WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperature superconducting thin-films

  1. Thin Film Technology of High-Critical-Temperature Superconducting Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-11

    ANALISIS OF THIN-FILM SUPERCONDUCTORS J. Talvacchio, M. A. Janocko, J. R. Gavaler, and A...in the areas of substrate preparation, niobum nitride, nlobium-tin, and molybdenum-rhenium. AN INTEGRATED DEPOSITION AND ANALISI - FACILITT The four...overlayer’s tendency to wet Nb (and V) decreases in the order: Si, Ge, Al, Mg and Y but the differences in the inter- facial energy are fairly

  2. Reactive sputtering methods used for the preparation of high critical temperature superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyere, J.C.; Escribe-Filippini, C.; Marcus, J.; Reydet, P.L.; Cabaret, B.

    1988-06-01

    Among the synthesis methods of metallic oxides, the reactive sputtering methods seem to be the most attractive, with the possibilities to get the right composition and even the suitable crystalline structure. In this paper, we discuss many specific chemical and physical reactions which appear during the deposition process. Finally, we show preliminary results obtained in our laboratory in the preparation of high critical temperature superconducting thin films.

  3. Superconductivity of Thin Film Intermetallic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-15

    D-RISE 2?I SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF THIN FILM INTERMETLLIC COMPOUNDS I/i. (U) MINNESOTR UNIV MINNERPOLIS SCHOOL OF PHYSICS AND RSTRONOMY R M GOLDMRN 15...parameters to either higher temperatures of higher critical fields. Materials under study are the superconducting Chevrel phase compounds, selected Heavy...superconducting field effect. Processing of the Chevrel Phase I compounds is carried out in a multi-source deposition system. The latter has been upgraded and

  4. High temperature superconducting thin films and quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for gradiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Graf zu Eulenburg, A

    1999-01-01

    the best balance and gradient sensitivity at 1kHz were 3x10 sup - sup 3 and 222fT/(cm sq root Hz))) respectively. The measured spatial response to a current carrying wire was in good agreement with a theoretical model. A significant performance improvement was obtained with the development of a single layer gradiometer with 13mm baseline, fabricated on 30x10mm sup 2 bicrystals. For such a device, the gradient sensitivity at 1kHz was 50fT/(cm sq root Hz)) and the gradiometer was used successfully for unshielded magnetocardiography. A parasitic effective area compensation scheme was employed with two neighbouring SQUIDs coupled in an opposite sense to the same gradiometer loop. This improved the balance from the intrinsic value of 10 sup - sup 3 to 3x10 sup - sup 5. This thesis describes several aspects of the development of gradiometers using high temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID). The pulsed laser deposition of thin films of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (YBCO) on Sr...

  5. Fourcross shaped metamaterial filters fabricated from high temperature superconducting YBCO and Au thin films for terahertz waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Y.; Alaboz, H.; Nebioğlu, M. A.; Mulla, B.; Akkaya, M.; Altan, H.; Sabah, C.; Ozyuzer, L.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we present a new, unique fourcross shaped metamaterial terahertz (THz) filter fabricated from both gold thin films and YBa2Cu3O7-d high T c superconducting thin films. A commercial electromagnetic simulation software, CST Microwave Studio, is used to design and optimize the metamaterial filter structures. The proposed fourcross shaped rectangular filter structure consists of periodic metallic rings where strip lines are located at the sides of the ring. Fourcross metamaterial filters are fabricated by using e-beam lithography and ion beam etching techniques. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements validated the design predictions for both the center frequencies and bandwidths of the resonances due to the fourcross structures. The resonance switching of the transmission spectra was investigated by lowering the temperature below the critical transition temperature. This resonance switching effect is not observed in filters made up of metals. This novel fourcross rectangular resonator with a temperature-dependent resonance behavior holds great potential for active, tunable and low loss THz devices for imaging, sensing, and detection applications.

  6. Studies to Enhance Superconductivity in Thin Film Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benjamin; Brunke, Lyle; Burke, Jack; Vier, David; Steckl, Andrew; Haugan, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    With research in the area of superconductivity growing, it is no surprise that new efforts are being made to induce superconductivity or increase transition temperatures (Tc) in carbon given its many allotropic forms. Promising results have been published for boron doping in diamond films, and phosphorus doping in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) films show hints of superconductivity.. Following these examples in the literature, we have begun studies to explore superconductivity in thin film carbon samples doped with different elements. Carbon thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous SiO2/Si and single-crystal substrates. Doping is achieved by depositing from (C1-xMx) single-targets with M = B4C and BN, and also by ion implantation into pure-carbon films. Previous research had indicated that Boron in HOPG did not elicit superconducting properties, but we aim to explore that also in thin film carbon and see if there needs to be a higher doping in the sample if trends were able to be seen in diamond films. Higher onset temperatures, Tc , and current densities, Jc, are hoped to be achieved with doping of the thin film carbon with different elements.

  7. Pulsed-laser deposition of vicinal and c-axis oriented high temperature superconducting thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, R

    2000-01-01

    respect to the temperature, oxygen pressure and laser fluence. (Re,Hg)Ba sub 2 Ca sub ( n-1)Cu sub n O sub x films are synthesized on (001) and vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates in a two step process employing pulsed-laser deposition of Hg-free precursor films and Hg-vapour annealing in a sealed quartz tube. The sealed quartz tube technique is described in detail and the thermodynamics and the phase formation are discussed. The influence of the Hg-vapour pressure and the annealing temperature on the film properties are investigated. The influence of Hg-vapour annealing on Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x films is described. YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x films with thicknesses 20 to 480 nm are deposited on vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates (10 degrees tilt angle). Variation of the resistivities and changes in the film morphology depending on film thickness are described. The influence of post-annealing treatments on the film properties is discussed. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of high temperature superconducting ...

  8. Protection of high temperature superconducting thin-films in a semiconductor processing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yizi; Fiske, R.; Sanders, S.C.; Ekin, J.W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Annealing studies have been carried out for high temperature superconductor YBaCuO{sub 7{minus}{delta}} in a reducing ambient, in order to identify insulator layer(s) that will effectively protect the superconducting film in the hostile environment. While a layer of magnesium oxide (MgO) sputter deposited directly on YBaCuO{sub 7{minus}{delta}} film provides some degree of protection, the authors found that a composite structure of YBCO/SrTiO{sub 3}/MgO, where the SrTiO{sub 3} was grown by laser ablation immediately following YBCO deposition (in-situ process), was much more effective. They also address the need for a buffer layer between YBCO and aluminum (Al) during annealing. Al is most commenly used for semiconductor metalization, but is known to react readily with YBCO at elevated temperatures. The authors found that the most effective buffer layers are platinum (Pt) and gold/platinum (Au/Pt).

  9. Improved superconducting properties of MgB2 thin films fabricated by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakinci, M. Eyyuphan; Yakinci, Z. Deniz; Aksan, M. Ali; Balci, Yakup

    2012-12-01

    High quality MgB2 superconducting thin films have been successfully prepared by 2.4 MHz ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) system on single crystal Al2O3 (0 0 1) substrates. The microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of approximately 500-600 nm thick films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), resistance versus temperature (R-T) and magnetization measurements (M-H) under different magnetic fields and transport critical current density (Jc). Films were first heat treated in situ in the spraying chamber with an extra Mg powder during deposition to compensate excess evaporation of Mg from the films and then additionally heat treated in Ar atmosphere at 700 °C for a short time. According to the results obtained, orientation on any particular direction for the crystal growth was not seen. Homogeneous, highly dense and highly smooth surface morphology and low resistance have been achieved under optimum conditions. Optimally treated films exhibited relatively high transport critical current density of 2.37 × 105 A cm-2. These results have been also compared with the Jcmag results calculated from the M-H curves. The electrical resistance property of the best samples was obtained to be 39.5 and 37.4 K for Tc and Tzero, respectively.

  10. THz spectroscopy on superconducting NbN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daschke, Lena; Pracht, Uwe S.; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Ilin, Konstantin S.; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Epitaxial thin-film niobium nitride (NbN) is a conventional BCS superconductor. In presence of strong disorder, however, electronic inhomogeneities appear, which is not fully understood yet. To obtain a better insight into the physics of such disordered materials, studies on model systems such as structurally tailored films might be useful. Furthermore, disordered NbN films are used for single-photon detection devices, whose proper performance depends on a profound understanding of the superconducting properties. The studied NbN films have a T{sub c} ranging from 10 to 15 K and the superconducting energy gap is easily accessible with THz spectroscopy (0.4 - 5.6 meV). We investigate thin films of NbN sputtered on a sapphire substrate. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer we measure the amplitude and phase shift of radiation transmitted through the thin-film sample. From there we can determine the real and imaginary parts of the optical conductivity. These results give information about the energy gap, Cooper pair density, and quasiparticle dynamics, including the temperature evolution of these quantities. We found that a film with 10 nm thickness roughly follows the BCS behavior, as expected. We will present results of our measurements on several different NbN samples.

  11. New Methods for Thin Film Deposition and First Investigations of the use of High Temperature Superconductors for Thin Film Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Anna; Vollenberg, Wilhelmus; Seviour, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Niobium thin film cavities have shown good and reliable performance for LEP and LHC, although there are limitations to overcome if this technique should be used for new accelerators such as the ILC. New coating techniques like High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) has shown very promising results and we will report on its possible improvements for Nb thin film cavity performance. Current materials used in accelerator Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technologies operate at temperatures below 4 K, which require complex cryogenic systems. Researchers have investigated the use of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to form RF cavities, with limited success. We propose a new approach to achieve a high-temperature SRF cavity based on the superconducting ’proximity effect’. The superconducting proximity effect is the effect through which a superconducting material in close proximity to a non-superconducting material induces a superconducting condensate in the latter. Using this effect we hope...

  12. Local imaging of magnetic flux in superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapoval, Tetyana

    2010-01-26

    Local studies of magnetic flux line (vortex) distribution in superconducting thin films and their pinning by natural and artificial defects have been performed using low-temperature magnetic force microscopy (LT-MFM). Taken a 100 nm thin NbN film as an example, the depinning of vortices from natural defects under the influence of the force that the MFM tip exerts on the individual vortex was visualized and the local pinning force was estimated. The good agreement of these results with global transport measurements demonstrates that MFM is a powerful and reliable method to probe the local variation of the pinning landscape. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the presence of an ordered array of 1-{mu}m-sized ferromagnetic permalloy dots being in a magneticvortex state underneath the Nb film significantly influences the natural pinning landscape of the superconductor leading to commensurate pinning effects. This strong pinning exceeds the repulsive interaction between the superconducting vortices and allows vortex clusters to be located at each dot. Additionally, for industrially applicable YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films the main question discussed was the possibility of a direct correlation between vortices and artificial defects as well as vortex imaging on rough as-prepared thin films. Since the surface roughness (droplets, precipitates) causes a severe problem to the scanning MFM tip, a nanoscale wedge polishing technique that allows to overcome this problem was developed. Mounting the sample under a defined small angle results in a smooth surface and a monotonic thickness reduction of the film along the length of the sample. It provides a continuous insight from the film surface down to the substrate with surface sensitive scanning techniques. (orig.)

  13. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beringer, Douglas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater performance benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency – 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m – there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (≈ 45 MV/m for Nb) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art Nb based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio frequency applications. Correlated studies on structure, surface morphology and superconducting properties of epitaxial Nb and MgB2 thin films are presented.

  14. Development of Strontium Titanate Thin films on Technical Substrates for Superconducting Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P; Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    SrTiO3 is a widely studied perovskite material due to its advantages as a template for high temperature superconducting tapes. Heteroepitaxial SrTiO3 thin films were deposited on Ni/W tapes using dip-coating in a precursor solution followed by drying and annealing under reducing conditions. Nearl...

  15. Vortex pinning in superconducting Nb thin films deposited on nanoporous alumina templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinckx, W.; Vanacken, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of magnetization and transport properties of superconducting Nb thin films deposited on nanoporous aluminium oxide templates. Periodic oscillations in the critical temperature vs. field, matching effects in fields up to 700 mT and strongly enhanced critical currents were observ...

  16. Highly textured oxypnictide superconducting thin films on metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Kazumasa, E-mail: iida@nuap.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kurth, Fritz; Grinenko, Vadim; Hänisch, Jens [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Chihara, Masashi; Sumiya, Naoki; Hatano, Takafumi; Ikuta, Hiroshi [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Matias, Vladimir [iBeam Materials, Inc., 2778A Agua Fria Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507 (United States); Holzapfel, Bernhard [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-27

    Highly textured NdFeAs(O,F) thin films have been grown on ion beam assisted deposition-MgO/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Hastelloy substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The oxypnictide coated conductors showed a superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) of 43 K with a self-field critical current density (J{sub c}) of 7.0×10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 5 K, more than 20 times higher than powder-in-tube processed SmFeAs(O,F) wires. Albeit higher T{sub c} as well as better crystalline quality than Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} coated conductors, in-field J{sub c} of NdFeAs(O,F) was lower than that of Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. These results suggest that grain boundaries in oxypnictides reduce J{sub c} significantly compared to that in Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and, hence biaxial texture is necessary for high J{sub c.}.

  17. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sharma, Neha [Surface & Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Harimohan, V. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amirthapandian, S. [Materials Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Mani, Awadhesh, E-mail: mani@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples. - Highlights: • Thin films of molybdenum using DC sputtering have been deposited on glass. • Argon background pressure during sputtering was used to tune the crystallite sizes of films. • Correlation in deposition pressure, disorder and particle sizes has been observed. • Disorder tuned superconductor to insulator transition along with an intermediate metallic phase has been observed. • Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature and a dome shaped T{sub C} vs. deposition pressure phase diagram has been observed.

  18. Stoichiometry and thickness dependence of superconducting properties of niobium nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Melissa R., E-mail: mrbeebe@email.wm.edu; Beringer, Douglas B.; Burton, Matthew C.; Yang, Kaida; Lukaszew, R. Alejandra [Department of Physics, The College of William & Mary, Small Hall, 300 Ukrop Way, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The current technology used in linear particle accelerators is based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities fabricated from bulk niobium (Nb), which have smaller surface resistance and therefore dissipate less energy than traditional nonsuperconducting copper cavities. Using bulk Nb for the cavities has several advantages, which are discussed elsewhere; however, such SRF cavities have a material-dependent accelerating gradient limit. In order to overcome this fundamental limit, a multilayered coating has been proposed using layers of insulating and superconducting material applied to the interior surface of the cavity. The key to this multilayered model is to use superconducting thin films to exploit the potential field enhancement when these films are thinner than their London penetration depth. Such field enhancement has been demonstrated in MgB{sub 2} thin films; here, the authors consider films of another type-II superconductor, niobium nitride (NbN). The authors present their work correlating stoichiometry and superconducting properties in NbN thin films and discuss the thickness dependence of their superconducting properties, which is important for their potential use in the proposed multilayer structure. While there are some previous studies on the relationship between stoichiometry and critical temperature T{sub C}, the authors are the first to report on the correlation between stoichiometry and the lower critical field H{sub C1}.

  19. Investigation of superconducting thin film structures prepared by nanoscale wedge polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollithy, Martin; Hoefer, Katharina; Schinkel, Uwe; Michalowski, Peter; Grosse, Veit; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [FSU Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Meier, Dagmar; Shapoval, Tanya [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The performance of dc-SQUID gradiometers depends very strong on the spread of the critical parameters Ic, Rn and Ls. After the preparation of high temperature superconducting devices it could be useful to tune the superconducting properties by decrease of the film thickness. On the other hand it is often helpful for sensor applications to realise a superconducting thin film structure with a smooth surface to avoid resistive or superconducting shunts in insulating layers on the top of the superconductor. In these investigations we use a mechanical wedge polishing procedure to thin the superconducting devices (microbridges, dc-SQUIDs or dc-SQUID gradiometers) before and/or after the first measurements of the electrical properties. AFM and SEM measurements were done to characterise the film morphology. Temperature dependent measurements of the superconducting properties of microbridges, dc-SQUIDs and dc-SQUID gradiometer structures were realised. We discuss the possibilities and limitations of this procedure.

  20. Hydrostatic pressure effect on the transport properties in TiO superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, C.; Hao, F. X.; Wang, T. Y.; Fan, Y. J.; Yin, Y. W.; Li, X. G.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting properties of the TiO epitaxial thin films were systematically investigated under hydrostatic pressures (P ) up to 2.13 GPa. At ambient pressure, the normal state resistivity increases with decreasing temperature, and steeply increases below Tkink˜ 115 K . With further reducing temperature to Tc˜ 5.99 K , the thin film enters into a superconducting state. Interestingly, the superconducting temperature Tc gradually decreases upon increasing P , and the decreasing rate of Tc with P is much larger than the McMillan theoretical expectation. In contrast, Tkink increases with P and a remarkable resistivity enhancement was observed in the temperature range between Tkink and Tc. The variations of Tc,Tkink , and normal state resistivity under high pressure may be induced by the charge localization related to the atomic vacancies rearrangement in TiO thin film. Furthermore, the temperature dependencies of the upper critical field Hc 2(T ) indicate that both the orbital and Pauli-paramagnetic pair-breaking effects should be taken into account. Finally, the thermally activated flux flow investigations under different pressures suggest that the pressure will suppress the thermal activate energy.

  1. Photoconductivity of ZnTe thin films at elevated temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    made to assess the predominance of the Poole–Frenkel con- duction mechanism in the dark and photoconductivities of. ZnTe thin films at room temperature and higher ambient temperatures. 2. Experimental. ZnTe thin films of different thicknesses were deposited on properly cleaned glass substrates with the help of a Hind.

  2. Dependence of superconducting properties of NbN thin films on sputtering parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Trupti; Carter, Faustin; Ding, Junjia; Posada, Chrystian; Bender, Amy; Wang, Gensheng; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Pearson, John; Padin, Steve; Chang, Clarence; Hoffmann, Axel; Novosad, Valentyn; SPT3G Collaboration

    Recently, there has been growing interest in utilizing NbN, TiN, NbTiN thin films in superconducting device applications (e.g. detectors for CMB, mm and sub-mm astronomy). In this work, we have fabricated NbN superconducting thin films by DC reactive magnetron sputtering of Nb in the presence of argon and nitrogen gases. We found that the critical temperature of NbN films is sensitive to various deposition parameters like nitrogen flow rate, target voltage, base pressure, RF substrate bias, and the substrate temperature. By studying each of these factors we have been able to create highly reproducible NbN thin films. We obtained a Tc of 15.25 +/-0.25 K for 300 nm thick NbN film grown on silicon substrate at modest temperature of 250 C in the presence of RF substrate bias. We are also investigating the microwave properties of these NbN films at temperatures well below 50 mK by fabricating quarter wavelength CPW resonators out of NbN and characterizing their frequency shifts and quality factors as functions of temperature and power. In this work we present the results of these analyses. This work was supported by BES-DOE Grant DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  3. Structure and Superconducting Properties of TlCan-1Ba2CunO2n+3 Thin Films with Zero Resistance at Temperatures above 100 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. C.; Lee, W. Y.; Lee, V. Y.; Karimi, R.

    1988-08-01

    New superconducting TlCan-1Ba2CunO2n+3 thin films have been analyzed by the X-ray diffraction and four-point probe techniques. The films consist mainly of a single TlCa2Ba2Cu3O9 phase or a mixture of the TlCa2Ba2O9 and TlCaBa2Cu2O7 phases with the c-axis preferentially oriented perpendicular to the film surface. The TlCa2Ba2Cu3O9 film grown on an asymmetrically cut yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) substrate has the highest superconducting transition with on-set Tc near 120 K and zero resistance at 116 K. The TlCa2Ba2Cu3O9 film deposited on a SrTiO3 (100) substrate has a slightly lower transition with zero resistance at 104 K probably because of stacking faults. The film composed of both the TlCa2Ba2Cu3O9 and TlCaBa2Cu2O7 phases and grown on YSZ has a double transition with on-set Tc near 118 K and 107 K, and zero resistance at 102 K.

  4. Epitaxial growth of superconducting MgB2 thin films with a Mg buffer layer at 110 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Nakagami, Takatoshi; Yoshida, Takuya; Ishida, Takekazu

    2017-07-01

    Since the discovery of MgB2, its application to superconducting electronics has been limited by the absent of proper microfabrication techniques. In this study, we grew crystalline MgB2 thin films using molecular beam epitaxy at a low substrate temperature of 110 °C under ultra-high vacuum of about 10-6 Pa. MgB2 thin films were deposited with an epitaxial Mg buffer layer on c-plane 4H-SiC or sapphire substrates. In spite of the low growth temperature, superior crystallinity and surface flatness were confirmed by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction measurements. Moreover, we successfully confirmed the occurrence of a sharp superconducting transition at 27 K. The present growth temperature was lower than any in prior reports on superconducting MgB2 thin films, and is lower than the applicable temperature of an organic-based lift-off resist. Our new MgB2 thin film growth process is promising for the development of an alternative nanofabrication technique for MgB2 thin films by means of a standard lift-off process with an organic resist.

  5. Loss mechanisms in superconducting thin film microwave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Jan, E-mail: jan.goetz@wmi.badw.de; Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Friedrich; Zollitsch, Christoph W.; Meier, Sebastian; Fischer, Michael; Fedorov, Kirill G.; Menzel, Edwin P. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Deppe, Frank; Eder, Peter; Xie, Edwar; Gross, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.gross@wmi.badw.de [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-07

    We present a systematic analysis of the internal losses of superconducting coplanar waveguide microwave resonators based on niobium thin films on silicon substrates. In particular, we investigate losses introduced by Nb/Al interfaces in the center conductor, which is important for experiments where Al based Josephson junctions are integrated into Nb based circuits. We find that these interfaces can be a strong source for two-level state (TLS) losses, when the interfaces are not positioned at current nodes of the resonator. In addition to TLS losses, for resonators including Al, quasiparticle losses become relevant above 200 mK. Finally, we investigate how losses generated by eddy currents in conductive material on the backside of the substrate can be minimized by using thick enough substrates or metals with high conductivity on the substrate backside.

  6. Vortex shells in mesoscopic triangles of amorphous superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubo, N., E-mail: kokubo@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, University of Electro-Communications, Cho-fugaoka 1-5-1, Cho-fu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Miyahara, H. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Electro-Communications, Cho-fugaoka 1-5-1, Cho-fu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Okayasu, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nojima, T. [Institute for Materials Research,Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Direct imaging of multi-vortex states was made in mesoscopic equilateral triangles. • Commensurate and incommensurate vortex states were observed with metastability. • Formation of triangular multiple shells with alternative vortex packing was discussed. • Occupations of vortices in triangular multiple shells are not monotonic with vorticity. • Packing sequence of triangular shells was compared with ones of square and circle shells. - Abstract: Direct observation of vortex states confined in mesoscopic regular triangle dots of amorphous Mo–Ge thin films was made with a scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscope. The observed magnetic images illustrate clearly how vortices are distributed over the triangle dots by forming not only commensurate triangular clusters, but also unique patterns imposed by incommensurability. We discuss the results in terms of vortex shells and construct the packing sequence of vortices in the multiple shell structure.

  7. Interaction of super high frequency radiation with superconducting Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin-film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, V. D.; Vasyliv, M. Ya.; Davydov, V. M.; Lutsiv, R. V.; Pustylnik, O. D.; Khymenko, O. A.

    2002-05-01

    High temperature superconducting thin films Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system were obtained by RFmagnetron ion-plasma sputtering. The detecting bridge-like elements 100-500 mkm wide have been fabricated with laser scribing. The detecting effect was investigated in super high frequency radiation field of 137 GHz.

  8. Superconducting properties and chemical composition of NbTiN thin films with different thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Peng, W.; You, L. X.; Wang, Z., E-mail: zwang@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-09-21

    In this research, we systematically investigated the superconducting properties and chemical composition of NbTiN thin films prepared on single-crystal MgO substrates. The NbTiN thin films with different thicknesses (4–100 nm) were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at ambient temperature. We measured and analyzed the crystal structure and thickness dependence of the chemical composition using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiles. The films exhibited excellent superconducting properties, with a high superconducting critical temperature of 10.1 K, low resistivity (ρ{sub 20} = 93 μΩ cm), and residual resistivity ratio of 1.12 achieved for 4-nm-thick ultrathin NbTiN films prepared at the deposition current of 2.4 A. The stoichiometry and electrical properties of the films varied gradually between the initial and upper layers. A minimum ρ{sub 20} of 78 μΩ cm and a maximum residual resistivity ratio of 1.15 were observed for 12-nm-thick films, which significantly differ from the properties of NbN films with the same NaCl structure.

  9. Superconducting properties of magnesium diboride thin film measured by using coplanar waveguide resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žemlička, M., E-mail: martin.zemlic@gmail.com [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Neilinger, P.; Trgala, M.; Gregor, M.; Plecenik, T.; Ďurina, P. [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Grajcar, M. [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Physics of Slovak Academy of Science, Dúbravská cesta, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Study of the superconducting properties of granular disordered superconductor magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}). • Microwave measurements transmission properties of high-quality superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonator. • Temperature dependence of quality and resonant frequency of CPW resonator. • Hysteresis detuning of resonant frequency in changing magnetic field of artificially created RF superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) coupled to CPW resonator. • SQUID-like behavior of CPW resonators made of granular disordered superconductors without any artificial structures in it. - Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate the superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} coplanar waveguide resonator patterned from 300 nm thin film fabricated by vapor deposition. We measured the temperature dependence of the quality factor and the resonant frequency of the resonator. Surprisingly, we also observed hysteretic periodic response of resonance frequency to external magnetic field, which is characteristic of bistable systems with double-well potential, such as superconducting RF SQUID or phase-slip flux qubits. This property seems to be peculiar for granular and disordered superconductors where a superconducting loop of large effective diameter with weak links can be formed.

  10. Single-step in-situ preparation of magnesium diboride superconducting thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, P; Zhang Sheng Yuan; Wang Xin; Xie Fei Xiang; Deng Peng; Nie Rui Juan; Wang Shou Zheng; Dai Yuan Dong; Wang Fu Ren

    2002-01-01

    In a single-step in-situ procedure, the superconducting MgB sub 2 (101) highly oriented thin films have been successfully grown on the SrTiO sub 3 (100) substrates by using the synthesised MgB sub 2 target and controlling the magnetron sputtering working at the state of abnormal glow discharge or arc discharge. The films have a zero resistance transition temperature of 15 K and an onset transition temperature of 33 K

  11. Superconducting energy scales and anomalous dissipative conductivity in thin films of molybdenum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmendinger, Julian; Pracht, Uwe S.; Daschke, Lena; Proslier, Thomas; Klug, Jeffrey A.; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc

    2016-08-01

    We report investigations of molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films with different thickness and disorder and with superconducting transition temperature 9.89K >= T-c >= 2.78 K. Using terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopy we explore the normal and superconducting charge carrier dynamics for frequencies covering the range from 3 to 38 cm(-1) (0.1 to 1.1 THz). The superconducting energy scales, i.e., the critical temperature T-c, the pairing energy Delta, and the superfluid stiffness J, and the superfluid density n(s) can be well described within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory for conventional superconductors. At the same time, we find an anomalously large dissipative conductivity, which cannot be explained by thermally excited quasiparticles, but rather by a temperature-dependent normal-conducting fraction, persisting deep into the superconducting state. Our results on this disordered system constrain the regime, where discernible effects stemming from the disorder-induced superconductor-insulator transition possibly become relevant, to MoN films with a transition temperature lower than at least 2.78 K.

  12. Fabrication of superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films by magnetron co-sputtering on (001) MgO substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabretti, Savio; Thomas, Patrick; Meinert, Markus; Thomas, Andy [Bielefeld University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We fabricated superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films on (001) MgO substrates. The samples were prepared by magnetron rf and dc co-sputtering on heated substrates. They were annealed ex-situ for one hour at temperatures between 450 C and 750 C. We will show that the substrate temperature during the sputtering process and the post annealing temperatures play a crucial role in forming MgB{sub 2} superconducting thin films. We achieved a critical onset temperature of 27.1 K for a film thickness of 30 nm. The crystal structures were measured by x-ray diffraction.

  13. Room temperature ferrimagnetism and low temperature disorder effects in zinc ferrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Lisha; Pookat, Geetha [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Thomas, Hysen [Department of Physics, Christian College, Chengannur, Kerala 689122 (India); Ojha, Sunil; Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mraiyer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-07-01

    Zinc ferrite is a normal spinel and antiferromagnetic in nature with a Neel temperature of 10 K in the micron regime. It exhibits interesting features like superparamagnetism, spin glass and ferrimagnetism in the nano-regime. These anomalies make zinc ferrite striking among various other spinels. Further, in the thin film form, the magnetic properties are dependent on preparative techniques, annealing and deposition parameters. In the present work, zinc ferrite thin films were prepared by RF sputtering. The films were annealed at 400° C and 600° C. The thickness and composition of films were estimated by employing Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The structural and microstructural studies conducted using Glancing X Ray Diffractometer (GXRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) indicates the formation of a spinel phase and grain growth was observed with annealing. Magnetic measurements were carried out using a Superconducting Quantum Interferometer Device–Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (SQUID VSM). The films were found to be ferrimagnetic at room temperature and Field Cooling–Zero Field Cooling (FC–ZFC) studies indicate the presence of disorders. - Highlights: • Zinc ferrite thin films were prepared by RF sputtering. • The films were annealed at 400 °C and 600 °C. • Grain growth was observed with annealing. • The highest magnetization of 18 emu/cc was obtained for zinc ferrite film of thickness 120 nm. • The films were ferrimagnetic at room temperature.

  14. Josephson soliton oscillators in a superconducting thin film resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, J.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    . Different modes of half-wave resonances in the thin-film structure impose different magnetic field configurations at the boundaries of the junctions. The DC I-V characteristic shows zero-field steps with a number of resonator-induced steps. These structures are compared to RF-induced steps generated...

  15. In-Situ Preparation of Ytterbium-Barium - Superconducting Thin Films Using Pure Ozone Vapor Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley, Dale Dane

    A new process for preparing thin films of the YBa_2Cu_3O _{rm 7-x} high transition temperature superconducting oxide completely in-situ, without the need for a post-evaporation anneal has been developed. This work is a significant advancement in the effort to achieve a fully mature, high quality thin film-making process for scientific and technical applications. A pure ozone vapor, derived from the distilled liquid, is used to oxidize the co-evaporated metallic constituents during deposition to nucleate the superconducting phase in the vacuum chamber. Films exhibiting zero resistance transition temperatures at 85 K have been grown on strontium titanate substrates using a substrate temperature of 700 ^circC. Background evaporation pressures of 2 x 10^{-7}Torr are employed during film growth. Films prepared using this process contain primarily mixed a- and c-axis oriented grains which, as evidenced by Transmission Electron Microscopy, exhibit a high degree of epitaxial order with the substrate. Processing at lower substrate temperatures results in a depression of T _{rm c} consistent with the behavior observed for other in-situ techniques. It is unclear at this time whether this depression can be attributed to an oxygen deficiency or an expanded c-axis lattice parameter which is always associated with lower temperature processing. Measurements of the critical current of a prototype YBa_2Cu_3O _{rm 7-x}/Au/Pb proximity tunneling junction prepared in-situ using the ozone process do not exhibit the expected magnetic field and temperature dependence. This observation may be the result of a poorly defined tunneling geometry subject to the vagaries of edge effects or filamentary electrical shorts through the normal metal layer. Important implications for the investigation of an isotope effect in the high T_{rm c} superconductors is made possible by the development of the ozone technique. By distilling the ^{18}O gas into a "heavy ozone," thin films can be efficiently

  16. Characterization of 3-dimensional superconductive thin film components for gravitational experiments in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechler, S.; Nawrodt, R.; Nietzsche, S.; Vodel, W.; Seidel, P. [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Dittus, H. [ZARM, Univ. Bremen (Germany); Loeffler, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are used for high precise gravitational experiments. One of the most impressive experiments is the satellite test of the equivalence principle (STEP) of NASA/ESA. The STEP mission aims to prove a possible violation of Einstein's equivalence principle at an extreme level of accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 18} in space. In this contribution we present an automatically working measurement equipment to characterize 3-dimensional superconducting thin film components like i.e. pick-up coils and test masses for STEP. The characterization is done by measurements of the transition temperature between the normal and the superconducting state using a special built anti-cryostat. Above all the setup was designed for use in normal LHe transport Dewars. The sample chamber has a volume of 150 cm{sup 3} and can be fully temperature controlled over a range from 4.2 K to 300 K with a resolution of better then 100 mK. (orig.)

  17. Fabricating superconducting interfaces between artificially grown LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization of a fully metallic two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG at the interface between artificially grown LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 thin films has been an exciting challenge. Here we present for the first time the successful realization of a superconducting 2DEG at interfaces between artificially grown LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 thin films. Our results highlight the importance of two factors—the growth temperature and the SrTiO3 termination. We use local friction force microscopy and transport measurements to determine that in normal growth conditions the absence of a robust metallic state at low temperature in the artificially grown LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface is due to the nanoscale SrO segregation occurring on the SrTiO3 film surface during the growth and the associated defects in the SrTiO3 film. By adopting an extremely high SrTiO3 growth temperature, we demonstrate a way to realize metallic, down to the lowest temperature, and superconducting 2DEG at interfaces between LaAlO3 layers and artificially grown SrTiO3 thin films. This study paves the way to the realization of functional LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices and/or artificial LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces on other substrates.

  18. Imaging of current distributions in superconducting thin film structures; Abbildung von Stromverteilungen in supraleitenden Duennfilmstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doenitz, D.

    2006-10-31

    Local analysis plays an important role in many fields of scientific research. However, imaging methods are not very common in the investigation of superconductors. For more than 20 years, Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LTSEM) has been successfully used at the University of Tuebingen for studying of condensed matter phenomena, especially of superconductivity. In this thesis LTSEM was used for imaging current distributions in different superconducting thin film structures: - Imaging of current distributions in Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer, also known as SIFS junctions, showed inhomogeneous current transport over the junctions which directly led to an improvement in the fabrication process. An investigation of improved samples showed a very homogeneous current distribution without any trace of magnetic domains. Either such domains were not present or too small for imaging with the LTSEM. - An investigation of Nb/YBCO zigzag Josephson junctions yielded important information on signal formation in the LTSEM both for Josephson junctions in the short and in the long limit. Using a reference junction our signal formation model could be verified, thus confirming earlier results on short zigzag junctions. These results, which could be reproduced in this work, support the theory of d-wave symmetry in the superconducting order parameter of YBCO. Furthermore, investigations of the quasiparticle tunneling in the zigzag junctions showed the existence of Andreev bound states, which is another indication of the d-wave symmetry in YBCO. - The LTSEM study of Hot Electron Bolometers (HEB) allowed the first successful imaging of a stable 'Hot Spot', a self-heating region in HEB structures. Moreover, the electron beam was used to induce an - otherwise unstable - hot spot. Both investigations yielded information on the homogeneity of the samples. - An entirely new method of imaging the current distribution in superconducting interference

  19. Epitaxial antiperovskite superconducting CuNNi3 thin films synthesized by chemical solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhenzhen; Tang, Xianwu; Shao, Dingfu; Lei, Hechang; Yang, Jie; Song, Wenhai; Luo, Hongmei; Zhu, Xuebin; Sun, Yuping

    2014-10-28

    Epitaxial antiperovskite superconducting CuNNi3 thin films have been grown by chemical solution deposition. The film is a type II superconductor and shows a Tc of 3.2 K with a transition of 0.13 K. The Hc2(0) and ξ0 are estimated to be 8.1 kOe and 201 Å, respectively.

  20. The Interface Structure of FeSe Thin Film on CaF2 Substrate and its Influence on the Superconducting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenbin; Ma, Zongqing; Patel, Dipak; Sang, Lina; Cai, Chuanbing; Shahriar Al Hossain, Mohammed; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shi Xue

    2017-10-25

    The investigations into the interfaces in iron selenide (FeSe) thin films on various substrates have manifested the great potential of showing high-temperature-superconductivity in this unique system. In present work, we obtain FeSe thin films with a series of thicknesses on calcium fluoride (CaF2) (100) substrates and glean the detailed information from the FeSe/CaF2 interface by using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Intriguingly, we have found the universal existence of a calcium selenide (CaSe) interlayer with a thickness of approximate 3 nm between FeSe and CaF2 in all the samples, which is irrelevant to the thickness of FeSe layers. A slight Se deficiency occurs in the FeSe layer due to the formation of CaSe interlayer. This Se deficiency is generally negligible except for the case of the ultrathin FeSe film (8 nm in thickness), in which the stoichiometric deviation from FeSe is big enough to suppress the superconductivity. Meanwhile, in the overly thick FeSe layer (160 nm in thickness), vast precipitates are found and recognized as Fe-rich phases, which brings about degradation in superconductivity. Consequently, the thickness dependence of superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of FeSe thin films is investigated and one of our atmosphere-stable FeSe thin film (127 nm) possesses the highest Tconset/Tczero as 15.1 K/13.4 K on record to date in the class of FeSe thin film with practical thickness. Our results provide a new perspective for exploring the mechanism of superconductivity in FeSe thin film via high-resolution STEM. Moreover, approaches that might improve the quality of FeSe/CaF2 interfaces are also proposed for further enhancing the superconducting performance in this system.

  1. Nanocomposite thin films for optical temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Brown, Thomas D.; Buric, Michael P.; Matranga, Christopher

    2017-02-14

    The disclosure relates to an optical method for temperature sensing utilizing a temperature sensing material. In an embodiment the gas stream, liquid, or solid has a temperature greater than about 500.degree. C. The temperature sensing material is comprised of metallic nanoparticles dispersed in a dielectric matrix. The metallic nanoparticles have an electronic conductivity greater than approximately 10.sup.-1 S/cm at the temperature of the temperature sensing material. The dielectric matrix has an electronic conductivity at least two orders of magnitude less than the dispersed metallic nanoparticles at the temperature of the temperature sensing material. In some embodiments, the chemical composition of a gas stream or liquid is simultaneously monitored by optical signal shifts through multiple or broadband wavelength interrogation approaches. In some embodiments, the dielectric matrix provides additional functionality due to a temperature dependent band-edge, an optimized chemical sensing response, or an optimized refractive index of the temperature sensing material for integration with optical waveguides.

  2. MgB{sub 2} superconducting thin films sequentially fabricated using DC magnetron sputtering and thermionic vacuum arc method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okur, S. [Physics Department, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)], E-mail: salihokur@iyte.edu.tr; Kalkanci, M. [Material Science Program, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey); Pat, S.; Ekem, N.; Akan, T. [Physics Department, Osmangazi University (Turkey); Balbag, Z. [Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Osmangazi University (Turkey); Musa, G. [Plasma and Radiation, National Institute for Physics of Laser (Romania); Tanoglu, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)

    2007-11-01

    In this work, we discuss fabrication and characterization of MgB{sub 2} thin films obtained by sequential deposition and annealing of sandwich like Mg/B/Mg thin films on glass substrates. Mg and B films were prepared using DC magnetron sputtering and thermionic vacuum arc techniques, respectively. The MgB{sub 2} thin films showed superconducting critical transition at 33 K after annealing at 650 deg. C.

  3. Superconducting thin films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedekar, M.M.; Safari, A. (Dept. of Ceramics, Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Wilber, W. (US Army Electronics Technology and Devices Lab., Forth Monmouth, NJ (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Superconducting thin films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O have been deposited by KrF excimer laser ablation. The best in situ films showed a T[sub c] [sub onset] of 110 K and a T[sub c(0)] of 76 K. A study of the laser plume revealed the presence of two distinct regimes. The forward directed component increased with fluence and the film composition was stoichiometric in this region. This is in agreement with the results on the 123 system by Venkatesan et al. [1]. The film properties were found to be critically dependent on the substrate temperature and temperatures close to melting gave rise to 2212 and 2223 phases. At lower temperatures, 2201 and amorphous phases were obtained. The film morphology and superconducting properties were a function of the target to substrate distance and the oxygen pressure during deposition and cooling. An increase in the target to substrate distance led to a deterioration of the properties due to the energy considerations for the formation of 2212 and 2223 phases. The best films were obtained using cooling pressures of 700 Torr. The microwave surface resistance of the films measured at 35 GHz droped below that of copper at 30 K. Film growth was studied using X-ray diffraction and STM/AFM. This work is a discussion of the role of the different variables on the film properties. (orig.).

  4. Superconducting thin films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, M. M.; Safari, A.; Wilber, W.

    1992-11-01

    Superconducting thin films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O have been deposited by KrF excimer laser ablation. The best in situ films showed a Tc onset of 110 K and a Tc(0) of 76 K. A study of the laser plume revealed the presence of two distinct regimes. The forward directed component increased with fluence and the film composition was stoichiometric in this region. This is in agreement with the results on the 123 system by Venkatesan et al. [1]. The film properties were found to be critically dependent on the substrate temperature and temperatures close to melting gave rise to 2212 and 2223 phases. At lower temperatures, 2201 and amorphous phases were obtained. The film morphology and superconducting properties were a function of the target to substrate distance and the oxygen pressure during deposition and cooling. An increase in the target to substrate distance led to a deterioration of the properties due to the energy consideration for the formation of 2212 and 2223 phases. The best films were obtained using cooling pressures of 700 Torr. The microwave surface resistance of the films measured at 35 GHz dropped below that of copper at 30 K. Film growth was studied using X-ray diffraction and STM/AFM. This work is a discussion of the role of the different variables on the film properties.

  5. Multiferroic iron oxide thin films at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gich, Martí; Fina, Ignasi; Morelli, Alessio; Sánchez, Florencio; Alexe, Marin; Gàzquez, Jaume; Fontcuberta, Josep; Roig, Anna

    2014-07-16

    Multiferroic behaviour at room temperature is demonstrated in ε-Fe2 O3 . The simple composition of this new ferromagnetic ferroelectric oxide and the discovery of a robust path for its thin film growth by using suitable seed layers may boost the exploitation of ε-Fe2 O3 in novel devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Thin Film Materials and Devices for Resistive Temperature Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    is based on the phenomenon known as the Seebeck effect . Named after the T. Seebeck who first observed this effect , he noted that there is a current...this effect is known as the thermal electromotive force. A device which uses the Seebeck effect for the measurement of temperature is known as a...21 Figure 2-7. Graph showing the effect of total deposition pressure on TCR and resistivity of deposited pm-Ge:H thin films

  7. Elevated transition temperature in Ge doped VO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Anna; Magrez, Arnaud; Vitale, Wolfgang A.; Mocny, Piotr; Jeanneret, Patrick; Guibert, Edouard; Whitlow, Harry J.; Ionescu, Adrian M.; Schüler, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Thermochromic GexV1-xO2+y thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by means of reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were then characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), four-point probe electrical resistivity measurements, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. From the temperature dependent resistivity measurements, the effect of Ge doping on the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition in vanadium oxide thin films was investigated. The transition temperature was shown to increase significantly upon Ge doping (˜95 °C), while the hysteresis width and resistivity contrast gradually decreased. The precise Ge concentration and the film thickness have been determined by RBS. The crystallinity of phase-pure VO2 monoclinic films was confirmed by XRD. These findings make the use of vanadium dioxide thin films in solar and electronic device applications—where higher critical temperatures than 68 °C of pristine VO2 are needed—a viable and promising solution.

  8. Properties of Superconducting Mo, Mo2n and Trilayer Mo2n-Mo-Mo2n Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrentine, E. M.; Stevenson, T. R.; Brown, A. D.; Lowitz, A. E.; Noroozian, O.; U-Yen, K.; Eshan, N.; Hsieh, W. T.; Moseley, S. H.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the properties of thin film superconducting Mo, Mo2N and Mo2N/Mo/Mo2N trilayers of interest for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) applications. Using microwave resonator devices, we investigate the transition temperature, energy gaps, kinetic inductance, and internal quality factors of these materials. We present an Usadel-based interpretation of the trilayer transition temperature as a function of trilayer thicknesses, and a 2-gap interpretation to understand the change in kinetic inductance and internal resonance quality factor (Q) as a function of temperature.

  9. Characterisation of amorphous molybdenum silicide (MoSi) superconducting thin films and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Archan; Baker, Luke J.; Doye, Alastair; Nord, Magnus; Heath, Robert M.; Erotokritou, Kleanthis; Bosworth, David; Barber, Zoe H.; MacLaren, Ian; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2017-08-01

    We report on the optimisation of amorphous molybdenum silicide thin film growth for superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) applications. Molybdenum silicide was deposited via co-sputtering from Mo and Si targets in an Ar atmosphere. The superconducting transition temperature (T c) and sheet resistance (R s) were measured as a function of thickness and compared to several theoretical models for disordered superconducting films. Superconducting and optical properties of amorphous materials are very sensitive to short- (up to 1 nm) and medium-range order (˜1-3 nm) in the atomic structure. Fluctuation electron microscopy studies showed that the films assumed an A15-like medium-range order. Electron energy loss spectroscopy indicates that the film stoichiometry was close to Mo83Si17, which is consistent with reports that many other A15 structures with the nominal formula A 3 B show a significant non-stoichiometry with A:B > 3:1. Optical properties from ultraviolet (270 nm) to infrared (2200 nm) wavelengths were measured via spectroscopic ellipsometry for 5 nm thick MoSi films indicating high long wavelength absorption. We also measured the current density as a function of temperature for nanowires patterned from a 10 nm thick MoSi film. The current density at 3.6 K is 3.6 × 105 A cm-2 for the widest wire studied (2003 nm), falling to 2 × 105 A cm-2 for the narrowest (173 nm). This investigation confirms the excellent suitability of MoSi for SNSPD applications and gives fresh insight into the properties of the underlying materials.

  10. Fabrication of superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films and characterization by THz-transmission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabretti, Savio; Thomas, Patrick; Thomas, Andy [Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University (Germany); Scheuch, Martin; Kampfrath, Tobias; Frischkorn, Christian; Wolf, Martin [Fritz-Haber-Institut, MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films were fabricated by magnetron rf and dc co-sputtering on heated silicon and diamond substrates. They were annealed ex-situ for one hour at 650 C. The superconducting phase transition was characterized contactless by means of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the frequency range from 0.8 to 4 THz. For this purpose, amplitude- and phase-resolved transmission measurements of the MgB{sub 2} films for temperatures between 5 and 50 K were performed to extract the complex conductivity. The data show that both samples are homogeneous on a length scale of millimeters and superconducting below a transition temperature of about 22 K. This paves the way to investigate charge-carrier dynamics in MgB{sub 2} with time-resolved THz spectroscopy.

  11. Zro2 Thin-Film-Based Sapphire Fiber Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiajun; Lally, Evan M; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Jianmin; Pickrell, Gary R.; Wang, Anbo

    2012-01-01

    A submicrometer-thick zirconium dioxide film was deposited on the tip of a polished C-plane sapphire fiber to fabricate a temperature sensor that can work to an extended temperature range. Zirconium dioxide was selected as the thin film material to fabricate the temperature sensor because it has relatively close thermal expansion to that of sapphire, but more importantly it does not react appreciably with sapphire up to 1800 degrees C. In order to study the properties of the deposited thin fi...

  12. Influence of Fe Buffer Layer on Co-Doped BaFe2As2 Superconducting Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bonavolontà

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic characterization of Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122 thin films has been carried out. Two samples were available, one grown on CaF2 substrate and the other on MgO with an Fe buffer layer. The goal was to investigate films’ magnetic and superconducting properties, their reciprocal interplay, and the role played by the Fe buffer layer in modifying them. Morphological characterization and Energy Dispersive X-ray analyses on the Fe-buffered sample demonstrate the presence of diffused Fe close to the Co-doped Ba-122 outer surface as well as irregular holes in the overlying superconducting film. These results account for hysteresis loops obtained with magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements and observed at both room and low temperatures. The magnetic pattern was visualized by magneto-optical imaging with an indicator film. Moreover, we investigated the onset of superconductivity through a measure of the superconducting energy gap. The latter is strictly related to the decay time of the excitation produced by an ultrashort laser pulse and has been determined in a pump-probe transient reflectivity experiment. A comparison of results relative to Co-doped Ba-122 thin films with and without Fe buffer layer is finally reported.

  13. Molecular-Beam Epitaxially Grown MgB2 Thin Films and Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Laloë

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of its superconducting properties in 2001, magnesium diboride has generated terrific scientific and engineering research interest around the world. With a of 39 K and two superconducting gaps, MgB2 has great promise from the fundamental point of view, as well as immediate applications. Several techniques for thin film deposition and heterojunction formation have been established, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Here, we will present a brief overview of research based on MgB2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy coevaporation of Mg and B. The films are smooth and highly crystalline, and the technique allows for virtually any heterostructure to be formed, including all-MgB2 tunnel junctions. Such devices have been characterized, with both quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling reported. MgB2 remains a material of great potential for a multitude of further characterization and exploration research projects and applications.

  14. Direct detection of the Josephson radiation emitted from superconducting thin-film microbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper

    1976-01-01

    We report direct measurements of the Josephson radiation emitted in X band from a superconducting thin-film microbridge coupled to a resonance cavity. Power is emitted if one of the harmonics of the Josephson frequency is in the bandwidth of the receiver. The maximum power emitted during our expe...... experiment was 10−13 W. The Josephson radiation could easily be detected at frequencies off resonance. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  15. Incorporation of self-organised gold nano crystals in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films: Modification of superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzer, Christian; Michalowski, Peter; Westerhausen, Markus; Koch, Stefanie; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Treiber, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Hochschule Aalen, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Using pulsed laser deposition we are able to fabricate and examine Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) thin films of high quality. A particular point of interest thereby is the influence of a pre-deposited gold layer with a well-defined film thickness. During the growth of the YBCO thin film the intermediate gold layer self assembles into crystalline nano particles, which modify the growth conditions and hence the physical properties of the growing YBCO. We report on the modification of structural and superconducting properties of our YBCO thin films (such as rocking curve widths, critical temperature T{sub c} and critical current density j{sub c}) comparing conventional to Au added YBCO. The temperature dependence of the critical current density thereby was determined using transport measurements as well as magneto-optical measurements. Furthermore investigations of the flux noise of our gold modified YBCO films are presented.

  16. Fluctuation conductivity of thin films and nanowires near a parallel-field-tuned superconducting quantum phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatin, A V; Shah, N; Vinokur, V M

    2005-01-28

    We calculate the fluctuation correction to the normal state conductivity in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition from a superconducting to a normal state, induced by applying a magnetic field parallel to a dirty thin film or a nanowire with thickness smaller than the superconducting coherence length. We find that at zero temperature, where the correction comes purely from quantum fluctuations, the positive "Aslamazov-Larkin" contribution, the negative "density of states" contribution, and the "Maki-Thompson" interference contribution are all of the same order and the total correction is negative. Further, we show that, based on how the quantum critical point is approached, there are three regimes that show different temperature and field dependencies which should be experimentally accessible.

  17. Stationary states and dynamics of superconducting thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ögren, Magnus; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    The Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory is a celebrated tool for theoretical modelling of superconductors [1]. We elaborate on different partial differential equations (PDEs) and boundary conditions for GL theory, formulated within the finite element method (FEM) [2]. Examples of PDEs for the calculation...... of stationary states with the GL equation and with the time-dependent GL equation are given. Moreover we study real time evolution with the so called Schrödinger-GL equation [3]. For simplicity we here present numerical data for a twodimensional rectangular geometry, but we emphasize that our FEM formulation...... can handle complex geometries also in a three-dimensional superconducting structure. To include external currents in our modelling we discuss the role of the boundary conditions for the external magnetic field [4]. Finally we show results for the pinning of vortices with controlled impurities....

  18. Effects of high temperature and film thicknesses on the texture evolution in Ag thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, F.; Zolanvari, A.

    2017-04-01

    In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of high temperatures (up to 600°C) on the texture evolution in silver thin films. Ag thin films with different thicknesses of 40, 80, 120 and 160nm were sputtered on the Si(100) substrates at room temperature. Then, microstructure of thin films was determined using X-ray diffraction. To investigate the influence of temperature on the texture development in the Ag thin films with different thicknesses, (111), (200) and (220) pole figures were evaluated and orientation distribution functions were calculated. Minimizing the total energy of the system which is affected by competition between surface and elastic strain energy was a key factor in the as-deposited and post annealed thin films. Since sputtering depositions was performed at room temperature and at the same thermodynamic conditions, the competition growth caused the formation of the {122} fiber texture in as-deposited Ag thin films. It was significantly observed that the post annealed Ag thin films showed {111} fiber texture varied with the thickness of thin films. Increasing thin film thickness from 40nm to 160nm led to decreasing the intensity of the {111} fiber texture.

  19. Low temperature aluminum nitride thin films for sensory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarar, E.; Zamponi, C.; Piorra, A.; Quandt, E., E-mail: eq@tf.uni-kiel.de [Institute for Materials Science, Chair for Inorganic Functional Materials, Kiel University, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Hrkac, V.; Kienle, L. [Institute for Materials Science, Chair for Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    A low-temperature sputter deposition process for the synthesis of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films that is attractive for applications with a limited temperature budget is presented. Influence of the reactive gas concentration, plasma treatment of the nucleation surface and film thickness on the microstructural, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of AlN is investigated. An improved crystal quality with respect to the increased film thickness was observed; where full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the AlN films decreased from 2.88 ± 0.16° down to 1.25 ± 0.07° and the effective longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33,f}) increased from 2.30 ± 0.32 pm/V up to 5.57 ± 0.34 pm/V for film thicknesses in the range of 30 nm to 2 μm. Dielectric loss angle (tan δ) decreased from 0.626% ± 0.005% to 0.025% ± 0.011% for the same thickness range. The average relative permittivity (ε{sub r}) was calculated as 10.4 ± 0.05. An almost constant transversal piezoelectric coefficient (|e{sub 31,f}|) of 1.39 ± 0.01 C/m{sup 2} was measured for samples in the range of 0.5 μm to 2 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations performed on thin (100 nm) and thick (1.6 μm) films revealed an (002) oriented AlN nucleation and growth starting directly from the AlN-Pt interface independent of the film thickness and exhibit comparable quality with the state-of-the-art AlN thin films sputtered at much higher substrate temperatures.

  20. Nonlinear optical parameters of nanocrystalline AZO thin film measured at different substrate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh; Al-ghamdi, Attieh A.; Dahlan, Ammar sadik; Yahia, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2.2 wt% of aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent and preferential c-axis oriented thin films were prepared by using radio frequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. For structural analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) was used for morphological studies. The optical parameters such as, optical energy gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric loss, tangent loss, first and third order nonlinear optical properties of transparent films were investigated. High transmittance above 90% and highly homogeneous surface were observed in all samples. The substrate temperature plays an important role to get the best transparent conductive oxide thin films. The substrate temperature at 150 °C showed the growth of highly transparent AZO thin film. Energy gap increased with the increased in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films. Dielectric constant and loss were found to be photon energy dependent with substrate temperature. The change in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films also affect the non-liner optical properties of thin films. The value of χ(3) was found to be changed with the grain size of the thin films that directly affected by the substrate temperature of the pure and Al doped ZnO thin films.

  1. Nonlinear optical parameters of nanocrystalline AZO thin film measured at different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences, Beni -Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Al-ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Dahlan, Ammar sadik [Department of architecture, faculty of environmental design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    The 2.2 wt% of aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent and preferential c-axis oriented thin films were prepared by using radio frequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. For structural analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) was used for morphological studies. The optical parameters such as, optical energy gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric loss, tangent loss, first and third order nonlinear optical properties of transparent films were investigated. High transmittance above 90% and highly homogeneous surface were observed in all samples. The substrate temperature plays an important role to get the best transparent conductive oxide thin films. The substrate temperature at 150 °C showed the growth of highly transparent AZO thin film. Energy gap increased with the increased in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films. Dielectric constant and loss were found to be photon energy dependent with substrate temperature. The change in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films also affect the non-liner optical properties of thin films. The value of χ{sup (3)} was found to be changed with the grain size of the thin films that directly affected by the substrate temperature of the pure and Al doped ZnO thin films.

