proposed in scientific literature for estimation and selection of the best sorption isotherm equations were used. For each equation and experimental data set, the average performance index was calculated and models were ranked afterwards. After that, some statistical rejection criteria were checked (D’Agostino-Pearson test of normality, single-sample run test and significance and precision of the model parameters. The performed statistical analysis shows that the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB equation has the highest value of average performance index, but higher correlation between pair of parameters leads to lower precision of estimated parameters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31058

  14. Adsorption of krypton from helium by low temperature charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    Adsorption of krypton from helium by charcoal at temperatures from -100 0 C to -140 0 C was experimentally investigated to verify adsorption system design methods and to determine effects of regeneration for the Gas Purification System of the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. Helium with two krypton concentrations, traced by krypton-85 at 0.0044 μCi/cm 3 , was passed through a 1/2-inch diameter, three-inch long trap packed with coconut charcoal. Breakthrough curves were measured by continuously recording the activity of the effluent gas using a sampler with a krypton-85 detection limit of about 5 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 3 . Experimental breakthrough curves with continuous feed for both concentrations and for superficial gas velocities of 5 to 28 cm/sec were closely fitted when the pore diffusion term was omitted from the Anzelius linear equilibrium adsorption model indicating that the adsorption process for this system was controlled by gas phase mass transport kinetics. Adsorption capacities determined in these experiments at -140 0 C agreed closely with published data. A discontinuity, however, was observed in the krypton adsorption coefficient between -100 and -120 0 C. This discontinuity may be caused by capillary condensation of krypton in the charcoal pores. Breakthrough times for pulse experiments at 400 ppM (vol.) krypton concentration were several times greater than breakthrough for continuous feed experiments at equivalent conditions. The differences in breakthrough times indicate that the adsorption isotherms are non-linear in this concentration range. Regeneration experiments showed that purging with helium at room temperature for 16 hours was inadequate, since lower breakthrough times were obtained after this treatment. Regeneration under vacuum at 100 0 C or 200 0 C for 16 hours resulted in satisfactory regeneration (i.e., no reduction in breakthrough times occurred in subsequent runs). (U.S.)

  15. Weakly-bound adsorption states and low-temperature adsorption kinetiks of oxygen on tungsten (100) and (110) faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, V.V.; Osovskij, V.D.; Ptushnikov, Yu.G.; Sukretnyj, V.G.; Chujkov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    A molecular beam technique with an effusion source operating at T=200 K is used to study the adsorption interaction of oxygen with W(100) and (110) faces in the range of the simple temperatures from 5 to 340 K. Three weakly-bound adsorption states of oxygen are detected corresponding to adsorption in the second, third and forth monolayer. These states are characterized by adsorption energies of 0.13, 0.08 and 0.07 eV and desorption temperatures of 45, 27 and 25 K, respectively. The kinetics of filling of these states is almost similar for both faces, whereas the adsorption kinetics in the first monolayer is essentially different. A dissociative nature of adsorption at T >or approx. 5 K and a jump migration mechanism of the admolecules in the precursor state to the stationary adsorption sites are suggested

  16. Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Banerjee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of saw dust for the removal of an anionic dye, tartrazine, from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The experiments were carried out in batch mode. Effect of the parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye was studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 70 min. Maximum adsorption of dye was achieved at pH 3. Removal percent was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum removal was found to be 97% at 1 mg/L of tartrazine. The removal increases from 71% to 97% when the initial concentration of dye solution decreases from 15 mg/L to 1 mg/L. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. The (Langmuir adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is found to be 4.71 mg/g at 318 K. Kinetic modeling of the process of removal was carried out and the process of removal was found to follow a pseudo second order model and the value of rate constant for adsorption process was calculated as 2.7 × 10−3 g mg−1 min−1 at 318 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (ΔG°, enthalpy (ΔH° and entropy (ΔS° were determined and the negative values of ΔG° indicated that the process of removal was spontaneous at all values of temperatures. Further, the values of ΔH° indicated the endothermic nature of the process of removal.

  17. Applying burnable poison particles to reduce the reactivity swing in high temperature reactors with batch-wise fuel loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Dam, H. van; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2003-01-01

    Burnup calculations have been performed on a standard HTR fuel pebble with a radius of 3 cm containing 9 g of 8% enriched uranium and burnable poison particles (BPP) made of B 4 C highly enriched in 10 B. The radius of the BPP and the number of particles per fuel pebble have been varied to find the flattest reactivity-to-time curve. It was found that for a k∞ of 1.1, a reactivity swing as low as 2% can be obtained when each fuel pebble contains about 1070 BPP with a radius of 75 μm. For coated BPP that consist of a graphite kernel with a radius of 300 μm covered with a B 4 C burnable poison layer, a similar value for the reactivity swing can be obtained. Cylindrical particles seem to perform worse. In general, the modification of the geometry of BPP is an effective means to tailor the reactivity curve of HTRs

  18. Methanol adsorption by amorphous silica alumina in the critical temperature range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczynski, M.; van Ooteghem, A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    The methanol adsorption capacity of an amorphous silica-alumina was measured using an equilibrium technique. The experimental temperature range was of 140 to 260°C and the pure methanol pressure range was 0.1 to 1.2 MPa. A multilayer adsorption was found, also for temperatures above the critical

  19. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Electrothermal Swing Adsorption of Air Emissions from Sheet-Foam Production Compared to Conventional Abatement Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, David L; Emamipour, Hamidreza; Guest, Jeremy S; Rood, Mark J

    2016-02-02

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis are presented comparing the environmental and economic impacts of using regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO), granular activated carbon (GAC), and activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) systems to treat gaseous emissions from sheet-foam production. The ACFC system has the lowest operational energy consumption (i.e., 19.2, 8.7, and 3.4 TJ/year at a full-scale facility for RTO, GAC, and ACFC systems, respectively). The GAC system has the smallest environmental impacts across most impact categories for the use of electricity from select states in the United States that produce sheet foam. Monte Carlo simulations indicate the GAC and ACFC systems perform similarly (within one standard deviation) for seven of nine environmental impact categories considered and have lower impacts than the RTO for every category for the use of natural gas to produce electricity. The GAC and ACFC systems recover adequate isobutane to pay for themselves through chemical-consumption offsets, whereas the net present value of the RTO is $4.1 M (20 years, $0.001/m(3) treated). The adsorption systems are more environmentally and economically competitive than the RTO due to recovered isobutane for the production process and are recommended for resource recovery from (and treatment of) sheet-foam-production exhaust gas. Research targets for these adsorption systems should focus on increasing adsorptive capacity and saturation of GAC systems and decreasing electricity and N2 consumption of ACFC systems.

  20. Effect of temperature on equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters of Cd (II) adsorption onto turmeric powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayoom, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Batch adsorption of Cd (II) onto turmeric powder was conducted as a function of temperature. Nonlinear Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevish (D-R) and Temkin equilibrium models were employed. In addition to R 2, five different error functions were used to determine best fit equilibrium isotherm model. It was found that Freundlich isotherm model provided better fit for adsorption data at 298 and 303 K and Langmuir model was suitable for the experimental data obtained at 310 and 313 K. It was found that increase in temperature decreased maximum adsorption capacities, showing that the adsorption of Cd (II) onto turmeric powder is exothermic. Enthalpy values also confirmed the same trend. Entropy values were negative which means that randomness decreased on increasing temperature. Gibbs free energies were non spontaneous at all the temperatures studied. E values were in the range of 2.73-3.23 kJ mol/sup -1/ which indicated that adsorption mechanism is essentially physical. (author)

  1. Development of an installation for the production of high-purity hydrogen using the pressure-swing-adsorption process with coke-oven gas as feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Sugishita, M

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes how Nippon Steel developed a process for producing high-purity hydrogen using the PSA method with coke-oven gas as a feedstock. The process comprises a gas-compression and gas-cooling stage, a pre-treatment stage, an adsorption stage, a de-oxygenation stage and various control and maintenance devices, etc. The triple-tower plant constructed is the equivalent of a four-tower conventional installation, with a maximum capacity of around 10,000 Nm/sup 3//h. 1 tab., 14 figs., 3 refs.

  2. Finite Element Modeling of Adsorption Processes for Gas Separation and Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humble, Paul H.; Williams, Richard M.; Hayes, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in the design and fabrication of automated radioxenon collection systems for nuclear explosion monitoring. In developing new systems there is an ever present need to reduce size, power consumption and complexity. Most of these systems have used adsorption based techniques for gas collection and/or concentration and purification. These processes include pressure swing adsorption, vacuum swing adsorption, temperature swing adsorption, gas chromatography and hybrid processes that combine elements of these techniques. To better understand these processes, and help with the development of improved hardware, a finite element software package (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used to develop complex models of these adsorption based operations. The partial differential equations used include a mass balance for each gas species and adsorbed species along with a convection conduction energy balance equation. These equations in conjunction with multicomponent temperature dependent isotherm models are capable of simulating separation processes ranging from complex multibed PSA processes, and multicomponent temperature programmed gas chromatography, to simple two component temperature swing adsorption. These numerical simulations have been a valuable tool for assessing the capability of proposed processes and optimizing hardware and process parameters.

  3. Research programs in adsorption carried out in the low temperature laboratory of UFRJ (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Research programs of gas adsorption in thin films carried out by the low temperature laboratory of UFRJ (Brazil) are reported. These programs were divided in two parts: 1) experiments of adsorption isotherm measurements by the volumetric method and 2) specific heat measurements of adsorbed gases. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Gas separation of landfill gas and other biogases by pressure swing adsorption. Final report. Gastrennung fuer Deponie- und Faulgase mittels Druckwechseltechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarczyk, E; Mellech, L

    1986-01-01

    A new PSA-process for recovery of methane with SNG-quality from biogases was developed in the laboratory and successfully tested in field trials at the German landfill Emscherbruch/Gelsenkirchen. A special carbon molecular sieve on which carbon dioxide is adsorbed much faster than methane was proved as the best suited adsorbent for biogas separation. Even part of nitrogen which is mostly contained in landfill gases from leakage air is simultaneously removed from methane together with carbon dioxide by using the carbon molecular sieve. Low quality-SNG with 88-90% by vol. methane could be processed from landfill gas containing up to 15% by vol. nitrogen at an adsorption pressure of 3-9 bar abs. The recovery of methane goes upt to 98%. High quality-SNG can be processed from N/sub 2/-free biogases like sewage gas. The capital and operational cost (not including prepurification) for recovery of low quality-SNG by PSA is estimated to about 0,12 DM/m/sup 3/ SNG. (orig.) With 13 refs., 13 tabs., 16 figs.

  5. Temperature Dependence of Uranium and Vanadium Adsorption on Amidoxime-Based Adsorbents in Natural Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Li-Jung [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; Gill, Gary A. [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Rao, Linfeng [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Pan, Horng-Bin [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow ID 83844 USA; Wai, Chien M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow ID 83844 USA; Janke, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Strivens, Jonathan E. [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; Wood, Jordana R. [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; Schlafer, Nicholas [Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim WA 98382 USA; D' Alessandro, Evan K. [Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Miami, Miami FL 33149 USA

    2018-01-16

    The apparent enthalpy and entropy of the complexation of uranium (VI) and vanadium (V) with amidoxime ligands grafted onto polyethylene fiber was determined using time series measurements of adsorption capacities in natural seawater at three different temperatures. The complexation of uranium was highly endothermic, while the complexation of vanadium showed minimal temperature sensitivity. Amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents exhibit significantly increased uranium adsorption capacities and selectivity in warmer waters.

  6. Swinging, Adultery by Consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Von Der Weid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to discuss issues related to the sexual-affective relationships between men and women in our society through the experience of couples who practice swinging. It considers especially the original conceptions of marriage, sexuality, infidelity, and also the rules of a swinger relationship. Does swinging create a new marriage model? Or, instead, does it reinforce pre-existing models? Through an analysis of the discourses of swinging couples about their erotic interactions, the paper examines how they articulate values such as love, sex, and pleasure in their relationships.

  7. Adsorption Device Based on a Langatate Crystal Microbalance for High Temperature High Pressure Gas Adsorption in Zeolite H-ZSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenjin; Baracchini, Giulia; Klumpp, Michael; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dittmeyer, Roland

    2016-08-25

    We present a high-temperature and high-pressure gas adsorption measurement device based on a high-frequency oscillating microbalance (5 MHz langatate crystal microbalance, LCM) and its use for gas adsorption measurements in zeolite H-ZSM-5. Prior to the adsorption measurements, zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals were synthesized on the gold electrode in the center of the LCM, without covering the connection points of the gold electrodes to the oscillator, by the steam-assisted crystallization (SAC) method, so that the zeolite crystals remain attached to the oscillating microbalance while keeping good electroconductivity of the LCM during the adsorption measurements. Compared to a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which is limited to temperatures below 80 °C, the LCM can realize the adsorption measurements in principle at temperatures as high as 200-300 °C (i.e., at or close to the reaction temperature of the target application of one-stage DME synthesis from the synthesis gas), owing to the absence of crystalline-phase transitions up to its melting point (1,470 °C). The system was applied to investigate the adsorption of CO2, H2O, methanol and dimethyl ether (DME), each in the gas phase, on zeolite H-ZSM-5 in the temperature and pressure range of 50-150 °C and 0-18 bar, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms of these gases in H-ZSM-5 can be well fitted by Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, the determined adsorption parameters, i.e., adsorption capacities, adsorption enthalpies, and adsorption entropies, compare well to literature data. In this work, the results for CO2 are shown as an example.

  8. Probing Gas Adsorption in Zeolites by Variable-Temperature IR Spectroscopy: An Overview of Current Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone, Edoardo; Delgado, Montserrat R; Bonelli, Barbara; Arean, Carlos O

    2017-09-15

    The current state of the art in the application of variable-temperature IR (VTIR) spectroscopy to the study of (i) adsorption sites in zeolites, including dual cation sites; (ii) the structure of adsorption complexes and (iii) gas-solid interaction energy is reviewed. The main focus is placed on the potential use of zeolites for gas separation, purification and transport, but possible extension to the field of heterogeneous catalysis is also envisaged. A critical comparison with classical IR spectroscopy and adsorption calorimetry shows that the main merits of VTIR spectroscopy are (i) its ability to provide simultaneously the spectroscopic signature of the adsorption complex and the standard enthalpy change involved in the adsorption process; and (ii) the enhanced potential of VTIR to be site specific in favorable cases.

  9. Adsorption and reduction of NO2 over activated carbon at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiang; Liu, Shaojun; Zhang, Yang; Luo, Zhongyang; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-01-01

    The reactive adsorption of NO 2 over activated carbon (AC) was investigated at 50 C. Both the NO 2 adsorption and its reduction to NO were observed during the exposure of AC to NO 2 . Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) was then performed to evaluate the nature and thermal stability of the adsorbed species. Adsorption and desorption processes have been proposed based on the nitrogen and oxygen balance data. The micropores in AC act as a nano-reactor for the formation of -C(ONO 2 ) complexes, which is composed by NO 2 adsorption on existing -C(O) complexes and the disproportionation of adsorbed NO 2 . The generated -C(ONO 2 ) complexes are decomposed to NO and NO 2 in the desorption step. The remaining oxygen complexes can be desorbed as CO and CO 2 to recover the adsorptive and reductive capacity of AC. (author)

  10. Isotope effect in monolayer, localised, immobilised adsorption with special reference to neon adsorption on porous glass at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisaila, S.; Bajpai, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    Using statistical mechanics, a general formula for the separation factor of two isotopes between gas and adsorbate phases in a monolayer, localised, immobile adsorption on a heterogeneous surface, is derived. Special forms of this are discussed for which the familiar Bigeleisen form is one. Purer, Kalplan and Smith, in their work on neon isotopes separation by gas chromatography through porous glass column at cryogenic temperatures, have reported that the separation factor first increased and then decreased as the temperature was decreased, whereas monotonic increase was the normally expected behaviour. Moiseyev has attempted to explain the anomaly after assuming two types of adsorption sites. The present theory gives the conditions in which monotonic and nonmonotonic variations can occur and after making some assumptions, the experimental curve of Purer et al could be reproduced computationally using one form of the general expression. This theoretical treatment highlights the importance of both potential energy and force constant in isotope effect whereas it is only the potential energy that is much involved in most adsorption studies. (auth.)

  11. Experimental Adsorption Isotherm of Methane onto Activated Carbon at Sub- and Supercritical Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Kazi Afzalur

    2010-11-11

    This paper presents the experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data for methane onto the pitch-based activated carbon type Maxsorb III for temperatures ranging from (120 to 220) K and pressures up to 1.4 MPa. These data are useful to study adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage systems when the low temperature natural gas regasified from the liquid phase is considered to charge in the storage chamber. Adsorption parameters were evaluated from the isotherm data using the Tóth and Dubinin-Astakhov models. The isosteric heat of adsorption, which is concentration- and temperature-dependent, is extracted from the data. The Henry\\'s law coefficients for the methane/Maxsorb III pairs are evaluated at various temperatures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Distribution law of temperature changes during methane adsorption and desorption in coal using infrared thermography technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Chen, Hao; An, Jiangfei; Zhou, Dong; Feng, Zengchao

    2018-05-01

    Gas adsorption and desorption is a thermodynamic process that takes place within coal as temperature changes and that is related to methane (CH4) storage. As infrared thermographic technology has been applied in this context to measure surface temperature changes, the aim of this research was to further elucidate the distribution law underlying this process as well as the thermal effects induced by heat adsorption and desorption in coal. Specimens of two different coal ranks were used in this study, and the surface temperature changes seen in the latter were detected. A contour line map was then drawn on the basis of initial results enabling a distribution law of temperature changes for samples. The results show that different regions of coal sample surfaces exhibit different heating rates during the adsorption process, but they all depends on gas storage capacity to a certain extent. It proposes a correlation coefficient that expresses the relationship between temperature change and gas adsorption capacity that could also be used to evaluate the feasibility of coalbed CH4 extraction in the field. And finally, this study is deduced a method to reveal the actual adsorption capacity of coal or CH4 reservoirs in in situ coal seams.

  13. Model-Based Energy Efficiency Optimization of a Low-Temperature Adsorption Dryer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Low-temperature drying is important for heat-sensitive products, but at these temperatures conventional convective dryers have low energy efficiencies. To overcome this challenge, an energy efficiency optimization procedure is applied to a zeolite adsorption dryer subject to product quality. The

  14. SwingStates: adding state machines to the swing toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Appert , Caroline; Beaudouin-Lafon , Michel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This article describes SwingStates, a library that adds state machines to the Java Swing user interface toolkit. Unlike traditional approaches, which use callbacks or listeners to define interaction, state machines provide a powerful control structure and localize all of the interaction code in one place. SwingStates takes advantage of Java's inner classes, providing programmers with a natural syntax and making it easier to follow and debug the resulting code. SwingSta...

  15. Comprehensive adsorption studies of doxycycline and ciprofloxacin antibiotics by biochars prepared at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-wei; Tan, Xiao-fei; Liu, Yun-guo; Tian, Si-rong; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Lu-hua; Liu, Shao-bo; Li, Jiang; Liu, Ni; Yin, Zhi-hong

    2018-03-01

    This paper comparatively investigated the removal efficiency and mechanisms of rice straw biochars prepared under three pyrolytic temperatures for two kinds of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics (doxycycline and ciprofloxacin). The influencing factors of antibiotic adsorption (including biochar dosage, pH, background electrolytes, humic acid, initial antibiotics concentration, contact time, and temperature) were comprehensively studied. The results suggest that biochars produced at high-temperature (i.e., 700°C (BC700)), have higher adsorption capacity for the two antibiotics than low-temperature (i.e., 300-500°C) biochars (BC300 and BC500). Higher surface area gives rise to greater volume of micropores and mesopores, and higher graphitic surfaces of the BC700 contributed to its higher functionality. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be in the following order: DOX > CIP. The π-π EDA interaction and hydrogen bonding might be the predominant adsorption mechanisms. Findings in this study highlight the important roles of high-temperature biochars in controlling the contamination of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics in the environment.

  16. Comprehensive Adsorption Studies of Doxycycline and Ciprofloxacin Antibiotics by Biochars Prepared at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-wei; Tan, Xiao-fei; Liu, Yun-guo; Tian, Si-rong; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Lu-hua; Liu, Shao-bo; Li, Jiang; Liu, Ni; Yin, Zhi-hong

    2018-01-01

    This paper comparatively investigated the removal efficiency and mechanisms of rice straw biochars prepared under three pyrolytic temperatures for two kinds of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics (doxycycline and ciprofloxacin). The influencing factors of antibiotic adsorption (including biochar dosage, pH, background electrolytes, humic acid, initial antibiotics concentration, contact time, and temperature) were comprehensively studied. The results suggest that biochars produced at high-temperature [i.e., 700°C (BC700)], have higher adsorption capacity for the two antibiotics than low-temperature (i.e., 300–500°C) biochars (BC300 and BC500). Higher surface area gives rise to greater volume of micropores and mesopores, and higher graphitic surfaces of the BC700 contributed to its higher functionality. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be in the following order: DOX > CIP. The π-π EDA interaction and hydrogen bonding might be the predominant adsorption mechanisms. Findings in this study highlight the important roles of high-temperature biochars in controlling the contamination of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics in the environment. PMID:29637067

  17. Adsorption purification of helium coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varezhkin, A.V.; Zel'venskij, Ya.D.; Metlik, I.V.; Khrulev, A.A.; Fedoseenkin, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    A series experiments on adsorption purification of helium of CO 2 using national adsorbent under the conditions characteristic of HTGR type reactors cleanup system is performed. The experimnts have been conducted under the dynamic mode with immobile adsorbent layer (CaA zeolite) at gas flow rates from 0,02 to 0,055 m/s in the pressure range from 0,8 to 5 MPa at the temperature of 273 and 293 K. It is shown that the adsorption grows with the decrease of gas rate, i.e. with increase of contact time with adsorbent. The helium pressure, growth noticeably whereas the temperature decrease from 293 to 273 K results in adsorption 2,6 times increase. The conclusion is drawn that it is advisable drying and purification of helium of CO 2 to perform separately using different zeolites: NaA - for water. CaA - for CO 2 . Estimations of purification unit parameters are realized

  18. Temperature and pH influence adsorption of cellobiohydrolase onto lignin by changing the protein properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xianqin; Wang, Can; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Non-productive adsorption of cellulase onto lignin restricted the movement of cellulase and also hindered the cellulase recycling in bioconversion of lignocellulose. In this study, effect of temperature and pH on adsorption and desorption of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) on lignin and its possible mechanism were discussed. It found that pH value and temperature influenced the adsorption and desorption behaviors of CBH on lignin. Different thermodynamic models suggested that the action between lignin and CBH was physical action. More CBH was adsorbed onto lignin, but lower initial adsorption velocity was detected at 50°C comparing with 4°C. Elevating pH value could improve desorption of cellulase from lignin. The changes of hydrophobicity and electric potential on protein surface may partially explain the impact of environmental conditions on the adsorption and desorption behaviors of CBH on lignin, and comparing to electrical interaction, the hydrophobicity may be the dominating factor influencing the behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CARBON SURFACE MOISTURE ON LOW TEMPERATURE MERCURY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with elemental mercury (Hg0) adsorption by activated carbons were performed using a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor at room temperature (27 degrees C) to determine the role of surface moisture in capturing Hg0. A bituminous-coal-based activated carbon (BPL) and an activ...

  20. One pot synthesized Li, Zr doped porous silica nanoparticle for low temperature CO2 adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ganesh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Li, Zr doped porous silica was synthesized in one pot and investigated for low temperature CO2 adsorption. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The specific surface area, average pore diameter and pore volume were determined to be 962 m2/g, 2.3 nm and 0.56 cm3/g respectively. ICP-AES analysis revealed a metal content of 4 wt.% (Zr and 3.42 wt.% (Li. Their CO2 adsorption capacity was tested at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. An uptake of about 5 wt.% was observed and regenerable at a low temperature of 200 °C. This adsorption and desorption temperature of the sorbent is lower than the reported lithium silicate. The CO2 adsorption–desorption cyclic performance studies illustrated that Li, Zr doped porous silica is a recyclable, selective and potential sorbent for CO2 adsorption.

  1. Experimental Adsorption Isotherm of Methane onto Activated Carbon at Sub- and Supercritical Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Kazi Afzalur; Loh, Wai Soong; Yanagi, Hideharu; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chun, Won Gee; Ng, Kim Choon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data for methane onto the pitch-based activated carbon type Maxsorb III for temperatures ranging from (120 to 220) K and pressures up to 1.4 MPa. These data are useful to study

  2. Adsorption site of ammonia on copper-exchanged Y-type zeolite under coexisting water vapor. Temperature-programed desorption and infrared adsorption spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasaoka, S.; Sasaoka, E.; Shiraga, T.; Ono, Y.

    1978-03-01

    Sodium Y zeolites were copper-exchanged with cupric nitrate in water, in aqueous ammonia, and in aqueous ammonia/ammonium chloride, and calcined at 500/sup 0/C. Temperature-programed desorption and IR spectroscopy showed three types of adsorption sites for 0.1-1.0% ammonia gas from nitrogen containing 0-12% water vapor: physisorption, adsorption as tetraamminocopper(II) on copper(II) sites (type 2 site), and adsorption as ammonium ion on hydroxyl sites (type 3 site). Adsorption on type 2 sites occurred only at high ammonia concentration; desorption occurred around 175/sup 0/C. Type 3 sites consisted of Cu(OH)/sup +/ and Al(OH)/sup +/, adsorbed ammonia from low concentrations, and at temperatures above 200/sup 0/C, were probably the active sites for the reduction of nitric oxide by ammonia.

  3. Effect of Temperature on Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption to Cellulose Acetate Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishise, Shoichi; Takeda, Yuji; Abe, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Yu; Nara, Hidetoshi; Asao, Hironobu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    Granulocyte and monocyte (GM) adsorptive apheresis (GMA) is an effective therapy for inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). During GMA, the blood of a patient with IBD passes through a column to contact cellulose acetate (CA) beads at a temperature below body temperature, likely close to room temperature. Here we investigated the effect of temperature on GM adsorption to CA beads in vitro. We incubated peripheral blood with and without CA beads at 5°C, 25°C, 37°C, and 43°C and calculated the ratios of adsorbed GMs. The ratios of adsorbed GMs increased as the temperature was raised. Additionally, we measured complement activation fragment concentrations. C3a and C5a concentrations also increased as the temperature was raised, and C5a concentrations had a positive correlation with the ratios of adsorbed GMs. These results suggest that warming the column during GMA might increase GM adsorption to CA beads, thereby enhancing the clinical efficacy of GMA. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  4. Perfluorooctane sulfonate adsorption on powder activated carbon: Effect of phosphate (P) competition, pH, and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Shen, Mengmeng; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Li, Kun; Liu, Jingjing; Lu, Bianhe; Tian, Xin

    2017-09-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC), as an adsorbent, was applied to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Laboratory batch experiments were performed to investigate the influences of phosphate (P) competition, temperature, and pH for PFOS adsorption onto PAC. The results showed that higher temperature favored PFOS adsorption in single and binary systems. The kinetic data fitted very well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamically, the endothermic enthalpy of the PFOS adsorption in single and binary systems were 125.07 and 21.25 kJ mol -1 , respectively. The entropy of the PFOS adsorption in single and binary systems were 0.479 and 0.092 kJ mol -1  K -1 , respectively. And the Gibbs constants were negative. These results indicated that the adsorption processes were spontaneous. The adsorption isotherms of PFOS agreed well with the Langmuir model. In the single system, PFOS adsorption decreased with increased pH value. The difference in the amount of PFOS adsorption between the single and binary systems increased at higher pH. Frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) demonstrated that P competition increased the hydrophilicity of the PAC and the electrostatic repulsion between PFOS and PAC, then the PFOS adsorption amount decreased. It also demonstrated that, at higher temperature, increased PFOS adsorption was mainly due to the higher diffusion rate of PFOS molecules and greater number of active sites opened on the PAC surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polarimetric Detection of Enantioselective Adsorption by Chiral Au Nanoparticles – Effects of Temperature, Wavelength and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available R- and S-propylene oxide (PO have been shown to interact enantiospecifically with the chiral surfaces of Au nanopar‐ ticles (NPs modified with D- or L-cysteine (cys. This enantiospecific interaction has been detected using optical polarimetry measurements made on solutions of the D- or L-cys modified Au (cys/Au NPs during addition of racemic PO. The selective adsorption of one enantiomer of the PO onto the cys/Au NP surfaces results in a net rotation of light during addition of the racemic PO to the solution. In order to optimize the conditions used for making these measurements and to quantify enantiospecific adsorption onto chiral NPs, this work has measured the effect of temperature, wavelength and Au NP size on optical rotation by solutions containing D- or L-cys/Au NPs and racemic PO. Increasing temperature, decreasing wave‐ length and decreasing NP size result in larger optical rotations.

  6. H_{2} adsorption on multiwalled carbon nanotubes at low temperatures and low pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental study on H_{2} adsorption on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs at low temperatures (12–30 K and low pressures (2×10^{-5}  Torr using the temperature programmed desorption technique. Our results show that the molecular hydrogen uptake increases nearly exponentially from 6×10^{-9}  wt. % at 24.5 K to 2×10^{-7}  wt. % at 12.5 K and that the desorption kinetics is of the first order. Comparative measurements indicate that MWCNTs have an adsorption capacity about two orders higher than that of activated carbon (charcoal making them a possible candidate as hydrogen cryosorber for eventual applications in accelerators and synchrotrons.

  7. Playing with a digital swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    Based on a field study in a kindergarten among children in Denmark, this paper explores playing activities on a digital swing, the SON-X Octavia (SON-X) and its Applause application. SON-X is an interactive sound unit that can be attached to any swing chain. Here, I explore the relationship between...... to highlight the features of swing play that children develop using the SON-X technology in terms of the danger-safety continuum. The feedback provided, it is found, enables children to independently manage risk and security within the limits of their playing activities; the digital swing supports play...

  8. Comb-like temperature-responsive polyhydroxyalkanoate-graft-poly(2-dimethylamino-ethylmethacrylate) for controllable protein adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Hui; Wei, Daixu; Che, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    %. Graft copolymer PHA-g-PDMAEMA showed enhanced thermal stability, biocompatibility and controllable hydrophilicity compared with non-grafted P(3HDD-co-3H9D). The grafted material presented an obvious tendency of increasing protein adsorptions over the lower critical solution temperature (LCST 47.5 °C...... controllable protein adsorption for biomedical usages....

  9. Adsorption of diclofenac onto organoclays: Effects of surfactant and environmental (pH and temperature) conditions

    OpenAIRE

    De Oliveira , Tiago; Guégan , Régis; Thiebault , Thomas; Le Milbeau , Claude; Muller , Fabrice; Teixeira , Vinicius; Giovanela , Marcelo; Boussafir , Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Accepted Manuscript; International audience; Among pharmaceutical products (PPs) recalcitrant to water treatments, diclofenac shows a high toxicity and remains at high concentration in natural aquatic environments. The aim of this study concerns the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of this anionic PP onto two organoclays prepared with two long-alkyl chains cationic surfactants showing different chemical nature for various experimental pH and temperature conditions. The experimental d...

  10. Adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption of hydrogen with dispersed platinum and platinum-gold catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.R.; Foger, K.; Breakspere, R.J.

    1979-05-01

    Adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption of hydrogen with dispersed platinum and platinum-gold catalysts was studied with 0.9-3Vertical Bar3< platinum on silica gel, aerosil, sodium and lanthanum Y zeolites, and ..gamma..-alumina, and on aerosil-supported gold-platinum alloys containing 2, 10, 24, 33, and 85Vertical Bar3< gold. Surface enrichment with gold in the alloy systems, as derived from hydrogen adsorption data and predicted from surface enrichment theory and electron microscopic measurements of particle size, were in good agreement, which indicated that equilibrium was achieved by the thermal treatment (oxygen at 573/sup 0/K, hydrogen at 620/sup 0/K, repeated cycles) used. Hydrogen spillover to gold was observed at the higher hydrogen pressures tested on the alloys with high gold content, and to the zeolite supports. The temperature-programed desorption profiles were independent of gold content, which indicated that gold acts only as diluent, and that isolated surface platinum atoms become populated with hydrogen atoms either by hydrogen atom spillover from platinum ensembles to gold and from the gold to the isolated platinum, and/or by adsorption of a molecule directly on the isolated platinum and chemisorption of one H atom at an adjacent gold atom. The distribution of surface platinum ensembles was evaluated by a computer simulation method.

  11. Swing check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eminger, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A swing check valve which includes a valve body having an inlet and outlet is described. A recess in the valve body designed to hold a seal ring and a check valve disc swingable between open and closed positions. The disc is supported by a high strength wire secured at one end in a support spacer pinned through bearing blocks fixed to the valve body and at its other end in a groove formed on the outer peripheral surface of the disc. The parts are designed and chosen such to provide a lightweight valve disc which is held open by minimum velocity of fluid flowing through the valve which thus reduces oscillations and accompanying wear of bearings supporting the valve operating parts. (Auth.)

  12. Adsorption. What else?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Alirio E.

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Chemical Engineering today combines Molecular and Materials Engineerig and Process and Product Engineering (ChE=M2P2). Cyclic adsorptive processes (Simulated Moving Bed –SMB and Pressure Swing Adsorption-PSA) will be discussed for “old” and “new” applications making use of “old” and “new” (MOFs) adsorbent materials. After revisiting my memory as PhD student and the First Brazilian Adsorption meeting I will review the basic concepts involved in adsorption processes and then...

  13. Swings and roundabouts: management of jealousy in heterosexual swinging couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard; McDonald, Dee

    2007-06-01

    Swinging involves consensual mutual involvement in extra-dyadic sex. Jealousy in swinging couples is an interesting topic for social psychological research, because it is a common and acceptable response to a romantic partner's real or imagined infidelity. This qualitative study examined the management of jealousy among four active heterosexual swinging couples living in southern England. Participants highlighted the importance of discussion and negotiation to develop a shared couple identity and shared rules and boundaries that allowed them to manage jealousy so that they could better enjoy swinging. Rather than seeking to eliminate jealousy, swingers may manage their feelings of jealousy in order to increase sexual excitement and arousal. This study adds to our understanding of jealousy among swingers and the broader issue of jealousy in intimate relationships.

  14. Influence of pyrolytic temperature on uranium adsorption capability by biochar derived from macauba coconut residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhen, Sabine Neusatz; Fungaro, Denise Alves; Coleti, Jorge; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    2017-01-01

    Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich product obtained when biomass is thermally decomposed at relatively low temperatures (under 700°C) and limited supply of oxygen in a process called pyrolysis. The conversion of biomass into BC can not only result in renewable energy source of synthetic gas and bio-oil, but also decrease the content of CO 2 in the atmosphere, as well as improving soil fertility. Because of its porous structure, charged surface and surface functional groups, BC exhibits a great potential as an adsorbent. Brazilian agro energy chain involves tons of biomass waste, providing a wide range of biomass with different chemical and physical properties. BC characteristics strongly depend on the feedstock and the pyrolysis conditions, in which the temperature is the key parameter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adsorption potential for the removal of uranium, U(VI), from aqueous solutions using BC obtained through the pyrolysis of the Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) coconut endocarp as a function of the final pyrolytic temperature. BCs produced at higher temperatures are likely to present lower H/C and O/C ratios, indicating the loss of easily degradable carbon compounds such as volatile matter. In contrast, low-temperature pyrolysis produces not only a higher BC yield, but also richer in surface functional groups which will likely enable interactions with the U(VI) ions. The endocarp was subjected to six different pyrolytic temperatures, ranging from 250°C to 750 °C. The influence of parameters such as pH, sorbent dose and initial concentration on the adsorption of U(VI) was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity (q) was achieved for the BC obtained at 250°C (BC250), which presented a removal percentage of approx. 86%, demonstrating the potential of the BC from macauba endocarp for treatment of wastewaters. Thus, submitting the endocarp to temperatures higher than 250°C becomes unnecessary, saving time and reducing operating costs. (author)

  15. Influence of pyrolytic temperature on uranium adsorption capability by biochar derived from macauba coconut residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhen, Sabine Neusatz; Fungaro, Denise Alves [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Coleti, Jorge; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares, E-mail: snguilhen@ipen.br, E-mail: dfungaro@ipen.br, E-mail: jorgecoleti@usp.br, E-mail: jtenorio@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais

    2017-07-01

    Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich product obtained when biomass is thermally decomposed at relatively low temperatures (under 700°C) and limited supply of oxygen in a process called pyrolysis. The conversion of biomass into BC can not only result in renewable energy source of synthetic gas and bio-oil, but also decrease the content of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere, as well as improving soil fertility. Because of its porous structure, charged surface and surface functional groups, BC exhibits a great potential as an adsorbent. Brazilian agro energy chain involves tons of biomass waste, providing a wide range of biomass with different chemical and physical properties. BC characteristics strongly depend on the feedstock and the pyrolysis conditions, in which the temperature is the key parameter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adsorption potential for the removal of uranium, U(VI), from aqueous solutions using BC obtained through the pyrolysis of the Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) coconut endocarp as a function of the final pyrolytic temperature. BCs produced at higher temperatures are likely to present lower H/C and O/C ratios, indicating the loss of easily degradable carbon compounds such as volatile matter. In contrast, low-temperature pyrolysis produces not only a higher BC yield, but also richer in surface functional groups which will likely enable interactions with the U(VI) ions. The endocarp was subjected to six different pyrolytic temperatures, ranging from 250°C to 750 °C. The influence of parameters such as pH, sorbent dose and initial concentration on the adsorption of U(VI) was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity (q) was achieved for the BC obtained at 250°C (BC250), which presented a removal percentage of approx. 86%, demonstrating the potential of the BC from macauba endocarp for treatment of wastewaters. Thus, submitting the endocarp to temperatures higher than 250°C becomes unnecessary, saving time and reducing operating costs

  16. Investigation of the Linker Swing Motion in the Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework ZIF-90

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin

    2018-03-13

    The linker swing motion in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-90 is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, molecular dynamics (MD) and grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The relation between the terminal aldehyde group rotation and the linker swing motion is revealed. The extremely high activation energy of the linker swing motion in ZIF-90 can be attributed to the asymmetric geometry and electron distribution of aldehyde groups. The change in the gate structure resulting from the linker rotation is used to understand the guest adsorption in ZIF-90. This study shows that it is possible to tune the linker swing motion and then the properties of ZIF-90 by manipulating the terminal group rotation. The results highlight the importance of considering the internal freedom effects to correctly describe the linker swing motion and the flexibility of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs).

  17. Adsorption-Desorption of Hexaconazole in Soils with Respect to Soil Properties, Temperature, and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Zainol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature and pH on adsorption-desorption of fungicide hexaconazole was studied in two Malaysian soil types; namely clay loam and sandy loam. The adsorption-desorption experiment was conducted using the batch equilibration technique and the residues of hexaconazole were analysed using the GC-ECD. The results showed that the adsorption-desorption isotherms of hexaconazole can be described with Freundlich equation. The Freundlich sorption coefficient (Kd values were positively correlated to the clay and organic matter content in the soils. Hexaconazole attained the equilibrium phase within 24 h in both soil types studied. The adsorption coefficient (Kd values obtained for clay loam soil and sandy loam soil were 2.54 mL/g and 2.27 mL/g, respectively, indicating that hexaconazole was weakly sorbed onto the soils due to the low organic content of the soils. Regarding thermodynamic parameters, the Gibb’s free energy change (ΔG analysis showed that hexaconazole adsorption onto soil was spontaneous and exothermic, plus it exhibited positive hysteresis. A strong correlation was observed between the adsorption of hexaconazole and pH of the soil solution. However, temperature was found to have no effect on the adsorption of hexaconazole onto the soils; for the range tested.

  18. Room temperature adsorption of NH3 on Zn-terminated ZnO(0 0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Shirotori, Y.; Ozawa, K.; Edamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    2004-01-01

    Adsorption process of ammonia on the Zn-terminated ZnO(0 0 0 1) surface at room temperature has been studied by photoelectron spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron radiation. Coverage-dependent measurements of the N 1s core-level peak and the work function change have been carried out. It is revealed that ammonia adsorbs molecularly in the initial stages of adsorption, whereas deprotonated species are formed after some amount of molecular ammonia is accumulated on the surface. The reactivity of the K-modified ZnO(0 0 0 1) surface towards ammonia adsorption has also been investigated and found to be significantly lowered by predeposited K

  19. Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar adsorption of ammonium and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Xiapu; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Jian; Zhai, Limei; Liu, Shen; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Biochar produced by pyrolysis of biomass can be used to counter nitrogen (N) pollution. The present study investigated the effects of feedstock and temperature on characteristics of biochars and their adsorption ability for ammonium N (NH4(+)-N) and nitrate N (NO3(-)-N). Twelve biochars were produced from wheat-straw (W-BC), corn-straw (C-BC) and peanut-shell (P-BC) at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. Biochar physical and chemical properties were determined and the biochars were used for N sorption experiments. The results showed that biochar yield and contents of N, hydrogen and oxygen decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased from 400°C to 700°C, whereas contents of ash, pH and carbon increased with greater pyrolysis temperature. All biochars could sorb substantial amounts of NH4(+)-N, and the sorption characteristics were well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. The ability of biochars to adsorb NH4(+)-N followed: C-BC>P-BC>W-BC, and the adsorption amount decreased with higher pyrolysis temperature. The ability of C-BC to sorb NH4(+)-N was the highest because it had the largest cation exchange capacity (CEC) among all biochars (e.g., C-BC400 with a CEC of 38.3 cmol kg(-1) adsorbed 2.3 mg NH4(+)-N g(-1) in solutions with 50 mg NH4(+) L(-1)). Compared with NH4(+)-N, none of NO3(-)-N was adsorbed to biochars at different NO3(-) concentrations. Instead, some NO3(-)-N was even released from the biochar materials. We conclude that biochars can be used under conditions where NH4(+)-N (or NH3) pollution is a concern, but further research is needed in terms of applying biochars to reduce NO3(-)-N pollution.

  20. Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar adsorption of ammonium and nitrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiapu Gai

    Full Text Available Biochar produced by pyrolysis of biomass can be used to counter nitrogen (N pollution. The present study investigated the effects of feedstock and temperature on characteristics of biochars and their adsorption ability for ammonium N (NH4(+-N and nitrate N (NO3(--N. Twelve biochars were produced from wheat-straw (W-BC, corn-straw (C-BC and peanut-shell (P-BC at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. Biochar physical and chemical properties were determined and the biochars were used for N sorption experiments. The results showed that biochar yield and contents of N, hydrogen and oxygen decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased from 400°C to 700°C, whereas contents of ash, pH and carbon increased with greater pyrolysis temperature. All biochars could sorb substantial amounts of NH4(+-N, and the sorption characteristics were well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. The ability of biochars to adsorb NH4(+-N followed: C-BC>P-BC>W-BC, and the adsorption amount decreased with higher pyrolysis temperature. The ability of C-BC to sorb NH4(+-N was the highest because it had the largest cation exchange capacity (CEC among all biochars (e.g., C-BC400 with a CEC of 38.3 cmol kg(-1 adsorbed 2.3 mg NH4(+-N g(-1 in solutions with 50 mg NH4(+ L(-1. Compared with NH4(+-N, none of NO3(--N was adsorbed to biochars at different NO3(- concentrations. Instead, some NO3(--N was even released from the biochar materials. We conclude that biochars can be used under conditions where NH4(+-N (or NH3 pollution is a concern, but further research is needed in terms of applying biochars to reduce NO3(--N pollution.

  1. High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon - I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Various types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal gas stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a gas stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet gas stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated activated carbon, when tested using a simulated coal gas containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified gas mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.

  2. Performance analysis of a low-temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination prototype

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-10-01

    This paper discusses the performance analysis of an advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with an internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. The AD cycle employs the adsorption-desorption principles to convert sea or brackish water into high-grade potable water with total dissolved solids (TDS) less than 10 ppm (mg/L) utilizing low-temperature heat source. The salient features of the AD cycle are the utilization of low temperature waste heat (typically 55 C to 85 C) with the employment of an environment-friendly silica gel/water pair and the low maintenance as it has no major moving parts other than the pumps and valves. For improved performance of the AD pilot plant, the internal heat recovery scheme between the condenser and evaporator has been implemented with a run-about water circuit between them. The efficacy of the scheme is analyzed in terms of key performance indicators such as the specific daily water production (SDWP) and the performance ratio (PR). Extensive experiments were performed for assorted heat source temperatures ranging from 70 C to 50 C. From the experiments, the SDWP of the AD cycle with the proposed heat recovery scheme is found to be 15 m3 of water per ton of silica gel that is almost twice that of the yield obtained by a conventional AD cycle for the same operation conditions. Another important finding of AD desalination plant is that the advanced AD cycle could still be operational with an inlet heat source temperature of 50 C and yet achieving a SDWP of 4.3 m3 - a feat that never seen by any heat-driven cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adsorption and Desorption of Na+ and NO3− Ions on Thermosensitive NIPAM-co-DMAAPS Gel in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Oktavia Ningrum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorbent gel with the ability to absorb and to desorb Na+ and NO3− ions simultaneously with temperature swing was synthesized by free radical copolymerization reaction of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM and N,N-dimethyl-(acrylamidopropylammonium propane sulfonate (DMAAPS. In this study, NIPAM acts as a thermosensitive agent and DMAAPS as an adsorbent agent. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of temperature and solution concentration on the swelling, adsorption, and desorption behaviors of NIPAM-co-DMAAPS gel. The relationship between adsorption and desorption behaviors of the gel was also elucidated. NaNO3 solution was selected as the target solution in swelling, adsorption, and desorption test. It was observed that the swelling degree of the gel increased as temperature and solution concentration raised. The adsorption amount of ions decreased with the increase of temperature. In contrast, the amount of ions desorbed from the gel increased linearly with temperature.

