Sample records for temperature structural materials

  1. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin


    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  2. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material (United States)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta


    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  3. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Materials and Structures - a Literature Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL


    The objective of this limited study was to provide an overview of the effects of elevated temperature on the behavior of concrete materials and structures. In meeting this objective the effects of elevated temperatures on the properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete constituent materials and concretes are summarized. The effects of elevated temperature on high-strength concrete materials are noted and their performance compared to normal strength concretes. A review of concrete materials for elevated-temperature service is presented. Nuclear power plant and general civil engineering design codes are described. Design considerations and analytical techniques for evaluating the response of reinforced concrete structures to elevated-temperature conditions are presented. Pertinent studies in which reinforced concrete structural elements were subjected to elevated temperatures are described.

  4. Summary of U. S. LMFBR programs on high temperature structural design and associated materials testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document was prepared at the request of the Division of Reactor Development and Demonstration (DRDD), U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Four general areas of research and development are included: high-temperature structural design; irradiation effects--mechanical properties of structural materials; sodium environmental effects--influence of sodium on mechanical properties; and general material qualification.

  5. High temperature superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario-Franco, M.A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas


    The perovskite structure is the basis of all known high-temperature superconducting materials. Many of the most successful (highest T{sub c}) materials are based on mercury and thallium phases but, due to the high toxicity of the component compounds effort has been invested in the substitution of these elements with silver. Progress is reviewed. (orig.)

  6. High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design (United States)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.


    The next generation of planetary exploration vehicles will rely heavily on robust aero-assist technologies, especially those that include aerocapture. This paper provides an overview of an ongoing development program, led by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and aimed at introducing high-temperature structures, adhesives, and advanced thermal protection system (TPS) materials into the aeroshell design process. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate TPS materials that can withstand the higher heating rates of NASA's next generation planetary missions, and to validate high-temperature structures and adhesives that can reduce required TPS thickness and total aeroshell mass, thus allowing for larger science payloads. The effort described consists of parallel work in several advanced aeroshell technology areas. The areas of work include high-temperature adhesives, high-temperature composite materials, advanced ablator (TPS) materials, sub-scale demonstration test articles, and aeroshell modeling and analysis. The status of screening test results for a broad selection of available higher-temperature adhesives is presented. It appears that at least one (and perhaps a few) adhesives have working temperatures ranging from 315-400 C (600-750 F), and are suitable for TPS-to-structure bondline temperatures that are significantly above the traditional allowable of 250 C (482 F). The status of mechanical testing of advanced high-temperature composite materials is also summarized. To date, these tests indicate the potential for good material performance at temperatures of at least 600 F. Application of these materials and adhesives to aeroshell systems that incorporate advanced TPS materials may reduce aeroshell TPS mass by 15% - 30%. A brief outline is given of work scheduled for completion in 2006 that will include fabrication and testing of large panels and subscale aeroshell test articles at the Solar-Tower Test Facility located at Kirtland AFB and operated by Sandia

  7. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server


    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  8. Maintaining the structure of templated porous materials for reactive and high-temperature applications. (United States)

    Rudisill, Stephen G; Wang, Zhiyong; Stein, Andreas


    Nanoporous and nanostructured materials are becoming increasingly important for advanced applications involving, for example, bioactive materials, catalytic materials, energy storage and conversion materials, photonic crystals, membranes, and more. As such, they are exposed to a variety of harsh environments and often experience detrimental morphological changes as a result. This article highlights material limitations and recent advances in porous materials--three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) materials in particular--under reactive or high-temperature conditions. Examples include systems where morphological changes are desired and systems that require an increased retention of structure, surface area, and overall material integrity during synthesis and processing. Structural modifications, changes in composition, and alternate synthesis routes are explored and discussed. Improvements in thermal or structural stability have been achieved by the isolation of nanoparticles in porous structures through spatial separation, by confinement in a more thermally stable host, by the application of a protective surface or an adhesive interlayer, by alloy or solid solution formation, and by doping to induce solute drag.

  9. Studies of low temperature, low flux radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor structural materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.


    There are several existing research programs which have components pertinent to the issue of low flux/low temperature embrittlement; in particular, examination of the Shippingport shield tank which has been exposed to low flux and relatively low temperature is being performed by ANL, and evaluation of low temperature embrittlement in A508 and A533B steels in support of the HTGR is currently being performed by ORNL. However, these programs are not specifically directed at the broader issue of low flux/low temperature embrittlement in a range of structural steels. Hence, the authors coordinated their effort with these programs so that their investigations were complementary to existing programs, and they focused on a set of materials which expand the data base developed in these programs. In particular, the authors have investigated embrittlement phenomena in steels that are similar to those used in support structure.

  10. A review of advanced metallic and ceramic materials suitable for high temperature use in space structures (United States)

    Bashford, David

    Spacecraft, satellites and launch vehicles require efficient, lightweight structural materials. At present, the structural requirements can be largely met by aluminium alloys and polymeric matrix composites based on carbon fibres. However, increasingly there will be a need to specify materials capable of sustaining operational use at temperatures in excess of 250°C and towards 2000°C. Ambitious spaceplane projects such as Hermes, HOTOL, Sanger, HOPE and NASP have highlighted this need. Within the operational temperature band 250°C to 2000°C various metallic and ceramic materials are appropriate for consideration, either in alloy or composite form. This review paper identifies the status of technology on the following: i) Aluminium and titanium alloys and their composites. ii) Superalloys and their composites. iii) Carbon, glass-ceramic and ceramic matrix composites. The development of more weight efficient and thermally stable metallic and ceramic materials has centred on a number of key areas (1). For metallics, improved alloy composition and grain refinement from Rapidly Solidified Powders have given improvements in strength retention at high temperatures (a). The introduction of reinforcements, either particulate, whisker or continuous fibre, have improved the basic alloys by reducing density, increasing stiffness and strength and extending thermal capabilities. Monolithic ceramics possess thermal stability but are inherently brittle and crack sensitive. The addition of ceramic fibres and whiskers has the effect of modifying fracture characteristics by introducing "pseudo-ductility" to raise apparent toughness. In the foreseeable future the emerging high temperature materials will find uses in: Spaceplane substructures and control surfaces; Thermal protection systems and insulation; Propulsion plants and thruster units; Air breathing engines.

  11. Effect of temperature on composite sandwich structures subjected to low velocity impact. [aircraft construction materials (United States)

    Sharma, A. V.


    The effect of low velocity projectile impact on sandwich-type structural components was investigated. The materials used in the fabrication of the impact surface were graphite-, Kevlar-, and boron-fibers with appropriate epoxy matrices. The testing of the specimens was performed at moderately low- and high-temperatures as well as at room temperature to assess the impact-initiated strength degradation of the laminates. Eleven laminates with different stacking sequences, orientations, and thicknesses were tested. The low energy projectile impact is considered to simulate the damage caused by runway debris, the dropping of the hand tools during servicing, etc., on the secondary aircraft structures fabricated with the composite materials. The results show the preload and the impact energy combinations necessary to cause catastrophic failure in the laminates tested. A set of faired curves indicating the failure thresholds is shown separately for the tension-and compression-loaded laminates. The specific-strengths and -modulii for the various laminates tested are also given.

  12. Processing Techniques Developed to Fabricate Lanthanum Titanate Piezoceramic Material for High-Temperature Smart Structures (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali


    Piezoelectric ceramic materials are potential candidates for use as actuators and sensors in intelligent gas turbine engines. For piezoceramics to be applied in gas turbine engines, they will have to be able to function in temperatures ranging from 1000 to 2500 F. However, the maximum use temperature for state-of-the-art piezoceramic materials is on the order of 300 to 400 F. Research activities have been initiated to develop high-temperature piezoceramic materials for gas turbine engine applications. Lanthanum titanate has been shown to have high-temperature piezoelectric properties with Curie temperatures of T(sub c) = 1500 C and use temperatures greater than 1000 C. However, the fabrication of lanthanum titanate poses serious challenges because of the very high sintering temperatures required for densification. Two different techniques have been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to fabricate dense lanthanum titanate piezoceramic material. In one approach, lower sintering temperatures were achieved by adding yttrium oxide to commercially available lanthanum titanate powder. Addition of only 0.1 mol% yttrium oxide lowered the sintering temperature by as much as 300 C, to just 1100 C, and dense lanthanum titanate was produced by pressure-assisted sintering. The second approach utilized the same commercially available powders but used an innovative sintering approach called differential sintering, which did not require any additive.

  13. Advanced Materials for Ultrahigh Temperature Structural Applications Above 2000 deg C

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Upadhya, K


    The primary incentive for developing ultrahigh temperature materials for liquid bi-propellant rocket engines lies in the minimization and/or elimination of fuel-film and regenerative cooling of combustion chambers...

  14. High temperature structural silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.


    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

  15. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  16. Probing the Subtle Structure Modifications of Thermoelectric Materials by Variable Temperature Total Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reardon, Hazel; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    The complex host-guest structure of Type-I inorganic clathrates has been studied fervently within the CMC based on their low thermal conductivity and promising thermoelectric Figure of Merit (zT). We have recently been focused on understanding unusual features in the high temperature diffraction...... data collected over a number of years on Ba8Ga16Ge30 (BGG), where numerous samples have been prepared in-house using various synthesis methods. This led to a comprehensive thermal stability study of clathrate powders, where PXRD revealed amorphous components in the samples treated at high temperature...... in air. PDF measurements were performed on data collected from ex situ annealed BGG samples. This ex situ study (to be submitted), reveals that the seemingly subtle change in the clathrate structure and the emergence of a significant amorphous phase observed from PXRD data is likely to be the result...

  17. Effect of high temperatures on cement composite materials in concrete structures


    Bodnárová, L.; Válek, J. (Jan); Sitek, L. (Libor); Foldyna, J.


    Concrete is flexible construction materi al, which is utilized in various technologica l applications for underground structures and reinforcement of mine works (adits, tunnels etc.). In such applications, concrete has ma ny functions – static function, water-tightness, gas-tightne ss, resistance to action of aggressive waters as well as durability. In case of railroad and road tunnel constructions, there is an other important problem: influence of high temp eratures on concrete li...

  18. Structural materialization of stainless steel molds and dies by the low temperature high density plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko


    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a mold substrate material for injection molding and as a die for mold-stamping and direct stamping processes. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical elements at present. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness of 1400 Hv within its thickness of 40 μm without any formation of nitrides after 14.4 ks plasma nitriding at 693 K. This nitrogen solid-solution treated stainless steel had thermal resistivity even at the mold-stamping conditions up to 900 K.

  19. Studies of low temperature, low flux radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor structural materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.