  2. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Preetam; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO2 doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO2 doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  3. Aspects of passive magnetic levitation based on high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhuber, P.; Moon, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Passive magnetic levitation systems reported in the past were mostly confined to bulk superconducting materials. Here we present fundamental studies on magnetic levitation employing cylindrical permanent magnets floating above high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films (thickness about 0.3 mu m). Experiments included free floating rotating magnets as well as well-established flexible beam methods. By means of the latter, we investigated levitation and drag force hysteresis as well as magnetic stiffness properties of the superconductor-magnet arrangement. In the case of vertical motion of the magnet, characteristic high symmetry of repulsive (approaching) and attractive (withdrawing) branches of the pronounced force-displacement hysteresis could be detected. Achievable force levels were low as expected but sufficient for levitation of permanent magnets. With regard to magnetic stiffness, thin films proved to show stiffness-force ratios about one order of magnitude higher than bulk materials. Phenomenological models support the measurements. Regarding the magnetic hysteresis of the superconductor, the Irie-Yamafuji model was used for solving the equation of force balance in cylindrical coordinates allowing for a macroscopic description of the superconductor magnetization. This procedure provided good agreement with experimental levitation force and stiffness data during vertical motion. For the case of (lateral) drag force basic qualitative characteristics could be recovered, too. It is shown that models, based on simple asymmetric magnetization of the superconductor, describe well asymptotic transition of drag forces after the change of the magnet motion direction. Virgin curves (starting from equilibrium, i.e. symmetric magnetization) are approximated by a linear approach already reported in literature only. This paper shows that basic properties of superconducting thin films allow for their application to magnetic levitation or - without need of levitation

  4. Temperature dependence of critical currents in REBCO thin films with artificial pinning centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Nishihara, Masaya; Kimoto, Takamasa; Horide, Tomoya; Jha, Alok Kumar; Yoshida, Yutaka; Awaji, Satoshi; Ichinose, Ataru

    2017-10-01

    Conventionally, δT c type (order parameter modulation) and δl type (mean free path modulation) pinning mechanisms have been proposed to explain the temperature dependence of the flux pinning of superconducting materials. According to previous studies, it is assumed that the temperature dependence of J c of REBa2Cu3O7 (REBCO, RE = Y, Gd, Sm, etc) films without artificial pinning centers (APCs) is δl type, but it is unidentified when APCs are introduced into the films. In this paper, GdBCO thin films doped with BaHfO3 (BHO) deposited on LaAlO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition were studied. A target exchange method was used to alternately ablate two targets of pure GdBCO and BHO for introducing nanorods as APCs into GdBCO films. Since the insulative BHO acts as a strong pinning center, the δT c pinning mechanism is expected for the temperature dependence of J c of these thin films. However, the experimental results showed that the J c of the films with BHO nanorods was determined by the δl pinning mechanism over a wide temperature range. In order to explain these unexpected results, we examined the pinning mechanism by nanorods based on a resultant pinning force model.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qibin, E-mail: qibinli@cqu.edu.cn [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Xianghe [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Tiefeng, E-mail: pengtiefeng@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Tang, Qizhong [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Xiaomin [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Huang, Cheng [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat transportation in the thin films. - Highlights: • The coherent lattice interface is found at thin films after annealing. • The vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. • The defect and component will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. • The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms. • The phonon transportation in thin films has no apparent rule. - Abstract: Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms’ movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  6. Temperature effect on surface roughening of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.-J.; Shen, Y. G.

    2005-12-01

    The effect of the deposition temperature on the surface roughness and the growth exponent of thin films in the early growth time regime has been studied using a linear continuum model. Surface diffusion and three commonly observed roughening mechanisms, namely, shot noise, the Ehrlich-Schwobel (ES) effect, and the stress-induced instability, are step-by-step incorporated into the model to analyze the temperature effect in different cases. It has been revealed that when the thermal activated surface diffusion is operative, the surface roughness of the films without the stress effect will decrease with deposition temperature. In addition, a rougher film surface caused by the ES effect can also be observed at low temperatures. If stress exists due to a lattice mismatch at the film/substrate interface, however, high deposition temperatures may result in an unstable growth with the roughness increasing with temperature. Our analyses have also found that the growth exponent is strongly temperature dependent, and the film growth may fall into three or four temperature regions depending on whether the stress effect is present or not: (1) low-temperature region with a fixed growth exponent of 0.5 or slightly larger than 0.5 due to the ES effect; (2) a middle crossover temperature region with the growth exponent decreasing with temperature from 0.5 (or slightly larger than 0.5) to 0.25; (3) high-temperature region characterizing by noisy Mullins diffusion equation with a constant growth exponent of 0.25; and (4) if stress exists during film growth, at the high-temperature region where the stress-induced morphology instability begins to operate the growth exponent will be larger than 0.25 and increase with temperature.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nanoindentation of Cu/Au Thin Films at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods, deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, are used to prepare three modulation periods’ (1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au, and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au thin films for nanoindentation at different temperatures. The results show that the temperature will weaken the hardness of thin films. The deposition method and the formation of coherent interface will result in a lot of defects in thin films. These defects can reduce the residual stress in the thin films which is caused by the external force. The proposed system will provide potential benefits in designing the microstructures for thin films.

  8. Substrate Temperature-Assisted Preparation of CZTSSe Thin Films by a Single Quinary Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Liang, Guang-Xing; Hu, Ju-Guang; Zheng, Zhuang-Hao; Luo, Jing-Ting; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Zeng, Yang; Fan, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin films have been grown by RF-magnetron sputtering from a quinary CZTSSe target without subsequent selenization or sulfuration. We investigated the compositions, surface morphology, and crystal structural and optical properties of the CZTSSe thin films. At a substrate temperature of 450°C, the CZTSSe thin films displayed nearly ideal stoichiometric compositions that contributed to their grain growth and crystalline quality. The x-ray diffraction results confirmed that the CZTSSe thin films exhibited a (112) plane preferred orientation with good crystalline quality. The bandgap energy was approximately 1.45 eV. This study determined the optimum substrate temperature to improve the performance of CZTSSe thin films.

  9. The relationship between open volume defects and deposition conditions of superconducting thin-film YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, X Y; Jiang, H; Bauer-Kugelmann, W; Duffy, J A; Koegel, G; Triftshaeuser, W

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between the open volume defects and the deposition conditions of superconducting thin-film YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x was studied by the position lifetime technique. Using a low-energy pulsed positron system, positron lifetime as a function of implantation energy was measured on epitaxial superconducting thin-film YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x deposited on yttrium stabilized cubic zirconia substrates (YSZ) with pulsed laser deposition in a partial pressure of air under different conditions. The results show that the type of open volume defect is independent of deposition conditions such as the substrate temperature, T sub s , and the air pressure, P sub a. The defect concentration increases with decreasing T sub s and increasing P sub a. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  10. Growth of cuprate high temperature superconductor thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-U Habermeier

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   This paper reviews briefly the development of physical vapour deposition based HTS thin film preparation technologies to today’s state-of-the-art methods. It covers the main trends of in-situ process and growth control. The current activities to fabricate tapes for power applications as well as to tailor interfaces in cuprate are described. Some future trends in HTS thin film research, both for science as well as application driven activities are outlined.

  11. Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells grown at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, H.; Zhang, L.; Guo, Y.; Niu, X.; Li, Z.; Chen, J.; Liu, Q.; Mai, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells were grown on polyimide (PI) and soda lime glass (SLG) substrates at low substrate temperatures between 400 °C and 500 °C. Different material properties of the CIGS thin films and photovoltaic performances of the solar cells were systematically investigated. It is found that the (112), (220)/(204) and (116)/(312) peaks from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show double-peak patterns as the substrate temperature decreases. The CIGS thin films grown on both PI and SLG substrates shows layered structures. The bottom and surficial layers of CIGS thin films display small size polycrystalline grains while the middle layers show large size polycrystalline grains. Both types of CIGS thin film solar cells exhibit similar efficiencies while CIGS thin film solar cells grown on PI substrates show lower open circuit voltage and fill factor but higher short circuit current density, as compared to those of CIGS thin film solar cells on SLG substrates. The highest efficiency of 6.14% has been achieved for the CIGS thin film solar cells on PI with the structure of PI/Mo/CIGS/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al/Al grid here.

  12. Superconducting joint for MgB2 thin films by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiling; Liao, Xuebin; Cai, Xinwei; Yang, Can; Guo, Zhengshan; Niu, Ruirui; Zhang, Yan; Jia, Chunyan; Feng, Qingrong

    2017-11-01

    MgB2 has shown great potential in making medium strength superconducting magnet using electronic refrigeration without liquid helium. One of the major problem in building the MgB2 superconducting magnet is the joints in the coils. An effective method of building a superconducting joint is crucial. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel process of building a superconducting joint utilizing sol-gel method. Two HPCVD MgB2 thin film on SiC substrate is pasted face-to-face with Mg(BH4)2•Et2O gel. After annealing in Mg vapor, Mg(BH4)2•Et2O gel decomposed and turned to MgB2 superconducting joint. The joint showed good connectivity between the two films and has a good TC of 34 K. Infield measurement of the joint showed that the joint work well at 20 K with the applied magnetic field up to 4 T.

  13. Flexible superconducting Nb transmission lines on thin film polyimide for quantum computing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, David B.; Hamilton, Michael C.; Reilly, David J.; Bai, Rujun; Hernandez, George A.; Hornibrook, John M.; Sellers, John A.; Ellis, Charles D.

    2016-08-01

    We describe progress and initial results achieved towards the goal of developing integrated multi-conductor arrays of shielded controlled-impedance flexible superconducting transmission lines with ultra-miniature cross sections and wide bandwidths (dc to >10 GHz) over meter-scale lengths. Intended primarily for use in future scaled-up quantum computing systems, such flexible thin-film niobium/polyimide ribbon cables could provide a physically compact and ultra-low thermal conductance alternative to the rapidly increasing number of discrete coaxial cables that are currently used by quantum computing experimentalists to transmit signals between the several low-temperature stages (from ˜4 K down to ˜20 mK) of a dilution refrigerator. We have concluded that these structures are technically feasible to fabricate, and so far they have exhibited acceptable thermo-mechanical reliability. S-parameter results are presented for individual 2-metal layer Nb microstrip structures having 50 Ω characteristic impedance; lengths ranging from 50 to 550 mm were successfully fabricated. Solderable pads at the end terminations allowed testing using conventional rf connectors. Weakly coupled open-circuit microstrip resonators provided a sensitive measure of the overall transmission line loss as a function of frequency, temperature, and power. Two common microelectronic-grade polyimide dielectrics, one conventional and the other photo-definable (PI-2611 and HD-4100, respectively) were compared. Our most striking result, not previously reported to our knowledge, was that the dielectric loss tangents of both polyimides, over frequencies from 1 to 20 GHz, are remarkably low at deep cryogenic temperatures, typically 100× smaller than corresponding room temperature values. This enables fairly long-distance (meter-scale) transmission of microwave signals without excessive attenuation, and also permits usefully high rf power levels to be transmitted without creating excessive dielectric

  14. All-Aluminum Thin Film Transistor Fabrication at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihui Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-gate all-aluminum thin film transistors with multi conductor/insulator nanometer heterojunction were investigated in this article. Alumina (Al2O3 insulating layer was deposited on the surface of aluminum doping zinc oxide (AZO conductive layer, as one AZO/Al2O3 heterojunction unit. The measurements of transmittance electronic microscopy (TEM and X-ray reflectivity (XRR revealed the smooth interfaces between ~2.2-nm-thick Al2O3 layers and ~2.7-nm-thick AZO layers. The devices were entirely composited by aluminiferous materials, that is, their gate and source/drain electrodes were respectively fabricated by aluminum neodymium alloy (Al:Nd and pure Al, with Al2O3/AZO multilayered channel and AlOx:Nd gate dielectric layer. As a result, the all-aluminum TFT with two Al2O3/AZO heterojunction units exhibited a mobility of 2.47 cm2/V·s and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. All processes were carried out at room temperature, which created new possibilities for green displays industry by allowing for the devices fabricated on plastic-like substrates or papers, mainly using no toxic/rare materials.

  15. Room-temperature fabrication of light-emitting thin films based on amorphous oxide semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junghwan, E-mail: JH.KIM@lucid.msl.titech.ac.jp; Miyokawa, Norihiko; Ide, Keisuke [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Toda, Yoshitake [Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox SE-6, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox SE-6, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We propose a light-emitting thin film using an amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) because AOS has low defect density even fabricated at room temperature. Eu-doped amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films fabricated at room temperature emitted intense red emission at 614 nm. It is achieved by precise control of oxygen pressure so as to suppress oxygen-deficiency/excess-related defects and free carriers. An electronic structure model is proposed, suggesting that non-radiative process is enhanced mainly by defects near the excited states. AOS would be a promising host for a thin film phosphor applicable to flexible displays as well as to light-emitting transistors.

  16. l/f Noise in the Superconducting Transition of a MgB2 Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Stevenson, T.; Cao, N.

    2010-01-01

    The noise voltage spectral density in the superconducting transition of a MgB2 thin film on a SiN-coated Si thick substrate was measured over the frequency range 1 Hz-to-1 KHz. Using established bolometer noise theory the theoretical noise components due to Johnson, 1/f(excess) and phonon noise are modeled to the measured data. It is shown that for the case of a MgB2 thin film in the vicinity of the mid-point of transition, coupled to a heat sink via a fairly high thermal conductance (approximately equal to 10(sup -1) W/K)) that the measured noise voltage spectrum is 1/f limited and exhibits lit dependence with a varying between 0.3 and 0.5 in the measured frequency range. At a video frame rate frequency of 30 Hz the measured noise voltage density in the film is approximately equal to 61 nV /the square root of HZ, using this value an upper limit of electrical NEP approximately equal to 0.67pW / the square root of Hz is implied for a practical MgB2 bolometer operating at 36.1 K.

  17. Vanadium dioxide thin film with low phase transition temperature deposited on borosilicate glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhangli; Chen Sihai, E-mail: cshai99@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wang Boqing; Huang Ying; Liu Nengfu; Xu Jin; Lai Jianjun

    2011-04-29

    A nanostructured vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin film showing a low metal-insulator transition temperature of 30 {sup o}C has been fabricated through reactive ion beam sputtering followed by thermal annealing. The thin film was grown on borosilicate glass substrate at the temperature of 280 {sup o}C with a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} buffer layer. Both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images have been taken to investigate the configuration of VO{sub 2} thin film. The average height of the crystallite is 20 nm and the grain size ranges from 40 nm to 100 nm. The transmittance measured from low to high temperatures also reveals that the film possesses excellent switching property in infrared light at critical transition temperature, with switching efficiency of 52% at 2600 nm. This experiment paves the way of VO{sub 2} thin film's application in smart windows.

  18. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M. A. R., E-mail: ameerridhwan89@gmail.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com; Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Malek, M. F., E-mail: firz-solarzelle@yahoo.com [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  19. Relationship between superconducting properties of EuBa 2Cu 3O 7 thin films and surface morphology of CeO 2 buffer layers on R-Al 2O 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Y.; Sakuma, J.; Kimura, Y.; Michikami, O.

    2006-10-01

    We examined the effects of off-center distance (Doff) between the substrate and CeO2 target on surface morphology and crystallinity of 300-nm-thick CeO2 buffer layers and on superconducting properties of EBCO thin films. The surface roughness (Rz) of the CeO2 buffer layer rapidly increased with an increase in Doff. The orientation of an EBCO thin film was dependent on Doff of the buffer layer. At Doff = 0-30 mm, only (0 0 l) peaks of an EBCO thin film were observed by X-ray diffraction patterns. At Doff values over 40 mm, (1 1 0) or (1 0 3) peaks in addition to (0 0 l) peaks were observed. At Doff = 30 mm, EBCO thin films exhibited critical temperatures (Tce) of approximately 89 K and critical current densities (Jc) of 3.5 MA/cm2 at 77.3 K.

  20. Thin Film Sensors for Minimally-Intrusive Measurements in Harsh High Temperature Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Will, Herbert A.; Martin, Lisa C.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced thin film sensors are being developed to provide accurate surface temperature, heat flux and strain measurements for components used in hostile propulsion environments. These sensors are sputter deposited and microfabricated directly onto the test articles with no additional bonding agent. The thickness of the sensors is only a few micrometers which creates minimal disturbance of the gas flow over the test surface. Thus thin film sensors have the advantage over conventional wire- based sensors by providing minimally intrusive measurement and having a faster response. These thin film sensors are being developed for characterization of advanced materials and structures in hostile, high-temperature environments, and for validation of design codes. This paper presents the advances of three high temperature thin film sensor technologies developed at NASA Lewis Research Center: thermocouples, heat-flux gages and strain gages. The fabrication techniques of these thin film sensors which include physical vapor deposition, photolithography patterning and lead Wire attachment are described. Sensors demonstrations on a variety of engine materials, including superalloys, ceramics and advanced ceramic matrix composites, in several hostile, high-temperature test environments are presented. The advantages and limitations of thin film sensor technology are also discussed.

  1. Electrical-transport properties and microwave device performance of sputtered TlCaBaCuO superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, G.; Kapoor, V. J.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the processing and electrical transport measurements for achieving reproducible high-Tc and high-Jc sputtered TlCaBaCuO thin films on LaAlO3 substrates, for microelectronic applications. The microwave properties of TlCaBaCuO thin films were investigated by designing, fabricating, and characterizing microstrip ring resonators with a fundamental resonance frequency of 12 GHz on 10-mil-thick LaAlO3 substrates. Typical unloaded quality factors for a ring resonator with a superconducting ground plane of 0.3 micron-thickness and a gold ground plane of 1-micron-thickness were above 1500 at 65 K. Typical values of penetration depth at 0 K in the TlCaBaCuO thin films were between 7000 and 8000 A.

  2. Layer-by-layer shuttered molecular-beam epitaxial growth of superconducting Sr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maritato, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Ingegneria Elettrica e Matematica Applicata-DIEM,University of Salerno and CNR-SPIN, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Galdi, A.; Orgiani, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Ingegneria Elettrica e Matematica Applicata-DIEM, University of Salerno and CNR-SPIN, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Harter, J. W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Schubert, J. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Institute of Bio- and Nano-systems IBN, D-52425 Julich (Germany) and Forschungszentrum Julich, JARA Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, D-52425 Julich (Germany); Shen, K. M. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Schlom, D. G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-02-07

    Superconducting Sr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 2} thin films have been grown on GdScO{sub 3} substrates by reflection high-energy electron diffraction calibrated layer-by-layer molecular-beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction analysis has confirmed the infinite layer structure after an in situ vacuum annealing step. In situ photoemission spectroscopy indicates that the vacuum annealing step employed immediately after film growth to achieve superconducting films results in oxygen loss from the films. The superconducting critical temperature depends on the La content x, with the highest value obtained for x{approx}0.10. Resistivity as a function of temperature {rho}(T) curves of optimally doped samples show a T{sup 2} temperature dependence characteristic of a scattering process where electron-electron interactions dominate.

  3. Thin film materials and devices for resistive temperature sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basantani, Hitesh A.

    Thin films of vanadium oxide (VOx) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are the two dominant material systems used in resistive infrared radiation detectors (microbolometers) for sensing long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths in the 8--14 microm range. Typical thin films of VO x (x films of hydrogenated germanium (SiGe:H) have |TCR| between 3%/K to 4%/K. Devices made from either of these materials have resulted in similar device performance with NETD ≈ 25 mK. The performance of the microbolometers is limited by the electronic noise, especially 1/f noise. Therefore, regardless of the choice of bolometer sensing material and read out circuitry, manufacturers are constantly striving to reduce 1/f noise while simultaneously increasing TCR to give better signal to noise ratios in their bolometers and ultimately, better image quality with more thermal information to the end user. In this work, thin films of VOx and hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H), having TCR values > 4 %/K are investigated as potential candidates for higher sensitivity next generation of microbolometers. Thin films of VO x were deposited by Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) (˜85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivity ranging from 104 O--cm to 2.1 x 104 O--cm, TCR varying from --4%/K to --5%/K, normalized Hooge parameter (alphaH/n) of 5 x 10 -21 to 5 x 10-18 cm3. Thin films of Ge:H were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by incorporating an increasing amount of crystal fraction in the growing thin films. Thin films of Ge:H having a mixed phase, amorphous + nanocrystalline, having a |TCR| > 6 %/K were deposited with resistivity Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials have higher resistivity and therefore unacceptable large electrical resistance in a lateral resistor configuration. This work looks at an alternate bolometer device design which incorporates higher TCR materials in a vertically

  4. Superconducting tunneling on thin film gold nanowires - a platform for searching Majorana fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Lee, Patrick; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    The metallic surface states of (111)-oriented gold thin film has been theoretically shown to be a superior candidate for Majorana fermions (MF) due to its orders of magnitude stronger spin-orbit coupling compared to semiconductor nanowires. We experimentally demonstrate an ideal platform using heterostructure based nanowires for achieving this, and exploit quantum tunneling to probe the MFs forming at the end of the nanowires. By controlling the material properties of the tunnel barrier, we explore the peculiar behaviors of superconducting gold surface states in both pair tunneling (Josephson like) and quasiparticle tunneling regimes that may hint the signatures of MFs. Additionally, in the mesoscopic 1D gold nanowire superconductor, we observe a new superconducting phase with an energy gap much larger than any of the superconductors in the tunneling device, hinting possible unknown pairing mechanism. Our approach directly demonstrates a crucial step in achieving realistic fault-tolerant quantum computation devices based on non-abelian particles. We acknowledge John Templeton Foundation Grant-39944, NSF DMR-1207469 and ONR N00014-13-1-0301.

  5. Temperature effects on the phonon spectrum in YBa2Cu3O7 single crystal and thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Feile, Rudolf; Leiderer, Paul; Kowalewski, Jerzy; Assmus, Wolf; Schubert, J.; Poppe, Ulrich

    1988-01-01

    We have performed detailed investigations on the temperature dependence of the 335 cm 1 phonon in single crystals and thin films of the YBa2Cu3O7 superconductor. The frequency of this phonon exhibits a downshift of about 5 cm 1 on passing the superconducting transition from above. The shift of the phonon in thin epitaxial films on MgO or SrTiO3 substrates is only about 2.5 cm 1. The width of the asymmetric phonon line displays a slight increase below Tc due to the electron-phonon interaction ...

  6. Temperature Effects on the Phonon Spectrum in YBa2Cu3O7 Single Crystals and Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Feile, Rudolf; Leiderer, Paul; Kowalewski, Jerzy; Assmus, Wolf; Schubert, J.; Poppe, Ulrich

    1989-01-01

    We have performed a detailed investigation of the temperature dependence of the 385cm-1 phonon in single crystals and thin films of the YBa2Cu3O7 superconductor by means of Raman spectroscopy. In the single crystal the frequency of this phonon shows a downshift of about 5 cm-1 on passing the superconducting transition from above, which is referred to a strong electron-phonon interaction in the superconductor. The shift of the phonon in thin epitaxial films on MgO or SrTiO3 substrates is only ...

  7. Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Using a Thin-Film Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor was developed that is rugged, compact, stable, and can be inexpensively fabricated. This thin-film interferometric temperature sensor was shown to be capable of providing a +/- 2 C accuracy over the range of -55 to 275 C, throughout a 5000 hr operating life. A temperature-sensitive thin-film Fabry-Perot interferometer can be deposited directly onto the end of a multimode optical fiber. This batch-fabricatable sensor can be manufactured at a much lower cost than can a presently available sensor, which requires the mechanical attachment of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to a fiber. The principal disadvantage of the thin-film sensor is its inherent instability, due to the low processing temperatures that must be used to prevent degradation of the optical fiber's buffer coating. The design of the stable thin-film temperature sensor considered the potential sources of both short and long term drifts. The temperature- sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was a silicon film with a thickness of approx. 2 microns. A laser-annealing process was developed which crystallized the silicon film without damaging the optical fiber. The silicon film was encapsulated with a thin layer of Si3N4 over coated with aluminum. Crystallization of the silicon and its encapsulation with a highly stable, impermeable thin-film structure were essential steps in producing a sensor with the required long-term stability.

  8. Elevated temperature dependent transport properties of phosphorus and arsenic doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, B.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Oder, T. N.; McMaster, M.; Velpukonda, N.; Smith, A.

    2013-12-01

    Elevated temperature dependent Hall effect measurements were performed in a wide temperature range from 80 to 800 K to study transport properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films heavily doped with phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As), and grown on sapphire substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Double thermal activation processes in both P- and As-doped ZnO thin films with small activation energy of ˜0.04 eV and large activation energy of ˜0.8 eV were observed from variable temperature Hall effect measurements. The samples exhibited n-type conductivities throughout the temperature range. Based on photoluminescence measurements at 11 K and theoretical results, the large activation energy observed in the temperature dependent Hall effect measurement has been assigned to a deep donor level, which could be related to oxygen vacancy (VO) in the doped ZnO thin films.

  9. Subharmonic energy gap structure in the Josephson radiation at 35 GHz from a superconducting thin-film microbridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Levinsen, M. T.; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    1979-01-01

    Nonresonant detection of the Josephson radiation 35 GHz from a superconducting thin-film microbridge is reported. The high frequency and the accuracy of these measurements lead to a new important observation: subharmonic energy gap structure in the detected integral power. The maximum integral po...... power measured was as large as 8×10−11 W. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  10. Investigation of annealing temperature effect on magnetron sputtered cadmium sulfide thin film properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarnejad, E.; Ghorannevis, Z.; Abbasi, F.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are deposited on the fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering setup. The effects of annealing in air on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of CdS thin film are studied. Optimal annealing temperature is investigated by annealing the CdS thin film at different annealing temperatures of 300, 400, and 500 °C. Thin films of CdS are characterized by X-ray diffractometer analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and four point probe. The as-grown CdS films are found to be polycrystalline in nature with a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases. By increasing the annealing temperature to 500 °C, CdS film showed cubic phase, indicating the phase transition of CdS. It is found from physical characterizations that the heat treatment in air increased the mean grain size, the transmission, and the surface roughness of the CdS thin film, which are desired to the application in solar cells as a window layer material.

  11. Magnetic and superconductivity studies on (In{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sai Krishna, N. [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu (India); Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu 603 104, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhusudhana Rao, N.; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Rigana Begam, M. [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu (India); Omkaram, I. [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sreekantha Reddy, D. [Department of Physics and Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films deposited using electron beam evaporation technique. • Characterization of the samples using XRD, SEM, EDAX, AES, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR, VSM and magnetoresistance. • All Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films exhibited the cubic structure of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Pure and Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism and superconductivity at 2 K. - Abstract: Magnetic, magnetoresistivity and superconductivity studies were carried out on (In{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) thin films (2D structures) grown on glass substrate by electron beam evaporation technique at 350 °C. The films have an average size of 120 nm particles. All the samples shown soft ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at room temperature and saturation magnetization increased with iron dopant concentration. Observed magnetization could be best interpreted by F-center mediated magnetic exchange interaction in the samples. Temperature dependent resistivity of the sample (x = 0.00 and 0.07) showed metallic behavior down to very low temperatures and superconductivity at 2 K for undoped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas the In{sub 1.86}Fe{sub 0.14}O{sub 3} sample shows superconductivity below 2 K in the absence of magnetic fields. The reduction in transition temperature was attributed to increase electrical disorder with iron doping. Both samples showed positive magnetoresistivity (MR) in superconducting state due to increase of resistivity resulting from breaking of superconducting Cooper pairs upon application of magnetic field. In addition, both the samples show feeble negative MR in normal electrical state. The observed MR in normal state is not due to spin polarized tunneling instead it is due to suppression of scattering of charge carrier by single occupied localized states.

  12. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of cadmium-free Cu-Zn-In-S quantum dot thin films as temperature probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Kang, Xiaojiao; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2015-12-21

    We reported temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) studies on Cu-Zn-In-S quantum dot (QD) thin films. In this paper, cadmium-free and luminescent Cu-Zn-In-S quantum dot thin films were in situ formed by thermal decomposition of molecular-based precursors in the open air, without need of the complicated quantum dot synthesis. Molecular-based precursor solutions were prepared by dissolving Cu2O, ZnO, and In(OH)3 in the ethanol solution of butylamine and carbon disulfide. The effects of sintering temperature, sintering time, and the concentration of capping agents on the photoluminescence properties of Cu-Zn-In-S QD thin films have been systematically investigated. It was found that alkali metal ions play an important role in enhancing the PL quantum yield of quantum dot thin films. The as-prepared QD thin films show composition-tunable emission in the range of 535 nm to 677 nm, and the absolute PL quantum yields can reach as high as 22.1%. All of the as-deposited QD thin films show a single-exponential decay to temperature, indicating that these cadmium-free QD thin films have high potential as temperature probes.

  13. High-temperature stability of thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinks, P.; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced thermal stability in thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 thin films up to 550 °C in an oxygen rich environment was demonstrated by high-temperature electrical and X-ray diffraction measurements. In contrast to generally performed heating in helium gas, it is shown that an oxygen/helium mixture...... provides sufficient thermal contact, while preventing the previously disregarded formation of oxygen vacancies. Combining thermal cycling with electrical measurements proves to be a powerful tool to study the real intrinsic thermoelectric behaviour of oxide thin films at elevated temperatures. © 2015 AIP...

  14. Effect of substrate temperature on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of IGZO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Vinoth Kumar; Álvarez, Arturo Maldonado; Olvera Amador, María de la luz

    2017-02-01

    Indium and gallium co-doped zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Physical properties such as structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were examined on IGZO thin films with respect to the changes in the substrate temperature (425, 450 and 475 °C). Structural results showed that IGZO films were crystalline and presented hexagonal wurtzite structure. Morphological studies proved that the substrate temperature changed the sizes of hexagonal nanostructures of IGZO. Optical transmittance in the UV-vis region and electrical measurements confirmed that IGZO films were transparent (>70%) with a minimum electrical resistivity 10.5×10-3 Ω cm.

  15. Proximity-Induced Superconductivity and Quantum Interference in Topological Crystalline Insulator SnTe Thin-Film Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Robin; Schönle, Joachim; Becker, Andreas; Dyck, Denis; Borisov, Kiril; Rott, Karsten; Ramermann, Daniela; Büker, Björn; Haskenhoff, Jan; Krieft, Jan; Hübner, Torsten; Reimer, Oliver; Shekhar, Chandra; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Hütten, Andreas; Felser, Claudia; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Reiss, Günter

    2018-02-14

    Topological crystalline insulators represent a new state of matter, in which the electronic transport is governed by mirror-symmetry protected Dirac surface states. Due to the helical spin-polarization of these surface states, the proximity of topological crystalline matter to a nearby superconductor is predicted to induce unconventional superconductivity and, thus, to host Majorana physics. We report on the preparation and characterization of Nb-based superconducting quantum interference devices patterned on top of topological crystalline insulator SnTe thin films. The SnTe films show weak anti-localization, and the weak links of the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) exhibit fully gapped proximity-induced superconductivity. Both properties give a coinciding coherence length of 120 nm. The SQUID oscillations induced by a magnetic field show 2π periodicity, possibly dominated by the bulk conductivity.

  16. Optical nonlinearities of nanostructured VO{sub 2} thin films with low phase transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Boqing [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen Sihai, E-mail: cshai99@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Huang Zhangli; Fu Ming [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Vanadium dioxides (VO{sub 2}) thin films which change from a monoclinic semiconductor phase to a tetragonal metallic structure at the temperature of 29 Degree-Sign C have been fabricated by reactive ion beam sputtering. Micrograph of scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the grain size of VO{sub 2} crystallite ranges from 20 nm to 50 nm. Regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser pulses were applied to induce the phase transition, which was accompanying with the third-order optical nonlinearities in VO{sub 2} thin films. Open-aperture and closed-aperture measurements of Z-scan were used to study the optical absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. Nanostructured VO{sub 2} thin films exhibit two-photon absorption and a negative nonlinear index of refraction when phase transition is induced. The optical nonlinearities are due to excitation of electronic subsystem only and without involving of the structural semiconductor-to-metal phase transition.

  17. Low-temperature, solution-processed ZrO2:B thin film: a bifunctional inorganic/organic interfacial glue for flexible thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Ho; Oh, Jin Young; Han, Sun Woong; Lee, Tae Il; Baik, Hong Koo

    2015-03-04

    A solution-processed boron-doped peroxo-zirconium oxide (ZrO2:B) thin film has been found to have multifunctional characteristics, providing both hydrophobic surface modification and a chemical glue layer. Specifically, a ZrO2:B thin film deposited on a hydrophobic layer becomes superhydrophilic following ultraviolet-ozone (UVO) treatment, whereas the same treatment has no effect on the hydrophobicity of the hydrophobic layer alone. Investigation of the ZrO2:B/hydrophobic interface layer using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR XPS) confirmed it to be chemically bonded like glue. Using the multifunctional nature of the ZrO2:B thin film, flexible amorphous indium oxide (In2O3) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were subsequently fabricated on a polyimide substrate along with a ZrO2:B/poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) dielectric. An aqueous In2O3 solution was successfully coated onto the ZrO2:B/PVP dielectric, and the surface and chemical properties of the PVP and ZrO2:B thin films were analyzed by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface-engineered PVP dielectric was found to have a lower leakage current density (Jleak) of 4.38 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 1 MV/cm, with no breakdown behavior observed up to a bending radius of 5 mm. In contrast, the electrical characteristics of the flexible amorphous In2O3 TFT such as on/off current ratio (Ion/off) and electron mobility remained similar up to 10 mm of bending without degradation, with the device being nonactivated at a bending radius of 5 mm. These results suggest that ZrO2:B thin films could be used for low-temperature, solution-processed surface-modified flexible devices.

  18. Effect of viscosity and temperature on the microstructure of BBT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Gustavo Carneiro da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of BBT were deposited on silicate and Pt/Ti /SiO2 (111 substrates by spin- coating from the polymeric precursor method (Pechini process. The obtained films were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The influence of viscosity on the morphology of BBT thin films as well as the influence of temperature on crystallization, morphology and properties of BBTare discussed. Surface roughness and crystallization of these films are strongly dependent on the annealing conditions.

  19. The influence of deposition temperature on vanadium dioxide thin films microstructure and physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velaphi Msomi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide thin films were successfully prepared on soda lime glass substrates using the optimised conditions for r.f-inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering. The optimised deposition parameters were fixed and then a systematic study of the effect of deposition temperature, ranging from 450 °C to 550 °C, on the microstructure of thermochromic thin films was carried out. The deposited films were found to be well crystallised, showing strong texture corresponding to the (011 plane, indicating the presence of vanadium dioxide.

  20. Temperature annealing effect on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elamal Bouzit S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO thin films have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The effect of the annealing temperature on the morphological, structural and optical properties of the ZnO thin films was investigated. A good crystllinity and good transmittance in the visible spectrum was obtained at the annealing temperature of 400°C.

  1. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Subodh, E-mail: subodhphy@gmail.com; Sharma, Preetam; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K. [Thin Film and Membrane Science Lab, Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur- 302004 (India); Sharma, S. S. [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer-305002 (India); Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh [Centre for Converging Technology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  2. Coherent Raman measurements of polymer thin-film pressure and temperature during picosecond laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, David E.; Franken, Jens; Dlott, Dana D.

    1995-06-01

    Picosecond time-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy (ps CARS) is used to study photothermal ablation, induced by 150 ps duration near-infrared optical pulses, of poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films doped with a small amount of near-infrared absorbing dye. The pressure and temperature shifts of a PMMA transition at ≊808 cm-1 were calibrated in static P and T experiments. Dynamic frequency shifting of the PMMA transition is used to determine temperature and pressure in the ablating thin film, and to investigate the dynamics of fast thin-film volume expansion. When the ablation pulse intensity is varied, ps CARS measurements of T and P are shown to be consistent with the results of conventional measurements below threshold, but near and above threshold picosecond time scale data show noticeable differences. Picosecond time scale ablation involves solid-state shock waves, which are not produced by longer duration ablation pulses. A pressure jump, often several kbar, is produced when the film is heated faster than a characteristic hydrodynamic volume relaxation time τh. Pressure release occurs by shock rarefaction wave propagation. When the rarefaction wave reaches the substrate, a tensile force is exerted on the thin film, causing it to break away from the substrate. The pressure in the thin film at ablation threshold, Pabl≊0.5 GPa, is found to be generated by roughly equal contributions from shock and thermochemical polymer decomposition processes. Therefore the picosecond time scale ablation process is termed shock-assisted photothermal ablation. The value of Pabl is interpreted to be the nanosecond time scale dynamic tensile strength of the thin film under conditions of ultrafast heating. It is found to be about one order of magnitude greater than the static strength of PMMA.

  3. ZrO2 thin-film-based sapphire fiber temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajun; Lally, Evan M; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Jianmin; Pickrell, Gary; Wang, Anbo

    2012-04-20

    A submicrometer-thick zirconium dioxide film was deposited on the tip of a polished C-plane sapphire fiber to fabricate a temperature sensor that can work to an extended temperature range. Zirconium dioxide was selected as the thin film material to fabricate the temperature sensor because it has relatively close thermal expansion to that of sapphire, but more importantly it does not react appreciably with sapphire up to 1800 °C. In order to study the properties of the deposited thin film, ZrO2 was also deposited on C-plane sapphire substrates and characterized by x-ray diffraction for phase analysis as well as by atomic force microscopy for analysis of surface morphology. Using low-coherence optical interferometry, the fabricated thin-film-based sapphire fiber sensor was tested in the lab up to 1200 °C and calibrated from 200° to 1000 °C. The temperature resolution is determined to be 5.8 °C when using an Ocean Optics USB4000 spectrometer to detect the reflection spectra from the ZrO2 thin-film temperature sensor.

  4. Plasma deposition of thin film silicon at low substrate temperature and at high growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    To expand the range of applications for thin film solar cells incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H), the growth rate has to be increased 0.5 or less to several nm/s and the substrate temperature should be lowered to around 100 C. In

  5. ALD grown nanostructured ZnO thin films: Effect of substrate temperature on thickness and energy band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO thin films with high transparency have been grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition at various temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 300 °C. Efforts have been made to observe the effect of substrate temperature on the thickness of the deposited thin films and its consequences on the energy band gap. A remarkably high growth rate of 0.56 nm per cycle at a substrate temperature of 200 °C for ZnO thin films have been achieved. This is the maximum growth rate for ALD deposited ZnO thin films ever reported so far to the best of our knowledge. The studies of field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry patterns confirm the deposition of uniform and high quality nanosturtured ZnO thin films which have a polycrystalline nature with preferential orientation along (100 plane. The thickness of the films deposited at different substrate temperatures was measured by ellipsometry and surface profiling system while the UV–visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies have been used to evaluate the optical properties of the respective thin films. It has been observed that the thickness of the thin film depends on the substrate temperatures which ultimately affect the optical and structural parameters of the thin films.

  6. Effect of electronic contribution on temperature-dependent thermal transport of antimony telluride thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Yong; Park, No-Won [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji-Eun [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soon-Gil, E-mail: sgyoon@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jung-Hyuk [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kwon, E-mail: sangkwonlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We investigated thermal transport of the antimony telluride thin films. • The contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity increased up to ∼77% at 300 K. • We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component. - Abstract: We study the theoretical and experimental characteristics of thermal transport of 100 nm and 500 nm-thick antimony telluride (Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was measured at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K, using four-point-probe 3-ω method. Out-of-plane thermal conductivity of the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film was much lesser in comparison to the bulk material in the entire temperature range, confirming that the phonon- and electron-boundary scattering are enhanced in thin films. Moreover, we found that the contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity (κ{sub e}) in total thermal conductivity (κ) linearly increased up to ∼77% at 300 K with increasing temperature. We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component of thermal conductivity towards the total thermal conductivity of the film by a modified Callaway model. Further, we find the theoretical model predictions to correspond well with the experimental results.

  7. Thin-film resistance temperature detector array for the measurement of temperature distribution inside a phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Hyun, Jaeyub; Doh, Il; Ahn, Bongyoung; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-02-01

    A thin-film resistance temperature detector (RTD) array is proposed to measure the temperature distribution inside a phantom. HIFU (high-intensity focused ultrasound) is a non-invasive treatment method using focused ultrasound to heat up a localized region, so it is important to measure the temperature distribution without affecting the ultrasonic field and heat conduction. The present 25 µm thick PI (polyimide) film is transparent not only to an ultrasonic field, because its thickness is much smaller than the wavelength of ultrasound, but also to heat conduction, owing to its negligible thermal mass compared to the phantom. A total of 33 RTDs consisting of Pt resistors and interconnection lines were patterned on a PI substrate using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology, and a polymer phantom was fabricated with the film at the center. The expanded uncertainty of the RTDs was 0.8 K. In the experimental study using a 1 MHz HIFU transducer, the maximum temperature inside the phantom was measured as 70.1 °C just after a HIFU excitation of 6.4 W for 180 s. The time responses of the RTDs at different positions also showed the residual heat transfer inside the phantom after HIFU excitation. HIFU results with the phantom showed that a thin-film RTD array can measure the temperature distribution inside a phantom.

  8. Effects of annealing temperature on nanomechanical and microstructural properties of Cu-doped In2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Sheng-Rui; Chen, Guo-Ju; Lee, Jyh-Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the effects of post-annealing on the microstructural, surface morphological and nanomechanical properties of Cu-doped In2O3 (CIO) thin films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation techniques, respectively. The CIO thin films were deposited on the c-plane sapphire substrates at room temperature using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. Post-annealing was carried out at the temperatures of 750-950 °C, and resulted in progressive increase in the average grain size and improved crystallinity of CIO thin films. In addition, the hardness and Young's modulus of CIO thin films were measured by a nanoindenter equipped with a Berkovich diamond tip and operated with the continuous contact stiffness measurements mode. Results indicated that the values of hardness and Young's modulus of CIO thin films increased when the annealing temperature increased from 750 to 950 °C.

  9. Optical and electrical properties of aluminum and boron co-doped zinc thin films as functions of the substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun-il [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu-il [Hyosung Corporation, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Aluminum and boron co-doped zinc-oxide (AZOB) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. We investigated the optical and the electrical properties of AZOB thin films as functions of the substrate temperature. A highly c-axis-oriented (002) plane was obtained in all AZOB thin films. The lowest electrical resistivity was 5.16 x 10{sup -4} {Omega}cm in AZOB thin films sputtered at 500 .deg. C. An average transmittance above 85% was obtained in AZOB thin films sputtered at substrate temperatures above 300 .deg. C. The optical absorption energy edge of the AZOB thin films sputtered at temperatures above 300 .deg. C showed a shift toward lower energy.

  10. Dependence of electrical properties on thermal temperature in nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Zhang, HaiJiao; Jiao, Zheng; Wu, Minghong; Shek, Chan-Hung; Wu, C M Lawrence; Lai, Joseph K L; Chen, Zhiwen

    2011-12-01

    Nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition techniques on clean glass substrates, and the films were then annealed for 30 min from 50 to 550 degrees C with a step of 50 degrees C, respectively. The investigation of X-ray diffraction confirmed that the various SnO2 thin films were consisted of nanoparticles with average grain size in the range of 23.7-28.9 nm. Root-mean-square surface roughness of the as-prepared SnO2 thin film was measured to be 25.6 nm which decreases to 16.2 nm with thermal annealing. Electrical resistivity and refractive index were measured as a function of annealing temperature, and found to lie between 1.24 to 1.45 momega-cm, and 1.502 to 1.349, respectively. The results indicate that nearly opposite actions to root-mean-square surface roughness and electrical resistivity make a unique performance with thermal annealing temperature. The post annealing shows greater tendency to affect the structural and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films which composed of nanoparticles.

  11. Low-Temperature Pulsed-PECVD ZnO Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dalong; Mourey, Devin A.; Jackson, Thomas N.

    2010-05-01

    We report high-quality ZnO thin films deposited at low temperature (200°C) by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (pulsed PECVD). Process byproducts are purged by weak oxidants N2O or CO2 to minimize parasitic CVD deposition, resulting in high-refractive-index thin films. Pulsed-PECVD-deposited ZnO thin-film transistors were fabricated on plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) Al2O3 dielectric and have a field-effect mobility of 15 cm2/V s, subthreshold slope of 370 mV/dec, threshold voltage of 6.6 V, and current on/off ratio of 108. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) on thermal SiO2 dielectric have a field-effect mobility of 7.5 cm2/V s and threshold voltage of 14 V. For these devices, performance may be limited by the interface between the ZnO and the dielectric.

  12. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cd-doped ZnO thin films through defect engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debbichi, M., E-mail: mourad_fsm@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de la matière condensée et nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Souissi, M. [College of Arts and Science Nayriya, Dammam University, 31441 Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Fouzri, A. [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche ‘‘High Resolution X-ray Diffractometer’’, Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Schmerber, G. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS) UMR 7504 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Said, M. [Laboratoire de la matière condensée et nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Alouani, M. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS) UMR 7504 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO:Cd thin film grown on c-sapphire substrate by MOCVD method. • RTFM in ZnO:Cd thin film is detected by SQUID magnetometer measurement. • DFT theory is conducted to elucidate the mechanism of RTFM in Cd-doped ZnO. - Abstract: Room-temperature ferromagnetism is detected in undoped and cadmium-doped ZnO (ZnO:Cd) thin film grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition method. To elucidate the origin of ferromagnetism, a theoretical study based on density functional theory is conducted, focusing on the role of the neutral cation vacancy on the appearance of magnetism in Cd-doped ZnO thin film. The calculations revealed that Cd substitution at Zn sites contributes to the long-ranged ferromagnetism in ZnO by lowering the formation energy of Zn vacancies and thereby stabilizing Zn vacancies from which the magnetic moments originate.

  13. Growth and characterization of superconducting spinel oxide LiTiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Wong, Franklin J.; Takamura, Yayoi; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Yuri

    2009-11-01

    Epitaxial films of LiTiO on single crystalline substrates of MgAlO, MgO, and SrTiO provide model systems to systematically explore the effects of lattice strain and microstructural disorder on the superconducting state. Lattice strain that affects bandwidth gives rise to variations in the superconducting and normal state properties. Microstructural disorder, such as antiphase boundaries that give rise to Ti network disorder, reduces the critical temperature, and Ti network disorder combined with Mg interdiffusion lead to a much more dramatic effect on the superconducting state. Surface sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopy has identified Ti to retain site symmetry and average valence of the bulk material regardless of film thickness.

  14. Effect of temperature on the photoalignment of azo dyes in thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulich, V. S.; Murauski, An. A.; Muravsky, Al. A.; Agabekov, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    The temperature dependences of the induced dichroic ratios (DRs) of azo dyes after their photoalignment in thin films 80 to 200 nm thick are studied. It is found that the DR values of layers containing dyes of the benzeneazodiphenyl series fall from 6.0 to 1.6 as the temperature rises from 60 to 130°C, respectively. A reduction in induced DR as the temperature rises (from 20 to 100°C) is also observed for the thin films of the dyes of benzeneazo-5,5'-dioxodibenzothiophene group. The absence of induced DR after irradiation with polarized light at 100°C indicates there is no alignment of molecules at this temperature.

  15. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Nicolay, P. [CTR Carinthian Tech Research AG, Villach 9524 (Austria)

    2015-02-14

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  16. Physical vapor deposition of CdTe thin films at low temperature for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisler, Christoph; Brueckner, Michael; Lind, Felix; Kraft, Christian; Reisloehner, Udo; Ronning, Carsten; Wesch, Werner [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Cadmium telluride is successfully utilized as an absorber material for thin film solar cells. Industrial production makes use of high substrate temperatures for the deposition of CdTe absorber layers. However, in order to exploit flexible substrates and to simplify the manufacturing process, lower deposition temperatures are beneficial. Based on the phase diagram of CdTe, predictions on the stoichiometry of CdTe thin films grown at low substrate temperatures are made in this work. These predictions were verified experimentally using additional sources of Cd and Te during the deposition of the CdTe thin films at different substrate temperatures. The deposited layers were analyzed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In case of CdTe layers which were deposited at substrate temperatures lower than 200 C without usage of additional sources we found a non-stoichiometric growth of the CdTe layers. The application of the additional sources leads to a stoichiometric growth for substrate temperatures down to 100 C which is a significant reduction of the substrate temperature during deposition.

  17. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Morphological and Topography of Nickel-Alumina Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwani Khairul Ilman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dip coating process promises good potential of nickel-alumina catalyst deposition on metal substrate for various applications especially in gas conversion reaction. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different calcination temperature on nickel-alumina catalysts thin film formation. Four different calcination temperature were used, which are 300°C, 400°C, 500°C and 600°C. The calculation process was conducted for a duration of 90 minutes. The deposited thin films were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray diffraction (XRD equipment. The AFM result showed that the surface roughness of the nickel-alumina increase proportionally from 56 to 275 nm when the calcination temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. From an observation at high calcination temperature, the atom of grains assisted diffusion at the crystallite point causing grain with lower surface energy become larger. As the calcination temperature increase, the surface profile becomes rough and uneven representing high surface roughness. Thus, the effect of calcination temperature greatly influences the surface roughness of the nickel-alumina thin film.

  18. Temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of chemically derived gallium zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barasheed, Abeer Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of sol-gel prepared ZnO and 3% Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films have been explored. The power factor of GZO films, as compared to ZnO, is improved by nearly 17% at high temperature. A stabilization anneal, prior to thermoelectric measurements, in a strongly reducing Ar/H2 (95/5) atmosphere at 500°C was found to effectively stabilize the chemically derived films, practically eliminating hysteresis during thermoelectric measurements. Subtle changes in the thermoelectric properties of stabilized films have been correlated to oxygen vacancies and excitonic levels that are known to exist in ZnO-based thin films. The role of Ga dopants and defects, formed upon annealing, in driving the observed complex temperature dependence of the thermoelectric properties is discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  19. Optical manipulation of temperature formation of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashour, A. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)]. E-mail: aashour_2000@Yahoo.com; Akl, A.A.S. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Ramadan, A.A. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Helwan University, Helwan (Egypt); El-Kadry, N.A. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Minia University, Minia (Egypt); El-Hady, K. Abd [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    2006-09-25

    Polycrystalline thin films of CuInSe{sub 2} were grown onto glass substrates using the stacked elemental layer (SEL) technique involving the annealing at different temperatures in air atmosphere for different times. The variation in the structure and optical properties of the CuInSe{sub 2} thin films on the annealing temperature and time was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical measurements, respectively. The different structural properties were clearly reflected in X-ray diffraction studies. It was concluded that CuInSe{sub 2} phase is dominated at annealing temperature of 300 deg. C for a time {>=}1 h. Ternary phase of CuInSe{sub 2} was characterized by highly both transmission and absorption, optimization of the optical constants and band gap. Optical absorption studies indicate a direct band gap range around 1.0 eV. The data on structural and optical properties covering this technique will be presented.

  20. Power Generation by Zinc Antimonide Thin Film under Various Load Resistances at its Critical Operating Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mir Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    thin films operating under different load resistances at around its critical operating temperature, 400 ᵒC. The thermoelement is subjected to constant hot side temperature and to room temperature at the cold junction in order to measure the thin film TEG’s sample performance. The nominal loads equal...... to 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45… 175, and also 200 Ohms were applied. The results show that the value of the Seebeck coefficient is 0.0002 [V/K] for the specimen, which is in agreement with quantities of other zinc antimonide bulks materials in literature. The results also show that the voltage...... slightly reduces during unload conditions, although it is expected that by eliminating load in each step, the initial amount of voltage exactly repeats. Similar behavior is observed for Seebeck coefficient distribution versus time of working particularly in lower load resistances. Based on variation...

  1. Influence of Magnetic Field on Electric Charge Transport in Holomiun Thin Films at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dudas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Holmium thin films were prepared by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV and high precision electrical resistance measurements were performed on them as well as on holomium bulk sample in the wide temperature range from 4,2 K up to the room temperature. Electric charge transport is profoundly influenced by the magnetic structure at low temperatures and a "knee-like" resistance anomaly was observed near the transportation from paramagnetic state to basal-plane spiral structure in bulk with the Neel temperature TN=128,9 K and below ~ 122 K in thin Ho films in a thickness range from 98 nm to 215 nm. Unexpected resistance minimum at ~ 9 K and a slope´s charge of the R vs. T curve near ~ 170 K was observed in 215 nm thin film. Application of magnetic field parallel to the substrate and thin film plane for temperatures below ~ 150 K caused the decrease of resistence value with increasing magnetic flux density. Increasing suppression of the TN value up to ~ 5 K with increasing flux density value up to 5 T was observed in Ho films. 

  2. Thin film diamond temperature sensor array for harsh aerospace environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M.; Masood, A.; Fredricks, R. J.; Tamor, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using polycrystalline CVD diamond films as temperature sensors in harsh aerospace environment associated with hypersonic flights was tested using patterned diamond resistors, fabricated on flat or curved oxidized Si surfaces, as temperature sensors at temperatures between 20 and 1000 C. In this temperature range, the measured resistance was found to vary over 3 orders of magnitude and the temperature coefficient of resistance to change from 0.017/K to 0.003/K. After an annealing treatment, the resistance change was reproducible within 1 percent on the entire temperature range for short measuring times.

  3. Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated from an amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Vissers, M. R.; Marsili, F.; Pappas, D. P.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We present the characteristics of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin-films. Fabricated devices show a saturation of the internal detection efficiency at temperatures below 1 K, with system dark count rates below 500 cps. Operation in a closed-cycle cryocooler at 2.5 K is possible with system detection efficiencies exceeding 20% for SNSPDs which have not been optimized for high detection efficiency. Jitter is observed to vary between 69 ps at 250 mK and 187 ps at 2.5 K using room temperature amplifiers.

  4. Room temperature ammonia sensor based on copper nanoparticle intercalated polyaniline nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, U. V.; Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Karmakar, N.; Bhogale, A.; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Kothari, D. C.

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of copper nanoparticles intercalated-polyaniline nanocomposites (NC) have been deposited at room temperatures by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of different concentrations of Cu nanoparticles. The response characteristics of the NC thin films toward different gases namely NH3, CO, CO2, NO and CH4 were examined at room temperature. Both pure polyaniline (PANI) and NC films exhibited a selective response toward NH3. Incorporation of Cu nanoparticles resulted in an improvement of the sensors response and response kinetics. The response and the recovery times of composite film toward 50 ppm of NH3 were 7 and 160 s, respectively. Additionally, the NC sensor film could reversibly detect as low as 1 ppm of NH3 concentrations. The enhanced response of NC films toward NH3 is attributed to the deprotonation and reprotonation processes as also supported by Raman investigations.

  5. Influence of Magnetic Field on Electric Charge Trasport in Holmium Thin Film at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dudas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision electrical resistance measurements were performed in the low  temperature range from 4.2 K up to room temperature on a holmium bulk sample, and on holmium thin films in magnetic field. The X-ray diffraction of Ho films confirmed  their preferential crystal orientation and revealed diffraction peaks originating from the hcp structure of Ho and those from inessential holmium dihydrid content. The TN value of these films decreased with decreasing film thickness. Magnetic field applied parallel to the thin film plane caused an increasing suppression of the TN value up to 5 K  with increasing flux density value up to 5 T.