  4. Calorimetric study at different temperatures of iodine adsorption from organic solutions on outgassed 'eta' alumina and bayerite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Gatta, G.; Stradella, L.; Venturello, G.

    1977-01-01

    The adsorption of iodine from solution in n-pentane at 27 0 C and in cyclohexane at 35 0 C and 50 0 C on eta-Al 2 O 3 and bayerite outgassed at R.T. has been studied with a calorimetric technique. The measurements were performed by means of a Calvet type calorimeter using a new cell conceived for the adsorption from solution. The integral molar energies of adsorption show, at low coverages, a very strong interaction of iodine with surface hydroxyl groups, possibly leading to charge-transfer complexes and reactions. A peculiar exothermic effect has been also evidenced before the monolayer completion, in correspondence with a 'step' on the adsorption isotherms. This result is interpreted in terms of cooperative adsorption implying the possible formation of surface clusters around the strongly absorbed molecules. On non-porous samples (bayerite) the adsorption temperature rise decrease the total amounts adsorbed. But on porous ones (eta-Al 2 O 3 ) the adsorption is increased. (orig./HK) [de

  5. Adsorption removal of carbon dioxide from the helium coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varezhin, A.V.; Fedoseenkov, A.N.; Khrulev, A.A.; Metlik, I.V.; Zel venskii, Y.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper conducts experiments on the removal of CO 2 from helium by means of a Soviet-made adsorbent under the conditions characteristic of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cleaning systems. The adsorption of CO 2 from helium was studied under dynamic conditions with a fixed layer of adsorbent in a flow-through apparatus with an adsorber 16 mm in diameter. The analysis of the helium was carried out by means of a TVT chromatograph. In order to compare the adsorption of CO 2 on CaA zeolite under dynamic conditions from the helium stream under pressure with the equilibrium adsorption on the basis of pure CO 2 , the authors determined the adsorption isotherm at 293 K by the volumetric method over a range of CO 2 equilibrium pressures from 260 to 11,970 Pa. Reducing the adsorption temperature to 273 K leads to a considerable reduction in the energy costs for regeneration, owing to the increase in adsorption and the decrease in the number of regeneration cycles; the amount of the heating gas used is reduced to less than half

  6. Response to Extreme Temperatures of Mesoporous Silica MCM-41: Porous Structure Transformation Simulation and Modification of Gas Adsorption Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenli; Perez-Page, Maria; Guan, Kelly; Yu, Erick; Tringe, Joseph; Castro, Ricardo H R; Faller, Roland; Stroeve, Pieter

    2016-11-08

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were applied together for the first time to reveal the porous structure transformation mechanisms of mesoporous silica MCM-41 subjected to temperatures up to 2885 K. Silica was experimentally characterized to inform the models and enable prediction of changes in gas adsorption/separation properties. MD simulations suggest that the pore closure process is activated by a collective diffusion of matrix atoms into the porous region, accompanied by bond reformation at the surface. Degradation is kinetically limited, such that complete pore closure is postponed at high heating rates. We experimentally observe decreased gas adsorption with increasing temperature in mesoporous silica heated at fixed rates, due to pore closure and structural degradation consistent with simulation predictions. Applying the Kissinger equation, we find a strong correlation between the simulated pore collapse temperatures and the experimental values which implies an activation energy of 416 ± 17 kJ/mol for pore closure. MC simulations give the adsorption and selectivity for thermally treated MCM-41, for N 2 , Ar, Kr, and Xe at room temperature within the 1-10 000 kPa pressure range. Relative to pristine MCM-41, we observe that increased surface roughness due to decreasing pore size amplifies the difference of the absolute adsorption amount differently for different adsorbate molecules. In particular, we find that adsorption of strongly interacting molecules can be enhanced in the low-pressure region while adsorption of weakly interacting molecules is inhibited. This then results in higher selectivity in binary mixture adsorption in mesoporous silica.

  7. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.; Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS and liquid-cooled TSAC testing conducted during the period of March 3 to April 18, 2003. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

  8. Performance analysis of a low-temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination prototype

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Yanagi, Hideharu; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance analysis of an advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with an internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. The AD cycle employs the adsorption-desorption principles to convert sea

  9. The performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system equipped with adsorption desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration plant, shortly in TCCP, equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP or cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling, and (iv) dehumidification and distilled water by utilizing single energy source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heatactivated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption desalination system, and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The analysis is performed under different operation conditions such as heat source temperatures, flow rates of heat transfer fluids and chilled water inlet temperatures. The only single heat source for TCCP is obtained from exhaust gas of micro-turbine and it is channeled to a series of waste heat recovery heat exchangers to steam and hot water at different temperatures. Hot water produced by such a compact heat exchangers is the driving heat source to produce steam of 15 kg/h, cooling of 2 Rton, dehumidification of 2 Rton, and distilled water of 0.7 m3/day. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor could achieve as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio is found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  10. The performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system equipped with adsorption desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration plant, shortly in TCCP, equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP or cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling, and (iv) dehumidification and distilled water by utilizing single energy source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heatactivated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption desalination system, and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The analysis is performed under different operation conditions such as heat source temperatures, flow rates of heat transfer fluids and chilled water inlet temperatures. The only single heat source for TCCP is obtained from exhaust gas of micro-turbine and it is channeled to a series of waste heat recovery heat exchangers to steam and hot water at different temperatures. Hot water produced by such a compact heat exchangers is the driving heat source to produce steam of 15 kg/h, cooling of 2 Rton, dehumidification of 2 Rton, and distilled water of 0.7 m3/day. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor could achieve as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio is found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  11. A preliminary view on adsorption of organics on ice at temperatures close to melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangrui; Waldner, Astrid; Orlando, Fabrizio; Artiglia, Luca; Ammann, Markus; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Ice and snow play active roles in the water cycle, the energy budget of the Earth, and environmental chemistry in the atmosphere and cryosphere. The uptake of trace gases from the atmosphere may induce changes in the structure of the surface layer of ice crystals and has important consequences for atmospheric chemistry and the climate system. However, a molecular-level understanding of trace gas adsorption on ice is still missing, and also little is known about the impurity-induced ice-surface disorder in the context of environmental relevance. It is a general challenge to apply highly sensitive experimental approaches to ambient air conditions, e.g. studies of volatile surfaces, because of the strict requirements of vacuum experimental conditions. In this study, we employed synchrotron-based X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and partial electron yield Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) in a state-of-the-art Near-Ambient Pressure Photoelectron (NAPP) spectroscopy end station. The NAPP enables to utilize the surface sensitive experimental methods, XPS and NEXAFS with electron detection, on volatile surfaces, i.e. ice at temperatures approaching zero degree Celsius. XPS and NEXAFS provide unique information of hydrogen bonding network, surface concentration of organic adsorbates, depth profile of dopants in the ice, and acid-base dissociation on the surfaces. For instance, a few carboxylic acids, e.g. acetic acid and formic acid, have been recently studied by XPS and NEXAFS in NAPP. Amines are a group of nitrogen-containing basic organics with atmospheric relevance. Only few studies have been focused on amines, and atmospheric models rarely take account of them due to the limitation of knowledge. Several amines have been found to play active roles in the processes of aerosol formation, e.g. dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and 1-propanamine. In this study, we will focus on one of these three amines after pre-tests, and perform core

  12. Oxygen isotopic fractionation of O₂ during adsorption and desorption processes using molecular sieve at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Insu; Kusakabe, Minoru; Lee, Jong Ik

    2014-06-15

    Cryogenic trapping using molecular sieves is commonly used to collect O2 extracted from silicates for (17)O/(16)O and (18)O/(16)O analyses. However, gases which interfere with (17)O/(16)O analysis, notably NF3, are also trapped and their removal is essential for accurate direct measurement of the (17)O/(16)O ratio. It is also necessary to identify and quantify any isotopic fractionation associated with the use of cryogenic trapping using molecular sieves. The oxygen isotopic compositions of O2 before and after desorption from, and adsorption onto, 13X and 5A molecular sieves (MS13X and MS5A) at 0°C, -78°C, -114°C, and -130°C were measured in order to determine the oxygen isotopic fractionation at these temperatures. We also investigated whether isotopic fractionation occurred when O2 gas was transferred sequentially into a second cold finger, also containing molecular sieve. It was confirmed that significant oxygen isotopic fractionation occurs between the gaseous O2 and that adsorbed onto molecular sieve, if desorption and adsorption are incomplete. As the fraction of released or untrapped O2 becomes smaller with decreasing trapping temperature (from 0 to -130°C), the isotopic fractionation becomes larger. Approximately half of the total adsorbed O2 is released from the molecular sieve during desorption at -114°C, which is the temperature recommended for separation from NF3 (retained on the molecular sieve), and this will interfere with (17)O/(16)O measurements. The use of a single cold finger should be avoided, because partial desorption is accompanied by oxygen isotopic fractionation, thereby resulting in inaccurate isotopic data. The use of a dual cold finger arrangement is recommended because, as we have confirmed, the transfer of O2 from the first trap to the second is almost 100%. However, even under these conditions, a small isotopic fractionation (0.18 ± 0.05‰ in δ(17)O values and 0.26 ± 0.06‰ in δ(18)O values) occurred, with O2 in

  13. High-temperature adsorption layers based on fluoridated polyimide and diatomite carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, E. Yu.; Shundrina, I. K.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    A way of preparing separation layers by the pyrolysis of fluorinated polyimide obtained from 2,4,6-trimethyl- m-phenylenediamine (2,4,6-TM mPDA) and 2,2-bis(3',4'-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane (6FDA) applied onto a diatomite carrier is described. Thermogravimetry, elemental analysis, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, high-resolution electron microscopy, and gas chromatography are used to study changes in the texture and chromatographic characteristics of these layers. It is found that changes in the structure and the effectivity of separation characteristic of the layers depend on the temperature of pyrolysis, which ranges from 250 to 1100°C. It is established that a layer of separation is formed at 250-350°C, and the order of elution of hydrocarbons is similar to their chromatographic behavior on such stationary phases as OV-101. Layers of amorphous carbon formed on the surfaces of individual particles on a diatomite surface at 500-700°C. These layers ensure highly stable and selective separation of permanent gases and hydrocarbons when they are present together.

  14. Correlations and adsorption mechanisms of aromatic compounds on a high heat temperature treated bamboo biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kun; Yang, Jingjing; Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Wenhao; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrobenzenes, phenols, and anilines, on a bamboo biochar produced at 700 °C (Ba700) was investigated with the mechanism discussion by isotherm fitting using the Polanyi-theory based Dubinin–Ashtakhov (DA) model. Correlations of adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) of organic compounds with their molecular sizes and melting points, as well as correlations of adsorption affinity (E) with their solvatochromic parameters (i.e., π* and α m ), on the biochar, were developed and indicating that adsorption is captured by the pore filling mechanism and derived from the hydrophobic effects of organic compounds and the forming of π-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions and hydrogen bonding interactions of organic molecules with surface sites of the biochar. The effects of organic molecular sizes and melting points on adsorption capacity are ascribed to the molecular sieving effect and the packing efficiency of the organic molecules in the biochar pores, respectively. These correlations can be used to quantitatively estimate the adsorption of organic compounds on biochars from their commonly physicochemical properties including solvatochromic parameters, melting points and molecular cross-sectional area. The prediction using these correlations is important for assessing the unknown adsorption behaviors of new organic compounds and also helpful to guide the surface modification of biochars and make targeted selection in the environmental applications of biochars as adsorbents. - Highlights: • Adsorption of organic chemicals on biochars are captured by pore filling mechanism. • Adsorption is derived from Van der Waals force, π-π EDA and H-bonding interactions. • Adsorption capacity is negatively correlated with organic molecular sizes/melting points. • Adsorption capacity is restricted by molecular sieving effect and packing efficiency. • Adsorption affinity has a LSER with chemical

  15. Effects of tempo, swing density, and listener's drumming experience, on swing detection thresholds for drum rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew V; Shams, Ladan

    2017-06-01

    Swing, a popular technique in music performance, has been said to enhance the "groove" of the rhythm. Swing works by delaying the onsets of even-numbered subdivisions of each beat (e.g., 16th-note swing delays the onsets of the second and fourth 16th-note subdivisions of each quarter-note beat). The "swing magnitude" (loosely speaking, the amount of delay) is often quite small. And there has been little investigation, using musical stimuli, into what swing magnitudes listeners can detect. To that end, this study presented continually-looped electronic drum rhythms, with 16th-note swing in the hi-hat on every other bar, to drummers and non-drummers. Swing magnitude was adjusted using a staircase procedure, to determine the magnitude where the difference between swinging and not-swinging bars was just-noticeable. Different tempi (60 to 140 quarter-notes per minute) and swing densities (how often notes occurred at even-numbered subdivisions) were used. Results showed that all subjects could detect smaller swing magnitudes when swing density was higher, thus confirming a previous speculation that the perceptual salience of swing increases with swing density. The just-noticeable magnitudes of swing for drummers differed from those of non-drummers, in terms of both overall magnitude and sensitivity to tempo, thus prompting questions for further exploration.

  16. Thermodynamics of the adsorption of organic cations on kaolinite : temperature dependence and calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrian Isfahany, T.

    1992-01-01

    The present work is aimed at understanding the interactions involved in the adsorption of cationic surfactants on heterogeneous surfaces. The relevance of the study derives from the environmental aspects of the adsorption of small organic molecules onto soil constituents. This thesis

  17. Study on the adsorption of H2O and CO2 from the carrier gas of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Cuiping; Zheng Zhenhong; Shi Fuen; Zhou Dasen

    1998-01-01

    The author is focused on the experimental studies of the adsorption of moisture and carbon dioxide from the carrier gas of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). A suitable adsorbent--5A type molecular sieve spherical particles with an average diameter of 3 mm is chosen to purify the carrier gas with impurities of moisture and carbon dioxide. Experimental data at different concentration, flow rate, adsorptive temperature, pressure and bed depth are obtained from isothermal adsorption tests in order to examine the effects of these parameters on adsorption dynamic and for the optimal parameters selection of adsorption process. Experimental breakthrough curves, dynamic single component and multicomponent adsorption curves are obtained. The outlet concentration of H 2 O and CO 2 can reach below 1.0 x 10 -5 , so this purification system can meet the demands of HTGR

  18. Advanced honeycomb adsorbent and scaling-up technique for thermal swing adsorptive VOC concentrator; Samarusuingu kyuchakushiki VOC noshuku sochiyo hanikamu kyuchakutai no kaizen to sukeru up gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuma, Y.; Kuwa, T.; Yamauchi, H. [Seibu Giken Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan); Hirose, T. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    On the honeycomb type adsorptive concentrator, a manufacturing method of the honeycomb adsorbent rotor, retention of mechanical strength corresponding with a large-scale processing and minimization of air leakage resulting in performance deterioration were technically examined. Honeycomb structure was formed from an alumina-silica fiber paper, and high silica-content zeolite was deposited in the fiber void of the matrix. The adsorbent rotor using sepiolite as an inorganic adhesive for honeycomb fabrication showed fracture strength of from 1.6 to 3.2 times the conventional adsorbent rotor. Two types of differently shaped fluorinated rubber seal were developed for the adsorbent rotor. Amount of air leakage from the seal between each zone as well as to outside was sufficiently small. A large-scale VOC concentrator with the 3950 mm diameter and 450 mm length was manufactured with the adsorbent rotor and seal structure in accordance with the aforementioned method. Results of the real machine operation showed same concentration performance at those of the small-scale experiment. 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Nasopharyngeal cancer through maxillary swing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Ojeda, Luis; Chicaiza Acosta, Jorge; Ulloa Miranda, Darwin

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer is very rare in Ecuador. Radiotherapy associated to concurrent chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. In case of tumor recurrence, these two treatment modalities are usually not effective. For this reason, several studies about the satisfactory results of salvage surgery in terms of locoregional control of the disease, have appeared recently in the literature. We report our first experience of surgical salvage resection of a recurrent tumor through an anterolateral approach (maxillary swing) with an initial satisfactory result. (The author)

  20. Prediction of Adsorption Equilibrium of VOCs onto Hyper-Cross-Linked Polymeric Resin at Environmentally Relevant Temperatures and Concentrations Using Inverse Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lijuan; Ma, Jiakai; Shi, Qiuyi; Long, Chao

    2017-01-03

    Hyper-cross-linked polymeric resin (HPR) represents a class of predominantly microporous adsorbents and has good adsorption performance toward VOCs. However, adsorption equilibrium of VOCs onto HPR are limited. In this research, a novel method for predicting adsorption capacities of VOCs on HPR at environmentally relevant temperatures and concentrations using inverse gas chromatography data was proposed. Adsorption equilibrium of six VOCs (n-pentane, n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, benzene, 1, 2-dichloroethane) onto HPR in the temperature range of 403-443 K were measured by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Adsorption capacities at environmentally relevant temperatures (293-328 K) and concentrations (P/P s = 0.1-0.7) were predicted using Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equation based on Polany's theory. Taking consideration of the swelling properties of HPR, the volume swelling ratio (r) was introduced and r·V micro was used instead of V micro determined by N 2 adsorption data at 77 K as the parameter q 0 (limiting micropore volume) of the DR equation. The results showed that the adsorption capacities of VOCs at environmentally relevant temperatures and concentrations can be predicted effectively using IGC data, the root-mean-square errors between the predicted and experimental data was below 9.63%. The results are meaningful because they allow accurate prediction of adsorption capacities of adsorbents more quickly and conveniently using IGC data.

  1. A three-site Langmuir adsorption model to elucidate the temperature, pressure, and support dependence of the hydrogen coverage on supported Pt particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Y.; Koot, V.; van der Eerden, A.M.J.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Koningsberger, D.C.; Ramaker, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The three-site adsorption model, previously developed to describe H adsorption on small Pt particles, was used to gain insight into dependence of hydrogen coverage on temperature, pressure, and support ionicity. The three sites, in order of decreasing PtH bond strength, involve H in an atop, a

  2. On the problem of low-temperature air adsorption studies by the volume method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur'yanov, V.V.; Gashin, V.M.; Shcherbakov, V.P.; Misin, M.S.; Sizova, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of a porous structure and the adsorption of a series of carbon adsorbents at 77 K were studied. It was shown that isotherms may be constructed within the framework of the theory of volume filling only for a degree of filling of theta>20.5. Deviations from theoretical curves are observed with practically no accumulation in the high-vacuum equipment of carbon-adsorbed helium, hydrogen, and neon. Therefore the initial parts of the air-adsorption isotherm at 77 K may not be used for characterizing the adsorption properties and parameters of the porous structure of a microporous adsorbent. The effect of adsorbent microporosity on the adsorption isotherm begins to appear only when the pressure of the poorly sorbed components of the air is less than the total pressure of the nitrogen and oxygen

  3. Thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption in MOF-177 at low temperatures: measurements and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Eric [College of Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dailly, Anne [Chemical and Environmental Sciences Laboratory, General Motors Corporation, Warren, MI 48090 (United States)], E-mail: poirierem@gmail.com, E-mail: anne.dailly@gm.com

    2009-05-20

    Hydrogen adsorption measurements and modelling for the Zn-based microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) Zn{sub 4}O(1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate){sub 2}, MOF-177, were performed over the 50-77 K and 0-40 bar ranges. The maximum excess adsorption measured under these conditions varies over about 105-70 mg g{sup -1}. An analysis of the isotherms near saturation shows that hydrogen is ultimately adsorbed in an incompressible phase whose density is comparable to that of the bulk liquid. These liquid state properties observed under supercritical conditions reveal a remarkable effect of nanoscale confinement. The entire set of adsorption isotherms can be well described using a micropore filling model. The latter is used, in particular, to determine the absolute amounts adsorbed and the adsorption enthalpy. When expressed in terms of absolute adsorption, the isotherms show considerable hydrogen storage capacities, reaching up to 125 mg g{sup -1} at 50 K and 25 bar. The adsorption enthalpies are calculated as a function of fractional filling and range from 3 to 5 kJ mol{sup -1} in magnitude, in accordance with physisorption. These results are discussed with respect to a similar analysis performed on another Zn-based MOF, Zn{sub 4}O(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate){sub 3}, IRMOF-1, presented recently. It is found that both materials adsorb hydrogen by similar mechanisms.

  4. Thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption in MOF-177 at low temperatures: measurements and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Eric; Dailly, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen adsorption measurements and modelling for the Zn-based microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) Zn 4 O(1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate) 2 , MOF-177, were performed over the 50-77 K and 0-40 bar ranges. The maximum excess adsorption measured under these conditions varies over about 105-70 mg g -1 . An analysis of the isotherms near saturation shows that hydrogen is ultimately adsorbed in an incompressible phase whose density is comparable to that of the bulk liquid. These liquid state properties observed under supercritical conditions reveal a remarkable effect of nanoscale confinement. The entire set of adsorption isotherms can be well described using a micropore filling model. The latter is used, in particular, to determine the absolute amounts adsorbed and the adsorption enthalpy. When expressed in terms of absolute adsorption, the isotherms show considerable hydrogen storage capacities, reaching up to 125 mg g -1 at 50 K and 25 bar. The adsorption enthalpies are calculated as a function of fractional filling and range from 3 to 5 kJ mol -1 in magnitude, in accordance with physisorption. These results are discussed with respect to a similar analysis performed on another Zn-based MOF, Zn 4 O(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 3 , IRMOF-1, presented recently. It is found that both materials adsorb hydrogen by similar mechanisms.

  5. Computational and variable-temperature infrared spectroscopic studies on carbon monoxide adsorption on zeolite Ca-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Angeles; Nachtigall, Petr; Rodríguez Delgado, Montserrat; Otero Areán, Carlos

    2009-05-11

    Carbon monoxide adsorption on LTA (Linde type 5A) zeolite Ca-A is studied by using a combination of variable-temperature infrared spectroscopy and computational methods involving periodic density functional calculations and the correlation between stretching frequency and bond length of adsorbed CO species (nu(CO)/r(CO) correlation). Based on the agreement between calculated and experimental results, the main adsorption species can be identified as bridged Ca(2+)...CO...Ca(2+) complexes formed on dual-cation sites constituted by a pair of nearby Ca(2+) cations. Two types of such species can be formed: One of them has the two Ca(2+) ions located on six-membered rings of the zeolite framework and is characterized by a C-O stretching frequency in the range of 2174-2179 cm(-1) and an adsorption enthalpy of -31 to -33 kJ mol(-1), whereas the other bridged CO species is formed between a Ca(2+) ion located on an eight-membered ring and another one on a nearby six-membered ring and is characterized by nu(CO) in the range 2183-2188 cm(-1) and an adsorption enthalpy of -46 to -50 kJ mol(-1). Ca(2+)...CO monocarbonyl complexes are also identified, and at a relatively high CO equilibrium pressure, dicarbonyl species can also be formed.

  6. Discourse swings in understanding audiences:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    Traditional discourses of the relationship between media producers and consumers have been challenged as of late in post-industrialized countries.  The blurring of established consumer/producer identities due to changes in the mediascape, forecasted for decades, has changed how both academics......’s cooptation of these consumers, conceptualizing the people who engage with their media products as a combination of the previous two, or "audience-as-pusher".  This paper is an account of this discourse swing through the description of case studies that demonstrate the utilization of interactive marketing...

  7. Protein adsorption on low temperature alpha alumina films for surgical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloud, A.N., E-mail: acloud@uark.ed [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Kumar, S. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Kavdia, M.; Abu-Safe, H.H.; Gordon, M.H. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)

    2009-08-31

    Bulk alumina has been shown to exhibit reduced protein adsorption, a property that can be exploited for developing alumina-coated surgical instruments and devices. Alpha alumina thin films were deposited on surgical stainless steel substrates to investigate the adsorption of a model protein (BSA, bovine serum albumin). The films were deposited at 480 {sup o}C by AC inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering. Films were obtained at 6 kW and 50% oxygen partial pressure by volume. The presence of alpha-phase alumina has been shown by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate that there was a 50% reduction in protein adsorption for samples with the alumina coating compared to those with no coating.

  8. Precursor state of oxygen molecules on the Si(001) surface during the initial room-temperature adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunkyung; Chang, Yun Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung; Koo, Ja-Yong; Kim, Hanchul

    2012-10-01

    The initial adsorption of oxygen molecules on Si(001) is investigated at room temperature. The scanning tunneling microscopy images reveal a unique bright O2-induced feature. The very initial sticking coefficient of O2 below 0.04 Langmuir is measured to be ˜0.16. Upon thermal annealing at 250-600 °C, the bright O2-induced feature is destroyed, and the Si(001) surface is covered with dark depressions that seem to be oxidized structures with -Si-O-Si- bonds. This suggests that the observed bright O2-induced feature is an intermediate precursor state that may be either a silanone species or a molecular adsorption structure.

  9. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: cbarg@enq.ufrgs.br; arge@enq.ufrgs.br; jorge@enq.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  10. The definitive guide to Java Swing

    CERN Document Server

    Zukowski, John

    2005-01-01

    Updated for the 1.5 edition of the Java 2 Platform, this third edition is a one-stop resource for serious Java developers. It shows the parts of Java Swing API used to create graphical user interfaces (GUI); and Model-View-Controller architecture that lies behind all Swing components; and customizing components for specific environments.

  11. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  12. Automatically closing swing gate closure assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Chih; Schuck, William J.; Gilmore, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A swing gate closure assembly for nuclear reactor tipoff assembly wherein the swing gate is cammed open by a fuel element or spacer but is reliably closed at a desired closing rate primarily by hydraulic forces in the absence of a fuel charge.

  13. Adsorption Removal of 17β-Estradiol from Water by Rice Straw-Derived Biochar with Special Attention to Pyrolysis Temperature and Background Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Ni; Liu, Yunguo; Jiang, Luhua; Zeng, Guangming; Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Shaobo; Yin, Zhihong; Tian, Sirong; Li, Jiang

    2017-10-11

    Rice straw biochar that produced at three pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500 and 600 °C) were used to investigate the adsorption properties of 17β-estradiol (E2). The biochar samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis and BET surface area measurements. The influences of pyrolysis temperature, E2 concentration, pH, ionic strength, background electrolyte and humic acid were studied. Kinetic and isotherm results illustrated that the adsorption process could be well described by pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models. Experimental results showed that ionic strength had less influence on the adsorption of E2 by 500 and 600 °C rice straw biochar. Further, multivalent ions had positive impact on E2 removal than monovalent ions and the influence of the pyrolysis temperature was unremarkable when background electrolyte existed in solutions. The adsorption capacity of E2 decreased with the pH ranged from 3.0 to 12.0 and the humic acid concentration from 2 to 10 mg L -1 . Electrostatic attractions and π-π interaction were involved in the adsorption mechanisms. Compared to low-temperature biochar, high-temperature biochar exhibited a better adsorption capacity for E2 in aqueous solution, indicated it had a greater potential for E2 pollution control.

  14. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on soybean stover- and peanut shell-derived biochar properties and TCE adsorption in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Dou, Xiaomin; Mohan, Dinesh; Sung, Jwa-Kyung; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-08-01

    Conversion of crop residues into biochars (BCs) via pyrolysis is beneficial to environment compared to their direct combustion in agricultural field. Biochars developed from soybean stover at 300 and 700 °C (S-BC300 and S-BC700, respectively) and peanut shells at 300 and 700 °C (P-BC300 and P-BC700, respectively) were used for the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. Batch adsorption experiments showed that the TCE adsorption was strongly dependent on the BCs properties. Linear relationships were obtained between sorption parameters (K(M) and S(M)) and molar elemental ratios as well as surface area of the BCs. The high adsorption capacity of BCs produced at 700 °C was attributed to their high aromaticity and low polarity. The efficacy of S-BC700 and P-BC700 for removing TCE from water was comparable to that of activated carbon (AC). Pyrolysis temperature influencing the BC properties was a critical factor to assess the removal efficiency of TCE from water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gas separation device based on electrical swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-10-26

    A method and apparatus for separating one constituent, especially carbon dioxide, from a fluid mixture, such as natural gas. The fluid mixture flows through an adsorbent member having an affinity for molecules of the one constituent, the molecules being adsorbed on the adsorbent member. A voltage is applied to the adsorbent member, the voltage imparting a current flow which causes the molecules of the one constituent to be desorbed from the adsorbent member.

  16. Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P; Obrey, Stephen J; Devlin, David J; Sansinena, Jose Maria

    2013-05-28

    Gases are stored, separated, and/or concentrated. An electric field is applied across a porous dielectric adsorbent material. A gas component from a gas mixture may be selectively separated inside the energized dielectric. Gas is stored in the energized dielectric for as long as the dielectric is energized. The energized dielectric selectively separates, or concentrates, a gas component of the gas mixture. When the potential is removed, gas from inside the dielectric is released.

  17. [Effects of swing on music appreciation: a study on perceived impressions of various swing ratios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Shimpei; Shigeno, Sumi

    2013-06-01

    Swing is a musical performance technique, whose magnitude is indicated by the swing ratio. This study examines the effects of swing on music-listening appreciation. In Experiment 1, 21 participants were presented with synthesized performances with three swing ratios, and were asked to rate their impressions using the semantic differential method. The results show that there exists a certain relationship between swing and the affective evaluation of music and tempo. Experiment 2 explored the relationship between swing and melody, another dimension of music, in perceived dynamism and preference for swing. Two musical instruments were used: piano and drums. Twenty-two participants were presented with synthesized performances and were asked to rate the degree of dynamism and their preference using Scheffé's paired comparison method. The evaluations for five swing conditions were similar for those performed by the piano and by the drums. The discussion looks at the swing ratio and its psychological attributes as well as the relationships of perceived impressions of swing to tempo and musical instruments.

  18. BIOMEHANICAL MODEL OF THE GOLF SWING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Čoh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Golf is an extremely complex game which depends on a number of interconnected factors. One of the most important elements is undoubtedly the golf swing technique. High performance of the golf swing technique is generated by: the level of motor abilities, high degree of movement control, the level of movement structure stabilisation, morphological characteristics, inter- and intro-muscular coordination, motivation, and concentration. The golf swing technique was investigated using the biomechanical analysis method. Kinematic parameters were registered using two synchronised high-speed cameras at a frequency of 2,000 Hz. The sample of subjects consisted of three professional golf players. The study results showed a relatively high variability of the swing technique. The maximum velocity of the ball after a wood swing ranged from 233 to 227 km/h. The velocity of the ball after an iron swing was lower by 10 km/h on average. The elevation angle of the ball ranged from 11.7 to 15.3 degrees. In the final phase of the golf swing, i.e. downswing, the trunk rotators play the key role.

  19. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  20. Some effects of gas adsorption on the high temperature volatile release behavior of a terrestrial basalt, tektite and lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D. G.; Muenow, D. W.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Mass pyrograms obtained from high-temperature, mass psectrometric pyrolysis of a glassy theoleiitic submarine basalt and a tektite, ground in air to less than 64 microns, have shown N2 and SO release patterns very similar to those from the pyrolysis of mature lunar soil fines. The N2 and CO release behavior from the terrestrial samples reproduces the biomodal, high-temperature (approximately 700 and 1050 C) features from the lunar samples. Unground portions of the basalt and tektite show no release of N2 and CO during pyrolysis. Grinding also alters the release behavior and absolute amounts of H2O and CO2. It is suggested that adsorption of atmospheric gases in addition to solar wind implantation of ions may account for the wide range of values in previously reported concentrations of carbon and nitrogen from lunar fines.

  1. Application of adsorption analysis to the investigation of phenols and bases in low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalechts, I V; Salimgareeva, F G; Tumbusova, Z P

    1955-01-01

    The use of chromatographic adsorption for the separation of mono- and bicyclic phenols and bases from coal tar and from its hydrogenation products were studied with o-cresol, ..beta..-naphthol, pyridine, and quinoline. Experimental data show that Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was preferable for separating phenols, but that silica gel was better for the bases. The best order of use of the developers was as follows: C/sub 6/H/sub 6/, Et/sub 2/O, EtOH. The data show that the destructive hydrogenation process degrades the higher series phenols to lower ones.

  2. Investigating cluster formation in adsorption of CO2, CH4, and Ar in zeolites and metal organic frameworks at subcritical temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The critical temperatures, T-c, of CO2, CH4, and Ar are 304 K, 191 K, and 151 K, respectively. This paper highlights some unusual characteristics of adsorption and diffusion of these molecules in microporous structures such as zeolites and metal organic frameworks at temperatures T < T-c. Published

  3. SwingStates: Adding state machines to Java and the Swing toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Appert , Caroline; Beaudouin-Lafon , Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This article describes SwingStates, a Java toolkit designed to facilitate the development of graphical user interfaces and bring advanced interaction techniques to the Java platform. SwingStates is based on the use of finite-state machines specified directly in Java to describe the behavior of interactive systems. State machines can be used to redefine the behavior of existing Swing widgets or, in combination with a new canvas widget that features a rich graphical mode...

  4. Monitoring and Control of an Adsorption System Using Electrical Properties of the Adsorbent for Organic Compound Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Ming; Emamipour, Hamidreza; Johnsen, David L; Rood, Mark J; Song, Linhua; Zhang, Zailong

    2017-07-05

    Adsorption systems typically need gas and temperature sensors to monitor their adsorption/regeneration cycles to separate gases from gas streams. Activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC)-electrothermal swing adsorption (ESA) is an adsorption system that has the potential to be controlled with the electrical properties of the adsorbent and is studied here to monitor and control the adsorption/regeneration cycles without the use of gas and temperature sensors and to predict breakthrough before it occurs. The ACFC's electrical resistance was characterized on the basis of the amount of adsorbed organic gas/vapor and the adsorbent temperature. These relationships were then used to develop control logic to monitor and control ESA cycles on the basis of measured resistance and applied power values. Continuous sets of adsorption and regeneration cycles were performed sequentially entirely on the basis of remote electrical measurements and achieved ≥95% capture efficiency at inlet concentrations of 2000 and 4000 ppm v for isobutane, acetone, and toluene in dry and elevated relative humidity gas streams, demonstrating a novel cyclic ESA system that does not require gas or temperature sensors. This contribution is important because it reduces the cost and simplifies the system, predicts breakthrough before its occurrence, and reduces emissions to the atmosphere.

  5. Mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise and provide context by comparing them to mechanical demands of back squat and jump squat exercise. Sixteen men performed 2 sets of 10 swings with 16, 24, and 32 kg, 2 back squats with 20, 40, 60, and 80% 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and 2 jump squats with 0, 20, 40, and 60% 1RM. Sagittal plane motion and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were recorded during swing performance, and GRFs were recorded during back and jump squat performances. Net impulse, and peak and mean propulsion phase force and power applied to the center of mass (CM) were obtained from GRF data and kettlebell displacement and velocity from motion data. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that all swing CM measures were maximized during the 32-kg condition but that velocity of the kettlebell was maximized during the 16-kg condition; displacement was consistent across different loads. Peak and mean force tended to be greater during back and jump squat performances, but swing peak and mean power were greater than back squat power and largely comparable with jump squat power. However, the highest net impulse was recorded during swing exercise with 32 kg (276.1 ± 45.3 N·s vs. 60% 1RM back squat: 182.8 ± 43.1 N·s, and 40% jump squat: 231.3 ± 47.1 N·s). These findings indicate a large mechanical demand during swing exercise that could make swing exercise a useful addition to strength and conditioning programs that aim to develop the ability to rapidly apply force.

  6. Experimental study on cryogenic adsorption of methane by activated carbon for helium coolant purification of High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hua; Wu, Zong-Xin; Jia, Hai-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cryogenic CH 4 adsorption on activated carbon was studied for design of HTGR. • The breakthrough curves at different conditions were analyzed by the MTZ model. • The CH 4 adsorption isotherm was fitted well by the Toth model and the D-R model. • The work provides valuable reference data for helium coolant purification of HTGR. - Abstract: The cryogenic adsorption behavior of methane on activated carbon was investigated for helium coolant purification of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor by using dynamic column breakthrough method. With helium as carrier gas, experiments were performed at −196 °C and low methane partial pressure range of 0–120 Pa. The breakthrough curves at different superficial velocities and different feed concentrations were measured and analyzed by the mass-transfer zone model. The methane single-component adsorption isotherm was obtained and fitted well by the Toth model and the Dubinin-Radushkevich model. The adsorption heat of methane on activated carbon was estimated. The cryogenic adsorption process of methane on activated carbon has been verified to be effective for helium coolant purification of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.

  7. Temperature effects on solute diffusion and adsorption in differently compacted kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mon, Ei Ei; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Effects of soil temperature on the solute diffusion process in soils are important since subsurface temperature variation affects solute transport such as a fertilizer movement, leaching of salt, and pollutant movement to groundwater aquifers. However, the temperature dependency on the solute dif...

  8. Adsorption of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene and anthracenemethanol) by functional graphene oxide and removal by pH and temperature-sensitive coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caili; Wu, Lin; Cai, Dongqing; Zhang, Caiyun; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2013-06-12

    A new kind of functional graphene oxide with fine stability in water was fabricated by mixing graphene oxide (GO) and brilliant blue (BB) with a certain weight ratio. The adsorption performance of this mixture of BB and GO (BBGO) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracenemethanol (AC) and fluoranthene (FL)) was investigated, and the results indicated BBGO possessed adsorption capacity of 1.676 mmol/g and removal efficiency of 72.7% as to AC and adsorption capacity of 2.212 mmol/g and removal efficiency of 93.2% as to FL. After adsorption, pH and temperature-sensitive coagulation (PTC) method was used to remove the AC/BBGO or FL/BBGO complex and proved to be an effective approach to flocculate the AC/BBGO or FL/BBGO complex into large flocs, which tended to be removed from the aqueous solution.

  9. Room-temperature fabrication of core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain biocomposite for adsorptive removal of organic dye from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetkov, George, E-mail: george.tzvetkov@gmail.com; Kaneva, Nina; Spassov, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Meso-/macro-porous nano-ZnO covered pollen grains are prepared at room temperature. • A possible formation mechanism of the core-shell microparticles was proposed. • Adsorptive removal of Malachite Green from water by the biocomposite is studied. - Abstract: A new core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain (n-ZnO/PG) biocomposite has been successfully synthesized via simple and low-temperature two-step liquid precipitation method. The synthetic strategy consists of grafting the surface of pine pollen grains (PG) with Zn{sup 2+}-organic complexes followed by a treatment in Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}/NaOH solution, thus producing a closed n-ZnO shell around the organic core, with a thickness of ∼450 nm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, XPS and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements along with N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the resulting n-ZnO/PG biocomposite. The as-prepared core-shell microparticles are meso-/macro-porous with BET surface area of 25 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and total pore volume of 0.26 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. The adsorption properties of n-ZnO/PG were evaluated through adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) from aqueous medium at room temperature (25 °C). For the sake of comparison, the physico-chemical and adsorptive properties of the raw PG and pure n-ZnO were also examined. Results indicate that n-ZnO/PG is the most favorable for the adsorption of MG under the conditions used in this study. The adsorption kinetic data for PG, n-ZnO and n-ZnO/PG follow the pseudo-second order equation and the maximum adsorption capacity follows an order of n-ZnO/PG > n-ZnO > PG. For n-ZnO/PG an adsorption uptake up to 145.9 mg g{sup −1} is observed. The as-prepared core-shell biocomposite material is a promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly adsorbent due to its textural properties, surface chemistry, adsorption capacity and recyclability.

  10. Room-temperature fabrication of core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain biocomposite for adsorptive removal of organic dye from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkov, George; Kaneva, Nina; Spassov, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Meso-/macro-porous nano-ZnO covered pollen grains are prepared at room temperature. • A possible formation mechanism of the core-shell microparticles was proposed. • Adsorptive removal of Malachite Green from water by the biocomposite is studied. - Abstract: A new core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain (n-ZnO/PG) biocomposite has been successfully synthesized via simple and low-temperature two-step liquid precipitation method. The synthetic strategy consists of grafting the surface of pine pollen grains (PG) with Zn"2"+-organic complexes followed by a treatment in Zn(CH_3COO)_2/NaOH solution, thus producing a closed n-ZnO shell around the organic core, with a thickness of ∼450 nm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, XPS and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements along with N_2 adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the resulting n-ZnO/PG biocomposite. The as-prepared core-shell microparticles are meso-/macro-porous with BET surface area of 25 m"2 g"−"1 and total pore volume of 0.26 cm"3 g"−"1. The adsorption properties of n-ZnO/PG were evaluated through adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) from aqueous medium at room temperature (25 °C). For the sake of comparison, the physico-chemical and adsorptive properties of the raw PG and pure n-ZnO were also examined. Results indicate that n-ZnO/PG is the most favorable for the adsorption of MG under the conditions used in this study. The adsorption kinetic data for PG, n-ZnO and n-ZnO/PG follow the pseudo-second order equation and the maximum adsorption capacity follows an order of n-ZnO/PG > n-ZnO > PG. For n-ZnO/PG an adsorption uptake up to 145.9 mg g"−"1 is observed. The as-prepared core-shell biocomposite material is a promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly adsorbent due to its textural properties, surface chemistry, adsorption capacity and recyclability.

  11. Low-Temperature Pd/Zeolite Passive NO x Adsorbers: Structure, Performance, and Adsorption Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yang [Institute for Integrated; Kovarik, Libor [Institute for Integrated; Engelhard, Mark H. [Institute for Integrated; Wang, Yilin [Institute for Integrated; Wang, Yong [Institute for Integrated; Gao, Feng [Institute for Integrated; Szanyi, János [Institute for Integrated

    2017-07-14

    Pd/zeolite passive NOx adsorber (PNA) materials were prepared with solution ion-exchange between NH4/zeolites (Beta, ZSM-5 and SSZ-13) and PdCl2 solutions. The nature of Pd (dispersion, distribution and oxidation states) in these materials was characterized with Na+ ion-exchange, TEM imaging, CO titration with FTIR and in situ XPS. The NOx trapping and release properties were tested using feeds with different compositions. It is concluded that multiple Pd species coexist in these materials: atomically dispersed Pd in the cationic sites of zeolites, and PdO2 and PdO particles on the external surfaces. While Pd is largely atomically dispersed in ZSM-5, the small pore opening for SSZ-13 inhibits Pd diffusion such that the majority of Pd stays as external surface PdO2 clusters. NOx trapping and release are not simple chemisorption and desorption events, but involve rather complex chemical reactions. In the absence of CO in the feed, cationic Pd(II) sites with oxygen ligands and PdO2 clusters are reduced by NO to Pd(I) and PdO clusters. These reduced sites are the primary NO adsorption sites. In the presence of H2O, the as-formed NO2 desorb immediately. In the presence of CO in the feed, metallic Pd, “naked” Pd2+, and Pd+ sites are responsible for NO adsorption. For Pd adsorption sites with the same oxidation states but in different zeolite frameworks, NO binding energies are not expected to vary greatly. However, NO release temperatures do vary substantially with different zeolite structures. This indicates that NO transport within these materials play an important role in determining release temperatures. Finally, some rational design principles on efficient PNA materials are suggested. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a

  12. Where do golf driver swings go wrong? Factors influencing driver swing consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Shan, G

    2014-10-01

    One of the challenging skills in golfing is the driver swing. There have been a large number of studies characterizing golf swings, yielding insightful instructions on how to swing well. As a result, achieving a sub-18 handicap is no longer the top problem for golfers. Instead, players are now most troubled by a lack of consistency during swing execution. The goal of this study was to determine how to consistently execute good golf swings. Using 3D motion capture and full-body biomechanical modeling, 22 experienced golfers were analysed. For characterizing both successful and failed swings, 19 selected parameters (13 angles, 4 time parameters, and 2 distances) were used. The results showed that 14 parameters are highly sensitive and/or prone to motor control variations. These parameters sensitized five distinct areas of swing to variation: (a) ball positioning, (b) transverse club angle, (c) transition, (d) wrist control, and (e) posture migration between takeaway and impact. Suggestions were provided for how to address these five distinct problem areas. We hope our findings on how to achieve consistency in golf swings will benefit all levels of golf pedagogy and help maintain/develop interests to involve more golf/physical activity for a healthy lifestyle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adsorption Energies of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Atoms on the Low-temperature Amorphous Water Ice: A Systematic Estimation from Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Nakatani, Naoki; Furuya, Kenji; Hama, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new simple computational model to estimate the adsorption energies of atoms and molecules to low-temperature amorphous water ice, and we present the adsorption energies of carbon (3 P), nitrogen (4 S), and oxygen (3 P) atoms based on quantum chemistry calculations. The adsorption energies were estimated to be 14,100 ± 420 K for carbon, 400 ± 30 K for nitrogen, and 1440 ± 160 K for oxygen. The adsorption energy of oxygen is consistent with experimentally reported values. We found that the binding of a nitrogen atom is purely physisorption, while that of a carbon atom is chemisorption, in which a chemical bond to an O atom of a water molecule is formed. That of an oxygen atom has a dual character, with both physisorption and chemisorption. The chemisorption of atomic carbon also implies the possibility of further chemical reactions to produce molecules bearing a C–O bond, though this may hinder the formation of methane on water ice via sequential hydrogenation of carbon atoms. These properties would have a large impact on the chemical evolution of carbon species in interstellar environments. We also investigated the effects of newly calculated adsorption energies on the chemical compositions of cold dense molecular clouds with the aid of gas-ice astrochemical simulations. We found that abundances of major nitrogen-bearing molecules, such as N2 and NH3, are significantly altered by applying the calculated adsorption energy, because nitrogen atoms can thermally diffuse on surfaces, even at 10 K.