    A large matrix of simple alloys and complex commercial type steels was irradiated over a range of fluxes at 60 C up to a fast fluence of about 3 {times} 10{sup 22} n/m{sup 2}. Combined with data in the literature, these results show a negligible effect of flux on irradiation hardening in the range of 2 {times} 10{sup 13} to 5 {times} 10{sup 18} n/m{sup 2}-s. This observation lends indirect support to the proposal that the accelerated embrittlement in the High Flux Isotope Reactor surveillance steels was due to an anomalously high level of damage from gamma rays. A weak dependence of hardening on a number of elements, including copper, nickel, phosphorus, molybdenum and manganese, can be described by a simple empirical chemistry factor. Particular combinations of elements resulted in hardening differences of up to about 60% in the complex commercial type steels and up to about 100% in simple model alloys. Direct effects of microstructure appear to be minimal. Hardening varies with the square root of fluence above a threshold around 4 {times} 10{sup 20} n/m{sup 2}. The results suggest that low temperature hardening is dominated by local intracascade processes leading to the formation of small defect-solute clusters/complexes. The observed hardening corresponds to nominal maximum end-of-life transition temperature shifts in support structure steels of about 120 C.

  20. Thermophysical characterization tools and numerical models for high temperature thermo-structural composite materials; Outils de caracterisation thermophysique et modeles numeriques pour les composites thermostructuraux a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorrette, Ch


    This work is an original contribution to the study of the thermo-structural composite materials thermal behaviour. It aims to develop a methodology with a new experimental device for thermal characterization adapted to this type of material and to model the heat transfer by conduction within these heterogeneous media. The first part deals with prediction of the thermal effective conductivity of stratified composite materials in the three space directions. For that, a multi scale model using a rigorous morphology analysis of the structure and the elementary properties is proposed and implemented. The second part deals with the thermal characterization at high temperature. It shows how to estimate simultaneously the thermal effusiveness and the thermal conductivity. The present method is based on the observation of the heating from a plane sample submitted to a continuous excitation generated by Joule Effect. Heat transfer is modelled with the quadrupole formalism, temperature is here measured on two sides of the sample. The development of both resistive probes for excitation and linear probes for temperature measurements enables the thermal properties measured up to 1000 C. Finally, some experimental and numerical application examples lead to review the obtained results. (author)

  1. Quick high-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous materials with 3D cubic structure for the adsorption of lysozyme. (United States)

    Lawrence, Geoffrey; Baskar, Arun V; El-Newehy, Mohammed H; Cha, Wang Soo; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Vinu, Ajayan


    Three-dimensional cage-like mesoporous FDU-12 materials with large tuneable pore sizes ranging from 9.9 to 15.6 nm were prepared by varying the synthesis temperature from 100 to 200 °C for the aging time of just 2 h using a tri-block copolymer F-127(EO106PO70EO106) as the surfactant and 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene as the swelling agent in an acidic condition. The mesoporous structure and textural features of FDU-12-HX (where H denotes the hydrothermal method and X denotes the synthesis temperature) samples were elucidated and probed using x-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, (29)Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It has been demonstrated that the aging time can be significantly reduced from 72 to 2 h without affecting the structural order of the FDU-12 materials with a simple adjustment of the synthesis temperature from 100 to 200 °C. Among the materials prepared, the samples prepared at 200 °C had the highest pore volume and the largest pore diameter. Lysozyme adsorption experiments were conducted over FDU-12 samples prepared at different temperatures in order to understand their biomolecule adsorption capacity, where the FDU-12-HX samples displayed high adsorption performance of 29 μmol g(-1) in spite of shortening the actual synthesis time from 72 to 2 h. Further, the influence of surface area, pore volume and pore diameter on the adsorption capacity of FDU-12-HX samples has been investigated and results are discussed in correlation with the textural parameters of the FDU-12-HX and other mesoporous adsorbents including SBA-15, MCM-41, KIT-5, KIT-6 and CMK-3.

  2. TAOI B- Computational Microstructural Optimization Design Tool for High Temperature Structural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Rajiv [Univ. Of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Charit, Indrajit [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)


    The objectives of this research were two-fold: (a) develop a methodology for microstructural optimization of alloys - genetic algorithm approach for alloy microstructural optimization using theoretical models based on fundamental micro-mechanisms, and (b) develop a new computationally designed Ni-Cr alloy for coal-fired power plant applications. The broader outcome of these objectives is expected to be creation of an integrated approach for ‘structural materials by microstructural design’. Three alloy systems were considered for computational optimization and validation, (i) Ni-20Cr (wt.%) base alloy using only solid solution strengthening, (ii) nano-Y2O3 containing Ni-20Cr-1.2Y2O3 (wt.%) alloy for dispersion strengthening and (iii) a sub-micron Al2O3 for composite strengthening, Ni-20Cr-1.2Y2O3-5.0Al2O3 (wt.%). The specimens were synthesized by mechanical alloying and consolidated using spark plasma sintering. Detailed microstructural characterization was done along with initial mechanical properties to validate the computational prediction. A key target property is to have creep rate of 1x10-9 s-1 at 100 MPa and 800oC. The initial results were quite promising and require additional quantification of strengthening contributions from dislocation-particle attractive interaction and load transfer. The observed creep rate was in order of 10-9 s-1 for longer time creep test of Ni-20Cr -1.2Y2O3-5Al2O3, lending support to the overall approach pursued in this project.

  3. Creep and Fracture Characteristics of Materials and Structures at Elevated Temperatures (United States)


    Newman [56]. The stress-strain behavior of the employed material was modelled using the Ramberg - Osgood relation. In the case of the power hardening...functions of e and n, cL is the coefficient of the Ramberg Osgood material description, - ’ In a constant given in [181, o-.0 ,e o are the yield stress...SOLVER ’ ABAQUS ’ 28 7 THE J-INTEGRAL 31 7.1 DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES 31 7.2 CALCULATION OF THE J-INTEGRAL VALUE 34 7.3 RESULTS OF THE Jj- AND J2-INTEGRAL

  4. Thermal-Mechanical and Thermal Behavior of High-Temperature Structural Materials. (United States)


    Physical Constants of Porcelain ," Nagoya Kogyo Gijutsu Shikensko Hokoku, 8 [5] 37-43 (1959); Ceram. Abstracts, 1959, Nov. p. 287a. 6. F. P. materials appropriate for conditions which require high thermal shock resistance in combination with good thermal insulating ability"C. Finally

  5. Thermo-Mechanical and Thermal behavior of High-Temperature Structural Materials. (United States)


    reached a value at which in many candidate materials, such as tar-bonded magnesite refractories , substantial soften- L. ing and creep may occur. If so...number) Thermal shock, thermal stress, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity; refractories , composites, radiation heat transfer, cyclic heating...Bentsen and D. P. H. Hasselman, "The Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Refractories by the Laser-Flash Method." IV J. R. Thomas, J. I

  6. Fundamental Understanding of Ambient and High-Temperature Plasticity Phenomena in Structural Materials in Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, Chaitanya; Zhu, Ting; McDowell, David


    The goal of this research project is to develop the methods and tools necessary to link unit processes analyzed using atomistic simulations involving interaction of vacancies and interstitials with dislocations, as well as dislocation mediation at sessile junctions and interfaces as affected by radiation, with cooperative influence on higher-length scale behavior of polycrystals. These tools and methods are necessary to design and enhance radiation-induced damage-tolerant alloys. The project will achieve this goal by applying atomistic simulations to characterize unit processes of: 1. Dislocation nucleation, absorption, and desorption at interfaces 2. Vacancy production, radiation-induced segregation of substitutional Cr at defect clusters (point defect sinks) in BCC Fe-Cr ferritic/martensitic steels 3. Investigation of interaction of interstitials and vacancies with impurities (V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Al, Si, P, S) 4. Time evolution of swelling (cluster growth) phenomena of irradiated materials 5. Energetics and kinetics of dislocation bypass of defects formed by interstitial clustering and formation of prismatic loops, informing statistical models of continuum character with regard to processes of dislocation glide, vacancy agglomeration and swelling, climb and cross slip This project will consider the Fe, Fe-C, and Fe-Cr ferritic/martensitic material system, accounting for magnetism by choosing appropriate interatomic potentials and validating with first principles calculations. For these alloys, the rate of swelling and creep enhancement is considerably lower than that of face-centered cubic (FCC) alloys and of austenitic Fe-Cr-Mo alloys. The team will confirm mechanisms, validate simulations at various time and length scales, and improve the veracity of computational models. The proposed research?s feasibility is supported by recent modeling of radiation effects in metals and alloys, interfacial dislocation transfer reactions in nano-twinned copper, and dislocation

  7. Structure and Properties of High-Temperature Multilayer Hybrid Material Based on Vanadium Alloy and Stainless Steel (United States)

    Nechaykina, Tatyana A.; Nikulin, Sergey A.; Rozhnov, Andrey B.; Khatkevich, Vladimir M.; Rogachev, Stanislav O.


    The present work is devoted to the development of new structural composite material having the unique complex of properties for operating in ultrahard conditions that combine high temperatures, radiation, and aggressive environments. A new three-layer composite tube material based on vanadium alloy (V-4Ti-4Cr) protected by stainless steel (Fe-0.2C-13Cr) has been obtained by co-extrusion. Mechanism and kinetics of formation as well as structure, composition, and mechanical properties of "transition" area between vanadium alloy and stainless steel have been studied. The transition area (13- to 22- µm thick) of the diffusion interaction between vanadium alloy and steel was formed after co-extrusion. The microstructure in the transition area was rather complicated comprising different grain sizes in components, but having no defects or brittle phases. Tensile strength of the composite was an average 493 ± 22 MPa, and the elongation was 26 ± 3 pct. Annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) increased the thickness of transition area up to 1.2 times, homogenized microstructure, and slightly changed mechanical properties. Annealing at 1273 K (1000 °C) further increased the thickness of transition area and also lead to intensive grain growth in steel and sometimes to separation between composite components during tensile tests. Annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) is proposed as appropriate heat treatment after co-extrusion of composite providing balance between diffusion interaction thickness and microstructure and monolithic-like behavior of composite during tensile tests.

  8. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  9. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Alderman, O. L. G. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tamalonis, A.; Sendelbach, S. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  10. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials. (United States)

    Weber, J K R; Tamalonis, A; Benmore, C J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Hebden, A; Williamson, M A


    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  11. New experimental device for VHTR structural material testing and helium coolant chemistry investigation - High Temperature Helium Loop in NRI Rez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Jan, E-mail: [Research Centre Rez, Ltd, Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 1905, 16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Matecha, Josef, E-mail: [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Cerny, Michal [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 1905, 16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Viden, Ivan, E-mail: [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 1905, 16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sus, Frantisek [Research Centre Rez, Ltd, Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Hajek, Petr [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)


    The High Temperature Helium Loop (HTHL) is an experimental device for simulation of VHTR helium coolant conditions. The purpose of the HTHL is structural materials testing and helium coolant chemistry investigation. In the HTHL pure helium will be used as working medium and its main physical parameters are 7 MPa, max. temperature in the test section 900 Degree-Sign C and flow rate 37.8 kg/h. The HTHL consists of an active channel, the helium purification system, the system of impurities dosage (e.g. CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}) and the helium chemistry monitoring system (sampling and on-line analysis and determination of impurities in the helium flow). The active channel is planned to be placed into the core of the experimental reactor LVR-15 which will serve as a neutron flux source (max. 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} n/m{sup 2} s for fast neutrons). The HTHL is now under construction. Some of its main parts are finished, some are still being produced (active channel internals, etc.), some should be improved to work correctly (the helium circulatory compressor); certain sub-systems are planned to be integrated to the loop (systems for the determination of moisture and other impurities in helium, etc.). The start of the HTHL operation is expected during 2011 and the integration of the active channel into the LVR-15 core during 2012.