  6. Low-Temperature Technology and Physical Processes in Green Thin-Film Phosphor Zn2GeO4-Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, V; Popovich, S; Felter, T; Wager, J

    2001-05-06

    Thin-film Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn phosphors with lower temperature of crystallization, and potentially compatible with industrial technologies were investigated. The technology of thin films synthesis has been developed, as well as their structure and crystal parameters have been investigated. Photoluminescence excitation spectra, photoconductivity, temperature dependencies and ESR-spectra determined by manganese ions were studied. The mechanism of luminescence in this phosphor has been proposed. Cathodo- and electroluminescent parameters of thin film structures based on Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn are presented.

  7. Emission properties of MEH-PPV in thin films simultaneously illuminated and annealed at different temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Botiz, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We report on the enhancement of photoluminescence in thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-((2′-ethylhexyl)oxy)-1,4-phenylenvinylene], neat or embedded in polystyrene, upon illumination with light as a function of annealing temperature, with our data emphasizing the picture of a light-induced conformation change that leads to the altered photophysical response of this polymer.

  8. Room temperature magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-In-Cr ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkera, Harish Sharma; Singh, Inderdeep; Kaur, Davinder

    2017-02-01

    The influence of Cr substitution for In on the martensitic phase transformation and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been investigated in Ni-Mn-Cr-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) measurements demonstrated that the martensitic transformation temperatures (TM) monotonously increase with the increase of Cr content due to change in valence electron concentration (e/a) and cell volume. From the study of isothermal magnetization curves (M-H), magnetocaloric effect around the martensitic transformation has been investigated in these FSMA thin films. The magnetic entropy change ∆SM of 7.0 mJ/cm3-K was observed in Ni51.1Mn34.9In9.5Cr4.5 film at 302 K in an applied field of 2 T. Further, the refrigerant capacity (RC) was also calculated for all the films in an applied field of 2 T. These findings indicate that the Cr doped Ni-Mn-In FSMA thin films are potential candidates for room temperature micro-length-scale magnetic refrigeration applications.

  9. Preparation and Analysis of Platinum Thin Films for High Temperature Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Laster, Kimala L. H.

    2005-01-01

    A study has been made of platinum thin films for application as high temperature resistive sensors. To support NASA Glenn Research Center s high temperature thin film sensor effort, a magnetron sputtering system was installed recently in the GRC Microsystems Fabrication Clean Room Facility. Several samples of platinum films were prepared using various system parameters to establish run conditions. These films were characterized with the intended application of being used as resistive sensing elements, either for temperature or strain measurement. The resistances of several patterned sensors were monitored to document the effect of changes in parameters of deposition and annealing. The parameters were optimized for uniformity and intrinsic strain. The evaporation of platinum via oxidation during annealing over 900 C was documented, and a model for the process developed. The film adhesion was explored on films annealed to 1000 C with various bondcoats on fused quartz and alumina. From this compiled data, a list of optimal parameters and characteristics determined for patterned platinum thin films is given.

  10. Platinum thin film resistors as accurate and stable temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, W.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement characteristics of thin-Pt-film temperature sensors fabricated using advanced methods are discussed. The limitations of wound-wire Pt temperature sensors and the history of Pt-film development are outlined, and the commonly used film-deposition, structuring, and trimming methods are presented in a table. The development of a family of sputtered film resistors is described in detail and illustrated with photographs of the different types. The most commonly used tolerances are reported as + or - 0.3 C + 0.5 percent of the temperature measured.

  11. Studies on superconducting NbN thin films and NbN microbridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiuwen, W.; Jiazhang, L.; Taiping, Z.; Weixin, G.; Guangji, C.

    1984-06-01

    RF reactively of sputtred NbN films were fabricated by changing the ratio of argon to nittogen and using a range of substrate temperatures. The transition temperature T/sub c/, electrical resistivity and resistivity ratio of NbN films were measured. T/sub c/ was usually between 13K and 15K, and sometimes up to 15.2K. X-ray analysis and XPS studies on NbN films were made and superconducting microbridges and VTBS of NbN were fabricated.

  12. Superconducting properties of EuBa 2Cu 3O 7 thin films on thick Sm 2O 3 buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Y.; Ota, Y.; Michikami, O.

    2007-10-01

    There has been a tendency for micro-cracks to be generated in superconducting films deposited on R-Al2O3 substrates with buffer layers. Thickening the buffer layer is one method for suppressing the generation of micro-cracks. When Sm2O3 buffer layers were thickened, surface roughness (Rz) of Sm2O3 and EuBa2Cu3O7 (EBCO) films increased and the critical current density (Jc) deteriorated with increase in Sm2O3 buffer layer thickness (tSm). Then, the improvement of Sm2O3 buffer layers on surface morphology and increment of Jc of EBCO thin films deposited on the thick Sm2O3 buffer layers were carried out. The surface roughness (Rz) of Sm2O3 buffer layers became small by optimizing sputtering conditions. Rz of EBCO thin films decreased depending on that of Sm2O3 buffer layers. The critical temperature (Tce) was 90 K and Jc showed a high value of 1.6 MA/cm2 at 77.3 K when tSm was 2000 Å.

  13. Thin film molybdenum silicide as potential temperature sensors for turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. H.; Prakash, S.; Deshpandey, C. V.; Doerr, H. J.; Bunshah, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature measurements of Mo-Si-based thin-film resistance thermometers were studied. Annealing in an argon ambient at a temperature above 1000 C for at least 1 h is required to form the stable tetragonal MoSi2 phase. With a crack-free 2-micron-thick AlN barrier layer on top, a sensor was tested up to 1200 C. The resistivity vs temperature characteristic shows the room temperature resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) of the sensor to be approximately 350 microohm and 0.01195 K, respectively. No film adhesion problems were observed for at least four testing cycles.

  14. Low temperature magnetron sputter deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films using high flux ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Jennifer E.; Abelson, John R.

    2007-03-01

    We demonstrate that the microstructure of polycrystalline silicon thin films depends strongly on the flux of low energy ions that bombard the growth surface during magnetron sputter deposition. The deposition system is equipped with external electromagnetic coils which, through the unbalanced magnetron effect, provide direct control of the ion flux independent of the ion energy. We report the influence of low energy (thin films onto amorphous substrates. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy to analyze the film microstructure. We demonstrate that increasing the flux ratio of Ar+ ions to silicon neutrals (J+/J0) during growth by an order of magnitude (from 3 to 30) enables the direct nucleation of polycrystalline Si on glass and SiO2 coated Si at temperatures below 400°C. We discuss possible mechanisms for this enhancement of crystalline microstructure, including the roles of enhanced adatom mobility and the formation of shallow, mobile defects.

  15. Properties of thin films for high temperature flow sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Sacharia

    1991-01-01

    Requirements of material parameters of high temperature flow sensors are identified. Refractory metal silicides offer high temperature sensitivity and high frequency response and are stable up to 1000 C. Intrinsic semiconductors of high band gap are also considered as sensor elements. SiC and diamond are identified. Combined with substrates of low thermal and electrical conductivity, such as quartz or Al2O3, these materials meet several requirements of high sensitivity and frequency response. Film deposition and patterning techniques suitable for these materials are identified.

  16. Room temperature pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films as photoluminiscence gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Rueda, D.; Vadillo, J.M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, UMA Campus Teatinos, s/n, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Laserna, J.J., E-mail: laserna@uma.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, UMA Campus Teatinos, s/n, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elaboration of functional ZnO thin films by PLD at room temperature is possible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence quenching of ZnO thin films may be used for NO{sub 2} sensors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of oxygen during deposition is required to get films of better quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films exhibited linear behaviour in the range between 26 and 100 ppm. - Abstract: Zinc oxide thin films with optical sensing capabilities for NO{sub 2} have been elaborated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto glass substrates at room temperature with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Morphology, chemical composition and optical characteristics of the films were evaluated as a function of laser fluence, gas pressure and target-to-substrate distance. Films exhibit excellent morphological and optical (transmittance and photoluminescence) properties. The films have been evaluated as fluorescence sensors for NO{sub 2} in the concentration range between 26 and 200 ppm.

  17. Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T and thickness (h-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*, at which thickness Ef(T,h deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ.

  18. Growth of InAs on EuBa2Cu3O(7-y) superconducting thin films with SrF2 interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y.; Maeda, F.; Oshima, M.; Michikami, O.

    1992-08-01

    In order to prevent reactions at the superconducting EuBa2Cu3O(7-y) (EBCO) and InAs interface, SrF2 interlayers were grown on EBCO thin films. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy study demonstrates the effectiveness of SrF2 interlayers in suppressing both removal of oxygen from the EBCO surface and oxidation of the InAs overgrown at room temperature. To crystallize InAs, a two-step growth process was applied. X-ray diffraction results show the 1-micron-thick InAs to be mainly 111 plane oriented crystalline. The Tc (zero)'s for InAs-deposited EBCO and annealed EBCO (300 C) are 73 and 82 K, respectively, implying that the use of an interlayer and two-step growth process is promising for depositing InAs layers without disruption of the underlying EBCO.

  19. Low-temperature phase transformation of CZTS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Du, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Lin-Lin; Sun, Ya-Li; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Teng, Xiao-Yun; Xie, Juan; Liu, Kuang; Yu, Wei; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Gao, Chao

    2017-04-01

    The low temperature phase transformation in the Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films was investigated by laser annealing and low temperature thermal annealing. The Raman measurements show that a-high-power laser annealing could cause a red shift of the Raman scattering peaks of the kesterite (KS) structure and promotes the formation of the partially disordered kesterite (PD-KS) structure in the CZTS films, and the low-temperature thermal annealing only shifts the Raman scattering peak of KS phase by several wavenumber to low frequency and the broads Raman peaks in the low frequency region. Moreover, the above two processes were reversible. The Raman analyses of the CZTS samples prepared under different process show that the PD-KS structure tends to be found at low temperatures and low sulfur vapor pressures. Our results reveal that the control of the phase structure in CZTS films is feasible by adjusting the preparation process of the films. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation for Youth Fund of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2016201087), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20131301120003), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11504078 and 61504054).

  20. Pinning enhancement in MgB2 superconducting thin films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MgB2 thin films were fabricated on -plane Al2O3 (1 1 ¯ 02) substrates. First, deposition of boron was performed by rf magnetron sputtering on Al2O3 substrates and followed by a post-deposition annealing at 850 °C in magnesium vapour. In order to investigate the effect of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on the structural and ...

  1. Method for Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Prepared through Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition for Encapsulating Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of dense alumina (Al2O3 thin film through atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a pathway to achieve the encapsulation of organic light emitting devices (OLED. Unlike traditional ALD which is usually executed at higher reaction n temperatures that may affect the performance of OLED, this application discusses the development on preparation of ALD thin film at a low temperature. One concern of ALD is the suppressing effect of ambient temperature on uniformity of thin film. To mitigate this issue, the pumping time in each reaction cycle was increased during the preparation process, which removed reaction byproducts and inhibited the formation of vacancies. As a result, the obtained thin film had both high uniformity and density properties, which provided an excellent encapsulation performance. The results from microstructure morphology analysis, water vapor transmission rate, and lifetime test showed that the difference in uniformity between thin films prepared at low temperatures, with increased pumping time, and high temperatures was small and there was no obvious influence of increased pumping time on light emitting performance. Meanwhile, the permeability for water vapor of the thin film prepared at a low temperature was found to reach as low as 1.5 × 10−4 g/(m2·day under ambient conditions of 25 °C and 60% relative humidity, indicating a potential extension in the lifetime for the OLED.

  2. Diamond thin film temperature and heat-flux sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M.; Yang, G. S.; Masood, A.; Fredricks, R.

    1995-01-01

    Diamond film temperature and heat-flux sensors are developed using a technology compatible with silicon integrated circuit processing. The technology involves diamond nucleation, patterning, doping, and metallization. Multi-sensor test chips were designed and fabricated to study the thermistor behavior. The minimum feature size (device width) for 1st and 2nd generation chips are 160 and 5 micron, respectively. The p-type diamond thermistors on the 1st generation test chip show temperature and response time ranges of 80-1270 K and 0.29-25 microseconds, respectively. An array of diamond thermistors, acting as heat flux sensors, was successfully fabricated on an oxidized Si rod with a diameter of 1 cm. Some problems were encountered in the patterning of the Pt/Ti ohmic contacts on the rod, due mainly to the surface roughness of the diamond film. The use of thermistors with a minimum width of 5 micron (to improve the spatial resolution of measurement) resulted in lithographic problems related to surface roughness of diamond films. We improved the mean surface roughness from 124 nm to 30 nm by using an ultra high nucleation density of 10(exp 11)/sq cm. To deposit thermistors with such small dimensions on a curved surface, a new 3-D diamond patterning technique is currently under development. This involves writing a diamond seed pattern directly on the curved surface by a computer-controlled nozzle.

  3. Near room temperature ferromagnetism of copper phthalocyanine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XueYan; Zheng, JianBang; Chen, Lei; Qiao, Kai; Xu, JiaWei; Cao, ChongDe

    2015-11-01

    We reported near room temperature ferromagnetism of α-CuPc films without and with light Ni-doping. Two samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the absence of other ferromagnetic impurities. The α-CuPc film exhibited ferromagnetic hysteresis with saturation magnetization of ∼6.77 emu/cm3 and coercivity of ∼96 Oe at 280 K, while that of the Ni-doped α-CuPc film are ∼0.69 emu/cm3 and ∼113 Oe, respectively. Through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the origin of the ferromagnetism arise from Cu 3d states and N 2s2p electronic spin polarization, as well as p-d exchange coupling interactions, and spin-unbalanced electronic structure of C 2p induced by the π-π interactions.

  4. Enhanced Optical Absorption of Ti Thin Film: Coupled Effect of Deposition and Post-deposition Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Jyoti; Mourya, Satyendra; Malik, Gaurav; Chauhan, Samta; Daipuriya, Ritu; Singh, Manpreet; Chandra, Ramesh

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, structural, morphological and optical properties of nanostructured titanium (Ti) thin films have been studied. The Ti thin films were fabricated on glass substrate by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering at varying deposition and post-deposition temperatures ( T DA) ranging from 373 K to 773 K. The microstructure and morphology of the Ti thin films were found to be highly dependent on T DA. The root mean square surface roughness ( δ rms) was found to increase with T DA up to 673 K and then decreased at 773 K. The absorption ( A) of Ti films has shown a similar trend as roughness with T DA; however, the reflection ( R) has shown an opposite trend. Maximum A 99-86% and minimum R 1-14% were observed in the spectral range of 300-1100 nm for the sample fabricated at T DA = 673 K, which exhibited the highest δ rms 193 nm. Due to its excellent absorption, this film may be a potential candidate for photonic applications such as a super-absorber.

  5. UV-Mediated Photochemical Treatment for Low-Temperature Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Emanuel; Branquinho, Rita; Kiazadeh, Asal; Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-11-16

    Solution processing of amorphous metal oxides has lately been used as an option to implement in flexible electronics, allowing a reduction of the associated costs and high performance. However, the research has focused more on the semiconductor layer rather than on the insulator layer, which is related to the stability and performance of the devices. This work aims to evaluate amorphous aluminum oxide thin films produced by combustion synthesis and the influence of far-ultraviolet (FUV) irradiation on the properties of the insulator on thin-film transistors (TFTs) using different semiconductors, in order to have compatibility with flexible substrates. An optimized dielectric layer was obtained for an annealing of 30 min assisted by FUV exposure. These thin films were applied in gallium-indium-zinc oxide TFTs as dielectrics showing the best results for TFTs annealed at 180 °C with FUV irradiation: good reproducibility with a subthreshold slope of 0.11 ± 0.01 V dec (-1) and a turn-on voltage of -0.12 ± 0.05 V, low operating voltage, and good stability over time. Finally, the dielectric layer was applied in solution-processed indium oxide (In2O3) TFTs at low temperature, 180 °C, with a short processing time being compatible with flexible electronic applications.

  6. Ambient temperature operated acetaldehyde vapour detection of spray deposited cobalt doped zinc oxide thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, S; Balamurugan, D

    2016-03-15

    Undoped and Co-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by a home built spray pyrolysis method. X-ray diffraction results indicate that both undoped and Co-doped ZnO have a polycrystalline nature and a preferential orientation peak in the (002) plane. From a field-emission scanning electron micrographs of annealed films, a uniform distribution of nanoparticles along with nanorods was observed. UV-Visible measurement indicated that all the films are transparent in the visible region. The electrical resistance was also reported. The acetaldehyde sensing behaviour of the prepared undoped and Co-doped ZnO thin films was studied using the chemi-resistive method at ambient temperature (∼30 °C). In the presence of 10 ppm of acetaldehyde vapour, the Co-doped ZnO thin films showed good sensing response of 74% with fast response and recovery time of 3 s and 110 s respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature-dependent gate-swing hysteresis of pentacene thin film transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yow-Jon Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-dependent hysteresis-type transfer characteristics of pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs were researched. The temperature-dependent transfer characteristics exhibit hopping conduction behavior. The fitting data for the temperature-dependent off-to-on and on-to-off transfer characteristics of OTFTs demonstrate that the hopping distance (ah and the barrier height for hopping (qϕt control the carrier flow, resulting in the hysteresis-type transfer characteristics of OTFTs. The hopping model gives an explanation of the gate-swing hysteresis and the roles played by qϕt and ah.

  8. Effect of aging heat time and annealing temperature on the properties of nanocrystalline tin dioxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Imad H.; Abu Hassan, H.

    2017-04-01

    Nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO2) thin films have been successfully prepared by sol-gel spin-coating technique on p-type Si (100) substrates. A stable solution was prepared by mixing tin(II) chloride dihydrate, pure ethanol, and glycerin. Temperature affects the properties of SnO2 thin films, particularly the crystallite size where the crystallization of SnO2 with tetragonal rutile structure is achieved when thin films that prepared under different aging heat times are annealed at 400∘C. By increasing aging heat time in the presence of annealing temperatures the FESEM images indicated that the thickness of the fabricated film was directly proportional to solution viscosity, increasing from approximately 380 nm to 744 nm, as well as the crystallization of the thin films improved and reduced defects.

  9. Near room temperature ferromagnetism of copper phthalocyanine thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, XueYan, E-mail: xueyanadeline@163.com; Zheng, JianBang; Chen, Lei; Qiao, Kai; Xu, JiaWei; Cao, ChongDe

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • The α-CuPc films without and with light Ni-doping were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the absence of other ferromagnetic impurities. • The α-CuPc film exhibited ferromagnetic hysteresis with saturation magnetization of ∼6.77 emu/cm{sup 3} and coercivity of ∼96 Oe at 280 K, while that of the Ni-doped α-CuPc film are ∼0.69 emu/cm{sup 3} and ∼113 Oe, respectively. • Through the density functional theory calculations, the origin of the ferromagnetism arise from Cu 3d states and N 2s2p electronic spin polarization, as well as p–d exchange coupling interactions, and spin-unbalanced electronic structure of C 2p induced by the π–π interactions. - Abstract: We reported near room temperature ferromagnetism of α-CuPc films without and with light Ni-doping. Two samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the absence of other ferromagnetic impurities. The α-CuPc film exhibited ferromagnetic hysteresis with saturation magnetization of ∼6.77 emu/cm{sup 3} and coercivity of ∼96 Oe at 280 K, while that of the Ni-doped α-CuPc film are ∼0.69 emu/cm{sup 3} and ∼113 Oe, respectively. Through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the origin of the ferromagnetism arise from Cu 3d states and N 2s2p electronic spin polarization, as well as p-d exchange coupling interactions, and spin-unbalanced electronic structure of C 2p induced by the π–π interactions.

  10. Temperature control of micro heater using Pt thin film temperature sensor embedded in micro gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-gu; Park, Joon-Shik; Park, Kwang-Bum; Shin, Junho; Lee, Eung-An; Noh, Sangsoo; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2017-12-01

    Pt thin film temperature sensors (Pt T sensors) are embedded in micro gas sensors to measure and control the working temperature. We characterized electrical resistances of Pt T sensors and micro heaters with temperature changing in the oven and by Joule heating. In order to enhance the accuracy of temperature measurement by the Pt T sensors, we investigated the correlation among the Pt T sensor, micro heater, and the working temperature, which was linear proportional relation expressed as the equation: T2 = 6.466R1-642.8, where T2 = temperature of the Pt micro heater and R1 = the electrical resistance of the Pt T sensor. As the error by physically separated gap between Pt T sensor and micro heater calibrated, measuring and controlling temperature of micro heater in micro gas sensors were possible through the Pt T sensors. For the practical use of Pt T sensor in micro gas sensor, the gas sensing properties of fabricated micro gas sensors to 25 ppm CO and 1 ppm HCHO gases were characterized.

  11. SWCNT/graphite nanoplatelet hybrid thin films for self-temperature-compensated, highly sensitive, and extensible piezoresistive sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sida; Liu, Tao

    2013-10-18

    Highly sensitive single-wall carbon nanotube/graphite nanoplatelet (SWCNT/GNP) hybrid thin-film sensors are developed, which possess the unique capability for self-temperature compensation. This unique property in combination with their high gauge sensitivity and large reversible extensibility promises the SWCNT/GNP hybrid thin film piezoresistive sensors for a wide range applications, such as in man-machine interaction and body monitoring. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Low-Temperature UV-Assisted Fabrication of Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuanglin

    Solution processed metal oxide semiconductors have attracted intensive attention in the last several decades and have emerged as a promising candidate for the application of thin film transistor (TFT) due to their nature of transparency, flexibility, high mobility, simple processing technique and potential low manufacturing cost. However, metal oxide thin film fabricated by solution process usually requires a high temperature (over 300 °C), which is above the glass transition temperature of some conventional polymer substrates. In order to fabricate the flexible electronic device on polymer substrates, it is necessary to find a facile approach to lower the fabrication temperature and minimize defects in metal oxide thin film. In this thesis, the electrical properties dependency on temperature is discussed and an UV-assisted annealing method incorporating Deep ultraviolet (DUV)-decomposable additives is demonstrated, which can effectively improve electrical properties solution processed metal oxide semiconductors processed at temperature as low as 220 °C. By studying a widely used indium oxide (In2O3) TFT as a model system, it is worth noted that compared with the sample without UV treatment, the linear mobility and saturation mobility of UV-annealing sample are improved by 56% and 40% respectively. Meanwhile, the subthreshold swing is decreased by 32%, indicating UV-treated device could turn on and off more efficiently. In addition to pure In2O3 film, the similar phenomena have also been observed in indium oxide based Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (IGZO) system. These finding presented in this thesis suggest that the UV assisted annealing process open a new route to fabricate high performance metal oxide semiconductors under low temperatures.

  13. Laser ablation of YBCO targets and optical-breakdown-assisted PLD for high Tc superconducting thin films deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Ileana; Stoian, Razvan; Luculescu, C.; Dabu, Razvan V.; Stratan, Aurel; Udrea, S.; Flacau, Catalin

    1998-07-01

    We report a YBa2Cu3O7 PLD method designed to reduce the oxygen deficiency in the as deposited YBCO superconducting thin films.OPtical dissociation of O2 buffer gas in front of the plume using a second IR laser pulse simultaneously with the UV laser beam producing the ablation plasma is proposed as a method for oxidation enhancement and oxygen enrichment in the deposited film. Oxides enhancement measurements were performed by optical spectroscopy on YO, BaO and CuO lines at large distances from the target surface. Temporal evolution of ionic, neutral and oxide lines was analyzed in 400-620 nm region, in correlation with plasma expansion in the ambient gas.

  14. Effect of bath temperature on the properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, S M; Gurav, K V; Shin, S W; Choi, D S; Kim, I K; Lokhande, C D; Rhee, J I; Kim, J H

    2010-05-01

    The nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method from aqueous zinc nitrate solution at room temperature (25 degrees C) and at higher temperature (75 degrees C). The changes in structural, morphological and optical properties were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical absorption. The structural studies revealed that the film deposited at room temperature showed mixed phases of ZnO and Zn(OH)2 with wurtzite and orthorhombic crystal structure whereas at higher temperature, the deposited film is ZnO with wurtzite crystal structure. After air annealing at 400 degrees C, all the films converted into pure ZnO with wurtzite crystal structure. The films deposited at room temperature showed fibrous surface morphology with interconnected flakes while films deposited at higher temperature shows well-developed nano-rod morphology. Optical study shows that band gap energy (E(g)) of as-deposited thin films deposited at room temperature and at higher temperature are 3.81 and 3.4 eV, decreases up to 3.20 eV, after annealing treatment.

  15. Scanned probe microscopy for thin film superconductor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Scanned probe microscopy is a general term encompassing the science of imaging based on piezoelectric driven probes for measuring local changes in nanoscale properties of materials and devices. Techniques like scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning potentiometry are becoming common tools in the production and development labs in the semiconductor industry. The author presents several examples of applications specific to the development of high temperature superconducting thin films and thin-film devices.

  16. Role of cobalt in room-temperature ferromagnetic Co-doped ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of Co-doped ZnO thin films were prepared under various deposition conditions using the pulsed laser deposition method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and XPS depth profiling were used to detect the elemental valence states of Zn, Co and O. It was found that the films deposited under low temperature and high oxygen pressure exhibited intrinsic ferromagnetic properties due to oxidation of Co (Co2+ from the material. However, when the films were deposited under high temperature and low oxygen pressure, metallic cobalt (Co0 appeared and the ferromagnetism was greatly enhanced.

  17. Combined TiN- and TaN temperature compensated thin film resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmros, Anna, E-mail: anna.malmros@chalmers.se; Andersson, Kristoffer; Rorsman, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    The opposite signs of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of two thin film materials, titanium nitride (TiN) and tantalum nitride (TaN), were used to form temperature compensated thin film resistors (TFRs). The principle of designing temperature compensated TFRs by connecting TFRs of each compound in series or in parallel was demonstrated. TiN, TaN, and combined TiN and TaN TFRs for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) were fabricated by reactive sputtering. DC characterization was performed over the temperature range of 30-200 Degree-Sign C. The TiN TFRs exhibited an increase in resistivity with temperature with TCRs of 540 and 750 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. The TaN TFR on the other hand exhibited a negative TCR of - 470 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. The shunted TFRs were fabricated by serial deposition of TiN and TaN to form a bilayer component. The TCRs of the series- and shunt configurations were experimentally reduced to - 60 and 100 ppm/ Degree-Sign C, respectively. The concept of temperature compensation was used to build a Wheatstone bridge with an application in on-chip temperature sensing.

  18. The 2D-3D crossover and anisotropy of upper critical fields in Nb and NbN superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Lalit M.; Verma, Apoorva; Rout, P. K.; Kaur, Mandeep; Gupta, Anurag; Budhani, R. C.

    2017-11-01

    The upper critical field (Bc2) of superconducting thin films of Nb (film thickness d = 40 nm) and NbN (d = 10, 50 and 100 nm) have been measured and analyzed as a function of temperature (T = 1.8-15 K) in both parallel and perpendicular magnetic field (B = 0-7 T) directions with respect to the film plane. Dimensional crossover from 2D to 3D is observed for all the thin films except for the 10 nm thick NbN film which exhibits only 2D behavior in the measured T and B range. Further, the upper critical fields were found to be anisotropic in case of both Nb and NbN films. However, the anisotropy shows different behavior in all the four samples. In case of Nb, below the 2D-3D crossover temperature, the Bc2∥(T) is higher than Bc2⊥(T) and both curves branch away further from each other. On the other hand, in case of NbN (50 and 100 nm), there is a reversal of anisotropy, i.e., in the 2D region Bc2∥(T) > Bc2⊥(T) and in the 3D region at some temperature Bc2⊥(T) > Bc2∥(T) . In the NbN films with increasing thickness, the 2D region shrinks and 3D region expands, and the 2D-3D crossover and anisotropy reversal characteristic temperatures shift toward Tc. These observations are quantitatively explained using the Ginzburg-Landau theoretical approach after Schneider and Locquet (Physica C, 179 (1991) 125).

  19. Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Jyoti, Nayak; Hyun-U, Ko; Kim, Jaehwan

    2012-11-01

    Effect of annealing temperature on characteristics of sol-gel driven ZnO thin film spin-coated on Si substrate was studied. The UV-visible transmittance of the sol decreased with the increase of the aging time and drastically reduced after 20 days aging time. Granular shape of ZnO crystallites was observed on the surface of the films annealed at 550, 650, and 750 °C, and the crystallite size increased with the increase of the annealing temperature. Consequently nodular shape of crystallites was formed upon increasing the annealing temperature to 850 °C and above. The current-voltage characteristics of the Schottky diodes fabricated with ZnO thin films with various annealing temperatures were measured and analyzed. It is found that, ZnO films showed the Schottky characteristics up to 750 °C annealing temperature. The Schottky diode characteristics were diminished upon increasing the annealing temperature above 850 °C. XPS analysis suggested that the absence of oxygen atoms in its oxidized state in stoichiometric surrounding, might be responsible for the diminished forward current of the Schottky diode when annealed above 850 °C.

  20. Stencil lithography of superconducting contacts on MBE-grown topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüffelgen, Peter; Rosenbach, Daniel; Neumann, Elmar; Stehno, Martin P.; Lanius, Martin; Zhao, Jialin; Wang, Meng; Sheehan, Brendan; Schmidt, Michael; Gao, Bo; Brinkman, Alexander; Mussler, Gregor; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev

    2017-11-01

    Topological insulator (Bi0.06Sb0.94)2Te3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been capped in-situ with a 2 nm Al film to conserve the pristine topological surface states. Subsequently, a shadow mask - structured by means of focus ion beam - was in-situ placed underneath the sample to deposit a thick layer of Al on well-defined microscopically small areas. The 2 nm thin Al layer fully oxidizes after exposure to air and in this way protects the TI surface from degradation. The thick Al layer remains metallic underneath a 3-4 nm thick native oxide layer and therefore serves as (super-) conducting contacts. Superconductor-Topological Insulator-Superconductor junctions with lateral dimensions in the nm range have then been fabricated via an alternative stencil lithography technique. Despite the in-situ deposition, transport measurements and transmission electron microscope analysis indicate a low transparency, due to an intermixed region at the interface between topological insulator thin film and metallic Al.

  1. Superconducting spin valves based on epitaxial Fe/V-hybrid thin film heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Gregor

    2010-12-10

    This study presents a systematic investigation of the SSV effect in FM/SC/FM and FM/N/FM/SC heterostructures. Before investigating the actual SSV effect, we first pre-analyzed structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of the Fe/V system. In these preliminary studies we demonstrated, that epitaxial Fe/V heterostructures of superior crystalline quality can be grown by DC sputter deposition. With a Fe/V interface thickness of only one monolayer, the chemical separation of the Fe and V layers is extremely sharp. Moreover, the magnetic investigation showed that from thicknesses of two Fe(001) monolayers on the Fe layers in the superlattice possess a magnetic moment. Furthermore, we demonstrated the interlayer exchange coupling as oscillatory function of the V interlayer thickness. The investigations of the superconducting parameters of the Fe/V system revealed a non-monotonic T{sub S} vs. d{sub Fe} dependence in sample series (1). This observation proves the presence of the FM/SC proximity effect. The studies of various heterostructures of the design AFM/FM/SC/FM revealed a strong counteracting influence on the SSV effect, the stray field effect. The sample containing Fe{sub 25}V{sub 75} alloy layers, has the highest ratio of Cooper pair coherence length and superconductor thickness (ξ{sub S})/(d{sub S}), and its superconducting transition temperature is comparable to the sample with Fe{sub 35}V{sub 65} alloy layers. Nevertheless, the SSV effect in sample Fe{sub 25}V{sub 75} with alloy layers is much smaller than in sample with Fe{sub 35}V{sub 65} alloy layers. For a high-performance superconducting spin valve based on a FM1/SC/FM2 heterostructure at least four parameters have to be optimized simultaneously. 1. The magnetic domain size in FM1 and FM2 has to be as large as possible in order to reduce the stray field effect resulting from magnetization components in the FM domain walls perpendicular to the SC layer. 2. When using ferromagnetic alloys as

  2. Thin film flow in MHD third grade fluid on a vertical belt with temperature dependent viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Taza; Islam, Saed; Shah, Rehan Ali; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have carried out the influence of temperature dependent viscosity on thin film flow of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) third grade fluid past a vertical belt. The governing coupled non-linear differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved analytically by using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). In order to make comparison, the governing problem has also been solved by using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The physical characteristics of the problem have been well discussed in graphs for several parameter of interest.

  3. Fabrication of AlN thin films on different substrates at ambient temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, W X; Wu, P H; Yang, S Z; Ji, Z M

    2002-01-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is very useful as a barrier in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) device or as an insulating layer in many other applications. At ambient temperature, we deposit AlN thin films onto different substrates (such as MgO, LaAlO sub 3 and Si) by using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and pure Al target. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and PHI-scan patterns show that the films grown on MgO substrates are excellent epitaxial films with (101) orientation of a hexagonal lattice. A possible structure of the interface between the film and the substrate is suggested and discussed.

  4. Laser action in Eu-doped GaN thin-film cavity at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Steckl, A. J.

    2004-11-01

    Rare-earth-based lasing action in GaN is demonstrated. Room-temperature stimulated emission (SE) was obtained at 620 nm from an optical cavity formed by growing in situ Eu-doped GaN thin films on sapphire substrates. The SE threshold for optical pumping of a ˜1 at. % Eu-doped GaN sample was ˜10kW/cm2. The SE threshold was accompanied by reductions in the emission linewidth and lifetime. A modal gain of ˜43cm-1 and a modal loss of ˜20cm-1 were obtained.

  5. Temperature dependence of magnetically dead layers in ferromagnetic thin-films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tokaç

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to study interface magnetism and magnetic dead layers in model amorphous CoFeB:Ta alloy thin-film multilayers with Curie temperatures tuned to be below room-temperature. This allows temperature dependent variations in the effective magnetic thickness of the film to be determined at temperatures that are a significant fraction of the Curie temperature, which cannot be achieved in the material systems used for spintronic devices. In addition to variation in the effective magnetic thickness due to compositional grading at the interface with the tantalum capping layer, the key finding is that at the interface between ferromagnetic film and GaAs(001 substrate local interfacial alloying creates an additional magnetic dead-layer. The thickness of this magnetic dead-layer is temperature dependent, which may have significant implications for elevated-temperature operation of hybrid ferromagnetic metal-semiconductor spintronic devices.

  6. Study of robust thin film PT-1000 temperature sensors for cryogenic process control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, R.; Boguhn, D.; Fillinger, H.; Schlachter, S. I.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-01

    In some cryogenic process measurement applications, for example, in hydrogen technology and in high temperature superconductor based generators, there is a need of robust temperature sensors. These sensors should be able to measure the large temperature range of 20 - 500 K with reasonable resolution and accuracy. Thin film PT 1000 sensors could be a choice to cover this large temperature range. Twenty one sensors selected from the same production batch were tested for their temperature sensitivity which was then compared with different batch sensors. Furthermore, the sensor's stability was studied by subjecting the sensors to repeated temperature cycles of 78-525 K. Deviations in the resistance were investigated using ice point calibration and water triple point calibration methods. Also the study of directional oriented intense static magnetic field effects up to 8 Oersted (Oe) were conducted to understand its magneto resistance behaviour in the cryogenic temperature range from 77 K - 15 K. This paper reports all investigation results in detail.

  7. Temperature dependence of magnetically dead layers in ferromagnetic thin-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokaç, M.; Kinane, C. J.; Atkinson, D.; Hindmarch, A. T.

    2017-11-01

    Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to study interface magnetism and magnetic dead layers in model amorphous CoFeB:Ta alloy thin-film multilayers with Curie temperatures tuned to be below room-temperature. This allows temperature dependent variations in the effective magnetic thickness of the film to be determined at temperatures that are a significant fraction of the Curie temperature, which cannot be achieved in the material systems used for spintronic devices. In addition to variation in the effective magnetic thickness due to compositional grading at the interface with the tantalum capping layer, the key finding is that at the interface between ferromagnetic film and GaAs(001) substrate local interfacial alloying creates an additional magnetic dead-layer. The thickness of this magnetic dead-layer is temperature dependent, which may have significant implications for elevated-temperature operation of hybrid ferromagnetic metal-semiconductor spintronic devices.

  8. Positive bias temperature instability of irradiated n-channel thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelenković, Emil V. [Department of Industrial and System Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Kovačević, Milan S., E-mail: kovac@kg.ac.rs [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac (Serbia); Stupar, Dragan Z. [Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia); Jha, Shrawan [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW72AZ (United Kingdom); Bajić, Jovan S. [Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia); Tong, K.Y.

    2014-04-01

    Differently processed thin film transistors (TFTs) were exposed to gamma irradiation to the total dose of 1200 Gy under positive gate bias and 2500 Gy without electrical bias during radiation. Post-irradiation stability was evaluated by positive bias temperature (PBT) test in the temperature range between 100 and 150 °C and compared to the positive bias temperature test instability (PBTI) of non-irradiated TFTs. It was found that post-irradiation PBTI is affected by the fabrication conditions of TFTs and the level of damage caused by irradiation. - Highlights: • Electrical stability under positive bias temperature (PBT) stress of gamma-ray irradiated and non-irradiated n-channel thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. • Total gamma-ray dose is in the range from 1200 to 2500 Gy and PBT stress at 100, 125 and °C are used in the course of the investigation. • Irradiated TFTs showed greater electrical PBT instability and this instability depends on the processing of TFTs. • A larger radiation induced damage in gate oxide results in greater electrical PBT instability of TFTs.

  9. Comparative Study of Irradiated and Annealed ZnO Thin Films for Room Temperature Ammonia Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet KSHIRSAGAR

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic based thin film sensors are well known for gas sensing applications. These sensors are operated at elevated temperature for good sensitivity. ZnO thin film sensors operated at high temperature are used in ammonia sensing application. But to the best of author’s knowledge no room temperature ZnO (Zinc Oxide thin film sensors are reported. The deposited ZnO films are found to be highly unstable with respect to resistance of the films at room temperature. To increase the stability two different techniques viz. annealing and irradiation are tried. Comparative study of annealed and irradiated ZnO films for stability in resistance is done. Further the performance of these films as ammonia (NH3 gas sensor at room temperature has been studied. The results obtained are reported in this paper and analyzed.

  10. Temperature Dependence of the Seebeck Coefficient in Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Amirreza; Masoumi, Saeed; Hashemi, Najmeh

    2017-12-01

    Thermoelectric devices are reliable tools for converting waste heat into electricity as they last long, produce no noise or vibration, have no moving elements, and their light weight makes them suitable for the outer space usage. Materials with high thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) have the most important role in the fabrication of efficient thermoelectric devices. Metal oxide semiconductors, specially zinc oxide has recently received attention as a material suitable for sensor, optoelectronic and thermoelectric device applications because of their wide direct bandgap, chemical stability, high-energy radiation endurance, transparency and acceptable zT. Understanding the thermoelectric properties of the undoped ZnO thin films can help design better ZnO-based devices. Here, we report the results of our experimental work on the thermoelectric properties of the undoped polycrystalline ZnO thin films. These films are deposited on alumina substrates by thermal evaporation of zinc in vacuum followed by a controlled oxidation process in air carried out at the 350-500 °C temperature range. The experimental setup including gradient heaters, thermometry system and Seebeck voltage measurement equipment for high resistance samples is described. Seebeck voltage and electrical resistivity of the samples are measured at different conditions. The observed temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient is discussed.

  11. CALCINATION TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NANO-POROUS SILICA THIN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Mojab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Silica nano-porous thin films at various calcination temperatures were deposited on glass substrates with a layer by layer method. The structure, morphology, surface composition, transmittance and reflectance of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, respectively. The results indicated that the transmittance of the films is increased by increasing the calcinations temperatures to 300oC and at higher temperature, it is decreased. The deposition of silica nano-porous film on the glass at the optimum calcination temperature (300oC decreased refractive index of the glass at a wavelength of 550 nm from 1.5 to 1.37.

  12. Temperature Effects on a-IGZO Thin Film Transistors Using HfO2 Gate Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the temperature effect on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs using hafnium oxide (HfO2 gate dielectric material. HfO2 is an attractive candidate as a high-κ dielectric material for gate oxide because it has great potential to exhibit superior electrical properties with a high drive current. In the process of integrating the gate dielectric and IGZO thin film, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the chemical reaction of the IGZO thin film and enhancing the gate oxide quality to adjust the electrical characteristics of the TFTs. However, the hafnium atom diffused the IGZO thin film, causing interface roughness because of the stability of the HfO2 dielectric thin film during high-temperature annealing. In this study, the annealing temperature was optimized at 200°C for a HfO2 gate dielectric TFT exhibiting high mobility, a high ION/IOFF ratio, low IOFF current, and excellent subthreshold swing (SS.

  13. Electrical transport in La1−xCaxMnO3 thin films at low temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical transport in La1−xCaxMnO3 thin films at low temperatures. S ANGAPPANE, K SETHUPATHI and G RANGARAJAN. Physics Department, Low Temperature Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology,. Chennai 600 036, India. Abstract. We report here the low-temperature resistivity of the chemical solution deposited.

  14. Structural and optical properties of manganese oxide thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition at different substrate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, H.; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Dildar, I. M.; Shaukat, Saima

    2017-09-01

    We report the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to grow manganese oxide thin films at a fixed low oxygen pressure at different temperatures on silicon (1 0 0) substrates. Structural properties of the thin films were examined using x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology and topography of the films was determined using atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy, while optical properties of the thin films were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that PLD is a convenient technique to deposit different phases of manganese oxide by tuning the deposition temperature. All measured physical properties such as morphology, topography, crystallite size, and optical band gap were clearly dependent on the substrate temperature chosen.

  15. Room temperature transparent conducting oxides based on zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clatot, J. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, UMR CNRS 6007, 33, rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Campet, G. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB), CNRS, 87 Avenue du Docteur A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Zeinert, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue St. Leu, 80039, Amiens (France); Labrugere, C. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB), CNRS, 87 Avenue du Docteur A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Rougier, A., E-mail: aline.rougier@u-picardie.fr [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, UMR CNRS 6007, 33, rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2011-04-01

    Doped zinc oxide thin films are grown on glass substrate at room temperature under oxygen atmosphere, using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). O{sub 2} pressure below 1 Pa leads to conductive films. A careful characterization of the film stoichiometry and microstructure using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) concludes on a decrease in crystallinity with Al and Ga additions ({<=}3%). The progressive loss of the (0 0 2) orientation is associated with a variation of the c parameter value as a function of the film thickness and substrate nature. ZnO:Al and ZnO:Ga thin films show a high optical transmittance (>80%) with an increase in band gap from 3.27 eV (pure ZnO) to 3.88 eV and 3.61 eV for Al and Ga doping, respectively. Optical carrier concentration, optical mobility and optical resistivity are deduced from simulation of the optical data.

  16. Terbium-Doped VO2 Thin Films: Reduced Phase Transition Temperature and Largely Enhanced Luminous Transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Liu, Shiyu; Zeng, XianTing; Cao, Xun; Long, Yi

    2016-01-26

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a well-known thermochromic material with large IR modulating ability, promising for energy-saving smart windows. The main drawbacks of VO2 are its high phase transition temperature (τ(c) = 68°C), low luminous transmission (T(lum)), and weak solar modulating ability (ΔT(sol)). In this paper, the terbium cation (Tb(3+)) doping was first reported to reduce τ(c) and increase T(lum) of VO2 thin films. Compared with pristine VO2, 2 at. % doping level gives both enhanced T(lum) and ΔT(sol) from 45.8% to 54.0% and 7.7% to 8.3%, respectively. The T(lum) increases with continuous Tb(3+) doping and reaches 79.4% at 6 at. % doping level, representing ∼73.4% relative increment compared with pure VO2. This has surpassed the best reported doped VO2 thin films. The enhanced thermochromic properties is meaningful for smart window applications of VO2 materials.

  17. Molecular Based Temperature and Strain Rate Dependent Yield Criterion for Anisotropic Elastomeric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, F.; Pellegrino, S.

    2017-01-01

    A molecular formulation of the onset of plasticity is proposed to assess temperature and strain rate effects in anisotropic semi-crystalline rubbery films. The presented plane stress criterion is based on the strain rate-temperature superposition principle and the cooperative theory of yielding, where some parameters are assumed to be material constants, while others are considered to depend on specific modes of deformation. An orthotropic yield function is developed for a linear low density polyethylene thin film. Uniaxial and biaxial inflation experiments were carried out to determine the yield stress of the membrane via a strain recovery method. It is shown that the 3% offset method predicts the uniaxial elastoplastic transition with good accuracy. Both the tensile yield points along the two principal directions of the film and the biaxial yield stresses are found to obey the superposition principle. The proposed yield criterion is compared against experimental measurements, showing excellent agreement over a wide range of deformation rates and temperatures.

  18. Temperature dependence of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films and aging effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossel, C., E-mail: rsl@zurich.ibm.com; Sousa, M.; Abel, S.; Caimi, D. [IBM Research—Zurich, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Suhm, A.; Abergel, J.; Le Rhun, G.; Defay, E. [CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-21

    We present a technique to measure the temperature dependence of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient e{sub 31,f} of thin films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), aluminum nitride, and BaTiO{sub 3} deposited on Si wafers. It is based on the collection of electric charges induced by the deflection of a Si cantilever coated with the piezoelectric film. The aim of this work is to assess the role of temperature in the decay of the remnant polarization of these materials, in particular, in optimized gradient-free PZT with composition PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}. It is found that in contrast to theoretical predictions, e{sub 31,f} decreases with temperature because of the dominance of relaxation effects. The observation of steps in the logarithmic aging decay law is reminiscent of memory effects seen in frustrated spin glasses.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  20. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-17

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  1. Integration of temperature sensors in polyimide-based thin-film electrode arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz M. F. Porto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of the tissue temperature surrounding implantable devices could be of great advantage. The degree and duration of the immune activation in response to the implant, which is responsible for signal deterioration, could be inferred from the associated temperature raise and the heating caused by electrical or optogenetical stimulation could be accurately controlled. Within this work, a thin-film platinum RTD embedded in polyimide and a readout system based on the Wheatstone bridge configuration are presented. The RTD offers a sensitivity of 8.5 Ω· °C−1 and a precision of 4.1 Ω. The accuracy of the complete system calibrated for temperatures ranging from 34 to 41 °C lies between the classes A and B defined by the standard IEC 751, which correspond to tolerances of ±0.22 and ±0.48 °C at 37 °C, respectively.

  2. The development of Tl-2212 based superconducting thin films for microwave applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hyland, D M C

    2001-01-01

    This thesis attempts to develop the understanding of the two-stage ex-situ processing of Tl sub 2 Ba sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O (Tl-2212) thin films on LaAlO sub 3 substrates. Initially a thallium-free precursor film is deposited by sputtering, this is then annealed in a sealed crucible containing a thallium source to produce the final crystalline film. An investigation into the correlation of physical characteristics of the films with their microwave properties is presented. High reproducibility of processing was achieved for 1cm sup 2 size films with measured R sub s < 0.5m OMEGA. Strong dependence of the microwave properties was found with film thickness and growth morphology of the crystalline film. A good correlation of R sub s was seen with defect density, greater numbers of defects giving higher R sub s values. Problems were encountered in scaling up the process to fabricate 2-inch diameter films, initially limited by the increased defect density associated with a larger surface area. Additionally when usin...

  3. The influence of preferred orientation and poling temperature on the polarization switching current in PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Ping; Lan, Kuibo

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films with different preferred orientation were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by a modified sol-gel method. Our results indicate that the polarization switching current in PZT thin films is dependent on preferred orientation and poling temperature. In our measurements, (111)-oriented PZT has a larger polarization switching current than randomly oriented PZT, and with the increase of the degree of (111) preferred orientation and the poling temperature, the polarization switching current gradually increase. Considering the contact of PZT thin film with electrodes, the space-charged limited conduction (SCLC) combined with domain switching mechanism may be responsible for such phenomena. By analyzing the conduction data, we found the interface-limited Schottky emission (ES) and bulk-limited Poole-Frenkel hopping (PF) are not suitable for our samples.

  4. The influence of preferred orientation and poling temperature on the polarization switching current in PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Ping [Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin (China); Lan, Kuibo [Tianjin University, School of Microelectronics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films with different preferred orientation were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by a modified sol-gel method. Our results indicate that the polarization switching current in PZT thin films is dependent on preferred orientation and poling temperature. In our measurements, (111)-oriented PZT has a larger polarization switching current than randomly oriented PZT, and with the increase of the degree of (111) preferred orientation and the poling temperature, the polarization switching current gradually increase. Considering the contact of PZT thin film with electrodes, the space-charged limited conduction (SCLC) combined with domain switching mechanism may be responsible for such phenomena. By analyzing the conduction data, we found the interface-limited Schottky emission (ES) and bulk-limited Poole-Frenkel hopping (PF) are not suitable for our samples. (orig.)

  5. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of copper(II) oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iivonen, Tomi, E-mail: tomi.iivonen@helsinki.fi; Hämäläinen, Jani; Mattinen, Miika; Popov, Georgi; Leskelä, Markku [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Marchand, Benoît; Mizohata, Kenichiro [Division of Materials Physics, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kim, Jiyeon; Fischer, Roland A. [Chair of Inorganic Chemistry II, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Copper(II) oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using bis-(dimethylamino-2-propoxide)copper [Cu(dmap){sub 2}] and ozone in a temperature window of 80–140 °C. A thorough characterization of the films was performed using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis techniques. The process was found to produce polycrystalline copper(II) oxide films with a growth rate of 0.2–0.3 Å per cycle. Impurity content in the films was relatively small for a low temperature ALD process.

  6. Kinetics of Ni:C Thin Film Composition Formation at Different Temperatures and Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas KAIRAITIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work analysis considering Ni:C thin films growth on thermaly oxidized Si substrate by proposed kinetic model is presented. Model is built considering experimental results where microstructure evolution as a function of the substrate temperature and metal content of Ni:C nanocomposite films grown by hyperthermal ion deposition is investigated. The proposed kinetic model is based on the rate equations and includes processes of adsorption, surface segregation, diffusion, chemical reactions of constituents. The experimental depth profile curves were fitted by using proposed model. The obtained results show a good agreement with experiment taking into account concentration dependent diffusion. It is shown by modeling that with the increase of substrate temperature the process of nickel surface segregation becomes most important. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5234

  7. Electrical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride thin films for temperatures up to 650 °C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Groenland, A.W.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a study on electrical conduction in low pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride thin films for temperatures up to 650 °C are described. Current density versus electrical field characteristics are measured as a function of temperature for 100 and 200 nm thick stoichiometric

  8. Current-Induced Joule Heating and Electrical Field Effects in Low Temperature Measurements on TIPS Pentacene Thin Film Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiforov, G.O.; Venkateshvaran, D.; Mooser, S.; Meneau, A.; Strobel, T.; Kronemeijer, A.; Jiang, L.; Lee, M.J.; Sirringhaus, H.

    2016-01-01

    The channel temperature (Tch) of solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS pentacene) thin film transistors (TFTs) is closely monitored in real time during current–voltage (I–V) measurements carried out in a He exchange gas cryostat at various base temperatures (Tb)

  9. Correlative study of R{sub s} and J{sub c} for 123 superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, M; Obara, H; Mawatari, Y; Yamasaki, H; Kosaka, S [AIST, Energy Technology Research Institute, Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8568, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    We have studied the relationship between the microwave surface resistance, R{sub s} (measured by a dielectric resonator technique at 22?GHz), and the critical current density, J{sub c} (obtained via a transport method), for various superconducting thin films belonging to the 123 family. It is found that R{sub s} = 4.29 x 10{sup 7}J{sub c}{sup -0.98} for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} (YBCO) films on MgO, which is in good agreement with the reported value (R{sub s,22?GHz} = 1.8 ? 10{sup 7}J{sub c}{sup -1}) for YBCO on BaSnO{sub 3} buffered MgO. On the other hand, we observed R{sub s} = 6.8 x 10{sup 23}J{sub c}{sup -2.55} and R{sub s} = 2.2 x 10{sup 5}J{sub c}{sup -0.76}, respectively, for Y{sub 0.90}Ca{sub 0.10}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} on MgO and Dy{sub 0.40}Ho{sub 0.60}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} ((D, H)BCO) on LaAlO{sub 3} films, where R{sub s} is in {omega} and J{sub c} is in A m{sup -2}. The observed deviation in the R{sub s}-J{sub c} relations (from the simple R{sub s} = J{sub c}{sup -1} relation, which holds good for pure YBCO films) for (D, H)BCO films may be attributed to the existing different temperature dependence of R{sub s} for these films. On the other hand, in the case of Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} (YCBCO) films, the very low J{sub c} and the microstructural imperfections are considered a plausible cause for the observed deviation from the simple R{sub s} = J{sub c}{sup -1} relation. Though the pre-exponential factor, m, in R{sub s} = mJ{sub c}{sup -n} is believed to be highly sample dependent, it is inferred from the correlative results (obtained from eight films, i.e., YBCO (two films); (D, H)BCO (three films); YCBCO (three films with x = 0.02, 0.05, 0.10)) that m and n in the R{sub s} = mJ{sub c}{sup -n} correlation are related to each other in such a way that log(m) varies linearly with n. An m value of the order of 10{sup 7} is observed typically when the n value is 1.

  10. Growth and Characterisation of Pulsed-Laser Deposited Tin Thin Films on Cube-Textured Copper at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwachta G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-quality titanium nitride thin films have been grown on a cube-textured copper surface via pulsed laser deposition. The growth of TiN thin films has been very sensitive to pre-treatment procedure and substrate temperature. It is difficult to grow heteroexpitaxial TiN films directly on copper tape due to large differences in lattice constants, thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials as well as polycrystalline structure of substrate. The X-Ray diffraction measurement revealed presence of high peaks belonged to TiN(200 and TiN(111 thin films, depending on used etcher of copper surface. The electron diffraction patterns of TiN(200/Cu films confirmed the single-crystal nature of the films with cube-on-cube epitaxy. The high-resolution microscopy on our films revealed sharp interfaces between copper and titanium nitride with no presence of interfacial reaction.

  11. Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Artemenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti3+-V(O charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

  12. High temperature thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate thin films with oxygen vacancy and niobium doping

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2013-08-14

    We report the evolution of high temperature thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3 thin films doped with Nb and oxygen vacancies. Structure-property relations in this important thermoelectric oxide are elucidated and the variation of transport properties with dopant concentrations is discussed. Oxygen vacancies are incorporated during growth or annealing in Ar/H2 above 800 K. An increase in lattice constant due to the inclusion of Nb and oxygen vacancies is found to result in an increase in carrier density and electrical conductivity with simultaneous decrease in carrier effective mass and Seebeck coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivity at 300 K is found to be 2.22 W m-1 K-1, and the estimated figure of merit is 0.29 at 1000 K. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Thin-film temperature sensors for gas turbine engines Problems and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhani, R. C.; Prakash, S.; Bunshah, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    The erosion and corrosion of thermocouples used to measure the temperature in turbine engines are studied. Structural and metallurgical interactions and instabilities at thermocouple interfaces are analyzed. Consideration is given to the adhesion, dielectric quality, surface topography, and hardness of the thermal oxides; it is observed that the structural and thermoelectric stability of thin-film thermocouple elements depends on adhesion, surface topography, and dielectric strength. The electrical conductivity and impurity content of the oxide scale are evaluated. Methods for improving the adhesion of thermocouples on the alumina surfaces are described. Compositional inhomogeneities in the sensors and contamination of the thermocouple elements are examined. The fabrication of the thermocouples is discussed. It is noted that Al2O3 and Si3N4 are useful for developing stable thermocouple elements on the surface of the blades and vanes.