  14. The Kinetics of Swinging a Baseball Bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Osvalds, Nikolas J; Rainbow, Michael J

    2018-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to compute the three-dimensional kinetics required to swing three youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia (MOI). 306 swings by 22 male players (13-18 yrs.) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. We found that peak force increased with larger bat MOI and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. In contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat MOI and bat tip speed. Throughout the swing, the force applied to the bat was dominated by a component aligned with the long axis of the bat and directed away from the bat knob, while the moment applied to the bat was minimal until just prior to ball impact. These results indicate that players act to mostly "pull" the bat during their swing until just prior to ball impact, at which point they rapidly increase the moment on the bat. This kinetic analysis provides novel insight into the forces and moments used to swing baseball bats.

  15. Kinetics of adsorption and uptake of Cu2+ by Chlorella vulgaris: influence of pH, temperature, culture age, and cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S K; Singh, Alpana; Gaur, J P

    2002-03-01

    Adsorption and uptake of Cu2+ by Chlorella vulgaris were distinguished by extracting the surface-bound Cu2+ with EDTA. The uptake of Cu2+ followed Michaelis Menten kinetics. The maximum rate of Cu2+ uptake (0.362fmolcell(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at pH 6.0. The rate of Cu2+ uptake was greater for cultures in the exponential phase of growth, and increased with a rise in temperature from 6 to 25 degrees C, thus pointing towards an active mechanism. The maximum number of Cu2+ binding sites was 3.245 fmol cell(-1) at pH 4.5. Adsorption of Cu2+ was strongly pH-dependent thereby indicating that the number and nature of metal binding sites on the cell surface change with changing chemistry of the solution. Unlike uptake, the adsorption remained unaffected by small changes in temperature. Older cultures displayed a higher Cu2+ adsorption capacity than the exponentially growing ones thus suggesting generation of new and/or additional Cu2+ binding sites on older cells of C. vulgaris. By pH titration, the cation-exchange capacity of Chlorella, measured in terms of H+/ Na+ exchange, was about 17 fmol cell(-1) at pH 10.5. Negligible cation exchange capacity at and below pH 5.0 indicated that ion exchange was not the sole mechanism of Cu2+ adsorption by Chlorella. The uptake and adsorption of Cu2+ were inhibited by 100 microM of various cations including other heavy metal ions. The general concept that cations competitively inhibit accumulation of metals in living organisms does not hold for C. vulgaris. Non-competitive, uncompetitive and mixed inhibition of Cu2+ uptake and adsorption by various cations were more common than competitive inhibition.

  16. Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers: Preparation, adsorption mechanism and properties as drug delivery system for sustained release of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang; Chen, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) based on Fe3O4-encapsulating carbon nanospheres were prepared by free radical polymerization, and applied to selective adsorption and controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from an aqueous solution. Characterization results show that the as-synthesized TMMIPs have an average diameter of about 150 nm with a typical core-shell structure, and the thickness of the coating layer is approximately 50 nm. TMMIPs also displayed obvious magnetic properties and thermo-sensitivity. The adsorption results show that the prepared TMMIPs exhibit good adsorption capacity (up to 96.53 mg/g at 25 °C) and recognition towards 5-FU. The studies on 5-FU loading and release in vitro suggest that the release rate increases with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, adsorption mechanisms were explored by using a computational analysis to simulate the imprinted site towards 5-FU. The interaction energy between the imprinted site and 5-FU is -112.24 kJ/mol, originating from a hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces and a hydrophobic interaction between functional groups located on 5-FU and a NIPAM monomer. The electrostatic potential charges and population analysis results suggest that the imprinted site of 5-FU can be introduced on the surface of TMMIPs, confirming their selective adsorption behavior for 5-FU. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Impact of Initial pH and Pyrolysis Temperature on the Adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ from Aqueous Solutions on Corn Straw-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Shuai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Batch experiments were performed on Cr(Ⅵ adsorption using four straw-based materials including corn straw and three kinds of biochar pyrolysed at 300 ℃, 450 ℃ and 600 ℃, respectively. The results showed that the Cr(Ⅵ adsorption were significantly affected by initial pH and pyrolysis temperature. The data were described by kinetic and isotherm models, and showed that the adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ was increased with the decrease of initial pH. The removal rates of Cr(Ⅵ were decreased with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature at pH=3 or pH=5. The biochar pyrolysed at 300 ℃ had the best capability of removing Cr(Ⅵ from aqueous solution at pH=1, and the maxi-mum adsorption quantity was 141.24 mg·g-1 approximately. It observed that both the lower initial pH and the lower pyrolysis temperature had positive effects on the removal of Cr(Ⅵ from aqueous solution.

  18. Adsorption of multilamellar tubes with a temperature tunable diameter at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameau, Anne-Laure; Douliez, Jean-Paul; Boué, François; Ott, Frédéric; Cousin, Fabrice

    2011-10-15

    The ethanolamine salt of 12-hydroxy stearic acid is known to form tubes having a temperature tunable diameter. Here, we study the behavior of those tubes at the air/water interface by using Neutron Reflectivity. We observed that tubes indeed adsorbed at this interface below a fatty acid monolayer and exhibit the same temperature behavior as in bulk. There is however a peculiar behavior at around 50 °C for which the increase of the diameter of the tubes at the interface yields an unfolding of those tubes into a multilamellar layer. Upon further heating, the tubes re-fold and their diameter re-decreases after which they melt into micelles as observed in the bulk. All structural transitions at the interface are nevertheless reversible. This provides to the system a high interest for its interfacial properties because the structure at the air/water interface can be tuned easily by the temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on the performance enhancement of low-temperature solar applications : Daylighting and Adsorption Desalination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Min

    2011-02-01

    Thermal applications of solar energy are categorized by low, medium and high temperature. The present study has explored two major applications of solar energy widely researched and practiced these days. Of these, one deals with the utilization of solar energy for lighting in buildings, which is responsible for a great portion of electricity consumption, especially, for office and public buildings. Rapid improvements in lighting technology harnessing solar energy (daylight) have greatly contributed to radically reduce its consumption levels - and thereby reduce CO 2 emissions and cost. The other case considered here for solar utilization is so-called solar desalination using adsorbents (silica gels). This technology utilizes a silica gel adsorbent (desiccant) as a medium between an evaporator and a condenser to reject and facilitate latent heat of vaporization. Vapour is adsorbed and desorbed between evaporation and condensation phases. 1. Daylighting simulation A lighting upgrade is an obvious step toward improving a building's energy consumption, which could be easily assessed by using computer simulations. The present study has carried out a series of computer simulations for a lightless space as well as an actual classroom (in Jeju National University) when sun pipe systems are installed. They were first modeled by ECOTECT before RADIANCE was called in to conduct lighting analysis. Simulations were performed for equinoxes and solstices when the sun is at its highest altitude, i.e. at noon (12 PM). A lightless space and classroom of the same dimensions revealed the effectiveness of sun pipe systems to improve indoor lighting conditions throughout the year. 2. Development of adsorption desalination system utilizing silica-gel Some major components of an adsorption desalination system were designed and fabricated to assess its desalination efficiency when packs of silica-gel were used at different operating conditions. The amount of fresh water yield was studied

  20. A study on the performance enhancement of low-temperature solar applications : Daylighting and Adsorption Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Min

    2011-02-15

    Thermal applications of solar energy are categorized by low, medium and high temperature. The present study has explored two major applications of solar energy widely researched and practiced these days. Of these, one deals with the utilization of solar energy for lighting in buildings, which is responsible for a great portion of electricity consumption, especially, for office and public buildings. Rapid improvements in lighting technology harnessing solar energy (daylight) have greatly contributed to radically reduce its consumption levels - and thereby reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and cost. The other case considered here for solar utilization is so-called solar desalination using adsorbents (silica gels). This technology utilizes a silica gel adsorbent (desiccant) as a medium between an evaporator and a condenser to reject and facilitate latent heat of vaporization. Vapour is adsorbed and desorbed between evaporation and condensation phases. 1. Daylighting simulation A lighting upgrade is an obvious step toward improving a building's energy consumption, which could be easily assessed by using computer simulations. The present study has carried out a series of computer simulations for a lightless space as well as an actual classroom (in Jeju National University) when sun pipe systems are installed. They were first modeled by ECOTECT before RADIANCE was called in to conduct lighting analysis. Simulations were performed for equinoxes and solstices when the sun is at its highest altitude, i.e. at noon (12 PM). A lightless space and classroom of the same dimensions revealed the effectiveness of sun pipe systems to improve indoor lighting conditions throughout the year. 2. Development of adsorption desalination system utilizing silica-gel Some major components of an adsorption desalination system were designed and fabricated to assess its desalination efficiency when packs of silica-gel were used at different operating conditions. The amount of fresh water yield was

  1. An prediction and explanation of 'climatic swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    oscillations with accrueing amplitude (for example, in present period) submission of heat in the top layers of the mantle will accrue. It is warmly allocated in all layers of the mantle deformed by an attraction of the drifting and oscillating core. Mechanisms of warming. But a base layer is the layer D" ("kitchen of plume-tectonics"). As we know the two mechanisms work for warm redistribution into the Earth. First is a mechanism of convection. In our geodynamical model it has forced nature and is organized and controlled by gravitational action of external celestial bodies and as result has cyclical character. Second mechanism is a plume mechanism which organizes the warmed masses redistributions in higher levels of the mantle, on a bottom of ocean and on a surface of the Earth. In accordance with our geodynamical model mentioned redistribution of warmed mass also has forced character. It is organized and controlled by gravitational action of the external celestial bodies on core-mantle system and also has cyclic nature. Contrast secular warming of Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth in present epoch. And warm flows are asymmetrically, more intensively warm is redistributed in northern hemisphere of the Earth and less intensively in a southern hemisphere. From here it follows, that the phenomenon of more intensive warming up of northern hemisphere, rather than southern in present period should be observed. Data of climatic observations (in first temperature trends for various latitude belts). Really, the trend of increase of temperature in northern hemisphere is characterized by greater rate, than a trend of temperature in a southern hemisphere. "A climatic swing". In work [2] it was emphasized, that the climatic changes caused by the mechanism of forced oscillations of the core-mantle system, occur to a wide spectrum of frequencies. In particular annual, monthly and even daily fluctuations of the core will inevitably cause thin, but appreciable, climatic changes

  2. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges. Each...

  3. Tunable integration of absorption-membrane-adsorption for efficiently separating low boiling gas mixtures near normal temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huang; Pan, Yong; Liu, Bei; Sun, Changyu; Guo, Ping; Gao, Xueteng; Yang, Lanying; Ma, Qinglan; Chen, Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Separation of low boiling gas mixtures is widely concerned in process industries. Now their separations heavily rely upon energy-intensive cryogenic processes. Here, we report a pseudo-absorption process for separating low boiling gas mixtures near normal temperature. In this process, absorption-membrane-adsorption is integrated by suspending suitable porous ZIF material in suitable solvent and forming selectively permeable liquid membrane around ZIF particles. Green solvents like water and glycol were used to form ZIF-8 slurry and tune the permeability of liquid membrane surrounding ZIF-8 particles. We found glycol molecules form tighter membrane while water molecules form looser membrane because of the hydrophobicity of ZIF-8. When using mixing solvents composed of glycol and water, the permeability of liquid membrane becomes tunable. It is shown that ZIF-8/water slurry always manifests remarkable higher separation selectivity than solid ZIF-8 and it could be tuned to further enhance the capture of light hydrocarbons by adding suitable quantity of glycol to water. Because of its lower viscosity and higher sorption/desorption rate, tunable ZIF-8/water-glycol slurry could be readily used as liquid absorbent to separate different kinds of low boiling gas mixtures by applying a multistage separation process in one traditional absorption tower, especially for the capture of light hydrocarbons. PMID:26892255

  4. Surface acidity of calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxyapatite: FTIR spectroscopic study of low-temperature CO adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekounov, Yassen; Chakarova, Kristina; Hadjiivanov, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    The surface properties of calcium phosphate precursor (CP) and crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) prepared biomimetically have been studied by IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO. Both samples are characterized by the absence of Bronsted acidity. Low-temperature CO adsorption on CP evacuated at 523 K leads to formation of only one family of Ca 2+ -CO species (2168 cm -1 ). The analysis indicates that the respective calcium ions on the surface are not isolated. Similar spectra were obtained with HA evacuated at 573 K. In this case, however, the Ca 2+ -CO band was detected at 2165 cm -1 due to enhanced lateral interaction between the adsorbed CO molecules. Another family of Ca 2+ sites (Ca 2+ -CO band at 2178 cm -1 ) was created after evacuation of the HA sample at 673 K. These sites were assumed to be a result of sample dehydroxylation. The results demonstrate the absence of any protonic acidity of the samples (i.e. P-OH surface groups) and weak electrostatic Lewis acidity caused by coordinatively unsaturated Ca 2+ cations.

  5. Simple synthesis of porous melamine-formaldehyde resins by low temperature solvothermal method and its CO2 adsorption properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple and environmentally-friendly approach for the preparation of porous melamine-formaldehyde resins (PMFRs was developed by using low-boiling-point solvents, such as water, as pore-forming agent. With using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and low-boiling solvents cosolvent method, PMFRs with a high specific surface area and well-defined pore structure can be synthesized at a low reaction temperature of 140 °C for a short reaction duration in 20 hours, which can replace the conventional methods that use dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as reaction medium and require 3 days at 170 °C to achieve similar surface area. When loaded with polyethylenimine (PEI, the PMFR-PEI-30% showed good CO2 adsorption performance with a capacity of up to 2.89 mmol/g at 30 °C. These results bring new perspectives for the development of lowcost and environmentally-friendly synthetic methods for porous materials, which can boost their widespread applications.

  6. Plasma-assisted adsorption of elemental mercury on CeO2/TiO2 at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zheng, Chenghang; Gao, Xiang

    2017-11-01

    Mercury is a kind of pollutants contained in flue gas which is hazardous for human beings. In this work, CeO2 was packed in the discharge zone of a plasma reactor to adsorb elemental mercury at low temperatures. Plasma-catalyst reactor can remove Hg0 efficiently with CeO2/TiO2 catalysts packed in the discharge zone. The Hg0 concentration continued to decrease gradually when the plasma was turned on, but not sank rapidly. This tendency was different with other catalysts. The treatment of plasma to CeO2/TiO2 catalysts has a promotion effect on the adsorption of Hg0. Plasma has the effect of changing the surface properties of the catalysts and the changes would restitute if the condition changed. The long-running test demonstrated that this method is an effective way to remove Hg0. The removal efficiency remained at above 99% throughout 12 hours when plasma had been turned on (15kV, 0.5 g packed CeO2/TiO2).

  7. Effect of carbonation temperature on CO_2 adsorption capacity of CaO derived from micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni; Sreekantan, Srimala; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Thant, Aye Aye; Othman, Radzali; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Salime, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Recent years, CaO-based synthetic materials have been attracted attention as potential adsorbents for CO_2 capture mainly due to their high CO_2 adsorption capacity. In this study, micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO_3 was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with using polyacrylamide (PAM). The structural, morphological and thermal properties of the synthesized sample were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG-DTA). The XRD and FESEM results showed that the obtained sample was aragonite CaCO_3 with aggregated nanorods and microspheres composed of nanorods. A TG-DTA apparatus with Thermoplus 2 software was used to investigate the effect of carbonation temperature on the CO_2 adsorption capacity of CaO derived from aragonite CaCO_3 sample. At 300 °C, the sample reached the CO_2 adsorption capacity of 0.098 g-CO_2/g-adsorbent, whereas the sample achieved the highest capacity of 0.682 g-CO_2/g-adsorbent at 700 °C. The results showed that the carbonation temperature significantly influenced on the CO_2 adsorption capacity of the CaO derived from aragonite CaCO_3.

  8. Adsorption behavior of modified Iron stick yam skin with Polyethyleneimine as a potential biosorbent for the removal of anionic dyes in single and ternary systems at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bian, Wei; Li, Yun; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The skin of Iron stick yam (ISY) was modified with Polyethyleneimine (ISY@PEI) and evaluated for use as a potential biosorbent to remove the anionic dyes Sunset yellow (SY), Lemon yellow (LY), and Carmine (CM) from wastewater under low temperature conditions (5-15°C) in single and ternary dye systems. Both in the single and ternary systems, experimental data showed that adsorption capacity reached the highest value at 5°C, and adsorption capacity decreased when the temperature increased (10-50°C). The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model and the extended Langmuir isotherm, for the single and ternary systems, respectively. The maximum adsorption capability was 138.92, 476.31, and 500.13mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a single system and 36.63, 303.31, and 294.12mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a ternary system. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that it was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of carbonation temperature on CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of CaO derived from micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni, E-mail: nwenihlaing76@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Sreekantan, Srimala, E-mail: srimala@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hinode, Hirofumi, E-mail: hinode@ide.titech.ac.jp; Kurniawan, Winarto, E-mail: Kurniawan.w.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Thant, Aye Aye, E-mail: a2thant@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Othman, Radzali, E-mail: radzali@utem.edu.my [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@eng.usm.my [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Salime, Chris, E-mail: chris.salim@surya.ac.id [Environmental Engineering, Surya University, Tangerang, 15810 Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-07-06

    Recent years, CaO-based synthetic materials have been attracted attention as potential adsorbents for CO{sub 2} capture mainly due to their high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. In this study, micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO{sub 3} was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with using polyacrylamide (PAM). The structural, morphological and thermal properties of the synthesized sample were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG-DTA). The XRD and FESEM results showed that the obtained sample was aragonite CaCO{sub 3} with aggregated nanorods and microspheres composed of nanorods. A TG-DTA apparatus with Thermoplus 2 software was used to investigate the effect of carbonation temperature on the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of CaO derived from aragonite CaCO{sub 3} sample. At 300 °C, the sample reached the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 0.098 g-CO{sub 2}/g-adsorbent, whereas the sample achieved the highest capacity of 0.682 g-CO{sub 2}/g-adsorbent at 700 °C. The results showed that the carbonation temperature significantly influenced on the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of the CaO derived from aragonite CaCO{sub 3}.

  10. Core-shelled mesoporous CoFe2O4-SiO2 material with good adsorption and high-temperature magnetic recycling capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi'ang; Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Min; Chen, Tong; Chen, Jifang; Ge, Wen; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin

    2018-04-01

    Residues of organic dye in industrial effluents cause severe water system pollution. Although several methods, such as biodegradation and activated carbon adsorption, are available for treating these effluents before their discharge into waterbodies, secondary pollution by adsorbents and degrading products remains an issue. Therefore, new materials should be identified to solve this problem. In this work, CoFe2O4-SiO2 core-shell structures were synthesized using an improved Stöber method by coating mesoporous silica onto CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The specific surface areas of the synthesized particles range from 30 m2/g to 150 m2/g and vary according to the dosage amount of tetraethoxysilane. Such core-shelled nanoparticles have the following advantages for treating industrial effluents mixed with dye: good adsorption capability, above-room-temperature magnetic recycling capability, and heat-enduring stability. Through adsorption of methylene blue, a typical dyeing material, the core-shell-structured particles show a good adsorption capability of approximately 33 mg/L. The particles are easily and completely collected by magnets, which is possible due to the magnetic property of core CoFe2O4. Heat treatment can burn out the adsorbed dyes and good adsorption performance is sustained even after several heat-treating loops. This property overcomes the common problem of particles with Fe3O4 as a core, by which Fe3O4 is oxidized to nonmagnetic α-Fe2O3 at the burning temperature. We also designed a miniature of effluent-treating pipeline, which demonstrates the potential of the application.

  11. Adsorption of uranium on halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilislioglu, A.; Bilgin, B.

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption of uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solutions on halloysite type clay was studied as a function of amount of adsorbent, initial concentration and pH. The values of adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The mean energy of adsorption was calculated as 5.91 kJ/mol from D-R adsorption isotherm. Lagergren and Bangham equation has been used for dynamic modelling of process and the rate constants of adsorption of uranium on halloysite type clay were calculated at 293, 313 and 333 K. In order to explain the mechanism of adsorption reaction, the rate constants were calculated at high and low uranium concentrations. Adsorption reaction was studied at 293, 303, 313, 323 and 333 K for halloysite type clay and also thermodynamic constants have been calculated. The results show that the adsorption reaction was endothermic and more spontaneous at high temperature. (orig.)

  12. Adsorption of uranium on halloysite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilislioglu, A.; Bilgin, B. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Adsorption of uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solutions on halloysite type clay was studied as a function of amount of adsorbent, initial concentration and pH. The values of adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The mean energy of adsorption was calculated as 5.91 kJ/mol from D-R adsorption isotherm. Lagergren and Bangham equation has been used for dynamic modelling of process and the rate constants of adsorption of uranium on halloysite type clay were calculated at 293, 313 and 333 K. In order to explain the mechanism of adsorption reaction, the rate constants were calculated at high and low uranium concentrations. Adsorption reaction was studied at 293, 303, 313, 323 and 333 K for halloysite type clay and also thermodynamic constants have been calculated. The results show that the adsorption reaction was endothermic and more spontaneous at high temperature. (orig.)

  13. A Diaminopropane-Appended Metal-Organic Framework Enabling Efficient CO2 Capture from Coal Flue Gas via a Mixed Adsorption Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Phillip J; Siegelman, Rebecca L; Forse, Alexander C; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Runčevski, Tomče; Martell, Jeffrey D; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-09-27

    A new diamine-functionalized metal-organic framework comprised of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane (dmpn) appended to the Mg 2+ sites lining the channels of Mg 2 (dobpdc) (dobpdc 4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) is characterized for the removal of CO 2 from the flue gas emissions of coal-fired power plants. Unique to members of this promising class of adsorbents, dmpn-Mg 2 (dobpdc) displays facile step-shaped adsorption of CO 2 from coal flue gas at 40 °C and near complete CO 2 desorption upon heating to 100 °C, enabling a high CO 2 working capacity (2.42 mmol/g, 9.1 wt %) with a modest 60 °C temperature swing. Evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of adsorption for dmpn-Mg 2 (dobpdc) suggests that the narrow temperature swing of its CO 2 adsorption steps is due to the high magnitude of its differential enthalpy of adsorption (Δh ads = -73 ± 1 kJ/mol), with a larger than expected entropic penalty for CO 2 adsorption (Δs ads = -204 ± 4 J/mol·K) positioning the step in the optimal range for carbon capture from coal flue gas. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis and breakthrough experiments indicate that, in contrast to many adsorbents, dmpn-Mg 2 (dobpdc) captures CO 2 effectively in the presence of water and can be subjected to 1000 humid adsorption/desorption cycles with minimal degradation. Solid-state 13 C NMR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction structures of the Zn analogue reveal that this material adsorbs CO 2 via formation of both ammonium carbamates and carbamic acid pairs, the latter of which are crystallographically verified for the first time in a porous material. Taken together, these properties render dmpn-Mg 2 (dobpdc) one of the most promising adsorbents for carbon capture applications.

  14. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  15. The Java Series. GUI Building with Swing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The Swing Java package contains all the components that you expect to see in a modern User Interface, from buttons that contain pictures to trees and grids. It is a big library but it's designed to have the appropriate complexity for the task at hand - if something is simple you don't have to write much code to get it done, but if you want the power to manipulate and deeply customise it you also have it. This tutorial will introduce you to the basic set of components that Swing provides and to the mechanisms behind them. It will provide an overview of what you can do with Swing, even if you are new to GUI programming. However, if you want to follow closely the mechanisms behind what's being explained, it is convenient to have some basic knowledge of the main concepts of Java AWT (class hierarchy and event model) as provided by the previous tutorial of the Java Series. Organiser(s): M.Marquina and R.Ramos /IT-User Support

  16. Swing, o adultério consentido Swinging, adultery by consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia von der Weid

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo discutir questões referentes às relações afetivo-sexuais entre homens e mulheres na sociedade atual a partir da experiência de casais adeptos da prática do swing. Procura-se compreender as concepções nativas sobre casamento, sexualidade, infidelidade e, também, as regras de uma relação swinger. O swing cria um novo modelo de casamento? Ou reforça os modelos já existentes? Por meio da análise do discurso dos casais adeptos da troca sobre suas interações eróticas, busca-se compreender a forma como se articulam amor, sexo e prazer nesses relacionamentosThis research seeks to discuss issues related to the sexual-affective relationships between men and women in our society through the experience of couples who practice swinging. It considers especially the original conceptions of marriage, sexuality, infidelity, and also the rules of a swinger relationship. Does swinging create a new marriage model? Or, instead, does it reinforce pre-existing models? Through an analysis of the discourses of swinging couples about their erotic interactions, the paper examines how they articulate values such as love, sex, and pleasure in their relationships

  17. Adsorption of Pb(II and Cu(II by Ginkgo-Leaf-Derived Biochar Produced under Various Carbonization Temperatures and Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung-Eun Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo trees are common street trees in Korea, and the large amounts of leaves that fall onto the streets annually need to be cleaned and treated. Therefore, fallen gingko leaves have been used as a raw material to produce biochar for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Gingko-leaf-derived biochar was produced under various carbonization temperatures and times. This study evaluated the physicochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of gingko-leaf-derived biochar samples produced under different carbonization conditions regarding Pb(II and Cu(II. The biochar samples that were produced at 800 °C for 90 and 120 min contained the highest oxygen- and nitrogen-substituted carbons, which might contribute to a high metal-adsorption rate. The intensity of the phosphate bond was increased with the increasing of the carbonization temperature up to 800 °C and after 90 min of carbonization. The Pb(II and Cu(II adsorption capacities were the highest when the gingko-leaf-derived biochar was produced at 800 °C, and the removal rates were 99.2% and 34.2%, respectively. The highest removal rate was achieved when the intensity of the phosphate functional group in the biochar was the highest. Therefore, the gingko-leaf-derived biochar produced at 800 °C for 90 min can be used as an effective bio-adsorbent in the removal of metals from solutions.

  18. Temperature-dependent adsorption of surfactant molecules and associated crystallization kinetics of noncentrosymmetric Fe(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} nanorods in microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kass, Moustafa [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Ladj, Rachid [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Université Lyon1, CNRS, UMR 5007, LAGEP, CPE, 43 bd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Mugnier, Yannick, E-mail: Yannick.Mugnier@univ-savoie.fr [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Le Dantec, Ronan [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Hadji, Rachid [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS n°7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Marty, Jean-Christophe [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Rouxel, Didier [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS n°7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Durand, Christiane [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Fontvieille, Dominique [UMR CARRTEL (INRA/Université de Savoie), Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203 Thonon Cedex (France); Rogalska, Ewa [Structure et Réactivité des Systèmes Moléculaires Complexes, UMR 7565, Nancy Université, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy cedex (France); and others

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Crystallization of Fe(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} in microemulsions probed by hyper-Rayleigh scattering. • A faster growth and a better shape control of nanorods are obtained at 80 °C. • Different persistent cell deformations are related to the crystallization kinetics. • A temperature-dependent adsorption of surfactants on nanorods is suggested. - Abstract: Aggregation-induced crystallization of iron iodate nanorods within organic–inorganic aggregates of primary amorphous precursors is probed by time-dependent hyper-Rayleigh scattering measurements in Triton X-100 based-microemulsions. In the context of a growing interest of noncentrosymmetric oxide nanomaterials in multi-photon bioimaging, we demonstrate by a combination of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy that an increase in the synthesis of temperature results in faster crystallization kinetics and in a better shape-control of the final Fe(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} nanorods. For initial microemulsions of fixed composition, room-temperature synthesis leads to bundles of 1–3 μm long nanorods, whereas shorter individual nanorods are obtained when the temperature is increased. Results are interpreted in terms of kinetically unfavorable mesoscale transformations due to the strong binding interactions with Triton molecules. The interplay between the nanorod crystallization kinetics and their corresponding unit cell deformation, evidenced by lattice parameter refinements, is attributed to a temperature-dependent adsorption of surfactants molecules at the organic–inorganic interface.

  19. CSS-Driven Java Swing Component

    OpenAIRE

    Hvězda, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce je zaměřená na vytvoření komponenty Java Swing, která zobrazí obsah HTML dokumentu na základě kaskádových stylů (CSS). Důvod k vytvoření takové komponenty je umožnění vývojářům tvořit uživatelské rozhraní pomocí CSS v Javě bez nutnosti toho, aby znali rozhraní Java Swing.   K syntaktickému rozboru HTML a CSS je použit zobrazovací stroj CSSBox , který umožní získat veškeré potřebné informace ke správnému zobrazení dokumentu. Komponenta je implementována pomocí komponent Swingu...

  20. Structural and energetical studies of the adsorption of para and meta-isomers of xylene on pre-hydrated zeolite BaX. Characterization by neutron diffraction and temperature programmed desorption; Etude structurale et energetique de l'adsorption des isomeres para- et meta- du xylene dans la zeolithe BaX prehydratee. Caracterisation par diffraction des neutrons et thermodesorption programmee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, Ch.

    1999-10-19

    The separation of p-xylene from C{sub 8} aromatics is performed industrially by selective adsorption on zeolitic materials. FAU-type zeolites are currently used for this separation and especially the partially hydrated BaX. The aim of this work is to characterize from a structural (by low temperature neutron powder diffraction) and an energetical (by temperature programmed desorption) point of view, the adsorption of para- and meta- isomers of xylene, for different fillings, as pure substances as well as mixtures, on pre-hydrated zeolite BaX. The influence of the water pre-adsorption on xylene adsorption selectivity is carefully discussed. The crystalline structure of the zeolite BaX (framework and compensation of charge cations) and of the adsorbed phase (water, p- and m-xylene molecules) are completely characterized by neutron diffraction. The location and the distribution of water and xylene molecules on their adsorption sites is especially followed as a function of the filling of the zeolite and of the composition of the adsorbed phase. Microscopic measurements were correlated to the energetical analysis (at a macroscopic level) in order to obtain a consistent description of adsorption phenomenon and to propose a possible origin for adsorption selectivity.

  1. Effect of active zinc oxide dispersion on reduced graphite oxide for hydrogen sulfide adsorption at mid-temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon Sub [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1 (Canada); Greenhouse Gas Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Gyu [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Croiset, Eric, E-mail: ecroiset@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1 (Canada); Chen, Zhongwei [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1 (Canada); Nam, Sung Chan; Ryu, Ho-Jung [Greenhouse Gas Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kwang Bok, E-mail: cosy32@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Composites of Zinc oxide (ZnO) with reduced graphite oxide (rGO) were synthesized and used as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at 300 °C. Various characterization methods (TGA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and XPS) were performed in order to link their H{sub 2}S adsorption performance to the properties of the adsorbent's surface. Microwave-assisted reduction process of graphite oxide (GO) provided mild reduction environment, allowing oxygen-containing functional groups to remain on the rGO surface. It was confirmed that for the ZnO/rGO synthesize using the microwave-assisted reduction method, the ZnO particle size and the degree of ZnO dispersion remained stable over time at 300 °C, which was not the case for only the ZnO particles themselves. This stable highly dispersed feature allows for sustained high surface area over time. This was confirmed through breakthrough experiments for H{sub 2}S adsorption where it was found that the ZnO/rGO composite showed almost four times higher ZnO utilization efficiency than ZnO itself. The effect of the H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} on H{sub 2}S adsorption was also investigated. The presence of hydrogen in the H{sub 2}S stream had a positive effect on the removal of H{sub 2}S since it allows a reducing environment for Zn-O and Zn-S bonds, leading to more active sites (Zn{sup 2+}) to sulfur molecules. On the other hand, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) showed the opposite trend, likely due to the oxidation environment and also due to possible competitive adsorption between H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}.

  2. Effect of active zinc oxide dispersion on reduced graphite oxide for hydrogen sulfide adsorption at mid-temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hoon Sub; Park, Moon Gyu; Croiset, Eric; Chen, Zhongwei; Nam, Sung Chan; Ryu, Ho-Jung; Yi, Kwang Bok

    2013-09-01

    Composites of Zinc oxide (ZnO) with reduced graphite oxide (rGO) were synthesized and used as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at 300 °C. Various characterization methods (TGA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and XPS) were performed in order to link their H2S adsorption performance to the properties of the adsorbent's surface. Microwave-assisted reduction process of graphite oxide (GO) provided mild reduction environment, allowing oxygen-containing functional groups to remain on the rGO surface. It was confirmed that for the ZnO/rGO synthesize using the microwave-assisted reduction method, the ZnO particle size and the degree of ZnO dispersion remained stable over time at 300 °C, which was not the case for only the ZnO particles themselves. This stable highly dispersed feature allows for sustained high surface area over time. This was confirmed through breakthrough experiments for H2S adsorption where it was found that the ZnO/rGO composite showed almost four times higher ZnO utilization efficiency than ZnO itself. The effect of the H2 and CO2 on H2S adsorption was also investigated. The presence of hydrogen in the H2S stream had a positive effect on the removal of H2S since it allows a reducing environment for Znsbnd O and Znsbnd S bonds, leading to more active sites (Zn2+) to sulfur molecules. On the other hand, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) showed the opposite trend, likely due to the oxidation environment and also due to possible competitive adsorption between H2S and CO2.

  3. Effect of active zinc oxide dispersion on reduced graphite oxide for hydrogen sulfide adsorption at mid-temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hoon Sub; Park, Moon Gyu; Croiset, Eric; Chen, Zhongwei; Nam, Sung Chan; Ryu, Ho-Jung; Yi, Kwang Bok

    2013-01-01

    Composites of Zinc oxide (ZnO) with reduced graphite oxide (rGO) were synthesized and used as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) at 300 °C. Various characterization methods (TGA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and XPS) were performed in order to link their H 2 S adsorption performance to the properties of the adsorbent's surface. Microwave-assisted reduction process of graphite oxide (GO) provided mild reduction environment, allowing oxygen-containing functional groups to remain on the rGO surface. It was confirmed that for the ZnO/rGO synthesize using the microwave-assisted reduction method, the ZnO particle size and the degree of ZnO dispersion remained stable over time at 300 °C, which was not the case for only the ZnO particles themselves. This stable highly dispersed feature allows for sustained high surface area over time. This was confirmed through breakthrough experiments for H 2 S adsorption where it was found that the ZnO/rGO composite showed almost four times higher ZnO utilization efficiency than ZnO itself. The effect of the H 2 and CO 2 on H 2 S adsorption was also investigated. The presence of hydrogen in the H 2 S stream had a positive effect on the removal of H 2 S since it allows a reducing environment for Zn-O and Zn-S bonds, leading to more active sites (Zn 2+ ) to sulfur molecules. On the other hand, the presence of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) showed the opposite trend, likely due to the oxidation environment and also due to possible competitive adsorption between H 2 S and CO 2 .

  4. Encoded low swing for ultra low power interconnect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, R.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel encoded-low swing technique for ultra low power interconnect. Using this technique and an efficient circuit implementation, we achieve an average of 45.7% improvement in the power-delay product over the schemes utilizing low swing techniques alone, for random bit streams. Also, we

  5. Mood swings: design and evaluation of affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon

    2009-01-01

    The field of affective computing is concerned with developing emphatic products, such as affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes Mood Swings, an affective interactive art system, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings

  6. Malthus on long swings: the general case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, P C

    1988-02-01

    3 major assumptions provided the basis to Malthus' theory of population: food is necessary to human existence; passion between man and woman is necessary and will continue nearly in its present state; and the power of population is indefinitely greater than the earth's power to produce subsistence for humans. With this as his base, Malthus proposed the thesis that strong and constant forces need to hold the superior power of population over subsistence in check. The forces include both positive checks, e.g., infant mortality, and preventive checks, e.g., foregoing early marriage. Malthus evidently had a theory of long swings in mind because he began his essay questioning whether humankind will experience unlimited improvement or a state oscillating between happiness and misery. Waterman (1987) offers a new interpretation of Malthus' theory of long swings, concluding that "the Malthusian theory of oscillations' as sketched in the 'Essay on Population' may justly be represented by a zig-zag path of real wages." 2 questions arise: does the text literally mean what Waterman suggests; and is the text consistent with Malthus' general position. The quotation offered by Wasserman focuses on a special case that illustrates how oscillations might take place but fails to represent Malthus' general position. In any society the population's response to wages determines the "level" of subsistence. Due to the different living habits in each state, the subsistence level varies from state to state, and Malthus devotes much of the 1st "Essay" to discussing what determines the living habits and the subsistence level in different countries. In Malthus' theory of long swings, real wages do not follow a "zig-zag" path. This is due to the fact that neither the accumulation of capital nor the growth of population behaves as he proposes. Whenever the rate of profit is sufficiently attractive, capital accumulates, and the response of population to a change in wages depends on a complex of

  7. Swing damped movement of suspended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transportation of large objects such as nuclear waste shipping casks using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object. Residual oscillation from transportation typically must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. By properly programming the acceleration of the transporting device (e.g., crane) an oscillation damped transport and swing free stop are obtainable. This report reviews the theory associated with formulating such oscillation damped trajectories for a simply suspended object (e.g., simple pendulum). In addition, the use of force servo damping to eliminate initial oscillation of simply suspended objects is discussed. This is often needed to provide a well defined initial state for the system prior to executing an oscillation damped move. Also included are descriptions of experiments using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot and results from these experiments. Finally, sources of error resulting in small residual oscillations are identified and possible solutions presented

  8. Swimming versus swinging effects in spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueron, Eduardo; Maia, Clovis A. S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2006-01-01

    Wisdom has recently unveiled a new relativistic effect, called 'spacetime swimming', where quasirigid free bodies in curved spacetimes can 'speed up', 'slow down' or 'deviate' their falls by performing local cyclic shape deformations. We show here that for fast enough cycles this effect dominates over a nonrelativistic related one, named here 'space swinging', where the fall is altered through nonlocal cyclic deformations in Newtonian gravitational fields. We expect, therefore, to clarify the distinction between both effects leaving no room to controversy. Moreover, the leading contribution to the swimming effect predicted by Wisdom is enriched with a higher order term and the whole result is generalized to be applicable in cases where the tripod is in large redshift regions

  9. The effects of baseball bat mass properties on swing mechanics, ground reaction forces, and swing timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Walter A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Diffendaffer, Alek Z

    2016-01-01

    Swing trajectory and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 30 collegiate baseball batters hitting a pitched ball were compared between a standard bat, a bat with extra weight about its barrel, and a bat with extra weight in its handle. It was hypothesised that when compared to a standard bat, only a handle-weighted bat would produce equivalent bat kinematics. It was also hypothesised that hitters would not produce equivalent GRFs for each weighted bat, but would maintain equivalent timing when compared to a standard bat. Data were collected utilising a 500 Hz motion capture system and 1,000 Hz force plate system. Data between bats were considered equivalent when the 95% confidence interval of the difference was contained entirely within ±5% of the standard bat mean value. The handle-weighted bat had equivalent kinematics, whereas the barrel-weighted bat did not. Both weighted bats had equivalent peak GRF variables. Neither weighted bat maintained equivalence in the timing of bat kinematics and some peak GRFs. The ability to maintain swing kinematics with a handle-weighted bat may have implications for swing training and warm-up. However, altered timings of kinematics and kinetics require further research to understand the implications on returning to a conventionally weighted bat.

  10. Adsorptive Removal of Trichloroethylene in Water by Crop Residue Biochars Pyrolyzed at Contrasting Temperatures: Continuous Fixed-Bed Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (BC has attracted great attention as an alternative sorbent to activated carbon (AC. Objective of this study was to determine trichloroethylene (TCE removal by soybean stover BC pyrolyzed at 300 (BC300 and 700°C (BC700 in continuous fixed-bed column. Columns packed with BC300, BC700, and AC reached breakthrough time in 1.1, 27.0, and 50.7 h, respectively. BC700 had higher TCE adsorption capacity than BC300 due to its higher surface area, nonpolarity, and aromaticity. The sorption capacities of AC (774.0 mg g−1 and BC700 (515.1 mg g−1 were 21.6 and 14.4 times higher than that of BC300 (35.9 mg g−1. The lower desorption rate of TCE from BC300 than BC700 and AC may be attributed to the strong binding/partition of TCE to the noncarbonized part of BC. Thomas model also adequately described the adsorption data indicating interphase mass transfer. Overall, AC showed best efficiency for removing TCE from water in column experiments. However, although sorption and desorption capabilities of BC700 were a little lower than AC, it is still a good alternative for AC to remove organic contaminants such as TCE from water due to its cost-effectiveness.

  11. Effect of the synthesis temperature of sodium nona-titanate on batch kinetics of strontium-ion adsorption from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merceille, A.; Weinzaepfel, E.; Grandjean, A.; Merceille, A.; Weinzaepfel, E.; Barre, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium titanate materials are promising inorganic ion exchangers for the adsorption of strontium from aqueous solutions. Sodium nona-titanate exhibits a layered structure consisting of titanate layers and exchangeable sodium ions between the layers. The materials used in this study include samples synthesized by a hydrothermal method at temperatures between 60 degrees C and 200 degrees C. Their structure, composition, and morphology were investigated with X-Ray diffraction measurements; thermogravimetric, compositional and surface area analyses, and scanning electron microscopy. The structure, composition, and morphology depended on the synthesis temperature. Batch kinetics experiments for the removal of strontium from aqueous solutions were performed, and the data were fitted by a pseudo-second-order reaction model and a diffusive model. The strontium extraction capacity also depended on the synthesis temperature and exhibited a maximum for samples synthesized at 100 degrees C. The sorption process occurs in one or two diffusion-controlled steps that also depend on the synthesis temperature. These diffusion-limited steps are the boundary-layer diffusion and intra-particle diffusion in the case of pure nona-titanate synthesized at temperatures lower than 170 degrees C, and only intra-particle diffusion in the case of nona-titanate synthesized at 200 degrees C. (authors)

  12. KINEMATIC AND KINETIC VARIABLES DIFFER BETWEEN KETTLEBELL SWING STYLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Garrett S; Schmitt, Abigail C; Shutt, Jason M; Cook, Gray; Butler, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Kettlebell (KB) and indian club swings (ICS) are used diversely for developing strength and power. It has been proposed that multiple swing techniques can be used interchangeably to elicit similar adaptations within performance training. Hypothesis/Purpose: It was hypothesized that there will be not be a difference in peak joint angles between types of swings. Furthermore, given the nature of the overhead kettlebell swing (OKS), it was hypothesized that the OKS will be associated with a greater cycle time and a greater vertical impulse compared to shoulder height swing (SKS) and ICS. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematics and kinetics of the SKS, OKS, and ICS. Cross-sectional cohort. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent 3D biomechanical analysis for assessment of kinematic and kinetic data. Subjects performed two trials of ten repetitions at full effort for each swing in a randomized order using either a standard set of 0.45 kg indian clubs or sex specific KB loads (Female = 12kg, Male = 20kg). Lower extremity sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics were analyzed for peak values during the down and up portions of the swing patterns. Statistical analyses were carried out utilizing one-way ANOVAs ( p power training. 2.