  12. Material and structural mechanical modelling and reliability of thin-walled bellows at cryogenic temperatures. Application to LHC compensation system

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric; Skoczen, Blazej

    The present thesis is dedicated to the behaviour of austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The plastic strain induced martensitic transformation and ductile damage are taken into account in an elastic-plastic material modelling. The kinetic law of →’ transformation and the evolution laws of kinematic/isotropic mixed hardening are established. Damage issue is analysed by different ways: mesoscopic isotropic or orthotropic model and a microscopic approach. The material parameters are measured from 316L fine gauge sheet at three levels of temperature: 293 K, 77 K and 4.2 K. The model is applied to thin-walled corrugated shell, used in the LHC interconnections. The influence of the material properties on the stability is studied by a modal analysis. The reliability of the components, defined by the Weibull distribution law, is analysed from fatigue tests. The impact on reliability of geometrical imperfections and thermo-mechanical loads is also analysed.

  13. Material Properties at Low Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Duthil, P


    From ambient down to cryogenic temperatures, the behaviour of materials changes greatly. Mechanisms leading to variations in electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties in pure metals, alloys, and insulators are briefly introduced from a general engineering standpoint. Data sets are provided for materials commonly used in cryogenic systems for design purposes.

  14. Composite structural materials (United States)

    Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.


    Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

  15. Characteristics of Humidity-Temperature Changing in the Below-Grade Concrete Structure by Applying Waterproofing Materials on the Exterior Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mook Chang


    Full Text Available The water leakage in an underground space cannot easily be repaired owing to the characteristics of the underground space, which not only causes continuous inconvenience to the apartment residents but also facilitates condensation. Thus, the effects of different waterproofing methods in underground spaces on changes in temperature and humidity should be quantitatively studied to establish strong measures for the condensation issue. In this study, two types of specimens were produced separately by dividing the waterproofing materials applied to underground structures into exterior and interior waterproofing construction methods; thereafter, changes in the temperature and humidity inside the specimens were observed. The test results of the evaluation regarding condensation in underground structures indicated that when exterior waterproofing materials are applied, thermal insulation maintains a steady interior temperature and keeps the humidity at an appropriate level, thereby preventing the creation of an environment conducive to the occurrence of condensation.

  16. Auxetic materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Teik-Cheng


    This book describes the fundamentals of the mechanics and design of auxetic solids and structures, which possess a negative Poisson’s ratio. It will benefit two groups of readers: (a) industry practitioners, such as product and structural designers, who need to control mechanical stress distributions using auxetic materials, and (b) academic researchers and students who intend to produce structures with unique mechanical and other physical properties using auxetic materials.

  17. Effect of Temperature on the Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Biochar with Apple Tree Branches as Feedstock Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Xiang Zhao


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the structure and physicochemical properties of biochar derived from apple tree branches (ATBs, whose valorization is crucial for the sustainable development of the apple industry. ATBs were collected from apple orchards located on the Weibei upland of the Loess Plateau and pyrolyzed at 300, 400, 500 and 600 °C (BC300, BC400, BC500 and BC600, respectively. Different analytical techniques were used for the characterization of the different biochars. In particular, proximate and element analyses were performed. Furthermore, the morphological, and textural properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, Boehm titration and nitrogen manometry. In addition, the thermal stability of biochars was also studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicated that the increasing temperature increased the content of fixed carbon (C, the C content and inorganic minerals (K, P, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, while the yield, the content of volatile matter (VM, O and H, cation exchange capacity, and the ratios of O/C and H/C decreased. Comparison between the different samples show that highest pH and ash content were observed in BC500. The number of acidic functional groups decreased as a function of pyrolysis temperature, especially for the carboxylic functional groups. In contrast, a reverse trend was found for the basic functional groups. At a higher temperature, the brunauer–emmett–teller (BET surface area and pore volume are higher mostly due to the increase of the micropore surface area and micropore volume. In addition, the thermal stability of biochars also increased with the increasing temperature. Hence, pyrolysis temperature has a strong effect on biochar properties, and therefore biochars can be produced by changing pyrolysis temperature in order to better meet their applications.

  18. Structure - materials - production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Gammel, Peder; Busch, Jens


    For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies.......For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies....

  19. Synergistic Effects of Stabilizing the Surface Structure and Lowering the Interface Resistance in Improving the Low-Temperature Performances of Layered Lithium-Rich Materials. (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Chen, Lai; Li, Yitong; Su, Yuefeng; Lu, Yun; Bao, Liying; Wang, Jing; Wang, Meng; Wu, Feng


    The layered lithium-rich cathode material, Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2, was successfully synthesized by a sol-gel method followed by coating with different amounts of Li2O-2B2O (LBO, 1, 3, and 5 wt %). The effects of LBO-coating layer on the structure, morphology, and low-temperature (-30 °C) electrochemical properties of these materials are investigated systematically. The morphology, crystal structure, and grain size of the Li-rich layered oxide are not essentially changed after surface modification; according to the TEM results, the Li-B-O coating layer exists as an amorphous layer with a thickness of 5-8 nm when the amount is 3 wt %. Electrochemistry tests reveal that 3 wt % LBO-coated samples present the best electrochemical capability at low temperature. At -20 °C, the 3 wt % LBO-coated sample could retain 45.7% of the initial discharge capacity (131.7/288.0 mAh g-1) of that at 30 °C, while the pristine material could only retain 22.5% (57.5/256.0 mAh g-1). XPS spectra and EIS results reveal that such an enhancement of low-temperature discharge capacity should be attributed to the proper LBO-coating layer, which not only endows the modified materials with more stable surface structure but also lowers the interface resistance of Li+ diffusion through the interface and charge transfer reaction.

  20. Low Temperature Cryocooler Regenerator Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.A. Gschneidner; A.O. Pecharsky; V.K. Pecharsky


    There are four important factors which influence the magnitude of the magnetic heat capacity near the magnetic ordering transition temperature. These include the theoretical magnetic entropy, the deGennes factor, crystalline electric field, and the RKKY (Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida) interaction. The lattice contribution to the heat capacity also needs to be considered since it is the sum of the lattice and magnetic contributions which give rise to the heat capacity maxima. The lattice heat capacity depends on the chemical composition, crystal structure and temperature. As a result, one can obtain large changes in the heat capacity maxima by alloying. Several ternary intermetallic systems have been examined in light of these criteria. A number of deviations from the expected behaviors have been found and are discussed.

  1. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others


    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division.

  2. Study of High Temperature Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Mentlik


    Full Text Available One of current objectives of the electro insulating technology is the development of the material for extreme conditions. There is a need to operate some devices in extreme temperatures, for example the propulsion of the nuclear fuel bars. In these cases there is necessary to provide not just insulating property, but also the thermal endurance with the required durability of the insulating materials. Critical is the determination of the limit stress for the irreversible structure modification with relation to material property changes. For this purpose there is necessary to conduct lot of test on chosen materials to determine the limits mentioned above. Content of this article is the definition of diagnostic mode, including the definition of the exposure factors, definitions of the diagnostic system for data acquisition and first result of examinations.

  3. Selection of support structure materials for irradiation experiments in the HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor) at temperatures up to 500 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, K.; Longest, A.W.


    The key factor in the design of capsules for irradiation of test specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at preselected temperatures up to 500{degree}C utilizing nuclear heating is a narrow gas-filled gap which surrounds the specimens and controls the transfer of heat from the specimens through the wall of a containment tube to the reactor cooling water. Maintenance of this gap to close tolerances is dependent on the characteristics of the materials used to support the specimens and isolate them from the water. These support structure materials must have low nuclear heating rates, high thermal conductivities, and good dimensional stabilities under irradiation. These conditions are satisfied by certain aluminum alloys. One of these alloys, a powder metallurgy product containing a fine dispersion of aluminum oxide, is no longer manufactured. A new alloys of this type, with the trade name DISPAL, is determined to be a suitable substitute. 23 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Structural and microstructural characterization of tin(II oxide useful as anode material in lithium rechargeable batteries obtained from a different synthesis route at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Macías


    Full Text Available Tin (II oxide has been proposed as potential anode material in lithium rechargeable batteries. Different methods to obtain such compound have been developed with relative difficulty due to the fact that Sn(II is easily oxidized to Sn(IV. We have applied a different methodology to synthesize SnO-romarchite by modifying the solvent nature of the controlled precipitation route using acetic acid and not water. Although the formation of Sn(IV oxide could not be completely avoided, X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the synthesis of metastable tin(II oxide as major phase at room temperature. In depth analysis using Popa's model for Rietveld refinement allows to precise that the material corresponds to small and distorted crystallites, very anisotropic in size. SEM technique confirmed the microstructure is build of flower-like agglomerates of ~15 µm, in turn made of plate-like individual grains that remind the crystallite structure anisotropy.

  5. Influence of thermal-decomposition temperatures on structures and properties of V2O5 as cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen


    Full Text Available Submicron spherical V2O5 particles with a uniform size and a lower crystallinity were successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation-thermal decomposition technique using the commercial V2O5 powders as starting material. The crystal structure and grain morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Electrochemical testing such as discharge–charge cycling (CD and cyclic voltammetry (CV were employed in evaluating their electrochemical properties as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Results reveal that the crystallinity and crystalline size of V2O5 particles increased when the thermal-decomposition temperature increased from 400 °C to 500 °C, and their adhesiveness was also synchronously increased. This indicate that the thermal-decomposition temperature palyed a significant influence on electrochemical properties of V2O5 cathodes. The V2O5 sample obtained at 400 °C delivered not only a high initial discharge capacity of 330 mA h g−1 and also the good cycle stability during 50 cycles due to its higher values of α in crystal structure and better dispersity in grain morphology.

  6. Composite structural materials (United States)

    Loewy, Robert G.; Wiberley, Stephen E.


    The development and application of composite materials to aerospace vehicle structures which began in the mid 1960's has now progressed to the point where what can be considered entire airframes are being designed and built using composites. Issues related to the fabrication of non-resin matrix composites and the micro, mezzo and macromechanics of thermoplastic and metal matrix composites are emphasized. Several research efforts are presented. They are entitled: (1) The effects of chemical vapor deposition and thermal treatments on the properties of pitch-based carbon fiber; (2) Inelastic deformation of metal matrix laminates; (3) Analysis of fatigue damage in fibrous MMC laminates; (4) Delamination fracture toughness in thermoplastic matrix composites; (5) Numerical investigation of the microhardness of composite fracture; and (6) General beam theory for composite structures.

  7. Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL


    The wear of metals and alloys takes place in many forms, and the type of wear that dominates in each instance is influenced by the mechanics of contact, material properties, the interfacial temperature, and the surrounding environment. The control of elevated-temperature friction and wear is important for applications like internal combustion engines, aerospace propulsion systems, and metalworking equipment. The progression of interacting, often synergistic processes produces surface deformation, subsurface damage accumulation, the formation of tribolayers, and the creation of free particles. Reaction products, particularly oxides, play a primary role in debris formation and microstructural evolution. Chemical reactions are known to be influenced by the energetic state of the exposed surfaces, and that surface energy is in turn affected by localized deformation and fracture. At relatively low temperatures, work-hardening can occur beneath tribo-contacts, but exposure to high temperatures can modify the resultant defect density and grain structure to affect the mechanisms of re-oxidation. As research by others has shown, the rate of wear at elevated temperatures can either be enhanced or reduced, depending on contact conditions and nature of oxide layer formation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic driving force for certain chemical reactions is moderated by kinetics and microstructure. The role of deformation, oxidation, and tribo-corrosion in the elevated temperature tribology of metallic alloys will be exemplified by three examples involving sliding wear, single-point abrasion, and repetitive impact plus slip.