  14. Fracture-resistant thin-film metallic glass: Ultra-high plasticity at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first example of room-temperature rubber-like deformation in thin-film metallic glasses (TFMGs, 260-nm-thick Zr60Cu24Al11Ni5 layers, under ultra-high shear strain. The TFMGs were deposited, with no external heating, on Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG and Si(001 substrates by rf magnetron sputtering in a 3 mTorr Ar plasma. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM analyses and nanoindentation results reveal that the TFMGs undergo an incredibly large shear strain, estimated to be ∼4000%, during fatigue tests, and thickness reductions of up to 61.5%, with no shear-banding or cracking, during extreme nanoindentation experiments extending through the film and into the substrate. TFMG/BMG samples also exhibit film/substrate diffusion bonding during deformation as shown by high-resolution XTEM.

  15. Room-temperature fabrication of a Ga-Sn-O thin-film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Takagi, Ryo; Umeda, Kenta; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-08-01

    We have succeeded in forming a Ga-Sn-O (GTO) film for a thin-film transistor (TFT) using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at room temperature without annealing process. It is achieved that the field-effect mobility is 0.83 cm2 V-1 s-1 and the on/off ratio is roughly 106. A critical process parameter is the deposition pressure during the RF magnetron sputtering, which determines a balance between competing mechanisms of sputtering damages and chemical reactions, because the film quality has to be enhanced solely during the sputtering deposition. This result suggests a possibility of rare-metal free amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors.

  16. Low temperature self-agglomeration of metallic Ag nanoparticles on silica sol-gel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhavan, O; Azimirad, R; Moshfegh, A Z [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: oakhavan@sharif.edu

    2008-10-07

    A facile sol-gel synthesis for self-agglomeration of metallic silver nanoparticles, with fcc crystalline structure, on the silica surface in a low annealing temperature has been introduced. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed initial agglomeration ({approx}30 times greater than the nominal concentration of Ag) of the nanoparticles on the surface of the dried film (100 deg. C) and also their oxidation as well as easy diffusion (with 0.08 eV required activation energy) into the porous silica thin films, by increasing the annealing temperature (200-400 deg. C). By raising the Ag concentration from 0.2 to 1.6 mol% in the sol, the average size of the Ag nanoparticles increased from {approx}5 to 37 nm corresponding to a redshift of the optical plasmon resonance absorption peak from 404 to 467 nm. The high concentration of Ag (1.6 mol%) in the sol resulted in a rough surface containing compact nanoparticles. Using power spectral density analysis of the atomic force microscopy images, we have found that the highest contributions in the surface roughness of the dried silica films were caused by the particles ranging from {approx}62 to 159 nm. The particles smaller than {approx}39 nm did not show any detectable contributions in the surface roughness of the dried silica film. Based on the XPS analysis, a mechanism has also been proposed for the self-agglomeration of the Ag nanoparticles on the surface of the aqueous sol-gel silica thin films.

  17. Synthesis of thermally evaporated ZnSe thin film at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Taj Muhammad, E-mail: tajakashne@gmail.com [National Institute of Laser and Optronics (NILOP), P.O. Nilore-45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Muhammad Farhan [Department of Applied Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, Arshad; Shah, A.; Raza, Q.; Iqbal, Amjid; Aziz, U. [National Institute of Laser and Optronics (NILOP), P.O. Nilore-45650, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-07-01

    Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin film on glass substrates were prepared by thermal evaporation under high vacuum using the quasi-closed volume technique at room temperature (300 {+-} 2 K). The deposited ZnSe properties were assessed via X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope (AFM), UV-Vis specrophotometry, Raman spectroscopy, photo-luminescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the film exhibited reflection corresponding to the cubic (111) phase (2{theta} = 27.20 deg.). This analysis indicated that the sample is polycrystalline and have cubic (Zinc blende) structure. The crystallites were preferentially oriented with the (111) planes parallel to the substrates. The AFM images showed that the ZnSe films have smooth morphology with roughness 6.74 nm. The transmittance spectrum revealed a high transmission of 89% in the infrared region ({>=} 600 nm) and a low transmission of 40% at 450 nm. The maximum transmission of 89.6% was observed at 640 nm. Optical band-gap was calculated from the transmission data of specrophotometry, photo-luminescence and ellipsometry and was 2.76, 2.74 and 2.82 eV respectively. Raman spectroscopic studies revealed two longitudinal optical phonon modes at 252 cm{sup -1} and 500 cm{sup -1}. In photoluminescence study, the luminescence peaks was observed at 452 nm corresponding to band to band emission. FT-IR study illustrated the existence of Zn-Se bonding in ZnSe thin film. The optical constants were calculated using spectroscopic ellipsometry and were determined from the best fit ellipsometric data in the wavelength regime of interest from 370-1000 nm. These results manifested excellent room temperature ZnSe synthesis and characteristics for opto-electronics technologies.

  18. Superconducting NbN Thin-Film Nanowire Detectors for Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen; Kobayashi, Yohei; Shiki, Shigetomo; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2008-05-01

    Superconducting nanowire detectors (SND) have been applied for time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for the first time. In this study, we used the SND, which consists of a very thin niobium nitride (NbN) film having a nanowire meander pattern with a thickness of 6.8 nm and a width of 200 nm on a MgO substrate. The experiments were carried out for Angiotensin I and bovine serum albumin (BSA). These biomolecules were ionized by laser radiation with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). The ions were accelerated by a static high voltage of 17.5 kV, and incident on the NbN meander, which is dc-biased below a superconducting critical current ( I c). It was found that the output pulses have a rise time of about 640 ps, which is extremely faster than superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors, and a fall time of about 50 ns. Moreover, we investigated the bias current dependence of output pulses, and confirmed that molecules can be detected even for bias currents of about 50% of I c.

  19. Low temperature high-mobility InZnO thin-film transistors fabricated by excimer laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ishihara, R.; Van der Cingel, J.; Mofrad, M.R.T.; Horita, M.; Uraoka, Y.

    In this study, we successfully achieved a relatively high field-effect mobility of 37.7?cm2/Vs in an InZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by excimer layer annealing (ELA). The ELA process allowed us to fabricate such a high-performance InZnO TFT at the substrate temperature less than 50?°C

  20. Low temperature high-mobility InZnO thin-film transistors fabricated by excimer laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ishihara, R.; Van der Cingel, J.; Mofrad, M.R.T.; Horita, M.; Uraoka, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully achieved a relatively high field-effect mobility of 37.7?cm2/Vs in an InZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by excimer layer annealing (ELA). The ELA process allowed us to fabricate such a high-performance InZnO TFT at the substrate temperature less than 50?°C

  1. Low temperature growth of highly transparent c-axis oriented ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirhaghi, S.; Craciun, V.; Craciun, D.; Elders, J.; Boyd, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature and laser wavelength on the structural and optical properties of thin films of ZnO grown on silicon and glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition have been studied. Regardless of thickness, all the grown layers are c-axis oriented

  2. Temperature dependent photoreflectance study of Cu2SnS3 thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raadik, T.; Grossberg, M.; Krustok, J.

    2017-01-01

    The energy band structure of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition was studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy (PR). The temperature-dependent PR spectra were measured in the range of T = 10–150 K. According to the Raman scattering analysis, the monoclinic crystal struct...

  3. Raman and XPS characterization of vanadium oxide thin films with temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ureña-Begara, Ferran, E-mail: ferran.urena@uclouvain.be [Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crunteanu, Aurelian [XLIM Research Institute, UMR 7252, CNRS/Université de Limoges, Limoges (France); Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive study of the oxidation of VO{sub 2} thin films from R.T. up to 550 °C. • Phase changes and mixed-valence vanadium oxides formed during the oxidation process. • Reported Raman and XPS signatures for each vanadium oxide. • Monitoring of the current and resistance evolution at the surface of the films. • Oxidation model describing the evolution of the vanadium oxides and phase changes. - Abstract: The oxidation mechanisms and the numerous phase transitions undergone by VO{sub 2} thin films deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates when heated from room temperature (R.T.) up to 550 °C in air are investigated by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the films undergo several intermediate phase transitions between the initial VO{sub 2} monoclinic phase at R.T. and the final V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase at 550 °C. The information about these intermediate phase transitions is scarce and their identification is important since they are often found during the synthesis of vanadium dioxide films. Significant changes in the film conductivity have also been observed to occur associated to the phase transitions. In this work, current and resistance measurements performed on the surface of the films are implemented in parallel with the Raman measurements to correlate the different phases with the conductivity of the films. A model to explain the oxidation mechanisms and phenomena occurring during the oxidation of the films is proposed. Peak frequencies, full-width half-maxima, binding energies and oxidation states from the Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments are reported and analyzed for all the phases encountered in VO{sub 2} films prepared on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates.

  4. High temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, L.; Dirisaglik, F.; Cywar, A.; Cil, K.; Zhu, Y.; Lam, C.; Anwar, A. F. M.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature characterization of the thermoelectric properties of chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is critical for phase change memory devices, which utilize self-heating to quickly switch between amorphous and crystalline states and experience significant thermoelectric effects. In this work, the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient are measured simultaneously as a function of temperature, from room temperature to 600 °C, on 50 nm and 200 nm GST thin films deposited on silicon dioxide. Multiple heating and cooling cycles with increasingly maximum temperature allow temperature-dependent characterization of the material at each crystalline state; this is in contrast to continuous measurements which return the combined effects of the temperature dependence and changes in the material. The results show p-type conduction (S > 0), linear S(T), and a positive Thomson coefficient (dS/dT) up to melting temperature. The results also reveal an interesting linearity between dS/dT and the conduction activation energy for mixed amorphous-fcc GST, which can be used to estimate one parameter from the other. A percolation model, together with effective medium theory, is adopted to correlate the conductivity of the material with average grain sizes obtained from XRD measurements. XRD diffraction measurements show plane-dependent thermal expansion for the cubic and hexagonal phases.

  5. Effects of annealing temperature on the physicochemical, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured hematite thin films prepared via electrodeposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuan, Yi Wen [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Chong, Meng Nan, E-mail: Chong.Meng.Nan@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Zhu, Tao; Yong, Siek-Ting [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Chan, Eng Seng [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured hematite thin films were synthesized via electrodeposition method. • Effects of annealing on size, grain boundary and PEC properties were examined. • Photocurrents generation was enhanced when the thin films were annealed at 600 °C. • The highest photocurrent density of 1.6 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl was achieved. - Abstract: Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a promising photoanode material for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its wide abundance, narrow band-gap energy, efficient light absorption and high chemical stability under aqueous environment. The key challenge to the wider utilisation of nanostructured hematite-based photoanode in PEC water splitting, however, is limited by its low photo-assisted water oxidation caused by large overpotential in the nominal range of 0.5–0.6 V. The main aim of this study was to enhance the performance of hematite for photo-assisted water oxidation by optimising the annealing temperature used during the synthesis of nanostructured hematite thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-based photoanodes prepared via the cathodic electrodeposition method. The resultant nanostructured hematite thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for their elemental composition, average nanocrystallites size and morphology; phase and crystallinity; UV-absorptivity and band gap energy; and the functional groups, respectively. Results showed that the nanostructured hematite thin films possess good ordered nanocrystallites array and high crystallinity after annealing treatment at 400–600 °C. FE-SEM images illustrated an increase in the average hematite nanocrystallites size from 65 nm to 95 nm when the annealing temperature was varied from 400 °C to 600

  6. FT-IR analysis of high temperature annealing effects in a-SiC:H thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischmuth, Tobias; Schneider, Michael; Grille, Thomas; Schmid, U.

    2017-06-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous SiC (a-SiC:H) is an attractive material for MEMS applications where high robustness or operation in harsh environments is targeted. In previous publications, it was demonstrated, that the properties of a-SiC:H thin films can be tailored over a wide range by changing the auxiliary table excitation power of a dual plasma source deposition process using an inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition system. In this work, the annealing behavior of dual plasma source deposited a-SiC:H thin films under argon atmosphere is investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for chemical analysis. All investigated layers show a decrease of hydrogen containing bonds (X-Hx) and an increase of Si-C bonds with increasing annealing temperature in the FT-IR spectrum. This behaviour is directly linked to the effusion of hydrogen from the thin films at elevated temperatures. In addition, films deposited at higher auxiliary plasma power show more X-Hx and less Si-C bonds, indicating a higher hydrogen amount in those films. All layers shrink with increasing annealing temperature due to the effusion of hydrogen with a stronger shrink at higher PT values caused by the increased hydrogen amount. This shrink also leads to a densification of the thin films.

  7. Influence of substrate type on transport properties of superconducting FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Feifei [IFW, Dresden (Germany); Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Iida, Kazumasa [IFW, Dresden (Germany); Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Langer, Marco; Haenisch, Jens [IFW, Dresden (Germany); KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Huehne, Ruben; Schultz, Ludwig [IFW, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on CaF{sub 2}, AlO{sub 3} and MgO substrates and structurally and electro-magnetically characterized in order to study the influence of the substrate on their transport properties. The in-plane lattice mismatch between FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} bulk and the substrate shows no influence on the lattice parameters of the films, whereas the type of substrate affects the crystalline quality of the films and, therefore, the superconducting properties. The film on MgO showed an extra peak in the angular dependence of critical current density J{sub c} at θ = 180 (H//c), which arises from c-axis defects as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In contrast, no J{sub c} peaks for H//c were observed in films on CaF{sub 2} and LaAlO{sub 3}. J{sub c}(θ) can be scaled successfully for both films without c-axis correlated defects by the anisotropy Ginzburg-Landau approach with appropriate anisotropy ratio γ. The scaling parameter γ is decreasing with decreasing temperature, which is different from what we observed in FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} films on Fe-buffered MgO substrates.

  8. Epitaxial superconducting GdBa2Cu3O7‑δ /Gd2O3 nanocomposite thin films from advanced low-fluorine solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayado, Pablo; Mundet, Bernat; Eloussifi, Hichem; Vallés, Ferrán; Coll, Mariona; Ricart, Susagna; Gázquez, Jaume; Palau, Anna; Roura, Pere; Farjas, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier

    2017-12-01

    We have employed the CSD method to synthesize GdBCO and GdBCO–Gd2O3 nanocomposite 250–300 nm thin films. For this we have designed a new low-fluorine solution never used before in the synthesis of GdBCO thin films that allows us to reduce the HF release by 80% and increase the reproducibility of the pyrolysis process. The growth of these thin films required a new thermal process to be designed, which we refer to as ‘flash-heating’, where the heating rate is extremely fast (∼600 °C min‑1). The structure and the superconducting properties of the pristine GdBCO films are excellent, showing a (00 l) epitaxial orientation of the GdBCO grains and T c values that reach 92.8 K, which means an enhancement of more than 1 K with respect to standard YBCO films. The calculated J c inside the grains ({J}{{c}}{{G}}) also presents remarkable values: {J}{{c}}{{G}}(5 K) ∼ 40 MA cm‑2 and {J}{{c}}{{G}}(77 K) ∼ 3.3 MA cm‑2. Finally, the GdBCO–Gd2O3 nanocomposites films, with a 20% mol of Gd2O3, exhibit superior superconducting properties and pinning performances with respect to GdBCO pristine films.

  9. Temperature-dependent microstructural evolution of Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), #08-03, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, 138634 (Singapore); Jin, Hongmei, E-mail: jinhm@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 1 Fusionopolis Way, Connexis 138632 (Singapore); Chai, Jianwei; Pan, Jisheng; Seng, Hwee Leng; Goh, Glen Tai Wei; Wong, Lai Mun [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), #08-03, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, 138634 (Singapore); Sullivan, Michael B. [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 1 Fusionopolis Way, Connexis 138632 (Singapore); Wang, Shi Jie, E-mail: sj-wang@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), #08-03, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, 138634 (Singapore)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We investigate microstructural evolution of Ti{sub 2}AlN MAX thin films with temperature. • The film forms a mixture of Ti, Al and (Ti,Al)N cubic solid solution at 500 °C. • The film nucleates into polycrystalline Ti{sub 2}AlN M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} phases at 600 °C. • The film transforms into a single-crystalline Ti{sub 2}AlN (0 0 0 2) thin film at 750 °C. • The mechanisms behind Ti{sub 2}AlN phase transformation with temperature are discussed. - Abstract: Ti{sub 2}AlN MAX-phase thin films have been deposited on MgO (1 1 1) substrates between 500 and 750 °C using DC reactive magnetron sputtering of a Ti{sub 2}Al compound target in a mixed N{sub 2}/Ar plasma. The composition, crystallinity, morphology and hardness of the thin films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and nano-indentation, respectively. The film initially forms a mixture of Ti, Al and (Ti,Al)N cubic solid solution at 500 °C and nucleates into polycrystalline Ti{sub 2}AlN MAX phases at 600 °C. Its crystallinity is further improved with an increase in the substrate temperature. At 750 °C, a single-crystalline Ti{sub 2}AlN (0 0 0 2) thin film is formed having characteristic layered hexagonal surface morphology, high hardness, high Young's modulus and low electrical resistivity. The mechanism behind the evolution of the microstructure with growth temperature is discussed in terms of surface energies, lattice mismatch and enhanced adatom diffusion at high growth temperatures.

  10. Thin Film Differential Photosensor for Reduction of Temperature Effects in Lab-on-Chip Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cesare, Giampiero; Carpentiero, Matteo; Nascetti, Augusto; Caputo, Domenico

    2016-02-20

    This paper presents a thin film structure suitable for low-level radiation measurements in lab-on-chip systems that are subject to thermal treatments of the analyte and/or to large temperature variations. The device is the series connection of two amorphous silicon/amorphous silicon carbide heterojunctions designed to perform differential current measurements. The two diodes experience the same temperature, while only one is exposed to the incident radiation. Under these conditions, temperature and light are the common and differential mode signals, respectively. A proper electrical connection reads the differential current of the two diodes (ideally the photocurrent) as the output signal. The experimental characterization shows the benefits of the differential structure in minimizing the temperature effects with respect to a single diode operation. In particular, when the temperature varies from 23 to 50 °C, the proposed device shows a common mode rejection ratio up to 24 dB and reduces of a factor of three the error in detecting very low-intensity light signals.

  11. Growth-temperature dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. S.; Heikenfeld, J.; Steckl, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Visible photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) emission has been observed from Er-doped GaN thin films grown on (111) Si at various temperatures from 100 to 750 °C in a radio-frequency plasma molecular beam epitaxy system. PL and EL intensities of green emission at 537 nm from GaN:Er films exhibited strong dependence on the growth temperature, with a maximum at 600 °C. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy showed smooth surfaces at 600 °C and rough surfaces at 100 and 750 °C. X-ray diffraction indicated that the GaN:Er film structure was oriented with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate for all growth temperatures. The crystalline quality initially improves with an increase in growth temperature, and saturates at ˜500 °C. Considering both the luminescence and structural properties of the film, ˜600 °C seems to be the optimal temperature for growth of Er-doped GaN luminescent films on Si substrates.

  12. Absolute magnetometer based on the high-frequency modulation of the kinetic inductance of a superconducting thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayela, F.; Bret, J. L.; Chaussy, J.

    1995-07-01

    The high-frequency thermal modulation of a superconducting closed loop just below its critical temperature gives rise to a spectacular divergence of its kinetic inductance. It is shown that this periodic divergence due to that of the London penetration length λ permits very fine magnetic measurements. A superconducting magnetometer has been designed that can detect the absolute intensity of weak magnetic fields, with a noise level of 10-12 T/√Hz. This absolute level was reached by the double thermal modulation of a superconducting disk around its critical temperature and of a neighboring superconducting closed loop. As a consequence of the Meissner effect, the superconducting disk gives an estimation of the applied perpendicular magnetic field and removes any incertitude about the number of flux quantums inside the loop. Then, the modulation of the temperature of the loop increases the absolute sensitivity. The detection is performed by a very low-loss superconducting LC resonator set at the input of a cryogenic preamplifier. The thermal modulation is performed by pigtailed laser diodes. Practical limitations and further improvements are discussed.

  13. Synthesis from separate oxide targets of high quality La2-xSrxCuO4 thin films and dependence with doping of their superconducting transition width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotón, N.; Mercey, B.; Mosqueira, J.; Ramallo, M. V.; Vidal, F.

    2013-07-01

    A series of superconducting La2-xSrxCuO4 thin films, with 0.09 ≲ x ≲ 0.22, is grown over (100)SrTiO3 substrates by means of a novel pulsed laser deposition method devised to increase the homogeneity and control of doping. We employ two separate parent oxide targets that receive ablation shots at arbitrary computer-controlled relative rates, instead of the conventional procedure that uses a single target whose doping determines the one of the film. We characterize the films both through conventional techniques (XRD, SEM, AFM and EDX) and by measuring their superconducting transition with a high-sensitivity SQUID magnetometer. The latter allows one to determine not only their average critical temperatures {\\bar {T}}_{{c}}(x) but also their dispersions due to inhomogeneities, ΔTc(x). For {\\bar {T}}_{{c}}(x) we obtain the conventional parabolic law centered at x = 0.16, plus a Gaussian depression near x = 1/8 with a {\\bar {T}}_{{c}}-height of about 5 K and x-width about 0.03. For ΔTc(x) we obtain, for all the dopings, values among the lowest reported up to now for La2-xSrxCuO4. The ΔTc(x) dependence can be explained in terms of the unavoidable randomness of the positioning of the Sr ions (the so-called intrinsic chemical inhomogeneity) and a separate residual Tc-inhomogeneity contribution of the order of 0.5 K, this last associated with the samples’ structural inhomogeneities and films’ substrate.

  14. Effect of Temperature Cycling on Conduction Mechanisms in CdTe Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, V.; Pal, R.; Saini, N.; Saxena, R. S.; Bhan, R. K.; Sareen, L.; Singh, K. P.; Sharma, R. K.; Venkataraman, V.

    2013-03-01

    CdTe thin films of 500 Å thickness prepared by thermal evaporation technique were analyzed for leakage current and conduction mechanisms. Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors were fabricated using these films as a dielectric. These films have many possible applications, such as passivation for infrared diodes that operate at low temperatures (80 K). Direct-current (DC) current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements were performed on these films. Furthermore, the films were subjected to thermal cycling from 300 K to 80 K and back to 300 K. Typical minimum leakage currents near zero bias at room temperature varied between 0.9 nA and 0.1 μA, while low-temperature leakage currents were in the range of 9.5 pA to 0.5 nA, corresponding to resistivity values on the order of 108 Ω-cm and 1010 Ω-cm, respectively. Well-known conduction mechanisms from the literature were utilized for fitting of measured I- V data. Our analysis indicates that the conduction mechanism in general is Ohmic for low fields conduction mechanism for fields >6 × 104 V cm-1 is modified Poole-Frenkel (MPF) and Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling at room temperature. At 80 K, Schottky-type conduction dominates. A significant observation is that the film did not show any appreciable degradation in leakage current characteristics due to the thermal cycling.

  15. Impacts of Temperature on the Performance of Cdte Based Thin-Film Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Md.; Newaz Bahar, Ali; Maksudur Rahman Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Habib, Md. Ahsan

    2017-08-01

    In this investigation, the effect of temperature on the performance of CdTe based thin film solar cells has been studied. The parameters such as open circuit voltage (Voc ), short circuit current density (Jsc ), fill factor and efficiency η determines the performance of solar cell. And an important diode parameter, reverse saturation current density, J 0 controls the impacts of temperature on the performance parameters. The reverse saturation current density of the CdTe photovoltaic cell, J 0 = CT 3exp(-qEg /kT) was determinedas optimum for C = 17.90 mAcm -2 K 3 yields CT 3 = 4.74 × 108 mAcm -2. In this case, 298 K is considered to be more suitable temperature to achieve optimized Voc, Jsc, FF, and η calculated for AM1.5G illumination spectra. The maximum attained values of performance parameters are compared with the experimental and theoretical results in the literature of CdTe solar cells. Moreover, the rate of change in performance parameters due to temperature are also measured and compared with the results available in the earlier published works.

  16. Low Temperature, High Energy Density Micro Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of solid oxide fuel cell based on thin film technology and ultra-thin electrolyte is being proposed to develop to realize major reductions in fuel cell...

  17. Integration of temperature sensors in polyimide-based thin-film electrode arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. F. Porto Cruz; E. Fiedler; O. F. Cota Monjarás; T. Stieglitz

    2015-01-01

    ... caused by electrical or optogenetical stimulation could be accurately controlled. Within this work, a thin-film platinum RTD embedded in polyimide and a readout system based on the Wheatstone bridge configuration are presented...

  18. Substrate effects on photoluminescence and low temperature phase transition of methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee, S. A.; Harriman, T. A.; Han, G. S.; Lee, J.-K.; Lucca, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the effects of substrates on the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra and phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films. Structural characterization at room temperature with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy indicated that while the chemical structure of films deposited on glass and quartz was similar, the glass substrate induced strain in the perovskite films and suppressed the grain growth. The luminescence response and phase transition of the perovskite thin films were studied by PL spectroscopy. The induced strain was found to affect both the room temperature and low temperature PL spectra of the hybrid perovskite films. In addition, it was found that the effects of the glass substrate inhibited a tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition such that it occurred at lower temperatures.

  19. Nanostructured PdO Thin Film from Langmuir-Blodgett Precursor for Room-Temperature H2 Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sipra; Betty, C A; Bhattacharyya, Kaustava; Saxena, Vibha; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2016-07-06

    Nanoparticulate thin films of PdO were prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique by thermal decomposition of a multilayer film of octadecylamine (ODA)-chloropalladate complex. The stable complex formation of ODA with chloropalladate ions (present in subphase) at the air-water interface was confirmed by the surface pressure-area isotherm and Brewster angle microscopy. The formation of nanocrystalline PdO thin film after thermal decomposition of as-deposited LB film was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Nanocrystalline PdO thin films were further characterized by using UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurements. The XPS study revealed the presence of prominent Pd(2+) with a small quantity (18%) of reduced PdO (Pd(0)) in nanocrystalline PdO thin film. From the absorption spectroscopic measurement, the band gap energy of PdO was estimated to be 2 eV, which was very close to that obtained from specular reflectance measurements. Surface morphology studies of these films using atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated formation of nanoparticles of size 20-30 nm. These PdO film when employed as a chemiresistive sensor showed H2 sensitivity in the range of 30-4000 ppm at room temperature. In addition, PdO films showed photosensitivity with increase in current upon shining of visible light.

  20. Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Thermoelectric Properties of the Sb2Te3 Thin Films Deposition by Using Thermal Evaporation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyun-Min Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimony-telluride (Sb2Te3 thermoelectric thin films were prepared on SiO2/Si substrates by thermal evaporation method. The substrate temperature that ranged from room temperature to 150°C was adopted to deposit the Sb2Te3 thin films. The effects of substrate temperature on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of the Sb2Te3 thin films were investigated. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the Sb2Te3 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyses and field emission scanning electron microscope observation. The RT-deposited Sb2Te3 thin films showed the amorphous phase. Te and Sb2Te3 phases were coexisted in the Sb2Te3-based thin films as the substrate temperature was higher than room temperature. The average grain sizes of the Sb2Te3-based thin films were 39 nm, 45 nm, 62 nm, 84 nm, and 108 nm, as the substrate temperatures were 50°C, 75°C, 100°C, 125°C, and 150°C, respectively. The Seebeck coefficients, electrical conductivity, and power factor were measured at room temperature; we had found that they were critically dependent on the substrate temperature.

  1. Preparation, microwave and magnetic field response of YBaCuO thin film microbridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauser, B.; Klopman, B.B.G.; Rogalla, Horst

    1989-01-01

    On YBaCuO thin films, which were deposited at ambient temperature and were superconducting after post-deposition annealing in oxygen, microbridges and d.c. superconducting quantium interference devices (SQUIDs) were constructed by lift-off. Over a temperature range from 4.2 to > 70 K the devices

  2. Temperature dependence and the dispersion of nonlinear optical properties of chromophore-containing polyimide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkovenko, A. I.; Plekhanov, A. I.; Simanchuk, A. E.; Yakimanskiy, A. V.; Nosova, G. I.; Solovskaya, N. A.; Smirnov, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed investigations of the quadratic nonlinear response of a series of new polyimides with covalently attached chromophore DR13 are performed by the Maker fringes method in the range of fundamental wavelength from 850 to 1450 nm. Polymer films with thickness of 100-400 nm were spin-coated on glass substrates and corona poled. For these materials, the maximum values of the second harmonic generation coefficients d33 are 80-120 pm/V. A red shift of the nonlinear response dispersion with respect to the linear absorption spectrum was observed for the DR13 chromophore. The temperature dependences of linear absorption and nonlinear coefficients d33 for studied structures are observed. It was found that the temperature changes of the absorption spectra lead to appreciable contribution to the value of the nonlinear coefficient d33. The demonstrated high temperature stability (up to 120 °C) of chromophore-containing polyimide thin films makes it possible to eliminate the degradation of their nonlinear optical properties in the future applications of such structures.

  3. Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Gate Dielectrics for High-Performance Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A low-temperature solution-processed high-k gate dielectric layer for use in a high-performance solution-processed semiconducting polymer organic thin-film transistor (OTFT was demonstrated. Photochemical activation of sol-gel-derived AlOx films under 150 °C permitted the formation of a dense film with low leakage and relatively high dielectric-permittivity characteristics, which are almost comparable to the results yielded by the conventionally used vacuum deposition and high temperature annealing method. Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM treatment of the AlOx was employed in order to realize high-performance (>0.4 cm2/Vs saturation mobility and low-operation-voltage (<5 V diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP-based OTFTs on an ultra-thin polyimide film (3-μm thick. Thus, low-temperature photochemically-annealed solution-processed AlOx film with SAM layer is an attractive candidate as a dielectric-layer for use in high-performance organic TFTs operated at low voltages.

  4. Low temperature, template-free route to nickel thin films and nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shviro, Meital; Zitoun, David

    2012-02-07

    In this manuscript, we report on the elaboration of nickel thin films, isolated clusters and nanowires on silicon, glass and polymers by a low temperature deposition technique. The process is based on the thermal decomposition of Ni (η(4)-C(8)H(12))(2) at temperatures as low as 80 °C, which exclusively yields metallic Ni and a volatile by-product. The low temperature of the process makes it compatible with most of the substrates, even polymers and organic layers. Several deposition techniques are explored, among them spin coating of the organometallic complex in solution, which allows controlling nickel film thickness down to several nanometers. The density of the film can be varied by the speed of the spin coater with the formation of nanowires being observed for an optimized speed. The nanowires form a network of parallel lines on silicon and the phenomenon will be discussed as a selective dewetting of the organometallic precursor. All samples are fully characterized by SEM, EDS, cross-sectional HRTEM, ellipsometry, AFM, MFM and SQUID magnetic measurements. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Thickness and Growth Temperature Dependence of Structure and Magnetism in FePt Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toney, Michael F

    2003-06-17

    We describe structural and magnetic measurements of polycrystalline, L1{sub 0} chemical-ordered Fe(55-60)Pt(45-40) films as a function of film thickness (from 3 to 13 nm) and growth temperature (270-370 C). With increasing film thickness, the coercivity increases from about 1 kOe up to 11 kOe (growth at 400 C), while for increasing growth temperature, the coercivity grows from 0.2 to 6 kOe for 4.3 nm thick films and 1.6 to 10 kOe for 8.5 nm thick films. There is a strong, nearly linear correlation between coercivity and the extent of L1{sub 0} chemical order. In all the films there is a mixture of L1{sub 0} and chemically disordered, fcc phases. The grain size in the L1{sub 0} phase increases with both film thickness and growth temperature (increasing chemical order), while in the fcc phase the grain size remains nearly constant and is smaller than in the L1{sub 0} phase. The films all contain twins and stacking faults. The relationship between the coercivity and the film structure is discussed and we give a possible mechanism for the lack of chemical order in the very thin films (lack of nucleation sites for the L1{sub 0} phase).

  6. Enhancement of room temperature ferromagnetic behavior of rf sputtered Ni-CeO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugan, R.; Vijayaprasath, G.; Mahalingam, T.; Ravi, G., E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ni-CeO{sub 2} thin films deposited by using rf Magnetron sputtering with different concentrations of Ni. • Deposited thin films have single crystalline and uniform surface morphology. • Photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectra were interpreted for Ni-CeO{sub 2} thin films. • XPS spectra confirmed Ni ions were present in the doped CeO{sub 2} thin films. • Ni ions induced ferromagnetic behavior of Ni-CeO{sub 2} films were confirmed through VSM. - Abstract: Ni-doped CeO{sub 2} thin films were prepared under Ar{sup +} atmosphere on glass substrates using rf magnetron sputtering. To assess the properties of the prepared thin films, the influence of various amounts of Ni dopant on structural, morphological, optical, vibrational, compositional and magnetic properties of the CeO{sub 2} films were studied by using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), micro-Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD patterns for all the samples revealed the expected CeO{sub 2} cubic fluorite-type structure and Ni ions were uniformly distributed in the samples. AFM images of the prepared samples indicate high dense, columnar structure with uniform distribution of CeO{sub 2}. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and micro-Raman spectroscopic studies revealed an increase of oxygen vacancies with higher concentration of Ni in CeO{sub 2}. XPS results confirm the presence of Ni{sub 2p}, O{sub 1s} and Ce and depict that cerium is present as both Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} oxidation states in Ce{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 2} (x = 15%) thin film. Field dependent magnetization measurements revealed a paramagnetic behavior for pure CeO{sub 2}, while a ferromagnetic behavior appeared when Ni is doped in CeO{sub 2} films. Doping dependent magnetization measurements suggest that the observed ferromagnetism is due to the presence of metallic Ni clusters with nanometric size and broad size

  7. Room-Temperature-Processed Flexible Amorphous InGaZnO Thin Film Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Letao; Shao, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoliang; He, Hongyu; Zhang, Shengdong

    2017-12-13

    A room-temperature flexible amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) technology is developed on plastic substrates, in which both the gate dielectric and passivation layers of the TFTs are formed by an anodic oxidation (anodization) technique. While the gate dielectric Al 2 O 3 is grown with a conventional anodization on an Al:Nd gate electrode, the channel passivation layer Al 2 O 3 is formed using a localized anodization technique. The anodized Al 2 O 3 passivation layer shows a superior passivation effect to that of PECVD SiO 2 . The room-temperature-processed flexible a-IGZO TFT exhibits a field-effect mobility of 7.5 cm 2 /V·s, a subthreshold swing of 0.44 V/dec, an on-off ratio of 3.1 × 10 8 , and an acceptable gate-bias stability with threshold voltage shifts of 2.65 and -1.09 V under positive gate-bias stress and negative gate-bias stress, respectively. Bending and fatigue tests confirm that the flexible a-IGZO TFT also has a good mechanical reliability, with electrical performances remaining consistent up to a strain of 0.76% as well as after 1200 cycles of fatigue testing.

  8. High Performance, Low Temperature Solution-Processed Barium and Strontium Doped Oxide Thin Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder K; Peterson, Rebecca L; Mori, Kiyotaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Leedham, Timothy; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2014-01-28

    Amorphous mixed metal oxides are emerging as high performance semiconductors for thin film transistor (TFT) applications, with indium gallium zinc oxide, InGaZnO (IGZO), being one of the most widely studied and best performing systems. Here, we investigate alkaline earth (barium or strontium) doped InBa(Sr)ZnO as alternative, semiconducting channel layers and compare their performance of the electrical stress stability with IGZO. In films fabricated by solution-processing from metal alkoxide precursors and annealed to 450 °C we achieve high field-effect electron mobility up to 26 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). We show that it is possible to solution-process these materials at low process temperature (225-200 °C yielding mobilities up to 4.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and demonstrate a facile "ink-on-demand" process for these materials which utilizes the alcoholysis reaction of alkyl metal precursors to negate the need for complex synthesis and purification protocols. Electrical bias stress measurements which can serve as a figure of merit for performance stability for a TFT device reveal Sr- and Ba-doped semiconductors to exhibit enhanced electrical stability and reduced threshold voltage shift compared to IGZO irrespective of the process temperature and preparation method. This enhancement in stability can be attributed to the higher Gibbs energy of oxidation of barium and strontium compared to gallium.

  9. Transformative Evolution of Organolead Triiodide Perovskite Thin Films from Strong Room-Temperature Solid-Gas Interaction between HPbI3-CH3NH2 Precursor Pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuping; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zaiwei; Yang, Mengjin; Krause, Amanda R; Zhou, Zhongmin; Zhu, Kai; Padture, Nitin P; Cui, Guanglei

    2016-01-27

    We demonstrate the feasibility of a nonsalt-based precursor pair--inorganic HPbI3 solid and organic CH3NH2 gas--for the deposition of uniform CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films. The strong room-temperature solid-gas interaction between HPbI3 and CH3NH2 induces transformative evolution of ultrasmooth, full-coverage perovskite thin films at a rapid rate (in seconds) from nominally processed rough, partial-coverage HPbI3 thin films. The chemical origin of this behavior is elucidated via in situ experiments. Perovskite solar cells, fabricated using MAPbI3 thin films thus deposited, deliver power conversion efficiencies up to 18.2%, attesting to the high quality of the perovskite thin films deposited using this transformative process.

  10. Nanocrystalline ZnO thin film deposition on flexible substrate by low-temperature sputtering process for plastic displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Joo, Sang Woo; Min, Bong-Ki

    2014-10-01

    A low temperature sputter deposition process is adopted to fabricate nanocrystalline ZnO thin films on plastic (polyethylene terepthalate) substrate. Very good crystalline films are synthesized at a substrate temperature around 120 degrees C. Structural and microstructural analyses confirm the proper phase formation of the nanomaterial with an average nanoparticle size around 5-10 nm. Optical transmission analysis of the film deposited on plastic substrate depicts nearly 90% visible transmittance with a direct bandgap around 3.56 eV. This cost-effective, low-temperature fabrication of nanocrystalline thin film with very good structural and optical properties will find important applications in plastic display technology. Also the process is a vacuum-based clean process, which is compatible to CMOS-IC fabrication techniques and therefore, can easily be integrated with modern solid state device fabrication processes for diverse device applications.

  11. UV-assisted room-temperature chemiresistive NO2 sensor based on TiO2 thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting; Sullivan, Nichole; Steffens, Kristen; Wen, Baomei; Liu, Guannan; Debnath, Ratan; Davydov, Albert; Gomez, Romel; Motayed, Abhishek

    TiO2 thin film based, chemiresistive sensors for NO2 gas which operate at room temperature under ultraviolet (UV) illumination have been demonstrated in this work. The rf-sputter deposited and post-annealed TiO2 thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction to obtain surface morphology, chemical state, and crystal structure, respectively. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and Tauc plots show the optical properties of the TiO2 films. Under UV illumination, the NO2 sensing performance of the TiO2 films shows a reversible change in resistance at room-temperature. The observed change in electrical resistivity can be explained by the modulation of surface-adsorbed oxygen. This work is the first demonstration of a facile TiO2 sensor for NO2 analyte that operates at room-temperature under UV illumination.

  12. Characterization of Thick and Thin Film SiCN for Pressure Sensing at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama B. Bhat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure measurement in high temperature environments is important in many applications to provide valuable information for performance studies. Information on pressure patterns is highly desirable for improving performance, condition monitoring and accurate prediction of the remaining life of systems that operate in extremely high temperature environments, such as gas turbine engines. A number of technologies have been recently investigated, however these technologies target specific applications and they are limited by the maximum operating temperature. Thick and thin films of SiCN can withstand high temperatures. SiCN is a polymer-derived ceramic with liquid phase polymer as its starting material. This provides the advantage that it can be molded to any shape. CERASET™ also yields itself for photolithography, with the addition of photo initiator 2, 2-Dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone (DMPA, thereby enabling photolithographical patterning of the pre-ceramic polymer using UV lithography. SiCN fabrication includes thermosetting, crosslinking and pyrolysis. The technology is still under investigation for stability and improved performance. This work presents the preparation of SiCN films to be used as the body of a sensor for pressure measurements in high temperature environments. The sensor employs the phenomenon of drag effect. The pressure sensor consists of a slender sensitive element and a thick blocking element. The dimensions and thickness of the films depend on the intended application of the sensors. Fabrication methods of SiCN ceramics both as thin (about 40–60 µm and thick (about 2–3 mm films for high temperature applications are discussed. In addition, the influence of thermosetting and annealing processes on mechanical properties is investigated.

  13. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  14. Temperature effects on the phonon spectrum in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 single crystals and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feile, R.; Leiderer, P. (Mainz Univ., Inst. fuer Physik (Germany)); Kowalewski, J.; Assmus, W. (Frankfurt Univ., Physikalisches Inst. (Germany)); Schubert, J.; Poppe, U. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, Inst. fuer Festkoerperforschung (Germany))

    1988-12-01

    We have performed detailed investigations on the temperature dependence of the 335 cm{sup -1} phonon in single crystals and thin films of the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} superconductor. The frequency of this phonon exhibits a downshift of about 5 cm{sup -1} on passing the superconducting transition from above. The shift of the phonon in thin epitaxial films on MgO or SrTiO{sub 3} substrates in only about 3 cm{sup -1}. The width of the asymmetric phonon line displays a slight increase below T{sub c} due to the electron-phonon interaction in these systems. (orig.).

  15. Influence of potential, deposition time and annealing temperature on photoelectrochemical properties of electrodeposited iron oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Sikandar H. [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Rahman, Gul [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); School of Science, University of Science and Technology, 52 Eoeun dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Oh-Shim, E-mail: joocat61@gmail.com [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Morphological transition from nanosheets to elongated dumbbell shaped nanoparticles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were prepared using electrodeposition technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of various aspects on film's photoelectrochemical properties via film's morphology modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology changes from nanosheets to nanoparticles due to high annealing temperature. - Abstract: Nanostructured iron oxide thin films have been prepared by electrodeposition technique and annealed at various temperatures. The effect of deposition potential, deposition time and annealing temperature on photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films was studied. The (1 0 4) and (1 1 0) peak presence in X-ray diffraction patterns confirms {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase formation. The transition on surface morphology from nanosheets to elongated dumbbell shaped nanoparticles occurred that can be attributed to annealing temperature varied from 400 to 700 Degree-Sign C. Optical band gap variation was observed due to annealing temperature. It was found that increment in film thickness increases the photocurrent from 253 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} to 488 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl.

  16. Zirconium diboride thin films for use in high temperature sensors and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David M.; Bernhardt, George P.; Lad, Robert J.

    2017-05-01

    Sensors and MEMS devices operating in high temperature environments require stable thin films with high electrical conductivity for use as electrodes, bond pads, and other components. Metal films are unreliable because of thermodynamically driven morphological instability and agglomeration over long times. Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is an ultra-high temperature conducting ceramic with a melting point of 3245°C, with low atomic diffusion rates compared to other materials. To evaluate ZrB2 as a high temperature film, 200 nm thick ZrB2 films were synthesized on r-sapphire substrates using e-beam co-evaporation of elemental Zr and B sources. Film stability was characterized after post-deposition thermal treatments from 600-1000°C in both reducing (vacuum) and oxidizing (air) environments. ZrB2 films deposited at room temperature are amorphous, but have short-range order characteristic of ZrB2 bonding. ZrB2 films grown at 600°C are polycrystalline with preferred changes occur after annealing at 850°C for 55 hours in vacuum, and film electrical conductivity remains leads to ZrB2 film decomposition into ZrO2 and B2O3 phases, the latter of which is volatile. X-ray diffraction indicates that a 50 nm thick hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) capping layer grown on top of ZrB2 via magnetron sputtering hinders oxidation, but the ZrB2 eventually transforms to ZrO2. These results indicate that ZrB2 films are attractive for potential use in sensors and MEMS devices in high temperature reducing environments, and for short times in oxidizing environments when covered with a h-BN capping layer.

  17. Surface Ordering of Orbitals at a Higher Temperature in LaCoO3 Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuichi; Fujioka, Jun; Nakao, Hironori; Okamoto, Jun; Sudayama, Takaaki; Murakami, Youichi; Nakamura, Masao; Kawasaki, Masashi; Arima, Takahisa; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    We report on the distinct surface state of electronic orders, including spin, orbital, and spin-state degrees of freedom of Co3+ ion, in an epitaxially strained thin film of LaCoO3 grown on (LaAlO3)0.3(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7 (LSAT) substrate. The surface ordered state was detected by the grazing-incidence resonant soft x-ray scattering at Co L-edge, where the probing depth is less than the topmost 4 nm of surface. Comparing with the result of bulk sensitive x-ray diffraction, we revealed that the transition temperature of the orbital order (spin order) at the surface region is about 30 K (20 K) higher (lower) than that of the bulk. A novel phenomenon of the surface order and bulk disorder of the orbital degree of freedom can be attributed to its collective and lattice-coupled nature which is strongly affected by the translational/inversion symmetry breaking at the surface.

  18. Room Temperature Ferroelectricity and Photovoltaic Effect in Atomic Layer Deposited SnTiOX Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R.; Sharma, Y.; Chang, S.; Nakhmanson, S.; Takoudis, C.; Katiyar, R.; Hong, S.

    We have studied ferroelectricity and photovoltaic effects in atomic layer deposited 40 nm thick SnTiOX films. These films showed well-defined and repeatable polarization hysteresis loops at room temperature, as detected by polarization versus electric field (P-E) and field cycling measurements. A photo-induced enhancement in ferroelectricity was also observed as the spontaneous polarization increased under white-light illumination, indicating photoferroelectric nature of SnTiOX films. Interestingly, we observed ferroelectric photovoltaic behavior in these films under the illumination of wide spectrum of light, from visible to ultraviolet regions. A short circuit current of 3 micro Amp. and open circuit voltage of 0.12 V were observed under visible light, while these values were found to be slightly lower in ultraviolet illumination. Though, the origin of ferroelectricity is not very clear yet, but we believe that either the formation of non-centrosymmetric crystalline phases in the film matrix during the growth or presence of charged defects in non-stoichiometric SnTiOX could be the possible reasons. Our study provides a way to develop green ferroelectric SnTiOx thin films, which are compatible to semiconducting processes, and can be used for various ferroelectric applications.

  19. Temperature effects on the chemical composition of nickel-phosphorus alloy thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguocha, I.N.A., E-mail: iko340@mail.usask.c [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Building, 57 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Taheri, R.; Yannacopoulos, S. [School of Engineering, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, B.C. V1V 1V7 (Canada); Uju, W.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Building, 57 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Sammynaiken, R., E-mail: r.sammynaiken@usask.c [Saskatchewan Structural Science Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9 (Canada); Wettig, S. [School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Hu, Y.-F. [Canadian Light Source Inc., 101 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada)

    2010-02-01

    Electroless Ni-P (EN) alloys are widely used as coating materials. Their properties depend on the level of phosphorus present and the extent of thermal treatment. We report the results of two complimentary electronic structure techniques, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the site-specific surface chemistry in EN alloys of different phosphorus compositions and thermal treatments. In XANES experiment, absorption at the Ni L{sub 3,2} edge and the P K edge were measured and the P 2p, Ni 2p, and Ni 3p bands were measured by XPS. Heating EN alloys to high temperatures result in a competitive reaction between phosphorus and nickel on the surface for oxygen. There is an increase in the level of phosphates and other forms of phosphorus oxides and a decrease in the oxidized nickel on the surface of the EN alloy thin film. Changes in the electronic structure and chemical composition in the bulk of the EN alloy are not obvious.

  20. High-temperature laser annealing for thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, A.; Slaoui, A. [InESS-UdS-CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Schneider, J. [CSG Solar AG, Thalheim (Germany); Fraunhofer Centre for Silicon Photovoltaics, Halle (Germany); Dore, J. [CSG Solar AG, Thalheim (Germany); Suntech R and D Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney (Australia); Mermet, F. [IREPA Laser, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-06-15

    Thin film polycrystalline silicon films grown on glass substrate were irradiated with an infrared continuous wave laser for defects annealing and/or dopants activation. The samples were uniformly scanned using an attachment with the laser system. Substrate temperature, scan speed and laser power were varied to find suitable laser annealing conditions. The Raman spectroscopy and Suns-V{sub oc} analysis were carried out to qualify the films quality after laser annealing. A maximum enhancement of the open circuit voltage V{sub oc} of about 100 mV is obtained after laser annealing of as-grown polysilicon structures. A strong correlation was found between the full width half maximum of the Si crystalline peak and V{sub oc}. It is interpreted as due to defects annealing as well as to dopants activation in the absorbing silicon layer. The maximum V{sub oc} reached is 485 mV after laser treatment and plasma hydrogenation, thanks to defects passivation. (orig.)

  1. Thermal fluctuations in Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films near the transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, S.; Hallemeier, P.; Surya, C. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Phillips, J.M. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-11-01

    Detailed studies on the properties of low frequency noise in Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films in the transition region were conducted. The experimental results showed that the low frequency excess noise exhibited a lower cutoff frequency of about 5 Hz, below which the noise power spectra were independent of frequency. At T close to [Tc] and at small current biases the voltage noise power spectra were proportional to I[sup 2], ([partial derivative]R/[partial derivative]T)[sup 2] and inversely proportional to the volume of the device, [Omega]. In addition, low frequency noise measured from two segments separated by a distance of 300 [mu]m was found to be correlated. The lower cutoff frequencies computed for both the noise power spectra and the frequency dependent correlation function, according to the thermal fluctuation model, were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values. The experimental results provide strong evidence that the low frequency excess noise in the device originates from equilibrium temperature fluctuations for small I and T [approx equal] [Tc].

  2. Physical Property Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Fabricated by Low-Temperature Process for Flexible Transparent TFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafe, Adie Bin Mohd; Watanabe, Hiraku; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kuniyoshi, Shigekazu; Iizuka, Masaaki; Sakai, Masatoshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The usual silicon-based display back planes require fairly high process temperature and thus the development of a low temperature process is needed on flexible plastic substrates. A new type of flexible organic light emitting transistor (OLET) had been proposed and investigated in the previous work. By using ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3) assisted thermal treatments on wet processed zinc oxide field effect transistor (ZnO-FET), through low-process temperature, ZnO-FETs were fabricated which succeeded to achieve target drain current value and mobility. In this study, physical property evaluation of ZnO was conducted in term of their crystallinity, the increase composition of ZnO formed inside the thin film and the decrease of the carbon impurities originated from aqueous solution of the ZnO itself. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) evaluation showed UV/03 assisted thermal treatment has no obvious effect towards crystallinity of ZnO in the range of low process temperature. Moreover, through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evaluation and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy evaluation, more carbon impurities disappeared from the ZnO thin film and the increase of composition amount of ZnO, when the thin film was subjected to UV/O3 assisted thermal treatment. Therefore, UV/O3 assisted thermal treatment contributed in carbon impurities elimination and accelerate ZnO formation in ZnO thin film, which led to the improvement in the electrical property of ZnO-FET in the low-process temperature.

  3. Structural evolution of nanocrystalline silicon thin films synthesized in high-density, low-temperature reactive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Qijin; Ostrikov, Kostya [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Xu Shuyan [Plasma Sources and Application Center, NIE, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, 637616 (Singapore)], E-mail: Kostya.Ostrikov@csiro.au

    2009-05-27

    Silicon thin films with a variable content of nanocrystalline phase were deposited on single-crystal silicon and glass substrates by inductively coupled plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition using a silane precursor without any hydrogen dilution in the low substrate temperature range from 100 to 300 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films are systematically investigated by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, UV/vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that the structure of the silicon thin films evolves from the purely amorphous phase to the nanocrystalline phase when the substrate temperature is increased from 100 to 150 deg. C. It is found that the variations of the crystalline fraction f{sub c}, bonded hydrogen content C{sub H}, optical bandgap E{sub Tauc}, film microstructure and growth rate R{sub d} are closely related to the substrate temperature. In particular, at a substrate temperature of 300 deg. C, the nanocrystalline Si thin films of our interest feature a high growth rate of 1.63 nm s{sup -1}, a low hydrogen content of 4.0 at.%, a high crystalline fraction of 69.1%, a low optical bandgap of 1.55 eV and an almost vertically aligned columnar structure with a mean grain size of approximately 10 nm. It is also shown that the low-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline Si thin films without any hydrogen dilution is attributed to the outstanding dissociation ability of the high-density inductively coupled plasmas and effective plasma-surface interactions during the growth process. Our results offer a highly effective yet simple and environmentally friendly technique to synthesize high-quality nanocrystalline Si films, vitally needed for the development of new-generation solar cells and other emerging nanotechnologies.

  4. Doping and critical-temperature dependence of the energy gaps in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchio, P.; Daghero, D.; Ummarino, G. A.; Gonnelli, R. S.; Kurth, F.; Holzapfel, B.; Iida, K.

    2013-11-01

    The dependence of the superconducting gaps in epitaxial Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 thin films on the nominal doping x (0.04⩽x⩽0.15) was studied by means of point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy. The normalized conductance curves were well fitted by using the two-dimensional Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model with two nodeless, isotropic gaps—although the possible presence of gap anisotropies cannot be completely excluded. The amplitudes of the two gaps ΔS and ΔL show similar monotonic trends as a function of the local critical temperature TcA (measured in the same point contacts) from 25 K down to 8 K. The dependence of the gaps on x is well correlated to the trend of the critical temperature, i.e., to the shape of the superconducting region in the phase diagram. When analyzed within a simple three-band Eliashberg model, this trend turns out to be compatible with a mechanism of superconducting coupling mediated by spin fluctuations, whose characteristic energy scales with Tc according to the empirical law Ω0=4.65kBTc, and with a total electron-boson coupling strength λtot=2.22 for x⩽0.10 (i.e., up to optimal doping) that slightly decreases to λtot=1.82 in the overdoped samples (x=0.15).

  5. Postdeposition Annealing Effect on Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films Grown at Different Substrate Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Ahmed Nadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS thin films were deposited on top of Molybdenum (Mo coated soda lime glass (SLG substrates using a single target rf magnetron sputtering technique. The sputtering parameters such as base pressure, working pressure, rf power, argon (Ar gas flow rate, and deposition time were kept consistent throughout the experiment. The effect of different substrate temperatures, for example, room temperature (RT, 300°C, 350°C, 370°C, 400°C, and 450°C, was analyzed by studying their structural, electrical, and optical properties. As-sputtered films were then annealed at 460°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurement revealed the structure to be kesterite with peak of (112 plane in both annealed and as-sputtered CZTS thin films. The crystallinity of the films improved with the increasing substrate temperature until 370°C. Secondary phases of MoS2, CuxMoSx, CuxSnSx, CuxS, and Cu6MoSnS8 (hemusite were also observed in the annealed CZTS films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM shows crystallite size of deposited CZTS thin film to be proportionally related to deposition temperature. The highest surface roughness of 67.318 nm is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The conductivity type of the films was found to be p-type by Hall effect measurement system.

  6. Flexible and High-Performance Amorphous Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Using Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiazhen; Lee, Hwan-Jae; Oh, Saeroonter; Park, Jin-Seong

    2016-12-14

    Amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited at different temperatures, by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using [1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)silanaminato]indium (INCA-1) as the indium precursor, diethlzinc (DEZ) as the zinc precursor, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the reactant. The ALD process of IZO deposition was carried by repeated supercycles, including one cycle of indium oxide (In2O3) and one cycle of zinc oxide (ZnO). The IZO growth rate deviates from the sum of the respective In2O3 and ZnO growth rates at ALD growth temperatures of 150, 175, and 200 °C. We propose growth temperature-dependent surface reactions during the In2O3 cycle that correspond with the growth-rate results. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated with the ALD-grown IZO thin films as the active layer. The amorphous IZO TFTs exhibited high mobility of 42.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and good positive bias temperature stress stability. Finally, flexible IZO TFT was successfully fabricated on a polyimide substrate without performance degradation, showing the great potential of ALD-grown TFTs for flexible display applications.