  13. Brain networks governing the golf swing in professional golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Han, Joung Kyue; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Golf, as with most complex motor skills, requires multiple different brain functions, including attention, motor planning, coordination, calculation of timing, and emotional control. In this study we assessed the correlation between swing components and brain connectivity from the cerebellum to the cerebrum. Ten female golf players and 10 age-matched female controls were recruited. In order to determine swing consistency among participants, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean swing speed time and the SD of the mean swing angle were assessed over 30 swings. Functional brain connectivity was assessed by resting state functional MRI. Pro-golfers showed greater positive left cerebellum connectivity to the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and both frontal lobes compared to controls. The SD of play scores was positively correlated with the SD of the impact angle. Constant swing speed and back swing angle in professional golfers were associated with functional connectivity (FC) between the cerebellum and parietal and frontal lobes. In addition, the constant impact angle in professional golfers was associated with improved golf scores and additional FC of the thalamus.

  14. Influence of temperature, exchangeable cation composition, salinity and density in the adsorption of water by a bentonite: implications to the pore water composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Melon, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    temperature. The amount of free water in compacted material is a key parameter for modelling the pore water composition. As results, the behaviour in the adsorption of water at 20 deg. C and 30 deg. C is not different, but there are differences in the adsorption of water at 60 deg. C. The amount of external water, as well as the amount of water in the one-layer hydrate and in the two-layer hydrate are more of less the same at temperatures between 20 and 60 deg. C. However, the amount of water at the three-layer hydrate, as well as the total amount of water adsorbed is lower at 60 deg. C than at lower temperatures. It seems that the volume occupied by water at high temperatures is higher than at lower ones, and less amount of water is needed to fill the interlayer spaces. The changes in free energy, enthalpy and entropy of water in FEBEX bentonite as a function of the degree of adsorption were calculated from water adsorption isotherms measured at the same temperature T and enthalpies of immersion obtained for different degrees of pre-adsorption. The hydration of inter-lamellar space proceeds in steps corresponding to the adsorption in external surfaces, and the intercalation of one, two and three water monolayers. The amount of water adsorbed depends on the type of interlayer cation and its hydration energy. The clay-water system is sensitive to electrolyte concentration changes. It was confirmed that hydration of the cations and of the exposed clay surfaces occurs at low water contents, whereas the osmotic phenomenon is more effective at high water contents. Higher amounts of water are adsorbed at high relative pressures when salinity increases. Water vapours isotherms with compacted material at 1.75, 1.65, and 1.50 g/cm 3 were performed at two temperatures (20 deg. C and 60 deg. C). The temperature affects the amount of water adsorbed not only in powdered material, free for swelling, but also for compacted bentonite, being lower when temperature increases. The effect of

  15. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows.

  16. Room temperature deposition of ZnSe thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.B.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films are deposited onto glass substrate using relatively simple and inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The films are deposited using zinc acetate sodium selenosulphate precursors. The concentration, pH, immersion and rinsing times and number of immersion cycles have been optimized to obtain good quality ZnSe thin films. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveals nanocrystalline nature alongwith some amorphous phase present in ZnSe thin films. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis shows that the films are Se deficient. From optical absorption data, the optical band gap 'E g ' for as-deposited thin film was found to be 2.8 eV and electrical resistivity in the order of 10 7 Ω cm

  17. Evaluation of an adsorption system to concentrate VOC in air streams prior to catalytic incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesi, María A; Luzi, Carlos D; Barreto, Guillermo F; Martínez, Osvaldo M

    2015-05-01

    Catalytic combustion is a well-developed process for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to reduce both the amount of catalyst needed for incineration and the surface area of recuperative heat exchangers, an evaluation of the use of thermal swing adsorption as a previous step for VOC concentration is made. An air stream containing ethyl acetate and ethanol (employed as solvents in printing processes) has been taken as a case study. Based on the characteristics of the adsorption/desorption system and the properties of the stream to be treated, a monolithic rotor concentrator with activated carbon as adsorbent material is adopted. Once the temperature of the inlet desorption stream TD is chosen, the minimum possible desorption flow rate, WD,min, and the amount of adsorbent material can be properly defined according to the extent of the Mass Transfer Zone (MTZ) at the end of the adsorption stage. An approximate procedure to speed up the calculations needed for sizing the bed and predicting the operating variables is also presented. In the case studied here, the concentration of the VOC stream can reach 6 times that of the primary effluent when TD = 200 °C is chosen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Manipulation of polyatomic molecules with the scanning tunnelling microscope at room temperature: chlorobenzene adsorption and desorption from Si(111)-(7 x 7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, P A; Palmer, R E

    2006-01-01

    We report the imaging of chlorobenzene molecules chemisorbed on the Si(111)-(7 x 7) surface at room temperature with the scanning tunnelling microscope, and the desorption of the molecules by the tunnelling current. Detailed voltage-dependent imaging (at positive bias) allows the elucidation of the number and orientation of all the adsorbate configurations in the 7 x 7 unit cell. At negative bias the adsorbate was observed to affect the imaging properties of neighbouring half unit cells. The threshold voltage required for desorption of the chlorobenzene molecules was invariant to small changes in the tip-state, the adsorption site (corner adatom, middle adatom, faulted or unfaulted half of the unit cell) and the kind of doping of the substrate (n or p type)

  19. The inhibition effect of Azure A on mild steel in 1 M HCl. A complete study: Adsorption, temperature, duration and quantum chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkır, Demet; Kayakırılmaz, Kadriye; Bayol, Emel; Gürten, A. Ali; Kandemirli, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Azure A molecule is found to be a good inhibitor for mild steel in HCl solution. ► SEM results clearly indicate that a protective film formation occurred on the mild steel surface. ► The long term corrosion tests are cleared that the Azure A has effectively protected the mild steel in HCl solution. ► The quantum chemical measurements were cleared the reactive sites and charges of atoms in the molecule. - Abstract: In this study, inhibition effect of Azure A on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were evaluated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods. These studies were carried out at different concentrations, temperatures and durations. The inhibitor molecules were chemisorbed on electrode surface according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The quantum chemical calculations were employed to give further insight into the inhibition mechanism of Azure A.

  20. Dual swing-up elevator well drilling apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, H.; Vorarittinapa, T.

    1984-09-18

    A well drilling apparatus includes a first swing-up elevator platform on which the mast structure is pivotally mounted. After the mast structure has been raised to its erect position, the first elevator platform is elevated to carry the mast structure to a high operational level. A second swing-up elevator platform is provided to carry the drawworks to the same high level at which the two elevator platforms are coupled together to form the working floor. All of the raising and elevating operations can be accomplished with power supplied by the drawworks. The elevator platforms may be lowered after the drilling operation has been accomplished without interfering with any control valve structures that have been placed on the wellhead while the structure was at its raised operational level; the swing-up elevator platforms swing down in opposite directions over any such valve structure.

  1. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S., E-mail: jskim@sm.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-28

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  2. Input Shaping for Helicopter Slung Load Swing Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a feedforward swing reducing control system for augmenting already existing helicopter controllers and enables slung load flight with autonomous helicopters general cargo transport. The feedforward controller is designed to avoid excitation of the lightly damped modes...

  3. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  4. Sinkhole remediation at Swinging Bridge Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. [Devine Tarbell and Associates, Portland, ME (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This case history summary described a piping-related sinkhole that occurred after a flood at the Swinging Bridge Dam. The earth-filled embankment dam was constructed using a hydraulic fill technique. A foundation drilling and grouting program was constructed in areas of the dam founded on jointed sandstone and shale. The storage volumes of the reservoir is 32,000 acre-feet. A sinkhole 25 to 300 feet in diameter was observed on May 5, 2005 along the edge of the dam crest. The sinkhole extended to within 10 feet of the reservoir and was separated by a shallow berm of soil and driftwood. Cracking of the crest extended across an area of 180 feet. Operations staff notified the appropriate agencies, implemented a monitoring program, and mobilized construction equipment and sands for use as emergency sinkhole filler. An increase in tailrace turbidity was observed. Historical records for the dam showed significant cracking during the initial filling of the reservoir. Failure modes included increased pore pressures and seepages resulting in the piping of soil along the outside of the dam conduit. Emergency repairs included chemical grouting and weld repairs in the penstocks. A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is currently addressing safety issues associated with conduits through dams. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Kinetic constrained optimization of the golf swing hub path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Steven M; McGinnis, Ryan S

    2014-12-01

    This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power) of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study. Key PointsThe hand path trajectory is an important characteristic of the golf swing and greatly affects club head velocity and golfer/club energy transfer.It is possible to increase the energy transfer from the golfer to the club by modifying the hand path and swing trajectories without increasing the kinetic output demands on the golfer.It is possible to identify relative kinetic output strengths and weakness of a golfer through assessment of the hand path and swing trajectories.Increasing any one of the kinetic outputs of the golfer can potentially increase the club head velocity at impact.The hand path trajectory has important influences over the club swing trajectory.

  6. CFD Analysis of Swing of Cricket Ball and Trajectory Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Jithin; Tom, Josin; Ruishikesh, Kamat; Jose, Jyothish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    This work aims to understand the aerodynamics associated with the flight and swing of a cricket ball and predict its flight trajectory over the course of the game: at start (smooth ball) and as the game progresses (rough ball). Asymmetric airflow over the ball due to seam orientation and surface roughness can cause flight deviation (swing). The values of Drag, Lift and Side forces which are crucial for determining the trajectory of the ball were found with the help of FLUENT using the standard K- ɛ model. Analysis was done to study how the ball velocity, spin imparted to be ball and the tilt of the seam affects the movement of the ball through air. The governing force balance equations in 3 dimensions in combination a MATLAB code which used Heun's method was used for obtaining the trajectory of the ball. The conditions for the conventional swing and reverse swing to occur were deduced from the analysis and found to be in alignment with the real life situation. Critical seam angle for maximum swing and transition speed for normal to reverse swing were found out. The obtained trajectories were compared to real life hawk eye trajectories for validation. The analysis results were in good agreement with the real life situation.

  7. Effects of moment of inertia on restricted motion swing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorah, David; Choppin, Simon; James, David

    2015-06-01

    In many sports, the maximum swing speed of a racket, club, or bat is a key performance parameter. Previous research in multiple sports supports the hypothesis of an inverse association between the swing speed and moment of inertia of an implement. The aim of this study was to rigorously test and quantify this relationship using a restricted swinging motion. Eight visually identical rods with a common mass but variable moment of inertia were manufactured. Motion capture technology was used to record eight participants' maximal effort swings with the rods. Strict exclusion criteria were applied to data that did not adhere to the prescribed movement pattern. The study found that for all participants, swing speed decreased with respect to moment of inertia according to a power relationship. However, in contrast to previous studies, the rate of decrease varied from participant to participant. With further analysis it was found that participants performed more consistently at the higher end of the moment of inertia range tested. The results support the inverse association between swing speed and moment of inertia but only for higher moment of inertia implements.

  8. Radically New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Ritter; Armin D. Ebner; James A. McIntyre; Steven P. Reynolds; Sarang A. Gadre

    2005-10-11

    In Parts I and II of this project, a rigorous pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process simulator was used to study new, high temperature, PSA cycles, based on the use of a K-promoted HTlc adsorbent and 4- and 5-step (bed) vacuum swing PSA cycles, which were designed to process a typical stack gas effluent at 575 K containing (in vol%) 15 % CO{sub 2}, 75% N{sub 2} and 10% H{sub 2}O into a light product stream depleted of CO{sub 2} and a heavy product stream enriched in CO{sub 2}. Literally, thousands (2,850) of simulations were carried out to the periodic state to study the effects of the light product purge to feed ratio ({gamma}), cycle step time (t{sub s}) or cycle time (t{sub c}), high to low pressure ratio ({pi}{sub T}), and heavy product recycle ratio (R{sub R}) on the process performance, while changing the cycle configuration from 4- to 5-step (bed) designs utilizing combinations of light and heavy reflux steps, two different depressurization modes, and two sets of CO{sub 2}-HTlc mass transfer coefficients. The process performance was judged in terms of the CO{sub 2} purity and recovery, and the feed throughput. The best process performance was obtained from a 5-step (bed) stripping PSA cycle with a light reflux step and a heavy reflux step (with the heavy reflux gas obtained from the low pressure purge step), with a CO{sub 2} purity of 78.9%, a CO{sub 2} recovery of 57.4%, and a throughput of 11.5 L STP/hr/kg. This performance improved substantially when the CO{sub 2}-HTlc adsorption and desorption mass transfer coefficients (uncertain quantities at this time) were increased by factors of five, with a CO{sub 2} purity of 90.3%, a CO{sub 2} recovery of 73.6%, and a throughput of 34.6 L STP/hr/kg. Overall, this preliminary study disclosed the importance of cycle configuration through the heavy and dual reflux concepts, and the importance of knowing well defined mass transfer coefficients to the performance of a high temperature PSA process for CO{sub 2

  9. Study of DDT and its derivatives DDD, DDE adsorption and degradation over Fe-SBA-15 at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Wang; Hua Tian; Zhengping Hao

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous SBA-15 with different Fe2O3 loading were synthesized by an in-situ coating progress for removals of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane(DDT)and its derivatives,i.e.,1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD)and 1,l-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chloro -phenyl)ethane(DDE).The results from XRD(X-ray diffractometer),TEM(transmission electron microscopy)indicated that the iron could be well dispersed on SBA-15 within 6 wt.% Fe2O3 loading.Nitrogen adsorption-desorption tests indicated that the synthesized materials were characterized by ordered meso-structure,high surface area and large pore volume.DDTs were removed from aqueous media in 12-hr treatment and high removal efficiency of DDTs was achieved at over 94%.DDTs could be completely degraded at 350℃ under the existence of SBA-15 with 4 wt.% Fe2O3 loading.The final degradation products of DDT were dichlorobenzophenone (DCB)and bis-(4-chloro-phenyl)methane(DDM),suggesting a complete dechlorination from trichloromethyl.

  10. Thermodynamic Properties of Chromium Adsorption by Sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of Chromium from aqueous solution using river Watari sediment as an adsorbent was modeled. The influence of initial pH, solution temperature, adsorbent and adsorbate concentrations on the adsorption efficiency was investigated using batch equilibrium assays. From the results obtained for the adsorption ...

  11. A temperature-programmed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (TPXPS) study of chlorine adsorption and diffusion on Ag(1 1 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, H.; Adib, K.; Barteau, Mark A.

    2004-05-01

    Synchrotron-based temperature programmed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (TPXPS) has been used to investigate the surface chloridation of Ag(1 1 1) to monolayer coverages. At 100 K both atomic and molecular chlorine species are present on the surface; adsorption at 300 K or annealing the adlayer at 100 K to this temperature generates adsorbed Cl atoms. As the surface is heated from 300 to 600 K, chlorine atoms diffuse below the surface, as demonstrated by attenuation of the Cl2p signals in TPXPS experiments. Quantitative analysis of the extent of attenuation is consistent with chlorine diffusion below the topmost silver layer. For coverages in the monolayer and sub-monolayer regime, chlorine diffusion to and from the bulk appears not to be significant, in contrast to previous results obtained at higher chlorine loadings. Chlorine is removed from the surface at 650-780 K by desorption as AgCl. These results demonstrate that chlorine diffusion beneath the surface does occur at coverages and temperatures relevant to olefin epoxidation processes carried out on silver catalysts with chlorine promoters. The surface sensitivity advantages of synchrotron-based XPS experiments were critical to observing Cl diffusion to the sub-surface at low coverages.

  12. Examination of the Effects of Activated Carbon Produced from Coal Using Single-Step H3PO4/N2+H2O Vapor Activation on the Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin at Different Temperatures and pH Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Toprak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined protein adsorption equilibrium and kinetics on activated carbon (AC that we obtained from coal by single-step H3PO4 activation under N2+H2O vapor at 800 °C. Surface properties, pore size distribution, and volumes of AC were determined using the volumetric method with N2 adsorption at 77 K. Also, the textural properties were characterized by SEM-EDAX and XRD. The zeta potential values were measured to elucidate the electrostatic interactions between the protein and AC. The obtained AC discrete system was also used as an adsorbent for adsorbing bovine serum albumin (BSA from aqueous solution. The effects of pH (4.0, 5.0, and 7.4 and temperatures (20, 30 and 40 °C on the adsorption of BSA on AC were examined. The surface area, micropore, mesopore and total pore volumes of AC were found to be 1175 m2/g, 0.477 cm3/g, 0.061 cm3/g and 0.538 cm3/g, respectively. The optimum temperature for AC in BSA adsorption was found to be 40 °C and the pH was found to be 4.0. The highest BSA adsorption was found to be 159 mg/g and pH to be 4.0. The experimental equilibrium data were compared with the Langmuir and Freundlich models and found to be compatible with both models. The adsorption process is best described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. As a result, it was found out that AC obtained by single step H3PO4/N2+H2O vapor activation is an effective adsorbent for the adsorption of BSA from aqueous solution.

  13. Synthesis of Metal-Oxide/Carbon-Fiber Heterostructures and Their Properties for Organic Dye Removal and High-Temperature CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liangzhi; Nie, Shibin; Shao, Xiankun; Zhang, LinLin; Li, Benxia

    2018-03-01

    One-dimensional metal-oxide/carbon-fiber (MO/CF) heterostructures were prepared by a facile two-step method using the natural cotton as a carbon source the low-cost commercial metal salts as precursors. The metal oxide nanostructures were first grown on the cotton fibers by a solution chemical deposition, and the metal-oxide/cotton heterostructures were then calcined and carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere. Three typical MO/CF heterostructures of TiO2/CF, ZnO/CF, and Fe2O3/CF were prepared and characterized. The loading amount of the metal oxide nanostructures on carbon fibers can be tuned by controlling the concentration of metal salt in the chemical deposition process. Finally, the performance of the as-obtained MO/CF heterostructures for organic dye removal from water was tested by the photocatalytic degradation under a simulated sunlight, and their properties of high-temperature CO2 adsorption were predicted by the temperature programmed desorption. The present study would provide a desirable strategy for the synthesis of MO/CF heterostructures for various applications.

  14. Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

    2010-08-31

    Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

  15. Adsorption and desorption properties of TiZrV getter film at different temperatures in the presence of synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Anashin, V V; Krasnov, A A; Ruzinov, V L

    2008-01-01

    The coating of vacuum chambers with TiZrV non-evaporable getter (NEG) developed at CERN is an attractive pumping technology for vacuum systems. Once activated the NEG coating is a material since apart from providing distributed pumping, it may inhibit the gas desorption from the vast reservoir of the industrially prepared substrate material. The present work includes an advanced study of NEG properties under Synchrotron Radiation (SR) at temperatures in the range from 300K to 90K. The work was performed at BINP using SR from the VEPP-3 storage ring. The main result is that dynamic pressure and desorption of H2 inside NEG coated chamber at 90K are significantly less than those at room temperature.

  16. WORK AND POWER ANALYSIS OF THE GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A work and power (energy analysis of the golf swing is presented as a method for evaluating the mechanics of the golf swing. Two computer models were used to estimate the energy production, transfers, and conversions within the body and the golf club by employing standard methods of mechanics to calculate work of forces and torques, kinetic energies, strain energies, and power during the golf swing. A detailed model of the golf club determined the energy transfers and conversions within the club during the downswing. A full-body computer model of the golfer determined the internal work produced at the body joints during the downswing. Four diverse amateur subjects were analyzed and compared using these two models. The energy approach yielded new information on swing mechanics, determined the force and torque components that accelerated the club, illustrated which segments of the body produced work, determined the timing of internal work generation, measured swing efficiencies, calculated shaft energy storage and release, and proved that forces and range of motion were equally important in developing club head velocity. A more comprehensive description of the downswing emerged from information derived from an energy based analysis

  17. The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs

  18. Adsorption properties of stearic acid onto untreated kaolinite | Sari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the study is to investigate adsorption property and determine thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of stearic acid onto untreated kaolinite at the temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 oC. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms were analyzed by linear Langmuir and Freundlich models. Adsorption experiments ...

  19. Improving of understanding of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) adsorption on activated carbons by temperature-programmed desorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passé-Coutrin, Nady; Maisonneuve, Laetitia; Durimel, Axelle; Dentzer, Joseph; Gadiou, Roger; Gaspard, Sarra

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the interactions between beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and chemical groups at activated carbon (AC) surface, the solid samples were hydrogenated aiming to decrease the amounts of oxygenated groups. Two AC samples designated by BagH2O and BagP1.5 were prepared by water vapor activation and phosphoric acid activation, respectively, of sugarcane bagasse used as an AC precursor. A more simple molecule 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) is used as a model of chlorinated compound. The AC were characterized by infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman resonance spectroscopies, as well as temperature-programmed desorption coupled with mass spectrometry (TPD-MS). BagP1.5 and BagH2O AC surface contained oxygenated groups. Upon hydrogenation, a decrease of most of these group amxounts was observed for both samples, while hydroxyl groups increased. On the basis of temperature-programmed desorption data obtained for AC samples contaminated with TCP or HCH, it was possible to determine the type of hydrogen bond formed between each AC and HCH.

  20. Study on high temperature desulphurization (Part 2). Hydrogen sulphide adsorption and decomposition in the presence of manganese nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumura, Motoo; Furimsky, E. (National Chemical Lab. for Industry, Tsukuba, (Japan))

    1989-06-29

    Manganese nodule, with its large surface area and inclusion of much Fe and Mn, was found to have a high potentiality as an H{sub 2}S desulphurizing agent. Its desulphurization characteristics and reaction with H{sub 2}S were studied to confirm its potentiality as an H{sub 2}S desulphurizing agent. Improvement of its desulphurizing capacity by adding Ca was also attempted. The first stage of the desulphurization is sulphurizing by the agent. After the complete sulphurization, the adsorbent had catalytic effects on H{sub 2}S decomposition. The amount of H{sub 2}S desulphurization of the manganese nodule did not depend on temperature, but the amount of H{sub 2}S decomposition strongly depended on temperature, with the first and a half order respectively. The addition of 10 wt% of CaO to the manganese nodule improved the amount of desulphurization by 30%. The potentiality of the manganese nodule as a desulphurizing agent was verified, and it is suggested that low cost and high performance desulphurizing agents can be developed by adding low cost compounds which have affinity for H{sub 2}S and large surface areas. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Some design features of CO2 swing piston expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Haiqing; Ma Yitai; Li Minxia

    2006-01-01

    CO 2 is a potential substitute for synthesized refrigerants with favorable environmental properties. To improve the coefficient of performance (COP) of CO 2 heat pump systems, a swing piston expander prototype has been developed for replacing the throttling valve based on the thermodynamic analysis of the operating conditions of a CO 2 transcritical cycle. The measures on reducing the loss of friction and leakage are paramount important to improve the efficiency of the expander. The performance of the CO 2 swing expander prototype was actually tested in a CO 2 transcritical cycle water-to-water heat pump test rig, and the test results illustrate that the isentropic efficiency of the prototype can be more than 28% when running steadily and up to a maximum of about 44%. Some operating characteristics of the swing piston expander are presented according to the analysis of the test results

  2. System and process for polarity swing assisted regeneration of gas selective capture liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Tegrotenhuis, Ward E.; Freeman, Charles J.; Elliott, Michael L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Humble, Paul H.; Zheng, Feng; Zhang, Jian

    2017-07-18

    A polarity swing-assisted regeneration (PSAR) process is disclosed for improving the efficiency of releasing gases chemically bound to switchable ionic liquids. Regeneration of the SWIL involves addition of a quantity of non-polar organic compound as an anti-solvent to destabilize the SWIL, which aids in release of the chemically bound gas. The PSAR decreases gas loading of a SWIL at a given temperature and increases the rate of gas release compared to heating in the absence of anti-solvent.

  3. A Standalone Vision Impairments Simulator for Java Swing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Theofanis; Votis, Konstantinos; Korn, Peter; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanasis, Spriridon

    A lot of work has been done lately in an attempt to assess accessibility. For the case of web rich-client applications several tools exist that simulate how a vision impaired or colour-blind person would perceive this content. In this work we propose a simulation tool for non-web JavaTM Swing applications. Developers and designers face a real challenge when creating software that has to cope with a lot of interaction situations, as well as specific directives for ensuring an accessible interaction. The proposed standalone tool will assist them to explore user-centered design and important accessibility issues for their JavaTM Swing implementations.

  4. JavaFX2 a Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Čapek, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals mainly with the JavaFX2 library and its innovations. An aim is to acquaint readers with wider possibilities and help them with a transition from Swing to JavaFX2. In the thesis there are gone into benefits JavaFX2 which is accompanied by a source code examples for an illustration. A part of the thesis is also an application which shows differences between Swing and JavaFX2 both a graphical view as well as a viewing of the source code. Most of the information containe...

  5. A low inventory adsorptive process for tritium extraction and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, B.; Bora, B.; Chew, M.; Rump, M.; Kveton, O.K.

    1990-08-01

    The fuel cycles of future fusion power systems present a diverse spectrum of challenges to gas separation technology, for extraction, concentration, purification and confinement of tritium in fusion fuel cycles. Economic and safety factors motivate process design for minimum tritium inventory, functional simplicity, and overall reliability. A new gas separation process with some features of interest to fusion has been demonstrated under the auspices of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project. This process (Thermally Coupled Pressure Swing Adsorption or 'TCPSA') is potentially applicable to several fusion applications for separation purification of hydrogen, notably for tritium extraction from breeder blanket purge helium. Recent experimental tests have been directed toward fusion applications, primarily extraction and concentration of tritium-rich hydrogen from the blanket purge helium stream, and also considering purification of this and other hydrogen isotope streams such as the plasma exhaust. For example, hydrogen at 0.1% concentration in helium has been extracted in a TCPSA module operating at 195 K, with the process performed in a single working space to achieve simultaneous high extraction and concentration of the hydrogen. With methane or carbon oxides as the impurities, substantially complete separation is achieved by the same apparatus at ambient temperature. Engineering projections for scale-up to ITER blanket purge extraction and purification applications indicate a low working inventory of tritium

  6. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Wittink, Harriet; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-02-01

    Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which mode of arm swing creates the most stable gait. To examine how different modes of arm swing affect gait stability. Ten healthy young male subjects volunteered for this study. All subjects walked with four different arm swing instructions at seven different gait speeds. The Xsens motion capture suit was used to capture gait kinematics. Basic gait parameters, variability and stability measures were calculated. We found an increased stability in the medio-lateral direction with excessive arm swing in comparison to normal arm swing at all gait speeds. Moreover, excessive arm swing increased stability in the anterior-posterior and vertical direction at low gait speeds. Ipsilateral and inphase arm swing did not differ compared to a normal arm swing. Excessive arm swing is a promising gait manipulation to improve local dynamic stability. For excessive arm swing in the ML direction there appears to be converging evidence. The effect of excessive arm swing on more clinically relevant groups like the more fall prone elderly or stroke survivors is worth further investigating. Excessive arm swing significantly increases local dynamic stability of human gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  8. A Diaminopropane-Appended Metal–Organic Framework Enabling Efficient CO 2 Capture from Coal Flue Gas via a Mixed Adsorption Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, Phillip J.; Siegelman, Rebecca L.; Forse, Alexander C.; Gonzalez, Miguel I.; Runčevski, Tomče [Materials; Martell, Jeffrey D.; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Long, Jeffrey R. [Materials

    2017-09-14

    A new diamine-functionalized metal–organic framework comprised of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane (dmpn) appended to the Mg2+ sites lining the channels of Mg2(dobpdc) (dobpdc4– = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) is characterized for the removal of CO2 from the flue gas emissions of coal-fired power plants. Unique to members of this promising class of adsorbents, dmpn–Mg2(dobpdc) displays facile step-shaped adsorption of CO2 from coal flue gas at 40 °C and near complete CO2 desorption upon heating to 100 °C, enabling a high CO2 working capacity (2.42 mmol/g, 9.1 wt %) with a modest 60 °C temperature swing. Evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of adsorption for dmpn–Mg2(dobpdc) suggests that the narrow temperature swing of its CO2 adsorption steps is due to the high magnitude of its differential enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads = -73 ± 1 kJ/mol), with a larger than expected entropic penalty for CO2 adsorption (Δsads = -204 ± 4 J/mol·K) positioning the step in the optimal range for carbon capture from coal flue gas. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis and breakthrough experiments indicate that, in contrast to many adsorbents, dmpn–Mg2(dobpdc) captures CO2 effectively in the presence of water and can be subjected to 1000 humid adsorption/desorption cycles with minimal degradation. Solid-state 13C NMR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction structures of the Zn analogue reveal that this material adsorbs CO2 via formation of both ammonium carbamates and carbamic acid pairs, the latter of which are crystallographically verified for the first time in a porous material. Taken together, these properties render dmpn–Mg2(dobpdc) one of the most promising adsorbents for carbon capture applications.

  9. Swing States, The Winner-Take-All Electoral College, and Fiscal Federalism

    OpenAIRE

    Duquette, Christopher; Mixon, Franklin; Cebula, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a debate regarding the impact of swing or independent voters in American politics. While some argue that swing voters either do not swing or have a marginal impact on campaigns, the decline in voter partisan identification and the rise of independents means that they have a potential impact on elections, making them a desirable commodity to candidates. Additionally, presidential elections represent a unique case for swing voters. A robust literature notes that during the presidenti...

  10. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube: Voice of the Dragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Rudenko, O.; Hirschberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one’s head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a “Hummer” and as a musical instrument, the “Voice of the Dragon.” The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the

  11. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube : voice of the dragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Rudenko, O.; Hirschberg, A.

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one’s head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a "Hummer" and as a musical instrument, the "Voice of the Dragon." The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the

  12. 77 FR 66703 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0..., compress the airway, and result in DEATH. 2. Warning Concerning Use of Cradle Swing (Comment 2) Five... the time of the NPR. CPSC staff has continued to work with ASTM to refine the seat deflection test for...

  13. Impulses for the wave swing and bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is given of projects that will be subsidized within the Dutch Economy Ecology Technology (EET) programme. The purpose of EET is to develop technological solutions that result in a sustainable development. Two of those projects are highlighted in this article: the Archimedes Wave Swing and the production of oil from biomass by hydrothermal upgrading. 1 ill

  14. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  15. Kinetic Constrained Optimization of the Golf Swing Hub Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study.

  16. An efficient ultrasound assisted approach for the impregnation of room temperature ionic liquid onto Dowex 1 × 8 resin matrix and its application toward the enhanced adsorption of chromium (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalidhasan, S.; Santhana Krishna Kumar, A.; Vidya Rajesh; Rajesh, N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultrasound assisted impregnation of an ionic liquid in a Dowex resin matrix is studied through various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. ► Chromium is adsorbed with a high adsorption capacity of 230.9 mg g −1 . ► The adsorbent is regenerated using HCl–ascorbic acid mixture. ► Chromium could be effectively detoxified from an industrial effluent and the developed method was validated with the analysis of a certified reference material. - Abstract: The work discussed in this paper is based on the utilization of ultrasound in conjunction with an ionic liquid (Aliquat 336) impregnated Dowex 1 × 8 resin for the effective adsorption of chromium. Ionic liquids are known for their selectivity toward metal extraction and ultrasonic medium offers efficient energy transfer for impregnating the ionic liquid in the resin matrix. The molecular interaction between the ionic liquid impregnated resin and chromium was studied through various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The influence of various analytical parameters on the adsorption of Cr(VI) such as pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and interference of foreign ions was studied in detail. Chromium (VI) was quantitatively adsorbed in the pH range of 3.5–4, with a high adsorption capacity of 230.9 mg g −1 in conformity with the Langmuir isotherm model. The study of thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The adsorbent could be regenerated using 1 mol L −1 HCl–0.28 mol L −1 ascorbic acid mixture. Chromium could be effectively detoxified from an industrial effluent and finally the developed method was validated with the analysis of a certified reference material (BCR-715). The obtained results indicated that the ultrasonic assisted impregnation of the room temperature ionic liquid significantly enhances and improves the removal efficiency of Cr(VI).

  17. Monitoring corrosion and corrosion control of iron in HCl by non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series - Part II. Temperature effect, activation energies and thermodynamics of adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, M.A.; Arida, H.A.; Arslan, Taner; Saracoglu, Murat; Kandemirli, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → TX-305 exhibits inhibiting properties for iron corrosion more than TX-165 and TX 100. → Inhibition efficiency increases with temperature, suggesting chemical adsorption. → The three tested surfactants act as mixed-type inhibitors with cathodic predominance. → Validation of corrosion rates measured by Tafel extrapolation method is confirmed. - Abstract: The inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, namely TRITON-X-100 (TX-100), TRITON-X-165 (TX-165) and TRITON-X-305 (TX-305), on the corrosion of iron was studied in 1.0 M HCl solutions as a function of inhibitor concentration (0.005-0.075 g L -1 ) and solution temperature (278-338 K). Measurements were conducted based on Tafel extrapolation method. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), a non-destructive corrosion measurement technique that can directly give values of corrosion current without prior knowledge of Tafel constants, is also presented. Experimental corrosion rates determined by the Tafel extrapolation method were compared with corrosion rates obtained by the EFM technique and an independent method of chemical analysis. The chemical method of confirmation of the corrosion rates involved determination of the dissolved cation, using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). The aim was to confirm validation of corrosion rates measured by the Tafel extrapolation method. Results obtained showed that, in all cases, the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in temperature, suggesting that chemical adsorption occurs. The adsorptive behaviour of the three surfactants followed Temkin-type isotherm. The standard free energies of adsorption decreased with temperature, reflecting better inhibition performance. These findings confirm chemisorption of the tested inhibitors. Thermodynamic activation functions of the dissolution process were also calculated as a function of each inhibitor concentration. All the results

  18. LUMBAR CORSETS CAN DECREASE LUMBAR MOTION IN GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K., full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC, with a soft corset (SC, and with a hard corset (HC, with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38° or HC (28° than under WOC (44° conditions (p < 0.05. The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec than under SC (177°/sec and WOC (191° /sec conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC

  19. Adsorption characteristics of methane on Maxsorb III by gravimetric method

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Ismil, Azhar Bin; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption characteristics of CH4 on the carbonaceous porous material is evaluated for possible application in adsorbed natural gas (ANG) system. Adsorption uptakes at assorted temperatures (25-80 °C) and pressures ranging from ambient to relatively

  20. Radon adsorption on present activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazankin, Yu.N.; Trofimov, A.M.; Mikhajlova, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    Radon adsorption from helium and air has been studied on modern activated carbons of SKT-1, SKT-2a, SKT-3, SKT-2b, SKT-6, PAU-1 within the temperature range from 100 to 80 deg. It has been shown that PAU-1 carbon has the highest activity with respect to radon in the temperature range studied. With decreasing temperature the adsorption coefficients increase sharply. It has been found that for the case of radon adsorption from helium the logarythm of the Henry coefficient linearly depends on the inverse value of absolute temperature. Adsorption of radon from air is inhibited and the above-cited relationship is deviated from linear. The results of calculating differential heats of radon and air adsorption as well as coefficients of radon and air separation on carbons are presented

  1. Evaluation of the Oxygen Concentrator Prototypes: Pressure Swing Adsorption Prototype and Electrochemical Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    An oxygen concentrator is needed to provide enriched oxygen in support of medical contingency operations for future exploration human spaceflight programs. It would provide continuous oxygen to an ill or injured crew member in a closed cabin environment. Oxygen concentration technology is being pursued to concentrate oxygen from the ambient environment so oxygen as a consumable resource can be reduced. Because oxygen is a critical resource in manned spaceflight, using an oxygen concentrator to pull oxygen out of the ambient environment instead of using compressed oxygen can provide better optimization of resources. The overall goal of this project is to develop an oxygen concentrator module that minimizes the hardware mass, volume, and power footprint while still performing at the required clinical capabilities. Should a medical event occur that requires patient oxygenation, the release of 100 percent oxygen into a small closed cabin environment can rapidly raise oxygen levels to the vehicles fire limit. The use of an oxygen concentrator to enrich oxygen from the ambient air and concentrate it to the point where it can be used for medical purposes means no oxygen is needed from the ultra-high purity (99.5+% O2) oxygen reserve tanks. By not adding oxygen from compressed tanks to the cabin environment, oxygen levels can be kept below the vehicle fire limit thereby extending the duration of care provided to an oxygenated patient without environmental control system intervention to keep the cabin oxygen levels below the fire limits. The oxygen concentrator will be a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearable device. A demonstration unit for the International Space Station (ISS) is planned to verify the technology and provide oxygen capability. For the ISS, the demonstration unit should not exceed 10 kg (approximately 22 lb), which is the soft stowage mass limit for launch on resupply vehicles for the ISS. The unit's size should allow for transport within the spacecraft to an ill crewmember. The user interface needs to be designed for ease of use by the local care provider and with consideration to the limited amount of training available to the astronaut corps for medical equipment and procedures.

  2. Dynamic modeling and explicit/multi-parametric MPC control of pressure swing adsorption systems

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2011-01-01

    objective is to fast track H2 purity to a set point value of 99.99%. To perform this task, a rigorous and systematic framework is employed. First, a high fidelity detailed dynamic model is built to represent the system's real operation, and understand its

  3. Development of Pressure Swing Adsorption Technology for Spaceflight Medical Oxygen Concentrators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There were 8 tasks associated with this project. These tasks are listed below. All were completed on schedule. In the year 1, Tasks 1, 2, and 6 were initiated. In...

  4. A novel power swing blocking scheme using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, Hassan Khorashadi; Li, Zuyi [Illinois Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 3301 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    A power swing may be caused by any sudden change in the configuration or the loading of an electrical network. During a power swing, the impedance locus moves along an impedance circle with possible encroachment into the distance relay zone, which may cause an unnecessary tripping. In order to prevent the distance relay from tripping under such condition, a novel power swing blocking (PSB) scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme uses an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) for preventing distance relay from tripping during power swings. The input signals to ANFIS, include the change of positive sequence impedance, positive and negative sequence currents, and power swing center voltage. Extensive tests show that the proposed PSB has two distinct features that are advantageous over existing schemes. The first is that the proposed scheme is able to detect various kinds of power swings thus block distance relays during power swings, even if the power swings are fast or the power swings occur during single pole open conditions. The second distinct feature is that the proposed scheme is able to clear the blocking if faults occur within the relay trip zone during power swings, even if the faults are high resistance faults, or the faults occur at the power swing center, or the faults occur when the power angle is close to 180 . (author)

  5. Adsorption performance of silver-loaded activated carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver-loaded activated carbon fiber is prepared, and its adsorption performance is studied experimentally using five methylene blue solutions with different concentrations under three different temperature conditions. The adsorption tests show that fibers adsorption increase as the increase of temperature, and there is an optimal value for solution concentration, beyond which its adsorption will de-crease. Fibers isothermal adsorption to methylene blue is different from those by the monolayer adsorption by Langmuir model and the multilayer adsorption by Freundlich model. Through the analysis of thermodynamic parameters, Gibbs free energy, standard entropy, and standard enthalpy, it is found that the fibers adsorption to methylene blue is an exothermic process of physical adsorption.

  6. Study on the adsorption isosteres of the composite adsorbent CaCl2 and expanded graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.L.; Wu, J.Y.; Xia, Z.Z.; Wang, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    A test setup was built to study the adsorption performance of the composite adsorbent used in the adsorption system. The isovolume measurement method is adopted in the test setup to measure the adsorption isosteres of the composite adsorbent and ammonia working pair. The adsorption isosteres are the curves of the adsorption pressures variation with adsorption temperatures at constant adsorption quantity, which are convenient for the calculation of the adsorption heat and selection of the adsorption working pairs. The adsorption heats were calculated according to the adsorption isosteres, three clear crest values indicate that there were three types of reaction during the reaction processes of ammoniate calcium chloride and ammonia. The kinetic model of adsorption isosteres is obtained by the Temkin model, it is useful to estimate the adsorption performance of the working pairs and useful to guide the design of adsorption system.

  7. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of uranium on wood fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhe; Yi Facheng; Feng Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption performance of uranium on wood fiber was studied with static experiment. The influence factors on the U(Ⅵ) removal rate such as wood fiber particle size, adsorption time, dosage, temperature, pH and initial concentration were researched, and the adsorption process was analyzed in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics. The results show that the adsorption equilibrium time is 4 hours. When the pH reaches 3 for uranium-containing wastewater, uranium can be removed with the decrease of the size of adsorbent and with the increase of adsorbent dosage and temperature. The equilibrium adsorption data fit to Langmuir isotherms. The kinetic analysis shows that the adsorption rate is mainly controlled by chemical adsorption. The adsorption process can be described by an equation of pseudo 2nd-order model. The thermodynamic data indicate that the synergistic uranium bio-sorption by wood fiber is a spontaneous and endothermal adsorption process. The adsorption mechanism was analyzed with SEM, FT-IR and EDS. The results show that the surface form of wood fiber is changed and uranium mainly chelates with active groups on the fiber-s surface and forms the complexes. These indicate that the adsorption of uranium should be of surface coordination. The analyses of EDS before and after adsorption of uranium prove that the behavior of adsorption is ion exchange. The above results indicate that the adsorption mechanism is mainly surface coordination and ion exchange adsorption, followed by physical absorption. (authors)

  8. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2009-01-01

    of swing. The design of the delayed feedback controller is presented as an optimization problem which gives the possibility of an automated design process. Simulations and flight test verifications of the control system on two different autonomous helicopters are presented and it is shown how a significant......This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems using intentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous...... helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integration with a feedforward control scheme based on input shaping for concurrent avoidance and dampening...

  9. Optimization analysis of swing check valve closing induced water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wenwei; Han Weishi; Guo Qing; Wang Xin; Liu Chunyu

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical-physics model of double pump parallel feed system was constructed. The water hammer was precisely calculated, which was formed in the closing process of swing check valve. And a systematic analysis was carried out to determine the influence of the torques from both valve plate and damping torsion spring on the valve closing induced water hammer. The results show that the swing check valve would distinctly produce the water hammer during the closing procedure in the double pump parallel feed water system. The torques of the valve plate can partly reduce the water hammer effect, and implying appropriate materials of valve plate and appropriate spring can effectively relieve the harm of water hammer. (authors)

  10. Cellulose-Supported Ionic Liquids for Low-Cost Pressure Swing CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Daniel G.; Dowson, George R. M.; Styring, Peter, E-mail: p.styring@sheffield.ac.uk [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-07

    Reducing the cost of capturing CO{sub 2} from point source emitters is a major challenge facing carbon capture, utilization, and storage. While solid ionic liquids (SoILs) have been shown to allow selective and rapid CO{sub 2} capture by pressure swing separation of flue gases, expectations of their high cost hinders their potential application. Cellulose is found to be a reliable, cheap, and sustainable support for a range of SoILs, reducing the total sorbent cost by improving the efficiency of the ionic liquid (IL) through increased ionic surface area that results from coating. It was also found that cellulose support imparts surface characteristics, which increased total sorbent uptake. Combined, these effects allowed a fourfold to eightfold improvement in uptake per gram of IL for SoILs that have previously shown high uptake and a 9- to 39-fold improvement for those with previously poor uptake. This offers the potential to drastically reduce the amount of IL required to separate a given gas volume. Furthermore, the fast kinetics are retained, with adsorb–desorb cycles taking place over a matter of seconds. This means that rapid cycling can be achieved, which results in high cumulative separation capacity relative to a conventional temperature swing process. The supported materials show an optimum at 75% cellulose:25% IL as a result of even coating of the cellulose surface. The projected reduction in plant size and operational costs represents a potentially ground-breaking step forward in carbon dioxide capture technologies.

  11. Balance Devices Train Golfers for a Consistent Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts, NASA funded research that resulted in a commercial product to treat balance disorders. West Palm Beach, Florida-based Sports Therapy Inc. worked with the inventor to modify the technology, creating the Dynamic Balance System (DBS) for sports applications. DBS is now used by Professional Golfers' Association-owned facilities and golf academies to help players achieve an effective, balanced swing.

  12. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems usingintentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integra...

  13. Trunk muscle activation during golf swing: Baseline and threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Marta, Sérgio; Vaz, João; Fernandes, Orlando; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of studies regarding EMG temporal analysis during dynamic and complex motor tasks, such as golf swing. The aim of this study is to analyze the EMG onset during the golf swing, by comparing two different threshold methods. Method A threshold was determined using the baseline activity recorded between two maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Method B threshold was calculated using the mean EMG activity for 1000ms before the 500ms prior to the start of the Backswing. Two different clubs were also studied. Three-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare methods, muscles and clubs. Two-way mixed Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) with absolute agreement was used to determine the methods reliability. Club type usage showed no influence in onset detection. Rectus abdominis (RA) showed the higher agreement between methods. Erector spinae (ES), on the other hand, showed a very low agreement, that might be related to postural activity before the swing. External oblique (EO) is the first being activated, at 1295ms prior impact. There is a similar activation time between right and left muscles sides, although the right EO showed better agreement between methods than left side. Therefore, the algorithms usage is task- and muscle-dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of temperature on adsorption and oxidative degradation of bisphenol A in an acid-treated iron-amended granular activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study suggests a combined adsorption and Fenton oxidation using an acid treated Fe-amended granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) for effective removal of bisphenol A in water. When the Fe-GAC adsorbs and is saturated with BPA in water, Fenton oxidation of BPA occurs in ...