  8. Structural materials for space applications (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.


    The long-term performance of structural materials in the space environment is a key research activity within NASA. The primary concerns for materials in low Earth orbit (LEO) are atomic oxygen erosion and space debris impact. Atomic oxygen studies have included both laboratory exposures in atomic oxygen facilities and flight exposures using the Shuttle. Characterization of atomic oxygen interaction with materials has included surface recession rates, residual mechanical properties, optical property measurements, and surface analyses to establish chemical changes. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is scheduled to be retrieved in 1989 and is expected to provide a wealth of data on atomic oxygen erosion in space. Hypervelocity impact studies have been conducted to establish damage mechanisms and changes in mechanical properties. Samples from LDEF will be analyzed to determine the severity of space debris impact on coatings, films, and composites. Spacecraft placed in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) will be subjected to high doses of ionizing radiation which for long term exposures will exceed the damage threshold of many polymeric materials. Radiation interaction with polymers can result in chain scission and/or cross-linking. The formation of low molecular weight products in the epoxy plasticize the matrix at elevated temperatures and embrittle the matrix at low temperatures. This affects both the matrix-dominated mechanical properties and the dimensional stability of the composite. Embrittlement of the matrix at low temperatures results in enhanced matrix microcracking during thermal cycling. Matrix microcracking changes the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composite laminates and produces permanent length changes. Residual stress calculations were performed to estimate the conditions necessary for microcrack development in unirradiated and irradiated composites. The effects of UV and electron exposure on the optical properties of transparent

  9. Composite Materials for Low-Temperature Applications (United States)


    Composite materials with improved thermal conductivity and good mechanical strength properties should allow for the design and construction of more thermally efficient components (such as pipes and valves) for use in fluid-processing systems. These materials should have wide application in any number of systems, including ground support equipment (GSE), lunar systems, and flight hardware that need reduced heat transfer. Researchers from the Polymer Science and Technology Laboratory and the Cryogenics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center were able to develop a new series of composite materials that can meet NASA's needs for lightweight materials/composites for use in fluid systems and also expand the plastic-additive markets. With respect to thermal conductivity and physical properties, these materials are excellent alternatives to prior composite materials and can be used in the aerospace, automotive, military, electronics, food-packaging, and textile markets. One specific application of the polymeric composition is for use in tanks, pipes, valves, structural supports, and components for hot or cold fluid-processing systems where heat flow through materials is a problem to be avoided. These materials can also substitute for metals in cryogenic and other low-temperature applications. These organic/inorganic polymeric composite materials were invented with significant reduction in heat transfer properties. Decreases of 20 to 50 percent in thermal conductivity versus that of the unmodified polymer matrix were measured. These novel composite materials also maintain mechanical properties of the unmodified polymer matrix. These composite materials consist of an inorganic additive combined with a thermoplastic polymer material. The intrinsic, low thermal conductivity of the additive is imparted into the thermoplastic, resulting in a significant reduction in heat transfer over that of the base polymer itself, yet maintaining most of the polymer's original properties. Normal

  10. Independency of Elasticity on Residual Stress of Room Temperature Rolled Stainless Steel 304 Plates for Structure Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikin Parikin


    Full Text Available Mechanical strengths of materials are widely expected in general constructions of any building. These properties depend on its formation (cold/hot forming during fabrication. This research was carried out on cold-rolled stainless steel (SS 304 plates, which were deformed to 0, 34, 84, and 152% reduction in thickness. The tests were conducted using Vickers method. Ultra micro indentation system (UMIS 2000 was used to determine the mechanical properties of the material, i.e.: hardness, modulus elasticity, and residual stresses. The microstructures showed lengthening outcropping due to stress corrosion cracking for all specimens. It was found that the tensile residual stress in a specimen was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a sample reducing 34% in thickness and minimum; and about 10 MPa for a 196% sample. The quantities showed that the biggest residual stress caused lowering of the proportional limit of material in stress-strain curves. The proportional modulus elasticity varied between 187 GPa and of about 215 GPa and was free from residual stresses.

  11. High temperature structural sandwich panels (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  12. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald


    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  13. Structural Origin of the Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Local Magnetic Moments in the CaFe2As2 Family of Materials (United States)

    Ortenzi, L.; Gretarsson, H.; Kasahara, S.; Matsuda, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Wu, W.; Julian, S. R.; Kim, Young-June; Mazin, I. I.; Boeri, L.


    We report a combination of Fe K β x-ray emission spectroscopy and density functional reduced Stoner theory calculations to investigate the correlation between structural and magnetic degrees of freedom in CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 . The puzzling temperature behavior of the local moment found in rare earth-doped CaFe2As2 [H. Gretarsson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 047003 (2013)] is also observed in CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 . We explain this phenomenon based on first-principles calculations with scaled magnetic interaction. One scaling parameter is sufficient to describe quantitatively the magnetic moments in both CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 (x =0.055 ) and Ca0.78La0.22Fe2As2 at all temperatures. The anomalous growth of the local moments with increasing temperature can be understood from the observed large thermal expansion of the c -axis lattice parameter combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. These effects originate from the strong tendency to form As-As dimers across the Ca layer in the CaFe2As2 family of materials. Our results emphasize the dual local-itinerant character of magnetism in Fe pnictides.

  14. High Temperature Materials Characterization and Advanced Materials Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. (and others)


    The project has been carried out for 2 years in stage III in order to achieve the final goals of performance verification of the developed materials, after successful development of the advanced high temperature material technologies for 3 years in Stage II. The mechanical and thermal properties of the advanced materials, which were developed during Stage II, were evaluated at high temperatures, and the modification of the advanced materials were performed. Moreover, a database management system was established using user-friendly knowledge-base scheme to complete the integrated-information material database in KAERI material division.

  15. High-temperature levitated materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, David L


    .... This can be avoided by suspending the sample through levitation. This technique also makes metastable states of matter accessible, opening up new avenues of scientific enquiry, as well as possible new materials for technological applications...

  16. Materials for room temperature magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl Hansen, B.


    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material to change its temperature when a magnetic field is applied or removed. For room temperature cooling, one utilizes that the magnetocaloric effect peaks near magnetic phase transitions and so the materials of interest all have a critical temperature within the range of 250 - 310 K. A magnetic refrigerant should fulfill a number of criteria, among these a large magnetic entropy change, a large adiabatic temperature change, preferably little to no thermal or magnetic hysteresis and the material should have the stability required for long term use. As the temperature range required for room temperature cooling is some 40 - 50 K, the magnetic refrigerant should also be able to cover this temperature span either by exhibiting a very broad peak in magnetocaloric effect or by providing the opportunity for creating a materials series with varying transition temperatures. (Author)

  17. Smart materials and structures (United States)

    Rogowski, Robert S.; Heyman, Joseph S.


    Embedded optical fibers allow not only the cure-monitoring and in-service lifetime measurements of composite materials, but the NDE of material damage and degradation with aging. The capabilities of such damage-detection systems have been extended to allow the quantitative determination of 2D strain in materials by several different methods, including the interferometric and the numerical. It remains to be seen, what effect the embedded fibers have on the strength of the 'smart' materials created through their incorporation.

  18. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max


    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  19. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  20. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Materials. (United States)


    temperatures In the present range have also been obtained by Krauss and Warncke [8] and by Vollmer et al. [9], using adiabatic calorimetry, and by Kollie [10...value for heat capacity. The electrical resistivity results reported by Kollie [10] and by Powell et al. [13] are respectively about 1 and 1.5% lower...extensive annealing of the specimens used in the measurements: the specimen (>99.89% pure) used by Kollie was annealed at 1100 K for 24 h and Laubitz et al

  1. The analysis of effect of heat treatment temperature on micro structure, crystal structure and hardness material on alloy Zr 96,2 Sn 2,3Nb1.1 Fe0,4 (United States)

    Saing, Bungaran; Budiarto


    The effect of heat treatment temperature (in 500 0C, 600 0C, and 700 0C) from Zr 96,2 Sn 2,3Nb1.1 Fe0,4 as fuel cladding material candidate’s reactor nuclear power plant; for microstructure, crystal structure, and hardness has been carried out. Several characteristic was conducted by using an optical microscope, x-ray diffractometer and Vickers method. The result showed the crystalline characteristic peaks by a tendency to a single crystal formation and microstructure is getting better with less precipitation and the hardness of the alloy is 329.6 4.5 HVN after the homogenization process.

  2. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures (United States)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley


    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  3. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage (United States)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)


    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between C. and C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  4. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max


    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  5. Reactive Material Structures (United States)


    specimen in Fig. 4-2. This microstructure is apparent in all of the strongest specimens. Small pores can be seen in the alumi - num. However, pores are...charges ranged from 25.59 to 34.86 psi. The CIPed alumi - num had the highest QSP, 36.30 psi (T-9); this material was very weak in tension, so this is...their effects on compressive properties. Alumi - num powder was omitted since our previous studies showed its negligible influence on mechanical

  6. Hypersonic Materials and Structures (United States)

    Glass, David E.


    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within Earth's atmosphere and non-Earth atmospheres. The focus of this presentation is on air breathing hypersonic vehicles in the Earth's atmosphere. This includes single-stage to orbit (SSTO), two-stage to orbit (TSTO) accelerators, access to space vehicles, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. This paper will start out with a brief discussion of aerodynamic heating and thermal management techniques to address the high heating, followed by an overview of TPS for rocket-launched and air-breathing vehicles. The argument is presented that as we move from rocket-based vehicles to air-breathing vehicles, we need to move away from the insulated airplane approach used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter to a wide range of TPS and hot structure approaches. The primary portion of the paper will discuss issues and design options for CMC TPS and hot structure components, including leading edges, acreage TPS, and control surfaces. The current state-of-the-art will be briefly discussed for some of the components.

  7. Effect of outgassing temperature on the performance of porous materials (United States)

    Figini-Albisetti, Alessandro; Velasco, Leticia F.; Parra, José B.; Ania, Conchi O.


    This work illustrates the consequences of an inadequate outgassing temperature of porous materials of different nature (zeolites and activated carbons) on their performance on gas storage and wastewater remediation. Outgassing at low temperature in thermally stable materials leads to an incomplete cleaning of the porous surface; as a result, the gas storage ability based on adsorption isotherms is underestimated. In contrast, outgassing at elevated temperature in temperature-sensitive materials provokes irreversible changes in their composition and structure, which also affects strongly their stability and performance. Two examples illustrating wrong interpretation data on CO 2 capture on zeolites and wastewater treatment using activated carbons are addressed. The results show how the performance of a given material can be significantly modified or misunderstood after the outgassing pretreatment.