  7. Study on the effects of different sulfur vaporization temperature on the properties of CuInS{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Wook; Han, Jun Hee; Lee, Jeong Yong [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeon Chan; Agawane, G.L. [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416-004 (India); Gang, Myeong-Gil [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chae Hwan [Solar city center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Oryong-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwang-Ju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyeok, E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jae Ho, E-mail: yunjh92@kier.re.kr [Photovoltaic Research Group, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) absorber thin films were prepared by sulfurization of In/Cu metallic stacked precursor. The precursor thin films were sulfurized using a commercial furnace system in the S{sub 2} (s) + Ar atmosphere at 425 °C for 1 h. Effects of different S vapor temperature from 150 to 400 °C on the structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of CIS thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction and Raman studies showed that the sulfurized thin films with S vaporization temperature below 300 °C exhibited CIS tetragonal structure with secondary phases such as Cu{sub x}S{sub y}, CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8}, and In{sub x}S{sub y}. The sulfurized thin films with S vaporization temperature over 350 °C showed a single CIS tetragonal structure. Compositional ratio of CIS thin films showed that Cu/In and S/(Cu + In) ratio in the CIS thin films with S vaporization temperature over 350 °C were 1.0–1.2 and 0.9–1.1, respectively, while compositional ratio deviated from stoichiometry when the sulfurized thin films below S vaporization temperature of 350 °C. Optical study showed that the band gap energy and the absorption coefficient of CIS thin films were estimated from 1.18 eV to 1.5 eV and over 10{sup 4} cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  8. Influence of plasma parameters and substrate temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdTe thin films deposited on glass by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiñones-Galván, J. G.; Santana-Aranda, M. A.; Pérez-Centeno, A. [Departamento de Física, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guadalajara, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, Guadalajara, Jalisco C.P. 44430 (Mexico); Camps, Enrique [Departamento de Física, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Campos-González, E.; Guillén-Cervantes, A.; Santoyo-Salazar, J.; Zelaya-Angel, O. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, D. F. C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Hernández-Hernández, A. [Escuela Superior de Apan, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Calle Ejido de Chimalpa Tlalayote s/n Colonia Chimalpa, Apan Hidalgo (Mexico); Moure-Flores, F. de [Facultad de Química, Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro C.P. 76010 (Mexico)

    2015-09-28

    In the pulsed laser deposition of thin films, plasma parameters such as energy and density of ions play an important role in the properties of materials. In the present work, cadmium telluride thin films were obtained by laser ablation of a stoichiometric CdTe target in vacuum, using two different values for: substrate temperature (RT and 200 °C) and plasma energy (120 and 200 eV). Structural characterization revealed that the crystalline phase can be changed by controlling both plasma energy and substrate temperature; which affects the corresponding band gap energy. All the thin films showed smooth surfaces and a Te rich composition.

  9. EXAFS study of non-spherical nanoparticles in oxidized iron thin films grown by sputtering at very low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Villacorta, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: felixjv@icmm.csic.es; Munoz-Martin, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    A detailed study of EXAFS data has been used to evaluate the microstructural properties of grains forming the sample. A new model is proposed to determine the average dimensions of nanometric thin film iron grains, considering them as elongated particles, and taking into account polarization of the incident X-ray. Results show a clear decrease of grain size as the preparation temperature diminishes, and they are in very good agreement with previous measurements determined by X-ray diffraction techniques.

  10. The effect of annealing temperature on the optical properties of a ruthenium complex thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocakoglu, Kasim, E-mail: kasim.ocakoglu@mersin.edu.tr [Advanced Technology Research & Application Center, Mersin University, TR-33343, Yenisehir, Mersin (Turkey); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mersin University, TR-33480 Mersin (Turkey); Okur, Salih, E-mail: salih.okur@ikc.edu.tr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Izmir (Turkey); Aydin, Hasan [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Gulbahce Campus, 35430, Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Emen, Fatih Mehmet [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, TR-15030 Burdur (Turkey)

    2016-08-01

    The stability of the optical parameters of a ruthenium polypyridyl complex (Ru-PC K314) film under varying annealing temperatures between 278 K and 673 K was investigated. The ruthenium polypyridyl complex thin film was prepared on a quartz substrate by drop casting technique. The transmission of the film was recorded by using Ultraviolet/Visible/Near Infrared spectrophotometer and the optical band gap energy of the as-deposited film was determined around 2.20 eV. The optical parameters such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, and dielectric constant of the film were determined and the annealing effect on these parameters was investigated. The results show that Ru PC K314 film is quite stable up to 595 K, and the rate of the optical band gap energy change was found to be 5.23 × 10{sup −5} eV/K. Furthermore, the thermal analysis studies were carried out in the range 298–673 K. The Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermal Gravimmetry/Differantial Thermal Gravimmetry curves show that the decomposition is incomplete in the temperature range 298–673 K. Ru-PC K314 is thermally stable up to 387 K. The decomposition starts at 387 K with elimination of functional groups such as CO{sub 2}, CO molecules and SO{sub 3}H group was eliminated between 614 K and 666 K. - Highlights: • Optical parameters of a ruthenium polypyridyl complex film under varying annealing temperatures • The film is quite stable up to 573 K. • The rate of change of optical energy gap was obtained as 5.23 × 10{sup −5} eV/K.

  11. Temperature-dependent Gilbert damping of Co2FeAl thin films with different degree of atomic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankit; Pan, Fan; Husain, Sajid; Akansel, Serkan; Brucas, Rimantas; Bergqvist, Lars; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Svedlindh, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Half-metallicity and low magnetic damping are perpetually sought for spintronics materials, and full Heusler compounds in this respect provide outstanding properties. However, it is challenging to obtain the well-ordered half-metallic phase in as-deposited full Heusler compound thin films, and theory has struggled to establish a fundamental understanding of the temperature-dependent Gilbert damping in these systems. Here we present a study of the temperature-dependent Gilbert damping of differently ordered as-deposited Co2FeAl full Heusler compound thin films. The sum of inter- and intraband electron scattering in conjunction with the finite electron lifetime in Bloch states governs the Gilbert damping for the well-ordered phase, in contrast to the damping of partially ordered and disordered phases which is governed by interband electronic scattering alone. These results, especially the ultralow room-temperature intrinsic damping observed for the well-ordered phase, provide fundamental insights into the physical origin of the Gilbert damping in full Heusler compound thin films.

  12. Defects Induced Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline ZnO thin films are prepared by the co-sputtering method under different oxygen partial pressures. Films deposited in pure argon gas exhibit ferromagnetism, whereas other films deposited under different oxygen partial pressures are diamagnetism. XPS results show the presence of Zn interstitial and oxygen vacancy in all of samples. Further analysis indicates that Zn interstitial may play an important role in triggering magnetic order on the undoped ZnO thin films by inducing an alteration of electronic configuration.

  13. Low-Temperature, Solution-Processed, Transparent Zinc Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors for Sensing Various Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hsin-Chiang; Wang, Cheng-Jyun

    2017-02-26

    A low temperature solution-processed thin-film transistor (TFT) using zinc oxide (ZnO) film as an exposed sensing semiconductor channel was fabricated to detect and identify various solution solvents. The TFT devices would offer applications for low-cost, rapid and highly compatible water-soluble detection and could replace conventional silicon field effect transistors (FETs) as bio-sensors. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of the TFT ZnO channel to sense various liquids, such as polar solvents (ethanol), non-polar solvents (toluene) and deionized (DI) water, which were dropped and adsorbed onto the channel. It is discussed how different dielectric constants of polar/non-polar solvents and DI water were associated with various charge transport properties, demonstrating the main detection mechanisms of the thin-film transistor.

  14. Low-Temperature, Solution-Processed, Transparent Zinc Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors for Sensing Various Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chiang You

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A low temperature solution-processed thin-film transistor (TFT using zinc oxide (ZnO film as an exposed sensing semiconductor channel was fabricated to detect and identify various solution solvents. The TFT devices would offer applications for low-cost, rapid and highly compatible water-soluble detection and could replace conventional silicon field effect transistors (FETs as bio-sensors. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of the TFT ZnO channel to sense various liquids, such as polar solvents (ethanol, non-polar solvents (toluene and deionized (DI water, which were dropped and adsorbed onto the channel. It is discussed how different dielectric constants of polar/non-polar solvents and DI water were associated with various charge transport properties, demonstrating the main detection mechanisms of the thin-film transistor.

  15. Temperature dependent optical characterization of Ni-TiO2 thin films as potential photocatalytic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnarayan De

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with other transition metal doped titanium dioxide materials, Ni-TiO2 is considered to be one of the most efficient materials for catalytic applications due to its suitable energy band positions in the electronic structure. The present manuscript explores the possibility of improving the photocatalytic activity of RF magnetron sputtered Ni-TiO2 films upon heat treatment. Optical, structural and morphological and photocatalytic properties of the films have been investigated in detail for as deposited and heat treated samples. Evolution of refractive index (RI and total film thickness as estimated from spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization are found to be in agreement with the trend in density and total film thickness estimated from grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurement. Interestingly, the evolution of these macroscopic properties were found to be correlated with the corresponding microstructural modifications realized in terms of anatase to rutile phase transformation and appearance of a secondary phase namely NiTiO3 at high temperature. Corresponding morphological properties of the films were also found to be temperature dependent which leads to modifications in the grain structure. An appreciable reduction of optical band gap from 2.9 to 2.5 eV of Ni-TiO2 thin films was also observed as a result of post deposition heat treatment. Testing of photocatalytic activity of the films performed under UV illumination demonstrates heat treatment under atmospheric ambience to be an effective means to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of transition metal doped titania samples.

  16. The immunogenicity of thin-film freeze-dried, aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccine when exposed to different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Sachin G; Ruwona, Tinashe B; Williams, Robert O; Cui, Zhengrong

    2017-04-03

    Insoluble aluminum salts such as aluminum oxyhydroxide have been used for decades as adjuvants in human vaccines, and many vaccines contain aluminum salts as adjuvants. Aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines must be managed in cold-chain (2-8° C) during transport and storage, as vaccine antigens in general are too fragile to be stable in ambient temperatures, and unintentional slowing freezing causes irreversible aggregation and permanent damage to the vaccines. Previously, we reported that thin-film freeze-drying can be used to convert vaccines adjuvanted with an aluminum salt from liquid suspension into dry powder without causing particle aggregation or decreasing in immunogenicity following reconstitution. In the present study, using ovalbumin (OVA)-adsorbed Alhydrogel® (i.e. aluminum oxyhydroxide, 2% w/v) as a model vaccine, we showed that the immunogenicity of thin-film freeze-dried OVA-adsorbed Alhydrogel® vaccine powder was not significantly changed after it was exposed for an extended period of time in temperatures as high as 40° C or subjected to repeated slow freezing-and-thawing. It is expected that immunization programs can potentially benefit by integrating thin-film freeze-drying into vaccine preparations.

  17. Epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  18. Carrier dynamics and gain spectra at room-temperature in epitaxial ZNO thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Wong, K. S.

    1999-01-01

    Carrier dynamics of epitaxial ZnO thin film was investigated using a frequency up-conversion tehcnique. At lower carrier densities, the decay time of free exciton recombination was measured to be 24 ps. Rapid decay times of a few picoseconds were observed at higher carrier densities, which show a...

  19. Room temperature ammonia vapor sensing properties of transparent single walled carbon nanotube thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobin, L. R.; Manivannan, S.

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) networks are identified as potential substitute and surpass the conventional indium doped tin oxide (ITO) in transparent conducting electrodes, thin-film transistors, solar cells, and chemical sensors. Among them, CNT based gas sensors gained more interest because of its need in environmental monitoring, industrial control, and detection of gases in warfare or for averting security threats. The unique properties of CNT networks such as high surface area, low density, high thermal conductivity and chemical sensitivity making them as a potential candidate for gas sensing applications. Commercial unsorted single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were purified by thermal oxidation and acid treatment processes and dispersed in organic solvent N-methyl pyrolidone using sonication process in the absence of polymer or surfactant. Optically transparent SWCNT networks are realized on glass substrate by coating the dispersed SWCNT with the help of dynamic spray coating process at 200ºC. The SWCNT random network was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Gas sensing property of transparent film towards ammonia vapor is studied at room temperature by measuring the resistance change with respect to the concentration in the range 0-1000 ppm. The sensor response is increased logarithmically in the concentration range 0 to 1000 ppm with the detection limit 0.007 ppm. The random networks are able to detect ammonia vapor selectively because of the high electron donating nature of ammonia molecule to the SWCNT. The sensor is reversible and selective to ammonia vapor with response time 70 seconds and recovery time 423 seconds for 62.5 ppm with 90% optical transparency at 550 nm.

  20. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  1. The effect of NaCl on room-temperature-processed indium oxide nanoparticle thin films for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Häming, M., E-mail: Marc.Haeming@yahoo.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Baby, T.T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Garlapati, S.K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Krause, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hahn, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Helmholtz Institute Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Dasgupta, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4003 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The effect of NaCl ink additive on indium oxide nanoparticle thin films is analyzed. • NaCl changes the thin film morphology and its chemical structure. • NaCl decomposes the nanoparticle shell leading to lower charge transport barriers. • Explanation of the increase in field effect mobility from 1 to >12 cm{sup 2}/Vs. • Understanding of the ink drying process and the nanoparticle agglomeration behavior. - Abstract: One of the major challenges in flexible electronics industry is the fabrication of high-mobility field-effect transistors (FETs) at ambient conditions and on inexpensive polymer substrates compatible with roll-to-roll printing technology. In this context, a novel and general route towards room-temperature fabrication of printed FETs with remarkably high field-effect mobility (μ{sub FET}) above 12 cm{sup 2}/Vs has recently been developed. A detailed understanding of the chemical structure of the involved nanoparticle (NP) thin films, prepared by chemical flocculation, is essential for further optimization of the charge transport properties of such devices. In this study, we thus analyze indium oxide NP thin films with and without NaCl additive using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is demonstrated that the introduction of a sodium chloride additive to the ink leads to a strongly altered film morphology and a modification of the NP shell. The results suggest that, as a consequence of the additive, the charge-transport barriers between individual indium oxide NPs are lowered, facilitating long-range charge percolation paths despite the presence of a significant concentration of carbonaceous residues.

  2. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and electrical properties of metallophthalocyanine thin films deposited on silicon substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skonieczny R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc thin films (300 nm thick deposited on n-type silicon substrate have been studied using micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force spectroscopy (AFM and I-V measurement. The CoPc thin layers have been deposited at room temperature by the quasi-molecular beam evaporation technique. The micro-Raman spectra of CoPc thin films have been recorded in the spectral range of 1000 cm-1 to 1900 cm-1 using 488 nm excitation wavelength. Moreover, using surface Raman mapping it was possible to obtain information about polymorphic forms distribution (before and after annealing of metallophthalocyanine (α and β form from polarized Raman spectra. The I-V characteristics of the Au/CoPc/n-Si/Al Schottky barrier were also investigated. The obtained results showed that influence of the annealing process plays a crucial role in the ordering and electrical conductivity of the molecular structure of CoPc thin films deposited on n-type silicon substrate.

  3. Room temperature deposition of zinc oxide thin films by rf-magnetron sputtering for application in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, K. C.; Trujillo, R. R.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.

    2016-09-01

    Recent reports indicate that thin films of oxides of zinc: ZnO, Zn(O,S), or Zn-Mg-O, could be a better buffer component than CdS to provide an adequate band alignment with orthorhombic tin sulphide in thin lm solar cells. Thin films of ZnO were grown by rf-magnetron sputtering on different substrates at room temperature. Thin films of ZnO obtained by different deposition methods show hexagonal crystal structure, usually with a preferential orientation of (002) crystallographic planes parallel to the substrate surface. However, in the present study XRD patterns indicate that thicker ZnO films on glass substrates have preferential growth of (103) planes, while that on chemically deposited CdS or ZnS films preferential orientation of (002) planes persists. Bandgap of ZnO films increases from 3.2 eV to 3.4 eV when the chamber pressure used for deposition varies from 2.3 mTorr to 6 mTorr. ZnO films were incorporated in a solar cell structure stainless steel/SnS(cubic)/SnS(orthorhombic)/SnS(cubic)/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al. It showed open-circuit voltage of 0.318 V, short-circuit current density of 3.6 mA/cm2 and conversion efficiency of 0.82%.

  4. Ferromagnetism at Room Temperature Induced by Spin Structure Change in BiFe1-x Cox O3 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryo; Shimizu, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Hajime; Mibu, Ko; Samanta, Kartik; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Azuma, Masaki

    2017-03-01

    The coexistence and coupling of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric orders in a single material is crucial for realizing next-generation multifunctional applications. The coexistence of such orders is confirmed at room temperature in epitaxial thin films of BiFe1-x Cox O3 (x ≤ 0.15), which manifests a spin structure change from a low-temperature cycloidal one to a high-temperature collinear one with canted ferromagnetism. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effect of substrate temperature on transparent conducting Al and F co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing, E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Chang, Chiao-Lu

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Al and F co-doped ZnO (AFZO) thin films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering. • Effects of substrate temperature on properties of AFZO films were investigated. • The AFZO films show a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure and are (0 0 2) oriented. • The AFZO thin film prepared at 200 °C exhibits a low resistivity of 2.88 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm. • The average visible transmittances of all the AFZO thin films exceed 92%. - Abstract: ZnO is a wide bandgap semiconductor that has many potential applications such as solar cells, thin film transistors, light emitting diodes, and gas/biological sensors. In this study, a composite ceramic ZnO target containing 1 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 1.5 wt% ZnF{sub 2} was prepared and used to deposit transparent conducting Al and F co-doped zinc oxide (AFZO) thin films on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 200 °C on structural, morphological, electrical, chemical, and optical properties of the deposited thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Hall effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and UV–vis spectrophotometer. The XRD results showed that all the AFZO thin films had a (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating a typical wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The FE-SEM and AFM analyses indicated that the crystallinity and grain size of the films were enhanced while the surface roughness decreased as the substrate temperature increased. Results of Hall effect measurement showed that Al and F co-doping decreased the resistivity more effectively than single-doping (either Al or F doping) in ZnO thin films. The resistivity of the AFZO thin films decreased from 5.48 × 10{sup −4} to 2.88 × 10{sup −4}

  6. Superconducting properties of EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films on thick Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka-shi, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)], E-mail: t5306002@iwate-u.ac.jp; Ota, Y.; Michikami, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka-shi, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    There has been a tendency for micro-cracks to be generated in superconducting films deposited on R-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates with buffer layers. Thickening the buffer layer is one method for suppressing the generation of micro-cracks. When Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers were thickened, surface roughness (R{sub z}) of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (EBCO) films increased and the critical current density (J{sub c}) deteriorated with increase in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer thickness (t{sub Sm}). Then, the improvement of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers on surface morphology and increment of J{sub c} of EBCO thin films deposited on the thick Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers were carried out. The surface roughness (R{sub z}) of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers became small by optimizing sputtering conditions. R{sub z} of EBCO thin films decreased depending on that of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers. The critical temperature (T{sub ce}) was 90 K and J{sub c} showed a high value of 1.6 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77.3 K when t{sub Sm} was 2000 A.

  7. Effect of Sputter Gas Pressure and RF Power on Surface Morphology of CeO2 Buffer Layers and Superconducting Properties of EuBa2Cu3O7-δ Thin Films by Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Keita; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Unuma, Yuya; Kimura, Yutaka; Michikami, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    The deposition rate (Rd) of a CeO2 buffer layer fabricated at substrate temperature of 650 °C by RF magnetron sputtering was controlled by adjusting sputtering gas pressure and RF power, and the effect of Rd on the surface morphologies of the CeO2 buffer layer was examined. In addition, the superconducting properties of EuBa2Cu3O7-δ (EBCO) thin films deposited on buffer layers with different surface morphologies were examined. With a sputtering gas pressure of 3 Pa, Rd changed from 1 to 8 nm/min when the RF power was changed from 100 to 475 W. However, a CeO2 buffer layer of 300 nm thickness composed of very minute a-axis-oriented grains grew at any RF power. At 7 Pa, even though Rd was equivalent to that at 3 Pa, grains with facets grew regardless of the RF power. A c-axis-oriented EBCO thin film grew on the CeO2 buffer layer on which minute grains grew, and the (110) or (103) axis growth of EBCO was observed on the buffer layer on which grains with facets grew.

  8. Electronic Structure of Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Amorphous Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Thin-Film Transistor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socratous, Josephine; Banger, Kulbinder K; Vaynzof, Yana; Sadhanala, Aditya; Brown, Adam D; Sepe, Alessandro; Steiner, Ullrich; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2015-03-25

    The electronic structure of low temperature, solution-processed indium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors is complex and remains insufficiently understood. As commonly observed, high device performance with mobility >1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) is achievable after annealing in air above typically 250 °C but performance decreases rapidly when annealing temperatures ≤200 °C are used. Here, the electronic structure of low temperature, solution-processed oxide thin films as a function of annealing temperature and environment using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and photothermal deflection spectroscopy is investigated. The drop-off in performance at temperatures ≤200 °C to incomplete conversion of metal hydroxide species into the fully coordinated oxide is attributed. The effect of an additional vacuum annealing step, which is beneficial if performed for short times at low temperatures, but leads to catastrophic device failure if performed at too high temperatures or for too long is also investigated. Evidence is found that during vacuum annealing, the workfunction increases and a large concentration of sub-bandgap defect states (re)appears. These results demonstrate that good devices can only be achieved in low temperature, solution-processed oxides if a significant concentration of acceptor states below the conduction band minimum is compensated or passivated by shallow hydrogen and oxygen vacancy-induced donor levels.

  9. Effects of excimer laser annealing on low-temperature solution based indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Chen,Chao-Nan; Huang, Jung-Jie

    2015-01-01

    A Solution Based Indium-Zinc-Oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) with a field-effect mobility of 0.58 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.84 V by using pulse laser annealing processes. Indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films with a low process temperature were deposited by sol-gel solution based method and KrF excimer laser annealing (wavelength of 248 nm). Solution based indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films usually needs high temperature about 500 °C post annealing in a oven. KrF excimer laser annealing shows adva...

  10. An apparatus for spatially resolved, temperature dependent reflectance measurements for identifying thermochromism in combinatorial thin film libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, S. C.; Patel, M. P.; Nguyen, Nam; Nguyen, N. V.; Green, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    A metrology and data analysis protocol is described for high throughput determination of thermochromic metal-insulator phase diagrams for lightly substituted VO2 thin films. The technique exploits the abrupt change in near infrared optical properties, measured in reflection, as an indicator of the temperature- or impurity-driven metal-insulator transition. Transition metal impurities were introduced in a complementary combinatorial synthesis process for producing thin film libraries with the general composition space V 1-x-yMxM'yO2, with M and M' being transition metals and x and y varying continuously across the library. The measurement apparatus acquires reflectance spectra in the visible or near infrared at arbitrarily many library locations, each with a unique film composition, at temperatures of 1 °C-85 °C. Data collection is rapid and automated; the measurement protocol is computer controlled to automate the collection of thousands of reflectance spectra, representing hundreds of film compositions at tens of different temperatures. A straightforward analysis algorithm is implemented to extract key information from the thousands of spectra such as near infrared thermochromic transition temperatures and regions of no thermochromic transition; similarly, reflectance to the visible spectrum generates key information for materials selection of smart window materials. The thermochromic transition for 160 unique compositions on a thin film library with the general formula V 1-x-yMxM'yO2 can be measured and described in a single 20 h experiment. The resulting impurity composition-temperature phase diagrams will contribute to the understanding of metal-insulator transitions in doped VO2 systems and to the development of thermochromic smart windows.

  11. Influence of substrate temperature and post annealing of CuGaO{sub 2} thin films on optical and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, Muhammad Hafiz Abu; Li, Lam Mui; Salleh, Saafie; Alias, Afishah [Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Sulaiman, Salina [Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    A transparent p-type thin film CuGaO{sub 2} was deposited by using RF sputtering deposition method on plastic (PET) and glass substrate. The characteristics of the film is investigated. The thin film was deposited at temperature range from 50-250°C and the pressure inside the chamber is 1.0×10{sup −2} Torr and Argon gas was used as a working gas. The RF power is set to 100 W. The thickness of thin film is 300nm. In this experiment the transparency of the thin film is more than 70% for the visible light region. The band gap obtain is between 3.3 to 3.5 eV. The details of the results will be discussed in the conference.

  12. Low Temperature Annealed Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Thin Film-Based Transducers: Characterization for Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarindraprasad, R.; Hashim, U.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Kashif, Mohd; Veeradasan, P.; Balakrishnan, S. R.; Foo, K. L.; Poopalan, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of sensing surfaces highly relies on nanostructures to enhance their sensitivity and specificity. Herein, nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of various thicknesses were coated on glass and p-type silicon substrates using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The deposited films were characterized for morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties by high-resolution measurements. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the deposited films have a c-axis orientation and display peaks that refer to ZnO, which exhibits a hexagonal structure with a preferable plane orientation (002). The thicknesses of ZnO thin films prepared using 1, 3, 5, and 7 cycles were measured to be 40, 60, 100, and 200 nm, respectively. The increment in grain size of the thin film from 21 to 52 nm was noticed, when its thickness was increased from 40 to 200 nm, whereas the band gap value decreased from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. Band gap value of ZnO thin film with thickness of 200 nm at pH ranging from 2 to 10 reduces from 3.263eV to 3.200 eV. Furthermore, to evaluate the transducing capacity of the ZnO nanostructure, the refractive index, optoelectric constant, and bulk modulus were analyzed and correlated. The highest thickness (200 nm) of ZnO film, embedded with an interdigitated electrode that behaves as a pH-sensing electrode, could sense pH variations in the range of 2-10. It showed a highly sensitive response of 444 μAmM-1cm-2 with a linear regression of R2 =0.9304. The measured sensitivity of the developed device for pH per unit is 3.72μA/pH. PMID:26167853

  13. Low Temperature Annealed Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Thin Film-Based Transducers: Characterization for Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarindraprasad, R; Hashim, U; Gopinath, Subash C B; Kashif, Mohd; Veeradasan, P; Balakrishnan, S R; Foo, K L; Poopalan, P

    2015-01-01

    The performance of sensing surfaces highly relies on nanostructures to enhance their sensitivity and specificity. Herein, nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of various thicknesses were coated on glass and p-type silicon substrates using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The deposited films were characterized for morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties by high-resolution measurements. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the deposited films have a c-axis orientation and display peaks that refer to ZnO, which exhibits a hexagonal structure with a preferable plane orientation (002). The thicknesses of ZnO thin films prepared using 1, 3, 5, and 7 cycles were measured to be 40, 60, 100, and 200 nm, respectively. The increment in grain size of the thin film from 21 to 52 nm was noticed, when its thickness was increased from 40 to 200 nm, whereas the band gap value decreased from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. Band gap value of ZnO thin film with thickness of 200 nm at pH ranging from 2 to 10 reduces from 3.263eV to 3.200 eV. Furthermore, to evaluate the transducing capacity of the ZnO nanostructure, the refractive index, optoelectric constant, and bulk modulus were analyzed and correlated. The highest thickness (200 nm) of ZnO film, embedded with an interdigitated electrode that behaves as a pH-sensing electrode, could sense pH variations in the range of 2-10. It showed a highly sensitive response of 444 μAmM-1cm-2 with a linear regression of R2 =0.9304. The measured sensitivity of the developed device for pH per unit is 3.72μA/pH.

  14. Low Temperature Annealed Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Thin Film-Based Transducers: Characterization for Sensing Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Haarindraprasad

    Full Text Available The performance of sensing surfaces highly relies on nanostructures to enhance their sensitivity and specificity. Herein, nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO thin films of various thicknesses were coated on glass and p-type silicon substrates using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The deposited films were characterized for morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties by high-resolution measurements. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the deposited films have a c-axis orientation and display peaks that refer to ZnO, which exhibits a hexagonal structure with a preferable plane orientation (002. The thicknesses of ZnO thin films prepared using 1, 3, 5, and 7 cycles were measured to be 40, 60, 100, and 200 nm, respectively. The increment in grain size of the thin film from 21 to 52 nm was noticed, when its thickness was increased from 40 to 200 nm, whereas the band gap value decreased from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. Band gap value of ZnO thin film with thickness of 200 nm at pH ranging from 2 to 10 reduces from 3.263eV to 3.200 eV. Furthermore, to evaluate the transducing capacity of the ZnO nanostructure, the refractive index, optoelectric constant, and bulk modulus were analyzed and correlated. The highest thickness (200 nm of ZnO film, embedded with an interdigitated electrode that behaves as a pH-sensing electrode, could sense pH variations in the range of 2-10. It showed a highly sensitive response of 444 μAmM-1cm-2 with a linear regression of R2 =0.9304. The measured sensitivity of the developed device for pH per unit is 3.72μA/pH.

  15. Influence of sputtering conditions on the optical and electrical properties of laser-annealed and wet-etched room temperature sputtered ZnO:Al thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukhicha, Rym, E-mail: rym.boukhicha@polytechnique.edu [CNRS, LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Charpentier, Coralie [CNRS, LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Total S and M — New Energies Division, R and D Division, Department of Solar Energies EN/BO/RD/SOL, Tour Michelet, 24 cours Michelet, La Défense 10, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France); Prod' Homme, Patricia [Total S and M — New Energies Division, R and D Division, Department of Solar Energies EN/BO/RD/SOL, Tour Michelet, 24 cours Michelet, La Défense 10, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France); Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere [CNRS, LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lerat, Jean-François; Emeraud, Thierry [Photovoltaic Business Unit, Excico Group NV, Kempische Steenweg 305/2, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium); Johnson, Erik [CNRS, LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-03-31

    We explore the influence of the sputtering deposition conditions on the outcome of an excimer laser anneal and chemical etching process with the goal of producing highly textured substrates for thin film silicon solar cells. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from a ceramic target at room temperature. The effects of the process pressure (0.11–1.2 Pa) and oxygen flow (0–2 sccm) on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO:Al thin films have been studied both before and after an excimer laser annealing treatment followed by a dilute HCl chemical etch. The as-deposited films varied from completely opaque to yellowish. Thin film laser annealing dramatically improves the optical properties of the most opaque thin films. After laser annealing at the optimum fluence, the average transmittance in the visible wavelength range was around 80% for most films, and reasonable electrical performance was obtained for the films deposited at lower pressures and without oxygen flux (7 Ω/□ for films of 1 μm). After etching, all films displayed a dramatic improvement in haze, but only the low pressure, low oxygen films retained acceptable electrical properties (< 11 Ω/□). - Highlights: • Al:ZnO thin films were deposited at room temperature. • The ZnO:Al films were excimer laser annealed and then wet-etched. • The optical and electrical properties were studied in details.

  16. Effects of Nitrogen Gas Flow and Film Thickness on Electric Properties of TiN Thin Film Deposited at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingbo; Murakami, Ri Ichi; Kondo, Masaharu

    In this study, TiN thin film was deposited onto a glass substrate by the inclined opposite target type DC magnetron sputtering method with the good electric characteristics. The coating of TiN thin film was carried out onto substrate at the temperature of 303 K. The effects of nitrogen gas flow and film thickness on transparency, electric resistivity and electromagnetic wave shielding effectiveness of TiN thin films were discussed. The experimental results obtained were summarized as follows: (1) The TiN thin film deposited at the room temperature showed very low electric resistivity of 8.8×10-5Ω.cm. The TiN film showed the crystal structure when the depositing time was over 20 min. (2) When the film thickness of TiN was very thin, the TiN thin film was transparent for the visible light. The electric resistivity decreased with increasing the deposition time. (3) The electric resistivity and the transparency of TiN thin film depended greatly on the nitrogen gas flow.

  17. Modification of structure and property in Zr-based thin film metallic glass via processing temperature control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Jia-Hong; Chen, Hsien-Wei; Chan, Yu-Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Duh, Jenq-Gong, E-mail: jgd@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-30

    The aims of this study are to fabricate the Zr–Cu–Ni–Al thin film metallic glass (TFMG) on silicon substrates by DC magnetron sputtering with single target and to investigate the characteristics of coatings with various substrate temperatures. All the coatings exhibit similar structural and thermal properties, yet the hardness increases with processing temperature. It is demonstrated that amorphous matrix and cluster structure are slightly affected by the processing temperatures due to high cooling rate during deposition and superior glass-forming ability. Besides, atoms and clusters can acquire extra energy via heating substrate to stabilize each cluster, and the amount of free volume is reduced. Thus, the hardness increases with substrate temperature owing to the resistance to the shear band propagation. In summary, this study integrates the correlations among microstructure, thermal and mechanical properties, providing a convenient approach to tune TFMG coating performance. - Highlights: • Zr-based thin film metallic glass (TFMG) exhibits a wide supercooled liquid region. • The effect of substrate temperature on the microstructure is considered. • The short range order cluster can be controlled through processing temperature. • The hardness of sputtered Zr-based TFMG (7.1 GPa) shows good mechanical property.

  18. Plasmonic nanocomposite thin film enabled fiber optic sensors for simultaneous gas and temperature sensing at extreme temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Paul R; Buric, Michael P; Brown, Thomas D; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Baltrus, John; Andio, Mark

    2013-10-07

    Embedded sensors capable of operation in extreme environments including high temperatures, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under extreme temperature conditions by integration of Au-nanoparticle based plasmonic nanocomposite thin films with optical fibers in an evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy configuration. Such sensors can potentially enable simultaneous temperature and gas sensing at temperatures approaching 900-1000 °C in a manner compatible with embedded and distributed sensing approaches. The approach is demonstrated using the Au/SiO2 system deposited on silica-based optical fibers. Stability of optical fibers under relevant high temperature conditions and interactions with changing ambient gas atmospheres is an area requiring additional investigation and development but the simplicity of the sensor design makes it potentially cost-effective and may offer a potential for widespread deployment.

  19. High-Jc YBa2Cu3O7-x-Ag superconducting thin films synthesized through a fluorine-free MOD method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Xiao; Yue, Zhao; Wu, W.

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining a high critical current density (Jc) remains the main challenge in developing fluorine-free metal organic deposition (MOD) methods to fabricate YBCO superconducting thin films. Silver addition was used to raise the Jc values in this research work. By reacting with propionic acid and amm...

  20. Influence of initial pH on the microstructure of YBa2Cu3O7−x superconducting thin films derived from DEA-aqueous sol–gel method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Tang; Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    A fluorine-free aqueous sol–gel technique was used to fabricate YBCO superconducting thin films. Acetic acid was added in order to modify the complexation process taking place between the metal cations and the organic chelating agents. The electrical resistance and the pH value were used...

  1. Hafnium carbamates and ureates: new class of precursors for low-temperature growth of HfO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Milanov, Andrian P; Barreca, Davide; Gasparotto, Alberto; Becker, Hans-Werner; Winter, Manuela; Fischer, Roland A; Devi, Anjana

    2009-04-21

    Novel volatile compounds of hafnium, namely tetrakis-N,O-dialkylcarbamato hafnium(iv) [Hf((i)PrNC(O)O(i)Pr)(4)] () and tetrakis-N,N,N'-trialkylureato hafnium(iv) [Hf((i)PrNC(O)N-(Me)Et)(4)] (), have been synthesized through the simple insertion reaction of isopropyl isocyanate into hafnium isopropoxide and hafnium ethylmethylamide, respectively; based on the promising thermal properties, compound has been evaluated as a precursor for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of HfO(2) thin films, which resulted in the growth of stoichiometric and crystalline layers with a uniform morphology at temperature as low as 250 degrees C.

  2. An Alternating 5,5-Dimethylcyclopentadiene-based Copolymer prepared at Room Temperature for High Performance Organic Thin Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Zhuping

    2017-06-05

    We report that the inclusion of non-aromatic 5,5-dimethylcyclopentadiene monomer into a conjugated backbone is an attractive strategy to high performance semiconducting polymers. The use of this monomer enables a room temperature Suzuki copolymerization with a diketopyrrolopyrrole comono-mer to afford a highly soluble, high molecular weight material. The resulting low band gap polymer exhibits excellent photo and thermal stability, and despite a large π-π stacking distance of 4.26 Å, it demonstrates excellent performance in thin-film transistor devices.

  3. Relationship between superconducting properties of EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films and surface morphology of CeO{sub 2} buffer layers on R-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)]. E-mail: t5304002@iwate-u.ac.jp; Sakuma, J. [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Kimura, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Michikami, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)

    2006-10-01

    We examined the effects of off-center distance (D {sub off}) between the substrate and CeO{sub 2} target on surface morphology and crystallinity of 300-nm-thick CeO{sub 2} buffer layers and on superconducting properties of EBCO thin films. The surface roughness (R {sub z}) of the CeO{sub 2} buffer layer rapidly increased with an increase in D {sub off}. The orientation of an EBCO thin film was dependent on D {sub off} of the buffer layer. At D {sub off} = 0-30 mm, only (0 0 l) peaks of an EBCO thin film were observed by X-ray diffraction patterns. At D {sub off} values over 40 mm (1 1 0) or (1 0 3) peaks in addition to (0 0 l) peaks were observed. At D {sub off} = 30 mm, EBCO thin films exhibited critical temperatures (T {sub ce}) of approximately 89 K and critical current densities (J {sub c}) of 3.5 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77.3 K.

  4. Vanadium dioxide thin films prepared on silicon by low temperature MBE growth and ex-situ annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homm, Pia; van Bilzen, Bart; Menghini, Mariela; Locquet, Jean-Pierre; Ivanova, Todora; Sanchez, Luis; Sanchis, Pablo

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a material that shows an insulator to metal transition (IMT) near room temperature. This property can be exploited for applications in field effect devices, electro-optical switches and nonlinear circuit components. We have prepared VO2 thin films on silicon wafers by combining a low temperature MBE growth with an ex-situ annealing at high temperature. We investigated the structural, electrical and optical characteristics of films with thicknesses ranging from 10 to 100 nm. We have also studied the influence of the substrate cleaning. The films grown with our method are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation in the (011) direction of the monoclinic phase. For the films produced on silicon with a native oxide, an IMT at around 75 °C is observed. The magnitude of the resistance change across the IMT decreases with thickness while the refractive index at room temperature corresponds with values reported in the literature for thin films. The successful growth of VO2 films on silicon with good electrical and optical properties is an important step towards the integration of VO2 in novel devices. The authors acknowledge financial support from the FWO project G052010N10 and EU-FP7 SITOGA project. PH acknowledges support from Becas Chile - CONICYT.

  5. Effects of excimer laser annealing on low-temperature solution based indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Nan Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Solution Based Indium-Zinc-Oxide thin-film transistor (TFT with a field-effect mobility of 0.58 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.84 V by using pulse laser annealing processes. Indium-zinc-oxide (IZO films with a low process temperature were deposited by sol-gel solution based method and KrF excimer laser annealing (wavelength of 248 nm. Solution based indium-zinc-oxide (IZO films usually needs high temperature about 500 °C post annealing in a oven. KrF excimer laser annealing shows advantages of low temperature process, the less process time deceases to only few seconds was used to replace the high temperature process. IZO thin films suffering laser irradiation still keeps the amorphous film quality by transmission electron microscopy (TEM diffraction pattern analysis. It could be expected this technology to large-area flexible display, in the future.

  6. High-temperature performance of MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors: Direct current and pulse current-voltage characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C.; Samnakay, R.; Balandin, A. A., E-mail: balandin@ee.ucr.edu [Nano-Device Laboratory (NDL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Phonon Optimized Engineered Materials (POEM) Center, Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Rumyantsev, S. L. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    We report on fabrication of MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors (TFTs) and experimental investigations of their high-temperature current-voltage characteristics. The measurements show that MoS{sub 2} devices remain functional to temperatures of at least as high as 500 K. The temperature increase results in decreased threshold voltage and mobility. The comparison of the direct current (DC) and pulse measurements shows that the direct current sub-linear and super-linear output characteristics of MoS{sub 2} thin-films devices result from the Joule heating and the interplay of the threshold voltage and mobility temperature dependences. At temperatures above 450 K, a kink in the drain current occurs at zero gate voltage irrespective of the threshold voltage value. This intriguing phenomenon, referred to as a “memory step,” was attributed to the slow relaxation processes in thin films similar to those in graphene and electron glasses. The fabricated MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors demonstrated stable operation after two months of aging. The obtained results suggest new applications for MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors in extreme-temperature electronics and sensors.

  7. Tuning the Spin State in LaCoO3 Thin Films for Enhanced High-Temperature Oxygen Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wesley T; Gadre, Milind; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Biegalski, Michael D; Christen, Hans M; Morgan, Dane; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2013-08-01

    The slow kinetics of oxygen surface exchange hinders the efficiency of high-temperature oxygen electrocatalytic devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen separation membranes. Systematic investigations of material properties that link to catalytic activity can aid in the rational design of highly active cathode materials. Here, we explore LaCoO3 thin films as a model system for tuning catalytic activity through strain-induced changes in the Co spin state. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can be used to probe the Co-O bond strength at different temperatures to determine the relative spin occupancies of LaCoO3. We find that strain can be used to reduce the spin transition temperature and promote the occupation of higher spin states that weaken the Co-O bond. The decrease in Co-O bond strength and increased spin moment of the thin films result in significant enhancements of the oxygen surface exchange kinetics by up to 2 orders of magnitude.

  8. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications.

  9. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-12-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications.

  10. High temperature superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario-Franco, M.A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas

    1995-02-01

    The perovskite structure is the basis of all known high-temperature superconducting materials. Many of the most successful (highest T{sub c}) materials are based on mercury and thallium phases but, due to the high toxicity of the component compounds effort has been invested in the substitution of these elements with silver. Progress is reviewed. (orig.)

  11. High temperature superconductivity: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, K.S.; Coffey, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Meltzer, D.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA)); Pines, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Schrieffer, J.R. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)) (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    This book is the result of a symposium at Los Alamos in 1989 on High Temperature Superconductivity. The topics covered include: phenomenology, quantum spin liquids, spin space fluctuations in the insulating and metallic phases, normal state properties, and numerical studies and simulations. (JF)

  12. Influence of sulfurization temperature on Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layer on flexible titanium substrates for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen Buldu, Dilara; Cantas, Ayten; Turkoglu, Fulya; Gulsah Akca, Fatime; Meric, Ece; Ozdemir, Mehtap; Tarhan, Enver; Ozyuzer, Lutfi; Aygun, Gulnur

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of sulfurization temperature on the morphology, composition and structure of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films grown on titanium (Ti) substrates has been investigated. Since Ti foils are flexible, they were preferred as a substrate. As a result of their flexibility, they allow large area manufacturing and roll-to-roll processes. To understand the effects of sulfurization temperature on the CZTS formation on Ti foils, CZTS films fabricated with various sulfurization temperatures were investigated with several analyses including x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman scattering. XRD measurements showed a sharp and intense peak coming from the (112) planes of the kesterite type lattice structure (KS), which is strong evidence for good crystallinity. The surface morphologies of our thin films were investigated using SEM. Electron dispersive spectroscopy was also used for the compositional analysis of the thin films. According to these analysis, it is observed that Ti foils were suitable as substrates for the growth of CZTS thin films with desired properties and the sulfurization temperature plays a crucial role for producing good quality CZTS thin films on Ti foil substrates.

  13. Influence of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of As30Te70 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Elnaiem A.M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chalcogenide glasses have attracted much attention largely due to their interesting physical and chemical properties. Though few published articles exist on the As-Te system, little is known about the optical properties of eutectic or near eutectic composition of As-Te system upon heat treatment. Therefore, this paper reports the effects of annealing temperature on the structural and optical parameters of As30Te70 thin films. The bulk and thin films of 150 nm thick As30Te70 chalcogenide glasses were prepared by melt-quenching and thermal evaporation techniques, respectively. The glass transition and crystallization reactions of the bulk samples were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The influence of annealing temperature on the transformation of the crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, while the surface morphology of the annealed samples was examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were also calculated. The DSC scans showed that the melting temperature remains constant at 636.56 K. In addition, other characteristic temperatures such as the glass transition temperature, the onset crystallization temperature, and the crystallization peak temperature increase with increasing the heating rate. The crystalline phases for the as-prepared and annealed films consist of orthorhombic As, hexagonal Te, and monoclinic As2Te3 phases. Furthermore, the average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation density depend on the annealing temperature. The optical absorption results revealed that the investigated films have a direct transition, and their optical energy gap decreases from 1.82 eV to 1.49 eV as the annealing temperature increases up to 433 K. However, the refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant and the ratio of free carrier concentration to its effective mass, increase with increasing the annealing temperature.

  14. A new room temperature gas sensor based on pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film for amines determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanxiao, Li; Xiao-bo, Zou; Xiao-wei, Huang; Ji-yong, Shi; Jie-wen, Zhao; Holmes, Mel; Hao, Limin

    2015-05-15

    A new room temperature gas sensor was fabricated with pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film as the sensing layer. Four natural pigments were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) by ethanol. Natural pigment-sensitized TiO2 sensor was prepared by immersing porous TiO2 films in an ethanol solution containing a natural pigment for 24h. The hybrid organic-inorganic formed films here were firstly exposed to atmospheres containing methylamine vapours with concentrations over the range 2-10 ppm at room temperature. The films sensitized by the pigments from black-rice showed an excellent gas-sensitivity to methylamine among the four natural pigments sensitized films due to the anthocyanins. The relative change resistance, S, of the films increased almost linearly with increasing concentrations of methylamine (r=0.931). At last, the black rice pigment sensitized TiO2 thin film was used to determine the biogenic amines generated by pork during storage. The developed films had good sensitivity to analogous gases such as putrscine, and cadaverine that will increase during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Water-Mediated Photochemical Treatments for Low-Temperature Passivation of Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae Sang; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Kang, Jingu; Jeong, Chan-Yong; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Kwanpyo; Kwon, Hyuck-In; Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Myung-Gil; Park, Sung Kyu

    2016-04-27

    The low-temperature electrical passivation of an amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) thin-film transistor (TFT) is achieved by a deep ultraviolet (DUV) light irradiation-water treatment-DUV irradiation (DWD) method. The water treatment of the first DUV-annealed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film is likely to induce the preferred adsorption of water molecules at the oxygen vacancies and leads to subsequent hydroxide formation in the bulk a-IGZO films. Although the water treatment initially degraded the electrical performance of the a-IGZO TFTs, the second DUV irradiation on the water-treated devices may enable a more complete metal-oxygen-metal lattice formation while maintaining low oxygen vacancies in the oxide films. Overall, the stable and dense metal-oxygen-metal (M-O-M) network formation could be easily achieved at low temperatures (below 150 °C). The successful passivation of structural imperfections in the a-IGZO TFTs, such as hydroxyl group (OH-) and oxygen vacancies, mainly results in the enhanced electrical performances of the DWD-processed a-IGZO TFTs (on/off current ratio of 8.65 × 10(9), subthreshold slope of 0.16 V/decade, an average mobility of >6.94 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and a bias stability of ΔVTH < 2.5 V), which show more than a 30% improvement over the simple DUV-treated a-IGZO TFTs.

  16. Electrical properties of solution-deposited ZnO thin-film transistors by low-temperature annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chul; Oh, Ji Young; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Jung, Soon-Won; Na, Bock Soon; Chu, Hye Yong

    2014-11-01

    Flexible oxide thin-film transistors (Oxide-TFTs) have emerged as next generation transistors because of their applicability in electronic device. In particular, the major driving force behind solution-processed zinc oxide film research is its prospective use in printing for electronics. A low-temperature process to improve the performance of solution-processed n-channel ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated via spin-coating and inkjet-printing is introduced here. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a facile sonochemical method that was slightly modified based on a previously reported method. The influence of the annealing atmosphere on both nanoparticle-based TFT devices fabricated via spin-coating and those created via inkjet printing was investigated. For the inkjet-printed TFTs, the characteristics were improved significantly at an annealing temperature of 150 degrees C. The field effect mobility, V(th), and the on/off current ratios were 3.03 cm2/Vs, -3.3 V, and 10(4), respectively. These results indicate that annealing at 150 degrees C 1 h is sufficient to obtain a mobility (μ(sat)) as high as 3.03 cm2/Vs. Also, the active layer of the solution-based ZnO nanoparticles allowed the production of high-performance TFTs for low-cost, large-area electronics and flexible devices.

  17. Hot-electron effect in PdAu thin-film resistors with attached cooling fins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pleikies, J.; Usenko, O.; Stolz, R.; Fritzsch, L.; Frossati, G.; Flokstra, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of superconducting electronics operated in the sub-Kelvin temperature range is usually limited by the hot-electron effect. Here, an increased thermal resistance due to a weakened electron–phonon coupling leads to a higher temperature of the electrons in the thin-film shunt resistors

  18. Pulsed-laser deposition of MgB2 and B thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijatovic, D.; Brinkman, Alexander; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Rogalla, Horst; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of the novel superconductor MgB2 were deposited from an Mg-enriched MgB2 target or by alternating ablation from Mg and B targets, depositing multilayers. The superconducting films were achieved in situ by a two-step process: deposition at low temperatures ranging from room temperature to

  19. Peak effect in surface resistance at microwave frequencies in Dy-123 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhangale, A.R.; Banerjee, T.; Raychaudhuri, P.; Bhagwat, S.S.; Pai, S.P.; John, J.; Bagwe, V.C.; Shirodkar, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    A pronounced peak in the microwave (at frequency 9.55 GHz) surface resistance, Rs vs. T plot (where T is the temperature) has been observed in epitaxial DyBa2Cu3O7−y superconducting thin films in magnetic fields (parallel to c-axis) in the range 2 to 8 kOe, and temperatures close to the

  20. Effect of bath temperature on structure, morphology and thermoelectric properties of CoSb{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Suchitra, E-mail: suchitrayadav87@gmail.com; Pandya, Dinesh K.; Chaudhary, Sujeet [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-23

    CoSb{sub 3} thin films are deposited on conducting glass substrates (FTO) by electrodeposition at different bath temperatures (60°C, 70°C and 80°C) and the resulting influence of the bath temperature on the structure, morphology and electrical properties of films is investigated. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of CoSb{sub 3} phase in the films. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that different morphologies ranging from branched nano-flakes to nano-needles evolve as bath temperature increases. It is concluded that a growth temperature of 80°C is suitable for producing CoSb{sub 3} films with such properties that show potential feasibility for thermoelectric applications.

  1. Crystalline-like temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics in amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, M.; Hernandez-Barrios, Y.; Cerdeira, A.; Ávila-Herrera, F.; Tinoco, J.; Moldovan, O.; Lime, F.; Iñiguez, B.

    2017-09-01

    A crystalline-like temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics of amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is reported, in which the drain current reduces as the temperature is increased. This behavior appears for values of drain and gate voltages above which a change in the predominant conduction mechanism occurs. After studying the possible conduction mechanisms, it was determined that, for gate and drain voltages below these values, hopping is the predominant mechanism with the current increasing with temperature, while for values above, the predominant conduction mechanism becomes percolation in the conduction band or band conduction and IDS reduces as the temperature increases. It was determined that this behavior appears, when the effect of trapping is reduced, either by varying the density of states, their characteristic energy or both. Simulations were used to further confirm the causes of the observed behavior.

  2. The effect of annealing temperature variation on the optical properties test of LiTaO3 thin films based on Tauc Plot method for satellite technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djohan, N.; Estrada, R.; Sari, D.; Dahrul, M.; Kurniawan, A.; Iskandar, J.; Hardhienata, H.; Irzaman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to observe the energy gap of thin films made from LiTaO3 in 1 M-solubility deposited on n-type Si (111) substrates with annealing temperature variation. The manufacture of thin films has been formed by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) method using spin coater on 3000 rpm speed for 30 seconds and performed annealing process using furnace (Nabertherm type B180) at a temperature of 750°C, 800°C and 850°C for 15 hours. The absorbance of thin films is measured by using an Ocean Optics USB2000 device and processed into the energy gap curve using Tauc Plot method. The result shows that the energy gap of thin films associated with indirect transitions are increased from 2.78 eV to 2.93 eV with the rise of annealing temperature. The research shows that the thin films on n-type Si (111) substrates made of LiTaO3 produces sensitivity to violet light spectrum and have the potential to be developed as a sensor on satellite technology.

  3. Raman studies on nanocomposite silicon carbonitride thin film deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arnab Sankar; Mishra, Suman Kumari

    2010-10-01

    Raman studies of nanocomposite SiCN thin film by sputtering showed that with an increase of substrate temperature from room temperature to 500oC, a transition from mostly sp2 graphitic phase to sp3 carbon took place which was observed from the variation of ID/IG ratio and the peak shifts. This process resulted in the growth of C3N4 and Si3N4 crystallites in the amorphous matrix which led to an increase in hardness and modulus obtained through nanoindentation. However, at a further higher temperature of 600oC, again an increase of sp2 C concentration in the film was observed and the H and E values showed a decrease due to increased growth of graphitic carbon phase. The whole process got reflected in a modified four stage Ferrari Robertson model of Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Temperature Optimized Ammonia and Ethanol Sensing Using Ce Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films in a Novel Flow Metric Gas Sensing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Govardhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple process of gas sensing is represented here using Ce doped tin oxide nanomaterial based thin film sensor. A novel flow metric gas chamber has been designed and utilized for gas sensing. Doping plays a vital role in enhancing the sensing properties of nanomaterials. Ce doped tin oxide was prepared by hydrothermal method and the same has been used to fabricate a thin film for sensing. The microstructure and morphology of the prepared materials were analysed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR analysis. The SEM images clearly show that doping can clamp down the growth of the large crystallites and can lead to large agglomeration spheres. Thin film gas sensors were formed from undoped pure SnO2 and Ce doped SnO2. The sensors were exposed to ammonia and ethanol gases. The responses of the sensors to different concentrations (50–500 ppm of ammonia and ethanol at different operating temperatures (225°C–500°C were studied. Results show that a good sensitivity towards ammonia was obtained with Ce doped SnO2 thin film sensor at an optimal operating temperature of 325°C. The Ce doped sensor also showed good selectivity towards ammonia when compared with ethanol. Pure SnO2 showed good sensitivity with ethanol when compared with Ce doped SnO2 thin film sensor. Response time of the sensor and its stability were also studied.

  5. Antibacterial and barrier properties of oriented polymer films with ZnO thin films applied with atomic layer deposition at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland); Pitkänen, Marja; Salo, Erkki; Kenttä, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland); Tanskanen, Anne, E-mail: Anne.Tanskanen@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo, E-mail: timo.sajavaara@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Putkonen, Matti; Sievänen, Jenni; Sneck, Asko; Rättö, Marjaana [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: Maarit.Karppinen@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Concerns on food safety, and need for high quality and extended shelf-life of packaged foods have promoted the development of antibacterial barrier packaging materials. Few articles have been available dealing with the barrier or antimicrobial properties of zinc oxide thin films deposited at low temperature with atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto commercial polymer films typically used for packaging purposes. The purpose of this paper was to study the properties of ZnO thin films compared to those of aluminum oxide. It was also possible to deposit ZnO thin films onto oriented polylactic acid and polypropylene films at relatively low temperatures using ozone instead of water as an oxidizing precursor for diethylzinc. Replacing water with ozone changed both the structure and the chemical composition of films deposited on silicon wafers. ZnO films deposited with ozone contained large grains covered and separated probably by a more amorphous and uniform layer. These thin films were also assumed to contain zinc salts of carboxylic acids. The barrier properties of a 25 nm ZnO thin film deposited with ozone at 100 °C were quite close to those obtained earlier with ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of similar apparent thickness on similar polymer films. ZnO thin films deposited at low temperature indicated migration of antibacterial agent, while direct contact between ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films and bacteria promoted antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • Thin films were grown from diethylzinc also with ozone instead of water at 70 and 100 °C. • ZnO films deposited with diethylzinc and ozone had different structures and chemistries. • Best barrier properties obtained with zinc oxide films close to those obtained with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} • Ozone as oxygen source provided better barrier properties at 100 °C than water. • Both aluminum and zinc oxide thin films showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli.