  15. The metabolic cost of human running: is swinging the arms worth it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Christopher J; Kram, Rodger

    2014-07-15

    Although the mechanical function is quite clear, there is no consensus regarding the metabolic benefit of arm swing during human running. We compared the metabolic cost of running using normal arm swing with the metabolic cost of running while restricting the arms in three different ways: (1) holding the hands with the arms behind the back in a relaxed position (BACK), (2) holding the arms across the chest (CHEST) and (3) holding the hands on top of the head (HEAD). We hypothesized that running without arm swing would demand a greater metabolic cost than running with arm swing. Indeed, when compared with running using normal arm swing, we found that net metabolic power demand was 3, 9 and 13% greater for the BACK, CHEST and HEAD conditions, respectively (all Prunning without arm swing, subjects significantly increased the peak-to-peak amplitudes of both shoulder and pelvis rotation about the vertical axis, most likely a compensatory strategy to counterbalance the rotational angular momentum of the swinging legs. In conclusion, our findings support our general hypothesis that swinging the arms reduces the metabolic cost of human running. Our findings also demonstrate that arm swing minimizes torso rotation. We infer that actively swinging the arms provides both metabolic and biomechanical benefits during human running. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Adsorptive property of rice husk for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Yi Facheng

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption experiments were researched by using the rice husk powder as the adsorbent to remove the U(VI) from aqueous solution. The affecting factors on the U(VI) removal rate such as rice husk particle size, pH, initial concentration, adsorption time, temperature and dosage of adsorbent were evaluated, kinetics and adsorption isotherm law were analyzed, and mechanisms for U(VI) removal were discussed by SEM, FT-IR and energy spectrum analysis. The results show that U(VI) removal rate increases with the decrease of the size of adsorbent, and with the increase of adsorbent dosage and temperature. The process of adsorption can be described by an equation of pseudo 2nd-order mode, and the relation coefficient is 1. The process of adsorption also fits to Freundlich isotherm (R 2 =0.995 4). The adsorption of uranium on rice husk changes the surface form of rice husk. Hydroxyl, carboxylic, P-O and Si-O are the main functional groups in the reaction with U(VI). The adsorption mechanism is mixture adsorption, including the physical and chemical adsorption. (authors)

  17. Molecular simulation of methane adsorption characteristics on coal macromolecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyuan; He, Xiaoxiao; Meng, Zhuoyue; Xue, Wenying

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the molecular model of anthracite named Wender2 was selected to study the adsorption behaviour of single component CH4 and the competitive adsorption of CH4/CO2, CH4/H2O and CH4/N2. The molecular model of anthracite was established by molecular simulation software (Materials Studio 8.0), and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were carried out to investigate the single and binary component adsorption. The effects of pressure and temperature on the adsorption position, adsorption energy and adsorption capacity were mainly discussed. The results show that for the single component adsorption, the adsorption capacity of CH4 increases rapidly with the pressure ascending, and then tends to be stable after the first step. The low temperature is favourable for the adsorption of CH4, and the high temperature promotes desorption quantity of CH4 from the coal. Adsorbent molecules are preferentially adsorbed on the edge of coal macromolecules. The order of adsorption capacity of CH4/CO2, CH4/H2O and CH4/N2 in the binary component is H2O>CO2>CH4>N2. The change of pressure has little effect on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent in the competitive adsorption, but it has a great influence on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and there is a positive correlation between them.

  18. Sonochemical surface functionalization of exfoliated LDH: Effect on textural properties, CO2 adsorption, cyclic regeneration capacities and subsequent gas uptake for simultaneous methanol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Collins I; Huang, Xiani; Yang, Xiaogang; Sun, Cheng-Gong; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    To improve CO 2 adsorption, amine modified Layered double hydroxide (LDH) were prepared via a two stage process, SDS/APTS intercalation was supported by ultrasonic irradiation and then followed by MEA extraction. The prepared samples were characterised using Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The characterisation results were compared with those obtained using the conventional preparation method with consideration to the effect of sonochemical functionalization on textural properties, adsorption capacity, regeneration and lifetime of the LDH adsorbent. It is found that LDHs prepared by sonochemical modification had improved pore structure and CO 2 adsorption capacity, depending on sonic intensity. This is attributed to the enhanced deprotonation of activated amino functional groups via the sonochemical process. Subsequently, this improved the amine loading and effective amine efficiency by 60% of the conventional. In addition, the sonochemical process improved the thermal stability of the adsorbent and also, reduced the irreversible CO 2 uptake, CUirrev, from 0.18mmol/g to 0.03mmol/g. Subsequently, improving the lifetime and ease of regenerating the adsorbent respectively. This is authenticated by subjecting the prepared adsorbents to series of thermal swing adsorption (TSA) cycles until its adsorption capacity goes below 60% of the original CO 2 uptake. While the conventional adsorbent underwent a 10 TSA cycles before breaking down, the sonochemically functionalized LDH went further than 30 TSA cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in porous crystals with dynamic moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory M; Braun, Efrem; Carraro, Carlo; Smit, Berend

    2017-01-17

    Some nanoporous, crystalline materials possess dynamic constituents, for example, rotatable moieties. These moieties can undergo a conformation change in response to the adsorption of guest molecules, which qualitatively impacts adsorption behavior. We pose and solve a statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in a porous crystal whose cages share a common ligand that can adopt two distinct rotational conformations. Guest molecules incentivize the ligands to adopt a different rotational configuration than maintained in the empty host. Our model captures inflections, steps, and hysteresis that can arise in the adsorption isotherm as a signature of the rotating ligands. The insights disclosed by our simple model contribute a more intimate understanding of the response and consequence of rotating ligands integrated into porous materials to harness them for gas storage and separations, chemical sensing, drug delivery, catalysis, and nanoscale devices. Particularly, our model reveals design strategies to exploit these moving constituents and engineer improved adsorbents with intrinsic thermal management for pressure-swing adsorption processes.

  20. Adsorption dynamics and equilibrium studies of Zn (II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Batch equilibration studies are conducted to determine the nature of adsorption of zinc (II) over chitosan. The factors affecting the adsorption process like particle size, contact time, dosage, pH, effects of chloride and nitrate are identified. The influence of temperature and co-ions on the adsorption process is verified.

  1. Kinetic modelling and mechanism of dye adsorption on unburned carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.B.; Li, H.T. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Textile dyeing processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes by producing coloured wastewaters. The adsorption method using unburned carbon from coal combustion residue was studied for the decolourisation of typical acidic and basic dyes. It was discovered that the unburned carbon showed high adsorption capacity at 1.97 x 10{sup -4} and 5.27 x 10{sup -4} mol/g for Basic Violet 3 and Acid Black 1, respectively. The solution pH, particle size and temperature significantly influenced the adsorption capacity. Higher solution pH favoured the adsorption of basic dye while reduced the adsorption of acid dye. The adsorption of dye increased with increasing temperature but decreased with increasing particle size. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption mechanism consisted of two processes, external diffusion and intraparticle diffusion, and the external diffusion was the dominating process.

  2. Adsorption of Phthalates on Municipal Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates (PAEs are commonly detected in discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plants. This study investigated the removal of six typical PAEs with activated sludge and the results revealed that concentrations of aqueous PAEs decreased rapidly during the beginning 15 min and reached equilibrium within 2 hours due to the adsorption of activated sludge. The process followed first-order kinetic equation, except for dioctyl phthalate (DOP. The factors influencing the adsorption were also evaluated and it was found that higher initial concentrations of PAEs enhanced the removal but affected little the adsorption equilibrium time. The adsorption of PAEs favored lower operating temperature (the optimum temperature was approximately 25°C in this research, which could be an exothermic process. Additionally, lower aqueous pH could also benefit the adsorption.

  3. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait

    OpenAIRE

    Punt, M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Wittink, H.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which mode of arm swing creates the most stable gait. Aim: To examine how different modes of arm swing affect gait stability. Method: Ten healthy young male subjects volunteered for this study. All subj...

  4. The Analysis of Knee Joint Movement During Golf Swing in Professional and Amateur Golfers

    OpenAIRE

    M.Somjarod; V. Tanawat; l. Weerawat

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of knee movement during swing importance for golf swing improving and preventing injury. Thirty male professional and amateur golfers were assigned to swing time by time for 3 times. Data from a vedio-based motion capture were used to compute knee joint movement variables. The results showed that professional and amateur golfers were significantly in left knee flexion angle at the impact point and mid follow through phase. Nevertheless, left knee externa...

  5. Rocking the Boat: Damage to Eelgrass by Swinging Boat Moorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. F. Unsworth

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows commonly reside in shallow sheltered embayments typical of the locations that provide an attractive option for mooring boats. Given the potential for boat moorings to result in disturbance to the seabed due to repeated physical impact, these moorings may present a significant threat to seagrass meadows. The seagrass Zostera marina (known as eelgrass is extensive across the northern hemisphere, forming critical fisheries habitat and creating efficient long-term stores of carbon in sediments. Although boat moorings have been documented to impact seagrasses, studies to date have been conducted on the slow growing Posidonia species’ rather than the fast growing and rapidly reproducing Z. marina that may have a higher capacity to resist and recover from repeated disturbance. In the present study we examine swinging chain boat moorings in seagrass meadows across a range of sites in the United Kingdom to determine whether such moorings have a negative impact on the seagrass Zostera marina at the local and meadow scale. We provide conclusive evidence from multiple sites that Z. marina is damaged by swinging chain moorings leading to a loss of at least 6 ha of United Kingdom seagrass. Each swinging chain mooring was found to result in the loss of 122 m2 of seagrass. Loss is restricted to the area surrounding the mooring and the impact does not appear to translate to a meadow scale. This loss of United Kingdom seagrass from boat moorings is small but significant at a local scale. This is because it fragments existing meadows and ultimately reduces their resilience to other stressors. Boat moorings are prevalent in seagrass globally and it is likely this impairs their ecosystem functioning. Given the extensive ecosystem service value of seagrasses in terms of factors such as carbon storage and fish habitat such loss is of cause for concern. This indicates the need for the widespread use of seagrass friendly mooring systems in and around

  6. The effect of unilateral arm swing motion on lower extremity running mechanics associated with injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresta, Cristine; Ward, Christian R; Wright, W Geoffrey; Tucker, Carole A

    2018-06-01

    Many field sports involve equipment that restricts one or both arms from moving while running. Arm swing during running has been examined from a biomechanical and physiologic perspective but not from an injury perspective. Moreover, only bilateral arm swing suppression has been studied with respect to running. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of running with one arm restrained on lower extremity mechanics associated with running or sport-related injury. Fifteen healthy participants ran at a self-selected speed with typical arm swing, with one arm restrained and with both arms restrained. Lower extremity kinematics and spatiotemporal measures were analysed for all arm swing conditions. Running with one arm restrained resulted in increased frontal plane knee and hip angles, decreased foot strike angle, and decreased centre of mass vertical displacement compared to typical arm swing or bilateral arm swing restriction. Stride length was decreased and step frequency increased when running with one or both arms restrained. Unilateral arm swing restriction induces changes in lower extremity kinematics that are not similar to running with bilateral arm swing restriction or typical arm swing motion. Running with one arm restrained increases frontal plane mechanics associated with risk of knee injury.

  7. Power Swing Detection in UPFC-Compensated Line by Phase Angle of Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodaparast, Jalal; Khederzadeh, M.; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2017-01-01

    Power swing blocker (PSB) is a complementary part of distance relay protection, that detects power swing, in order to prevent unintended operation of a distance relay. Unified power flow controller (UPFC) is used in power system to control both active and reactive powers and its operation during...... condition. The results show that these indices may no longer work in systems with UPFC. In addition, this paper proposes a new method for detecting power swing based on the phase angle of current at relay point and compares it with two other methods. The new method distinguishes power swing from a fault...

  8. Sound Synthesis of Objects Swinging through Air Using Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Selfridge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A real-time physically-derived sound synthesis model is presented that replicates the sounds generated as an object swings through the air. Equations obtained from fluid dynamics are used to determine the sounds generated while exposing practical parameters for a user or game engine to vary. Listening tests reveal that for the majority of objects modelled, participants rated the sounds from our model as plausible as actual recordings. The sword sound effect performed worse than others, and it is speculated that one cause may be linked to the difference between expectations of a sound and the actual sound for a given object.

  9. Early Prediction of Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates various methods to predict voltage sags at load buses caused by large generator rotor swings and following a transient disturbance. Three different prediction methods are proposed, which all use real-time measurements from PMUs. One of the methods uses a slightly extended v...... version of the E-SIME method. The other two methods use Measurements and process them by recursive least square estimation. It is shown that the prediction method employing E-SIME allows the earliest detection of a critical voltage sag with satisfactory accuracy....

  10. Imperfect Knowledge, Asset Price Swings, and Structural Slumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    emphasizes real interest rates and real exchange rates as potentially important determinants underlying the persistent fluctuations in aggregate activities, and the latter provides the conditions under which speculative behavior in currency markets generates such persistence. The paper argues that by combing...... the two theories we can shed new light on the two-way interdependence between persistent swings in asset markets and persistent fluctuations in the real economy. In particular, we may improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the long recurrent spells of high unemployment that continue to mar our...

  11. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Dawei, E-mail: qdw109@163.com [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Niu, Xia [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao [Shandong SiBang pharmaceutical co., LTD, Jinan, Shandong, 250200 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption study of ferrous ions on montmorillonites. • Using ascorbic acid as antioxidants in adsorption process. • Fe (II)-MMT had good affinity for phosphate. - Abstract: The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sub total} ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0} and ΔH{sup 0} were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  12. Study of heterogeneous catalytic processes over cobalt, molybdenum and cobalt-molybdenum catalysts supported on alumina by temperature-programmed desorption and temperature-programmed reaction. 1. Adsorption of hydrozen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.V.; Tsao Yamin; Krylov, O.V.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogen adsorption on reduced, sulphidized and reoxidized specimens of molybdenum-and cobalt-molybdenum-containing catalysts applied on aluminium oxide has been studied by the method of thermal desorption (TD). Comparison of TD spectra of hydrogen and data of X-ray phase analysis of the specimens and mass-spectrometric analysis of the products desorbed from the surface of catalysts after their successive reduction sulphidizing, carbonizing and reoxidation permitted a correlation between various forms of hydrogen adsorption and certain centres on the surface of the catalysts. 12 refs., 2 figs

  13. Pressure swing distillation of azeotropic mixture – A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate a pressure-swing distillation column for the separation and purification of ethanol from the ethanol–water binary system. The choice for this system is due to the importance of the ethanol–water separation. A steady-state equilibrium-stage model based on normalised MESH equations is used to simulate pressure-swing distillation column applied for the production of ethanol. All the work has been carried out using Aspen Plus simulator, version 13.2. Among the activity coefficient models available, the WILSON-RK model with binary parameters predicted by the Aspen Plus simulator is shown to be the most accurate to correlate the experimental vapor-/liquid equilibrium (VLE data available for the ethanol–water system. The simulation has been satisfactorily carried out for a mixture of 20 mol% ethanol in water at 1 atm pressure and 90 °C with a molar flow rate of 100 kmol/h. The adjusting parameters include D/F ratio and reflux ratio of the two columns to get water purity of 99.5 mol% from the bottom of the Low Pressure Column (LPC and the ethanol purity of 99.7 mol% from the bottom of High Pressure Column (HPC.

  14. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylli, K; Hoffmann, D; Willmann, A; Becker, P; Folkmer, B; Manoli, Y

    2015-01-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm 3 a power density of 40 μW cm −3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm −3 for the total device volume of 48 cm 3 . Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly. (paper)

  15. West Coast Swing Dancing as a Driven Harmonic Oscillator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Davon; Holzer, Marie; Kyere, Shirley

    The study of physics in sports not only provides valuable insight for improved athletic performance and injury prevention, but offers undergraduate students an opportunity to engage in both short- and long-term research efforts. In this project, conducted by two non-physics majors, we hypothesized that a driven harmonic oscillator model can be used to better understand the interaction between two west coast swing dancers since the stiffness of the physical connection between dance partners is a known factor in the dynamics of the dance. The hypothesis was tested by video analysis of two dancers performing a west coast swing basic, the sugar push, while changing the stiffness of the physical connection. The difference in stiffness of the connection from the ideal was estimated by the leader; the position with time data from the video was used to measure changes in the amplitude and phase difference between the leader and follower. While several aspects of our results agree with the proposed model, some key characteristics do not, possibly due to the follower relying on visual leads. Corresponding author and principal investigator.

  16. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A; McGrath, D; Wallace, E S

    2016-04-01

    Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. This study investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of high and intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The variance parallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and location of the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher values of VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy was found in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variables but not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has been previously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skill levels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with more control exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggest that to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but may lie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electromyography variables during the golf swing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Cabri, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to review systematically the literature available on electromyographic (EMG) variables of the golf swing. From the 19 studies found, a high variety of EMG methodologies were reported. With respect to EMG intensity, the right erector spinae seems to be highly activated, especially during the acceleration phase, whereas the oblique abdominal muscles showed moderate to low levels of activation. The pectoralis major, subscapularis and latissimus dorsi muscles of both sides showed their peak activity during the acceleration phase. High muscle activity was found in the forearm muscles, especially in the wrist flexor muscles demonstrating activity levels above the maximal voluntary contraction. In the lower limb higher muscle activity of the trail side was found. There is no consensus on the influence of the golf club used on the neuromuscular patterns described. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on average golf players, since most studies were executed on professional or low handicap golfers. Further EMG studies are needed, especially on lower limb muscles, to describe golf swing muscle activation patterns and to evaluate timing parameters to characterize neuromuscular patterns responsible for an efficient movement with lowest risk for injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of swing-free / shock free crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J. S.; Park, B. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kwon, D. A.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Jeon, B. K.; Lee, Y. E.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-04-01

    To develop the automatized crane and to apply the relevant technology to nuclear power plants, in this project and automatized crane control system is developed along with a swing and shock crane. Also, this technology has been transferred to Bando Machinery Co. Ltd. The drive mechanism of crane is designed by adopting vector drives which provide soft acceleration and deceleration characteristics. Also, radio modems and a long-range laser displacement sensor which are commercially available are introduced to accommodate the large scaled crane systems. Also, several devices are developed for the automation of crane system. These are a crane controller, a supervisory controller, a angle measuring device, and laser localizer, a drum grapple device, and crane supervisory program. The performance of developed crane system is revealed to rapidly reduce the residual swing of the transported object and precisely controls the object position in any case. Also, the laser localizer provides he capability of measuring any arbitrary located objects within 3 cm error range

  20. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovich, Monica; Nesbit, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings. Key Points The female softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. The paths of the grip point, bat centre-of-curvature, CG, and COP are complex yet reveal consistent patterns among subjects indicating that these patterns are fundamental components of the swing. The most important mechanical quantity relative to generating bat speed is the total work applied to the bat from the batter. Computer modeling of the softball swing is a viable means for study of the fundamental mechanics of the swing motion, the interactions between the batter and the bat, and the energy transfers between the two. PMID:24570623

  1. Adsorption kinetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eucalyptus lenceolata wood was collected from Malakand division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Chemical activation of sample was conducted for surface efficiency. Batch studies were performed to address various experimental parameters like, contact time, temperature and adsorbent dosage for the removal of dye.

  2. Adsorption of methyl iodide on charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidajat, K.; Aracil, J.; Kenney, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption of non-radioactive methyl iodide has been measured experimentally over a range of conditions of concentration, and temperature on an activated charcoal. This is of interest since methyl iodide is formed from iodine fission products in gas cooled nuclear reactors. A mathematical model has also been developed which describes the rate of adsorption, under isothermal and linear adsorption isotherm conditions in a recycle adsorber. This model takes into account the resistance to adsorption caused by the surface adsorption, as well as the external and internal mass transfer resistances. The solution to the model for the recycle adsorber was obtained using a semidiscretisation method to reduce the partial differential equations to a system of stiff ordinary differential equations, and the resulting differential equations solved by a standard numerical technique. (author)

  3. Swing Once More: Relating Timing and Tempo in Expert Jazz Drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841250

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the ‘swing ratio’) at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  4. Swing once more: Relating timing and tempo in expert jazz drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the 'swing ratio') at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  5. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  6. Cycle-to-cycle control of swing phase of paraplegic gait induced by surface electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, H.M.; Franken, H.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Baardman, G.; Redmeijer, R.A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Parameterised swing phase of gait in paraplegics was obtained using surface electrical stimulation of the hip flexors, hamstrings and quadriceps; the hip flexors were stimulated to obtain a desired hip angle range, the hamstrings to provide foot clearance in the forward swing, and the quadriceps to

  7. Movement Variability in the Golf Swing: Theoretical, Methodological, and Practical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Movement variability in the golf swing has recently been identified as a priority for future research in golf science. Although this ubiquitous aspect of golf performance has featured in previous empirical investigations of the golf swing, it has tended to be subordinate and studied as an adjunct to other more conventional research questions.…

  8. A low-power multi port register file design using a low-swing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Liu Yan; Hua Siliang; Wang Donghui; Hou Chaohuan

    2012-01-01

    A low-power register file is designed by using a low-swing strategy and modified NAND address decoders. The proposed low-swing strategy is based on the feedback scheme and uses dynamic logic to reduce the active feedback power. This method contains two parts: WRITE and READ strategy. In the WRITE low-swing scheme, the modified memory cell is used to support low-swing WRITE. The modified NAND decoder not only dissipates less power, but also enables a great deal of area reduction. Compared with the conventional single-ended register file, the low-swing strategy saves 34.5% and 51.15% bit-line power in WRITE and READ separately. The post simulation results indicate a 39.4% power improvement when the twelve ports are all busy. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Strong adsorption of chlorotetracycline on magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Niu, Hongyun; Zhang, Xiaole; Meng, Zhaofu; Cai, Yaqi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fe 3 O 4 MNPs selectively adsorb CTC through chelation between CTC and Fe atoms. → Fe 3 O 4 MNPs remain high adsorption ability to CTC in environmental water samples. → Fe 3 O 4 MNPs sorbed with CTC are easily collected from water under a magnetic field. → The collected Fe 3 O 4 MNPs are regenerated by treatment with H 2 O 2 or calcination. - Abstract: In this work, environmentally friendly magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 MNPs) were used to adsorb chlorotetracycline (CTC) from aqueous media. Fe 3 O 4 MNPs exhibit ultrahigh adsorption ability to this widely used antibiotic. The adsorption behavior of CTC on Fe 3 O 4 MNPs fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetics model, and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 10 h. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of CTC on Fe 3 O 4 (476 mg g -1 ) was obtained at pH 6.5. Thermodynamic parameters calculated from the adsorption data at different temperature showed that the adsorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous. Low concentration of NaCl and foreign divalent cations hardly affected the adsorption. Negative effect of coexisting humic acid (HA) on CTC adsorption was also observed when the concentration of HA was lower than 20 mg L -1 . But high concentration of HA (>20 mg L -1 ) increased the CTC adsorption on Fe 3 O 4 MNPs. The matrix effect of several environmental water samples on CTC adsorption was not evident. Fe 3 O 4 MNPs were regenerated by treatment with H 2 O 2 or calcination at 400 o C in N 2 atmosphere after separation from water solution by an external magnet. This research provided a high efficient and reusable adsorbent to remove CTC selectively from aqueous media.

  10. Analysis of Golf Swing Motion and Applied Loads on the Human Body Using Soft-Golf TM Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ki Young; So, Ha Ju; Kim, Sung Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Nam Gyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument on the human body structure. To analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument, Golf swing using Soft-golf TM instrument and regular golf instrument was captured. And then Upper limbs and lumbar joint torques was calculated via computer simulation. Five man participated this study. Subjects performed golf swing using a regular golf and Soft-golf TM instrument. Golf swing motion was captured using three position sensor, active infrared LED maker and force plate. Golf swing model was generated and simulated using ADAMS/LifeMOD program. As a results, joint torque during Soft-golf swing were lower than regular golf swing. Thus soft-golf swing have joint load lower than regular golf swing and contribute to reduce joint injury

  11. Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jun W.; Hu, Eric J.; Biggs, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination (AD) system have been identified all possible evaporator temperature scenarios. ► Temperature of evaporator determines the cycle. ► Higher evaporator temperature leads to higher water production if no cooling is required. -- Abstract: The potential to use waste heat to co-generate cooling and fresh water from saline water using adsorption on silica is attracting increasing attention. A variety of different thermodynamic cycles of such an adsorption desalination (AD) system arise as the temperature of the saline water evaporator is varied relative to temperature of the water used to cool the adsorbent as it adsorbs the evaporated water. In this paper, all these possible thermodynamic cycles are enumerated and analysed to determine their relative performances in terms of specific energy consumption and fresh water productivity.

  12. Low swing differential logic for mixed signal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Kraft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Low swing differential logic operated at a constant bias current is a promising approach to reduce the switching noise in sensitive mixed mode circuits. Most differential logic families do not allow a significant change in bias current between cells so that it is difficult to optimize the power consumption for a required speed. A nonlinear load circuit for differential current-steering logic consisting of a current source in parallel with a diode connected FET is therefore proposed. The logic levels can be easily adjusted with an external supply voltage so that the circuit design is significantly simplified. As an example application a counter for the use in pixel readout chips is presented. The layout area using radiation hard design rules is not significantly larger than CMOS. The logic can be operated at very low power

  13. Swing-Down of 21-PWR Waste Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.K. Scheider

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) swinging down from a horizontally suspended height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 13). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 18) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design of the type of 21-PWR WP design considered in this calculation and provides the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design

  14. Hydrogen adsorption on and solubility in graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashenko, S.L.; Wampler, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental data on adsorption and solubility of hydrogen isotopes in graphite over a wide range of temperatures and pressures are reviewed. Langmuir adsorption isotherms are proposed for the hydrogen-graphite interaction. The entropy and enthalpy of adsorption are estimated, allowing for effects of relaxation of dangling sp 2 bonds. Three kinds of traps are proposed: edge carbon atoms of interstitial loops with an adsorption enthalpy relative to H 2 gas of -4.4 eV/H 2 (unrelaxed, Trap 1), edge carbon atoms at grain surfaces with an adsorption enthalpy of -2.3 eV/H 2 (relaxed, Trap 2), and basal plane adsorption sites with an enthalpy of +2.43 eV/H 2 (Trap 3). The adsorption capacity of different types of graphite depends on the concentration of traps which depends on the crystalline microstructure of the material. The number of potential sites for the 'true solubility' (Trap 3) is assumed to be about one site per carbon atom in all types of graphite, but the endothermic character of this solubility leads to a negligible H inventory compared to the concentration of hydrogen in type 1 and type 2 traps for temperatures and gas pressures used in the experiments. Irradiation with neutrons or carbon atoms increases the concentration of type 1 and type 2 traps from about 20 and 200 appm respectively for unirradiated (POCO AXF-5Q) graphite to about 1500 and 5000 appm, respectively, at damage levels above 1 dpa. (orig.)

  15. Curbing the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide adsorption with zeolite 13X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konduru, N.; Lindner, P.; Assaf-Anad, N.M. [Manhattan College, Bronx, NY (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    The removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from industrial emissions has become essential in the fight against climate change. In this study, we employed Zeolite 13X for the capture and recovery of CO{sub 2} in a flow through system where the adsorbent was subjected to five adsorption-desorption cycles. The influent stream contained 1.5% CO{sub 2} at standard conditions. The adsorbent bed was 1 in. in length and 1 in.3/8 in dia., and was packed with 10 g of the zeolite. Temperature swing adsorption (TSA) was employed as the regeneration method through heating to approximately 135{sup o}C with helium as the purge gas. The adsorbent capacity at 90% saturation was found to decrease from 78 to 60g CO{sub 2}/kg{sub Zeolite13X} after the fifth cycle. The CO{sub 2} capture ratio or the mass of CO{sub 2} adsorbed to the total mass that entered the system decreased from 63% to only 61% after the fifth cycle. The CO{sub 2} recovery efficiency ranged from 82 to 93% during desorption, and the CO{sub 2} relative recovery, i.e., CO{sub 2} desorbed for the nth cycle to CO{sub 2} adsorbed for the first cycle, ranged from 88 to 68%. The service life of the adsorbent was determined to be equal to eleven cycles at a useful capacity of 40g CO{sub 2}/kg{sub Zeolite13X}.

  16. Factors affecting the adsorption of chromium (VI) on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, R.; Orbak, I.; Karatepe, N. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the adsorption behavior of chromium (VI) on two different activated carbon samples produced from Tuncbilek lignite. The effects of the initial chromium (VI) concentration (250-1000 mg/L), temperature (297-323 K) and pH (2.0-9.5) on adsorption were investigated systematically. The effectiveness of the parameters on chromium adsorption was found to be in the order of pH, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the temperature. Increasing the pH from 2.0 to 9.5 caused a decrease in adsorption. However, the adsorption was increased by increasing the initial Cr(VI) concentration and temperature. The multilinear mathematical model was also developed to predict the Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon samples within the experimental conditions.

  17. Environmental protection and processing of feedstocks by adsorption on carbonaceous materials - developments at Bergbau- Forschung GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoblauch, K; Richter, E

    1986-06-01

    Activated carbons, active cokes and carbon molecular sieves are used for regenerative processes for environmental protection and for processing of valuable feedstocks. Development of adsorption processes and their layout based on adsorption equilibria, adsorption kinetics, kinetics of desorption by heating, depressurization or purging not only as single steps but in the same combination as in the regenerative process. For example some adsorption processes are decsribed which are applied in pilot scale or industrially. These include: nitrogen production from air by pressure swing adsorption (PSA); hydrogen production from coke oven gas by PSA; upgrading of methane from biogas and from fire damp; removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas; removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gases and drinking water supply and waste water treatment. (71 refs.)

  18. Thermodynamic features of dioxins’ adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prisciandaro, Marina [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and of Economics, University of L’Aquila, Viale Giovanni Gronchi 18, L’Aquila 67100 (Italy); Piemonte, Vincenzo, E-mail: v.piemonte@unicampus.it [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Biomedico of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo 21, Rome 00128 (Italy); Mazziotti di Celso, Giuseppe [Faculty of Bioscience, University of Teramo, Via R. Balzarini, 1, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Ronconi, Silvia [Arta Abruzzo, Department of L’Aquila, Bazzano (AQ), 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Capocelli, Mauro [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Biomedico of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo 21, Rome 00128 (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We develop the P-T diagram for six PCDD. • We derive theoretical adsorption isotherms according to the Langmuir’s model. • We calculate K and w{sub max} values for several temperatures. • We estimate the adsorption heat with a good agreement with literature data. - Abstract: In this paper, the six more poisonous species among all congeners of dioxin group are taken into account, and the P-T diagram for each of them is developed. Starting from the knowledge of vapour tensions and thermodynamic parameters, the theoretical adsorption isotherms are calculated according to the Langmuir’s model. In particular, the Langmuir isotherm parameters (K and w{sub max}) have been validated through the estimation of the adsorption heat (ΔH{sub ads}), which varies in the range 20–24 kJ/mol, in agreement with literature values. This result will allow to put the thermodynamical basis for a rational design of different process units devoted to dioxins removal.

  19. Effects of special composite stretching on the swing of amateur golf players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong-Chul; Lee, Sung-Wan; Yeo, Yun-Ghi; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated stretching for safer a golf swing compared to present stretching methods for proper swings in order to examine the effects of stretching exercises on golf swings. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 amateur golf club members who were divided into two groups: an experimental group which performed stretching, and a control group which did not. The subjects had no bone deformity, muscle weakness, muscle soreness, or neurological problems. [Methods] A swing analyzer and a ROM measuring instrument were used as the measuring tools. The swing analyzer was a GS400-golf hit ball analyzer (Korea) and the ROM measuring instrument was a goniometer (Korea). [Results] The experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in driving distance. After the special stretching training for golf, a statistically significant difference in hit-ball direction deviation after swings were found between the groups. The experimental group showed statistically significant decreases in hit ball direction deviation. After the special stretching training for golf, statistically significant differences in hit-ball speed were found between the groups. The experimental group showed significant increases in hit-ball speed. [Conclusion] To examine the effects of a special stretching program for golf on golf swing-related factors, 20 male amateur golf club members performed a 12-week stretching training program. After the golf stretching training, statistically significant differences were found between the groups in hit-ball driving distance, direction deviation, deflection distance, and speed.

  20. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Milanovich, Steven M. Nesbit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings.

  1. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun; Hongyu, Gong; Yujun, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) is synthesized. • The amino and phosphoryl groups are successfully grafted on SBA-15. • TBP-SBA-15 has high and rapid uranium adsorption capacity in broad pH range. • The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 is spontaneous and belongs to chemical adsorption. - Abstract: Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N_2 adsorption–desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG"0, ΔH"0 and ΔS"0) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  2. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Hongyu, Gong, E-mail: gong_hongyu@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yujun, Zhang, E-mail: yujunzhangcn@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) is synthesized. • The amino and phosphoryl groups are successfully grafted on SBA-15. • TBP-SBA-15 has high and rapid uranium adsorption capacity in broad pH range. • The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 is spontaneous and belongs to chemical adsorption. - Abstract: Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0}) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  3. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: mnasiri@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  4. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this three-year project was to study new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration at high temperature. The heavy reflux (HR) PSA concept and the use of a hydrotalcite like (HTlc) adsorbent that captures CO{sub 2} reversibly at high temperatures simply by changing the pressure were two key features of these new PSA cycles. Through the completion or initiation of nine tasks, a bench-scale experimental and theoretical program has been carried out to complement and extend the process simulation study that was carried out during Phase I (DE-FG26-03NT41799). This final report covers the entire project from August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2008. This program included the study of PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture by both rigorous numerical simulation and equilibrium theory analysis. The insight gained from these studies was invaluable toward the applicability of PSA for CO{sub 2} capture, whether done at ambient or high temperature. The rigorous numerical simulation studies showed that it is indeed possible to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} by PSA. Over a wide range of conditions it was possible to achieve greater than 90% CO{sub 2} purity and/or greater than 90% CO{sub 2} recovery, depending on the particular heavy reflux (HR) PSA cycle under consideration. Three HR PSA cycles were identified as viable candidates for further study experimentally. The equilibrium theory analysis, which represents the upper thermodynamic limit of the performance of PSA process, further validated the use of certain HR PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration. A new graphical approach for complex PSA cycle scheduling was also developed during the course of this program. This new methodology involves a priori specifying the cycle steps, their sequence, and the number of beds, and then following a systematic procedure that requires filling in a 2-D grid based on a few simple rules, some heuristics and some experience. It has been

  5. Thermodynamic study on the adsorption of strontium on polyantimonic acid exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingyu; Chen Jing; Wang Jianchen; Zhao Jing

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption of strontium on the polyantimonic acid adsorbent was studied. The equilibrium data for the adsorption of strontium on polyantimonic acid exchanger from aqueous solutions were obtained and correlated with Langmuir-type and Freundlich-type isotherm equation within the temperature range of 293-323 K and the experimental concentration range. Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isosteric enthalpy indicate that the adsorption of strontium on polyantimonic acid is an endothermic process from aqueous solutions. The enthalpy, free energy, and entropy of adsorption were calculated. The results indicate that the adsorption process is a complex interaction of physical and chemical processes. The adsorption behaviors were reasonably explained. (authors)

  6. Performance analysis of power swing blocking feature in ABB 670 series impedance relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Łosiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents test results of a distance protection’s PSD power swing detection feature in ABB 670 series relays. A RED670 relay was tested, which is part of the hydroelectric set protection in Żarnowiec Pumped Storage Plant. The power swing blocking feature’s performance was analysed on the basis of the results of object tests made with an Omicron digital tester. Also presented are simulation results that illustrate the PSD feature’s response to power swings caused by a disturbance in the power system. It is also shown how a distance protection may react to the same fault, depending on its settings.

  7. Designing Playful Interactive Installations for Urban Environments - The SwingScape Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kortbek, Karen Johanne; Christensen, Claus Møller

    2012-01-01

    . The design issues include: creating playful and collective interaction, making a familiar swing interaction simulate the experience of a music mixing board, providing gentle integration of multimedia (light and sound) in the atmosphere of an urban space, and finally making installations robust and safe...... at an urban playground. The objectives of SwingScape are to encourage physical activity as well as creating a playful and social experience in an urban space. The interaction techniques include movement sensors built into swings, LED lights, and an ambient loudspeaker system covering approx. 180 square meters...

  8. A Novel Approach to Detect Faults Occurring During Power Swings by Abrupt Change of Impedance Trajectory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodaparast, Jalal; Khederzadeh, M.; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of power swing blocking is to distinguish faults from power swings. However, faults occurred during a power swing should still be detected and cleared promptly. This paper proposes an index based on detecting abrupt jump of impedance trajectory by utilization of the predicting...... of Taylor expansion is used to decrease the corrugation effect of impedance estimation and increase the reliability of the proposed method. Furthermore, in order to increase the selectivity of the proposed method, the proposed index is armed with phase comparison logic to detect internal faults...

  9. Hydrogen adsorption on bimetallic PdAu(111) surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takehiro, Naoki; Liu, Ping; Bergbreiter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen on structurally well defined PdAu-Pd(111) monolayer surface alloys was investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical study, aiming at a quantitative understanding of the adsorption and desorption properties of individual PdAu nanostructures. Combining...... the structural information obtained by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in particular on the abundance of specific adsorption ensembles at different Pd surface concentrations, with information on the adsorption properties derived from temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectroscopy...... and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) provides conclusions on the minimum ensemble size for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen and on the adsorption energies on different sites active for adsorption. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations give detailed insight...

  10. Interfacial adsorption of insulin - Conformational changes and reversibility of adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollmann, SH; Jorgensen, L; Bukrinsky, JT; Elofsson, U; Norde, W; Frokjaer, S

    The adsorption of human insulin to Teflon particles was studied with respect to conformational changes and the reversibility of adsorption was examined by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). Adsorption isotherms for the adsorption of human insulin indicated high affinity adsorption, even

  11. Performance investigation of an advanced multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young Deuk; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination system with quantum performance improvement. The proposed multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle utilizes a single heat source i.e., low-temperature hot water

  12. Numerical simulation and performance investigation of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Kim, Youngdeuk; Myat, Aung; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles offer high potential as one of the most economically viable and environmental-friendly desalination methods. This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption

  13. Thermal activation of serpentine for adsorption of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chun-Yan [College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University, Jinzhou (China); Liang, Cheng-Hua, E-mail: liang110161@163.com [College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang (China); Yin, Yan [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Du, Li-Yu [College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Thermal activated serpentine was prepared by changing heated temperature. • Thermal activated serpentine exhibited excellent adsorption behavior for cadmium. • The adsorption mechanisms could be explained as formation of CdCO{sub 3} and Cd(OH){sub 2}. • The adsorption obeyed Langmuir model and pseudo second order kinetics model. - Abstract: Thermal activated serpentine with high adsorption capacity for heavy metals was prepared. The batch experiment studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption performance of Cd{sup 2+} in aqueous solution using thermal activated serpentine as adsorbent. These samples before and after adsorption were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, XPS, and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption at low temperature. It was found that serpentine with layered structure transformed to forsterite with amorphous structure after thermal treatment at over 700 °C, while the surface area of the samples was increased with activated temperature and the serpentine activated at 700 °C (S-700) presented the largest surface area. The pH of solution after adsorption was increased in different degrees due to hydrolysis of MgO in serpentine, resulting in enhancing adsorption of Cd{sup 2+}. The S-700 exhibited the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity (15.21 mg/g), which was 2 times more than pristine serpentine. Langmuir isotherm was proved to describe the equilibrium adsorption data better than Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics model could fit the adsorption kinetics processes well. Based on the results of characterization with XPS and XRD, the adsorption mechanisms could be explained as primarily formation of CdCO{sub 3} and Cd(OH){sub 2} precipitation on the surface of serpentine.

  14. Thermal activation of serpentine for adsorption of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Chun-Yan; Liang, Cheng-Hua; Yin, Yan; Du, Li-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal activated serpentine was prepared by changing heated temperature. • Thermal activated serpentine exhibited excellent adsorption behavior for cadmium. • The adsorption mechanisms could be explained as formation of CdCO_3 and Cd(OH)_2. • The adsorption obeyed Langmuir model and pseudo second order kinetics model. - Abstract: Thermal activated serpentine with high adsorption capacity for heavy metals was prepared. The batch experiment studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption performance of Cd"2"+ in aqueous solution using thermal activated serpentine as adsorbent. These samples before and after adsorption were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, XPS, and N_2 adsorption-desorption at low temperature. It was found that serpentine with layered structure transformed to forsterite with amorphous structure after thermal treatment at over 700 °C, while the surface area of the samples was increased with activated temperature and the serpentine activated at 700 °C (S-700) presented the largest surface area. The pH of solution after adsorption was increased in different degrees due to hydrolysis of MgO in serpentine, resulting in enhancing adsorption of Cd"2"+. The S-700 exhibited the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity (15.21 mg/g), which was 2 times more than pristine serpentine. Langmuir isotherm was proved to describe the equilibrium adsorption data better than Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics model could fit the adsorption kinetics processes well. Based on the results of characterization with XPS and XRD, the adsorption mechanisms could be explained as primarily formation of CdCO_3 and Cd(OH)_2 precipitation on the surface of serpentine.

  15. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dawei; Niu, Xia; Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao

    2015-04-01

    The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe2+/Fetotal ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG0 and ΔH0 were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  16. Carbon dioxide adsorption in graphene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Mishra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Control over the CO2 emission via automobiles and industrial exhaust in atmosphere, is one of the major concerns to render environmental friendly milieu. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods, offering potential energy savings compared to absorbent systems. Different carbon nanostructures (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes have attracted attention as CO2 adsorbents due to their unique surface morphology. In the present work, we have demonstrated the CO2 adsorption capacity of graphene, prepared via hydrogen induced exfoliation of graphitic oxide at moderate temperatures. The CO2 adsorption study was performed using high pressure Sieverts apparatus and capacity was calculated by gas equation using van der Waals corrections. Physical adsorption of CO2 molecules in graphene was confirmed by FTIR study. Synthesis of graphene sheets via hydrogen exfoliation is possible at large scale and lower cost and higher adsorption capacity of as prepared graphene compared to other carbon nanostructures suggests its possible use as CO2 adsorbent for industrial application. Maximum adsorption capacity of 21.6 mmole/g was observed at 11 bar pressure and room temperature (25 ºC.

  17. Methods of and system for swing damping movement of suspended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-03-05

    A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass. 13 figures.

  18. The effects of the arm swing on biomechanical and physiological aspects of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; de Koning, Jos J; Rognstad, Asgeir Bakken; Hoset, Martin; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzed the biomechanical and physiological effects of the arm swing in roller ski skating, and compared leg-skating (i.e. ski skating without poles) using a pronounced arm swing (SWING) with leg-skating using locked arms (LOCKED). Sixteen elite male cross-country skiers performed submaximal stages at 10, 15 and 20kmh(-1) on a 2% inclined treadmill in the two techniques. SWING demonstrated higher peak push-off forces and a higher force impulse at all speeds, but a longer cycle length only at the highest speed (all Pskating increases the ski forces and aerobic energy cost at low and moderate speeds, whereas the greater forces at high speed lead to a longer cycle length and smaller anaerobic contribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the Linker Swing Motion in the Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework ZIF-90

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin; Fu, Fang; Wang, Lian Li; Yang, Limin; Zhu, Yihan; Du, Huiling

    2018-01-01

    The linker swing motion in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-90 is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, molecular dynamics (MD) and grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The relation between the terminal

  20. The Motion Planning of Overhead Crane Based on Suppressing Payload Residual Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hua-sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the overhead crane system is subject to under actuation system due to that overhead crane and payload are connected by flexibility wire rope. The payload generates residual swing when the overhead crane is accelerating/ decelerating the motions. This may cause trouble for the payload precise positioning and motion planning. Hence, an optimization input shaping control method is presented to reduce the under actuated overhead crane’s payload swing caused via the inertia force. The dynamic model of the overhead crane is proposed according to the physics structure of the crane. The input shaper based on the motion planning of the crane is used as the feed forward input to suppress payload residual swing. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the ZV input shaper and ZVD input shaper can reduce the payload swing of the overhead crane.