  8. Hierarchical Engineered Materials and Structures (United States)


    of lightweight cellular materials (such as honeycombs and foams ) which are commonly used in "hierarchically designed" structural materials, especially...response past the elevated yield stress is modeled as perfectly plastic. The viscoelastic properties are not modeled because it is assumed that the

  9. Analytical ultrasonics for structural materials (United States)

    Kupperman, D. S.


    The application of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to characterize the microstructure of structural materials is discussed. Velocity measurements in cast stainless steel are correlated with microstructural variations ranging from equiaxed (elastically isotropic) to columnar (elastically anisotropic) grain structure. The effect of the anisotropic grain structure on the deviation of ultrasonic waves in cast stainless steel is also reported. Field-implementable techniques for distinguishing equiaxed from columnar grain structures in cast strainless steel structural members are presented. The application of ultrasonic velocity measurements to characterize structural ceramics in the green state is also discussed.

  10. Materials for Room Temperature Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considere...... cooling is some 40 – 50 K, the magnetic refrigerant should also be able to cover this temperature span either by exhibiting a very broad peak in magnetocaloric effect or by providing the opportunity for creating a materials series with varying transition temperatures.......Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered...... candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material...

  11. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.


    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  12. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders


    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete and the p...... and the properties of lime mortar....

  13. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders


    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  14. Temperature-regulated guest admission and release in microporous materials (United States)

    Li, Gang (Kevin); Shang, Jin; Gu, Qinfen; Awati, Rohan V.; Jensen, Nathan; Grant, Andrew; Zhang, Xueying; Sholl, David S.; Liu, Jefferson Z.; Webley, Paul A.; May, Eric F.


    While it has long been known that some highly adsorbing microporous materials suddenly become inaccessible to guest molecules below certain temperatures, previous attempts to explain this phenomenon have failed. Here we show that this anomalous sorption behaviour is a temperature-regulated guest admission process, where the pore-keeping group's thermal fluctuations are influenced by interactions with guest molecules. A physical model is presented to explain the atomic-level chemistry and structure of these thermally regulated micropores, which is crucial to systematic engineering of new functional materials such as tunable molecular sieves, gated membranes and controlled-release nanocontainers. The model was validated experimentally with H2, N2, Ar and CH4 on three classes of microporous materials: trapdoor zeolites, supramolecular host calixarenes and metal-organic frameworks. We demonstrate how temperature can be exploited to achieve appreciable hydrogen and methane storage in such materials without sustained pressure. These findings also open new avenues for gas sensing and isotope separation.

  15. Sealing Materials for Use in Vacuum at High Temperatures (United States)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Camarda, Charles J.; Lee Vaughn, Wallace


    Sealing materials that can be applied and left in place in vacuum over a wide range of temperatures (especially temperatures of a few thousand degrees Celsius) have been conceived and investigated for potential utility in repairing thermal-protection tiles on the space shuttles in orbit before returning to Earth. These materials are also adaptable to numerous terrestrial applications that involve vacuum processing and/or repair of structures that must withstand high temperatures. These materials can be formulated to have mechanical handling characteristics ranging from almost freely flowing liquid-like consistency through paste-like consistency to stiff puttylike consistency, and to retain these characteristics in vacuum until heated to high curing temperatures. A sealing material of this type can be formulated to be used in any of several different ways for example, to be impregnated into a high-temperature-fabric patch, impregnated into a high-temperature-fabric gasket for sealing a patch, applied under a patch, or applied alone in the manner of putty or wallboard compound. The sealing material must be formulated to be compatible with, and adhere to, the structural material(s) to be repaired. In general, the material consists of a vacuum-compatible liquid containing one or more dissolved compound(s) and/or mixed with suspended solid particles. Depending on the intended application, the liquid can be chosen to be of a compound that can remain in place in vacuum for a time long enough to be useful, and/or to evaporate or decompose in a controlled way to leave a useful solid residue behind. The evaporation rate is determined by proper choice of vapor pressure, application of heat, and/or application of ultraviolet light or other optical radiation. The liquid chosen for the original space shuttle application is a commercial silicone vacuum-pump oil.

  16. Thermomechanics of composite structures under high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yu I


    This pioneering book presents new models for the thermomechanical behavior of composite materials and structures taking into account internal physico-chemical transformations such as thermodecomposition, sublimation and melting at high temperatures (up to 3000 K). It is of great importance for the design of new thermostable materials and for the investigation of reliability and fire safety of composite structures. It also supports the investigation of interaction of composites with laser irradiation and the design of heat-shield systems. Structural methods are presented for calculating the effective mechanical and thermal properties of matrices, fibres and unidirectional, reinforced by dispersed particles and textile composites, in terms of properties of their constituent phases. Useful calculation methods are developed for characteristics such as the rate of thermomechanical erosion of composites under high-speed flow and the heat deformation of composites with account of chemical shrinkage. The author expan...

  17. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  18. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu


    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  19. Radiation damage of structural materials

    CERN Document Server

    Koutsky, Jaroslav


    Maintaining the integrity of nuclear power plants is critical in the prevention or control of severe accidents. This monograph deals with both basic groups of structural materials used in the design of light-water nuclear reactors, making the primary safety barriers of NPPs. Emphasis is placed on materials used in VVER-type nuclear reactors: Cr-Mo-V and Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel for RPV and Zr-Nb alloys for fuel element cladding. The book is divided into 7 main chapters, with the exception of the opening one and the chapter providing a phenomenological background for the subject of radiation damage. Ch

  20. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.


    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  1. Characterization of Decommissioned PWR Vessel Internals Materials Samples: Material Certification, Fluence, and Temperature (Nonproprietary Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Krug; R. Shogan; A. Fero; M. Snyder


    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores, operate under extreme environmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs require detailed knowledge of the changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of the structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel. This report contains basic material characterization information of the as-installed samples of reactor internals material which were harvested from a decommissioned PWR.

  2. Composite structural materials. [fiber reinforced composites for aircraft structures (United States)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.


    Physical properties of fiber reinforced composites; structural concepts and analysis; manufacturing; reliability; and life prediction are subjects of research conducted to determine the long term integrity of composite aircraft structures under conditions pertinent to service use. Progress is reported in (1) characterizing homogeneity in composite materials; (2) developing methods for analyzing composite materials; (3) studying fatigue in composite materials; (4) determining the temperature and moisture effects on the mechanical properties of laminates; (5) numerically analyzing moisture effects; (6) numerically analyzing the micromechanics of composite fracture; (7) constructing the 727 elevator attachment rib; (8) developing the L-1011 engine drag strut (CAPCOMP 2 program); (9) analyzing mechanical joints in composites; (10) developing computer software; and (11) processing science and technology, with emphasis on the sailplane project.

  3. Selection of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors (United States)

    Shin, Euy-Sik Eugene


    In the future higher temperature Stirling convertors for improved efficiency and performance, various high temperature organic materials have been demanded as essential components for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The higher temperature capabilities would also allow current state-of-the-art (SOA) convertors to be used in additional missions, particularly those that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of comprehensive structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, o-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This paper presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection recommendations.

  4. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked...

  5. Materials Cartography: Representing and Mining Material Space Using Structural and Electronic Fingerprints (United States)

    Oses, Corey; Isayev, Olexandr; Fourches, Denis; Muratov, Eugene; Rasch, Kevin; Tropsha, Alexander; Curtarolo, Stefano; CenterMaterials Genomics, Duke University Collaboration; LaboratoryMolecular Modeling, UNC Chapel Hill Collaboration


    As the proliferation of high-throughput approaches in materials science is increasing the wealth of data in the field, the gap between accumulated-information and derived-knowledge widens. We address the issue of scientific discovery in materials databases by introducing novel analytical approaches based on structural and electronic materials fingerprints. The framework is employed to (i) query large databases of materials using similarity concepts, (ii) map the connectivity of the materials space (i.e., as a materials cartogram) for rapidly identifying regions with unique organizations/properties, and (iii) develop predictive Quantitative Materials Structure-Property Relationships (QMSPR) models for guiding materials design. In this study, we test these fingerprints by seeking target material properties. As a quantitative example, we model the critical temperatures of known superconductors. Our novel materials fingerprinting and materials cartography approaches contribute to the emerging field of materials informatics by enabling effective computational tools to analyze, visualize, model, and design new materials.

  6. Thermal Shield and Reactor Structure Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, A.R.


    The purpose of this report is to present reactor structure and thermal shield temperature data taken during P-3 and P-5 cycles and compare them with design calculations in order to predict temperatures at higher power levels.

  7. Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders


    The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second......-order materials. For materials with a continuous adiabatic temperature change as a function of temperature, this inequality is shown to hold for all temperatures. However, discontinuous materials may violate the inequality. We compare our results with measured results in the literature and discuss...

  8. Temperature-regulated guest admission and release in microporous materials (United States)

    Li, Gang (Kevin); Shang, Jin; Gu, Qinfen; Awati, Rohan V.; Jensen, Nathan; Grant, Andrew; Zhang, Xueying; Sholl, David S.; Liu, Jefferson Z.; Webley, Paul A.; May, Eric F.


    While it has long been known that some highly adsorbing microporous materials suddenly become inaccessible to guest molecules below certain temperatures, previous attempts to explain this phenomenon have failed. Here we show that this anomalous sorption behaviour is a temperature-regulated guest admission process, where the pore-keeping group's thermal fluctuations are influenced by interactions with guest molecules. A physical model is presented to explain the atomic-level chemistry and structure of these thermally regulated micropores, which is crucial to systematic engineering of new functional materials such as tunable molecular sieves, gated membranes and controlled-release nanocontainers. The model was validated experimentally with H2, N2, Ar and CH4 on three classes of microporous materials: trapdoor zeolites, supramolecular host calixarenes and metal-organic frameworks. We demonstrate how temperature can be exploited to achieve appreciable hydrogen and methane storage in such materials without sustained pressure. These findings also open new avenues for gas sensing and isotope separation. PMID:28598429

  9. Basic research for alloy design of Nb-base alloys as ultra high temperature structural materials; Chokoon kozoyo niobuki gokin no gokin sekkei no tame no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, E. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals


    This paper describes an influence of additional elements on the high temperature deformation behavior of Nb-base solid solution alloys. Highly concentrated solid solution single crystals of Nb-Ta and Nb-Mo alloys were prepared. Compression test and strain rate sudden change test were conducted in the vacuum at temperatures ranging from 77 to 1773 K, to determine the strain rate sensitivity index. Yield stress of the Nb-Ta alloy was similar to that of Nb alloy at temperatures over 0.3{times}T{sub M}, where T{sub M} is fusing point of Nb. While, the yield stress increased with increasing the impurity oxygen concentration at temperatures below 0.3{times}T{sub M}. The yield stress became much higher than that of Nb alloy. The strain rate sensitivity index showed positive values in the whole temperature range. On the other hand, the yield stress of Nb-Mo alloy was higher than that of Nb alloy in the whole temperature range, and increased with increasing the Mo concentration. The strain rate sensitivity index showed negative values at the temperature range from 0.3{times}T{sub M} to 0.4{times}T{sub M}. It was found that serration occurred often for Nb-40Mo alloys. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Facesheet Delamination of Composite Sandwich Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Herring, Helen M.