  6. Realization of Artificial Ice Systems for Magnetic Vortices in a Superconducting MoGe Thin Film with Patterned Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latimer, M. L.; Berdiyorov, G. R.; Xiao, Z. L.; Peeters, F. M.; Kwok, W. K.

    2013-08-05

    We report an anomalous matching effect in MoGe thin films containing pairs of circular holes arranged in such a way that four of those pairs meet at each vertex point of a square lattice. A remarkably pronounced fractional matching was observed in the magnetic field dependences of both the resistance and the critical current. At the half matching field the critical current can be even higher than that at zero field. This has never been observed before for vortices in superconductors with pinning arrays. Numerical simulations within the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau theory reveal a square vortex ice configuration in the ground state at the half matching field and demonstrate similar characteristic features in the field dependence of the critical current, confirming the experimental realization of an artificial ice system for vortices for the first time.

  7. Temperature dependent structural and magnetic study of Co-sputtered Fe-Al thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Anupam; Brajpuriya, Ranjeet

    2017-05-01

    The authors have deposited co-sputtered Fe-Al thin film on a glass substrate. It is the first ever reporting of Fe and Al co-sputtering in an Argon atmosphere under vacuum conditions. The sample was annealed at 200°C, 300°C, 400°C, so as to allow different phase formation in it. To study the structural and magnetic properties of the samples the GIXRD, XRR and MOKE measurements were done. After annealing at 400°C we observed disordered FeAl formation and which after further converted to more ordered phase which is also confirmed from reflectivity measurements. The magnetic measurement shows the magnetic nature of the sample even after annealing at 400°C/5hr.

  8. Room temperature ferroelectric and magnetic investigations and detailed phase analysis of Aurivillius phase Bi5Ti3Fe0.7Co0.3O15 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Lynette; Kulkarni, Santosh; Deepak, Nitin; Schmidt, Michael; Petkov, Nikolay; Zhang, Panfeng F.; Cavill, Stuart; Roy, Saibal; Pemble, Martyn E.; Whatmore, Roger W.

    2012-09-01

    Aurivillius phase Bi5Ti3Fe0.7Co0.3O15 (BTF7C3O) thin films on α-quartz substrates were fabricated by a chemical solution deposition method and the room temperature ferroelectric and magnetic properties of this candidate multiferroic were compared with those of thin films of Mn3+ substituted, Bi5Ti3Fe0.7Mn0.3O15 (BTF7M3O). Vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) measurements of the films conclusively demonstrate that BTF7C3O and BTF7M3O thin films are piezoelectric and ferroelectric at room temperature, with the major polarization vector in the lateral plane of the films. No net magnetization was observed for the in-plane superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry measurements of BTF7M3O thin films. In contrast, SQUID measurements of the BTF7C3O films clearly demonstrated ferromagnetic behavior, with a remanent magnetization, Br, of 6.37 emu/cm3 (or 804 memu/g), remanent moment = 4.99 × 10-5 emu. The BTF7C3O films were scrutinized by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis mapping to assess the prospect of the observed multiferroic properties being intrinsic to the main phase. The results of extensive micro-structural phase analysis demonstrated that the BTF7C3O films comprised of a 3.95% Fe/Co-rich spinel phase, likely CoFe2 - xTixO4, which would account for the observed magnetic moment in the films. Additionally, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy (XMCD-PEEM) imaging confirmed that the majority of magnetic response arises from the Fe sites of Fe/Co-rich spinel phase inclusions. While the magnetic contribution from the main phase could not be determined by the XMCD-PEEM images, these data however imply that the Bi5Ti3Fe0.7Co0.3O15 thin films are likely not single phase multiferroics at room temperature. The PFM results presented demonstrate that the naturally 2D nanostructured Bi5Ti3

  9. Temperature dependent fabrication of cost-effective and nontoxic Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films for solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digraskar, Renuka, E-mail: renukad120@gmail.com; Sathe, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskarsathe@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 43100, (M.S) India (India); Gattu, Ketan; Ghule, Anil; Sharma, Ramphal [Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 43100, (M.S) India (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present work, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been fabricated onto the glass substrate by simple and economic chemical bath deposition technique{sup 1}, and the effect of deposition temperature is reported. The deposition temperatures used were 50°C and 60°C for a deposition time of 60 min, which are significantly lower than earlier reports. These CZTS thin films were characterized for optical, electrical, morphological and elemental properties using, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, I-V system for photosensitivity, two probe resistivity system for resistivity, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by sputtering a single target at different temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qichen; Hao, Ruiting; Liu, Sijia; Yang, Min; Liu, Xinxing; Chang, Faran; Lu, Yilei; Wang, Shurong

    2017-10-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS) thin films were directly deposited by sputtering with a single target at different temperatures, compared with the sulfurization process after sputtering the metal precursor, which is not only simplified the preparation process also the obtained CZTS thin film had good crystallinity with large grain size and dense morphology. The solar cell fabricated with the CZTS thin film sputtered at an optimized temperature of 500 °C shows a conversion efficiency of 1.87% with Voc = 580 mV, Jsc = 8.47 mA/cm2, and FF = 37.8%, its band gap energy is found to be 1.52 eV. These results show that the process without sulfurization is suitable for the growth of kesterite CZTS solar cell absorbers.

  11. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and mechanism of CdS thin film grown on Si nanoporous pillar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ling Ling [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); College of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Li, Yan Tao [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 454052 (China); Hu, Chu Xiong [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Li, Xin Jian, E-mail: lixj@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • CdS/silicon nanoporous pillar array (CdS/Si-NPA) was prepared by a CBD method. • The PL spectrum of CdS/Si-NPA was measured at different temperatures, from 10 to 300 K. • The PL spectrum was composed of four emission bands, obeying different mechanisms. • The PL degradation with temperature was due to phonon-induced escape of carriers. - Abstract: Si-based cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a prospective semiconductor system in constructing optoelectronic nanodevices, and this makes the study on the factors which may affect its optical and electrical properties be of special importance. Here we report that CdS thin film was grown on Si nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by a chemical bath deposition method, and the luminescent properties of CdS/Si-NPA as well as its mechanism were studied by measuring and analyzing its temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The low-temperature measurement disclosed that the PL spectrum of CdS/Si-NPA could be decomposed into four emission bands, a blue band, a green band, a red band and an infrared band. The blue band was due to the luminescence from Si-NPA substrate, and the others originate from the CdS thin film. With temperature increasing, the peak energy, PL intensity and peak profile shape for the PL bands from CdS evolves differently. Through theoretical and fitting analyses, the origins of the green, red and infrared band are attributed to the near band-edge emission, the radiative recombination from surface defects to Cd vacancies and those to S interstitials, respectively. The cause of PL degradation is due to the thermal quenching process, a phonon-induced electron escape but with different activation energies. These results might provide useful information for optimizing the preparing parameters to promote the performance of Si-based CdS optoelectronic devices.

  12. Growth and characterization of PNZST thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai Jiwei; Li, X.; Yao, Y.; Chen, Haydn

    2003-05-25

    We have grown and compared microstructures and dielectric properties of PNZST thin films prepared on two different substrates by sol-gel methods. To ensure a complete single-phase perovskite PNZST thin film, a capping layer of PbO must be added to the top surface of the thin film before final heat treatment. Microstructure characterization was examined with X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Dielectric and antiferroelectric properties were investigated as a function of temperature.

  13. Correlation of Crystalline and Structural Properties of C60 Thin Films Grown at Various Temperature with Charge Carrier Mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh,T.; Sarciftci, N.; Yang, H.; Yang, L.; Plochberger, B.; Sitter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Transistors fabricated from C{sub 60} films grown by hot wall epitaxy at higher substrate temperature, showed an order of magnitude increased charge carrier mobility up to 6 cm{sup 2}/V s. In this letter, the authors present an extensive study of morphology and crystallinity of the fullerene films using atomic force microscopy and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. A clear correlation of crystalline quality of the C{sub 60} film and charge carrier mobility was found. A higher substrate temperature leads to a single crystal-like faceted fullerene crystals. The high crystalline quality solely brings a drastic improvement in the charge carrier mobility. A gate voltage independent mobility is also observed in these devices which can be attributed to the highly conjugated nature of the C{sub 60} thin film.

  14. P-type Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin film transistors processed at low temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.

    2013-10-09

    P-type Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin film transistors (TFTs) with tunable performance were fabricated using room temperature sputtered copper and tin oxides. Using Cu2O film as capping layer on top of a SnO film to control its stoichiometry, we have optimized the performance of the resulting bilayer transistor. A transistor with 10 nm/15 nm Cu2O to SnO thickness ratio (25 nm total thickness) showed the best performance using a maximum process temperature of 170 C. The bilayer transistor exhibited p-type behavior with field-effect mobility, on-to-off current ratio, and threshold voltage of 0.66 cm2 V-1 s-1, 1.5×10 2, and -5.2 V, respectively. The advantages of the bilayer structure relative to single layer transistor are discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Room temperature air oxidation of nanostructured Si thin films with varying porosities as studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.-Q.; Meunier, M.; Sacher, E.

    2006-04-01

    The room temperature air oxidation of nanostructured Si thin films, with varying porosities, has been followed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), using films deposited by KrF excimer (248 nm) laser ablation in He gas ambients. The overall oxidation, determined from the Si2p XPS spectrum, was shown to be amenable to time-porosity superposition, with the extracted shift factors indicating that oxidation is controlled by the permeability of air in the pores. A model has been developed to describe the room temperature air oxidation process as a function of time and porosity, in accord with the experimental findings. Efforts to determine O:Si atomic ratios from O1s:Si2p spectral ratios have revealed the effect of porosity on both the photoelectron attenuation lengths and the size-dependent photoemission intensities of the nanoparticles that compose the samples.

  16. The effects of annealing temperature on the structural properties and optical constants of a novel DPEA-MR-Zn organic crystalline semiconductor nanostructure thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hossainy, A. Farouk; Ibrahim, A.

    2017-11-01

    The dependence of structural properties and optical constants on annealing temperature of a 2-((1,2-bis (diphenylphosphino)ethyl)amino) acetic acid-methyl red-monochloro zinc dihydride (DPEA-MR-Zn) as a novel organic semiconductor thin film was studied. The DPEA-MR-Zn thin film was deposited on silicon substrates using the spin coating technique. The as-deposited film was annealed in air for 1 h at 150, 175 and 205 °C. The XRD study of DPEA-MR-Zn in its powder form showed that this complex is mere a triclinic crystal structure with a space group P-1. In addition, the XRD patterns showed that the as-deposited thin films were crystallized according to the preferential orientation [(214), (121), (0 2 bar 6), (3 bar 02), (122) and (11 4 bar)]. Moreover, two additional peaks (2 bar 2 bar 1 and 2 4 bar 7) were shown at 2θ nearly 30°, and 69°, where, the more annealing temperature, the more the intensity of the two peaks. In addition, it was noticed that the grain size had a remarkable change with an annealing temperature of the DPEA-MR-Zn thin films. The optical measurements showed that the thin film has a relatively high absorption region where the photon energy ranges from 2 to 3.25 eV. Both of Wemple-DiDomenico and single Sellmeier oscillator models were applied on the DPEA-MR-Zn to analyze the dispersion of the refractive index and the optical and dielectric constants. The outcome of the study of the structural and optical properties reported here of the DPEA-MR-Zn organic semiconductor crystalline nanostructure thin film had shown various applications in many advanced technologies such as photovoltaic solar cells.

  17. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel dip-coating process at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Park, Hyunggil; Choi, Hyonkwang; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O.; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-07-01

    Sol-gel dip-coating was used to prepare ZnO thin films with relaxed residual stress by lowering the deposition temperature from room temperature (25°C) to -25°C. The effect of deposition temperature on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and reflectance accessory, and the van der Pauw method. All the thin films were deposited successfully onto quartz substrates and exhibited fibrous root morphology. At low temperature, the deposition rate was higher than at room temperature (RT) because of enhanced viscosity of the films. Further, lowering the deposition temperature affected the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the ZnO thin films. The surface morphology, residual stress, PL properties, and optical transmittance and reflectance of the films were measured, and this information was used to determine the absorption coefficient, optical band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index, refractive index at infinite wavelength, extinction coefficient, single-oscillator energy, dispersion energy, average oscillator wavelength, moments M -1 and M -3, dielectric constant, optical conductivity, and electrical resistivity of the ZnO thin films.

  18. A Comprehensive Study of a Micro-Channel Heat Sink Using Integrated Thin-Film Temperature Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jiejun; He, Jian; Wu, Chuangui; Luo, Wenbo; Shuai, Yao; Zhang, Wanli; Chen, Xiancai; Zhang, Jian; Lin, Jia

    2018-01-19

    A micro-channel heat sink is a promising cooling method for high power integrated circuits (IC). However, the understanding of such a micro-channel device is not sufficient, because the tools for studying it are very limited. The details inside the micro-channels are not readily available. In this letter, a micro-channel heat sink is comprehensively studied using the integrated temperature sensors. The highly sensitive thin film temperature sensors can accurately monitor the temperature change in the micro-channel in real time. The outstanding heat dissipation performance of the micro-channel heat sink is proven in terms of maximum temperature, cooling speed and heat resistance. The temperature profile along the micro-channel is extracted, and even small temperature perturbations can be detected. The heat source formed temperature peak shifts towards the flow direction with the increasing flow rate. However, the temperature non-uniformity is independent of flow rate, but solely dependent on the heating power. Specific designs for minimizing the temperature non-uniformity are necessary. In addition, the experimental results from the integrated temperature sensors match the simulation results well. This can be used to directly verify the modeling results, helping to build a convincing simulation model. The integrated sensor could be a powerful tool for studying the micro-channel based heat sink.

  19. Hydrogen incorporation induced metal-semiconductor transition in ZnO:H thin films sputtered at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K.

    2013-04-01

    The room temperature deposited ZnO:H thin films having high conductivity of 500 Ω-1 cm-1 and carrier concentration reaching 1.23 × 1020 cm-3 were reactively sputter deposited on glass substrates in the presence of O2 and 5% H2 in Ar. A metal-semiconductor transition at 165 K is induced by the increasing hydrogen incorporation in the films. Hydrogen forms shallow donor complex with activation energy of ˜10-20 meV at oxygen vacancies (VO) leading to increase in carrier concentration. Hydrogen also passivates VO and VZn causing ˜4 times enhancement of mobility to 25.4 cm2/V s. These films have potential for use in transparent flexible electronics.

  20. Enhancing the blocking temperature of perpendicular-exchange biased Cr2O3 thin films using buffer layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Shimomura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of buffer layers on the blocking temperature (TB of perpendicular exchange bias of thin Cr2O3/Co exchange coupled films with a Ru spacer and revealed a high TB of 260 K for 20-nm-thick Cr2O3 thin films. By comparing the TB values of the 20-nm-thick Cr2O3 films on Pt and α-Fe2O3 buffers, we investigated the lattice strain effect on the TB. We show that higher TB values can be obtained using an α-Fe2O3 buffer, which is likely because of the lattice strain-induced increase in Cr2O3 magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  1. Thin film system with integrated load and temperature sensors for the technical application in deep drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Saskia; Paetsch, Nancy; Meyer-Kornblum, Eike

    2017-05-01

    In these days industry 4.0 resounded throughout the land and means the fourth industrial revolution. The industry has to tackle the task of a flexible and customer-oriented production. Therefor the need of sensor systems for the measurement of temperature and load, the two most important categories in production, is rising. For getting the real specification during the production process the integration of sensor elements in high load regions of machinery is very important. Thus wear resistant thin film sensor systems directly applied onto the surface of plant components are in development. These multilayer systems combine excellent wear resistance with sensory behaviour. The sensor data will lead to a deeper process understanding, to optimization of simulation tools, to reduction of rejects and to an improvement of flexibility in production.

  2. Hydrogen incorporation induced metal-semiconductor transition in ZnO:H thin films sputtered at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anil; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-04-29

    The room temperature deposited ZnO:H thin films having high conductivity of 500 Ohm-Sign {sup -1} cm{sup -1} and carrier concentration reaching 1.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} were reactively sputter deposited on glass substrates in the presence of O{sub 2} and 5% H{sub 2} in Ar. A metal-semiconductor transition at 165 K is induced by the increasing hydrogen incorporation in the films. Hydrogen forms shallow donor complex with activation energy of {approx}10-20 meV at oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) leading to increase in carrier concentration. Hydrogen also passivates V{sub O} and V{sub Zn} causing {approx}4 times enhancement of mobility to 25.4 cm{sup 2}/V s. These films have potential for use in transparent flexible electronics.

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on magnetic property of Si{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wenyong; Guo Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn; Peng Guoliang; Li Tiecheng; Feng Shixuan; Zhou Zhongpo; Peng Ting; Quan Zuci

    2011-11-01

    Polycrystalline Si{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x} thin films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for crystallization. RTA was performed at 800 Degree-Sign C for 5 min, 1200 Degree-Sign C for 30 s and 1200 Degree-Sign C for 2 min, in a N{sub 2} flow. The magnetic hysteresis loops were observed at room temperature in all the samples except for RTA at 800 Degree-Sign C for 5 min, and the annealing caused the decrease of saturation magnetization relative to the as-grown film. X-ray diffraction spectra and Raman spectra showed that the annealing process lead the deposited amorphous film to be crystallized and CrSi{sub 2} phase formed. The magnetism of the films was determined by the competition between crystallinity and precipitation of diamagnetic CrSi{sub 2} phase.

  4. Effect of etching stop layer on characteristics of amorphous IGZO thin film transistor fabricated at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifeng Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transparent bottom-gate amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs had been successfully fabricated at relative low temperature. The influence of reaction gas ratio of N2O and SiH4 during the growth of etching stop layer (SiOx on the characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs was investigated. The transfer characteristics of the TFTs were changed markedly because active layer of a-IGZO films was modified by plasma in the growth process of SiOx. By optimizing the deposition parameters of etching stop layer process, a-IGZO TFTs were manufactured and exhibited good performance with a field-effect mobility of 8.5 cm2V-1s-1, a threshold voltage of 1.3 V, and good stability under gate bias stress of 20 V for 10000 s.

  5. Optoelectronic study and annealing stability of room temperature pulsed laser ablated ZnSe polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Taj Muhammad, E-mail: tajakashne@gmail.com; Zakria, M.; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Shakoor, Rana I.

    2014-03-15

    In principal, we described stability of the room temperature ZnSe thin films with thermal annealing deposited onto glass by pulsed laser deposition technique using third harmonic 355 nm of Nd: YAG laser beam. Optoelectronic analysis and stability with thermal annealing was described in terms of structural and optical properties. These properties were investigated via X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, Raman, Fourier transform infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopies. From the strong reflection corresponding to the (1 1 1) plane (2θ=27.48°) and the longitudinal optical “LO” phonon modes at 250 cm{sup −1} and 500 cm{sup −1} in the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra, a polycrystalline zincblende structure of the film was established. At 300 and 350 °C annealing temperatures, the film crystallites were preferentially oriented with the (1 1 1) plane parallel to the substrate and became amorphous at 400 °C. Atomic force microscopic images showed that the morphologies of ZnSe films became smooth with root mean squared roughness 9.86 nm after annealing at 300 and 350 °C while a rougher surface was observed for the amorphous film at 400 °C. Fourier transform infrared study illustrated the chemical nature and Zn–Se bonding in the deposited films. For the as-deposited and annealed samples at 300 and 350 °C, scanning electron micrographs revealed mono-dispersed indistinguishable ZnSe grains and smooth morphological structure which changed to a cracking and bumpy surface after annealing at 400 °C. The physical phenomenon of annealing induced morphological changes could be explained in terms of “structure zone model”. Excitonic emission at 456 nm was observed for both as-deposited and annealed film at 350 °C. The transmission spectrum shows oscillatory behavior because of the thin film interference and exhibited a high degree of transparency down to a wavelength ∼500 nm in the IR region. Energy band-gap was

  6. Low power low temperature poly-Si thin-film transistor shift register with DC-type output driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seok-Jeong; Kim, Byung Hoon; Jang, Jin; Nam, Hyoungsik

    2015-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a low power DC-type low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin-film transistor (TFT) shift register that consists of nine TFTs and one bootstrapping capacitor. The proposed circuit connects large size pull-up TFTs of output drivers to positive supply instead of alternating clock signals in order to reduce substantially the power consumption of clock drivers. The SPICE simulation ensures that the variable overlap intervals can be programmed by the delay between clock signals and the overall power consumption of a DC-type circuit can be reduced to 45% of an AC-type one for a full-HD display. The operation of a proposed structure is also verified with a fabricated 16-stage gate driver.

  7. A study on the superconducting properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9-x}Nb{sub x}O{sup y} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K. [Univ. of Hyderabad (India); Pinto, R. [Solid State Electronics Group, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Effect of niobium substitution at the copper site in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} was studied in thin film form. The films were deposited by laser ablation technique using the targets of the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub y} where x = 0.0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.0 under identical deposition conditions on SrTiO{sub 9} <100> substrates. Films were characterized by XRD, resistivity, I-V and J{sub c} measurements. Films made from x = 0.025 and 0.05 concentrations of Nb substituted targets showed relatively improved superconducting properties compared to that of undoped films. The best 7 realized for x = 0.025 Nb concentration was 1.8 x 10{sup {sigma}} A/cm{sup 2} and for 0.05 Nb concentration it was 3.2x10{sup {sigma}} A/cm{sup 2} at 77K. However, degradation of the superconducting properties, with the increase of x {ge} 0.1 Nb concentration and drastic suppression and complete loss of superconductivity was noticed for x {ge} 0.4. The growth of impurity phase YBa{sub 2}NbO{sub 6} for x = 0.1 and above of Nb concentration was noticed from XRD patterns. However, the site occupancy of Nb could not be confirmed from these studies.

  8. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  9. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  10. A Fast Room-Temperature Poling Process of Piezoelectric Pb(Zr0.45Ti0.55)O3 Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Dekkers, Jan M.; Vu, Hung Ngoc; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of two poling processes on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of sol–gel and pulsedlaser-deposited Pb(Zr0.45Ti0.55)O3 (PZT) thin films has been investigated as a function of the poling field, poling temperature and poling time. In the case of dc-electric field poling at an

  11. Properties of NiO nanostructured growth using thermal dry oxidation of nickel metal thin film for hydrogen gas sensing at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Dauda; Ahmed, Naser M.; Mahmud, Shahrom; Algadri, Natheer A.

    2017-07-01

    A highly qualitative NiO nanostructure was synthesized using thermal dry oxidation of metallic Ni thin films on ITO/glass using the RF sputtering technique. The deposited nickel thin films were oxidized in air ambient at 550 °C inside a furnace. The structural and surface morphologies, and the electrical and gas sensing properties of the NiO nanostructure were examined. An x-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the NiO nanostructure has a cubic structure with orientation of the most intense peak at (2 0 0), and shows good crystalline quality. Finite-element scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results revealed O and Ni present in the treated samples, indicating a pure NiO nanostructure composition obtained with high porosity. The electrical properties of the oxidize Ni thin films showed a p-type NiO thin film semiconductor. A hydrogen gas sensing measurement was made at different operating temperatures and different gas concentrations with a detection limit of 30 ppm concentration. The sensor device shows great sensing properties with an excellent sensitivity (310%) at room temperature, which decreases with an increase in the operating temperature. Superfast response and recovery times of 6 and 0.5 s, respectively, were observed with the device at 150 °C operating temperature.

  12. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films deposited by CBD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laatar, F., E-mail: fakher8laatar@gmail.com [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Harizi, A. [Photovoltaic and Semiconductor Materials Laboratory, Engineering Industrial Department, ENIT, Tunis El Manar University, BP 37, Le Belvédère, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Smida, A. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Hassen, M. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology of Sousse, City Taffala (Ibn Khaldun), 4003 Sousse (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CdSe QDs with L-Cysteine capping agent for applications in nanodevices. • The films of CdSe QDs present uniform and good dispersive particles at the surface. • Effect of bath temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films. • Investigation of the optical constants and dispersion parameters of CdSe QDs thin films. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at different temperatures from an aqueous solution containing L-Cysteine (L-Cys) as capping agent. The evolution of the surface morphology and elemental composition of the CdSe films were studied by AFM, SEM, and EDX analyses. Structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films were investigated by XRD, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index is described using the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (W-D) model, and the physical dispersion parameters are calculated as a function of deposition temperature. The dispersive optical parameters such as average oscillator energy (E{sub o}), dispersion energy (E{sub d}), and static refractive index (n{sub o}) were found to vary with the deposition temperature. Besides, the electrical free carrier susceptibility (χ{sub e}) and the carrier concentration of the effective mass ratio (N/m*) were evaluated according to the Spitzer-Fan model.

  13. Compensation of decreased ion energy by increased hydrogen dilution in plasma deposition of thin film silicon solar cells at low substrate temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.D.; de Jong, M.M.; Rath, J.K.; Brinza, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Goedheer, W.J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Gorbachev, Y.E.; Orlov, K.E.; Khilkevitch, E.M.; Smirnov, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to deposit thin film silicon solar cells on plastics and papers, the deposition process needs to be adapted for low deposition temperatures. In a very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) process, both the gas phase and the surface processes are affected by

  14. Dependence Of Electrically Active Centers Content With The Growth Temperature In Heavily Ga-doped ZnO Thin Films: Correlation Between Optical, Structural And Transport Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, J. A.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Sanchez-Royo, J. F.; Segura, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes an explanation for the decrease of the electrically active Ga content with the growth temperature observed in ZnO:Ga thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Studies of optical, structural and transport properties have led us to propose the possible segregation of most of Ga atoms in an intermediate phase of spinel ZnGa2O4.

  15. Enhancing the charge ordering temperature in thin films of Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 by strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.Q.; Zhang, Y.Q.; Aarts, J.; Wu, M.Y.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    We report the effects of biaxial strain on the charge ordering temperature Tco of the mixed-valent manganite perovskite oxide Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3. Thin films were grown on SrTiO3, which has a 1.3% larger in-plane lattice parameter. Other substrates were used for comparison. Transport measurements

  16. Highly oriented δ-Bi2O3 thin films stable at room temperature synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunca Popa, P.; Sønderby, S.; Kerdsongpanya, S.

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis by reactive magnetron sputtering and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented thin films of δ–Bi2O3. This phase is obtained at a substrate temperature of 150–200 °C in a narrow window of O2/Ar ratio in the sputtering gas (18%–20%). Transmission electron...

  17. The influence of substrate temperature on growth of para-sexiphenyl thin films on Ir(111) supported graphene studied by LEEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khokhar, F.S.; Hlawacek, G.; van Gastel, Raoul; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Teichert, C.; Poelsema, Bene

    2012-01-01

    The growth of para-sexiphenyl (6P) thin films as a function of substrate temperature on Ir{111} supported graphene flakes has been studied in real-time with Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM). Micro Low Energy Electron Diffraction (μLEED) has been used to determine the structure of the different

  18. Phase-glass scaling near the coherence transition in granular HoBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa-Rojas, J.; Landinez Tellez, D.A. [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A. A. 14490, Bogota DC (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2005-07-01

    Systematic measurements of electrical magnetoconductivity near the coherence transition of granular HoBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films are reported. Experiments performed in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 2500 Oe reveal that close to the coherence transition temperature T{sub c0}(H), the correlation length scales as a power law of temperature with a thermal-dependent critical exponent, {nu}. In low external fields the corresponding value of {nu} is consistent with the two-dimensional phase-glass model, which is in the same dynamical universality class of the so-called vortex-glass model. At applied fields H > 1000 Oe, the vortex dynamics becomes stronger and the coherence transition is not observed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. The effect of substrate temperature on the microstructural, electrical and optical properties of Sn-doped indium oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoufi, Davood; Taherniya, Atefeh

    2015-06-01

    In this work, Sn doping In2O3 (ITO) thin films with a thickness of 200 nm were deposited on glass substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method at different substrate temperatures. The crystal structure of these films was studied by X-ray diffraction technique. The sheet resistance was measured by a four-point probe. Van der Pauw method was used to measure carrier density and mobility of ITO films. The optical transmittance spectra were recorded in the wavelength region of 300-800 nm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used for the surface morphology analysis. The prepared ITO films exhibited body-centered cubic (BCC) structure with preferred orientation of growth along the (2 2 2) crystalline plane. The grain size of the films increases by rising the substrate temperature. Transparency of the films, over the visible light region, is increased with increasing the substrate temperature. It is found that the electrical properties of ITO films are significantly affected by substrate temperature. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the carrier density and mobility are enhanced with an increase in substrate temperature. The evaluated values of energy band gap Eg for ITO films were increase from 3.84 eV to 3.91 eV with increasing the substrate temperatures from 200 °C to 500 °C. The SEM micrographs of the films revealed a homogeneous growth without perceptible cracks with particles which are well covered on the substrate.

  20. High temperature setup for measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of thin films using inductive heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, L.; Williams, N.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an automated setup for simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient S(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) of thin film samples from room temperature to ˜650 °C. S and ρ are extracted from current-voltage (I-V) measurements obtained using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and temperature measurements obtained using commercial thermocouples. The slope and the x-axis intercept of the I-V characteristics represent the sample conductance G and the Seebeck voltage, respectively. The measured G(T) can be scaled to ρ(T) by the geometry factor obtained from the room temperature resistivity measurement of the film. The setup uses resistive or inductive heating to control the temperature and temperature gradient on the sample. Inductive heating is achieved with steel plates that surround the test area and a water cooled copper pipe coil underneath that generates an AC magnetic field. The measurements can be performed using resistive heating only or inductive heating only, or a combination of both depending on the desired heating ranges. Inductive heating provides a more uniform heating of the test area, does not require contacts to the sample holder, can be used up to the Curie temperature of the particular magnetic material, and the temperature gradients can be adjusted by the relative positions of the coil and sample. Example results obtained for low doped single-crystal silicon with inductive heating only and with resistive heating only are presented.

  1. Performance of RF sputtered p-Si/n-ZnO nanoparticle thin film heterojunction diodes in high temperature environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar, E-mail: satyndra.singh.eee09@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Model Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jammu, 181122 (India); Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, 211004 (India); Hazra, Purnima, E-mail: purnima.hazra@smvdu.ac.in [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, Jammu and Kashmir, 182320 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Synthesize ZnO nanoparticle thin film on p-Si substrate using RF sputtering method. • I–V and C–V characteristics of Si/ZnO heterojunction diode are studied. • High temperature performance is analyzed accounting barrier height inhomogeneities. • Gaussian distribution of BH inhomogeneities is considered to modify Richardson plot. • Modified R constant is 33.06 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}, i.e. nearer to theoretical value 32 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}. - Abstract: In this article, temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si nanoparticle thin film heterojunction diode grown by RF sputtering technique are analyzed in the temperature range of 300–433 k to investigate the performance of the device in high temperature environment. The microstructural, morphological, optical and temptrature dependent electrical properties of as-grown nanoparticle thin film were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emmision scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), variable angle ellipsometer and semiconductor device analyzer. XRD spectra of as-grown ZnO films are exhibited that highly c-axis oriented ZnO nanostructures are grown on p- Si〈100〉 substrate whereas AFM and FESEM images confirm the homogeneous deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on surface of Si substratewith minimum roughness.The optical propertiesof as-grown ZnO nanoparticles have been measured in the spectral range of 300–800 nm using variable angle ellipsometer.To measure electrical parameters of the device prototype in the temperature range of room temperature (300 K) to 433 K, large area ohmic contacts were fabricated on both side of the ZnO/Si heterostructure. From the current-voltage charcteristics of ZnO/Si heterojunction device, it is observed that the device exhibits rectifing nature at room temperature. However, with increase in temperature, reverse saturation current and barrier

  2. Study the Effect of Annealing Temperature on Optical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Film Prepared by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawiah, R.; Rafaie, H. A.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on silicon and glass substrate were prepared using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method utilizing zinc acetate dihydrate as the zinc sources. The deposited film then annealed at 300° C to 500° C for 1 hour. The optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films were characterized using photoluminescence (PL) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) respectively. SEM images show that the ZnO thin film on silicon substrate formed unique morphology of flower-like and ball-shaped structures at annealing temperature 300° C and 400° C. Increasing annealing temperature to 450° C for ZnO deposited on glass substrate had increased the grain size of particle which implies the improvement of crystalline grain of thin film. PL results observed that the defect of oxygen vacancy decreased after annealing process for films deposited on silicon substrate. The blue peak emission at 437 nm appears only on the glass substrate. Based on the highest PL intensity value, the optimum annealing temperature for silicon and glass substrate is 350° C and 450° C respectively.

  3. Electrical Properties of Thin-Film Capacitors Fabricated Using High Temperature Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simple thin-film capacitor stacks were fabricated from sputter-deposited doped barium titanate dielectric films with sputtered Pt and/or Ni electrodes and characterized electrically. Here, we report small signal, low frequency capacitance and parallel resistance data measured as a function of applied DC bias, polarization versus applied electric field strength and DC load/unload experiments. These capacitors exhibited significant leakage (in the range 8–210 μA/cm2 and dielectric loss. Measured breakdown strength for the sputtered doped barium titanate films was in the range 200 kV/cm −2 MV/cm. For all devices tested, we observed clear evidence for dielectric saturation at applied electric field strengths above 100 kV/cm: saturated polarization was in the range 8–15 μC/cm2. When cycled under DC conditions, the maximum energy density measured for any of the capacitors tested here was ~4.7 × 10−2 W-h/liter based on the volume of the dielectric material only. This corresponds to a specific energy of ~8 × 10−3 W-h/kg, again calculated on a dielectric-only basis. These results are compared to those reported by other authors and a simple theoretical treatment provided that quantifies the maximum energy that can be stored in these and similar devices as a function of dielectric strength and saturation polarization. Finally, a predictive model is developed to provide guidance on how to tailor the relative permittivities of high-k dielectrics in order to optimize their energy storage capacities.

  4. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature (∼300 K). The films are characterized for their ... two steps: (i) adsorption of Sn4+ ions on the substrate surface for 20 s and (ii) reaction with ... The mechanism of formation of SnO2:H2O film can be eluci- dated as follows. The SnCl2 ...

  5. Influence of annealing temperature on the magnetic properties of Cr{sup +} implanted AlN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A., E-mail: attaullah77@yahoo.com [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, Arshad; Ali, Zahid; Ashraf, T. [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, Ishaq [Experimental Physics Lab, National Center for Physics (NCP), Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar [DMME, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Science (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad Pakistan (Pakistan); Rashid, Rashad [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran, E-mail: shakir@skku.edu [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center building No 3, Room 1c23, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-01

    Diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) AlN:Cr films were produced by implanting various doses Cr{sup +} ions into AlN thin films at room temperature followed by a thermal annealing process. The structural and magnetic characteristics of the samples were investigated as a function of annealing temperature by means of Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS/C), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and SQUID. Structural analyzes demonstrate that implantation damages gradually decrease with the increasing of annealing temperature. Moreover, better recrystallization in the implanted part of the samples was observed for the sample annealed at 950 °C. Both XRD and Raman pattern illustrate that no secondary phase or metal related-peaks were appear in all the samples. Magnetic analysis reveals that annealed Cr{sup +}-implanted samples exhibit ferromagnetism at room temperature, however, the sample annealed at 950 °C shows improved magnetic characteristics. The saturation magnetization is estimated to be 9.0×10{sup −5} emu/g and the coercive field (H{sub c}) is approximately 200 Oe for the samples annealed 950 °C. In SQUID analysis, FC/ZFC measurements indicate that the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) is well above room temperature.

  6. High Temperature Magnetic Properties of Indirect Exchange Spring FePt/M(Cu,C/Fe Trilayer Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabil Gayen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of temperature dependent magnetic properties of FePt and FePt(30/M(Cu,C/Fe(5 trilayer thin films prepared by using magnetron sputtering technique at ambient temperature and postannealed at different temperatures. L10 ordering, hard magnetic properties, and thermal stability of FePt films are improved with increasing postannealing temperature. In FePt/M/Fe trilayer, the formation of interlayer exchange coupling between magnetic layers depends on interlayer materials and interface morphology. In FePt/C/Fe trilayer, when the C interlayer thickness was about 0.5 nm, a strong interlayer exchange coupling between hard and soft layers was achieved, and saturation magnetization was enhanced considerably after using interlayer exchange coupling with Fe. In addition, incoherent magnetization reversal process observed in FePt/Fe films changes into coherent switching process in FePt/C/Fe films giving rise to a single hysteresis loop. High temperature magnetic studies up to 573 K reveal that the effective reduction in the coercivity decreases largely from 34 Oe/K for FePt/Fe film to 13 Oe/K for FePt/C(0.5/Fe film demonstrating that the interlayer exchange coupling seems to be a promising approach to improve the stability of hard magnetic properties at high temperatures, which is suitable for high-performance magnets and thermally assisted magnetic recording media.

  7. Growth of YBCO thin films and their interaction with gold nano clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzer, Christian; Erlebach, Ralf; Kuhwald, Daniel; Michalowski, Peter; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Uschmann, Ingo [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) our team is able to fabricate and examine Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) thin films of high quality. A particular point of investigation is the influence of an in situ pre-deposited gold film. While growing the superconducting film one can achieve a formation of gold nano clusters in an YBCO matrix through heating of the initial gold layer. We studied the temperature dependence of the resistance in respect to the YBCO film thickness for various gold layers. Furthermore the critical current density at 77 K and their temperature dependence are compared with the one of non-modified YBCO thin film structures.

  8. Substrate temperature dependent studies on properties of chemical spray pyrolysis deposited CdS thin films for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwate, Kiran; Pawbake, Amit; Rondiya, Sachin; Kulkarni, Rupali; Waykar, Ravi; Jadhavar, Ashok; Rokade, Avinash; Funde, Adinath; Mohite, Kakasaheb; Shinde, Manish; Pathan, Habib; Devan, Rupesh; Jadkar, Sandesh

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of CdS have been prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis by spraying precursor solution directly onto soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. Influence of substrate temperature on structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties have been investigated by using various techniques such as low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectroscopy photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy etc. Formation of CdS has been confirmed by low angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy and XPS analysis. XRD pattern showed that CdS films are polycrystalline, have hexagonal structure and prefer orientation of crystallites shifts from (101) to (002) with increase in substrate temperature. Raman spectroscopy revealed that exciton-phonon coupling depends on substrate temperature and hence on crystallite size. Optical band gap increased from 2.43 to 2.99 eV when substrate temperature increased from 325 to 475 ^\\circ {{C}}. Transmittance of the film also showed an increasing trend from ˜ 52 % to ˜ 80 % with increase in substrate temperature. Such high band gap and transmittance values of CdS films prepared at 475 ^\\circ {{C}} make it a useful window material in CdS/CdTe and CdS/Cu2S heterojunction solar cells. Project supported by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India, New Delhi.

  9. Magnetic surface domain imaging of uncapped epitaxial FeRh(001 thin films across the temperature-induced metamagnetic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface magnetic domain structure of uncapped epitaxial FeRh/MgO(001 thin films was imaged by in-situ scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA at various temperatures between 122 and 450 K. This temperature range covers the temperature-driven antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition in the body of the films that was observed in-situ by means of the more depth-sensitive magneto-optical Kerr effect. The SEMPA images confirm that the interfacial ferromagnetism coexisting with the antiferromagnetic phase inside the film is an intrinsic property of the FeRh(001 surface. Furthermore, the SEMPA data display a reduction of the in-plane magnetization occuring well above the phase transition temperature which, thus, is not related to the volume expansion at the phase transition. This observation is interpreted as a spin reorientation of the surface magnetization for which we propose a possible mechanism based on temperature-dependent tetragonal distortion due to different thermal expansion coefficients of MgO and FeRh.

  10. Magnetic surface domain imaging of uncapped epitaxial FeRh(001) thin films across the temperature-induced metamagnetic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianzhong; Matthes, Frank; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-01-01

    The surface magnetic domain structure of uncapped epitaxial FeRh/MgO(001) thin films was imaged by in-situ scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) at various temperatures between 122 and 450 K. This temperature range covers the temperature-driven antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition in the body of the films that was observed in-situ by means of the more depth-sensitive magneto-optical Kerr effect. The SEMPA images confirm that the interfacial ferromagnetism coexisting with the antiferromagnetic phase inside the film is an intrinsic property of the FeRh(001) surface. Furthermore, the SEMPA data display a reduction of the in-plane magnetization occuring well above the phase transition temperature which, thus, is not related to the volume expansion at the phase transition. This observation is interpreted as a spin reorientation of the surface magnetization for which we propose a possible mechanism based on temperature-dependent tetragonal distortion due to different thermal expansion coefficients of MgO and FeRh.

  11. Room temperature multiferroic properties of (Fe{sub x}, Sr{sub 1−x})TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Cheolbok; Fang, Sheng-Po; Yoon, Yong-Kyu, E-mail: ykyoon@ece.ufl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    This letter reports the structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of Fe substituted SrTiO{sub 3} thin films in room temperature. The structural data obtained from x-ray diffraction indicates that (Fe{sub x},Sr{sub 1−x})TiO{sub 3}, the so called FST, transforms from pseudocubic to tetragonal structures with increase of the Fe content in SrTiO{sub 3} thin films, featuring the ferroelectricity, while vibrating sample magnetometer measurements show magnetic hysteresis loops for the samples with low iron contents indicating their ferromagnetism. The characterized ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism confirms strong multiferroitism of the single phase FST thin films in room temperature. Also, an FST thin film metal-insulator-metal multiferroic capacitor has been fabricated and characterized in microwave frequencies between 10 MHz and 5 GHz. A capacitor based on Fe{sub 0.1}Sr{sub 0.9}TiO{sub 3} with a thickness of 260 nm shows a high electric tunability of 18.6% at 10 V and a maximum magnetodielectric value of 1.37% at 0.4 mT with a loss tangent of 0.021 at 1 GHz. This high tuning and low loss makes this material as a good candidate for frequency agile microwave devices such as tunable filters, phase shifters, and antennas.

  12. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Sol-Gel Spin-Coating-Derived Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Rabie; Izadifard, Morteza; Ghazi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Bahramian, Bahram

    2018-02-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films grown on a glass substrate by spin coating sol-gel technique has been studied. Structural study showed that all samples had kesterite crystalline structure. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the crystalline quality of the samples was improved by heat treatment. Optical study showed that the energy gap values for the samples ranged from 1.55 eV to 1.78 eV. Moreover, good optical conductivity values (1012 S-1 to 1014 S-1) were obtained for the samples. Investigation of the electrical properties of the CZTS thin films showed that the carrier concentration increased significantly with the annealing temperature. The photoelectrical behavior of the samples revealed that the photocurrent under light illumination increased significantly. Overall, the results show that the CZTS thin films annealed at 500°C had better structural, optical, and electrical properties and that such CZTS thin films are desirable for use as absorber layers in solar cells. The photovoltaic properties of the CZTS layer annealed at 500°C were also investigated and the associated figure of merit calculated. The results showed that the fabricated ZnS-CZTS heterojunction exhibited good rectifying behavior but rather low fill factor.

  13. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of (ZnO){sub 1-x}(MnO{sub 2}){sub x} thin films deposited at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamat, S.; Mahmood, S.; Lin, J.J.; Pan, Z.Y.; Lee, P.; Tan, T.L.; Springham, S.V. [Natural Science and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Rawat, R.S. [Natural Science and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)], E-mail: rajdeep.rawat@nie.edu.sg

    2008-09-15

    The structural, magnetic and optical properties of (ZnO){sub 1-x}(MnO{sub 2}){sub x} (with x = 0.03 and 0.05) thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were studied. The pellets used as target, sintered at different temperatures ranging from 500 deg. C to 900 deg. C, were prepared by conventional solid state method using ZnO and MnO{sub 2} powders. The observation of non-monotonic shift in peak position of most preferred (1 0 1) ZnO diffraction plane in XRD spectra of pellets confirmed the substitution of Mn ions in ZnO lattice of the sintered targets. The as-deposited thin film samples are found to be polycrystalline with the preferred orientation mostly along (1 1 0) diffraction plane. The UV-vis spectroscopy of the thin films revealed that the energy band gap exhibit blue shift with increasing Mn content which could be attributed to Burstein-Moss shift caused by Mn doping of the ZnO. The deposited thin films exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism having effective magnetic moment per Mn atom in the range of 0.9-1.4{mu}{sub B} for both compositions.

  14. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Sol-Gel Spin-Coating-Derived Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Rabie; Izadifard, Morteza; Ghazi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Bahramian, Bahram

    2017-10-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films grown on a glass substrate by spin coating sol-gel technique has been studied. Structural study showed that all samples had kesterite crystalline structure. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the crystalline quality of the samples was improved by heat treatment. Optical study showed that the energy gap values for the samples ranged from 1.55 eV to 1.78 eV. Moreover, good optical conductivity values (1012 S-1 to 1014 S-1) were obtained for the samples. Investigation of the electrical properties of the CZTS thin films showed that the carrier concentration increased significantly with the annealing temperature. The photoelectrical behavior of the samples revealed that the photocurrent under light illumination increased significantly. Overall, the results show that the CZTS thin films annealed at 500°C had better structural, optical, and electrical properties and that such CZTS thin films are desirable for use as absorber layers in solar cells. The photovoltaic properties of the CZTS layer annealed at 500°C were also investigated and the associated figure of merit calculated. The results showed that the fabricated ZnS-CZTS heterojunction exhibited good rectifying behavior but rather low fill factor.

  15. Effect of Growth Temperature and Mn Incorporation on GaN:Mn Thin Films Grown by Plasma-Assisted MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Mulyanti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the growth of GaN:Mn thin films by plasma-assisted metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PAMOCVD method is reported. The method used in this study, utilizes a microwave cavity as a cracking cell to produce nitrogen radicals, which in turn reduce the growth temperature. Trimethylgallium (TMGa, nitrogen (N2 and cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (CpMnT were used as a source of Ga, N and Mn, respectively, while hydrogen gas was used as a carrier gas for both TMGa and CpMnT. The effect of growth temperature and Mn incorporation on structural properties and surface morphology of GaN:Mn films are presented. The growth of GaN:Mn thin films were conducted at varied growth temperature in range of 625 oC to 700 oC and the Mn/Ga molar fraction in the range of 0.2 to 0.5. Energy dispersive of X-ray (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD methods were used to analyze atomic composition and crystal structure of the grown films, respectively. The surface morphology was then characterized using both atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. A systematic XRD analysis reveal that maximum Mn incorporation that still produces single phase GaN:Mn (0002 is 6.4 % and 3.2 % for the film grown at 650 oC and 700 oC, respectively. The lattice constant and full width at half maximum (FWHM of the single phase films depend on the Mn concentration. The decrease in lattice constant accompanied by the increase in FWHM is due to incorporation of substitutional Mn on the Ga sub-lattice. The maximum values of doped Mn atoms incorporated in the wurtzite structure of GaN:Mn as substitutional atoms on Ga sub-lattice are 2.0 % and 2.5 % at 650 oC and 700 oC, respectively. AFM and SEM images show that the film grown at lower growth temperature and Mn concentration has a better surface than that of film grown at higher growth temperature and Mn concentration.

  16. Hysteresis and change of transition temperature in thin films of Fe([Me{sub 2}Pyrz]{sub 3}BH){sub 2}, a new sublimable spin-crossover molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davesne, V.; Gruber, M. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Cedex 2 Strasbourg (France); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Studniarek, M. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Cedex 2 Strasbourg (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Doh, W. H.; Zafeiratos, S. [Institut de Chimie et Procédés pour l’Energie, l’Environnement et la Santé, UMR 7515 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 25 rue Becquerel, 67087 Cedex 2 Strasbourg (France); Joly, L.; Schmerber, G.; Bowen, M.; Weber, W.; Boukari, S.; Da Costa, V.; Arabski, J.; Beaurepaire, E. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Cedex 2 Strasbourg (France); Sirotti, F.; Silly, M. G. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gaspar, A. B.; Real, J. A. [Institut de Ciència Molecular (ICMol), Universitat de València, C/Catedrático José Beltrán Martínez 2, 46980 Paterna (València) (Spain); and others

    2015-05-21

    Thin films of the spin-crossover (SCO) molecule Fe([Me{sub 2}Pyrz]{sub 3}BH){sub 2} (Fe-pyrz) were sublimed on Si/SiO{sub 2} and quartz substrates, and their properties investigated by X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopies, optical absorption, atomic force microscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device. Contrary to the previously studied Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}, the films are not smooth but granular. The thin films qualitatively retain the typical SCO properties of the powder sample (SCO, thermal hysteresis, soft X-ray induced excited spin-state trapping, and light induced excited spin-state trapping) but present intriguing variations even in micrometer-thick films: the transition temperature decreases when the thickness is decreased, and the hysteresis is affected. We explain this behavior in the light of recent studies focusing on the role of surface energy in the thermodynamics of the spin transition in nano-structures. In the high-spin state at room temperature, the films have a large optical gap (∼5 eV), decreasing at thickness below 50 nm, possibly due to film morphology.

  17. Determination of the Glass Transition Temperature of Freestanding and Supported Azo-Polymer Thin Films by Thermal Assisted Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, Elena; Kharintsev, Sergey; Fishman, Alexandr; Alekseev, Alexander; Salakhov, Myakzuym

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we introduce and apply the method for determination of the glass transition temperature of the sub-100 nm thick freestanding and supported polymer films based on thermally assisted atomic force microscopy (AFM). In proposed approach changes of the phase of an oscillating AFM cantilever are used to determine glass transition temperature. An anomalous decrease of the glass transition temperature for both free-standing and supported azobenzene-functionalized polymer thin films is shown.

  18. Thin film thermocouples for in situ membrane electrode assembly temperature measurements in a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Syed Talat; Lebæk, Jesper; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents Type-T thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) fabricated on Kapton (polyimide) substrate for measuring the internal temperature of PBI(polybenzimidazole)-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to deposit a 2 mu...... m thick layer of TFTCs on 75 mu m thick Kapton foil. The Kapton foil was treated with in situ argon plasma etching to improve the adhesion between TFTCs and the Kapton substrate. The TFTCs were covered with a 7 mu m liquid Kapton layer using spin coating technique to protect them from environmental...

  19. Thin Film Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L.

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques. Key Features * Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes * Introduces new topics, and several key topics presented in the original volume are updated * Emphasizes practical applications of major thin film deposition and etching processes * Helps readers find the appropriate technology for a particular application

  20. Effect of the annealing temperature on dynamic and structural properties of Co2FeAl thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmeguenai M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 10 nm and 50 nm thick Co2FeAl (CFA thin films have been deposited on thermally oxidized Si(001 substrates by magnetron sputtering using a Tantalum cap layer and were then ex-situ annealed at 415°C, 515°C and 615°C during 15 minutes in vacuum. X-rays diffraction indicates that films CFA are polycrystalline and exhibit an in-plane isotropy growth. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements, using a microstrip line (MS-FMR, reveal a huge interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and small in-plane uniaxial anisotropy both annealing temperature-dependent. The MS-FMR data also allow concluding that the gyromagnetic factor remains constant and that the exchange stiffness constant increases with annealing temperature. Finally, the FMR linewidth decreases with increasing annealing temperature due to the enhancement of the chemical order, and allow deriving a very low intrinsic damping parameter (1.3×10−3 at 615°C.

  1. Spectral analysis of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: Spectral phonon temperature and local nonequilibrium in thin films and across interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Yao, Wenjun; Wang, Zuyuan; Shi, Jingjing; Li, Chuang; Cao, Bingyang; Ruan, Xiulin

    2017-05-01

    Although extensive experimental and theoretical works have been conducted to understand the ballistic and diffusive phonon transport in nanomaterials recently, direct observation of temperature and thermal nonequilibrium of different phonon modes has not been realized. Herein, we have developed a method within the framework of molecular dynamics to calculate the temperatures of phonons in both real and phase spaces. Taking silicon thin film and graphene as examples, we directly obtained the spectral phonon temperature (SPT) and observed the local thermal nonequilibrium between the ballistic and diffusive phonons. Such nonequilibrium also generally exists across interfaces and is surprisingly large, and it provides a significant additional thermal interfacial resistance mechanism besides phonon reflection. Our SPT results directly show that the vertical thermal transport across the dimensionally mismatched graphene-substrate interface is through the coupling between flexural acoustic phonons of graphene and the longitudinal phonons in the substrate with mode conversion. In the dimensionally matched interfaces, e.g., graphene-graphene junction and graphene-boron nitride planar interfaces, strong coupling occurs between the acoustic phonon modes on both sides, and the coupling decreases with interfacial mixing. The SPT method together with the spectral heat flux can eliminate the size effect of the thermal conductivity prediction induced from ballistic transport.

  2. Temperature dependence of the conduction mechanisms through a Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jégou, C., E-mail: carole.jegou@u-psud.fr [Institut d Electronique Fondamentale, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Michalas, L. [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Maroutian, T.; Agnus, G. [Institut d Electronique Fondamentale, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Koutsoureli, M.; Papaioannou, G. [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Largeau, L. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, CNRS UPR 20, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Troadec, D. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Leuliet, A. [Thales Research and Technology France, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Aubert, P.; Lecoeur, Ph. [Institut d Electronique Fondamentale, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-07-31

    The conduction mechanisms through a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition with a La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) buffer layer on epitaxial Pt (111) were assessed in the 230–330 K temperature range. X-Ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy evidenced a columnar growth of (001)- and (011)-oriented PZT grains. The leakage current through the Pt/PZT/LSMO/Pt structure was then systematically measured. From current vs. time curves, a threshold voltage was found below which stable and reproducible current values are obtained, thus avoiding resistance degradation. The conduction mechanism changes from interface controlled at low temperatures to bulk controlled around room temperature. The hopping-type conductivity evidenced above 270 K is consistent with the extended defects and columnar microstructure of the PZT film. - Highlights: • La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} buffer layer is used in order to have a pure PbZr{sub 52}Ti {sub 0.48}O{sub 3} perovskite phase on Pt(111). • Below 270 K, leakage current is limited by charge injection through Schottky barrier. • Above 270 K, bulk conduction with hopping mechanism occurs, possibly along grain boundaries.

  3. Room-Temperature Creation and Spin–Orbit Torque Manipulation of Skyrmions in Thin Films with Engineered Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Guoqiang [Department; Upadhyaya, Pramey [Department; Li, Xiang [Department; Li, Wenyuan [Department; Kim, Se Kwon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States; Fan, Yabin [Department; Wong, Kin L. [Department; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States; Amiri, Pedram Khalili [Department; Wang, Kang L. [Department

    2016-02-10

    Magnetic skyrmions, which are topologically protected spin textures, are promising candidates for ultralow-energy and ultrahigh-density magnetic data storage and computing applications. To date, most experiments on skyrmions have been carried out at low temperatures. The choice of available materials is limited, and there is a lack of electrical means to control skyrmions in devices. In this work, we demonstrate a new method for creating a stable skyrmion bubble phase in the CoFeB–MgO material system at room temperature, by engineering the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layer. Importantly, we also demonstrate that artificially engineered symmetry breaking gives rise to a force acting on the skyrmions, in addition to the current-induced spin–orbit torque, which can be used to drive their motion. This room-temperature creation and manipulation of skyrmions offers new possibilities to engineer skyrmionic devices. The results bring skyrmionic memory and logic concepts closer to realization in industrially relevant and manufacturable thin film material systems.