  1. Hybrid markerless tracking of complex articulated motion in golf swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Sim Kwoh; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Kiang, Lam Chee; Nadarajah, Sivadev; Sahayadhas, Arun; Ali, Md Asraf; Islam, Md Anamul; Palaniappan, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Sports video tracking is a research topic that has attained increasing attention due to its high commercial potential. A number of sports, including tennis, soccer, gymnastics, running, golf, badminton and cricket have been utilised to display the novel ideas in sports motion tracking. The main challenge associated with this research concerns the extraction of a highly complex articulated motion from a video scene. Our research focuses on the development of a markerless human motion tracking system that tracks the major body parts of an athlete straight from a sports broadcast video. We proposed a hybrid tracking method, which consists of a combination of three algorithms (pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow (LK), normalised correlation-based template matching and background subtraction), to track the golfer's head, body, hands, shoulders, knees and feet during a full swing. We then match, track and map the results onto a 2D articulated human stick model to represent the pose of the golfer over time. Our work was tested using two video broadcasts of a golfer, and we obtained satisfactory results. The current outcomes of this research can play an important role in enhancing the performance of a golfer, provide vital information to sports medicine practitioners by providing technically sound guidance on movements and should assist to diminish the risk of golfing injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen Adsorption on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. B.; Burress, J. W.; Lapilli, C. M.; Pfeifer, P.; Shah, P. S.; Suppes, G. J.; Dillon, A. C.; Parilla, P. A.

    2007-03-01

    As a part of the Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) we study activated carbons made from corncob, optimized for storing methane and hydrogen (H2) by physisorption at low pressure. We report here: (a) storage capacities of 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, validated in three different laboratories (the 2010 DOE target is 60 g H2/kg system); (b) binding energies from H2 adsorption isotherms (c) temperature-programmed desorption data; (d) degree of graphitization of the carbon surface from Raman spectra; (e) pore structure of carbon from nitrogen and methane adsorption isotherms, and small-angle x-ray scattering. The structural analysis shows that the carbon is highly microporous and that the pore space is highly correlated (micropores do not scatter independently).

  3. In-situ regeneration of activated carbon with electric potential swing desorption (EPSD) for the H2S removal from biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, M; Almustapha, M N; Imran, M; Saeed, M A; Andresen, John M

    2018-02-01

    In-situ regeneration of a granular activated carbon was conducted for the first time using electric potential swing desorption (EPSD) with potentials up to 30 V. The EPSD system was compared against a standard non-potential system using a fixed-bed reactor with a bed of 10 g of activated carbon treating a gas mixture with 10,000 ppm H 2 S. Breakthrough times, adsorption desorption volume, capacities, effect of regeneration and desorption kinetics were investigated. The analysis showed that desorption of H 2 S using the new EPSD system was 3 times quicker compared with the no potential system. Hence, physical adsorption using EPSD over activated carbon is efficient, safe and environmental friendly and could be used for the in-situ regeneration of granular activated carbon without using a PSA and/or TSA system. Additionally, adsorption and desorption cycles can be obtained with a classical two column system, which could lead towards a more efficient and economic biogas to biomethane process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Linkage isomerism of carbonyl coordination complexes formed upon CO adsorption on the zeolite Li-ZSM-5: variable-temperature FTIR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero Areán, C.; Rodríguez Delgado, M.; Manoilova, O. V.; Turnes Palomino, G.; Tsyganenko, A. A.; Garrone, E.

    2002-08-01

    Carbon monoxide adsorbed at a low-temperature on the zeolite Li-ZSM-5 forms Li +⋯CO and Li +⋯(CO) 2 species characterized by C-O stretching bands at 2195 and 2187 cm-1, respectively. These C-bonded carbonyls are in a temperature-dependent equilibrium with Li +⋯OC and CO⋯Li +⋯CO species having O-bonded CO. By means of variable-temperature FTIR spectroscopy, the enthalpy change involved in the corresponding isomerization process was found to be ΔH°=7.8 kJ mol-1 for the monocarbonyl and ΔH°=5.1 kJ mol-1 for the dicarbonyl. Therefore, although C-bonded species were always found to show a higher cation-CO interaction energy than O-bonded species, the difference is smaller in the case of dicarbonyls.

  5. Bilirubin adsorption on nanocrystalline titania films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhengpeng; Si Shihui; Fung Yingsing

    2007-01-01

    Bilirubin produced from hemoglobin metabolism and normally conjugated with albumin is a kind of lipophilic endotoxin, and can cause various diseases when its concentration is high. Bilirubin adsorption on the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance, UV-vis and IR techniques, and factors affecting its adsorption such as pH, bilirubin concentration, solution ionic strength, temperature and thickness of TiO 2 films were discussed. The amount of adsorption and parameters for the adsorption kinetics were estimated from the frequency measurements of quartz crystal microbalance. A fresh surface of the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films could be photochemically regenerated because holes and hydroxyl radicals were generated by irradiating the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films with UV light, which could oxidize and decompose organic materials, and the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films can be easily regenerated when it is used as adsorbent for the removal of bilirubin

  6. Adsorption of molecular hydrogen on nanostructered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranga Piña, Llinersy; Martínez Mesa, Aliezer; Seifert, Gotthard

    2015-01-01

    Were investigated the effect of the structural characteristics of model nanoporous environments on the adsorption of molecular hydrogen. The adsorption properties of the target nanostructures (graphene and ZnO sheets, carbon foams, metal-organic frameworks) are evaluated in a broad range of thermodynamic conditions. The study is carried out within the density functional theory for quantum fluids at finite temperature (QLDFT), which allows to account for the many-body and quantum delocalization effects in a single theoretical framework. The exchange-correlation (excess) functional is derived from the empirical equation of state of the homogeneous system. We focus on the evaluation of hydrogen storage capacities of the substrates and on the emergence of quantum effects triggered by the confinement imposed by the host structure. The approach provides accurate estimates of the hydrogen storage capacities for realistic adsorptive media. The relation between the microscopic structure of the hydrogen fluid and the calculated adsorption properties is also addressed. (full text)

  7. Study of algae's adsorption to uranium ion in water solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yang; Qiu Yongmei; Dan Guiping; Zhang Dong; Lei Jiarong

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption efficiencies of the algae to uranium ion were determined at various pH, uranium ion concentrations, adsorption temperatures and the species of coexisted metal ions, and the effect of coexisted metal ion on the adsorption efficiency was researched. The experimental results at pH= 5-8 are as follows. 1) the adsorption capacity is a constant to be about 1.40 μg/g for the Yantai red alga and the sea spinach, and is changeable in the range of 1.03-2.23 μg/g with pH for the sea edible fungus; 2) for the algae the adsorption efficiency and adsorption capacity are related to uranium ion concentration, and the maximum adsorption efficiency and capacity is 95.8% and 65.4 μg/g, respectively; 3) the adsorption process for 24 h is not dependent on the temperature; 4) the effect of the species of coexisted metal ions on the adsorption capacity of uranium ion is various with the time during adsorption process. (authors)

  8. Adsorption of phenol and 1-naphthol onto XC-72 carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Liming; Yu, Shaoming; Cheng, Leilei; Du, Erling [hefei university of technology, Hefei (China)

    2013-03-15

    XC-72 carbon (XC-72) was characterized by SEM, XPS, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, particle size distribution analysis and potentiometric acid-base titration. The adsorption of phenol and 1-naphthol on XC-72 was studied as a function of contact time, pH, adsorbent content and temperature. The kinetic adsorption data were described well by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherms of phenol were described well by Freundlich model, while the adsorption isotherms of 1-naphthol were fitted well by Langmuir model. The results demonstrated that XC-72 had much higher adsorption capacity for 1-naphthol than for phenol. The adsorption thermodynamic data were calculated from the temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms at T=293, 313 and 333 K, and the results indicated that the adsorption of phenol was an exothermic process, whereas the adsorption of 1-naphthol was an endothermic process. XC-72 is a suitable material for the preconcentration of phenol and 1-naphthol from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

  9. Adsorption of cellulase on cellulolytic enzyme lignin from lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Maobing; Pan, Xuejun; Saddler, Jack N

    2009-09-09

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials is significantly affected by cellulase adsorption onto the lignocellulosic substrates and lignin. The presence of lignin plays an important role in lignocellulosic hydrolysis and enzyme recycling. Three cellulase preparations (Celluclast, Spezyme CP, and MSUBC) were evaluated to determine their adsorption onto cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) from steam-exploded Lodgepole pine (SELP) and ethanol (organosolv)-pretreated Lodgepole pine (EPLP). The adsorption affinity of cellulase (Celluclast) onto isolated lignin (CEL-EPLP and CEL-SELP) was slightly higher than that from corresponding EPLP and SELP substrates on the basis of the Langmuir constants. Effects of temperature, ionic strength, and surfactant on cellulase adsorption onto isolated lignin were also explored in this study. Thermodynamic analysis of enzyme adsorption onto isolated lignin (Gibbs free energy change DeltaG(0) approximately -30 kJ/mol) indicated this adsorption was a spontaneous process. The addition of surfactant (0.2% w/v) could reduce the adsorption of cellulase onto CEL-SELP by 60%. Two types of adsorption isotherm were compared for cellulase adsorption onto isolated lignin. A Langmuir adsorption isotherm showed better fit for the experimental data than a Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

  10. Adsorption of hydrogen and deuterium on modified molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Shi Jinsong; Wu Erdong; Li Xiongwei; Peng Lixia

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of hydrogen isotopes on 5A, ZSM-5 and their modified molecular sieves were studied at liquid nitrogen temperature with volumetric method. The effects of modification methods such as transition metal salt loading and ball milling on the adsorption behavior were discussed. It is observed that the adsorption amounts on the modified molecular sieves are reduced. but some modifications contribute to the separation between H 2 and D 2 . (authors)

  11. Effects of Kettlebell Swing vs. Explosive Deadlift Training on Strength and Power

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R. Maulit; David C. Archer; Whitney D. Leyva; Cameron N. Munger; Megan A. Wong; Lee E. Brown; Jared W. Coburn; Andrew J. Galpin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent research has compared explosive deadlift to kettlebell training observing their effects on strength. The kettlebell swing is a popular practical exercise as it shares share a hip hinge movement with the explosive deadlift, but the two have not been compared. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of kettlebell swing vs. explosive deadlift training on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one recreationally resistance-trained men (age = 23.1 ± 2.3 yea...

  12. Effects of training with a dynamic moment of inertia bat on swing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiang; Liu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Ying-Chieh; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 8-week dynamic moment of inertia (DMOI) bat training on swing velocity, batted-ball speed, hitting distance, muscle power, and grip force. The DMOI bat is characterized in that the bat could be swung more easily by reducing the moment of inertia at the initial stage of swing without decreasing the bat weight and has a faster swing velocity and lower muscle activity. Seventeen varsity baseball players were randomly assigned to the DMOI bat training group (n = 9) and the normal bat training group (n = 8). The training protocol was 7 swings each set, 5-8 sets each time, 3 times each week, and 8 weeks' training period. The results showed that the swing training with the DMOI bat for 8 weeks significantly increased swing velocity by about 6.20% (96.86 ± 8.48 vs. 102.82 ± 9.93 km·h(-1)), hitting distance by about 6.69% (80.06 ± 9.16 vs. 84.99 ± 7.26 m), muscle power of the right arm by about 12.04% (3.34 ± 0.41 vs. 3.74 ± 0.61 m), and muscle power of the left arm by about 8.23% (3.36 ± 0.46 vs. 3.61 ± 0.39 m) (p bat training group had a significantly better change percentage in swing velocity, hitting distance, and grip force of the left hand than did the normal bat training group (p bat has a positive benefit on swing performance and that the DMOI bat could be used as a new training tool in baseball.

  13. Adsorption of gold (III) from aqueous solutions on bagasse ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, G.; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential of cheap biomass materials for the recovery of gold from industrial, and electroplating waste water effluents, adsorption of gold (III) from dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid on bagasse ash has been studied under various experimental conditions by using batch technique. Percentage extraction of gold (III) on bagasse ash was determined from its distribution coefficients as a function of contact time, pH, adsorbent, adsorbate concentrations, and temperature. The uptake of gold (III) by bagasse ash is time, pH, metal concentration, amount of adsorbate, and temperature dependent. Adsorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, and the Freundlich equations. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse ash have been determined at three different temperatures. The positive value of heat of adsorption; delta H 44.52 kJ/mol shows that the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse ash is endothermic where as the negative value of delta G = -0.5303 kJ/mol at 318 K shows the spontaneity of the process. Delta G becomes more negative with increase in temperature which shows that the adsorption is more favorable at higher temperatures. Under the optimal adsorption conditions the adsorption capacity of gold is 0.70 mg /g of the adsorbent out of which 0.65 mg of gold gets desorbed with 0.1 % thiourea solution. (author)

  14. Electromyographic analyses of the erector spinae muscles during golf swings using four different clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike C

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyography (EMG) patterns of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the erector spinae (ES) muscle during the golf swing whilst using four different golf clubs. Fifteen right-handed male golfers performed a total of twenty swings in random order using the driver, 4-iron, 7-iron and pitching-wedge. Surface EMG was recorded from the lead and trail sides of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the ES muscle (T8, L1 and L5 lateral to the spinous-process). Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to identify the backswing, forward swing, acceleration, early and late follow-through phases of the golf swing. No significant differences in muscle-activation levels from the lead and trail sides of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the ES muscle were displayed between the driver, 4-iron, 7-iron and pitching-wedge (P > 0.05). The highest mean thoracic and lumbar ES muscle-activation levels were displayed in the forward swing (67-99% MVC) and acceleration (83-106% MVC) phases of the swing for all clubs tested. The findings from this study show that there were no significant statistical differences between the driver, 4-iron, 7-iron and pitching-wedge when examining muscle activity from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the ES muscle.

  15. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain.

  16. Hydrogen and helium adsorption on potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Mulders, N.; Hess, G.

    1995-01-01

    A previous quartz microbalance study of adsorption of helium on sodium indicates that the inert layer is surprisingly small. Similar experiments with hydrogen on sodium show layer by layer growth below a temperature of 7K. These results motivated the authors to extend the experiments to lower temperatures. A suitable apparatus, capable of reaching 0.45 K, while still enabling them to do in situ alkali evaporation, has been constructed. The authors will report on the results of microbalance adsorption experiments of helium and hydrogen on potassium

  17. [Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of lead (II) on polyamine-functionalized mesoporous activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Quan; Wang, Yan-Jin; Yang, Mei-Rong; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Bagasse mesoporous carbon was prepared by microwave assisted H3 PO4 activation. Amido and imido groups were modified with ethanediamine on the channels' surface of mesoporous carbon through nitric oxidation and amide reaction. The influence of Pb(II) concentration, adsorption time on Pb(II) adsorption on the ethanediamine-modified mesoporous carbon (AC-EDA) was investigated. The adsorption kinetics and mechanism were also discussed. The results showed that AC-EDA had a great performance for Pb(II) adsorption, and more than 70% of Pb(II) was adsorbed in 5 minutes. The adsorption amount of Pb(II) on the carbon increased with the increase of solution pH in acidic conditions. It was found that AC-EDA had different binding energies on different adsorption sites for Pb(II) separation. The Pb(II) adsorption process on AC-EDA was controlled by intra-particle diffusion in the first 3 min, and then film diffusion played the important pole on the adsorption. The adsorption amount increased with the increase of temperature, indicating the adsorption was an endothermic reaction. The high adsorption energy (> 11 kJ x mol(-1)) implied that the) adsorption was a chemical adsorption. The XPS of AC-EDA before and after Pb(II) adsorption showed that the polyamine group was involved in the adsorption, and should be a main factor of the high efficient adsorption.

  18. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  19. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if 70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  20. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. Determination of trace alkaline phosphatase by affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry based on wheat germ agglutinin labeled with 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch and prediction of diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Gao, Hui; Li, Fei-Ming; Shi, Xiu-Mei; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2010-09-01

    The 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch (abbreviated as PMS-8-QBA. Thereinto, 8-QBA is 8-quinolineboronic acid, and PMS is phosphorescent molecular switch) was found for the first time. PMS-8-QBA, which was in the "off" state, could only emit weak room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on the acetyl cellulose membrane (ACM). However, PMS-8-QBA turned "on" automatically for its changed structure, causing that the RTP of 8-QBA in the system increased, after PMS-8-QBA-WGA (WGA is wheat germ agglutinin) was formed by reaction between -OH of PMS-8-QBA and -COOH of WGA. More interesting is that the -NH 2 of PMS-8-QBA-WGA could react with the -COOH of alkaline phosphatase (AP) to form the affinity adsorption (AA) product WGA-AP-WGA-8-QBA-PMS (containing -NH-CO- bond), which caused RTP of the system to greatly increase. Thus, affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry using PMS-8-QBA as labelling reagent (PMS-8-QBA-AA-SSRTP) for the determination of trace AP was established. The method had many advantages, such as high sensitivity (the detection limit (LD) was 2.5 zg spot -1. For sample volume of 0.40 μl spot -1, corresponding concentration was 6.2 × 10 -18 g ml -1), good selectivity (the allowed concentration of coexisting material was higher, when the relative error was ±5%), high accuracy (applied to detection of AP content in serum samples, the result was coincided with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay), which was suitable for the detection of trace AP content in serum samples and the forecast of human diseases. Meanwhile, the mechanism of PMS-8-QBA-AASSRTP was discussed. The new field of analytical application and clinic diagnosis technique of molecule switch are exploited, based on the phosphorescence characteristic of PMS-8-QBA, the AA reaction between WGA and AP, as well as the relation between AP content and human diseases. The research results promote the development and interpenetrate among molecule

  2. Progressing MoodSwings. The upgrade and evaluation of MoodSwings 2.0: An online intervention for Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, S.; Cosgrove, V.E.; Gliddon, E.; Grimm, D.; Dodd, S.; Berk, L.; Castle, D.; Suppes, T.S.; Berk, M.

    2017-01-01

    MoodSwings 2.0 is a self-guided online intervention for bipolar disorder. The intervention incorporates technological improvements on an earlier validated version of the intervention (MoodSwings 1.0). The previous MoodSwings trial provides this study with a unique opportunity to progress previous work, whilst being able to take into consideration lesson learnt, and technological enhancements. The structure and technology of MoodSwings 2.0 are described and the relevance to other online health interventions is highlighted. An international team from Australia and the US updated and improved the programs content pursuant to changes in DSM-5, added multimedia components and included larger numbers of participants in the group discussion boards. Greater methodological rigour in this trial includes an attention control condition, quarterly telephone assessments, and red flag alerts for significant clinical change. This paper outlines these improvements, including additional security and safety measures. A 3 arm RCT is currently evaluating the enhanced program to assess the efficacy of MS 2.0; the primary outcome is change in depressive and manic symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first randomised controlled online bipolar study with a discussion board attention control and meets the key methodological criteria for online interventions PMID:28257919

  3. Adsorption kinetic investigations of low concentrated uranium in aqua media by polymeric adsorban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerellier, R.

    2004-02-01

    In order to remove the uranium from aqueous media, the solution of polyethylene glycol in acrylonitrile was irradiated using ''6' degree Celsius Co γ-ray source and Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) was formed. After IPNs were amidoximated at 65 0 for 3.5 hours, they were kept in 10''-''2 M of uranil nitrate solution at 17, 25, 35, 45 degree Celsius temperatures until to establish the adsorption equilibrium. Adsorption analyses were measured by gamma spectrometer, gravimetry and UV spectrofotometer. Structure analysis of IPN, before and after amidoximation and after the adsorption of uranium, was interpreted by FTIR spectrometer. It was found that as the temperature increased the amount of max adsorption also increased. The amount of max adsorption capacity at 45 degree Celsius was 602 mg U/g IPN. In addition to, it was determined that the uranium adsorption increased a little in shaking media. The reaction was determined as 'zeroth degree' until 240 minutes due to the changing of adsorption capacity by the time at different temperatures. It was observed that as the temperature increased, the adsorption rate also increased and the activation energy was calculated as 34.6 kJ/mol. By using the changing of adsorption equilibrium coefficient by the temperature, thermodynamic quantities of ΔH, ΔS and ΔG were calculated consecutively. Adsorption reaction was determined as endothermic and it was interpreted that the adsorption was controlled by particular diffusion, namely it was a physical adsorption. Adsorption isotherms were found by changing the solution concentrations from 5X10''4 to parallel x parallel O''- 2 M at 20, 25, 35, 45 degree Celsius temperatures. The obtained data from this study was applied to different adsorption isotherms. It was observed that at lower temperatures, the adsorption isotherms were fitted to Giles C type, at higher temperatures, they were fitted to Freundlich type

  4. Adsorption studies of iron(III) on chitin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of particle size and dosage of the adsorbant, contact time, initial concentration of the adsorbate and tem- perature were experimentally ... Adsorption; chitin; variable parameters; fraction of adsorption; temperature effect. 1. Introduction. Iron is one of the ... about the presence of iron in drinking water is its ob- jectionable taste.

  5. Henna wood as an adsorptive material for bentazon | Mounaouer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the efficiency of activated carbon produced from Henna wood was studied to remove herbicide from aqueous solutions by adsorption. The parameters that affect the adsorption such as contact time, activated carbon dosage, initial concentration of adsorbate, stirring rate, temperature, and pH on bentazon ...

  6. Kinetics of a gas adsorption compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Elleman, D.D.; Tward, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter uses a two-phase model to analyze the transients of a gas adsorption compressor. The modeling of the adsorption process is based on complete thermal and mechanical equilibrium between the gaseous phase and the adsorbed gas phase. The theories and techniques that have been developed for a two-phase system are used to predict the pressure, the temperature and the mass flow transients in a gas sorption compressor. The analytical solutions are then compared with the performance of a laboratory gas adsorption compressor. A computer code was written to solve the governing equations, using a standard forward marching predictor-corrector method. It is found that while the analytical model overpredicts the pressure and the temperature transient, it predicts the general trend of the transient profile and the existence of the turning point

  7. The adsorption of 117Snm(IV)-EDTMP on collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuqing; Luo Shunzhong; Pu Manfei; Bing Wenzeng; He Jiaheng; Wang Guanquan

    2002-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption characteristics of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collage are studied, and compared with that on HA. The results show that the effects of pH and temperature on adsorption of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collagen are similar to those on HA, and that the adsorption equilibrium and adsorption model of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collagen are completely different from those on HA; 117 Sm m -EDTMP absorbed on collagen are extremely stable and almost could not be desorbed with normal saline or EDTMP

  8. Adsorption methods for hydrogen isotope storage on zeolitic sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ioana; Cristescu, Ion; Vasut, F.; Brad, S.; Lazar, A.

    2001-01-01

    For hydrogen isotope separation, adsorption molecular sieves and active carbon were used. Adsorption process proceeds at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures. Commercial zeolites have the same proprieties with natural zeolites, but they have a regular pore structure. They also have affinity for molecules of different size with defined shapes. Experimental results obtained at liquid nitrogen temperature (77.4 K) and liquid hydrogen revealed the efficient behaviour of the active carbon and zeolitic sieves for hydrogen isotopes temporary storage. We study adsorption of the synthetic zeolites in a wide range of temperatures and pressures and we used the molecular sieves 4A, 5A and active carbon. The 4A and 5A zeolites have a tridimensional structure with 11.4 A diameter. When the hydration water is eliminated, the material keeps a porous structure. The porous volume represents 45% from the zeolite mass for 4A and 5A sieves. The activation temperature of the zeolite and the carbon is very important for obtaining a high adsorption capacity. If the temperature used for activation is low, the structural water will be not eliminated and the adsorption capacity will be low. The excessive temperature will destroy the porous structure. The adsorption capacity for the hydrogen isotopes was calculated with the relation: A = V ads /m (cm 3 /g). The adsorption capacity and efficiency for the adsorbent materials, are given. Physical adsorption process of the hydrogen isotopes was carried out at liquid nitrogen temperature. The flux gas used in the adsorption system is composed of dry deuterium and protium. This mixture is cooled in liquid nitrogen and then is passed to the adsorbent getter at the same temperature (77.4 K). The gas flux in the adsorbent getter is 5 and 72 l/h (which correspond to 0.008 and 0.134 discharge velocity, respectively). (authors)

  9. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohsenipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 mgNO3-/L, with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment.

  10. A Comparative Study of Two Different Uncinectomy Techniques: Swing-Door and Classical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit A Singhania

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine which technique of uncinectomy, classical or swing door technique.  Materials and Methods: Four hundred eighty Cases of sinusitis were selected and operated for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS. Out of these, in 240 uncinectomies classical uncinectomy was done whereas in another 240 uncinectomies swing door technique was used. Initially patients were medically managed treated according to their symptoms and prior management. Patients who had received previous adequate medical management were evaluated with CT scan of the sinuses. If disease still persists than they were operated for FESS. Results: The authors' experience indicates that Functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be performed under local or general anesthesia, as permitted or tolerated. In this review classical technique was used in 240 uncinectomies. Out of this, ethmoidal complex injury was noted in 4 cases, missed maxillary ostium syndrome (incomplete removal was reported in 12 patients and orbital fat exposure was encountered in 5 patients. As compared to 240 uncinectomies done with swing door technique, incomplete removal was evident in 2 cases and lacrimal duct injury was reported in 3 cases. 'Evidence that underscores how this 'swing door technique' successfully combines 'the conservation goals of the anterior-to-posterior approach and anatomic virtues of the posterior-to-anterior approach to ethmoidectomy of the total 480 uncinectomies operated. Out of which 240 uncinectomies have been performed using the 'swing-door' technique. The 240 uncinectomies performed using classical technique were used as controls. The incidence of orbital penetration, incomplete removal, ethmoidal complex injury and ostium non-identification was significantly less with the new technique. Three lacrimal injuries occurred with the 'swing-door' technique compared to no injuries with classical technique. Conclusion: The authors recommend

  11. Ground reaction forces produced by two different hockey skating arm swing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward-Ellis, Julie; Alexander, Marion J L; Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Leiter, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    The arm swing in hockey skating can have a positive effect on the forces produced by each skate, and the resulting velocity from each push off. The main purpose of this study was to measure the differences in ground reaction forces (GRFs) produced from an anteroposterior versus a mediolateral style hockey skating arm swing. Twenty-four elite-level female hockey players performed each technique while standing on a ground-mounted force platform, and all trials were filmed using two video cameras. Force data was assessed for peak scaled GRFs in the frontal and sagittal planes, and resultant GRF magnitude and direction. Upper limb kinematics were assessed from the video using Dartfish video analysis software, confirming that the subjects successfully performed two distinct arm swing techniques. The mediolateral arm swing used a mean of 18.38° of glenohumeral flexion/extension and 183.68° of glenohumeral abduction/adduction while the anteroposterior technique used 214.17° and 28.97° respectively. The results of this study confirmed that the mediolateral arm swing produced 37% greater frontal plane and 33% less sagittal plane GRFs than the anteroposterior arm swing. The magnitudes of the resultant GRFs were not significantly different between the two techniques; however, the mediolateral technique produced a resultant GRF with a significantly larger angle from the direction of travel (44.44°) as compared to the anteroposterior technique (31.60°). The results of this study suggest that the direction of GRFs produced by the mediolateral arm swing more closely mimic the direction of lower limb propulsion during the skating stride.

  12. Mechanical loading of the gymnast’s motor system during swings on rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Serafin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the mechanical loading of the gymnast’s motor system during forward and backward swings on gymnastic rings. A junior gymnast of the First Class, aged 14, with body mass 53.1 kg and body length 1.61 m, participated in the study. He executed a series of ten cyclic swing movements on rings with his maximum amplitude. Kinematic variables of the gymnast’s centre of mass (COM as well as reaction forces in the cables were measured and synchronized using the SIMI MOTION movement analysis system. Two separate phases of mechanical loading of the motor system have been identified: resistance phase and non resistance phase. In the non resistance phase the gymnast attains similar values of the COM’s momentum but different angular displacements. In the resistance phase the forces acting on the motor system have their maximum. They amount to 5.5 BW for the forward swing and 6.5 BW for the backward swing movement. The maximum rate of change of the force for forward and backward swing is 42.6 BWs-1 and 67.4 BWs-1, respectively. These two variables differentiate the mechanical loading of the gymnast’s motor system between forward and backward swings. The reaction force produced by the gymnast is significantly greater during the execution of forward swings. It seems probable that horizontal displacements of COM may be the factor responsible for reduction of the mechanical loading experienced by the gymnast.

  13. A comparative study of two different uncinectomy techniques: swing-door and classical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Ankit A; Bansal, Chetan; Chauhan, Nirali; Soni, Saurav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which technique of uncinectomy, classical or swing door technique. Four hundred eighty Cases of sinusitis were selected and operated for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). Out of these, in 240 uncinectomies classical uncinectomy was done whereas in another 240 uncinectomies swing door technique was used. Initially patients were medically managed treated according to their symptoms and prior management. Patients who had received previous adequate medical management were evaluated with CT scan of the sinuses. If disease still persists than they were operated for FESS. The authors' experience indicates that Functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be performed under local or general anesthesia, as permitted or tolerated. In this review classical technique was used in 240 uncinectomies. Out of this, ethmoidal complex injury was noted in 4 cases, missed maxillary ostium syndrome (incomplete removal) was reported in 12 patients and orbital fat exposure was encountered in 5 patients. As compared to 240 uncinectomies done with swing door technique, incomplete removal was evident in 2 cases and lacrimal duct injury was reported in 3 cases. 'Evidence that underscores how this 'swing door technique' successfully combines 'the conservation goals of the anterior-to-posterior approach and anatomic virtues of the posterior-to-anterior approach to ethmoidectomy of the total 480 uncinectomies operated. Out of which 240 uncinectomies have been performed using the 'swing-door' technique. The 240 uncinectomies performed using classical technique were used as controls. The incidence of orbital penetration, incomplete removal, ethmoidal complex injury and ostium non-identification was significantly less with the new technique. Three lacrimal injuries occurred with the 'swing-door' technique compared to no injuries with classical technique. The authors recommend swing door technique as it is easy to learn, allows complete removal of the

  14. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  15. Study on Shale Adsorption Equation Based on Monolayer Adsorption, Multilayer Adsorption, and Capillary Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas is an effective gas resource all over the world. The evaluation of pore structure plays a critical role in exploring shale gas efficiently. Nitrogen adsorption experiment is one of the significant approaches to analyze pore size structure of shale. Shale is extremely heterogeneous due to component diversity and structure complexity. Therefore, adsorption isotherms for homogeneous adsorbents and empirical isotherms may not apply to shale. The shape of adsorption-desorption curve indicates that nitrogen adsorption on shale includes monolayer adsorption, multilayer adsorption, and capillary condensation. Usually, Langmuir isotherm is a monolayer adsorption model for ideal interfaces; BET (Brunauer, Emmett, Teller adsorption isotherm is a multilayer adsorption model based on specific assumptions; Freundlich isotherm is an empirical equation widely applied in liquid phase adsorption. In this study, a new nitrogen adsorption isotherm is applied to simultaneously depict monolayer adsorption, multilayer adsorption, and capillary condensation, which provides more real and accurate representation of nitrogen adsorption on shale. In addition, parameters are discussed in relation to heat of adsorption which is relevant to the shape of the adsorption isotherm curve. The curve fitting results indicate that our new nitrogen adsorption isotherm can appropriately describe the whole process of nitrogen adsorption on shale.

  16. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bind...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  17. Asymmetric adsorption of alanine by quartz powder from ethanol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Shozo; Sawada, Michio; Hachiya, Kinji; Morimoto, Tetsuo (Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1982-11-01

    The asymmetric adsorption of the racemic alanine by the optically active quartz from ethanol solution at 8/sup 0/C was studied by the /sup 14/C-tracer method and the newly developed /sup 14/C-tracer ninhydrin-colorimetry combination method. The preferential adsorption of L-alanine by levorotatory quartz (l-quartz) and D-alanine by dextrorotatory quartz (d-quartz) was confirmed. The asymmetric adsorptivity (Asub(s)) falls in the range of 1.1 - 1.3, which is comparable with the value determined at - 80/sup 0/C in the previous paper. The effects of water content in the ethanol solution and of the adsorption temperature upon the adsorption affinity of alanine to quartz were also measured. The cause for the asymmetric adsorption is discussed from the crystallographic point of view.

  18. adsorption, eosin, humic, peat

    OpenAIRE

    anshar, andi muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Eosin is one of the dyes commonly used in the industry and has the potential to cause pollution of the water environment. The Eosin pollution treatment methods used in this study was the adsorption method using humin fraction obtained from the peat land comes from Kalimantan. From the research data showed that the adsorption of eosin in humin result of washing with HCl / HF optimum at pH 4 and a contact time of 60 minutes with the adsorption-order rate was 8,4 x 10-3 min-1

  19. Competitive Protein Adsorption - Multilayer Adsorption and Surface Induced Protein Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, competitive adsorption of albumin and IgG (immunoglobulin G) from human serum solutions and protein mixtures onto polymer surfaces is studied by means of radioactive labeling. By using two different radiolabels (125I and 131I), albumin and IgG adsorption to polymer surfaces...... is monitored simultaneously and the influence from the presence of other human serum proteins on albumin and IgG adsorption, as well as their mutual influence during adsorption processes, is investigated. Exploring protein adsorption by combining analysis of competitive adsorption from complex solutions...... of high concentration with investigation of single protein adsorption and interdependent adsorption between two specific proteins enables us to map protein adsorption sequences during competitive protein adsorption. Our study shows that proteins can adsorb in a multilayer fashion onto the polymer surfaces...

  20. Radon adsorption in fibrous carbon sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Kish, A.O.; Chudakov, V.A.; Matvejchuk, S.V.; Sokolovskij, A.S.; Ugolev, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    Radon sorption in woven fibrous sorbents 'AUT-M' and 'Busofit' and nonwoven fiber in the temperature range 0-50 degrees centigrade was studied. Adsorption heat of radon from the ambient air in different types of carbon fiber was determined. (authors)

  1. Adsorption studies of iron(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adsorption of ferric ions by chitin was studied by the batch equilibration method. The influence of particle size and dosage of the adsorbant, contact time, initial concentration of the adsorbate and temperature were experimentally verified. The effect of anions like chloride, nitrate and sulphate and also of cations like zinc, ...

  2. Hydrophobic nano-carrier for lysozyme adsorption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1 polymer in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer at ... lysozyme concentration, temperature and ionic strength are varied and .... tions at initial and final adsorption medium were measured ... ties such as very high specific surface area, low mass transfer.

  3. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanhui, E-mail: liyanhui@tsinghua.org.cn [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xia, Yanzhi, E-mail: xiayzh@qdu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xia, Linhua; Wang, Zonghua [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai [Key Laboratory for Advanced Manufacturing by Material Processing Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of temperature on phenol adsorbed by graphene shows that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of phenol increases with the increase in temperature from 285 to 333 K. Increasing adsorption capacities with temperature indicates that the adsorption of phenol is controlled by an endothermic reaction. Highlights: ► The graphene has high phenol adsorption capacity. ► The graphene has a high specific surface area of 305 m{sup 2}/g. ► The adsorption capacity is high at acidic pH range. ► The graphene has rapid phenol adsorption rate. ► Phenol adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. -- Abstract: Graphene, a new member of carbon family, has been prepared, characterized and used as adsorbent to remove phenol from aqueous solution. The effect parameters including pH, dosage, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption properties of phenol onto graphene were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity can reach 28.26 mg/g at the conditions of initial phenol concentration of 50 mg/L, pH 6.3 and 285 K. Adsorption data were well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene was endothermic and spontaneous.

  4. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effect of temperature on phenol adsorbed by graphene shows that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of phenol increases with the increase in temperature from 285 to 333 K. Increasing adsorption capacities with temperature indicates that the adsorption of phenol is controlled by an endothermic reaction. Highlights: ► The graphene has high phenol adsorption capacity. ► The graphene has a high specific surface area of 305 m 2 /g. ► The adsorption capacity is high at acidic pH range. ► The graphene has rapid phenol adsorption rate. ► Phenol adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. -- Abstract: Graphene, a new member of carbon family, has been prepared, characterized and used as adsorbent to remove phenol from aqueous solution. The effect parameters including pH, dosage, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption properties of phenol onto graphene were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity can reach 28.26 mg/g at the conditions of initial phenol concentration of 50 mg/L, pH 6.3 and 285 K. Adsorption data were well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene was endothermic and spontaneous.

  5. Adsorption Characteristics of Polyvinyl Alcohols in Solution on Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yan Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite (EG adsorbent was prepared with 50 mesh graphite as raw materials, potassium permanganate as oxidant, and vitriol as intercalation compound. Three kinds of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with different degree of polymerization (DP in aqueous solution were used as adsorbates. We have studied the influence of initial PVA concentration, temperature and ionic strength on adsorption capacity. Langmuir constants and Gibbs free energy change (⊿G° were calculated according to experimental data respectively. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the equilibrium adsorbance of PVA on EG increase with the rise of SO42– concentration. Adsorption isotherms of PVA with different degree of polymerization are all types and we deduce PVA molecules lie flat on EG surface. Adsorption processes are all spontaneous. Kinetic studies show that the kinetic data can be described by pseudo second-order kinetic model. Second-order rate constants and the initial adsorption rate rise with the increasing of temperature and half-adsorption time decreases with the increasing of temperature. The adsorption activation energy of each PVA is less than 20 kJ•mol−1, physical adsorption is the major mode of the overall adsorption process.

  6. Design and Trajectory Analysis of Incompletely Restrained Cable-Suspension Swing System Driven by Two Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the swing conditions of a suspended platform of a construction shaft, marine ships, cars, etc., an incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables (IRCSWs2 was designed and parameter trajectories of displacements, angles and tensions were systematically investigated. Firstly, the motion mechanism of the IRCSWs2 is described and the corresponding kinematic model is established. For further evaluating the analytical expressions, the ADAMS simulation model and the physical prototype experimental model were developed. The basic consistency and slight difference among the three models are illustrated by a comparison of different parameters. The approximately linear relationship between the driving displacements of two cables and the swing angles of the platform was obtained. Finally, the effects of various parameters on displacements, angles and tensions were analysed, and the results indicate that the translation of a suspended platform is slight during its swing and that the novel IRCSWs2 can be used to drive heavy loads using a relatively small driving force, which is useful for simulating swing environmental conditions long-term, in addition to being cost-effective.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  8. Effects of constrained arm swing on vertical center of mass displacement during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyung Suk; Atkins, Lee T; Jensen, Daniel B; James, C Roger

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of constraining arm swing on the vertical displacement of the body's center of mass (COM) during treadmill walking and examine several common gait variables that may account for or mask differences in the body's COM motion with and without arm swing. Participants included 20 healthy individuals (10 male, 10 female; age: 27.8 ± 6.8 years). The body's COM displacement, first and second peak vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs), and lowest VGRF during mid-stance, peak summed bilateral VGRF, lower extremity sagittal joint angles, stride length, and foot contact time were measured with and without arm swing during walking at 1.34 m/s. The body's COM displacement was greater with the arms constrained (arm swing: 4.1 ± 1.2 cm, arm constrained: 4.9 ± 1.2 cm, p reaction force data indicated that the COM displacement increased in both double limb and single limb stance. However, kinematic patterns visually appeared similar between conditions. Shortened stride length and foot contact time also were observed, although these do not seem to account for the increased COM displacement. However, a change in arm COM acceleration might have contributed to the difference. These findings indicate that a change in arm swing causes differences in vertical COM displacement, which could increase energy expenditure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships between clubshaft motions and clubface orientation during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Tokio; Yokozawa, Toshiharu; Inaba, Yuki; Matsuda, Yuji; Shiraki, Hitoshi

    2017-09-01

    Since clubface orientation at impact affects ball direction and ball spin, the ability to control clubface orientation is one of the most important skills for golfers. This study presents a new method to describe clubface orientation as a function of the clubshaft motions (i.e., swing plane orientation, clubshaft angle in the swing plane, and clubshaft rolling angle) during a golf swing and investigates the relationships between the clubshaft motions and clubface orientation at impact. The club motion data of driver shots were collected from eight skilled golfers using a three-dimensional motion capture system. The degrees of influence of the clubshaft motions on the clubface orientation were investigated using sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the swing plane horizontal angle affected the clubface horizontal angle to an extent of 100%, that the clubshaft angle in the swing plane affected both the clubface vertical and horizontal angles to extents of 74 and 68%, respectively, and that the clubshaft rolling angle affected both the clubface vertical and horizontal angles to extents of -67 and 75%, respectively. Since the method presented here relates clubface orientation to clubshaft motions, it is useful for understanding the clubface control of a golfer.

  10. Synchronized metronome training induces changes in the kinematic properties of the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marius; Häger, Charlotte; Rönnqvist, Louise

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on movement dynamics during golf-swing performance, as captured by kinematic analysis. A one-group, between-test design was applied on 13 male golfers (27.5 +/- 4.6 years old, 12.7 +/- 4.9 handicap) who completed 12 sessions of SMT over a four-week period. Pre- and post-assessments of golf swings with three different clubs (4-iron, 7-iron, and pitching wedge) were performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Club velocity at three different swing phases (backswing, downswing, and follow-through) was measured and cross-correlation analysis of time-series signals were made on joint couplings (wrist-elbow-shoulder) of both arms, and between joints and the club, during the full golf swing. There were significantly higher cross-correlations between joint-couplings and concomitant changes of the associated phase-shift differences, as well as reduced phase-shift variability at post-test. No significant effect of SMT was found for the club velocities. We suggest that domain-general influences of SMT on the underlying brain-based motor control strategies lead to a more coordinated movement pattern of the golf-swing performance, which may explain previous observations of significantly improved golf-shot accuracy and decreased variability after SMT.

  11. Increasing cognitive load attenuates right arm swing in healthy human walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Tim; Easthope, Christopher S.; Filli, Linard; Lőrincz, Lilla; Schrafl-Altermatt, Miriam; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael; Curt, Armin; Zörner, Björn; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Human arm swing looks and feels highly automated, yet it is increasingly apparent that higher centres, including the cortex, are involved in many aspects of locomotor control. The addition of a cognitive task increases arm swing asymmetry during walking, but the characteristics and mechanism of this asymmetry are unclear. We hypothesized that this effect is lateralized and a Stroop word-colour naming task-primarily involving left hemisphere structures-would reduce right arm swing only. We recorded gait in 83 healthy subjects aged 18-80 walking normally on a treadmill and while performing a congruent and incongruent Stroop task. The primary measure of arm swing asymmetry-an index based on both three-dimensional wrist trajectories in which positive values indicate proportionally smaller movements on the right-increased significantly under dual-task conditions in those aged 40-59 and further still in the over-60s, driven by reduced right arm flexion. Right arm swing attenuation appears to be the norm in humans performing a locomotor-cognitive dual-task, confirming a prominent role of the brain in locomotor behaviour. Women under 60 are surprisingly resistant to this effect, revealing unexpected gender differences atop the hierarchical chain of locomotor control.

  12. Skull base tumors: a comprehensive review of transfacial swing osteotomy approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Pieper, Daniel R; Cambra, Jorge Balaguer; Simman, Richard; Jackson, Ian T

    2005-03-01

    Numerous techniques have been proposed for the resection of skull base tumors, each one unique with regard to the region exposed and degree of technical complexity. This study describes the use of transfacial swing osteotomies in accessing lesions located at various levels of the cranial base. Eight patients who underwent transfacial swings for exposure and resection of cranial base lesions between 1996 and 2002 were studied. The mandible was the choice when wide exposure of nasopharyngeal and midline skull base tumors was necessary, especially when they involved the infratemporal fossa. The midfacial swing osteotomy was an option when access to the entire clivus was necessary. An orbital swing approach was used to access large orbital tumors lying inferior to the optic nerve and posterior to the globe, a region that is often difficult to visualize. Gross total tumor excision was possible in all patients. Six patients achieved disease control and two had recurrences. The complications of cerebrospinal fluid leak, infection, hematoma, or cranial nerve damage did not occur. After surgery, some patients experienced temporary symptoms caused by local swelling. The aesthetic result was considered good. Transfacial swing osteotomies provide a wide exposure to tumors that occur in the central skull base area. Excellent knowledge of the detailed anatomy of this region is paramount to the success of this surgery. The team concept is essential; it is built around the craniofacial surgeon and an experienced skull base neurosurgeon.

  13. [Recognition of walking stance phase and swing phase based on moving window].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaobo; Yang, Peng; Wang, Xinran; Geng, Yanli; Han, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Wearing transfemoral prosthesis is the only way to complete daily physical activity for amputees. Motion pattern recognition is important for the control of prosthesis, especially in the recognizing swing phase and stance phase. In this paper, it is reported that surface electromyography (sEMG) signal is used in swing and stance phase recognition. sEMG signal of related muscles was sampled by Infiniti of a Canadian company. The sEMG signal was then filtered by weighted filtering window and analyzed by height permitted window. The starting time of stance phase and swing phase is determined through analyzing special muscles. The sEMG signal of rectus femoris was used in stance phase recognition and sEMG signal of tibialis anterior is used in swing phase recognition. In a certain tolerating range, the double windows theory, including weighted filtering window and height permitted window, can reach a high accuracy rate. Through experiments, the real walking consciousness of the people was reflected by sEMG signal of related muscles. Using related muscles to recognize swing and stance phase is reachable. The theory used in this paper is useful for analyzing sEMG signal and actual prosthesis control.