    The next generation of space transportation vehicles will require advances in lightweight structural materials and related design concepts to meet the increased demands on performance. One potential source for significant structural weight reduction is the replacement of traditional metallic cryogenic fuel tanks with new designs for polymeric matrix composite tanks. These new tank designs may take the form of thin-walled sandwich constructed with lightweight core and composite facesheets. Life-time durability requirements imply the materials must safely carry pressure loads, external structural loads, resist leakage and operate over an extremely wide temperature range. Aside from catastrophic events like tank wall penetration, one of the most likely scenarios for failure of a tank wall of sandwich construction is the permeation of cryogenic fluid into the sandwich core and the subsequent delamination of the sandwich facesheet due to the build-up of excessive internal pressure. The research presented in this paper was undertaken to help understand this specific problem of core to facesheet delamination in cryogenic environments and relate this data to basic mechanical properties. The experimental results presented herein provide data on the strain energy release rate (toughness) of the interface between the facesheet and the core of a composite sandwich subjected to simulated internal pressure. A unique test apparatus and associated test methods are described and the results are presented to highlight the effects of cryogenic temperature on the measured material properties.

  11. Novel High Temperature Materials for In-Situ Sensing Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian Solzbacher; Anil Virkar; Loren Rieth; Srinivasan Kannan; Xiaoxin Chen; Hannwelm Steinebach


    The overriding goal of this project was to develop gas sensor materials and systems compatible with operation at temperatures from 500 to 700 C. Gas sensors operating at these temperatures would be compatible with placement in fossil-energy exhaust streams close to the combustion chamber, and therefore have advantages for process regulation, and feedback for emissions controls. The three thrusts of our work included investigating thin film gas sensor materials based on metal oxide materials and electroceramic materials, and also development of microhotplate devices to support the gas sensing films. The metal oxide materials NiO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated for their sensitivity to H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, at high temperatures (T > 500 C), where the sensing properties of these materials have received little attention. New ground was broken in achieving excellent gas sensor responses (>10) for temperatures up to 600 C for NiO and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials. The gas sensitivity of these materials was decreasing as temperatures increased above 500 C, which indicates that achieving strong sensitivities with these materials at very high temperatures (T {ge} 650 C) will be a further challenge. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reliability of these materials were investigated across a wide range of deposition conditions, temperatures, film thickness, as using surface active promoter materials. We also proposed to study the electroceramic materials BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} and BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} for their ability to detect H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S, respectively. This report focuses on the properties and gas sensing characteristics of BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} (Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}), as significant difficulties were encounter in generating BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} sensors. Significant new results were achieved for Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including

  12. Perspective: Role of structure prediction in materials discovery and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Needs


    Full Text Available Materials informatics owes much to bioinformatics and the Materials Genome Initiative has been inspired by the Human Genome Project. But there is more to bioinformatics than genomes, and the same is true for materials informatics. Here we describe the rapidly expanding role of searching for structures of materials using first-principles electronic-structure methods. Structure searching has played an important part in unraveling structures of dense hydrogen and in identifying the record-high-temperature superconducting component in hydrogen sulfide at high pressures. We suggest that first-principles structure searching has already demonstrated its ability to determine structures of a wide range of materials and that it will play a central and increasing part in materials discovery and design.

  13. Perspective: Role of structure prediction in materials discovery and design (United States)

    Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.


    Materials informatics owes much to bioinformatics and the Materials Genome Initiative has been inspired by the Human Genome Project. But there is more to bioinformatics than genomes, and the same is true for materials informatics. Here we describe the rapidly expanding role of searching for structures of materials using first-principles electronic-structure methods. Structure searching has played an important part in unraveling structures of dense hydrogen and in identifying the record-high-temperature superconducting component in hydrogen sulfide at high pressures. We suggest that first-principles structure searching has already demonstrated its ability to determine structures of a wide range of materials and that it will play a central and increasing part in materials discovery and design.

  14. Screening of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors (United States)

    Shin, Euy-sik E.; Scheiman, Daniel A.


    Along with major advancement of Stirling-based convertors, high temperature organics are needed to develop future higher temperature convertors for much improved efficiencies as well as to improve the margin of reliability for the current SOA (State-of-the-Art) convertors. The higher temperature capabilities would improve robustness of the convertors and also allow them to be used in additional missions, particularly ones that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Various organic materials have been employed as essential components in the convertor for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of every possible material structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, O-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This report presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection

  15. Characteristics of Humidity-Temperature Changing in the Below-Grade Concrete Structure by Applying Waterproofing Materials on the Exterior Wall


    Sang-Mook Chang; Sang-Keun Oh; Deok-Suk Seo; Sung-Min Choi


    The water leakage in an underground space cannot easily be repaired owing to the characteristics of the underground space, which not only causes continuous inconvenience to the apartment residents but also facilitates condensation. Thus, the effects of different waterproofing methods in underground spaces on changes in temperature and humidity should be quantitatively studied to establish strong measures for the condensation issue. In this study, two types of specimens were produced separatel...

  16. Influence of wall thickness and properties of structural materials on the discharge temperature and strength characteristics of slow-speed long-stroke stages (United States)

    Yusha, V. L.; Busarov, S. S.; Aistov, I. P.; Titov, D. S.; Vansovich, K. A.


    The article analyzes the influence of the wall thickness of the working chamber cylinder on the cooling efficiency of the compressed gas with the required strength. The obtained results indicate an ambiguous decision regarding the choice of the wall thickness. The performed calculations make it possible to develop the design of the stage, using, depending on the situation, one or another priority criterion (the minimum temperature of the compressed gas, the cost, or the mass of the stage).

  17. NASICON-Structured Materials for Energy Storage. (United States)

    Jian, Zelang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Ji, Xiulei; Chen, Wen


    The demand for electrical energy storage (EES) is ever increasing, which calls for better batteries. NASICON-structured materials represent a family of important electrodes due to its superior ionic conductivity and stable structures. A wide range of materials have been considered, where both vanadium-based and titanium-based materials are recommended as being of great interest. NASICON-structured materials are suitable for both the cathode and the anode, where the operation potential can be easily tuned by the choice of transition metal and/or polyanion group in the structure. NASICON-structured materials also represent a class of solid electrolytes, which are widely employed in all-solid-state ion batteries, all-solid-state air batteries, and hybrid batteries. NASICON-structured materials are reviewed with a focus on both electrode materials and solid-state electrolytes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  19. Chapter 7: Materials for Launch Vehicle Structures (United States)

    Henson, Grant; Jone, Clyde S. III


    This chapter concerns materials for expendable and reusable launch vehicle (LV) structures. An emphasis is placed on applications and design requirements, and how these requirements are met by the optimum choice of materials. Structural analysis and qualification strategies, which cannot be separated from the materials selection process, are described.

  20. Proceedings from the Conference on Critical Issues in the Development of High Temperature Structural Materials Held in Kona, Hawaii on March 7-14, 1993, (United States)


    developmental work, undertaken by the British in the early 1940s, led to the wrought Nimonic 75 and 80 alloys. Increased operating-temperature requirements for...Miller stress-rupture strength of CMSX-4 vs. CMSX-2/3 ?~I." 115 (uncoated, 8990C (1650 0 F), 1% sulfur, 10 ppm sea salt, 113 hour test] 3% Rs and G12...Applications" 5th Int. Symp. * Oct. 1984 115 -124. 24. E. Bachelet and G. Lamanthe, Paper presented at the National Symposiumon SX Superalloys

  1. Material Specific Design for Room Temperature Superconductivity (United States)

    Isikaku-Ironkwe, O.-Paul; Ofe, Uko; Oriaku, Chijioke; Asiegbu, Dan; Oguzi, Emeka


    The transition temperature, Tc, of superconductors has been increased sevenfold from 23K in Nb3Ge to 164K in Hg-1223. A further two-fold increase would get us to above room temperature superconductivity. Studying high temperature superconductors (HTSCs), we have developed a formula that expresses Tc in terms of electronegativity, valence electrons, Ne, atomic number, Z, formula mass and a coupling constant, Ko. We observe an increasing linear relationship between Tc and Ko. Ko also correlates with formula mass and atomic number and the number of atoms in the compound. By our formula, Hg-1223 has Ko = 70. We propose, using our design algorithm, that room temperature superconductivity may be realized in a system with ko = 160; electronegativity = 2.5, Ne/Sqrt Z = 0.8. We proceed to show combinations of oxides and elements that will yield the required parameters for synthesizing reproducible room temperature superconductivity.

  2. Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof M.Z.


    Full Text Available Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance

  3. Structural biological materials: critical mechanics-materials connections. (United States)

    Meyers, Marc André; McKittrick, Joanna; Chen, Po-Yu


    Spider silk is extraordinarily strong, mollusk shells and bone are tough, and porcupine quills and feathers resist buckling. How are these notable properties achieved? The building blocks of the materials listed above are primarily minerals and biopolymers, mostly in combination; the first weak in tension and the second weak in compression. The intricate and ingenious hierarchical structures are responsible for the outstanding performance of each material. Toughness is conferred by the presence of controlled interfacial features (friction, hydrogen bonds, chain straightening and stretching); buckling resistance can be achieved by filling a slender column with a lightweight foam. Here, we present and interpret selected examples of these and other biological materials. Structural bio-inspired materials design makes use of the biological structures by inserting synthetic materials and processes that augment the structures' capability while retaining their essential features. In this Review, we explain this idea through some unusual concepts.

  4. Construction Materials for Coastal Structures. (United States)


    stones, chalcedonic cherts, opal, cristobalite , some types of volcanic glass, and pyrites. An aggregate containing these substances may be produce a metastable, ordered, close-packed-hexagonal beta phase structure, p!m much like the transformation structure that is formed during the...reprecipitate fine acicular alpha phase particles in the tempered beta phase structure. Tempering stabilizes the structure and restores ductility and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We explored both experimentally and theoretically the behavior of materials at stresses close to their theoretical strength. This involves the preparation of ultra fine scale structures by a variety of fabrication methods. In the past year work has concentrated on wire drawing of in situ composites such as Cu-Ag and Cu-Nb. Materials were also fabricated by melting alloys in glass and drawing them into filaments at high temperatures by a method known as Taylor wire technique. Cu-Ag microwires have been drawn by this technique to produce wires 10 {micro}m in diameter that consist of nanoscale grains of supersaturated solid solution. Organogels formed from novel organic gelators containing cholesterol tethered to squaraine dyes or trans-stilbene derivatives have been studied from several different perspectives. The two types of molecules are active toward several organic liquids, gelling in some cases at w/w percentages as low as 0.1. While relatively robust, acroscopically dry gels are formed in several cases, studies with a variety of probes indicate that much of the solvent may exist in domains that are essentially liquid-like in terms of their microenvironment. The gels have been imaged by atomic force microscopy and conventional and fluorescence microscopy, monitoring both the gelator fluorescence in the case of the stilbene-cholesterol gels and, the fluorescence of solutes dissolved in the solvent. Remarkably, our findings show that several of the gels are composed of similarly appearing fibrous structures visible at the nano-, micro-, and macroscale.

  6. High Temperature Acoustic Noise Reduction Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use combustion synthesis techniques to manufacture ceramic-based acoustic liners capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2500?C....