  4. Room-Temperature Creation and Spin–Orbit Torque Manipulation of Skyrmions in Thin Films with Engineered Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Li, Xiang; Li, Wenyuan; Kim, Se Kwon; Fan, Yabin; Wong, Kin L.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-03-09

    Magnetic skyrmions, which are topologically protected spin textures, are promising candidates for ultralow-energy and ultrahigh-density magnetic data storage and computing applications. To date, most experiments on skyrmions have been carried out at low temperatures. The choice of available materials is limited, and there is a lack of electrical means to control skyrmions in devices. In this work, we demonstrate a new method for creating a stable skyrmion bubble phase in the CoFeB–MgO material system at room temperature, by engineering the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layer. Importantly, we also demonstrate that artificially engineered symmetry breaking gives rise to a force acting on the skyrmions, in addition to the current-induced spin–orbit torque, which can be used to drive their motion. This room-temperature creation and manipulation of skyrmions offers new possibilities to engineer skyrmionic devices. The results bring skyrmionic memory and logic concepts closer to realization in industrially relevant and manufacturable thin film material systems.

  5. Integration and High-Temperature Characterization of Ferroelectric Vanadium-Doped Bismuth Titanate Thin Films on Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Mattias; Khartsev, Sergiy; Östling, Mikael; Zetterling, Carl-Mikael

    2017-07-01

    4H-SiC electronics can operate at high temperature (HT), e.g., 300°C to 500°C, for extended times. Systems using sensors and amplifiers that operate at HT would benefit from microcontrollers which can also operate at HT. Microcontrollers require nonvolatile memory (NVM) for computer programs. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of integrating ferroelectric vanadium-doped bismuth titanate (BiTV) thin films on 4H-SiC for HT memory applications, with BiTV ferroelectric capacitors providing memory functionality. Film deposition was achieved by laser ablation on Pt (111)/TiO2/4H-SiC substrates, with magnetron-sputtered Pt used as bottom electrode and thermally evaporated Au as upper contacts. Film characterization by x-ray diffraction analysis revealed predominately (117) orientation. P- E hysteresis loops measured at room temperature showed maximum 2 P r of 48 μC/cm2, large enough for wide read margins. P- E loops were measurable up to 450°C, with losses limiting measurements above 450°C. The phase-transition temperature was determined to be about 660°C from the discontinuity in dielectric permittivity, close to what is achieved for ceramics. These BiTV ferroelectric capacitors demonstrate potential for use in HT NVM applications for SiC digital electronics.

  6. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wehrenfennig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3−xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3−xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  7. Effect of substrate temperature and post-annealing on the properties of CIGS thin films deposited using e-beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyi; Shen, Honglie; Zhai, Zihao; Li, Jinze; Wang, Wei; Shang, Huirong; Li, Yufang

    2016-12-01

    Cu(InGa)Se2 (CIGS) thin films were prepared using e-beam evaporation on a soda-lime glass substrate. The effect of substrate temperature and the difference between substrate temperature and post-annealing on the properties of the CIGS thin films and solar cells were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis-NIR and the Hall effect were used to characterize the structural properties, composition, morphology, optical properties and electrical properties of the as-prepared CIGS thin films, respectively. The results demonstrated that the photoelectric properties of CIGS thin films prepared at a substrate temperature of 300 °C were optimal, with an efficiency of 7.1%. As the substrate temperature increased to over 300 °C, element gallium tended to evaporate from the substrate, which resulted in the variation of the Cu/(In  +  Ga) and Ga/(In  +  Ga) ratios of the films. The post-annealing process with in situ annealing temperatures of 300 °C and 400 °C was also studied. The results indicated that the post-annealing process, unlike the process of direct deposition at certain substrate temperatures, was able to avoid the element loss. At 300 °C in situ post-annealing temperature, there formed a ‘polygon grains’ Cu2-x Se phase, which disappeared when the in situ post-annealing temperature rose to 400 °C. The XRD patterns revealed that the post-annealing process made the element diffusion in films more uniform. The post-treated sample with an in situ post-annealing temperature at 400 °C, as a result, showed the highest efficiency of 9.0%, accompanied by the highest open-circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor.

  8. Thin film AlSb carrier transport properties and room temperature radiation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Erin Ivey

    Theoretical predictions for AlSb material properties have not been realized using bulk growth methods. This research was motivated by advances in molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth technology to produce high-quality thin-film AlSb for the purpose of evaluating transport properties and suitability for radiation detection. Simulations using MCNP5 were performed to benchmark an existing silicon surface barrier detector and to predict ideal AlSb detector behavior, with the finding that AlSb should have improved detection efficiency due to the larger atomic number of Sb compared with Si. GaSb diodes were fabricated by both homoepitaxial MBE and ion implantation methods in order to determine the effect on the radiation detection performance. It was found that the radiation response for the MBE grown GaSb diodes was very uniform, whereas the ion-implanted GaSb diodes exhibited highly variable spectral behavior. Two sets of AlSb heterostructures were fabricated by MBE methods; one for a Hall doping study and the other for a radiation response study. The samples were characterized for material quality using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Nomarski imaging, atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), I-V curve analysis, and Hall effect measurements. The Hall study samples were grown on semi-insulating (SI) GaAs substrates and contained a thin GaAs layer on top to protect the AlSb from oxygen. Doping for the AlSb layer was achieved using GaTe and Be for n- and p-type conductivity, respectively, with intended doping densities ranging from 1015 to 1017 cm -3. Results for net carrier concentration ranged 2x10 9 to 1x1017 cm-3, 60 to 3000 cm 2/Vs for mobility, and 2 to 106 Ω-cm for resistivity, with the undoped AlSb samples presenting the best values. The radiation detector samples were designed to be PIN diodes, with undoped AlSb sandwiched between n-type GaAs substrate and p-type GaSb as a conductive oxygen-protective layer. Energy spectra were measured

  9. Temperature-dependent bias-stress-induced electrical instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui-Min; Yu, Guang; Lu, Hai; Wu, Chen-Fei; Tang, Lan-Feng; Zhou, Dong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Liao; Huang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The time and temperature dependence of threshold voltage shift under positive-bias stress (PBS) and the following recovery process are investigated in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. It is found that the time dependence of threshold voltage shift can be well described by a stretched exponential equation in which the time constant τ is found to be temperature dependent. Based on Arrhenius plots, an average effective energy barrier Eτstress = 0.72 eV for the PBS process and an average effective energy barrier Eτrecovery = 0.58 eV for the recovery process are extracted respectively. A charge trapping/detrapping model is used to explain the threshold voltage shift in both the PBS and the recovery process. The influence of gate bias stress on transistor performance is one of the most critical issues for practical device development. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB301900 and 2011CB922100) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China

  10. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-08-31

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures.

  11. Low-temperature fabrication of high-performance metal oxide thin-film electronics via combustion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Gil; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.

    2011-05-01

    The development of large-area, low-cost electronics for flat-panel displays, sensor arrays, and flexible circuitry depends heavily on high-throughput fabrication processes and a choice of materials with appropriate performance characteristics. For different applications, high charge carrier mobility, high electrical conductivity, large dielectric constants, mechanical flexibility or optical transparency may be required. Although thin films of metal oxides could potentially meet all of these needs, at present they are deposited using slow and equipment-intensive techniques such as sputtering. Recently, solution processing schemes with high throughput have been developed, but these require high annealing temperatures (Tanneal>400 °C), which are incompatible with flexible polymeric substrates. Here we report combustion processing as a new general route to solution growth of diverse electronic metal oxide films (In2O3, a-Zn-Sn-O, a-In-Zn-O, ITO) at temperatures as low as 200 °C. We show that this method can be implemented to fabricate high-performance, optically transparent transistors on flexible plastic substrates.

  12. Evaporation temperature-tuned physical vapor deposition growth engineering of one-dimensional non-Fermi liquid tetrathiofulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkar, I.; Laux, M.; Demokritova, J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the growth of high quality tetrathiofulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) organic charge-transfer thin films which show a clear non-Fermi liquid behavior. Temperature dependent angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations show that the growth...... of TTF-TCNQ films is accompanied by the unfavorable presence of neutral TTF and TCNQ molecules. The quality of the films can be controlled by tuning the evaporation temperature of the precursor in physical vapor deposition method....

  13. Room temperature optical and magnetic properties of (Cu, K) doped ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor thin films grown by chemical bath deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, G.; Shameem Banu, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor thin films were prepared by simultaneously doping the non-magnetic Cu and K in the cation sites of the host ZnO employing the chemical bath deposition method. In this study, K was kept at a concentration of 1% and Cu concentration was varied at 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. For comparative study, 1% K doped ZnO was also prepared. The influence of K and Cu doping on the transmittance, band gap and magnetic properties were investigated. The XRD revealed that the thin films are polycrystalline and has hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO without any secondary phases. Well developed hexagonal structures are observed from the surface morphology. The transmittance shows a significant variation when Cu is incorporated at different doping levels along with K and the band gap change is significant for higher concentration. The room temperature magnetic hysteresis revealed the typical ferromagnetic behavior of K doped and (K, Cu) doped ZnO thin films. The K and Cu doped ZnO thin film exhibited enhanced magnetization compared to K doped ZnO thin film. The present study reveals that the magnetic results of the K and Cu doped ZnO are markedly better than that of the Cu doped ZnO reported by other experiments. The magnetic properties have been explained on the basis of the photoluminescence spectrum. The origin of ferromagnetism is due to the p-d hybridization which has the influence on the band gap also.

  14. Influence of dielectric substrate modification and deposition temperature on structure and morphology of CuPc thin films: X-ray reflectivity and angle dependent NEXAFS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumona; Wang, C.-H.; Mukherjee, M.

    2017-09-01

    The performances of organic thin film transistor devices are significantly linked with the structural properties at organic semiconductor/dielectric interface. The changes in internal structure, molecular ordering and morphology of 20 nm thick CuPc thin films have been investigated by modifying surface of the dielectric substrate with various organic buffer layers at different deposition temperatures. CuPc films are prepared on bare and modified SiO2 substrates at three deposition temperatures. Dielectric surface modification and deposition temperature modify the CuPc /dielectric interfaces accordingly and growth of subsequent CuPc layer. The internal structure, ordering and morphology of CuPc film strongly depends on the behavior of the dielectric layers at various temperatures as well as the diffusion of CuPc molecules. The XRR results reveal that the thickness and ordering of periodic part of CuPc film is varied with dielectric substrate modification as well as deposition temperature. The periodicity of CuPc molecules in the film is always obtained in its α-form. In addition, the angle dependent NEXAFS data determine the angle of CuPc molecular orientation in the range 64° to 71° in the range of 40° to 120 °C deposition temperature, independent of surface modification. The results pave the way for the design and realization of CuPc based thin film transistor devices.

  15. Influence of annealing temperature on ZnO thin films grown by dual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In electrical characterization as well, when annealing temperature was increased from 400 to 600 °C, room temperature electron mobility enhanced from 6.534 to 13.326 cm2/V s, and then reduced with subsequent increase in temperature. Therefore, 600 °C annealing temperature produced good-quality ZnO film, suitable ...

  16. Superconducting metamaterials and qubits

    OpenAIRE

    Plourde, B. L. T.; Wang, Haozhi; Rouxinol, Francisco; LaHaye, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting thin-film metamaterial resonators can provide a dense microwave mode spectrum with potential applications in quantum information science. We report on the fabrication and low-temperature measurement of metamaterial transmission-line resonators patterned from Al thin films. We also describe multiple approaches for numerical simulations of the microwave properties of these structures, along with comparisons with the measured transmission spectra. The ability to predict the mode ...

  17. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  18. Low-temperature spray-deposited indium oxide for flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Luisa; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Münzenrieder, Niko; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Patsalas, Panos A. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Applied Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-03-02

    Indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient air and incorporated into bottom-gate coplanar and staggered thin-film transistors. As-fabricated devices exhibited electron-transporting characteristics with mobility values of 1 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} and 16 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} for coplanar and staggered architectures, respectively. Integration of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} transistors enabled realization of unipolar inverters with high gain (5.3 V/V) and low-voltage operation. The low temperature deposition (≤250 °C) of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} also allowed transistor fabrication on free-standing 50 μm-thick polyimide foils. The resulting flexible In{sub 2}O{sub 3} transistors exhibit good characteristics and remain fully functional even when bent to tensile radii of 4 mm.

  19. Inkjet-Printed Porous Silver Thin Film as a Cathode for a Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen-Chiang; Baek, Jong Dae; Su, Chun-Hao; Fan, Liangdong; Wei, Jun; Liao, Ying-Chih; Su, Pei-Chen

    2016-04-27

    In this work we report a porous silver thin film cathode that was fabricated by a simple inkjet printing process for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications. The electrochemical performance of the inkjet-printed silver cathode was studied at 300-450 °C and was compared with that of silver cathodes that were fabricated by the typical sputtering method. Inkjet-printed silver cathodes showed lower electrochemical impedance due to their porous structure, which facilitated oxygen gaseous diffusion and oxygen surface adsorption-dissociation reactions. A typical sputtered nanoporous silver cathode became essentially dense after the operation and showed high impedance due to a lack of oxygen supply. The results of long-term fuel cell operation show that the cell with an inkjet-printed cathode had a more stable current output for more than 45 h at 400 °C. A porous silver cathode is required for high fuel cell performance, and the simple inkjet printing technique offers an alternative method of fabrication for such a desirable porous structure with the required thermal-morphological stability.

  20. Analysis of defects in low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin films related to surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Kuninori; Yeh, Wenchang; Hara, Akito

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of Raman scattering (RS) spectroscopy is presented for low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films on glass substrates fabricated by excimer laser crystallization. In this material, RS is enhanced by specific protrusions at the grain boundary (GB). As a result, the Si lattice mode predominantly reflects the characteristics of GB and its neighborhood. A combination of low-damage hydrogenation and RS analysis enables the detection of lattice defects as Si–hydrogen (H) local vibration modes (LVMs). The characteristics of LVMs peculiar to this material are examined by chemical etching and postannealing. One of the dominant LVMs centered at ∼2000 cm‑1 is assigned to H-terminated dangling bonds in the amorphous structures at GB, which is also enhanced by protrusions. The other dominant band centered at ∼2100 cm‑1 is attributed to the strained Si–Si lattice near the Si/underlayer interface in grains that is broken and stabilized by extrinsic H atoms.

  1. Optical thin film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shuzheng

    1991-11-01

    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  2. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Flowerlike Cu3BiS3 Thin Films Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S. G.; Patel, S. J.; Patel, K. K.; Panchal, A. K.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2017-10-01

    For widespread application of thin-film photovoltaic solar cells, synthesis of inexpensive absorber material is essential. In this work, deposition of ternary Cu3BiS3 absorber material, which contains abundant and environmentally benign elements, was carried out on glass substrate. Flowerlike Cu3BiS3 thin films with nanoflakes as building block were formed on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition. These films were annealed at 573 K and 673 K in sulfur ambient for structural improvement. Their structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, as well as their surface morphological and optical properties. The x-ray diffraction profile of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 thin film revealed amorphous structure, which transformed to orthorhombic phase after annealing. The Raman spectrum exhibited a characteristic peak at 290 cm-1. Scanning electron microscopy of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 film confirmed formation of nanoflowers with diameter of around 1052 nm. Wettability testing of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 thin film demonstrated hydrophobic nature, which became hydrophilic after annealing. The measured ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra of the Cu3BiS3 thin films gave an absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1 and direct optical bandgap of about 1.42 eV after annealing treatment. Based on all these results, such Cu3BiS3 material may have potential applications in the photovoltaic field as an absorber layer.

  3. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  4. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.

    2010-06-29

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  5. Low-temperature glass bonding for sensor application using boron oxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Bouwstra, S.; Bouwstra, Siebe; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Low-temperature glass bonding of silicon, silicon dioxide and silicon nitride is described. Boron oxide was used as the intermediate glass layer at a bonding temperature of 450°C. First experiments indicate that due to reflow and deformation of the molten glass layer, bonding over metal patterns is

  6. Nonlinear optical thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  7. Influence of substrate temperature on physical properties of (111 oriented CdIn2S4 thin films by nebulized spray pyrolysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Raj Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the substrate temperature influenced change in the structural, optical, morphological, and electrical conductivity properties of CdIn2S4 thin films deposited on amorphous glass substrates by nebulized spray pyrolysis (NSP technique. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that the as-deposited CdIn2S4 thin films had a cubic structure with a preferred orientation along (111 plane. The reduced strain by increasing the substrate temperature from 200 to 350 °C increased the average crystalline size from 17 to 33 nm while the formation of secondary phases such as CdIn2O4 and In2O3 reduced it to 21 nm after the substrate temperature at 450 °C. The energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX studies confirmed the presence of Cd, In, and S. The absorption coefficient, direct band gap energy, Urbach energy, skin depth, and extinction coefficient of CdIn2S4 films were analyzed by optical absorption spectra. The better conductivity and mobility noticed at Ts = 350 °C are explained by carrier concentration and crystalline size. Better optical and electrical conductivity behavior of CdIn2S4 thin film sample suggests for effective PEC solar cell fabrication.

  8. Effects of aging time and annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of sol-gel ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZnO thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method at different annealing temperatures and aging time. The structural properties of ZnO thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns and atomic force microscope (AFM images. The results indicated that the film possess a hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along the (002 direction. The crystalline quality of films improved with increasing post-annealing temperature, while gradually worsened with prolonging aging time. The optical properties of ZnO thin films were studied by the ultra-violet transmittance (UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL spectra. The variations of UV-Vis transmittance and energy gap accorded well with the tendency presented in XRD patterns and AFM images. The PL spectra appeared the apparent ultraviolet emission and visible emissions. As the annealing temperature increased, the ultraviolet and visible emissions of films enhanced and decreased respectively. However, as the sol aging time prolonged, the PL emission presented an opposite tendency.

  9. Effects of Ambient Air and Temperature on Ionic Gel Gated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistor and Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaping; Zhou, Lili

    2015-10-21

    Single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (SWCNT TFT) and circuits were fabricated by fully inkjet printing gold nanoparticles as source/drain electrodes, semiconducting SWCNT thin films as channel materials, PS-PMMA-PS/EMIM TFSI composite gel as gate dielectrics, and PEDOT/PSS as gate electrodes. The ionic gel gated SWCNT TFT shows reversible conversion from p-type transistor behavior in air to ambipolar features under vacuum due to reversible oxygen doping in semiconducting SWCNT thin films. The threshold voltages of ionic gel gated SWCNT TFT and inverters are largely shifted to the low value (0.5 V for p-region and 1.0 V for n-region) by vacuum annealing at 140 °C to exhausively remove water that is incorporated in the ionic gel as floating gates. The vacuum annealed ionic gel gated SWCNT TFT shows linear temperature dependent transconductances and threshold voltages for both p- and n-regions. The strong temperature dependent transconductances (0.08 μS/K for p-region, 0.4 μS/K for n-region) indicate their potential application in thermal sensors. In the other hand, the weak temperature dependent threshold voltages (-1.5 mV/K for p-region, -1.1 mV/K for n-region) reflect their excellent thermal stability.

  10. High-temperature conductivity evaluation of Nb doped SrTiO{sub 3} thin films: Influence of strain and growth mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguesse, Frédéric [Imperial College London, Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); CIC ENERGIGUNE, Parque Tecnológico de Alaba, Albert Einstein 48, ED.CIC, 01510, Miñano (Spain); Axelsson, Anna-Karin [Imperial College London, Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); Reinhard, Patrick [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, HCI G539, CH-8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Tileli, Vasiliki [Imperial College London, Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); Rupp, Jennifer L.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Alford, Neil McN [Imperial College London, Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-31

    Doped SrTiO{sub 3} thin films, 55 nm thick, were epitaxially grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition with niobium contents ranging from 2 to 5 mol% on SrTiO{sub 3} and LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. The different templates result in different growth defects, film growth mechanism and therefore a different volume fraction of uniformly strained film under the critical thickness. The investigation of the conductivity reveals a significant difference between the two substrate choices, but only at elevated temperatures with conductivity values up to 30% larger for films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates compared with LaAlO{sub 3}. Whereas in bulk ceramics the niobium level dictates the total conductivity, here it was found that the substrate choice had a greater influence for thin films, in particular at temperatures over 400 °C. This finding provides important information on conductive layers in complex heterostructures where strain and defects could work cooperatively. - Highlights: • Relation between growth mechanisms of Nb-SrTiO{sub 3} thin films with substrate mismatch • Strain dependence of the conductivity revealed by high temperature measurements • Increase of conductivity for films deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} compared to LaAlO{sub 3} substrates • Conductivity mechanisms depend on the mechanical strain applied by the substrate.

  11. Investigation on the oxidation behavior of AlCrVxN thin films by means of synchrotron radiation and influence on the high temperature friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Kokalj, David; Stangier, Dominic; Paulus, Michael; Sternemann, Christian; Tolan, Metin

    2018-01-01

    Friction minimization is an important topic which is pursued in research and industry. In addition to the use of lubricants, friction-reducing oxide phases can be utilized which occur during. These oxides are called Magnéli phases and especially vanadium oxides exhibit good friction reducing properties. Thereby, the lubrication effect can be traced back to oxygen deficiencies. AlCrN thin films are being used as coatings for tools which have to withstand high temperatures. A further improvement of AlCrN thin films concerning their friction properties is possible by incorporation of vanadium. This study analyzes the temperature dependent oxidation behavior of magnetron sputtered AlCrVN thin films with different vanadium contents up to 13.5 at.-% by means of X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Up to 400 °C the coatings show no oxidation. A higher temperature of 700 °C leads to an oxidation and formation of Magnéli phases of the coatings with vanadium contents above 10.7 at.-%. Friction coefficients, measured by ball-on-disk test are correlated with the oxide formation in order to figure out the effect of vanadium oxides. At 700 °C a decrease of the friction coefficient with increasing vanadium content can be observed, due to the formation of VO2, V2O3 and the Magnéli phase V4O7.

  12. Morin transition temperature in (0001)-oriented α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film and effect of Ir doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, Naoki, E-mail: shimomura@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Pati, Satya Prakash; Sato, Yuji; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sahashi, Masashi [Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shibata, Tatsuo [Advanced Technology Development Center, TDK Corporation, Ichikawa 272-0026 (Japan); Mibu, Ko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    The structural properties and Morin transition in c-plane-oriented α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ir-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been investigated. The enhancement of the Morin transition temperature (T{sub M}) in α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} film by Ir doping has been demonstrated. The T{sub M} in the c-plane-oriented α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film was determined from the temperature-dependent in-plane magnetization and change of coercivity (H{sub c}); this T{sub M} value was found close to that of bulk α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The spin directions of non-doped and Ir-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at room temperature were also estimated from conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. We confirmed that Ir doping dramatically enhances the T{sub M} of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film.

  13. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  14. Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

  15. A phase transition close to room temperature in BiFeO3 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, J; Jadhav, P; Chaix-Pluchery, O; Varela, M; Dix, N; Sánchez, F; Fontcuberta, J

    2011-08-31

    BiFeO3 (BFO) multiferroic oxide has a complex phase diagram that can be mapped by using appropriately substrate-induced strain in epitaxial films. By using Raman spectroscopy, we conclusively show that films of the so-called supertetragonal T-BFO phase, stabilized under compressive strain, display a reversible temperature-induced phase transition at about 100 °C, and thus close to room temperature.

  16. A phase transition close to room temperature in BiFeO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisel, J; Jadhav, P; Chaix-Pluchery, O [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, Grenoble INP, CNRS, Minatec, 3, parvis Louis Neel, 38016 Grenoble (France); Varela, M [Departamento Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Carrer MartI i Franques 1. 08028 Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Dix, N; Sanchez, F; Fontcuberta, J, E-mail: jens.kreisel@grenoble-inp.fr [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain)

    2011-08-31

    BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) multiferroic oxide has a complex phase diagram that can be mapped by using appropriately substrate-induced strain in epitaxial films. By using Raman spectroscopy, we conclusively show that films of the so-called supertetragonal T-BFO phase, stabilized under compressive strain, display a reversible temperature-induced phase transition at about 100 deg. C, and thus close to room temperature. (fast track communication)

  17. Thin Films of Reduced Hafnium Oxide with Excess Carbon for High-Temperature Oxidation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    contamination; thus the higher oxygen content found by XPS is partly due to organic impurities (and, possibly, water ) that are mostly concentrated in the...International Service Award, 2007. 25 REFERENCES ’C. B. Bargeron, R. C. Benson, and A. N. Jette , "High-Temperature Diffusion of Oxygen in Oxidizing Hafnium...A. N. Jette , and T. E. Phillips, "Oxidation of Hafnium Carbide in the Temperature Range 1400 ° to 2060 °C," Journal of the American Ceramic Society

  18. Energy Gap, Microwave-Assisted Tunneling, and Josephson Steps in Thin-Film Weak Links at 63 and 302 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Bent; Særmark, Knud

    1973-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for the occurrence of energy-gap structure and microwave-assisted tunneling in the IV curves for superconducting thin-film weak links. From measurements of the power and the temperature dependence of the Josephson steps we argue that also the Riedel peak is observ...

  19. Integrated high-transition temperature magnetometer with only two superconducting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, R.; Kingston, J.J.; Miklich, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of an integrated YBa2Cu3O7-x thin-film magnetometer consisting of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), with biepitaxial grain boundary junctions, integrated with a flux transformer on a single substrate. Only two superconducting layers...... are required, the SQUID body serving as the crossunder that completes the multiturn flux transformer. The highest temperature at which any of the magnetometers functioned was 76 K. At 60 K the magnetic field gain of this device was 63, and the magnetic field noise was 160 fT Hz-1/2 at 2 kHz, increasing to 3...

  20. Room temperature electrical properties of solution derived p-type Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Goutam Kumar; Dixit, Ambesh, E-mail: ambesh@iitj.ac.in [Department of Physics and Center for Solar Energy, Indian institute of technology Jodhpur, Rajasthan, 342011 India (India)

    2016-05-06

    Electrical properties of solution processed Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) compound semiconductor thin film structures on molybdenum (Mo) coated glass substrates are investigated using Mott-Schottky and Impedance spectroscopy measurements at room temperature. These measurements are carried out in sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) electrolytic medium at pH ~ 9.5. The inversion/depletion/accumulation regions are clearly observed in CZTS semiconductor −Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte interface and measured flat band potential is ~ −0.27 V for CZTS thin film electrode. The positive slope of the depletion region confirms the intrinsic p-type characteristics of CZTS thinfilms with ~ 2.5× 10{sup 19} holes/m{sup 3}. The high frequency impedance measurements showed ~ 30 Ohm electrolyte resistance for the investigated configuration.

  1. Temperature-dependent templated growth of porphine thin films on the (111) facets of copper and silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Katharina; Klappenberger, Florian; Allegretti, Francesco; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C; Fischer, Sybille; Duncan, David A; Maurer, Reinhard J; Lloyd, Julian A; Oh, Seung Cheol; Reuter, Karsten; Barth, Johannes V

    2014-10-14

    The templated growth of the basic porphyrin unit, free-base porphine (2H-P), is characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory (DFT). The DFT simulations allow the deconvolution of the complex XPS and NEXAFS signatures into contributions originating from five inequivalent carbon atoms, which can be grouped into C-N and C-C bonded species. Polarization-dependent NEXAFS measurements reveal an intriguing organizational behavior: On both Cu(111) and Ag(111), for coverages up to one monolayer, the molecules adsorb undeformed and parallel to the respective metal surface. Upon increasing the coverage, however, the orientation of the molecules in the thin films depends on the growth conditions. Multilayers deposited at low temperatures exhibit a similar average tilting angle (30° relative to the surface plane) on both substrates. Conversely, for multilayers grown at room temperature a markedly different scenario exists. On Cu(111) the film thickness is self-limited to a coverage of approximately two layers, while on Ag(111) multilayers can be grown easily and, in contrast to the bulk 2H-P crystal, the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the surface. This difference in molecular orientation results in a modified line-shape of the C 1s XPS signatures, which depends on the incident photon energy and is explained by comparison with depth-resolved DFT calculations. Simulations of ionization energies for differently stacked molecules show no indication for a packing-induced modification of the multilayer XP spectra, thus indicating that the comparison of single molecule calculations to multilayer data is justified.

  2. Thickness- and temperature-dependent magnetodynamic properties of yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, M., E-mail: mohammad.haidar@Physics.gu.se; Ranjbar, M.; Balinsky, M.; Dumas, R. K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Khartsev, S. [Department of Integrated Devices and Circuits, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 16440 Kista (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 16440 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    The magnetodynamical properties of nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet films are studied using ferromagnetic resonance as a function of temperature. The films were grown on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates by pulsed laser deposition. First, we found that the damping coefficient increases as the temperature increases for different film thicknesses. Second, we found two different dependencies of the damping on film thickness: at room temperature, the damping coefficient increases as the film thickness decreases, while at T = 8 K, we find the damping to depend only weakly on the thickness. We attribute this behavior to an enhancement of the relaxation of the magnetization by impurities or defects at the surfaces.

  3. Chromium dioxide-low temperature thin film growth, structural and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Pedro Miguel Fortunas Dias, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Física, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008 Magnetic materials exhibiting a high degree of spin polarization are being actively investigated for their potential use in spintronic devices. Among them, CrO2 is very attractive because it is a half-metal fully spin polarized at the Fermi level with a magnetic moment of 2 µB/f.u. and Curie temperature well above room temperature (RT). Therefore, much effort has been put into develo...

  4. Investigation of the effect of anodization time and annealing temperature on the physical properties of ZrO2 thin film on a Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kian Heng; Lee, Hui Jing; Lau, Sze Kuan; Chiew Teh, Pei; Ramesh, S.; Tan, Chou Yong; Hoong Wong, Yew

    2017-08-01

    This research work studied the effects of various anodization times (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min) and various annealing temperatures (500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C) on ZrO2 thin film on a Si substrate. The ZrO2 thin film was prepared via sputtering and anodization processes on a Si substrate. The existence of Si, SiO2, m-ZrO2, t-ZrO2 and ZrSiO4 was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, NaOH was observed as a residue on the surface of the thin film. The grain size and microstrain of both m-ZrO2, and t-ZrO2 were calculated using the Williamson-Hall and/or Scherrer equation. The morphology of samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to unannealed samples, the annealed samples have a smaller grain size, less NaOH, and SiO2 with a smoother surface. However, the SiO2 existed when being annealed at higher temperatures (⩾800 °C).

  5. CeO2 thin film as a low-temperature formaldehyde sensor in mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vapour sensing characteristics of the annealed film were studied by chemiresistive method for various concentrations of formaldehyde vapour at room temperature (∼ 30 °C). For 0.5 ppm of formaldehyde vapour, the film shows a response and recovery time of 36 and 1 s, respectively. The vapour sensing properties of ...

  6. High-temperature sensor instrumentation with a thin-film-based sapphire fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuqing; Xia, Wei; Hu, Zhangzhong; Wang, Ming

    2017-03-10

    A novel sapphire fiber-optic high-temperature sensor has been designed and fabricated based on blackbody radiation theory. Metallic molybdenum has been used as the film material to develop the blackbody cavity, owing to its relatively high melting point compared to that of sapphire. More importantly, the fabrication process for the blackbody cavity is simple, efficient, and economical. Thermal radiation emitted from such a blackbody cavity is transmitted via optical fiber to a remote place for detection. The operating principle, the sensor structure, and the fabrication process are described here in detail. The developed high-temperature sensor was calibrated through a calibration blackbody furnace at temperatures from 900°C to 1200°C and tested by a sapphire crystal growth furnace up to 1880°C. The experimental results of our system agree well with those from a commercial Rayteck MR1SCCF infrared pyrometer, and the maximum residual is approximately 5°C, paving the way for high-accuracy temperature measurement especially for extremely harsh environments.

  7. Fast temperature cycling and electromigration induced thin film cracking multilevel interconnection: experiments and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Nguyen, H.; Salm, Cora; Vroemen, J.; Voets, J.; Krabbenborg, B.H.; Bisschop, J.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Kuper, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing reliability concern of thermal stress-induced and electromigration-induced failures in multilevel interconnections in recent years. This paper reports our investigations of thinfilm cracking of a multilevel interconnect due to fast temperature cycling and electromigration

  8. Dynamic chemical expansion of thin-film non-stoichiometric oxides at extreme temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Jessica G; Kim, Jae Jin; Maloney, John M; Chen, Di; Smith, James F; Bishop, Sean R; Tuller, Harry L; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2017-07-01

    Actuator operation in increasingly extreme and remote conditions requires materials that reliably sense and actuate at elevated temperatures, and over a range of gas environments. Design of such materials will rely on high-temperature, high-resolution approaches for characterizing material actuation in situ. Here, we demonstrate a novel type of high-temperature, low-voltage electromechanical oxide actuator based on the model material PrxCe1-xO2-δ (PCO). Chemical strain and interfacial stress resulted from electrochemically pumping oxygen into or out of PCO films, leading to measurable film volume changes due to chemical expansion. At 650 °C, nanometre-scale displacement and strain of >0.1% were achieved with electrical bias values <0.1 V, low compared to piezoelectrically driven actuators, with strain amplified fivefold by stress-induced structural deflection. This operando measurement of films 'breathing' at second-scale temporal resolution also enabled detailed identification of the controlling kinetics of this response, and can be extended to other electrochemomechanically coupled oxide films at extreme temperatures.

  9. Temperature dependent grain-size and microstrain of CdO thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray line broadening technique is adopted to study the effect of substrate temperature on microstructural parameters such as grain size and microstrain. ... School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, India; Department of ...

  10. Element-specific study of the temperature dependent magnetization of Co-Mn-Sb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalhorst, J.; Ebke, D.; Meinert, M.; Thomas, A.; Reiss, G.; Arenholz, E.

    2008-09-30

    Magnetron sputtered thin Co-Mn-Sb films were investigated with respect to their element-specific magnetic properties. Stoichiometric Co{sub 1}Mn{sub 1}Sb{sub 1} crystallized in the C1{sub b} structure has been predicted to be half-metallic and is therefore of interest for spintronics applications. It should show a characteristic antiferromagnetic coupling of the Mn and Co magnetic moments and a transition temperature T{sub C} of about 480K. Although the observed transition temperature of our 20nm thick Co{sub 32.4}Mn{sub 33.7}Sb{sub 33.8}, Co{sub 37.7}Mn{sub 34.1}Sb{sub 28.2} and Co{sub 43.2}Mn{sub 32.6}Sb{sub 24.2} films is in quite good agreement with the expected value, we found a ferromagnetic coupling of the Mn and Co magnetic moments which indicates that the films do not crystallize in the C1{sub b} structure and are probably not fully spin-polarized. The ratio of the Co and Mn moments does not change up to the transition temperature and the temperature dependence of the magnetic moments can be well described by the mean field theory.

  11. Dynamic chemical expansion of thin-film non-stoichiometric oxides at extreme temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Jessica G.; Kim, Jae Jin; Maloney, John M.; Chen, Di; Smith, James F.; Bishop, Sean R.; Tuller, Harry L.; van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    2017-07-01

    Actuator operation in increasingly extreme and remote conditions requires materials that reliably sense and actuate at elevated temperatures, and over a range of gas environments. Design of such materials will rely on high-temperature, high-resolution approaches for characterizing material actuation in situ. Here, we demonstrate a novel type of high-temperature, low-voltage electromechanical oxide actuator based on the model material PrxCe1-xO2-δ (PCO). Chemical strain and interfacial stress resulted from electrochemically pumping oxygen into or out of PCO films, leading to measurable film volume changes due to chemical expansion. At 650 °C, nanometre-scale displacement and strain of >0.1% were achieved with electrical bias values <0.1 V, low compared to piezoelectrically driven actuators, with strain amplified fivefold by stress-induced structural deflection. This operando measurement of films `breathing’ at second-scale temporal resolution also enabled detailed identification of the controlling kinetics of this response, and can be extended to other electrochemomechanically coupled oxide films at extreme temperatures.

  12. High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, V B; Korzh, B; Bussières, F; Horansky, R D; Dyer, S D; Lita, A E; Vayshenker, I; Marsili, F; Shaw, M D; Zbinden, H; Mirin, R P; Nam, S W

    2015-12-28

    We report on MoSi SNSPDs which achieved high system detection efficiency (87.1 ± 0.5% at 1542 nm) at 0.7 K and we demonstrate that these detectors can also be operated with saturated internal efficiency at a temperature of 2.3 K in a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. We measured a minimum system jitter of 76 ps, maximum count rate approaching 10 MHz, and polarization dependence as low as 3.3 ± 0.1%. The performance of MoSi SNSPDs at 2.3 K is similar to the performance of WSi SNSPDs at < 1 K. The higher operating temperature of MoSi SNSPDs makes these devices promising for widespread use due to the simpler and less expensive cryogenics required for their operation.

  13. Room-temperature-grown rare-earth-doped GaN luminescent thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.

    2001-09-01

    Visible emission has been observed from rare-earth (RE)-doped GaN electroluminescent devices (ELDs) as-grown near room temperature on Si (50-100 °C): red from GaN:Eu, green from GaN:Er, and blue from GaN:Tm. Green emission at 537/558 nm from GaN:Er ELD had a measured brightness of ˜230 cd/m2 at 46 V bias. X-ray diffraction indicates that the low-temperature-grown GaN:Er structure was oriented with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy indicate that the films had a rough surface and a compact structure consisting of small grains. Electroluminescence intensity of GaN:RE was significantly improved with postgrowth annealing. For GaN:Er films, after 800 °C annealing, the green emission brightness efficiency increased by ˜10×.

  14. Low-temperature anodic bonding using thin films of lithium-niobate-phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woetzel, S.; Kessler, E.; Diegel, M.; Schultze, V.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of a low-temperature anodic bonding process with layers of a lithium-niobate-phosphate glass on chip level. The glass layers are deposited by means of rf sputtering. The applied glass is characterised by its high ion conductivity, enabling anodic bonding at room temperature. Results of the optimisation process concerning the intrinsic stress of the glass layers and the thermal exposure of the substrates through the deposition process are presented. The stoichiometry of the glass layers is verified through Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The bonding strength is measured by tensile tests. Microfabricated atomic vapour cells are used for hermeticity tests of the bonding by absorption measurements of the caesium D1 line.

  15. Temperature dependence of Hall mobility in indium--tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.E.; Ridge, M.I.; Bishop, C.A.; Howson, R.P.

    1980-03-01

    Carrier concentrations and mobilities of vacuum-prepared indium--tin oxide films have been measured to determine the effects of annealing. The apparent variation of electron mobility with temperature in these films is interpreted in terms of a grain-boundary barrier model. No grain growth was observed in the films studied; all changes in electron density and mobility may be explained by oxygen diffusion in the grain boundaries and, from them, into the grains themselves.

  16. Bipolar resistive switching in room temperature grown disordered vanadium oxide thin-film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Franklin J.; Sriram, Tirunelveli S.; Smith, Brian R.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate bipolar switching with high OFF/ON resistance ratios (>104) in Pt/vanadium oxide/Cu structures deposited entirely at room temperature. The SET (RESET) process occurs when negative (positive) bias is applied to the top Cu electrode. The vanadium oxide (VOx) films are amorphous and close to the vanadium pentoxide stoichiometry. We also investigated Cu/VOx/W structures, reversing the position of the Cu electrode, and found the same polarity dependence with respect to the top and bottom electrodes, which suggests that the bipolar nature is linked to the VOx layer itself. Bipolar switching can be observed at 100 °C, indicating that it not due to a temperature-induced metal-insulator transition of a vanadium dioxide second phase. We discuss how ionic drift can lead to the bipolar electrical behavior of our junctions, similar to those observed in devices based on several other defective oxides. Such low-temperature processed oxide switches could be of relevance to back-end or package integration processing schemes.

  17. Nanocomposite thin films for high temperature optical gas sensing of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2013-04-02

    The disclosure relates to a plasmon resonance-based method for H.sub.2 sensing in a gas stream at temperatures greater than about 500.degree. C. utilizing a hydrogen sensing material. The hydrogen sensing material is comprised of gold nanoparticles having an average nanoparticle diameter of less than about 100 nanometers dispersed in an inert matrix having a bandgap greater than or equal to 5 eV, and an oxygen ion conductivity less than approximately 10.sup.-7 S/cm at a temperature of 700.degree. C. Exemplary inert matrix materials include SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3N.sub.4 as well as modifications to modify the effective refractive indices through combinations and/or doping of such materials. At high temperatures, blue shift of the plasmon resonance optical absorption peak indicates the presence of H.sub.2. The method disclosed offers significant advantage over active and reducible matrix materials typically utilized, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or TiO.sub.2.

  18. Low-temperature formation of source–drain contacts in self-aligned amorphous oxide thin-film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nag, M.; Muller, R.; Steudel, S.; Smout, S.; Bhoolokam, A.; Myny, K.; Schols, S.; Genoe, J.; Cobb, B.; Kumar, A.; Gelinck, G.; Fukui, Y.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated self-aligned amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) where the source–drain (S/D) regions were made conductive via chemical reduction of the a-IGZO via metallic calcium (Ca). Due to the higher chemical reactivity of Ca, the process can be operated at

  19. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ∼250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm2 V -1 s-1 and current on/off ratio in excess of 106. Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (∼7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements.

  20. Influence of annealing temperature and Sn doping on the optical properties of hematite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lígia P.; Chaves, Rodrigo O. G.; Malachias, Angelo; Paniago, Roberto; Ferreira, Sukarno O.; Ferlauto, Andre S.

    2016-06-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films were prepared by sol-gel route and investigated for application in H2 generation by photo-assisted water splitting. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance was shown to increase significantly for films deposited on SnO2:F/glass subjected to high temperature (T) annealing (>750 °C). Strong correlation was found between photogenerated current, donor concentration, and Sn concentration as determined by Mott-Schottky analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of thermal annealing and Sn addition in the resulting microstructure and optical properties of hematite films deposited on fused silica substrates were determined by a combination of structural characterization techniques and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thermal annealing (>600 °C) induces a higher optical absorption that is associated directly to film densification and grain growth; however, it promotes no changes in the energy positions of the main Fe2O3 electronic transitions. The band gap energy was found to be 2.21 eV and independent of microstructure and of Sn concentration for all studied films. On the other hand, Sn can be incorporated in the Fe2O3 lattice for concentration up to Sn/Fe ˜2%, leading to an increase in energy split of the main absorption peak, attributed to a distortion of the Fe2O3 lattice. For higher concentrations, Sn incorporation leads to a reduction in absorption, associated with higher porosity and the formation of a secondary Sn-rich phase. In summary, the variation in the optical properties induced by thermal annealing and Sn addition cannot account for the order of magnitude increase of the current density generated by photoanodes annealed at high T (>750 °C); thus, it is concluded that the major contribution for the enhanced PEC performance comes from improved electronic properties induced by the n-type doping caused by Sn diffusion from the SnO2:F substrate.

  1. Oxygen vacancy induced room temperature ferromagnetism in Pr-doped CeO2 thin films on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Hildebrandt, Erwin; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Boscherini, Federico; Zoellner, Marvin Hartwig; Alff, Lambert; Walczyk, Damian; Zaumseil, Peter; Costina, Ioan; Wilkens, Henrik; Schroeder, Thomas

    2014-10-22

    Integration of functional oxides on Si substrates could open a pathway to integrate diverse devices on Si-based technology. Oxygen vacancies (Vo(··)) can strongly affect solid state properties of oxides, including the room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in diluted magnetic oxides. Here, we report a systematical study on the RTFM of oxygen vacancy engineered (by Pr(3+) doping) CeO2 epitaxial thin films on Si substrates. High quality, mixed single crystalline Ce1-xPrxO2-δ (x = 0-1) solid solution films were obtained. The Ce ions in CeO2 with a fluorite structure show a Ce(4+)-dominant valence state in all films. The local crystal structures of the films were analyzed in detail. Pr doping creates both Vo(··) and PrO8-complex defects in CeO2 and their relative concentrations vary with the Pr-doping level. The RTFM properties of the films reveal a strong dependence on the relative Vo(··) concentration. The RTFM in the films initially increases with higher Pr-doping levels due to the increase of the F(+) center (Vo(··) with one occupied electron) concentration and completely disappears when x > 0.2, where the magnetic polaron concentration is considered to decline below the percolation threshold, thus long-range FM order can no longer be established. We thus demonstrate the possibility to directly grow RTFM Pr-doped CeO2 films on Si substrates, which can be an interesting candidate for potential magneto-optic or spintronic device applications.

  2. The dependence of filtered vacuum arc deposited ZnO-SnO{sub 2} thin films characteristics on substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetinorgue, E [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Tel Aviv University, POB 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Goldsmith, S [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Tel Aviv University, POB 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Barkay, Z [Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, POB 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Boxman, R L [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Tel Aviv University, POB 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2006-12-21

    ZnO-SnO{sub 2} thin films were deposited by filtered vacuum arc deposition system and characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), spectrophotometer and ex situ variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. According to the XRD analysis the films were amorphous, independent of the deposition conditions. The root-mean-squares (RMS) of surface roughness and the average grain size obtained from the AFM images were 0.2-0.8 nm and 15-20 nm, respectively. Averaged optical transmission was 85%, and the refractive index and extinction coefficient of the films were in the range 2.05-2.28 and 0.001-0.044 at 500 nm wavelength, respectively. The range of the optical band gap of the films was 3.43-3.70 eV, depending on deposition conditions. The lowest resistivity was of the order of 10{sup -2} {omega} cm for films deposited on 400 {sup 0}C heated substrates, while films deposited on substrates at room temperature were non-conducting, and films on 200 {sup 0}C heated substrates were weakly conducting({approx}10{sup 1-2} {omega} cm). The resistivity of films decreased with increasing pressure for 200 and 400 {sup 0}C heated substrates relative to RT deposited films. The effect of deposition conditions on the optical constants was analysed statistically by single and two sided variance analysis, using the analysis code 'Analysis Of Variance' to determine the significance of the differences between sets.

  3. Temperature dependence of structural and optical properties of GeSbTe alloy thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabli, A. E-mail: achabli@cea.fr; Vergnaud, C.; Bertin, F.; Gehanno, V.; Valon, B.; Hyot, B.; Bechevet, B.; Burdin, M.; Muyard, D

    2002-09-01

    Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films sandwiched by ZnS-SiO{sub 2} layers were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry from room temperature up to 800 deg. C. An irreversible modification of both materials is pointed out. ZnS cubic phase precipitation occurs after heating at 650 deg. C, shown by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Chemical modification in phase change material is observed above 300 deg. C, revealed by a typical behavior of a transparent layer.

  4. Amorphousness induced significant room temperature ferromagnetism of TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Ding, Wenyang; Wang, Fang; Lu, Yunhao; Yan, Mi

    2017-10-01

    TiO2 films have been grown on Si(100) substrates via pulsed laser deposition. Amorphousness has been achieved for films film-substrate lattice mismatch. With the increased film thickness, crystallization occurs and the amorphous TiO2 evolves into the anatase and rutile phases. Compared with the crystallized phases, the amorphous structure contains more oxygen vacancies (Vo) for large room temperature ferromagnetism. Significant magnetization (up to 180.4 emu/cc) has been achieved for the film in the complete amorphous state. Theoretical calculations indicate that the magnetic moments distribute around the Ti3+ ions induced by Vo in the amorphous structure.

  5. Room temperature and thermal decomposition of magnesium hydride/deuteride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares, J.R.; Leardini, F.; Bodega, J.; Macia, M.D.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Ferrer, I.J.; Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Lab. de Materiales de Interes en Energias Renovables

    2010-07-01

    Magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) can be considered an interesting material to store hydrogen as long as two main drawbacks were solved: (i) its high stability and (ii) slow (de)hydriding kinetics. In that context, magnesium hydride films are an excellent model system to investigate the influence of structure, morphology and dimensionality on kinetic and thermodynamic properties. In the present work, we show that desorption mechanism of Pd-capped MgH{sub 2} at room temperature is controlled by a bidimensional interphase mechanism and a similar rate step limiting mechanism is observed during thermal decomposition of MgH{sub 2}. This mechanism is different to that occurring in bulk MgH{sub 2} (nucleation and growth) and obtained activation energies are lower than those reported in bulk MgH{sub 2}. We also investigated the Pd-capping properties upon H-absorption/desorption by means of RBS and isotope experiments. (orig.)

  6. Reproducible technique for fabrication of thin films of high transition temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankiewich, P.M.; Scofield, J.H.; Skocpol, W.J.; Howard, R.E.; Dayem, A.H.; Good, E.

    1987-11-23

    We report on a new process to make films of Y/sub 1/Ba/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ using coevaporation of Y, Cu, and BaF/sub 2/ on SrTiO/sub 3/ substrates. The films have high transition temperatures (up to 91 K for a full resistive transition), high critical current densities (10/sup 6/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 81 K), and a reduced sensitivity to fabrication and environmental conditions. Because of the lower reactivity of the films, we have been able to pattern them in both the pre-annealed and post-annealed states using conventional positive photoresist technology.

  7. Nanostructures in calcia stabilized hafnia thin films observed by PAC as a function of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caracoche, M. C., E-mail: cristina@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Martinez, J. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP, Departamento de Fisica, FCE (Argentina); Rivas, P. C. [CONICET (Argentina); Taylor, M. A.; Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP, Departamento de Fisica, FCE (Argentina); Barolin, S.; Sanctis, O. A. de [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Lab. Materiales Ceramicos, FCEIyA-IFIR (Argentina)

    2007-09-15

    The hyperfine quadrupole interaction at Hf sites in films and powders of 14 mol% CaO-HfO{sub 2} and 20 mol% CaO-HfO{sub 2} has been determined as a function of temperature. Results indicate the formation of a cubic solid solution and other microstructures assigned to the {phi}{sub 1} (CaHf{sub 4}O{sub 9}) and {phi}{sub 2} (Ca{sub 6}Hf{sub 19}O{sub 44}) phases. Dynamical effects on the electric field gradient reveal the existence of oxygen vacancies movements in the solid solution. The thermal behavior of the relaxation constant observed in films allowed the determination of activation energies of 0.54 eV and 0.70 eV for the 14 mol% and 20 mol% CaO doped hafnias, respectively. The influence of the microdomains and the stability of the cubic solid solution are discussed.

  8. Enhanced high temperature thermoelectric response of sulphuric acid treated conducting polymer thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2015-11-24

    We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of solution processed pristine and sulphuric acid treated poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (or PEDOT:PSS) films. The acid treatment is shown to simultaneously enhance the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the metal-like films, resulting in a five-fold increase in thermoelectric power factor (0.052 W/m. K ) at 460 K, compared to the pristine film. By using atomic force micrographs, Raman and impedance spectra and using a series heterogeneous model for electrical conductivity, we demonstrate that acid treatment results in the removal of PSS from the films, leading to the quenching of accumulated charge-induced energy barriers that prevent hopping conduction. The continuous removal of PSS with duration of acid treatment also alters the local band structure of PEDOT:PSS, resulting in simultaneous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient.

  9. Physical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Codoped with Titanium and Hydrogen Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering with Different Substrate Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting titanium-doped zinc oxide (TZO thin films were prepared on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering using 1.5 wt% TiO2-doped ZnO as the target. Electrical, structural, and optical properties of films were investigated as a function of H2/(Ar + H2 flow ratios (RH and substrate temperatures (TS. The optimal RH value for achieving high conducting TZO:H thin film decreased from 10% to 1% when TS increased from RT to 300°C. The lowest resistivity of 9.2×10-4 Ω-cm was obtained as TS=100°C and RH=7.5%. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all of TZO:H films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation in the (002 direction. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed that the film surface roughness increased with increasing RH. The average visible transmittance decreased with increasing RH for the RT-deposited film, while it had not considerably changed with different RH for the 300°C-deposited films. The optical bandgap increased as RH increased, which is consistent with the Burstein-Moss effect. The figure of merits indicated that TS=100°C and RH=7.5% were optimal conditions for TZO thin films as transparent conducting electrode applications.

  10. Influences of the RF power ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GZO thin films by DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shou [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu 233018 (China); Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233018 (China); Yao, Tingting, E-mail: yaott0815@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu 233018 (China); Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233018 (China); Yang, Yong; Zhang, Kuanxiang; Jiang, Jiwen; Jin, Kewu; Li, Gang; Cao, Xin; Xu, Genbao; Wang, Yun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu 233018 (China); Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233018 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Ga-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films were deposited by closed field unbalanced DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering system at room temperature. The RF sputtering power ratio was adjusted from 0% to 100%. The crystal structure, surface morphology, transmittance and electrical resistivity of GZO films mainly influenced by RF sputtering power ratio were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electronic microscope, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The research results indicate that the increasing RF power ratio can effectively reduce the discharge voltage of system and increase the ionizing rate of particles. Meanwhile, the higher RF power ratio can increase the carrier mobility in GZO thin film and improve the optical and electrical properties of GZO thin film significantly. Within the optimal discharge voltage window, the film deposits at 80% RF power ratio exhibits the lowest resistivity of 2.6×10{sup −4} Ω cm. We obtain the GZO film with the best average optical transmittance is approximately 84% in the visible wavelength. With the increasing RF power ratio, the densification of GZO film is enhanced. The densification of GZO film is decrease when the RF power ratio is 100%.

  11. Solution-processed flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors fabricated on plastic film at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Suk; Jeon, Jun-Hyuck; Hwang, Young Hwan; Park, Hyungjin; Ryu, Minki; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Transparent flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated using the spin-coating method of the metal fluoride precursor aqueous solution with annealing at 200°C for 2 hrs on polyethylene naphthalate films. The proposed thermal evolution mechanism of metal fluoride aqueous precursor solution examined by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy can easily explain oxide formation. The chemical composition analysed by XPS confirms that the fluorine was doped in the thin films annealed below 250°C. In the IZO:F thin films, a doped fluorine atom substitutes for an oxygen atom generating a free electron or occupies an oxygen vacancy site eliminating an electron trap site. These dual roles of the doped fluorine can enhance the mobility and improve the gate bias stability of the TFTs. Therefore, the transparent flexible IZO:F TFT shows a high mobility of up to 4.1 cm(2)/V·s and stable characteristics under the various gate bias and temperature stresses.

  12. Low-temperature growth and physical investigations of undoped and (In, Co) doped ZnO thin films sprayed on PEI flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ameur, S.; Barhoumi, A.; Mimouni, R.; Amlouk, M.; Guermazi, H.

    2015-08-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited on polymer substrate Polyethyerimide (PEI) at 250 °C by spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of different doping elements (Co and In) on physical properties of ZnO thin films were investigated. Thin film characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction technique, UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and the contact angle measurement method. XRD measurement showed a successful growth of crystalline films on polymer substrate at low temperature by the spray pyrolysis process. XRD patterns revealed that all films consist of single ZnO phase and were well crystallized with preferential orientation towards (1 0 1) direction. Doping by cobalt has effective role in the enhancement of the crystalline quality, increases in the band gap according to Burstein Moss effect. Doping with indium leads rather to the decrease of both crystallinity and optical band gap energy value. Photoluminescence of the films showed UV emission (NBE) and visible emission related to defects. The contact angles were measured to study the effect of various doping elements on the hydrophobicity of the film depending on surface roughness. Results showed strong dependence on the doping element. In fact, doping with cobalt element increases the roughness of ZnO films and reinforces the surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic (θ > 90°).