  14. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  15. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  16. Co adsorption in kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Eliel S.; Silva, Paulo S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption of metal ions in clay minerals has been used as an alternative to water and effluents treatment. Kaolinite is a clay mineral that presents low specific surface area and exchange ion capacity. Nevertheless, structural modifications can be achieved by means of acid or thermal activation. In this paper, it was studied the surface area of kaolinite/bentonite, kaolinite/activated carbon mixtures, thermal activated kaolinite and thermal activated kaolinite/activated carbon mixture. The mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon was tested for pH, contact time, interfering ions and initial concentration effects in the cobalt adsorption. Results showed that the optimized parameters are pH 6 and contact time of 30 min. Chromium acted as a competitive ion, zinc does not appear to have affected adsorption while iron seems to have favored it. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicated that the adsorption of Co in the mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon is a spontaneous process. (author)

  17. Co adsorption in kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Eliel S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: eliel201019@hotmail.com, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption of metal ions in clay minerals has been used as an alternative to water and effluents treatment. Kaolinite is a clay mineral that presents low specific surface area and exchange ion capacity. Nevertheless, structural modifications can be achieved by means of acid or thermal activation. In this paper, it was studied the surface area of kaolinite/bentonite, kaolinite/activated carbon mixtures, thermal activated kaolinite and thermal activated kaolinite/activated carbon mixture. The mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon was tested for pH, contact time, interfering ions and initial concentration effects in the cobalt adsorption. Results showed that the optimized parameters are pH 6 and contact time of 30 min. Chromium acted as a competitive ion, zinc does not appear to have affected adsorption while iron seems to have favored it. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicated that the adsorption of Co in the mixture of kaolinite/activated carbon is a spontaneous process. (author)

  18. Structure sensitivity in adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Nielsen, Ole Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The structure sensitivity of CO adsorption on different flat, stepped, kinked and reconstructed Pt surfaces is studied using large-scale density-functional calculations. We find an extremely strong structure sensitivity in the adsorption energy with variations up to 1 eV (or 100%) from one...... structure to the next. We propose a model to explain this behavior, and use it to discuss more generally the origin of structure sensitivity in heterogeneous catalysis....

  19. Equilibrium Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow

    OpenAIRE

    Okeola, F. O.; Odebunmi, E. O.; Ameen, O. M.; Amoloye, M. A.; Lawal, A. A.; Abdulmummeen, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on freema (combination of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow) an adsorbent prepared from moringa pod. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was determined. Effect of such factors as initial concentration of the adsorbate solution, contact time with the adsorbent, pH of the dye solution, and temperature of the dye solution on the adsorption capacity of the absorbent was determined. The result showed that the optimum adsorption was attained at pH of 3, a...

  20. Quasi-stiffness of the knee joint in flexion and extension during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Sim, Taeyong; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical understanding of the knee joint during a golf swing is essential to improve performance and prevent injury. In this study, we quantified the flexion/extension angle and moment as the primary knee movement, and evaluated quasi-stiffness represented by moment-angle coupling in the knee joint. Eighteen skilled and 23 unskilled golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras and two force platforms were used to record a swing motion. The anatomical angle and moment were calculated from kinematic and kinetic models, and quasi-stiffness of the knee joint was determined as an instantaneous slope of moment-angle curves. The lead knee of the skilled group had decreased resistance duration compared with the unskilled group (P golf swing and developing rehabilitation strategies following surgery.

  1. Design and Implementation of a Bionic Mimosa Robot with Delicate Leaf Swing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study designed and developed a bionic mimosa robot with delicate leaf swing behaviors. For different swing behaviors, this study developed a variety of situations, in which the bionic mimosa robot would display different postures. The core technologies used were Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs, plastic material, and an intelligent control device. The technology particularly focused on the SMAs memory processing bend mode, directional guidance, and the position of SMAs installed inside the plastic material. Performance analysis and evaluation were conducted using two SMAs for mimosa opening/closing behaviors. Finally, by controlling the mimosa behavior with a micro-controller, the optimal strain swing behavior was realized through fuzzy logic control in order to display the different postures of mimosa under different situations. The proposed method is applicable to micro-bionic robot systems, entertainment robots, biomedical engineering, and architectural aesthetics-related fields in the future.

  2. Adsorption methods for hydrogen isotope storage on zeolite sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ioana; Cristescu, Ion; Vasut, Felicia; Brad, Sebastian; Lazar, Alin

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption molecular sieves and activated carbon were used for hydrogen isotopes. The adsorption process proceeds at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures. The synthetic zeolites have similar properties as natural zeolites, but they have a regular pore structure and affinity for molecules of different size with defined shapes. Experimental results obtained at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures evidenced the efficient behavior of the activated carbon and zeolite sieves for hydrogen isotope temporary storage. (authors)

  3. Adsorption mechanism of microcrystalline cellulose as green adsorbent for the removal of cationic methylene blue dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.B.; Salamatinia, B.

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption mechanism of pure cellulose is yet to be explored. Thus, in this study, the adsorption mechanism of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC), a polysaccharide which is renewable, low cost and non-toxic, was studied on the adsorption of model dye Methylene blue (MB). It was found that the main adsorption mechanism of MB on MCC was due to the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged MB dye and negatively charged MCC. Thus, physical adsorption was the dominant effect, since electrostatic attraction is categorized as physical adsorption. This was verified by Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm, whereby mean free energy adsorption value was found to be less than 8 kJ/mol. The values of Gibbs free energy for thermodynamics studies were found to be within the range of -20 kJ/mol and 0 kJ/mol, which also indicated physical adsorption. It was due to the electrostatic attraction as adsorption mechanism of this adsorption process which resulted rapid adsorption of MB dye. It was found that equilibrium dye concentration was achieved between 1-3 minutes, depending on the adsorption temperature. The rapid adsorption, as compared to a lot of materials, showed the potential of MCC as the future of green adsorbent. The adsorption of Methylene Blue on MCC fitted well in Langmuir Isotherm, with R2 values of higher than 0.99, while fitted moderately in Freundlich Isotherm, with R2 values between 0.9224 and 0.9223. Comparatively, the adsorption of MB on MCC fitted best Langmuir Isotherm as compared to Freundlich Isotherm which monolayer adsorption occurred at the homogenous surface of MCC. This also indicated adsorbed MB molecules do not interact with each other at neighboring adsorption sites. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir Isotherm was found to be 4.95 mg/g. Despite the potential of MCC as green adsorbent, the challenge of low adsorption capacity has to be addressed in the future. (author)

  4. Restricted Arm Swing Affects Gait Stability and Increased Walking Speed Alters Trunk Movements in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabastita, Tijs; Desloovere, Kaat; Meyns, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Observational research suggests that in children with cerebral palsy, the altered arm swing is linked to instability during walking. Therefore, the current study investigates whether children with cerebral palsy use their arms more than typically developing children, to enhance gait stability. Evidence also suggests an influence of walking speed on gait stability. Moreover, previous research highlighted a link between walking speed and arm swing. Hence, the experiment aimed to explore differences between typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy taking into account the combined influence of restricting arm swing and increasing walking speed on gait stability. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics, trunk movement parameters and margins of stability were obtained using three dimensional gait analysis to assess gait stability of 26 children with cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing children. Four walking conditions were evaluated: (i) free arm swing and preferred walking speed; (ii) restricted arm swing and preferred walking speed; (iii) free arm swing and high walking speed; and (iv) restricted arm swing and high walking speed. Double support time and trunk acceleration variability increased more when arm swing was restricted in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children and children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Trunk sway velocity increased more when walking speed was increased in children with unilateral cerebral palsy compared to children with bilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children and in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. Trunk sway velocity increased more when both arm swing was restricted and walking speed was increased in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. It is proposed that facilitating arm swing during gait rehabilitation can improve gait stability and decrease trunk movements in

  5. Possibility of using adsorption refrigeration unit in district heating network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur; Jaworski, Maciej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50 °C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25 °C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.

  6. Kinematic relationship between rotation of lumbar spine and hip joints during golf swing in professional golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Frederick; Suh, Seung Woo; Park, Hyun-Joon; Choi, Ahnryul

    2015-05-14

    Understanding the kinematics of the lumbar spine and hip joints during a golf swing is a basic step for identifying swing-specific factors associated with low back pain. The objective of this study was to examine the kinematic relationship between rotational movement of the lumbar spine and hip joints during a golf swing. Fifteen professional golfers participated in this study with employment of six infrared cameras to record their golf swings. Anatomical reference system of the upper torso, pelvis and thigh segments, and the location of each hip and knee joint were defined by the protocols of the kinematic model of previous studies. Lumbar spine and hip joint rotational angle was calculated utilizing the Euler angle method. Cross-correlation and angle-angle plot was used to examine the degree of kinematic relationship between joints. A fairly strong coupling relationship was shown between the lumbar spine and hip rotational movements with an average correlation of 0.81. Leading hip contribution to overall rotation was markedly high in the early stage of the downswing, while the lumbar spine contributed greater towards the end of the downswing; however, the relative contributions of the trailing hip and lumbar spine were nearly equal during the entire downswing. Most of the professional golfers participated in this study used a similar coordination strategy when moving their hips and lumbar spine during golf swings. The rotation of hips was observed to be more efficient in producing the overall rotation during the downswing when compared to the backswing. These results provide quantitative information to better understand the lumbar spine and hip joint kinematic characteristics of professional golfers. This study will have great potential to be used as a normal control data for the comparison with kinematic information among golfers with low back pain and for further investigation of golf swing-specific factors associated with injury.

  7. Correlation of Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screens and golf swing faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgin, Heather R; Schulte, Brian C; Crawley, Amy A

    2014-02-01

    Although some research in the past has examined how physical limitations in strength or flexibility affect a golfer's performance, the performance outcome most measured was driving distance. Currently, there are no data that have examined the relationship between selected strength and flexibility variables and golf swing faults. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screen variables and 14 common golf swing faults. Thirty-six male and female golfers (mean age, 25.4 ± 9.9 years; height, 175.9 ± 16.2 cm; mass, 76.2 ± 14.6 kg; handicap, 14.2 ± 10.4) participated. Twelve physical tests of strength, flexibility, and balance were assessed using the TPI level 1 golf fitness screening tool. Golfers then hit 4 golf shots (with a 5-iron) while being videoed, and those were then analyzed for 14 different golf swing faults (using V1Pro software). Three significant associations between a physical limitation and a particular golf swing fault were found: toe touch and early hip extension (p = 0.015), bridge on right side with both early hip extension (p = 0.050), and loss of posture (p = 0.028). In addition, an odds ratio showed that when a golfer could not overhead deep squat or single leg balance on left side, they were 2-3 times more likely to exhibit a early hip extension, loss of posture, or slide during the golf swing, as compared with those who could perform a correct overhead deep squat. Based on our findings, it is important for the golf fitness professional to particularly address a golfer's core strength, balance, and hamstring flexibility to help avoid common golf swing faults, which affect a golfer's ball striking ability and ultimately their performance.

  8. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    . The adsorption capacities of these active carbon samples were almost three times that of zeolite. However, the un-modified active carbon had the highest adsorption capacity for butanol vapor (259.6 mg g-1), compared to 222.4 mg g-1 after 10% H2O2 hydrothermal treatment. Both modified and un-modified active carbon can be easily regenerated for repeatable adsorption by heating to 150 °C. Therefore, surface oxygen groups significantly reduced the adsorption capacity of active carbons for butanol vapor. In addition, original active carbon and AC samples modified by nitric acid hydrothermal modification were assessed for their ability to adsorb butanol vapor. The specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of AC were tested before and after modification. The adsorption capacity of unmodified AC samples were the highest. Hydrothermal oxidation of AC with HNO3 increased the surface oxygen content, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, micropore, mesopore and total pore volume of AC. Although the pore structure and specific surface area were greatly improved after hydrothermal oxidization with 4 M HNO3, the increased oxygen on the surface of AC decreased the dynamic adsorption capacity. In order to get high adsorption capacity adsorbents, we used corn stalk as precursor to fabricate porous carbon. ACs were prepared through chemical activation of biochar from whole corn stalk (WCS) and corn stalk pith (CSP) at varying temperatures using potassium hydroxide as the activating agent. ACs were characterized via pore structural analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These adsorbents were then assessed for their adsorption capacity for butanol vapor. It was found that WCS activated at 900 °C for 1 h (WCS-900) had optimal butanol adsorption characteristics. The BET surface area and total pore volume of the WCS-900 were 2330 m2 g-1 and 1.29 cm3 g-1, respectively. The dynamic adsorption capacity of butanol vapor was 410.0 mg g-1, a 185.1 % increase

  9. A review on adsorption refrigeration technology and adsorption deterioration in physical adsorption systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C.; Li, Y.H. [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Li, D.; Zhang, J.P. [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xia, Y.Z. [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-01-15

    As one kind of environmentally friendly refrigeration, the adsorption refrigeration has attracted many attentions in resent decades. This paper introduces the researches of adsorption refrigeration systems with the commonly used working pairs, advanced adsorption cycles, heat and mass transfer enhancement and attempts of adsorption refrigeration applications. Poor heat and mass transfer problem is a bottleneck to prevent the improvements of the adsorption refrigeration technique. Two ways to enhance the heat and mass transfer are discussed in this paper. The adsorption deterioration of adsorbent, another obstacle to physical adsorption refrigeration applications, is also pointed out. And the possible reasons and the possible methods are analyzed. (author)

  10. Adsorption of nicotine from aqueous solution onto hydrophobic zeolite type USY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevic, Natasa; Adnadjevic, Borivoj; Jovanovic, Jelena

    2011-07-01

    The isothermal adsorption of nicotine from an aqueous solution onto zeolite type USY was investigated. The adsorption isotherms of nicotine onto the zeolite at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 322 K were determined. It was found that the adsorption isotherms can be described by the model of Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Based on the adsorption isotherms the changes of adsorption heat, free energy and entropy with adsorption degree were determined. The determined decrease of adsorption heat with adsorption degree can be explained by the presence of the adsorption centers of different energy and concentration on interface of zeolite-nicotine solution. It was found that the probability function of density distribution of the heat of adsorption (DDF) has exponential form. It was concluded that the possibility of fitting the adsorption isotherms of nicotine onto the zeolite by Freundlich adsorption isotherm was a direct consequence of that. The determined increase in entropy with the increase in adsorption degree can be explained with the change of phase state of adsorbed nicotine.

  11. Gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongxian

    The demand of portable power generation systems for both domestic and military applications has driven the advances of mesoscale internal combustion engine systems. This dissertation was devoted to the gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of the mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems. First, the system-level thermodynamic modeling for the swing engine/generator systems has been developed. The system performance as well as the potentials of both two- and four-stroke swing engine systems has been investigated based on this model. Then through parameterc studies, the parameters that have significant impacts on the system performance have been identified, among which, the burn time and spark advance time are the critical factors related to combustion process. It is found that the shorter burn time leads to higher system efficiency and power output and the optimal spark advance time is about half of the burn time. Secondly, the turbulent combustion modeling based on levelset method (G-equation) has been implemented into the commercial software FLUENT. Thereafter, the turbulent flame propagation in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber and realistic swing engine chambers has been studied. It is found that, in mesoscale combustion engines, the burn time is dominated by the mean turbulent kinetic energy in the chamber. It is also shown that in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber, the burn time depends on the longest distance between the initial ignition kernel to its walls and by changing the ignition and injection locations, the burn time can be reduced by a factor of two. Furthermore, the studies of turbulent flame propagation in real swing engine chambers show that the combustion can be enhanced through in-chamber turbulence augmentation and with higher engine frequency, the burn time is shorter, which indicates that the in-chamber turbulence can be induced by the motion of moving components as well as the intake gas jet flow. The burn time

  12. Study of 63Ni adsorption on NKF-6 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Yu Xianjin; Chen Lei; Jing Yongjie; Ge Zhiwei

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 63 Ni from aqueous solutions using NKF-6 zeolite was investigated by a batch technique under ambient conditions. The adsorption was investigated as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic substances (FA/HA) and temperature. The kinetic adsorption was well described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength, and the adsorption of 63 Ni increased with increasing NKF-6 zeolite content. At low pH values, the presence of FA enhanced the adsorption of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite, but the presence of HA had no drastic effect. At high pH values, the presence of FA or HA decreased the adsorption of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite. The adsorption isotherms were well represented by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters (i.e., ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 ) for the adsorption of 63 Ni were determined from the temperature dependent isotherms at 293.15, 313.15 and 333.15 o K, respectively, and the results indicate that the adsorption reaction was favored at high temperature. The results suggest that the adsorption process of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite is spontaneous and endothermic. - Research highlights: → As an economical and efficient method, adsorption technique has been widely applied in the disposal of wastewaters. The study of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite, especially the thermodynamic data of 63 Ni adsorption on NKF-6 zeolite and the effect of humic substances on 63 Ni uptake to humic-zeolite hybrids, is still scarce. In this paper, the sorption of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite is studied as a function of various environmental conditions such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic substances and temperature. Based on the obtained experimental results, the adsorption mechanism of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite is stated in detail. This study will have an important reference value in evaluating the physiochemical behavior of radionuclide 63 Ni.

  13. Adsorption of amphipathic dendrons on polystyrene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, T; Florence, A T

    2003-03-18

    Adsorption of dendrons onto nanoparticles may provide new model structures which may be useful in drug and gene delivery. Tritiated amphipathic dendrons having three lipidic (C(14)) chains coupled to branched (dendritic) lysine head groups with 8, 16 or 32 free terminal amino groups have been synthesised by solid phase peptide techniques. The interaction between these tritiated dendrons and 200 nm polystyrene latex nanoparticles was investigated in phosphate buffered saline. The amount of dendron adsorbed increased with increasing concentration of dendrons and then decreased. Maximum adsorption of dendrons per gram of nanoparticles was found to be between 8.2 and 84 x 10(-6)M, the amounts adsorbed being inversely proportional to the number of amino groups present in the molecule. The number of dendron molecules adsorbed per nanoparticle was found to be between 430 and 4421. The degree of adsorption was found to be slightly altered by the temperature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Static analysis of triple-effect adsorption refrigeration with compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumi Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of the adsorption refrigeration cycle, this study proposes a triple-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle equipped with a compressor. This cycle can run in order to create a large variation in adsorbent concentration range by the compressor, even if there is little temperature variation in the desorption and adsorption processes. The objective of this study is to clarify the effect that regulating adsorption pressure using a compressor has on the adsorption refrigeration cycle, and to that end cycle efficiency was calculated using a static analysis based on a state of equilibrium. As a results from the simulation, the triple-effect cycles can operate by regulating adsorption pressure. Both COP and exergy efficiency can be improved by a factor of 1.2 if the cycled is regulated the adsorption pressure of each cycle rather than using a shared adsorption pressure. For heat sources in the temperature range of 70–100 °C, this method is superior in terms of COP and exergy efficiency. COP values of approximately 1.7–1.8 can be obtained, which is three times higher than single-effect cycles. The triple-effect cycles have one-third the SCE of single-effect cycles but about the same SCE as double-effect cycles.

  15. Adsorption characteristics of brilliant green dye on kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, B.K.; Goswami, A.; Purkait, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out to adsorb toxic brilliant green dye from aqueous medium using kaolin as an adsorbent. Characterization of kaolin is done by measuring: (i) particle size distribution using particle size analyzer, (ii) BET surface area using BET surface analyzer, and (iii) structural analysis using X-ray diffractometer. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, kaolin dose, stirring speed, pH and temperature were studied for the adsorption of brilliant green in batch mode. Adsorption experiments indicate that the extent of adsorption is strongly dependent on pH of solution. Free energy of adsorption (ΔG 0 ), enthalpy (ΔH 0 ) and entropy (ΔS 0 ) changes are calculated to know the nature of adsorption. The calculated values of ΔG 0 at 299 K and 323 K indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous. The estimated values of ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 both show the negative sign, which indicate that the adsorption process is exothermic and the dye molecules are organized on the kaolin surface in less randomly fashion than in solution. The adsorption kinetic has been described by first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle-diffusion models. It was observed that the rate of dye adsorption follows pseudo-second-order model for the dye concentration range studied in the present case. Standard adsorption isotherms were used to fit the experimental equilibrium data. It was found that the adsorption of brilliant green on kaolin follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  16. The Effect of Biological Movement Variability on the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J.; Keogh, Justin W. L.; Hume, Patria A.; Maulder, Peter S.; Nortje, Jacques; Marnewick, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of neuromotor noise on golf swing performance in high- and low-handicap players. Selected two-dimensional kinematic measures of 20 male golfers (n = 10 per high- or low-handicap group) performing 10 golf swings with a 5-iron club was obtained through video analysis. Neuromotor noise was calculated…

  17. Improved Isotherm Data for Adsorption of Methane on Activated Carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Loh, Wai Soong

    2010-08-12

    This article presents the adsorption isotherms of methane onto two different types of activated carbons, namely, Maxsorb III and ACF (A-20) at temperatures from (5 to 75) °C and pressures up to 2.5 MPa. The volumetric technique has been employed to measure the adsorption isotherms. The experimental results presented herein demonstrate the improved accuracy of the uptake values compared with previous measurement techniques for similar adsorbate-adsorbent combinations. The results are analyzed with various adsorption isotherm models. The heat of adsorption, which is concentration and temperature dependent, has been calculated from the measured isotherm data. Henry\\'s law coefficients for these adsorbent-methane pairs are also evaluated at various temperatures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. In situ DRIFTS study of O{sub 3} adsorption on CaO, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnO at room temperature for the catalytic ozonation of cinnamaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Su, Tongming; Jiang, Yuexiu; Xie, Xinling [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Qin, Zuzeng, E-mail: qinzuzeng@gmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Ji, Hongbing, E-mail: jihb@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • In situ DRIFTS study of O{sub 3} adsorption on metal oxides at room temperature. • Using acidic probe molecules (DRIFTS) characterization of surface basicity. • Correlation between basic strength of metal oxides and O{sub 3} adsorption. • Study on the competitive adsorption of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}. • DRIFTS study of cinnamaldehyde ozonation and benzaldehyde excessive oxidation. - Abstract: In situ DRIFTS were conducted to identify adsorbed ozone and/or adsorbed oxygen species on CaO, ZnO, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces at room temperature. Samples were characterized by means of TG, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, pyridine-IR, nitrobenzene-IR, chloroform-IR, and CO{sub 2}-TPD. Pyridine-DRIFTS measurements evidence two kinds of acid sites in all the samples. Nitrobenzene, chloroform-DRIFTS, and CO{sub 2}-TPD reveal that there are large amounts of medium-strength base sites on all the metal oxides, and only CaO, ZnO, and γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have strong base sites. And the benzaldehyde selectivity was increased in the same order of the alkalinity of the metal oxides. With weaker sites, ozone molecules form coordinative complexes bound via the terminal oxygen atom, observed by vibrational frequencies at 2095–2122 and 1026–1054 cm{sup −1}. The formation of ozonide O{sub 3}{sup −} at 790 cm{sup −1}, atomic oxygen at 1317 cm{sup −1}, and superoxide O{sub 2}{sup −} at 1124 cm{sup −1} was detected; these species are believed to be intermediates of O{sub 3} decomposition on strong acid/base sites. The adsorption of ozone on metal oxides is a weak adsorption, and other gases, such as CO{sub 2}, will compete with O{sub 3} adsorption. The mechanism of cinnamaldehyde ozonation at room temperature over CaO shows that cinnamaldehyde can not only be oxidized into cinnamic acid, but also be further oxidized into benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, maleic anhydride, and ultimately mineralized to CO{sub 2} in the

  19. Experimental study of adsorption chiller driven by variable heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C.; Wang, Y.J.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L. [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wu, J.Y. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-05-15

    A silica gel-water adsorption chiller has been developed in recent years and has been applied in an air conditioning system driven by solar energy. The heat source used to drive the adsorption chiller is variable at any moment because the solar radiation intensity or the waste heat from engines varies frequently. An adsorption cooling system may be badly impacted by a variable heat source with temperature variations in a large range. In this work, a silica gel-water adsorption chiller driven by a variable heat source is experimentally studied. The influences of the variable heat source on the performance of the chiller are analyzed, especially for a continuous temperature increase process and a continuous temperature decrease process of the heat source. As an example, the dynamic characteristics of the heat source are also analyzed when solar energy is taken as the heat source of the adsorption chiller. According to the experimental results for the adsorption chiller and the characteristics of the heat source from solar energy, control strategies of the adsorption chiller driven by solar energy are proposed. (author)

  20. Experimental study of adsorption chiller driven by variable heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.C.; Wang, Y.J.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L.; Wu, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    A silica gel-water adsorption chiller has been developed in recent years and has been applied in an air conditioning system driven by solar energy. The heat source used to drive the adsorption chiller is variable at any moment because the solar radiation intensity or the waste heat from engines varies frequently. An adsorption cooling system may be badly impacted by a variable heat source with temperature variations in a large range. In this work, a silica gel-water adsorption chiller driven by a variable heat source is experimentally studied. The influences of the variable heat source on the performance of the chiller are analyzed, especially for a continuous temperature increase process and a continuous temperature decrease process of the heat source. As an example, the dynamic characteristics of the heat source are also analyzed when solar energy is taken as the heat source of the adsorption chiller. According to the experimental results for the adsorption chiller and the characteristics of the heat source from solar energy, control strategies of the adsorption chiller driven by solar energy are proposed

  1. Thermodynamics of adsorption of dithiocarbamates at the hanging mercury drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Evangelos; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2007-02-27

    Two dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) pesticides, thiram and ziram, are adsorbed onto a Hg drop via an entropically driven process. The adsorption isotherms are described by the Frumkin equation. For both molecules, the adsorption is characterized by a nonlinear pseudosigmoid temperature dependence of the Gibbs free energy. For the temperature range of 273-313 K, DeltaGADS varies between -43.4 and -56.71 kJ/mol for thiram and -42.60 and -55.67 kJ/mol for ziram. This variation of DeltaGADS reveals that the adsorption strength is increased at higher temperatures. During the adsorption of either molecule, strong lateral interactions are developed between neighboring adsorbates, which are severely weakened as the temperature increases. A unified reaction scheme is suggested for both ziram and thiram that predicts the formation and adsorption of a surface complex, (DMDTC)2Hg. In the case of thiram, two DMDTC molecules are formed by the cleavage of the disulfide S-S bond near the Hg electrode. The thermodynamic and structural parameters reveal that there are two limiting thermodynamic regimes for the adsorbed (DMDTC)2Hg species that originate from two limiting adsorption conformations of the adsorbates on the Hg surface. A transition occurs between these two conformations at temperatures in the region of 285-295 K. This transition is accompanied by large entropic and enthalpic changes.

  2. Dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms of TFA adsorption by particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyu; Zhai, Zihan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ziyuan; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the atmosphere is produced by degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons. In recent years, TFA has attracted global attention because of increased environmental concentrations, biological toxicity and accumulation in aqueous environments. This study focused on the mechanisms underlying the adsorption of TFA by particulate matter to identify the appropriate descriptive model for this process and thus improve estimation of TFA adsorption in future environmental monitoring. Onsite gas and particle phase sampling in Beijing, China, and subsequent measurement of TFA concentrations indicated that the TFA concentration in the gas phase (1396 ± 225 pg m -3 ) was much higher than that in the particle phase (62 ± 8 pg m -3 ) and that monthly concentrations varied seasonally with temperature. Based on the field results and analysis, an adsorption experiment of TFA on soot was then conducted at three different temperatures (293, 303, and 313 K) to provide parameters for kinetic and thermodynamic modelling. The proportion of atmospheric TFA concentration in the gas phase increased with temperature, indicating that temperature affected the phase distribution of TFA. The subsequent kinetic and thermodynamic modelling showed that the adsorption of TFA by soot could be described well by the Bangham kinetic model. The adsorption was controlled by diffusion, and the key mechanism was physical adsorption. The adsorption behavior can be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG° (-2.34, -1.25, and -0.15 kJ mol -1  at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively), ΔH° (-34.34 kJ mol -1 ), and ΔS° (-109.22 J mol -1  K -1 ) for TFA adsorption by soot were negative, indicating that adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CO2/H2O adsorption equilibrium and rates on metal-organic frameworks: HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yu; Benin, Annabelle I; Jakubczak, Paulina; Willis, Richard R; LeVan, M Douglas

    2010-09-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently attracted intense research interest because of their permanent porous structures, huge surface areas, and potential applications as novel adsorbents and catalysts. In order to provide a basis for consideration of MOFs for removal of carbon dioxide from gases containing water vapor, such as flue gas, we have studied adsorption equilibrium of CO(2), H(2)O vapor, and their mixtures and also rates of CO(2) adsorption in two MOFs: HKUST-1 (CuBTC) and Ni/DOBDC (CPO-27-Ni or Ni/MOF-74). The MOFs were synthesized via solvothermal methods, and the as-synthesized products were solvent exchanged and regenerated before experiments. Pure component adsorption equilibria and CO(2)/H(2)O binary adsorption equilibria were studied using a volumetric system. The effects of H(2)O adsorption on CO(2) adsorption for both MOF samples were determined, and the results for 5A and NaX zeolites were included for comparison. The hydrothermal stabilities for the two MOFs over the course of repetitive measurements of H(2)O and CO(2)/H(2)O mixture equilibria were also studied. CO(2) adsorption rates from helium for the MOF samples were investigated by using a unique concentration-swing frequency response (CSFR) system. Mass transfer into the MOFs is rapid with the controlling resistance found to be macropore diffusion, and rate parameters were established for the mechanism.

  4. Operator control systems and methods for swing-free gantry-style cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Petterson, Ben J.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for eliminating swing motions in gantry-style cranes while subject to operator control is presented. The present invention comprises an infinite impulse response ("IIR") filter and a proportional-integral ("PI") feedback controller (50). The IIR filter receives input signals (46) (commanded velocity or acceleration) from an operator input device (45) and transforms them into output signals (47) in such a fashion that the resulting motion is swing free (i.e., end-point swinging prevented). The parameters of the IIR filter are updated in real time using measurements from a hoist cable length encoder (25). The PI feedback controller compensates for modeling errors and external disturbances, such as wind or perturbations caused by collision with objects. The PI feedback controller operates on cable swing angle measurements provided by a cable angle sensor (27). The present invention adjusts acceleration and deceleration to eliminate oscillations. An especially important feature of the present invention is that it compensates for variable-length cable motions from multiple cables attached to a suspended payload.

  5. An efficient pricing algorithm for swing options based on Fourier cosine expansions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Swing options give contract holders the right to modify amounts of future delivery of certain commodities, such as electricity or gas. We assume that these options can be exercised at any time before the end of the contract, and more than once. However, a recovery time between any two consecutive

  6. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Wittink, H.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which

  7. The Biomechanics of the Modern Golf Swing: Implications for Lower Back Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael H; Grimshaw, Paul N

    2016-03-01

    The modern golf swing is a complex and asymmetrical movement that places an emphasis on restricting pelvic turn while increasing thorax rotation during the backswing to generate higher clubhead speeds at impact. Increasing thorax rotation relative to pelvic rotation preloads the trunk muscles by accentuating their length and allowing them to use the energy stored in their elastic elements to produce more power. As the thorax and pelvis turn back towards the ball during the downswing, more skilled golfers are known to laterally slide their pelvis toward the target, which further contributes to final clubhead speed. However, despite the apparent performance benefits associated with these sequences, it has been argued that the lumbar spine is incapable of safely accommodating the forces they produce. This notion supports a link between the repeated performance of the golf swing and the development of golf-related low back injuries. Of the complaints reported by golfers, low back injuries continue to be the most prevalent, but the mechanism of these injuries is still poorly understood. This review highlights that there is a paucity of research directly evaluating the apparent link between the modern golf swing and golf-related low back pain. Furthermore, there has been a general lack of consensus within the literature with respect to the methods used to objectively assess the golf swing and the methods used to derived common outcome measures. Future research would benefit from a clear set of guidelines to help reduce the variability between studies.

  8. Jazz Style and Articulation: How to Get Your Band or Choir to Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of jazz style is crucial to the element of swing in any jazz ensemble performance. Today, many charts for both large and small instrumental and vocal jazz ensembles are well marked with articulations and expression markings. However, in some cases, there is nothing to guide the musician. This article addresses some common jazz…

  9. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  10. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  11. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  12. An efficient pricing algorithm for swing options based on Fourier cosine expansions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Zhang (Bo); C.W. Oosterlee (Kees)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractSwing options give contract holders the right to modify amounts of future delivery of certain commodities, such as electricity or gas. We assume that these options can be exercised at any time before the end of the contract, and more than once. However, a recovery time between any two

  13. Kinetic studies of uranyl ion adsorption on acrylonitrile (AN) / polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating networks (IPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycik, G.A.; Gurellier, R.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of the adsorption of uranyl ions on amidoximated acrylonitrile (AN)/ polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating network (IPNs) from aqueous solutions was studied as a function of time and temperature. Adsorption analyses were performed for definite uranyl ion concentrations of 1x10 -2 M and at four different temperatures as 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K. Adsorption time was increased from zero to 48 hours. Adsorption capacities of uranyl ions by PEG/AN IPNS were determined by gamma spectrometer. The results indicate that adsorption capacity increases linearly with increasing temperature. The max adsorption capacity was found as 602 mgu/g IPN at 308K. Adsorption rate was evaluated from the curve plotted of adsorption capacity versus time, for each temperature. Rate constants for uranyl ions adsorption on amidoximated ipns were calculated for 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K at the solution concentration of 1x10 -2 M . The results showed that as the temperature increases the rate constant increases exponentially too. The mean activation energy of uranyl ions adsorption was found as 34.6 kJ/mole by using arrhenius equation. (author)

  14. The behaviour of radionuclides in gas adsorption chromatographic processes with superimposed chemical reactions (chlorides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical relationships are derived describing the gas adsorption chromatographic transport of carrier-free radionuclides. Especially, complex adsorption processes such as dissociative, associative and substitutive adsorption are dealt with. The comparison of experimental with calculated data allows the determination of the type of adsorption reaction, which is the basis of the respective gas chromatographic process. The behaviour of carrier-free radionuclides of elements Pu, Ce, Ru, Co and Cr in thermochromatographic experiments with chlorinating carrier gases can be described as dissociative adsorption of chlorides in higher oxidation states. The gas adsorption chromatographic transport of Zr with oxygen and chlorine containing carrier gas is shown to be a substitutive adsorption process. The consequences of superimposed chemical reactions on the interpretation of results and the conception of gas adsorption chromatographic experiments with carrier-free radionuclides in isothermal columns and in temperature gradient tubes is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Application of activated carbon derived from scrap tires for adsorption of Rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Shuangxi; Zhu, Tan

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon derived from solid hazardous waste scrap tires was evaluated as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal. The adsorption process with respect to operating parameters was investigated to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the activated pyrolytic tire char (APTC) for Rhodamine B (RhB). Systematic research including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies was performed. The results showed that APTC was a potential adsorbent for RhB with a higher adsorption capacity than most adsorbents. Solution pH and temperature exert significant influence while ionic strength showed little effect on the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data obey Langmuir isotherm and the kinetic data were well described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process followed intra-particle diffusion model with more than one process affecting the adsorption process. Thermodynamic study confirmed that the adsorption was a physisorption process with spontaneous, endothermic and random characteristics.

  16. Adsorption of Monobutyl Phthalate from Aqueous Phase onto Two Macroporous Anion-Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwen Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As new emerging pollutants, phthalic acid monoesters (PAMs pose potential ecological and human health risks. In the present study, adsorption performance of monobutyl phthalate (MBP onto two macroporous base anion-exchange resins (D-201 and D-301 was discussed. It was found that the adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Langmuir equation while the adsorption kinetics were well described by pseudo-first-order model. Analyses of sorption isotherms and thermodynamics proved that the adsorption mechanisms for DBP onto D-201 were ion exchange. However, the obtained enthalpy values indicate that the sorption process of MBP onto D-301 is physical adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption capacities and adsorption rates of DBP on two different resins increased with the increasing temperature of the solution. D-301 exhibited a higher adsorption capacity of MBP than D-201. These results proved that D-301, as an effective sorbent, can be used to remove phthalic acid monoesters from aqueous solution.

  17. Adsorption behavior of strontium on binary mineral mixtures of Montmorillonite and Kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bascetin, Elvan [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, P.K.1 34149, Atatuerk Airport, Istanbul (Turkey); Atun, Guelten [Engineering Faculty, Chemistry Department, Istanbul University, 34850 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: gultena@istanbul.edu.tr

    2006-08-15

    The adsorption behavior of kaolinite and montmorillonite minerals and their mixtures in respect of Sr ion were studied by means of a batch method using {sup 90}Sr as a radio tracer. The effect of several parameters such as temperature, pH, Sr concentration and supporting electrolyte were investigated. Experimentally measured distribution coefficients showed a good agreement to within 98.5-99.7% with theoretically calculated values. The values of adsorption capacity of adsorbents and mean adsorption energy of adsorption were calculated by fitting the adsorption data to Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The adsorption capacity of clay mixtures decreased as kaolinite fractions increased. The mean adsorption energy values of 8.0-9.5 kJ mol{sup -1} showed that adsorption was governed by ion exchange. The Freundlich parameters were used to characterize a site distribution function for binary exchange between Sr and Na.

  18. Adsorption behavior of strontium on binary mineral mixtures of Montmorillonite and Kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascetin, Elvan; Atun, Guelten

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of kaolinite and montmorillonite minerals and their mixtures in respect of Sr ion were studied by means of a batch method using 90 Sr as a radio tracer. The effect of several parameters such as temperature, pH, Sr concentration and supporting electrolyte were investigated. Experimentally measured distribution coefficients showed a good agreement to within 98.5-99.7% with theoretically calculated values. The values of adsorption capacity of adsorbents and mean adsorption energy of adsorption were calculated by fitting the adsorption data to Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The adsorption capacity of clay mixtures decreased as kaolinite fractions increased. The mean adsorption energy values of 8.0-9.5 kJ mol -1 showed that adsorption was governed by ion exchange. The Freundlich parameters were used to characterize a site distribution function for binary exchange between Sr and Na

  19. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  20. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Amy, Gary; Chunggaze, Mohammed; Al-Ghasham, Tawfiq

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  1. Active gate driving method for reliability improvement of IGBTs via junction temperature swing reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    be changed according to the amplitude of AC current. Accordingly, a closed-loop thermal control method including the functions of root-mean-square calculation and phase analysis is proposed. Hence ΔTj can be reduced by means of changing losses-related gate resistors on the basis of output fundamental...

  2. Study of neon adsorption on carbon nanocones using molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, R.; Ghafoori Tabrizi, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulation to study Ne adsorption on carbon nanocones. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at several temperatures between 22.67 and 49.82 K. Adsorption coverage, isosteric heat, and binding energy were calculated. Adsorption was observed both inside and outside of an individual carbon nanocone. The results indicate that the saturation coverage and saturation pressure depend on temperature. At saturation conditions, the maximum values of interior and exterior coverages are 0.17 and 0.39 neon per carbon, respectively. The results are compared to Ne adsorption on open-ended single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is found that adsorption coverages on carbon nanocones are greater than those on carbon nanotubes. The isosteric heat and binding energy of neon adsorption on nanocones indicate that nanocones and nanotubes have highly desirable characteristics as an adsorbent.

  3. Study of neon adsorption on carbon nanocones using molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafoori Tabrizi, K., E-mail: k-tabrizi@sbu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We have used molecular dynamics simulation to study Ne adsorption on carbon nanocones. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at several temperatures between 22.67 and 49.82 K. Adsorption coverage, isosteric heat, and binding energy were calculated. Adsorption was observed both inside and outside of an individual carbon nanocone. The results indicate that the saturation coverage and saturation pressure depend on temperature. At saturation conditions, the maximum values of interior and exterior coverages are 0.17 and 0.39 neon per carbon, respectively. The results are compared to Ne adsorption on open-ended single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is found that adsorption coverages on carbon nanocones are greater than those on carbon nanotubes. The isosteric heat and binding energy of neon adsorption on nanocones indicate that nanocones and nanotubes have highly desirable characteristics as an adsorbent.

  4. Adsorption of procion red using layer double hydroxide Mg/Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Layer double hydroxide Mg/Al was synthesized by inorganic synthetic method. Material was characterized using FTIR and XRD analyses and used as adsorbent of procion red dye in aqueous medium.  Factors that affect the adsorption process are adsorption time as the kinetic parameter; and the temperature and concentration of procion red as the thermodynamic parameter. FTIR spectra of layer double hydroxides showed unique vibration at wavenumber 1300 cm-1 and 1600 cm-1. Characterization using XRD shows diffraction angles at 29o, 27o, and 28o, which are typical of Mg/Al double layer hydroxides. Adsorption of procion red using layer double hydroxide Mg/Al resulted adsorption rate 7.1 minutes-1, maximum adsorption capacity 111.1 mg/g at 60 oC with increasing energy by increasing adsorption temperature.   Keywords: Layered double hydroxides, adsorption, procion red.

  5. Hip joint torques during the golf swing of young and senior healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Judy L; Millar, Audrey L; Long, Benjamin L; Way, Michael; Vellucci, Matthew W; Vogler, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    Descriptive, laboratory study. To compare the 3-D hip torques during a golf swing between young and senior healthy male amateur golfers. The secondary purpose was to compare the 3-D hip joint torques between the trail leg and lead leg. The generation of hip torques from the hip musculature is an important aspect of the golf swing. Golf is a very popular activity, and estimates of hip torques during the golf swing have not been reported. Twenty healthy male golfers were divided into a young group (mean ± SD age, 25.1 ± 3.1 years) and a senior group (age, 56.9 ± 4.7 years). All subjects completed 10 golf swings using their personal driver. A motion capture system and force plates were used to obtain kinematic and kinetic data. Inverse dynamic analyses were used to calculate 3-D hip joint torques of the trail and lead limbs. Two-way analyses of covariance (group by leg), with club-head velocity as a covariate, were used to compare peak hip torques between groups and limbs. Trail-limb hip external rotator torque was significantly greater in the younger group compared to the senior group, and greater in the trail leg versus the lead leg. When adjusting for club-head velocity, young and senior healthy male amateur golfers generated comparable hip torques during a golf swing, with the exception of the trail-limb hip external rotator torque. The largest hip torque found was the trail-limb hip extensor torque.

  6. The "swing-ding": a golf-related head injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Arthur; Cohen, Alan R; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased incidence of golf-associated head injuries in children and adolescents. At the authors' institution, they have identified a unique pattern of head injury associated with a swinging golf club. In this study, the authors highlight the mechanism of this injury and report their experience treating it. The authors reviewed the database of Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital Trauma Center and performed a retrospective analysis of golf injuries recorded over a 10-year period (January 2000-April 2010). They identified 13 children (9 boys and 4 girls) who sustained head injuries in golfing accidents. All patients were 10 years of age or younger. The medical charts were reviewed and follow-up interviews were conducted to better delineate the details of the injuries. Injuries included 13 depressed skull fractures, 7 epidural hematomas, and 1 cerebral contusion. All 13 patients sustained their injuries after being struck in the head by a golf club. Seven sustained injuries on the follow-through of the initial swing and 3 sustained injuries on the backswing. All but one patient required neurosurgical intervention. Five patients developed neurological sequelae. None of the children had prior experience with golf equipment. All but one injury occurred in the child's own backyard. There was no direct supervision by an adult in any of the cases. Golfing can lead to serious head injuries in children. The authors noticed a unique pattern of golf-related head injuries, previously not described, that they have termed the "swing-ding." This golf club-inflicted injury occurs when a child stands too close to a swinging golfer and is struck in the head, subsequently sustaining a comminuted depressed skull fracture in the frontal or temporal region, with or without further intracranial injury. The study suggests that a lack of adult supervision, minimal previous golf experience, and proximity of the child to the swinging golfer are all

  7. [Polish adaptation of swing questionnaire (Survey Work-home Interaction - Nijmegen)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcka-Teske, Agnieszka; Merecz, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the Polish adaptation of Survey Work-Home Interaction - Nijmegen (SWING). The analyses were based on the survey results from two groups of subjects, a sample of workers, representative in terms of sex and age, living in urban areas (N = 600) and a group of 59 employees examined twice with a help of SWING to assess the stability of the obtained results over a month time. The analyses performed proved that the Polish version of SWING is a reliable tool for studying work-home interactions. Correlation coefficients of items with total result of negative work-home interaction (WHI) subscale varied from 0.51 to 0.74, with positive WHI subscale from 0.26 to 0.60, negative home-work interaction (HWI) subscale, from 0.54 to 0.68 and positive HWI subscale from 0.31 to 0.59. Cronbach's alpha for the whole survey was 0.79, and for subscales varied from 0.73 to 0.89. The results of factorial analysis confirmed a our-factor structure of SWING. Factors I, items had loading from 0.58 to 0.81; II, from 0.29 to 0.78; III, from 0.60 to 0.80; and IV, from 0.28 to 0.74. The values of fit index for a four-factor model, were 0.91 (NNFI), 0.06 (RMSEA), and 0.92 (CFI), which means that this model is characterized by a good fit to empirical data. The correlation coefficient between two measurements at one month interval were also high and reached the range of 0.63 to 0.84. The results obtained are comparable to the psychometric characteristic of the English version of SWING.