  7. Ultra High Temperature Refractory Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Legacy refractory materials that have origins dating to the original Saturn program are commonly used in current launch facilities. Although they failure to meet the...

  8. Ultra High Temperature Refractory Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Legacy refractory materials that have origins dating to the original Saturn program are commonly used in current launch facilities. Although they fail to meet the...

  9. Damage Assessment in High Temperature Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newaz, Golam M


    .... The thermal wave imaging equipment was checked for its capability in assessment of damage in various materials systems which included thermal barrier coatings, adhesively bonded composites and SiC...

  10. Influence of the material for preformed moulds on the polymerization temperature of resin materials for temporary FPDs. (United States)

    Pott, Philipp-Cornelius; Schmitz-Wätjen, Hans; Stiesch, Meike; Eisenburger, Michael


    Temperature increase of 5.5 ℃ can cause damage or necrosis of the pulp. Increasing temperature can be caused not only by mechanical factors, e.g. grinding, but also by exothermic polymerization reactions of resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate influences of the form material on the intrapulpal temperature during the polymerization of different self-curing resin materials for temporary restorations. 30 provisonal bridges were made of 5 resin materials: Prevision Temp (Pre), Protemp 4 (Pro), Luxatemp Star (Lux), Structure 3 (Str) and an experimental material (Exp). Moulds made of alginate (A) and of silicone (S) and vacuum formed moulds (V) were used to build 10 bridges each on a special experimental setup. The intrapulpal temperatures of three abutment teeth (a canine, a premolar, and a molar,) were measured during the polymerization every second under isothermal conditions. Comparisons of the maximum temperature (TMax) and the time until the maximum temperature (tTMax) were performed using ANOVA and Tukey Test. Using alginate as the mould material resulted in a cooling effect for every resin material. Using the vacuum formed mould, TMax increased significantly compared to alginate (Pmaterial on tTMax. All of the mould materials are suitable for clinical use if the intraoral application time does not exceed the manufacturer's instructions for the resin materials.

  11. A novel magnetic valve using room temperature magnetocaloric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian; Pryds, Nini


    Magnetocaloric materials with near-room-temperature tuneable Curie temperatures have been utilized to develop a novel magnetic valve technology. The temperature dependent attractive force between the materials and a permanent magnet assembly is used to actuate valves as a response to temperature...... changes. This is made possible by the strong temperature dependence of the magnetization close to the Curie temperature of the magnetocaloric materials. Different compositions of both La0.67(Ca,Sr)0.33MnO3 and La(Fe,Co,Si)13 have been considered for use in prototype valves. Based on measured magnetization...... data a 3D finite element model has been set up to calculate the magnetic force between (graded) blocks of these materials and a permanent magnet assembly. The results have been used to calculate equilibrium points for actuation systems where the magnetic force is balanced by a spring force...

  12. Temperature Measurement of a Glass Material Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer (United States)

    Ng, Daniel


    Temperature measurement of a substance that is transparent using the traditional 1-color, 2-color and other pyrometers has been difficult. The radiation detected by pyrometers do not come from a well defined location in the transparent body. The multiwavelength pyrometer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center can measure the surface temperature of many materials. We show in this paper that it also measures the surface and a bulk subsurface temperature of transparent materials like glass.

  13. Research of fuel temperature control in fuel pipeline of diesel engine using positive temperature coefficient material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Li


    Full Text Available As fuel temperature increases, both its viscosity and surface tension decrease, and this is helpful to improve fuel atomization and then better combustion and emission performances of engine. Based on the self-regulated temperature property of positive temperature coefficient material, this article used a positive temperature coefficient material as electric heating element to heat diesel fuel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine. A kind of BaTiO3-based positive temperature coefficient material, with the Curie temperature of 230°C and rated voltage of 24 V, was developed, and its micrograph and element compositions were also analyzed. By the fuel pipeline wrapped in six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, its resistivity–temperature and heating characteristics were tested on a fuel pump bench. The experiments showed that in this installation, the surface temperature of six positive temperature coefficient ceramics rose to the equilibrium temperature only for 100 s at rated voltage. In rated power supply for six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, the temperature of injection fuel improved for 21°C–27°C within 100 s, and then could keep constant. Using positive temperature coefficient material to heat diesel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine, the injection mass per cycle had little change, approximately 0.3%/°C. This study provides a beneficial reference for improving atomization of high-viscosity liquids by employing positive temperature coefficient material without any control methods.

  14. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine (United States)


    F, J. Beebe , Washington, D.C. 20315 1 Office, Chief Research § Development, Department of the Army, ATTN: R. Ballard, Physical § Engineering...HpR^fe^ ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER WATERTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS 02172 TECHNICAL REPORT DISTRIBUTION No. of Copies To Mr. Leslie

  15. Structure of liquid oxides at very high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Landron, C; Thiaudiere, D; Price, D L; Greaves, G N


    The structural characterization of condensed matter by synchrotron radiation combined with neutron data constitutes a powerful structural tool in material science. In order to investigate refractory liquids at very high temperatures, we have developed a new analysis chamber for performing combined X-ray absorption and diffraction measurements by using laser heating and aerodynamic levitation. A similar system has been designed for neutron experiments. This high temperature equipment presents several advantages: the container does not physically or chemically perturb the sample, heterogeneous nucleation during cooling is suppressed and pollution by the container is removed. This cell can operate under various gas conditions from room temperature up to 3000 deg. C obtained by means of a sealed 125 W CO sub 2 laser. Experiments have been performed at LURE, ESRF and at ISIS. We have studied the local structure around the cations in several liquid and solid oxides. We have shown that high temperature synchrotron d...

  16. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine (United States)


    Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio were determined by sonic techniques: thermal expansion values were measured on a differential dilatometer and thermal...accumulation of potentially explosive gases. 4. Thermal conductivity of the nitriding atmosphere is important for production of high quality RBSN...of varying MgO content. Measurements were conducted on a differential dilatometer from room temperatures up to 900°C, and are shown in Figure 3.2.3

  17. Method for fabricating high aspect ratio structures in perovskite material (United States)

    Karapetrov, Goran T.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Crabtree, George W.; Iavarone, Maria


    A method of fabricating high aspect ratio ceramic structures in which a selected portion of perovskite or perovskite-like crystalline material is exposed to a high energy ion beam for a time sufficient to cause the crystalline material contacted by the ion beam to have substantially parallel columnar defects. Then selected portions of the material having substantially parallel columnar defects are etched leaving material with and without substantially parallel columnar defects in a predetermined shape having high aspect ratios of not less than 2 to 1. Etching is accomplished by optical or PMMA lithography. There is also disclosed a structure of a ceramic which is superconducting at a temperature in the range of from about K. to about K. with substantially parallel columnar defects in which the smallest lateral dimension of the structure is less than about 5 microns, and the thickness of the structure is greater than 2 times the smallest lateral dimension of the structure.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.


    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  19. Structures and materials technology for hypersonic aerospacecraft (United States)

    Mccomb, Harvey G., Jr.; Murrow, Harold N.; Card, Michael F.


    Major considerations in structural design of a transatmospheric aerospacecraft are discussed. The general direction of progress in structures and materials technology is indicated, and technical areas in structures and materials where further research and development is necessary are indicated. Various structural concepts under study and materials which appear to be most applicable are discussed. Structural design criteria are discussed with particular attention to the factor-of-safety approach and the probabilistic approach. Structural certification requirements for the aerospacecraft are discussed. The kinds of analyses and tests which would be required to certify the structural integrity, safety, and durability of the aerospacecraft are discussed, and the type of test facility needed to perform structural certification tests is identified.

  20. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc (eds.)


    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?.

  1. Temperature Measurement of Ceramic Materials Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer (United States)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave


    The surface temperatures of several pure ceramic materials (alumina, beryllia, magnesia, yittria and spinel) in the shape of pellets were measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. In one of the measurements, radiation signal collection is provided simply by an optical fiber. In the other experiments, a 4.75 inch (12 cm) parabolic mirror collects the signal for the spectrometer. Temperature measurement using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer for these ceramic materials is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which varies with both temperature and wavelength. In at least one of the materials, yittria, the detected optical emission increased as the temperature was decreased due to such emissivity variation. The reasons for such changes are not known. The multiwavelength pyrometer has demonstrated its ability to measure surface temperatures under such conditions. Platinum electrodes were embedded in the ceramic pellets for resistance measurements as the temperature changed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler


    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  3. Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Planes, Antoni; Saxena, Avadh


    Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials addresses three distinct but related topics: (i) magnetoelastic materials such as magnetic martensites and magnetic shape memory alloys, (ii) the magnetocaloric effect related to magnetostructural transitions, and (iii) colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and related magnanites. The goal is to identify common underlying principles in these classes of materials that are relevant for optimizing various functionalities. The emergence of apparently different magnetic/structural phenomena in disparate classes of materials clearly points to a need for common concepts in order to achieve a broader understanding of the interplay between magnetism and structure in this general class of new functional materials exhibiting ever more complex microstructure and function. The topic is interdisciplinary in nature and the contributors correspondingly include physicists, materials scientists and engineers. Likewise the book will appeal to scientists from all these areas.

  4. Producing and optimizing novel materials and structures (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahdi


    A series of detailed experimental and finite element investigations were carried out to study the response of selected objects which are currently utilized for load carrying. These investigations were later applied to optimize the mechanical performance of the studied structures and materials. First, a number of experiments and detailed finite element simulations were carried out to study the response and failure of single lap joints with non-flat interface under uniaxial tension. The adherents were made from fiber reinforced epoxy composite and the custom-made mold allowed the fibers to follow the profile of the bonded joint interface. The experiments showed that the interface shape has significant effect on the mechanical behavior and strength of the bonded joints. Finite element simulations were performed to estimate the distribution of shear and peeling stresses along the bonded joints and the results were linked to the experimental investigations. Additional parametric calculations were also carried out to highlight the role of interface shape on the distribution of stresses, and inherently the overall strength and behavior of the bonded joints. In addition, the role of a central void on the distribution of the stresses in a bonded joint with flat and non-flat sinusoidal interfaces was investigated. The second topic concerns Wood Plastic Composites (WPC) which are widely used in the industry due to its durability, low cost, and anti-moisture properties in comparison with the natural wood. In this research, we have produced flout shaped WPC samples using African black wood powder and Phenolic resin in a hot compression molding set-up. Initial WPC composites were produced by systematically changing the wood volume fraction. Based on these results the optimum temperature, pressure and wood volume fraction for developing WPC in a form of a flute is developed. A series of experimental procedures were performed to improve mechanical properties of WPC samples by

  5. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.


    The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized

  6. NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project - Structures and Materials Discipline (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Johnson, Susan M.


    The Structures & Materials Discipline within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project is focused on developing rotorcraft technologies. The technologies being developed are within the task areas of: 5.1.1 Life Prediction Methods for Engine Structures & Components 5.1.2 Erosion Resistant Coatings for Improved Turbine Blade Life 5.2.1 Crashworthiness 5.2.2 Methods for Prediction of Fatigue Damage & Self Healing 5.3.1 Propulsion High Temperature Materials 5.3.2 Lightweight Structures and Noise Integration The presentation will discuss rotorcraft specific technical challenges and needs as well as details of the work being conducted in the six task areas.