  13. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  14. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  15. Time and Temperature Dependence of Viscoelastic Stress Relaxation in Gold and Gold Alloy Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolsuttirat, Kittisun

    Radio frequency (RF) switches based on capacitive MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) devices have been proposed as replacements for traditional solid-state field effect transistor (FET) devices. However, one of the limitations of the existing capacitive switch designs is long-term reliability. Failure is generally attributed to electrical charging in the capacitor's dielectric layer that creates an attractive electrostatic force between a moving upper capacitor plate (a metal membrane) and the dielectric. This acts as an attractive stiction force between them that may cause the switch to stay permanently in the closed state. The force that is responsible for opening the switch is the elastic restoring force due to stress in the film membrane. If the restoring force decreases over time due to stress relaxation, the tendency for stiction failure behavior will increase. Au films have been shown to exhibit stress relaxation even at room temperature. The stress relaxation observed is a type of viscoelastic behavior that is more significant in thin metal films than in bulk materials. Metal films with a high relaxation resistance would have a lower probability of device failure due to stress relaxation. It has been shown that solid solution and oxide dispersion can strengthen a material without unacceptable decreases in electrical conductivity. In this study, the viscoelastic behavior of Au, AuV solid solution and AuV2O5 dispersion created by DC magnetron sputtering are investigated using the gas pressure bulge testing technique in the temperature range from 20 to 80°C. The effectiveness of the two strengthening approaches is compared with the pure Au in terms of relaxation modulus and 3 hour modulus decay. The time dependent relaxation curves can be fitted very well with a four-term Prony series model. From the temperature dependence of the terms of the series, activation energies have been deduced to identify the possible dominant relaxation mechanism. The measured

  16. Anisotropic properties of high-temperature polyimide thin films: Dielectric and thermal-expansion behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M.; Chen, K.-J.; Kirby, D. P.; Katzenellenbogen, N.; Grischkowsky, D.

    1992-09-01

    Multilayer poly(p-phenylene biphenyltetracarboximide) (BPDA-PDA) polyimide films of 172 μm total thickness (11.4 μm per layer) were prepared from the poly(amic acid) precursor solution through repetition of a spin-coat/softbake/cure process. Wide-angle x-ray diffraction results indicate that the polyimide molecules in the multilayer films are highly ordered along the chain axes as well as in the lateral direction and furthermore are highly oriented in the film plane as observed in a single-layer film of 11.4 μm thickness. The multilayer films showed the same dynamic mechanical properties and glass transition behavior (Tg = 330 °C) as a single-layer film. For the multilayer films both the in-plane dielectric constant (ɛ'XY) and out-of-plane thermal-expansion coefficient (αZ) were measured using time-domain spectroscopy and conventional thermal mechanical analysis, respectively. The ɛ'XY at room temperature was 3.69 (±0.08) over a frequency range of 0.35-2.50 THz. A similar ɛ'XY is predicted at frequencies of ≤0.35 THz. In contrast to the ɛ'XY, a relatively lower out-of-plane dielectric constant (ɛ'Z) was observed: ɛ'Z = 2.96-3.03 (±0.02) at 1 MHz, depending on moisture content in the film. The dielectric loss ɛ`Z at 1 MHz was 0.011-0.014 (±0.001), depending on moisture content. The measured αZ was 74 ppm/°C over the temperature range of 25-150 °C, which was much higher than αXY = 2.6-5 ppm/°C. Consequently, large anisotropic ɛ' and α have been observed in the in plane and out of plane of the thermally imidized BPDA-PDA films. The anisotropic ɛ' and α were caused by high in-plane orientation of the polyimide molecules highly ordered along the chain axes in the films.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of micromachined dielectric thin films and temperature sensors using thermoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangho Sam

    High-power laser technology has a number of applications, whether for the military (i.e., anti-missile weaponry) or for material processing, medical surgery, laser-induced nuclear fusion, and high-density data storage. However, external obstacles could cause a laser to problematically change its direction. Optical components such as mirrors already address this problem by deflecting a laser beam, but can be damaged easily due to the intensity of the laser. Therefore, this dissertation examines how to improve reliability of high power laser application systems by three significant standards. First, we demonstrate that an atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 can stabilize novel dielectric optical mirrors composed of SiO2 nanorods, whose porosity makes it attractive for use as a low refractive index material. Such a deposition can stabilize material properties in dry versus humid atmospheres, where both the refractive index and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) vary dramatically. This encapsulation ability is demonstrated in dielectric multilayers as a Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR). Second, we show that the difference in hydroxyl signatures of micromachined dielectric membranes can make detection of optical materials' laser damage more accurate. This signature difference, appearing as the decrease in post-laser absorption peaks associated with hydroxyl groups (OH), is measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and corresponds to regions of high fluence from a Nd:YAG laser. This detection technique will be useful to determine the lifespan of the optical components used in a high power laser. Third, we find that heterogeneous thermoluminescent (TL) multilayers composed of LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Dy with Kapton as an interlayer can enhance reconstruction of laser heating events through thermal gradients that penetrate deep into a material, thereby preserving memory of the temperature history of the surface. Using the finite-difference time-domain method

  18. Low temperature homogenization in nanocrystalline PdCu thin film system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Molnár, G.; Katona, G. L.; Langer, G. A.; Csík, A.; Chen, Y. C.; Beke, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    Diffusion and solid state reactions were investigated in Pd-Cu nanocrystalline films by means of secondary neutral mass spectrometry depth profiling technique. The heat treatments were made at low temperatures (where the volume diffusion was frozen in) for long enough annealing times to reach saturation. In the early stage there is a grain boundary interdiffusion. At longer times first a Pd plateau developed inside the Cu layer. Later on the Cu penetration was also more and more extended in the Pd, even the average composition of Cu in Pd became higher than the average Pd composition in Cu. Depending on the ratio of the initial thicknesses, the system (for thickness ratios corresponding to 50/50 Cu/Pd or to 75/25 Cu/Pd) arrived either at the mixture of pure Pd and β-CuPd phase or to the mixture of α‧-Cu3Pd and β-CuPd phases, respectively, as dictated by the phase diagram. The process is interpreted as grain boundary diffusion induced solid state reaction.

  19. Multifunctional thin film surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  20. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  1. Localized superconductivity in the quantum-critical region of the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition in TiN thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturina, T I; Mironov, A Yu; Vinokur, V M; Baklanov, M R; Strunk, C

    2007-12-21

    We investigate low-temperature transport properties of thin TiN superconducting films in the vicinity of the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition. In a zero magnetic field, we find an extremely sharp separation between superconducting and insulating phases, evidencing a direct superconductor-insulator transition without an intermediate metallic phase. At moderate temperatures, in the insulating films we reveal thermally activated conductivity with the magnetic field-dependent activation energy. At very low temperatures, we observe a zero-conductivity state, which is destroyed at some depinning threshold voltage V{T}. These findings indicate the formation of a distinct collective state of the localized Cooper pairs in the critical region at both sides of the transition.

  2. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural, morphological and optical band gap of lead selenide thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hone, Fekadu Gashaw, E-mail: fekeye@gmail.com [Hawassa University, Department of Physics, Hawassa (Ethiopia); Ampong, Francis Kofi [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2016-11-01

    Lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystalline thin films have been deposited on silica glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition technique. The samples were deposited at the bath temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 °C respectively and characterized by a variety of techniques. The XRD results revealed that the PbSe thin film deposited at 60 °C was amorphous in nature. Films deposited at higher temperatures exhibited sharp and intense diffraction peaks, indicating an improvement in crystallinety. The deposition temperature also had a strong influence on the preferred orientation of the crystallites as well as other structural parameters such as microstrain and dislocation density. From the SEM study it was observed that film deposited at 90 °C had well defined crystallites, uniformly distributed over the entire surface of the substrate. The EDAX study confirmed that the samples deposited at the higher temperature had a better stoichiometric ratio. The optical band gap varied from 2.26 eV to 1.13 eV with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • The crystallinety of the films improved as the deposition temperature increased. • The deposition temperature strongly influenced the preferred orientations. • Microstrain and dislocation density are decreased linearly with deposition temperature. • Band gap decreased from 2.26 eV to 1.13 eV as the deposition temperature increased.

  3. Investigating degradation behaviors induced by mobile Cu ions under high temperature negative bias stress in a-InGaZnO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiao-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Liao, Po-Yung; Chen, Bo-Wei; Tsao, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chien, Yu-Chieh; Yang, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Yang, Chung-I.; Hung, Yu-Ju; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Zhang, Sheng-Dong; Lin, Sung-Chun; Yeh, Cheng-Yen

    2017-09-01

    This letter investigates the effect of negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) on amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors with copper electrodes. After 2000 s of NBTS, an abnormal subthreshold swing and on-current (Ion) degradation is observed. The recovery of the Id-Vg curve after either annealing or positive bias temperature stress suggests that there are some native mobile copper ions in the active layer. Both the existence of copper and the degradation mechanism can be confirmed by AC stress with different frequencies and by transmission electron microscope energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis.

  4. Large-area, low-temperature deposition of chalcopyrite absorbers for thin film solar cells by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellmer, Klaus; Seeger, Stefan [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Solare Energetik

    2010-07-01

    To this day, in the upcoming field of thin film photovoltaics, magnetron sputtering is not (yet) used for the active, i.e., the absorber layers which is due to electronic defects induced in semiconducting films by energetic particle bombardment. By tailoring the deposition conditions, reactive magnetron sputtering in Ar/H{sub 2}S or Ar/H{sub 2}Se atmospheres can be used to prepare thin film solar cells with Cu(In,Ga)S(e){sub 2} chalcopyrite absorbers, despite the inherently high particle energies in typical magnetron discharges. As an example C(In,Ga)S{sub 2} absorber films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS). These films exhibit a homogeneous gallium distribution across the film thickness. The widening of the gap by 0.36 eV leads to an increase of the open circuit voltage from 745 mV to 840 mV. (orig.)

  5. Effect of substrate temperatures on evaporated In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film buffer layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Zhao Yang; Cho, Eou Sik; Kwon, Sang Jik, E-mail: sjkwon@gachon.ac.kr

    2013-11-29

    For the realization of vacuum in-line process in the fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells, In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film buffer layers for CIGS have been deposited on glasses and CIGS layers with a thickness of about 650 Å by thermal evaporation process. During the thermal evaporation, the temperature of the substrate was varied from room temperature to 500 °C by heating and the grown In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films were investigated and analyzed in terms of the optimized buffer layer for CIGS solar cells. From the results of scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film deposited at a higher substrate temperature showed the larger grain size and the films have amorphous structural characteristics. Although the structural characteristics such as the atomic ratio of In to S and transmittance of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were not proportional to temperature, it was possible to obtain the large optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films of about 3.8–3.9 eV enough to be used as the buffer layer of CIGS. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films were deposited at various substrate temperatures by thermal evaporation. • The atomic ratio of In to S in the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} film has the highest value at 300 °C. • The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} film has a band gap of about 3.8 eV because of its amorphous structure. • The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} film is expected to be used as a buffer layer by in-line vacuum process.

  6. High-performance varistors simply by hot-dipping zinc oxide thin films in Pr6O11: Influence of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Peng, Zhijian; Wang, Qi; Wang, Chengbiao; Fu, Xiuli

    2017-02-03

    High-performance ZnO-Pr6O11 thin-film varistors were fabricated simply by hot-dipping oxygen-deficient zinc oxide thin films in Pr6O11 powder. The films had a composition of ZnO0.81 and a thickness of about 200 nm, which were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering a sintered zinc oxide ceramic target. Special attention was paid on the temperature dependence of the varistors. In 50 min with hot-dipping temperature increased from 300-700 °C, the nonlinear coefficient (α) of the varistors increased, but with higher temperature it decreased again. Correspondingly, the leakage current (IL) decreased first and then increased, owing mainly to the formation and destroying of complete zinc oxide/Pr6O11 grain boundaries. The breakdown field (E1mA) decreased monotonously from 0.02217 to 0.01623 V/nm with increasing temperature (300-800 °C), due to the decreased number of effective grain boundaries in the varistors. The varistors prepared at 700 °C exhibited the optimum nonlinear properties with the highest α = 39.29, lowest IL = 0.02736 mA/cm(2), and E1mA = 0.01757 V/nm. And after charge-discharge at room temperature for 1000 times, heating at 100 or 250 °C for up to 100 h, or applying at up to 250 °C, the varistors still performed well. Such nanoscaled thin-film varistors will be very promising in electrical/electronic devices working at low voltage.

  7. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, H.M. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Torres, J., E-mail: njtorress@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Lopez Carreno, L.D. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., Mexico (Colombia)

    2013-01-15

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO{sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2} was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into {alpha}-MoO{sub 3}. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO{sub 3} films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H{sub 2}O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low cost technique is used which produces good material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  8. A mechanistic study of hydrogen gas sensing by PdO nanoflake thin films at temperatures below 250 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Ju; Li, Kuang-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Pan, Fu-Ming

    2015-02-07

    We prepared PdO nanoflake thin films on the SiO2 substrate by reactive sputter deposition, and studied their sensing response to H2 at temperatures between 25 and 250 °C. In addition to the oxygen ionosorption model, which is used to describe the early H2 sensing response over the temperature range studied, the H2 sensing kinetics of the PdO thin films can be separated into three temperature regimes: temperatures below 100 °C, around 150 °C and above 200 °C. At temperatures below 100 °C, PdO reduction is the dominant reaction affecting the H2 sensing behavior. At temperatures around 150 °C, Pd reoxidation kinetically competes with PdO reduction leading to a complicated sensing characteristic. Active PdO reduction by H2 promotes the continuing growth of Pd nanoislands, facilitating dissociative oxygen adsorption and thus the subsequent Pd reoxidation in the H2-dry air gas mixture. The kinetic competition between the PdO reduction and reoxidation at 150 °C leads to the observation of an inverse of the increase in the sensor conductivity. At temperatures above 200 °C, the PdO sensor exhibits a sensor signal monotonically increasing with the H2 concentration, and the H2 sensing behavior is consistent with the Mars-van-Krevelen redox mechanism.

  9. Excellent resistive switching property and physical mechanism of amorphous TiO{sub 2} thin films fabricated by a low-temperature photochemical solution deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Lilan; Hu, Wei; Xie, Wei; Chen, Ruqi; Qin, Ni; Li, Baojun; Bao, Dinghua, E-mail: stsbdh@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • High-performance resistive switching Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt memory cells were obtained. • Amorphous TiO{sub 2} layer was prepared by low-temperature photochemical deposition. • Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt memory cells exhibited excellent resistive switching parameters. • UV irradiation led to the formation of enhanced metal-oxide bonds. • Resistive switching corresponded to the formation/rupture of conductive filaments. - Abstract: High-performance resistive switching Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt memory cells were fabricated. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} active layer was prepared by using a low-temperature photochemical solution deposition method—a simple preparation process combining first chemical solution deposition of the TiO{sub 2} film layer and subsequent ultraviolet (UV) irradiation treatment. The obtained Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt memory cells exhibited excellent resistive switching parameters, such as centralized distribution of set and reset voltages, stable current values at high and low resistance states, and long retention time. The conductive mechanisms of high resistance state and low resistance state were Schottky emission and Ohmic conduction, respectively. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy characterization of the TiO{sub 2} thin films indicated that the UV irradiation treatment can lead to decomposition of the residual organics and the formation of enhanced metal-oxide bonds in the thin films. On the basis of the analysis of current–voltage characteristics and the temperature dependence of resistance, we explained the resistive switching phenomenon for Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt devices by using the model of formation/rupture of conductive filaments. Our study also suggested that the simple photochemical solution deposition method can be used for preparing some other oxide thin films with good resistive switching properties at low processing temperature which is promising to be extended to

  10. Influence of annealing temperature and Sn doping on the optical properties of hematite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Lígia P. de; Chaves, Rodrigo O. G.; Malachias, Angelo; Paniago, Roberto; Ferlauto, Andre S. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil); Ferreira, Sukarno O. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa 36570-900 (Brazil)

    2016-06-28

    Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by sol-gel route and investigated for application in H{sub 2} generation by photo-assisted water splitting. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance was shown to increase significantly for films deposited on SnO{sub 2}:F/glass subjected to high temperature (T) annealing (>750 °C). Strong correlation was found between photogenerated current, donor concentration, and Sn concentration as determined by Mott-Schottky analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of thermal annealing and Sn addition in the resulting microstructure and optical properties of hematite films deposited on fused silica substrates were determined by a combination of structural characterization techniques and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thermal annealing (>600 °C) induces a higher optical absorption that is associated directly to film densification and grain growth; however, it promotes no changes in the energy positions of the main Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electronic transitions. The band gap energy was found to be 2.21 eV and independent of microstructure and of Sn concentration for all studied films. On the other hand, Sn can be incorporated in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice for concentration up to Sn/Fe ∼2%, leading to an increase in energy split of the main absorption peak, attributed to a distortion of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. For higher concentrations, Sn incorporation leads to a reduction in absorption, associated with higher porosity and the formation of a secondary Sn-rich phase. In summary, the variation in the optical properties induced by thermal annealing and Sn addition cannot account for the order of magnitude increase of the current density generated by photoanodes annealed at high T (>750 °C); thus, it is concluded that the major contribution for the enhanced PEC performance comes from improved electronic properties induced by the n-type doping caused by Sn diffusion from the SnO{sub 2}:F

  11. Microwave Conductivity Spectroscopy for Fe(Se,Te) Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Fuyuki; Nagasawa, Kosuke; Asami, Daisuke; Sawada, Yuichi; Imai, Yoshinori; Maeda, Atsutaka

    Iron chalcogenide superconductors Fe(Se,Te) have very small ɛF and are considered to be in the BCS-BEC crossover regime. Since Ginzburg number, Gi =(kBTc /ɛF) 4 , which is the relative temperature width of the superconducting fluctuation region, is large for materials in the BCS-BEC crossover regime, large superconducting fluctuations are expected in Fe(Se,Te). In order to investigate superconducting fluctuations in these materials we have performed microwave conductivity spectroscopy on Fe(Se,Te) thin films. Superfluid density of an Fe(Se,Te) film with Tczero =17 K took finite values above 25 K. This temperature is much higher than Tc estimated by the dc measurement, suggesting strong superconducting fluctuations in Fe(Se,Te). A dynamic scaling analysis of complex fluctuation conductivity revealed that the superconducting fluctuations of Fe(Se,Te) exhibit a 2-dimensional behavior, while BKT transition was not observed. We will also report on the thickness dependence and the Te content dependence of the superconducting fluctuation Partially supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Research Fellowship for Young Scientists and by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 15K17697.

  12. Electrical transport properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films obtained by thermal annealing of layers grown by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetta, H.M.R., E-mail: hgiann@inti.gov.ar [Centro de Micro y Nano Electrónica del Bicentenario (CMNB), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN) — Facultad Regional Buenos Aires (FRBA) (Argentina); Calaza, C. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Lamas, D.G. [Universidad Nacional del Comahue CONICET-CITEFA — Laboratorio de Caracterización de Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería, Neuquen (Argentina); Fonseca, L. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Fraigi, L. [Centro de Micro y Nano Electrónica del Bicentenario (CMNB), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN) — Facultad Regional Buenos Aires (FRBA) (Argentina)

    2015-08-31

    The present study investigates the main electrical transport mechanism in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on the basis of the Mott's small polaron hopping model. The material under test was obtained at room temperature from a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} target and then oxidized at high temperature under air atmosphere to obtain the desired V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase. The dependence of the electrical conductivity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films with temperature was analyzed using the Mott's small polarons hopping transport model under the Schnakenberg form. Model results suggest a polaron binding energy W{sub H} = 0.1682 eV, with a structural disorder energy W{sub D} = 0.2241 eV and an optical phonon frequency ν{sub 0} = 0.468 × 10{sup 13}s{sup −1}. These results are in agreement with data reported in literature for single crystal V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. However, the carrier mobility μ = 1.5019 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/Vs computed in the non-adiabatic regime is significantly smaller than that of the single crystal, suggesting a strong electron–phonon coupling in the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films obtained with the proposed deposition method. - Highlights: • A two-stage deposition method compatible with lift-off patterning is proposed. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films are deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and then annealed in air. • Films are analyzed by SEM and its pure phase nature is confirmed by XRD. • Electrical conductivity was fitted using Mott's model for small polarons. • Fit derived parameters confirm charge transport through small-polarons hopping.

  13. Growth temperature dependence of flux pinning properties in ErBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} thin films with nano-rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruta, M., E-mail: haruta.masakazu@kochi-tech.ac.jp [Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada-cho, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Sueyoshi, T.; Fujiyoshi, T. [Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mukaida, M.; Kai, H. [Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0385 (Japan); Matsumoto, K.; Mele, P. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Maeda, T.; Horii, S. [Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada-cho, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Nano-rods were introduced into ErBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} thin films to improve J{sub c}. Pinning properties depended on the growth temperature of the films. Morphology of nano-rods was affected by the growth temperature. The growth temperature is important to achieve high in-field J{sub c}'s. Irreversibility lines and distributions of local critical current density (J{sub cl}) based on the percolation transition model were affected by the growth temperature (T{sub s}) in 3.5 wt.%-BaNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}-doped ErBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} thin films. The vortex-Bose-glass-like state appeared by the introduction of nano-rods, and this vortex state was affected by T{sub s}. The shape and width of the J{sub cl} distribution strongly depended on T{sub s}. These results are probably caused by variations of the density and the growth direction for nano-rods reflecting T{sub s}. The growth temperature is an important factor to achieve higher critical current properties under magnetic fields for coated conductors of rare-earth-based cuprates with nano-rods.

  14. Gas-Sensing Performance of M-Doped CuO-Based Thin Films Working at Different Temperatures upon Exposure to Propane

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Rydosz; Aleksandra Szkudlarek

    2015-01-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) thin films are promising materials in gas sensor applications. The CuO-based gas sensors behaved as p-type semiconductors and can be used as part of an e-nose or smart sensor array for breath analysis. The authors present the investigation results on M-doped CuO-based (M = Ag, Au, Cr, Pd, Pt, Sb, Si) sensors working at various temperatures upon exposure to a low concentration of C3H8, which can be found in exhaled human breath, and it can be considered as a one of the bioma...

  15. Magnetoresistance of thin films due to weak localization under the variation of the dimensionality induced by the magnetic field and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reukova, O. V.; Kytin, V. G.; Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Burova, L. I.; Kaul, A. R.

    2015-02-01

    The magnetoresistance due to the weak localization of electrons for films with thickness comparable with the electron diffusion length during the phase relaxation time of the electron wavefunction or with the magnetic length has been analyzed theoretically and studied experimentally. The expression for the magnetoresistance of thin films at the arbitrary relation between the film thickness and the electron diffusion length during the phase relaxation time of the electron wavefunction has been derived. It has been shown that the derived expression describes well the magnetoresistance of gallium-doped zinc oxide films under conditions of the variation of their effective dimension with respect to weak localization induced by the magnetic field and temperature.

  16. Investigation of an anomalous hump phenomenon in via-type amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors under positive bias temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianwen; Liao, Po-Yung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Bo-Wei; Huang, Hui-Chun; Su, Wan-Ching; Chiang, Hsiao-Cheng; Zhang, Qun

    2017-04-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) with an etching-stop layer (ESL) exhibit an anomalous negative shift of threshold voltage (Vth) under positive bias temperature stress. TFTs with wider and shorter channels show a clear hump phenomenon, resulting from the existence of both main channels and parasitic channels. The electrons trapped in the gate insulator are responsible for the positive shift in the main channel characteristics. The electrons trapped near the IGZO edges and the holes injected into the ESL layer above InGaZnO (IGZO) jointly determine the shift of the parasitic TFT performance.

  17. Superconducting metamaterials and qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, B. L. T.; Wang, Haozhi; Rouxinol, Francisco; LaHaye, M. D.

    2015-05-01

    Superconducting thin-film metamaterial resonators can provide a dense microwave mode spectrum with potential applications in quantum information science. We report on the fabrication and low-temperature measurement of metamaterial transmission-line resonators patterned from Al thin films. We also describe multiple approaches for numerical simulations of the microwave properties of these structures, along with comparisons with the measured transmission spectra. The ability to predict the mode spectrum based on the chip layout provides a path towards future designs integrating metamaterial resonators with superconducting qubits.

  18. Enhanced performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices through temperature profiling techniques applied to close-spaced sublimation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaonan Li; Sheldon, P.; Moutinho, H.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a methodology developed and applied to the close-spaced sublimation technique for thin-film CdTe deposition. The developed temperature profiles consisted of three discrete temperature segments, which the authors called the nucleation, plugging, and annealing temperatures. They have demonstrated that these temperature profiles can be used to grow large-grain material, plug pinholes, and improve CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance by about 15%. The improved material and device properties have been obtained while maintaining deposition temperatures compatible with commercially available substrates. This temperature profiling technique can be easily applied to a manufacturing environment by adjusting the temperature as a function of substrate position instead of time.

  19. Road to room-temperature superconductivity: A universal model

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In a semiclassical view superconductivity is attributed exclusively to the advance of atoms' outer s electrons through the nuclei of neighbor atoms in a solid. The necessary progression of holes in the opposite direction has the electric and magnetic effect as if two electrons were advancing instead of each actual one. Superconductivity ceases when the associated lateral oscillation of the outer s electrons extends between neighbor atoms. If such overswing occurs already at T = 0, then the material is a normal conductor. Otherwise, lateral overswing can be caused by lattice vibrations at a critical temperature Tc or by a critical magnetic field Bc. Lateral electron oscillations are reduced - and Tc is increased - when the atoms of the outer s electrons are squeezed, be it in the bulk crystal, in a thin film, or under external pressure on the sample. The model is applied to alkali metals and alkali-doped fullerenes. Aluminum serves as an example of a simple metal with superconductivity. Application of the mode...

  20. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanoparticles TiO2 thin films by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muaz, A. K. M.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Foo, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the sol-gel method is used to prepare nanoparticles titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films at different annealing temperature. The prepared sol was deposited on the p-SiO2 substrates by spin coating technique under room temperature. The nanoparticles TiO2 solution was synthesized using Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4 as a precursor with an methanol solution at a molar ratio 1:10. The prepared TiO2 sols will further validate through structural, morphological and electrical properties. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, as-deposited films was found to be amorphous in nature and tend to transform into tetragonal anatase and rutile phase as the films annealed at 573 and 773 K, respectively. The diversification of the surface roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated the roughness and thickness very dependent on the annealing temperature. The two-point probe electrical resistance and conductance of nanoparticles TiO2 thin films were determined by the DC current-voltage (IV) analysis. From the I-V measurement, the electrical conductance increased as the films annealed at higher temperature.

  1. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanoparticles TiO{sub 2} thin films by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muaz, A. K. M.; Hashim, U., E-mail: uda@unimap.edu.my; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Foo, K. L. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Univerisiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this paper, the sol-gel method is used to prepare nanoparticles titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films at different annealing temperature. The prepared sol was deposited on the p-SiO{sub 2} substrates by spin coating technique under room temperature. The nanoparticles TiO{sub 2} solution was synthesized using Ti{OCH(CH_3)_2}{sub 4} as a precursor with an methanol solution at a molar ratio 1:10. The prepared TiO{sub 2} sols will further validate through structural, morphological and electrical properties. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, as-deposited films was found to be amorphous in nature and tend to transform into tetragonal anatase and rutile phase as the films annealed at 573 and 773 K, respectively. The diversification of the surface roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated the roughness and thickness very dependent on the annealing temperature. The two-point probe electrical resistance and conductance of nanoparticles TiO{sub 2} thin films were determined by the DC current-voltage (IV) analysis. From the I-V measurement, the electrical conductance increased as the films annealed at higher temperature.

  2. Laser stimulated kinetics effects on the phase transition of the ferromagnetic/superconducting MgB{sub 2}/(CrO{sub 2}) bilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlZayed, N.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kityk, I.V., E-mail: ikityk@el.pcz.czest.pl [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42201 Czestochowa (Poland); Soltan, S. [Max Planck Institute, Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, 11798 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Wojciechowski, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42201 Czestochowa (Poland); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Pekarska St., 50, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Lakshminarayana, G. [Materials Science and Technology Division (MST-7), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Shahabuddin, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Dependence of resistance versus temperature for different power densities. The nonzero value is generated from the bottom CrO{sub 2} resistive layer. The onset transition temperature is our reference for the enhancement value. - Highlights: • Photoinduced enhancement of critical temperature in MgB{sub 2}–Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} films was found. • Crucail role of electron–phonon interacton was shown. • Optimal ratio fundamental/SHG intensities was varied within 4:1 and 6:1. - Abstract: Using bicolor laser treatment by Nd:YAG 20 ns laser (1064–532 nm) and 180 ns CO{sub 2} laser beams (10.6–5.3 μm) it was shown a possibility of critical temperature enhancement in ferromagnetic superconducting MgB{sub 2}/CrO{sub 2} bilayer films. The role of the phonon sub-system effectively interacting with 3d Cr originating localized trapping levels is discussed. The pump–probe laser kinetics for the probing second harmonic generation at 1064 nm is explored in details to show principal role of the localized trapping levels. The relaxation of the processes after the switching off the photo inducing beams show the disappearance of the enhanced superconductivity after the 20–30 s. The temperature dependence of the resistance show nonlinear dependence versus the pumping power and different optimal fundamental to writing power density beams ratio.

  3. Fabrication of high T(sub c) superconductor thin film devices: Center director's discretionary fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a technique for fabricating superconducting weak link devices with micron-sized geometries etched in laser ablated Y1Ba2Cu3O(x) (YBCO) thin films. Careful placement of the weak link over naturally occurring grain boundaries exhibited in some YBCO thin films produces Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) operating at 77 K.

  4. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  5. Manufacture of GdBa2Cu3O7−x Superconducting Thin Films Using High-Thermal-Stability Precursors Playing the Role of Intermediate-Phase Grain-Growth Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Xiao; He, Dong; Yue, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a fluorine-free metal–organic decomposition method using acrylic acid as the solvent for the synthesis of GdBCO superconducting thin films. Commonly used propionic acid was also used to make a comparison with acrylic acid. Acrylic acid was found to be polymerized during drying......, resulting in high thermal stability of the precursor solution. Due to the elevated decomposition temperature of the organic compounds in the acrylic-acid-based precursor, the formation of intermediate phases such as CuO was found delayed; therefore, the grain growth and phase segregation were suppressed....... The superior quality of pyrolyzed films induced by the use of polymerizable acrylic acid is reflected in the Jcof the GdBCO films, which achieved 1.2MA/cm2....

  6. A review of basic phenomena and techniques for sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auciello, O. (Microelectronics Center of North Carolina, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA) North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.; Lichtenwalner, D.J. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Krauss, A.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The processes involved in plasma and ion beam sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting thin films are critically reviewed. Recent advances in the development of these techniques are discussed in relation to basic physical phenomena, specific to each technique, which must be understood before high quality films can be produced. Control of film composition is a major issue in sputter-deposition of multicomponent materials. Low temperature processing of films is a common goal for each technique, particularly in relation to integrating high temperature superconducting films with the current microelectronics technology. It has been understood for some time that for Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} deposition, the most intensely studied high-{Tc} compound, incorporation of sufficient oxygen into the film during deposition is necessary to produce as-deposited superconducting films at relatively substrate temperatures. Recent results have shown that with the use of suitable buffer layers, high quality Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} sputtered films can be obtained on Si substrates without the need for post-deposition anneal processing. This review is mainly focussed on issues related to sputter-deposition of Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films, although representative results concerning the bismuth and thallium based compounds are included. 143 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Photocatalytic Graphene-TiO2 Thin Films Fabricated by Low-Temperature Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Spin and Spray Coating in a Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zabihi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we communicate a facile and low temperature synthesis process for the fabrication of graphene-TiO2 photocatalytic composite thin films. A sol-gel chemical route is used to synthesize TiO2 from the precursor solutions and spin and spray coating are used to deposit the films. Excitation of the wet films during the casting process by ultrasonic vibration favorably influences both the sol-gel route and the deposition process, through the following mechanisms. The ultrasound energy imparted to the wet film breaks down the physical bonds of the gel phase. As a result, only a low-temperature post annealing process is required to eliminate the residues to complete the conversion of precursors to TiO2. In addition, ultrasonic vibration creates a nanoscale agitating motion or microstreaming in the liquid film that facilitates mixing of TiO2 and graphene nanosheets. The films made based on the above-mentioned ultrasonic vibration-assisted method and annealed at 150 °C contain both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2, which is the most favorable configuration for photocatalytic applications. The photoinduced and photocatalytic experiments demonstrate effective photocurrent generation and elimination of pollutants by graphene-TiO2 composite thin films fabricated via scalable spray coating and mild temperature processing, the results of which are comparable with those made using lab-scale and energy-intensive processes.

  8. Polyvinylpyrrolidone/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites thin films coated on quartz crystal microbalance for NO2 detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junlong; Xie, Guangzhong; Zhou, Yong; Xie, Tao; Tai, HuiLing; Yang, Guangjin

    2014-08-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites are sprayed on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for NO2 sensing. The thin films are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The experimental results reveal that PVP/RGO sensor exhibits higher sensitivity and shorter recovery time than those of PVP. Besides, the response to 20 ppm NO2 is higher than other gases such as CO, CO2 and NH3 even at 100ppm. When the PVP/RGO sensor is exposed to these gases, the good selectivity to NO2 makes the sensor ideal for NO2 detection.

  9. High magnetic field properties of Fe-pnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, Fritz

    2015-11-20

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in Fe-based materials triggered worldwide efforts to investigate their fundamental properties. Despite a lot of similarities to cuprates and MgB{sub 2}, important differences like near isotropic behaviour in contrast to cuprates and the peculiar pairing symmetry of the order parameter (OP) have been reported. The OP symmetry of Fe-based superconductors (FBS) was theoretically predicted to be of so-called s± state prior to various experimental works. Still, most of the experimental results favour the s± scenario; however, definitive evidence has not yet been reported. Although no clear understanding of the superconducting mechanisms yet exists, potential applications such as high-field magnets and Josephson devices have been explored. Indeed, a lot of reports about FBS tapes, wires, and even SQUIDs have been published to this date. In this thesis, the feasibility of high-field magnet applications of FBS is addressed by studying their transport properties, involving doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (Ba-122) and LnFeAs(O,F) [Ln=Sm and Nd]. Particularly, it is important to study physical properties in a sample form (i.e. thin films) that is close to the conditions found in applications. However, the realisation of epitaxial FBS thin films is not an easy undertaking. Recent success in growing epitaxial FBS thin films opens a new avenue to delve into transport critical current measurements. The information obtained through this research will be useful for exploring high-field magnet applications. This thesis consists of 7 chapters: Chapter 1 describes the motivation of this study, the basic background of superconductivity, and a brief summary of the thin film growth of FBS. Chapter 2 describes experimental methods employed in this study. Chapter 3 reports on the fabrication of Co-doped Ba-122 thin films on various substrates. Particular emphasis lies on the discovery of fluoride substrates to be beneficial for

  10. Comparison between nonlinear measurements in patterned and unpatterned thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, C [Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Nord UPC, D3-Jordi Girona, 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Mateu, J [Centre Tecnologic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya, Edifici Nexus Gran Capita, 2-4, 2nd floor, room 202-203, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); O' Callaghan, J M [Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Nord UPC, D3-Jordi Girona, 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This work compares two alternative methods of characterizing the nonlinearities in a 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} superconducting thin film. Both methods are based on measuring the intermodulation distortion in high temperature superconducting (HTS) films. The first method measures the unpatterned film by using a rutile loaded cavity operating at the TE{sub 011} mode. The second method is based on intermodulation measurements made in a resonant coplanar line which is patterned on the same film that is used in the rutile cavity. In both experiments we use closed-form expressions and numerical techniques to extract local parameters related to the nonlinearities of the superconductor. The intermodulation data in both type of measurements can be fitted with identical nonlinear parameters of the HTS.

  11. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  12. Influence of substrate temperature on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Bi-doped MnInS4 thin films prepared by nebuliser spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A.; Senthil Kumar, V.; Pradeev Raj, K.

    2017-11-01

    Bismuth (Bi)-doped manganese indium sulphide (MnInS4) thin films were deposited on heated glass substrates using an aqueous solution of MnCl2, InCl3, (NH2)2CS and BiCl3 by the common nebuliser spray pyrolysis technique. The thin films were grown at various substrate temperatures ranging from 250 to 400 °C with a constant spray time (5 min). The present work aims to study the effect of substrate temperature on the structural, optical, photoluminescence and electrical properties of the grown thin films using various techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and four probe methods. The XRD pattern reveals that the Bi-doped MnInS4 thin films were polycrystalline in nature with a cubic spinel structure whose particle size varies between 8.2 and 23.5 nm. From the FE-SEM micrographs, due to the change in the substrate temperature, shapes such as spherical, needle-shaped and T-shaped grains were observed throughout the surface of the films. The energy dispersive analysis spectrum (EDS) shows the presence of Mn, In, S and Bi in the film grown at 250 °C. It is interesting to note that the structural homogeneity and crystallinity of the film is improved due to the decrease in the absorption coefficient (α) and extinction coefficient (K) with an increase in substrate temperature. Also, with an increase in the substrate temperature, the calculated band gap energy was found to decrease from 1.87 to 1.59 eV. From the PL spectra, several intense peaks corresponding to blue, green, yellow, orange and red band emissions were observed in the wavelength region of 350-650 nm. Moreover as the intensity of the peak increases with increase in the substrate temperature, the crystallinity of the material of the film greatly improves concomitant with minimum strain and defect states. From the electrical studies, the electrical conductivity

  13. Drying temperature effects on electrical and optical properties of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azhar, N. E. A., E-mail: najwaezira@yahoo.com; Affendi, I. H. H., E-mail: irmahidayanti.halim@gmail.com; Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Shariffudin, S. S., E-mail: sobihana@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Research Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University (KSU), 245 Riyadh 11454 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Temperature effects on electrical and optical properties of a representative semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), has recently attracted much attention. The MEH-PPV thin films were deposited at different drying temperature (anneal temperature) using spin-coating technique. The spin coating technique was used to produce uniform film onto large area. The MEH-PPV was dissolved in toluene solution to exhibits different optical and electrical properties. The absorption coefficient and bandgap was measured using UV-Visible-NIR (UV-VIS-NIR). The bandgap of MEH-PPV was effect by the thickness of thin films. For electrical properties, two-point probe was used to characterize the current-voltage measurement. The current-voltage measurement shows that the MEH-PPV thin films become more conductive at high temperature. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs applications.

  14. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  15. Atomic-scale distortions and temperature-dependent large pseudogap in thin films of the parent iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe1+y Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Andrea; Buzio, Renato; Kawale, Shrikant; Bellingeri, Emilio; Martinelli, Alberto; Bernini, Cristina; Tresca, Cesare; Capone, Massimo; Profeta, Gianni; Ferdeghini, Carlo

    2017-12-01

    We investigate with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations the surface structures and the electronic properties of Fe1+y Te thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Contrary to the regular arrangement of antiferromagnetic nanostripes previously reported on cleaved single-crystal samples, the surface of Fe1+y Te thin films displays a peculiar distribution of spatially inhomogeneous nanostripes. Both STM and DFT calculations show the bias-dependent nature of such features and support the interpretation of spin-polarized tunneling between the FeTe surface and an unintentionally magnetized tip. In addition, the spatial inhomogeneity is interpreted as a purely electronic effect related to changes in hybridization and Fe–Fe bond length driven by local variations in the concentration of excess interstitial Fe cations. Unexpectedly, the surface density of states measured by STS strongly evolves with temperature in close proximity to the antiferromagnetic–paramagnetic first-order transition, and reveals a large pseudogap of 180–250 meV at about 50–65 K. We believe that in this temperature range a phase transition takes place, and the system orders and locks into particular combinations of orbitals and spins because of the interplay between excess interstitial magnetic Fe and strongly correlated d-electrons.

  16. Thickness and temperature dependence of electrical properties of Bi2(Te0.1Se0.9)3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodara Das, V.; Selvaraj, S.

    1999-08-01

    Thin films of different thicknesses have been vacuum deposited onto clean glass plates held at room temperature using the flash evaporation technique in a vacuum of 2×10-5 Torr. The structural characterization of the bulk and the thin films was carried out using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction techniques. Electrical resistance and thermoelectric power of the films were measured in the same vacuum of 2×10-5 Torr in the temperature range 300-450 K. The conduction activation energy of the films was calculated using the electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power data of the films. The thickness dependence of the activation energy observed is attributed to the polycrystalline nature of the films. Grain growth and reorientation of the grains take place during the annealing process. The thickness dependence of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of the films are explained by the effective mean free path model [C. R. Tellier, Thin Solid Films 51, 311 (1978)]. The important physical parameters like mean free path, Fermi energy, power index of the energy dependant expression for the mean free path, the hypothetical bulk resistivity and the thermoelectric power have been calculated by the combined analysis of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power. The electron-phonon scattering mechanism is found to be dominant in the material.

  17. Effect of Annealing Temperature and Spin Coating Speed on Mn-Doped ZnS Nanocrystals Thin Film by Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azie Azura Mohd Arif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnS:Mn nanocrystals thin film was fabricated at 300°C and 500°C via the spin coating method. Its sol-gel was spin coated for 20 s at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm with metal tape being used to mold the shape of the thin film. A different combination of these parameters was used to investigate their influences on the fabrication of the film. Optical and structural characterizations have been performed. Optical characterization was analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrophotometer while the structural and compositional analysis of films was measured via field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. From UV-vis spectra, the wavelength of the ZnS:Mn was 250 nm and the band gap was within the range 4.43 eV–4.60 eV. In room temperature PL spectra, there were two emission peaks centered at 460 nm and 590 nm. Under higher annealing temperature and higher speed used in spin coating, an increase of 0.05 eV was observed. It was concluded that the spin coating process is able to synthesize high quality spherical ZnS:Mn nanocrystals. This conventional process can replace other high technology methods due to its synthesis cost.

  18. Atomic-scale distortions and temperature-dependent large pseudogap in thin films of the parent iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe1+yTe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Andrea; Buzio, Renato; Kawale, Shrikant; Bellingeri, Emilio; Martinelli, Alberto; Bernini, Cristina; Tresca, Cesare; Capone, Massimo; Profeta, Gianni; Ferdeghini, Carlo

    2017-11-09

    We investigate with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations the surface structures and the electronic properties of Fe 1+y Te thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Contrary to the regular arrangement of antiferromagnetic nanostripes previously reported on cleaved single-crystal samples, the surface of Fe 1+y Te thin films displays a peculiar distribution of spatially inhomogeneous nanostripes. Both STM and DFT calculations show the bias-dependent nature of such features and support the interpretation of spin-polarized tunneling between the FeTe surface and an unintentionally magnetized tip. In addition, the spatial inhomogeneity is interpreted as a purely electronic effect related to changes in hybridization and Fe-Fe bond length driven by local variations in the concentration of excess interstitial Fe cations. Unexpectedly, the surface density of states measured by STS strongly evolves with temperature in close proximity to the antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic first-order transition, and reveals a large pseudogap of 180-250 meV at about 50-65 K. We believe that in this temperature range a phase transition takes place, and the system orders and locks into particular combinations of orbitals and spins because of the interplay between excess interstitial magnetic Fe and strongly correlated d-electrons.

  19. Atomic-scale distortions and temperature-dependent large pseudogap in thin films of the parent iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe1+yTe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Andrea; Buzio, Renato; Kawale, Shrikant S; Bellingeri, Emilio; Martinelli, Alberto; Bernini, Cristina; Tresca, Cesare; Capone, Massimo; Profeta, Gianni; Ferdeghini, Carlo

    2017-10-04

    We investigate by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations the surface structures and the electronic properties of Fe1+yTe thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Contrary to the regular arrangement of antiferromagnetic nanostripes previously reported on cleaved single-crystal samples, the surface of Fe1+yTe thin films displays a peculiar distribution of spatially inhomogeneous nanostripes. Both STM and DFT calculations show the bias-dependent nature of such features and support the interpretation of spin-polarized tunneling between the FeTe surface and an unintentionally magnetized tip. In addition, the spatial inhomogeneity is interpreted as a purely electronic effect, related to changes in hybridization and Fe-Fe bond length driven by local variations in the concentration of excess interstitial Fe cations. Unexpectedly, the surface density of states measured by STS strongly evolves with temperature in close proximity to the antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic first-order transition, and reveals a large pseudogap of 180-250 meV at about 50-65 K. We believe that in this temperature range a phase transition takes place and the system orders and locks into particular combinations of orbitals and spins, because of the interplay between excess interstitial magnetic Fe and strongly correlated d-electrons. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Interdiffusion studies on high-Tc superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films on Si(111) with a NiSi2/ZrO2 buffer layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarnink, W.A.M.; Blank, D.H.A.; Adelerhof, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Interdiffusion studies on high-T(c) superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films with thickness in the range of 2000-3000 angstrom, on a Si(111) substrate with a buffer layer have been performed. The buffer layer consists of a 400 angstrom thick epitaxial NiSi2 layer covered with 1200 angstrom of p...

  1. (Fe3O4) thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    resistance vs temperature measurements. Implantation decreases the change in resistance at 120 K and this effect saturates beyond 3 × 1014 ions/cm2. The Verwey transition temperature, TV, shifts towards lower temperatures with increase in ion dose. Keywords. Implantation; magnetite; thin films; pulsed laser ablation; ...

  2. Effects of Deposition Temperature on the Device Characteristics of Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Using In-Ga-Zn-O Active Channels Prepared by Atomic-Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Min; Seong, Nak-Jin; Choi, Kyujeong; Seo, Gi-Ho; Shin, Woong-Chul

    2017-07-12

    We demonstrated the physical and electrical properties of the In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) thin films prepared by atomic-layer deposition (ALD) method and investigated the effects of the ALD temperature. The film composition (atomic ratio of In:Ga:Zn) and film density were examined to be 1:1:3 and 5.9 g/cm3, respectively, for all the temperature conditions. The optical band gaps decreased from 3.81 to 3.21 eV when the ALD temperature increased from 130 to 170 °C. The amounts of oxygen-related defects such as oxygen vacancies increased with increasing the ALD temperature. It was found from the in situ temperature-dependent electrical conductivity measurements that the electronic natures including the defect structures and conduction mechanism of the IGZO thin films prepared at different temperatures showed marked variations. The carrier mobilities in the saturation regions (μsat's) for the fabricated thin film transistors (TFTs) using the IGZO channel layers were estimated to be 6.1 to 14.8 cm2 V-1 s-1 with increasing the ALD temperature from 130 to 170 °C. Among the devices, when the ALD temperature was controlled to be 150 °C, the IGZO TFTs showed the best performance, which resulted from the fact that the amounts of oxygen vacancies and interstitial defects could be appropriately modulated at this condition. Consequently, the μsat, subthreshold swing, and on/off ratio for the TFT using the IGZO channel prepared at 150 °C showed 10.4 cm2 V-1 s-1, 90 mV/dec, and 2 × 109, respectively. The threshold voltage shifts of this device could also be effectively reduced to be 0.6 and -3.2 V under the positive-bias and negative-bias-illumination stress conditions. These obtained characteristics can be comparable to those for the sputter-deposited IGZO TFTs.

  3. Crystallization and electrical characteristics of 0.95 (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.05 BaTiO3 thin films under different annealing temperature and atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Chien-Chen; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Lin, Jing-Jenn

    2011-12-01

    0.95 (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.05 BaTiO3 +1 wt% Bi2O3 (NBT-BT3) ceramic is used as target to deposit the NBT-BT3 thin films. The excess 1wt% Bi2O3 is used to compensate the vaporization of Bi2O3 during the sintering and annealing processes. NBT-BT3 thin films are successfully deposited using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputter method and crystallized subsequently using a conventional furnace annealing (CFA) process. The annealed process is conducted in air and in oxygen atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 600-800 degrees C for 60 min. As compared with the as-deposited NBT-BT3 thin films, the CFA-treated process has improved the grain growth and crystallization. We will show that the annealing atmosphere is the more important parameter to influence the grain growth and crystallization of NBT-BT3 thin films than the annealing temperature. The influences of CFA-treated temperature and atmosphere on the electrical characteristics of NBT-BT3 thin films, including the polarization characteristics (Pr, Ps, and Ec values), the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves, and the leakage current density-electric field (J-E) curves, are also investigated in this study.

  4. Characterizations of photoconductivity of graphene oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Kuo Chang-Jian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of photoresponse of a graphene oxide (GO thin film to a near infrared laser light were studied. Results showed the photocurrent in the GO thin film was cathodic, always flowing in an opposite direction to the initial current generated by the preset bias voltage that shows a fundamental discrepancy from the photocurrent in the reduced graphene oxide thin film. Light illumination on the GO thin film thus results in more free electrons that offset the initial current. By examining GO thin films reduced at different temperatures, the critical temperature for reversing the photocurrent from cathodic to anodic was found around 187°C. The dynamic photoresponse for the GO thin film was further characterized through the response time constants within the laser on and off durations, denoted as τon and τoff, respectively. τon for the GO thin film was comparable to the other carbon-based thin films such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes. τoff was, however, much larger than that of the other's. This discrepancy was attributable to the retardation of exciton recombination rate thanks to the existing oxygen functional groups and defects in the GO thin films.

  5. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 Thin Film Using a Chemical Bath Deposition Method with Improved Deposition Time, Temperature and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a simple chemical bath deposition method. Triethanolamine was used as complexing agent to decrease time and temperature of deposition and shift the pH of the solution to the noncorrosive region. The films were characterized for composition, surface morphology, structure and optical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that SnOx thin films consist of a polycrystalline structure with an average grain size of 36 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies show a uniform grain distribution without pinholes. The elemental composition was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average O/Sn atomic percentage ratio is 1.72. Band gap energy and optical transition were determined from optical absorbance data. The film was found to exhibit direct and indirect transitions in the visible spectrum with band gap values of about 3.9 and 3.7 eV, respectively. The optical transmittance in the visible region is 82%. The SnOx nanocrystals exhibit an ultraviolet emission band centered at 392 nm in the vicinity of the band edge, which is attributed to the well-known exciton transition in SnOx. Photosensitivity was detected in the positive region under illumination with white light.

  6. Electrical characteristics of mixed Zr-Si oxide thin films prepared by ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, F.J., E-mail: fjferrer@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CSIC - U. Sevilla), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Frutos, F. [E.T.S. de Ingenieria Informatica, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CSIC - U. Sevilla), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jimenez, C. [Laboratoire de Materiaux et de Genie Physique, BP 257 - INPGrenoble Minatec - 3 parvis Louis Neel - 38016 Grenoble (France); Yubero, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC - U. Sevilla), c/ Americo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-07-31

    Mixed Zr-Si oxide thin films have been prepared at room temperature by ion beam decomposition of organometallic volatile precursors. The films were flat and amorphous. They did not present phase segregation of the pure single oxides. A significant amount of impurities (-C-, -CH{sub x}, -OH, and other radicals coming from partially decomposed precursors) remained incorporated in the films after the deposition process. This effect is minimized if the Ar content in the O{sub 2}/Ar bombarding gas is maximized. Static permittivity and breakdown electrical field of the films were determined by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage electrical measurements. It is found that the static permittivity increases non-linearly from {approx} 4 for pure SiO{sub 2} to {approx} 15 for pure ZrO{sub 2}. Most of the dielectric failures in the films were due to extrinsic breakdown failures. The maximum breakdown electrical field decreases from {approx} 10.5 MV/cm for pure SiO{sub 2} to {approx} 45 MV/cm for pure ZrO{sub 2}. These characteristics are justified by high impurity content of the thin films. In addition, the analysis of the conduction mechanisms in the formed dielectrics is consistent to Schottky and Poole-Frenkel emission for low and high electric fields applied, respectively.

  7. Nonlinearities in Microwave Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2012-01-01

    The research is focused on the modeling of nonlinear properties of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin films, using Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer and Lumped Element Circuit theories, with purpose to enhance microwave power handling capabilities of microwave filters and optimize design of microwave circuits in micro- and nano- electronics.

  8. Effect of the sintering temperature on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO+Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayen-Hernandez, S.A.; Torres-Delgado, G.; Castanedo-Perez, R.; Marquez Marin, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I. PN, Unidad Queretaro. AP. 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Gutierrez-Villarreal, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada Boulevard Enrique Reyna No.140. Saltillo Coah., 25100 (Mexico); Zelaya-Angel, O. [Depto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. AP 14-740, Mexico 07360 DF (Mexico)

    2007-09-22

    ZnO+Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} thin films were obtained by the sol-gel method, the precursor solutions were prepared using two Ti/Zn ratios: 0.49 and 0.69. The films were deposited on glass slide substrates and sintered at temperatures in the 200-600 C range in increments of 50 C, with the goal of studying the dependence of the photocatalytic activity (PA) on the annealing temperature. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The PA was evaluated by measuring the UV-Vis absorption spectra of the methylene blue in aqueous solution before and after photobleaching, using the Lambert-Beer's principle. The higher photocatalytic activities were obtained from the films with sintering temperature around 450 C, for both Ti/Zn ratios studied. (author)

  9. Thermochromic effect at room temperature of Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, A.; Capon, F.; Barrat, S.; Pierson, J. F. [Universite de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Departement CP2S, UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy, F-54042 (France); Laffez, P. [Groupe de Recherche Electronique, Materiaux, Acoustique, Nanoscience (GREMAN), Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, UMR CNRS 7347, IUT de Blois, 15 rue de la Chocolaterie, Blois, F-41000 (France)

    2012-06-01

    Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thermochromic thin films were synthesized using dc reactive magnetron co-sputtering and subsequent annealing in air. The film structure was studied by x-ray diffraction analysis. To validate the thermochromic potentiality of Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}, electrical resistivity and infrared transmittance spectra were recorded for temperatures ranging from 77 K to 420 K. The temperature dependence of the optical band gap was estimated in the near infrared range. Upon heating, the optical transmission decreases in the infrared domain showing a thermochromic effect over a wide wavelength range at room temperature.

  10. Analysis of carrier transport and band tail states in p-type tin monoxide thin-film transistors by temperature dependent characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Kong, Xi; Yang, Jia; Li, Yunpeng; Wilson, Joshua; Liu, Jie; Xin, Qian; Wang, Qingpu; Song, Aimin

    2016-06-01

    Tin monoxide (SnO) has drawn much attention in recent years due to its high hole mobility, transparency, and potential for mass production. However, due to its metastable nature, the deposited film often contains multi-phases such as metallic tin and tin dioxide, which may degrade its electrical properties. Here, we presented the temperature dependent characteristics of p-type SnO thin-film transistors. The hole transport mechanism is dominated by band conduction at high temperatures and variable-range hopping at low temperatures. The maximum activation energy was found to be 308 meV, which denotes a bandgap of around 0.6 eV. The density of states was found to be 1.12 × 1021 cm-3 eV-1 at VG = -80 V, and 6.75 × 1020 cm-3 eV-1 at VG = 0 V, respectively.

  11. Influence of temperature and wavelength on the switchable photovoltaic response of a BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, S.; Bouyanfif, H.; El Marssi, M.

    2017-12-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) response of an epitaxial BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 thin film grown using pulsed laser deposition has been investigated on a broad range of temperature. The wavelength dependent photovoltaic effect shows the contribution of the manganese doping and the presence of vacancies (Bi and O vacancies). The temperature dependent response of the PV response rules out electromigration and/or Schottky barriers as dominant mechanisms. This is corroborated with the observed switchable photovoltaic effect that can be explained either by the depolarizing field or by the bulk photovoltaic effect. In addition, the PV response shows a strong correlation with the low temperature polaronic-like conduction mechanism, and a high open circuit voltage (2.5 V) is detected in the investigated vertical capacitive geometry.

  12. Nanoscale high-temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, P.; Wei, J.Y.T.; Ananth, V.; Morales, P.; Skocpol, W

    2004-08-01

    We discuss the exciting prospects of studying high-temperature superconductivity in the nanometer scale from the perspective of experiments, theory and simulation. In addition to enabling studies of novel quantum phases in an unexplored regime of system dimensions and parameters, nanoscale high-temperature superconducting structures will allow exploratio