  8. Physical adsorption and molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohan, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of noble gases adsorption (except He) on graphite substracts are reviewed. Experimental results from this adsorption are analyzed and compared with molecular dynamics calculations. (L.C.) [pt

  9. Investigation kinetics mechanisms of adsorption malachite green onto activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Y.; Akmil-Basar, C.; Sarici-Ozdemir, C.

    2007-01-01

    Lignite was used to prepare activated carbon (T3K618) by chemical activation with KOH. Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by t-plot based on N 2 adsorption isotherm. BET surface area of activated carbon is determined as 1000 m 2 /g. Adsorption capacity of malachite green (MG) onto T3K618 activated carbon was investigated in a batch system by considering the effects of various parameters like initial concentration (100, 150 and 200 mg/L) and temperature (25, 40 and 50 deg. C). The adsorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 20 min for 100, 150 mg/L at all adsorption temperature. Equilibrium time for 200 mg/L was determined as 20 min and 40 min at 298, 313 and 323 K, respectively. Simple mass and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of adsorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion. Pseudo second-order model was found to explain the kinetics of MG adsorption most effectively. It was found that both mass transfer and pore diffusion are important in determining the adsorption rates. The intraparticle diffusion rate constant, external mass transfer coefficient, film and pore diffusion coefficient at various temperatures were evaluated. The activation energy (E a ) was determined as 48.56, 63.16, 67.93 kJ/mol for 100, 150, 200 mg/L, respectively. The Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium studies at different temperatures. Langmiur isotherm shows better fit than Freundlich isotherm in the temperature range studied. The thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔS and ΔH o were calculated. The thermodynamics of dyes-T3K618 system indicates endothermic process

  10. Volatile organic compounds adsorption using different types of adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimanmes Chanayotha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adsorbents were synthesized from coconut shell, coal and coke by pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process. These synthesized materials were used as adsorbents in adsorption test to determine the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs namely, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and Alkanes standard solution (C8-C20. The adsorption capacities of both synthesized adsorbents and commercial grade adsorbents (Carbotrap™ B and Carbotrap™ C were also compared. It was found that adsorbent A402, which was produced from coconut shell, activated with 40% (wt. potassium hydroxide and at activating temperature of 800°C for 1 hr, could adsorb higher amount of both HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane than other synthesized adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent A402 in adsorbing HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane were 77.87% and 50.82% respectively. These adsorption capabilities were 79.73% and 70.07% of the adsorption capacity of the commercial adsorbent Carbotrap™ B respectively. All three types of the synthesized adsorbent (A402, C302, C402 showed the capability to adsorb alkanes standard solution through the range of C8-C20 . However, their adsorption capacities were high in a specific range of C10-C11. The result from the isotherm plot was indicated that surface adsorption of synthesized adsorbent was isotherm type I while the surface adsorption of commercial adsorbent was isotherm type III.

  11. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietra, R P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  12. Study of adsorption properties of impregnated charcoal for airborne iodine and methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi-dong, L.; Sui-yuang, H.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of airborne radioiodine and methyl iodide on impregnated charcoal were investigated. The activated charcoal tested was made from home-made oil-palm shells, and KI and TEDA were used as impregnants. A new technique was used to plot the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm at challenge concentrations (concentration range of iodine: 1-20 ppm v/v). Some adsorption properties of the impregnated charcoal were estimated with the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm. The dependences of the adsorption capacity and penetration behavior for airborne iodine and methyl iodide on the ambient conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and superficial velocity) were studied

  13. Mesoporous hydroxyapatite: Preparation, drug adsorption, and release properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Lina; He, Xiaomei; Wu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zhenyuwuhn@sina.com

    2014-11-14

    Mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized through gas–liquid chemical precipitation method at ambient temperature without any template. Structure, morphology and pore size distribution of HA were analyzed via X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) was used to investigate the drug adsorption and release behavior of HA. The kinetics of DOX adsorption on HA followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. Adsorption isotherms at various temperatures were obtained, and the equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir model. The values of thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy changes) demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. In vitro pH-responsive (pH = 7.4, 5.8) controlled release was investigated. DOX-loaded HA showed a slow, long-term, and steady release rate. The release rate at pH5.8 was larger than that at pH7.4. Consequently, the as-prepared mesoporous HA has potential applications in controlled drug delivery systems. - Highlights: • Mesoporous HA was synthesized by a simple precipitation method without any template. • The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. • Thermodynamics investigation showed that adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. • DOX-loaded HA showed a long-term, steady, and pH-controlled release rate.

  14. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on ferroaluminophosphate for desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of microporous ferroaluminophosphate adsorbent (FAM-Z01, Mitsubishi Plastics) are evaluated for possible application in adsorption desalination and cooling (AD) cycles. A particular interest is its water vapor uptake behavior at assorted adsorption temperatures and pressures whilst comparing them to the commercial silica gels of AD plants. The surface characteristics are first carried out using N2 gas adsorption followed by the water vapor uptake analysis for temperature ranging from 20°C to 80°C. We propose a hybrid isotherm model, composing of the Henry and the Sips isotherms, which can be integrated to satisfactorily fit the experimental data of water adsorption on the FAM-Z01. The hybrid model is selected to fit the unusual isotherm shapes, that is, a low adsorption in the initial section and followed by a rapid vapor uptake leading to a likely micropore volume filling by hydrogen bonding and cooperative interaction in micropores. It is shown that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of FAM-Z01 can be up to 5 folds higher than that of conventional silica gels. Owing to the quantum increase in the adsorbate uptake, the FAM-Z01 has the potential to significantly reduce the footprint of an existing AD plant for the same output capacity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds by polytetra-fluor ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinet, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    The sorption of organic vapours by microporous polytetra-fluor ethylene has been studied gravimetrically using a Mc Bain-Baker type sorption balance. The amount of sorption, the peculiarities observed on the isotherm curves, the small influence of temperature, and smallness of hysteresis suggests that mainly physical adsorption occurs when the temperature is around 25 deg. C. The values of the surface areas obtained from the adsorption isotherms using organic vapours differ greatly from those derived from N 2 adsorption measurements. This discrepancy cannot be completely attributed to differences in the structure and chemical function of the adsorbate molecules, or to the porous structure of the adsorbent. On the contrary, the surface area values obtained by sorbing high volatile freons conform with those measured by nitrogen adsorption, which seems to imply a connection between the area of sorbed monolayers and volatility of the adsorbate. (author) [fr

  16. Adsorption of vitamin E on mesoporous titania nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.J.; Lin, C.T.; Wu, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Tri-block nonionic surfactant and titanium chloride were used as starting materials for the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystallite powders. The main objective of the present study was to examine the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystals and the adsorption of vitamin E on those nanocrystals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. When the calcination temperature was increased to 300 o C, the reflection peaks in the XRD pattern indicated the presence of an anatase phase. The crystallinity of the nanocrystallites increased from 80% to 98.6% with increasing calcination temperature from 465 o C to 500 o C. The N 2 adsorption data and XRD data taken after vitamin E adsorption revealed that the vitamin E molecules were adsorbed in the mesopores of the titania nanocrystals.

  17. Adsorption of vitamin E on mesoporous titania nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.T.; Wu, S.M. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-15

    Tri-block nonionic surfactant and titanium chloride were used as starting materials for the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystallite powders. The main objective of the present study was to examine the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystals and the adsorption of vitamin E on those nanocrystals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. When the calcination temperature was increased to 300 {sup o}C, the reflection peaks in the XRD pattern indicated the presence of an anatase phase. The crystallinity of the nanocrystallites increased from 80% to 98.6% with increasing calcination temperature from 465 {sup o}C to 500 {sup o}C. The N{sub 2} adsorption data and XRD data taken after vitamin E adsorption revealed that the vitamin E molecules were adsorbed in the mesopores of the titania nanocrystals.

  18. Adsorption of Radioactive Chromium onto Iron Oxide Coated Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, N.

    2008-01-01

    Iron oxide coated sand (IOCS) has been prepared and used as granular sorbent for 51 Cr radionuclide at different and specified concentration Ievels in aqueous solutions of constant ph value. Effect of different parameters such as: ph variation, contact time, 51 Cr ion concentration and variation of temperature on the adsorption of the radionuclide onto IOCS material have been discussed. At high ph value about 9()% of 51 Cr is adsorbed onto IOCS from the aqueous solution, The sorption capability of 51 Cr and the effect of ion concentration on the adsorbitivity have been discussed. Adsorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were expressed and their adsorption isotherm parameters are tabulated

  19. Adsorption of acid dye onto activated Algerian clay

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bendaho; T. A. Driss; D. Bassou

    2017-01-01

    In this work, activated clay from Algeria was used as adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution, for this, the effects of several parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, pH value of aqueous solution and temperature on the adsorption of MO were also studied. The results showed that nearly 30 min of contact time are found to be sufficient for the adsorption to reach equilibrium and the adsorption was favourable at lower pH. The acid dye concentration is meas...

  20. Response surface modeling of boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using different adsorption agents: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçivi, Pelin; Saygılı, Gülhayat Nasün

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a different method was applied for boron removal by using vermiculite as the adsorbent. Vermiculite, which was used in the experiments, was not modified with adsorption agents before boron adsorption using a separate process. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and Gallic acid (GA) were used as adsorption agents for vermiculite by maintaining the solid/liquid ratio at 12.5 g/L. HDTMA/GA concentration, contact time, pH, initial boron concentration, inert electrolyte and temperature effects on boron adsorption were analyzed. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design model combined with response surface method (RSM) was employed to examine and optimize process variables for boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using HDTMA and GA. Solution pH (2-12), temperature (25-60 °C) and initial boron concentration (50-8,000 mg/L) were chosen as independent variables and coded x 1 , x 2 and x 3 at three levels (-1, 0 and 1). Analysis of variance was used to test the significance of variables and their interactions with 95% confidence limit (α = 0.05). According to the regression coefficients, a second-order empirical equation was evaluated between the adsorption capacity (q i ) and the coded variables tested (x i ). Optimum values of the variables were also evaluated for maximum boron adsorption by vermiculite-HDTMA (HDTMA-Verm) and vermiculite-GA (GA-Verm).

  1. Adsorption and dehydrogenation of tetrahydroxybenzene on Cu(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bebensee, Fabian; Svane, K.; Bombis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of tetrahydroxybenzene (THB) on Cu(111) and Au(111) surfaces is studied using a combination of STM, XPS, and DFT. THB is deposited intact, but on Cu(111) it undergoes gradual dehydrogenation of the hydroxyl groups as a function of substrate temperature, yielding a pure dihydroxy......-benzoquinone phase at 370 K. Subtle changes to the adsorption structure upon dehydrogenation are explained from differences in molecule–surface bonding....

  2. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  3. Effects of basic nitrogen poisoning on adsorption of hydrogen on a hydrotreatment catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entz, R.W.; Seapan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Activity of a hydrotreatment catalyst depends on the hydrogen adsorption characteristics of the catalyst. In this work, the adsorption of hydrogen on a Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst (shell 324) has been studied using a TGA at 1 atm pressure and 200-400 0 C temperature. Hydrogen adsorption on a calcined catalyst was shown to be of activated type with a sudden increase in hydrogen adsorption around 350 0 C. When the catalyst is extracted with Tetrahydrofuran (THF), the hydrogen adsorption increases gradually as the temperature is increased, approaching a monolayer coverage of the catalyst surface. It is shown that solvent extraction of catalyst changes its hydrogen adsorption characteristics significantly. Indeed, at 400 0 C, an extracted catalyst adsorbs about four times more hydrogen than an unextracted catalyst. Adsorption of basic nitrogen compounds on the catalyst interferes with the hydrogen adsorption. The adsorption of pyridine, piperidine, n-pentylamine, and ammonia were studied at 400 0 C. It is shown that the strength of adsorption of piperidine and n-pentylamine are relatively similar, however their adsorption strength is higher than pyridine. Ammonia is the weakest adsorbing compound studied. These observations are in agreement with other studies

  4. Effect of agitation speed on adsorption of imidacloprid on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, M.

    2011-01-01

    The adsorptive characteristics of imidacloprid on powdered activated carbon were described. The adsorption experiments were carried out as function of time, initial concentration and agitation speed. The equilibrium data fits well to Langmuir adsorption isotherm, while the kinetic data fits well to Pseudo second order kinetic model. The kinetic experiments were carried out at 200, 250, 300 and 350 rpm and it was found that the equilibrium time increases with increase in initial concentration and decreases with increase in agitation speed. This is due to the increased turbulence and as a consequence, the decrease boundary layer thickness around the adsorbent particles as a result of increasing the degree of mixing. At 300 rpm the adsorption capacity was maximum and beyond this there was no significant increase in adsorption capacity. Weber intra particle diffusion model was used to describe the adsorption mechanism. It was found that both the boundary layer and intra particle diffusion for both adsorbents played important role in the adsorption mechanisms of the adsorbate. The effects of temperature and pH on adsorption were also studied. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent decreases with increase in temperature. There was no significant change in adsorption from pH 2 to 8, however at high pH a decrease in adsorption of imidacloprid on activated carbon was observed. (author)

  5. Kinetic and equilibrium study of adsorption of di-azo dyes on commercial activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyali, E.A.S.A.; Abady, T.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work is concerned with studying the adsorption of a number of di-azo dyes on commercial activated carbon (CAC). The synthesized dyes vary in their structures by the central parts. which are either ortho, meta or para phenvlene diamine. This variation affects the linearity of molecules, their spatial arrangement and electron movement throughout the molecule by resonance. Factors a fleeting adsorption process, such as the efiect of contact time, initial concentration, p1-I of the adsorption medium, adsorbent dose, effect of solvent and temperature were studied. The results indicated that, the adsorption process is fast in the first 10 mm, then gradually decreased with time and approaches maximum within 70-80 min for all the studied dyes. The increase of initial concentration and temperature decreased the adsorption efficiency. The results also shows that, the adsorption is found to be more efficient at low Ph value. The increase of the adsorbent dose increases the adsorption efficiency and decreases its capacity. The variation of solvent (ethanol-water ratio) indicates that the decrease of dielectric constant lowers the adsorption efficiency. The study included application of three adsorption isotherms, Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin on the experimental data of the studied systems. The results indicated that, Freundlich isotherm fits better the adsorption data. Kinetic analysis of the adsorption data was also conducted by employing 4 kinetic models; pseudo first order and pseudo second order, Elovich and intra particle diffusion equations. The results obtained conclude that, the studied systems follow the Pseudo second order model. (author)

  6. A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Stoeck, Ulrich; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M; Zander, Stefan; Pillai, Renjith S; Maurin, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-04-21

    Adsorption-based phenomena are important in gas separations, such as the treatment of greenhouse-gas and toxic-gas pollutants, and in water-adsorption-based heat pumps for solar cooling systems. The ability to tune the pore size, shape and functionality of crystalline porous coordination polymers--or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)--has made them attractive materials for such adsorption-based applications. The flexibility and guest-molecule-dependent response of MOFs give rise to unexpected and often desirable adsorption phenomena. Common to all isothermal gas adsorption phenomena, however, is increased gas uptake with increased pressure. Here we report adsorption transitions in the isotherms of a MOF (DUT-49) that exhibits a negative gas adsorption; that is, spontaneous desorption of gas (methane and n-butane) occurs during pressure increase in a defined temperature and pressure range. A combination of in situ powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption experiments and simulations shows that this adsorption behaviour is controlled by a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction of the MOF, which releases guest molecules. These findings may enable technologies using frameworks capable of negative gas adsorption for pressure amplification in micro- and macroscopic system engineering. Negative gas adsorption extends the series of counterintuitive phenomena such as negative thermal expansion and negative refractive indices and may be interpreted as an adsorptive analogue of force-amplifying negative compressibility transitions proposed for metamaterials.

  7. Adsorptivity of uranium by aluminium-activated carbon composite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Ayako; Takagi, Norio; Miyai, Yoshitaka

    1976-01-01

    To research the adsorption process of uranium from sea water by aluminium-activated carbon composite adsorbent (C-Al-OH), the authors examined the effects of temperature, pH and carbonate ion concentration of the solution upon the adsorption of uranium, using sodium chloride solution and natural sea water. The continued mixing of the solution for the duration of two to four hours was required to attain the apparent equilibrium of adsorption. The adsorption velocity at an early stage and the uptake of uranium at the final stage showed an increase in proportion to a rise in the adsorption temperature. In the experiment of adsorption for which sodium chloride solution was used, the linear relationship between the logarithm of the distribution coefficient (K sub(d)) and the pH of the solution was recognized. The uptake of the uranium from the solution at the pH of 12 increased as the carbonate ion concentration in the solution decreased. The uranyl ion in the natural sea water was assumed to be uranyl carbonate complex ion (UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- ). As the result of the calculation conducted by using the formation constants for uranyl complexes in literature, it was found that uranyl hydroxo complex ion (UO 2 (OH) 3 - ) increased in line with a decrease of the carbonate ion concentration in the solution. The above results of the experiment suggested that the adsorption of uranium by the adsorbent (C-Al-OH) was cationic adsorption or hydrolysis adsorption being related with the active proton on the surface of the adsorbent. (auth.)

  8. Traps for phosphorus adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Nawer D; Villegas, Wilson E; Rodriguez, Lino M; Taborda, Nelson; Montes de C, Consuelo

    2001-01-01

    Several AL 2 O 3 supported oxides such as: NiO, CuO, Co 2 O 3 BaO, CeO 2 and ZnO were investigated for phosphorus adsorption. Zno/y-Al 2 O 3 exhibited the highest phosphorus adsorption capacity. However, since it diminishes the activity of to the reaction mixture it should be located upstream of the NoX catalyst, i.e. 0,3% Pd-H-MOR, in order to protect it against p poisoning. The treatment procedure with citric acid was effective for the removal of more than 70% phosphorus from the adsorbent, ZnO/y-Al 2 O 3

  9. Adsorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Aqueous Solution by Granular Activated Carbon in Batch System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeinali, F.; Ghoreyshi, A. A.; Najafpour, G.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons and aromatics are the major volatile organic compounds that contaminate the ground water and industrial waste waters. The best way to overcome this problem is to recover the dissolved compounds in water. In order to evaluate the potential ability of granular activated carbon for recovery of volatile organic compounds from water, the equilibrium adsorption was investigated. This study deals with the adsorption of dichloromethane as a typical chlorinated volatile organic compound and toluene as the representative of aromatic volatile organic compounds on a commercial granular activated carbon. The adsorption isotherms of these two volatile organic compounds on granular activated carbon were measured at three different temperatures, toluene at 293, 303 and 313 K and dichloromethane at 298, 303 and 313 K within their solubility concentration range in water. The maximum adsorption capacity of dichloromethane and toluene adsorption by granular activated carbon was 4 and 0.2 mol/Kg-1, respectively. The experimental data obtained were correlated with different adsorption isotherm models. The Langmuir model was well adapted to the description of dichloromethane adsorption on granular activated carbon at all three temperatures, while the adsorption of toluene on granular activated carbon was found to be well described by the Langmuir-BET hybrid model at all three temperatures. The heat of adsorption was also calculated based on the thermodynamic equation of Clausius Clapeyron, which indicates the adsorption process is endothermic for both compounds.

  10. Water on TiO2 studied by work function change: adsorption in cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundaleski, Nenad; Silva, Ana G; Jean-Shaw, Bobbie; Teodoro, Orlando; Moutinho, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The nature of water adsorption on TiO 2 (110) rutile surface attracts a lot of attention for quite some time. In spite of the considerable experimental and theoretical efforts a lot of details remain unclear. We have been using work function study to follow the adsorption of water on TiO 2 at room temperature, and interpreted the results in terms of fast dissociative adsorption on bridging oxygen vacancies (BOV) and much slower non-dissociative adsorption on Ti 5f rows. Additionally, we concluded that water from Ti 5f rows efficiently desorbs at room temperature which is not the case for BOV adsorption sites. Here we propose a novel experimental approach which consists of monitoring in real-time the work function change during cycles of water adsorption. Since desorption at BOVs does not take place at room temperature, this method allows us to resolve the adsorption dynamics on the two adsorption sites. The first results changed our understanding of the phenomenon: we show that both, adsorption on BOVs and Ti 5f are both very fast. Additionally, slow exponential decay of the work function is observed, which is not directly related to water adsorption. The possible explanation of the third slow contribution could be related to the migration of hydrogen atoms along the bridging oxygen rows.

  11. Maxillary Swing Approach for Removal of Palatal Carcinoma: A Modified Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Nomura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report a modification of the maxillary swing approach to remove a palatal tumor while preserving the anterior alveolar area. Methods. Case report using clinical records. Results. The patient was a 54-year-old male. TNM grade was T4bN0M0, and invasion to the base of the pterygoid process was seen. Two courses of induction chemotherapy were administered prior to the operation. Because there was no evidence of anterior maxillary invasion, the maxillary swing approach was chosen. The left anterior maxilla was cut and swung laterally, preserving the blood supply. After removal of the palatal tumor, the maxilla was repositioned and the defect was restored with an anterior lateral thigh flap. Postoperative course was typical, and facial appearance, speech, and masticatory function were satisfactory. Conclusions. This technique is particularly useful for preserving appearance as well as speech and mastication.

  12. Determination of the optimal conditions for inclination maneuvers using a Swing-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, O.; Celestino, C. C.; Prado, A. F. B. A.

    2018-05-01

    The search for methods to reduce the fuel consumption in orbital transfers is something relevant and always current in astrodynamics. Therefore, the maneuvers assisted by the gravity, also called Swing-by maneuvers, can be an advantageous option to save fuel. The proposal of the present research is to explore the influence of some parameters in a Swing-by of an artificial satellite orbiting a planet with one of the moons of this mother planet, with the goal of changing the inclination of the artificial satellite around the main body of the system. The fuel consumption of this maneuver is compared with the required consumption to perform the same change of inclination using the classical approach of impulsive maneuvers.

  13. Validation of an Inertial Sensor System for Swing Analysis in Golf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lückemann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wearable inertial sensor systems are an upcoming tool for self-evaluation in sports, and can be used for swing analysis in golf. The aim of this work was to determine the validity and repeatability of an inertial sensor system attached to a player’s glove using a radar system as a reference. 20 subjects performed five full swings with each of three different clubs (wood, 7-iron, wedge. Clubhead speed was measured simultaneously by both sensor systems. Limits of Agreement were used to determine the accuracy and precision of the inertial sensor system. Results show that the inertial sensor system is quite accurate but with a lack of precision. Random error was quantified to approximately 17 km/h. The measurement error was dependent on the club type and was weakly negatively correlated to the magnitude of clubhead speed.

  14. Method for estimating steam hammer effects on swing-check valves during closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uram, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships are developed for estimating the disk impact velocity resulting from a free swing closure of swing-check valves in normal flow and for pipe rupture. They derive from a phase-plane solution of the differential equation for the disk motion that accounts for the nature of the valve pressure drop variation due to steam-hammer effects during closure. For closure in normal flow, the method presented has a more correct foundation than that given in reference where a constant, average valve pressure differential based upon the steady-state pressure drop for the total piping system (which has no real relationship to the steam-hammer-induced valve pressure changes during the closure transient) is used in the valve disk motion equation

  15. Treatment of uncertainty through the interval smart/swing weighting method: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flávio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly competitive market means that many decisions must be taken, quickly and with precision, in complex, high risk scenarios. This combination of factors makes it necessary to use decision aiding methods which provide a means of dealing with uncertainty in the judgement of the alternatives. This work presents the use of the MAUT method, combined with the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method. Although multicriteria decision aiding was not conceived specifically for tackling uncertainty, the combined use of MAUT and the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method allows approaching decision problems under uncertainty. The main concepts which are involved in these two methods are described and their joint application to the case study concerning the selection of a printing service supplier is presented. The case study makes use of the WINPRE software as a support tool for the calculation of dominance. It is then concluded that the proposed approach can be applied to decision making problems under uncertainty.

  16. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES ON THE ADSORPTION OF Cu2+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Amine-modified bentonite, TEPA, Heavy metal ions, Adsorption ..... charged due to the isomorphous substitutions within the layers of Al3+ for Si4+ in ... temperature, high temperature was advantageous for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ ...

  18. A new theoretical approach to adsorption desorption behavior of Ga on GaAs surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangawa, Y.; Ito, T.; Taguchi, A.; Shiraishi, K.; Ohachi, T.

    2001-11-01

    We propose a new theoretical approach for studying adsorption-desorption behavior of atoms on semiconductor surfaces. The new theoretical approach based on the ab initio calculations incorporates the free energy of gas phase; therefore we can calculate how adsorption and desorption depends on growth temperature and beam equivalent pressure (BEP). The versatility of the new theoretical approach was confirmed by the calculation of Ga adsorption-desorption transition temperatures and transition BEPs on the GaAs(0 0 1)-(4×2)β2 Ga-rich surface. This new approach is feasible to predict how adsorption and desorption depend on the growth conditions.

  19. Diffusion Influenced Adsorption Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toshiaki; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-27

    When the kinetics of adsorption is influenced by the diffusive flow of solutes, the solute concentration at the surface is influenced by the surface coverage of solutes, which is given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation. The diffusion equation with the boundary condition given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation leads to the nonlinear integro-differential equation for the surface coverage. In this paper, we solved the nonlinear integro-differential equation using the Grünwald-Letnikov formula developed to solve fractional kinetics. Guided by the numerical results, analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the exact numerical results were obtained. The upper and lower bounds were close to the exact numerical results in the diffusion- and reaction-controlled limits, respectively. We examined the validity of the two simple analytical expressions obtained in the diffusion-controlled limit. The results were generalized to include the effect of dispersive diffusion. We also investigated the effect of molecular rearrangement of anisotropic molecules on surface coverage.

  20. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  1. An electromechanical swing-phase-controlled prosthetic knee joint for conversion of physiological energy to electrical energy: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrysek, Jan; Chau, Gilbert

    2007-12-01

    Microprocessor-controlled prostheses facilitate a more natural and efficient gait for individuals with above-knee amputations by continually adjusting the level of swing-phase damping. One caveat associated with these technologies is that the user must charge the onboard batteries on a daily basis. It is, therefore, the aim of this study to examine the feasibility of using an electromechanical system to provide prosthetic swing-phase damping and, concomitantly, the function of converting physiological energy that is normally dissipated during the swing phase, to electrical energy. Gait data from a single subject and data from a kinematic simulator were used to develop an empirical model. The findings in this study indicate that an electromagnetic system has appropriate characteristics for use in swing-phase control and also has the potential to recover energy under particular conditions.

  2. Direct measurements of adsorption heats of hydrogen on nano-porous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiko Matsumoto; Kazumasa Yamamoto; Tomoyuki Miyata

    2005-01-01

    Since a exciting report of hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nano-tubes by Dillon and his colleagues, nano-porous carbon materials, such as carbon nano-tubes, carbon nano-horns and micro-porous activated carbon, have attracted considerable attention as hydrogen storage materials. Adsorption plays a predominating role in the hydrogen storage process on solid surfaces. The adsorption is a spontaneous process, which is caused by interaction between gas molecules and surface, hence, it is always exothermic process and observed as adsorption heats. For this reason, direct measurement of the adsorption heats by adsorption micro-calorimetry would provide quantitative information on the strength of adsorption interaction and the adsorption mechanism. However, the adsorption amounts of hydrogen on carbon materials are far less than those of condensable vapors near room temperature due to low critical temperature of hydrogen (33.2 K), therefore, the adsorption heats can not be determined accurately at conventional measurement conditions near room temperature and the atmospheric pressure. This contribution reports the calorimetric characterization of hydrogen adsorption on nano-porous carbon materials at low temperature and high-pressure conditions. The high-pressure adsorption apparatus consists of a volumetric adsorption line connected to a twin-conduction type microcalorimeter. Activated carbon fibers (ACF, Ad'all Co.) of different micro-pore sizes (Table 1) were used as model adsorbents. Each ACF has slit-shaped micropores of uniform size. The adsorption isotherms and differential heats of adsorption at high-pressure region from 0 to 10 MPa were simultaneously measured at isothermal condition from 203 to 298 K. The adsorption isotherms on ACF were of Henry type regardless of adsorption temperature and pore width; the uptakes increased linearly with equilibrium pressure. The adsorption isotherm at lower sorption temperature tended to show higher sorptivity. The

  3. Direct measurements of adsorption heats of hydrogen on nano-porous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiko, Matsumoto; Kazumasa, Yamamoto; Tomoyuki, Miyata

    2005-01-01

    Since a exciting report of hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nano-tubes by Dillon and his colleagues [1], nano-porous carbon materials, such as carbon nano-tubes, carbon nano-horns and micro-porous activated carbon, have attracted considerable attention as hydrogen storage materials. Adsorption plays a predominating role in the hydrogen storage process on solid surfaces. The adsorption is a spontaneous process, which is caused by interaction between gas molecules and surface, hence, it is always exothermic process and observed as adsorption heats. For this reason, direct measurement of the adsorption heats by adsorption microcalorimetry would provide quantitative information on the strength of adsorption interaction and the adsorption mechanism. However, the adsorption amounts of hydrogen on carbon materials are far less than those of condensable vapors near room temperature due to low critical temperature of hydrogen (33.2 K), therefore, the adsorption heats can not be determined accurately at conventional measurement conditions near room temperature and the atmospheric pressure. This contribution reports the calorimetric characterization of hydrogen adsorption on nano-porous carbon materials at low temperature and high-pressure conditions. The high-pressure adsorption apparatus consists of a volumetric adsorption line connected to a twin-conduction type microcalorimeter. Activated carbon fibers (ACF, Ad'all Co.) of different micropore sizes (Table 1) were used as model adsorbents. Each ACF has slit-shaped micropores of uniform size [2]. The adsorption isotherms and differential heats of adsorption at high-pressure region from 0 to 10 MPa were simultaneously measured at isothermal condition from 203 to 298 K. The adsorption isotherms on ACF were of Henry type regardless of adsorption temperature and pore width; the uptakes increased linearly with equilibrium pressure. The adsorption isotherm at lower sorption temperature tended to show higher sorptivity

  4. Analysis on one type of swing option in the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, Hetal A.

    2005-01-01

    In the Nordic electricity market most of the trading takes place in derivates and options. To describe these products theoretically one needs to have knowledge from stochastic analysis. This thesis will derive a price model for one type of swing option in energy market. The main aim of writing this thesis is to introduce coal power plant and how to approach the problem if such power plant is built in Norway. This thesis uses the approach where I start out with a model for the spot price of electricity and coal, and then derive theoretical option prices. I use a Schwartz process for model and Ornstein Uhlenbeck processes to model the spot prices for electricity and coal. This model also incorporates mean-reversion, which is an important aspect of energy prices. Historical data for the spot prices is used to estimate my variables in the Schwartz model. The main objectives of this thesis were to find the price for a tolling contract in energy market and production volume that is producers control function. The first chapters gives an over view about the agreement and the formula used to derive the price. The second chapter provided me with the material I needed to derive these price and production volume such as dynamics for the spot prices for electricity and coal and their solution. Third chapter gives a statistical look on these stochastic processes. In the last chapter I tested the price model for stochastic control problem and found that the swing option can be bound in two ways: 1. Swing option limited as Margrabes solution. 2. Swing option limited as spread option. The use of the model is discussed. (Author)

  5. Study of limited angle swing laminography and its application in the inspection of flat components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Ming; Li Zheng; Wang Jing; Cheng Jianping; Wang Xuewu; Kang Kejun

    2002-01-01

    It is important to inspect the inner defects, density distribution of the multi-structure complex material. The conflict of resolution of reconstructed image and reconstruction efficiency baffled people long when applying radiation laminography to that kind of material. Limited angle swing laminography algorithm was put forward. A simulation of printed circuits board by MATLAB attested the rationality and high efficiency of this algorithm. Based upon the simulation, the principle of choosing optimal projection angle was discussed. Finally, an application example was given

  6. Effects of Kettlebell Swing vs. Explosive Deadlift Training on Strength and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Maulit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has compared explosive deadlift to kettlebell training observing their effects on strength. The kettlebell swing is a popular practical exercise as it shares share a hip hinge movement with the explosive deadlift, but the two have not been compared. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of kettlebell swing vs. explosive deadlift training on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one recreationally resistance-trained men (age = 23.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 175.5 ± 6.6 cm, mass = 83.9 ± 13.8 kg, 1RM deadlift = 159.9 ± 31.7 kg were randomly assigned to one of two groups [kettlebell swing group (KBG n = 15, or explosive deadlift group (EDLG n = 16]. Vertical jump height, isometric mid-thigh pull (MTP, and 1RM deadlift were measured pre and post training. Both groups trained twice per week for 4 weeks. Volume and load were increased after the first 2 weeks of training. Results: A 2 (time x 2 (group mixed factor ANOVA revealed a significant (P<0.05 increase in deadlift 1RM (pre: 159.9 ± 31.7 kg, post: 168.9 ± 31.8 kg and vertical jump height (pre: 56.6 ± 9.9 cm, post: 57.9 ± 9.7 cm for both groups, but were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant changes in MTP. Conclusions: Strength and conditioning professionals may use both kettlebell swings and explosive deadlifts to increase deadlift strength and vertical jump power.

  7. Swing limb mechanics and minimum toe clearance in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Lai, Daniel T H; Menz, Hylton B; Morrow, Adam D; Feller, Julian A; Bartlett, John R; Bergman, Neil R; Begg, Rezaul

    2012-02-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been shown to be a risk factor for falls. Reductions in foot clearance during the swing phase of walking can cause a trip and potentially lead to a fall. This study examined the swing phase mechanics of people with and without knee OA during walking. Minimum toe clearance (MTC) height, joint angles at the time of MTC and the influence of the angular changes of the hip, knee and ankle of the swing leg on foot clearance using sensitivity analysis were investigated in 50 knee OA participants and 28 age-matched asymptomatic controls. Although both groups had a similar MTC height (controls: 12.8±6.7 mm, knee OA: 13.4±7.0 mm), the knee OA group used a different strategy to achieve the same foot clearance, as evidenced by greater knee flexion (52.5±5.3° vs 49.4±4.8°, p=0.007), greater hip abduction (-3.6±3.3° vs -1.8±3.3°, p=0.03) and less ankle adduction (2.8±1.9° vs 4.2±2.1°, p=0.01). MTC height was comparable between the groups, however a different swing phase mechanism was used by the knee OA. Although adequate MTC is an important component of safe locomotion, it does not appear to be impaired in people with knee OA. Other factors, such as inadequate responses to postural perturbation, may be responsible for falls in this group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolated sternal fracture - a swing-related injury in two children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFriend, D.E.; Franklin, K.

    2001-01-01

    Isolated fracture of the sternum is an uncommon injury in a child. We report two cases of sternal fracture following falls from swings, which illustrate the mechanisms of injury in sternal fracture. One fracture resulted from a flexion compression injury of the thoracic spine, which has very rarely been reported in children. Sternal fracture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain in a child where there has been an activity involving hyperflexion force. (orig.)

  9. Brain blood-flow changes during motion sickness. [thalamus vascular changes in dogs during swing tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. H.; Hsuen, J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility of diminished blood flow in the brain is studied as one of the factors resulting from an increase in skeletal muscle blood volume concomitant with other characteristics of motion sickness. Thermistors are implanted in the thalamus of dogs and blood flow changes are recorded while they are subjected to sinusoidal movement on a two pole swing. Results of these initial steps in a proposed long term exploration of different areas of the brain are presented.

  10. Computational intelligence for qualitative coaching diagnostics: Automated assessment of tennis swings to improve performance and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Bačić, Boris; Hume, Patria

    2017-01-01

    Coaching technology, wearables and exergames can provide quantitative feedback based on measured activity, but there is little evidence of qualitative feedback to aid technique improvement. To achieve personalised qualitative feedback, we demonstrated a proof-of-concept prototype combining kinesiology and computational intelligence that could help improving tennis swing technique. Three-dimensional tennis motion data were acquired from multi-camera video (22 backhands and 21 forehands, includ...

  11. Experiments on the Porch Swing Bearing of Michelson Interferometer for Low Resolution FTIR

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomas Välikylä; Jyrki Kauppinen

    2013-01-01

    Porch swing bearing for the linear motion of the mirror in Michelson interferometer for mid-infrared low resolution Fourier transform spectrometer was studied experimentally using the modulation depth of the collimated laser beam. The mirror tilting was measured to be lower than 5 μrad over 3 mm mirror travel using two different bearings assemblies. Additionally, the manufacturing tolerances of the bearing type were proved to be loose enough not to limit the interferometer application. These ...

  12. Comparison between swinging and playing of white noise among colicky babies: A paired randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezici, Emel; Yigit, Deniz

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of swinging and playing of white noise on the crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies. Infantile colic (IC) is one of the most common reasons for doctor visits among babies younger than 3 months. One of five babies older than 3 months also experiences IC. IC, unlike gastrointestinal problems, is regarded as an individual differentiation and maturation of the central nervous system. Providing a warm bath, breastfeeding, swinging and playing of white noise are nonpharmacological methods. The efficiency of these methods has been proven by various studies independently of one another. The study is a prospective, multicentre, paired randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted between April-December 2016. The study sample consisted of 40 1-month-old babies with gas pains who passed a hearing screening and their mothers. The total daily crying and sleeping durations of the babies were determined without any intervention on the first week. On the second week, 20 randomly selected babies (first group) were swung each time they cried, and on the third week, they were made to listen to white noise. The other 20 babies (second group) were made to listen to white noise on the second week and were swung on the third week. Swinging and playing of white noise were performed until the babies stopped crying. After every intervention, the total crying and sleeping durations of the babies were evaluated using a "Colicky Baby's Diary." Playing of white noise significantly decreased the daily crying durations (p white noise was found to be a more effective nonpharmacological method on crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies than swinging. Playing of white noise may be helpful for parents and healthcare personnel in reducing the gas pains of babies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Operational Investigation of Overhead Crane with Fuzzy Logic Anti-Swing Controller Using 3-D Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Petrenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a crane control system is to provide load transfer with minimum swinging. The paper presents a developed three-dimensional simulation model of a bridge crane with fuzzy logic controller designed with application of genetic algorithms. Comparative indices of oscillation while load transferring are given in the paper. The indices have been obtained at various parameters of the fuzzy logic controller. 

  14. Adsorption of Pb(II by Activated Pyrolytic Char from Used Tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a renewable resource, the pyrolytic char derived from used tire has promising adsorption capacities owing to its similar structure and properties with active carbon. The purification and activation of the pyrolytic char from used tire, as well as the application of this material in the adsorption of Pb(II in water is conducted. The influences on the adsorption capacity by temperature and pH value are investigated and discussed; the adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics are also studied. The results show that the pyrolytic char from used tire has remarkable adsorption capacity for Pb(II, and the adsorption is an endothermic process complying with the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics is a pseudo second-order reaction.

  15. Design and performance prediction of an adsorption heat pump with multi-cooling tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C.; Zhang, J.P. [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Widespread application of adsorption heat pumps has been delayed not only by poor heat and mass transfer performance but also by low operating reliability because high vacuum must be maintained in the adsorption cooling system, especially in a water system. An adsorption cooling tube is a tube in which an adsorber, a condenser and an evaporator are all completely housed to construct a small scale adsorption cooling unit. In this work, an adsorption cooling tube and an adsorption heat pump with multi-cooling tubes are designed. A theoretical model is built to simulate the performance of the designed chiller. According to the results, the coefficient of performance and specific cooling power reach about 0.5 and 85 W/kg adsorbent, respectively, at the hot water temperature of 85 C. These results indicate that the designed heat pump in this work would provide a better choice if the operating reliability became crucial for an adsorption heat pump. (author)

  16. Design and performance prediction of an adsorption heat pump with multi-cooling tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.C.; Zhang, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Widespread application of adsorption heat pumps has been delayed not only by poor heat and mass transfer performance but also by low operating reliability because high vacuum must be maintained in the adsorption cooling system, especially in a water system. An adsorption cooling tube is a tube in which an adsorber, a condenser and an evaporator are all completely housed to construct a small scale adsorption cooling unit. In this work, an adsorption cooling tube and an adsorption heat pump with multi-cooling tubes are designed. A theoretical model is built to simulate the performance of the designed chiller. According to the results, the coefficient of performance and specific cooling power reach about 0.5 and 85 W/kg adsorbent, respectively, at the hot water temperature of 85 deg. C. These results indicate that the designed heat pump in this work would provide a better choice if the operating reliability became crucial for an adsorption heat pump.

  17. Activated coal of tomato seeds for adsorption of vapors of ammonia, benzene and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Márquez-Montesino, Francisco; Aguiar-Trujillo, Leonardo; Ramos-Robaina, Boris Abel; Zanzi-Vigouroux, Rolando; Birbas, Daniella

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to prove the adsorption possibilities of ammonia, benzene and vapors of gasoline in activated coals with phosphoric acid, of tomato seed. An immediate analysis to the biomass was carried out. It was concluded that the vapors adsorption of ammonia, is related with the physical adsorption and the presence of functional groups of acid character in the active surface of the coal that form weak connections with the molecules of ammonia. Experiments of adsorption of benzene and gasoline were carried out, these substances haven't functional groups as the ammonia, so they were less adsorbed, and it was confirmed a chemical adsorption preferably. The activation temperature, the relationship of impregnation (RI) and the concentration of the acid dissolution haven't a significant influence in the capacity of adsorption of benzene, but they have in the adsorption of ammonia and vapors of gasoline, it's of great application for the elimination of vapors' escape in the motors of vehicles. (author)

  18. Sub-ambient carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, Sundara, E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in [Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL), Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2015-04-14

    Carbon dioxide adsorption on carbon surface can be enhanced by doping the surface with heterogeneous atoms, which can increase local surface affinity. This study presents the carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene at low pressures (<100 kPa). Graphene was exposed to nitrogen plasma, which dopes nitrogen atoms into carbon hexagonal lattice, mainly in pyridinic and pyrrolic forms. It is found that nitrogen doping significantly improves the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at all temperatures, due to the enrichment of local Lewis basic sites. In general, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters suggest that doped nitrogen sites have nearly same adsorption energy of surface defects and residual functional groups. The isosteric heat of adsorption remains in physisorption range, which falls with surface coverage, suggesting the distribution of magnitude of adsorption energy. The absolute values of isosteric heat and entropy of adsorption are slightly increased upon nitrogen doping.

  19. Power Swing Generated in Francis Turbines by Part Load and Overload Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Valentín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower plays a key role in the actual energy market due to its fast response and regulation capacity. In that way, hydraulic turbines are increasingly demanded to work at off-design conditions, where complex flow patterns and cavitation appear, especially in Francis turbines. The draft tube cavitation surge is a hydraulic phenomenon that appears in Francis turbines below and above its Best Efficiency Point (BEP. It is a low frequency phenomenon consisting of a vortex rope in the runner outlet and draft tube, which can become unstable when its frequency coincides with a natural frequency of the hydraulic circuit. At this situation, the output power can significantly swing, endangering the electrical grid stability. This study is focused on the detection of these instabilities in Francis turbines and their relationship with the output power swings. To do so, extensive experimental tests for different operating conditions have been carried out in a large prototype Francis turbine (444 MW of rated power within the frame of the European Project Hyperbole (FP7-ENERGY-2013-1. Several sensors have been installed in the hydraulic circuit (pressure sensors in the draft tube, spiral casing, and penstock, in the rotating and static structures (vibration sensors, proximity probes, and strain gauges in the runner and in the shaft, as well as in the electrical side (output power, intensity, and voltage. Moreover, a numerical Finite Element Method (FEM has been also used to relate the hydraulic excitation with the output power swing.

  20. A Soft-Inflatable Exosuit for Knee Rehabilitation: Assisting Swing Phase During Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saivimal Sridar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a soft-inflatable exosuit to assist knee extension during gait training for stroke rehabilitation. The soft exosuit is designed to provide 25% of the knee moment required during the swing phase of the gait cycle and is integrated with inertial measurement units (IMUs and smart shoe insole sensors to improve gait phase detection and controller design. The stiffness of the knee joint during level walking is computed using inverse dynamics. The soft-inflatable actuators, with an I cross-section, are mechanically characterized at varying angles to enable generation of the required stiffness outputs. A linear relation between the inflatable actuator stiffness and internal pressure as a function of the knee angle is obtained, and a two-layer stiffness controller is implemented to assist the knee joint by providing appropriate stiffness during the swing phase. Finally, to evaluate the ability of the exosuit to assist in swing motion, surface-electromyography (sEMG sensors are placed on the three muscle groups of the quadriceps and two groups of the hamstrings, on three healthy participants. A reduction in muscle activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis is observed, which demonstrates feasibility of operation and potential future usage of the soft inflatable exosuit by impaired users.