  7. A New Light Weight Structural Material for Nuclear Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiei, Afsaneh [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    Ci 60Co, 1.8mCi 137Cs, 13.5mCi 241Am, and 5.0mCi 133Ba were used for gamma-ray attenuation analysis. The evaluations of neutron transmission measurements were conducted at the Neutron Powder Diffractometer beam facility at North Carolina State University. The experimental results were verified theoretically through XCOM and Monte Carlo Z-particle Transport Code (MCNP). A mechanical investigation was performed by means of quasi-static compressive testing. Thermal characterizations were carried out through effective thermal conductivity and thermal expansion analyses in terms of high temperature guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow technique and thermomechanical analyzer (TMA), respectively. The experimental results were compared with analytical results obtained from, respectively, Brailsford and Major’s model and modified Turner’s model for verification. Flame test was performed in accordance with United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) standard. CMF sample and a 304L stainless steel control sample were subjected to a fully engulfing fire with an average flame temperature of 800°C for a period of 30 minutes. Finite Element Analysis was conducted to secure the credibility of the experimental results. This research indicates the potential of utilizing the light-weight close-cell CMFs and open-cell Al foam with fillers as shielding material replacing current heavy structures with additional advantage of high-energy absorption and excellent thermal characteristics.

  8. High Temperature Stable Nanocrystalline SiGe Thermoelectric Material (United States)

    Yang, Sherwin (Inventor); Matejczyk, Daniel Edward (Inventor); Determan, William (Inventor)


    A method of forming a nanocomposite thermoelectric material having microstructural stability at temperatures greater than 1000 C. The method includes creating nanocrystalline powder by cryomilling. The method is particularly useful in forming SiGe alloy powder.

  9. Processing of extraterrestrial materials by high temperature vacuum vaporization (United States)

    Grimley, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.


    It is noted that problems associated with the extraction and concentration of elements and commpounds important for the construction and operation of space habitats have received little attention. High temperature vacuum vaporization is considered a promising approach; this is a technique for which the space environment offers advantages in the form of low ambient pressures and temperatures and the possibility of sustained high temperatures via solar thermal energy. To establish and refine this new technology, experimental determinations must be made of the material release profiles as a function of temperature, of the release kinetics and chemical forms of material being transported, and of the various means of altering release kinetics. Trace element data determined by neutron activation analysis of meteorites heated to 1400 C in vacuum is summarized. The principal tool, high temperature spectrometry, is used to examine the vaporization thermodynamics and kinetics of major and minor elements from complex multicomponent extraterrestrial materials.

  10. Plasticity In High Temperature Materials: Tantalum and Monazite (United States)


    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0065 PLASTICITY IN HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS: TANTALUM AND MONAZITE Jeffrey Kysar THE TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE...Agency Air Force Office of Scientific Research Title of Project Plasticity in High Temperature Materials: Tantalum and Monazite February 28, 2014...centered cu- bic tantalum , the methodology also demonstrated a relationship between dislocation mean free path length and GND density. A framework to

  11. Optimal structural design of biomorphic composite materials


    Hoppe, Ronald H. W. (Prof. Dr.)


    Optimal structural design of biomorphic composite materials / R. H. W. Hoppe, S. Petrova. - In: Numerical methods and applications / Ivan Dimov ... - Berlin u.a. : Springer, 2003. - S. 479-487. - (Lecture notes in computer science ; 2542)

  12. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei


    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  13. Cu cluster shell structure at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Bøssing; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    Equilibrium structures of small (3–29)-atom Cu clusters are determined by simulated annealing, and finite-temperature ensembles are simulated by Monte Carlo techniques using the effective-medium theory for the energy calculation. Clusters with 8, 18, and 20 atoms are found to be particularly stab...

  14. Nanoscale structural modulation and enhanced room-temperature multiferroic properties (United States)

    Sun, Shujie; Huang, Yan; Wang, Guopeng; Wang, Jianlin; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Knize, Randy J.; Lu, Yalin


    Availability of a single-phase multiferroic material functional at room temperature poses a big challenge, although it is very important to both fundamental physics and application development. Recently, layered Aurivillius oxide materials, one of the most promising candidates, have attracted considerable interest. In this work, we investigated the nanoscale structural evolution of the six-layer Bi7Fe3-xCoxTi3O21 when substituting excessive Co. Nanoscale structural modulation (NSM) occurred at the boundaries when changing the material gradually from the originally designed six-layer nanoscale architecture down to five and then four, when increasing the Co content, inducing a previously unidentified analogous morphotropic transformation (AMT) effect. The AMT's net contribution to the enhanced intrinsic multiferroic properties at room temperature was confirmed by quantifying and deducting the contribution from the existing impurity phase using derivative thermo-magneto-gravimetry measurements (DTMG). Significantly, this new AMT effect may be caused by a possible coupling contribution from co-existing NSM phases, indicating a potential method for realizing multiferroic materials that function at room temperature.Availability of a single-phase multiferroic material functional at room temperature poses a big challenge, although it is very important to both fundamental physics and application development. Recently, layered Aurivillius oxide materials, one of the most promising candidates, have attracted considerable interest. In this work, we investigated the nanoscale structural evolution of the six-layer Bi7Fe3-xCoxTi3O21 when substituting excessive Co. Nanoscale structural modulation (NSM) occurred at the boundaries when changing the material gradually from the originally designed six-layer nanoscale architecture down to five and then four, when increasing the Co content, inducing a previously unidentified analogous morphotropic transformation (AMT) effect. The AMT

  15. Multifunctional Materials and Structures Gordon Research Conference (United States)


    Taylor (Oxford University, United Kingdom) "Dynamic Reconfigurations of Bird Wing During Adaptive Gliding Flight" 9:05 pm - 9:25 pm Discussion 9:25...Operational Summary The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Multifunctional Materials & Structures was held at the Four Points Sheraton in...Multifunctional Materials and Structures aimed to extend and accelerate interdisciplinary research activities in this emerging field, which incorporates

  16. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage. (United States)

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia


    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  17. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures and Materials (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Allison, Sidney G.


    A new technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in materials and structures by performing temperature measurements with fiber Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of structures with subsurface defects or thickness variations. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. The data obtained from grating sensors were further analyzed with thermal modeling to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. These results were found to be consistent with those from conventional thermography techniques. Limitations of the technique were investigated using both experimental and numerical simulation techniques. Methods for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of fundamental properties of filter materials at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Y.; Hiramatsu, K.; Kawamoto, H. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya (Japan); Araki, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Hekinan (Japan); Yamada, M.; Iida, J. [Center For Coal Utilization Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    In developing a dust collecting technology for high-temperature coal combustion gases for use in a next-generation system of efficient power generation, it is important to raise reliability by ascertaining the relevant physical properties and behaviors of the dust collecting filters. Accordingly, the aim of this research is to clarify the mechanical and thermal properties, and the high-temperature corrosion behaviors (oxidization, reduction), which figure among the fundamental factors restricting reliability in filter materials. In addition, since the ultimate research aim is the selection and development of filters which can be used in the actual dust collecting systems PFBC (950 C in an oxidization atmosphere) and IGCC (700 C in a reduction atmosphere), it is also necessary to conduct tests on the fundamental properties of existing filters, and to classify them for their suitability with given service atmospheres. Finally, for one particular filter selected as suitable for an oxidation atmosphere of 950 C, observations are made of mechanical properties and micro-structural changes before and after an actual dust collecting trial, and cause of damage are investigated. (orig.)

  19. Graphite materials prepared from an anthracite: a structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gonzalez; Miguel A. Montes-Moran; Ana B. Garcia [CSIC, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)


    The purpose of this research was to study the influence of the temperature, treatment time, and initial coal particle size on the evolution of the structural order of graphite materials that have been prepared from an anthracite at temperatures {gt} 2273 K. Crystalline parameters such as the interlayer spacing and crystallite sizes were calculated from X-ray diffractometry measurements. The analysis of the first- and second-order Raman spectra allowed the assessment of the degree of orientation at the outermost layers of these materials. The graphitization of the anthracite happened in two different stages. The temperature of 2673 K seems to be the inflection point for the change in the graphitization rate of the anthracite. Highly crystalline materials were obtained at 2673 K. Temperatures of treatment {gt}2673 K led to minor changes in the degree of structural order of the graphite materials obtained. The initial particle size of the anthracite affected the evolution of the graphitization process with temperature, because of differences in the ratio of particles that contain organic matter and mineral matter associations. The degree of graphitization achieved with this coal was comparable to that of other natural and synthetic graphites. 35 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Utilizing Materials With Controllable Curie Temperatures for Magnetic Actuation Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders


    The magnetic force between a permanent magnet and different blocks of ferromagnetic materials was measured and calculated as a function of distance and temperature in the vicinity of the Curie temperature of the materials. The calculations were carried out using a 3-D finite-element model...... of the system. On the basis of forces predicted by the model a number of equilibrium points were calculated for a system where the magnetic force on a ferromagnetic block of material is balanced by a linear spring force. It is shown how these calculation procedures can be used as a tool for designing autonomous...

  1. New Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzlarich, Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    The scope of this proposal was to develop two new high ZT materials with enhanced properties for the n- and p-leg of a thermoelectric device capable of operating at a maximum temperature of 1275 K and to demonstrate the efficiency in a working device. Nanostructured composites and new materials based on n– and p–type nanostructured Si1-xGex (ZT1273K ~ 1) and the recently discovered p–type high temperature Zintl phase material, Yb14MnSb11 (ZT1273K ~1) were developed and tested in a working device.

  2. New Oxide Materials for an Ultra High Temperature Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perepezko, John H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    In this project, a new oxide material, Hf6Ta2O17 has been successfully synthesized by the controlled oxidization of Hf-Ta alloys. This oxide exhibits good oxidation resistance, high temperature phase stability up to more than 2000°C, low thermal conductivity and thus could serve as a component or a coating material in an ultrahigh temperature environment. We have examined the microstructure evolution and phase formation sequence during the oxidation exposure of Hf-Ta alloys at 1500°C and identified that the oxidation of a Hf-26.7atomic %Ta alloy leads to the formation of a single phase adherent Hf6Ta2O17 with a complex atomic structure i.e. superstructure. The overall reactive diffusion pathway is consistent with the calculated Hf-Ta-O ternary phase diagram. Besides the synthesis of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure by oxidizing Hf-Ta alloys, we have also developed a synthesis method based upon the reactive sintering of the correct ratios of mixed powders of HfO2 and Ta2O5 and verified the low thermal conductivity of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure on these samples. We have completed a preliminary analysis of the oxidation kinetics for Hf6Ta2O17, which shows an initial parabolic oxidation kinetics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Buckling of a column with temperature dependent material properties is investigated. Euler-Bernoulli theory of thin beams is used to derive the element matrices by means of the minimum potential energy principle. Temperature dependency of material properties is taken into account in the formulation. The column is divided into finite elements with the axial degrees of freedom defined at the outer fiber of the column. Column elements have simpler derivations and compact element matrices than those of classical beam-bending element. Some illustrative examples are presented to show the convergence of numerical results obtained by the use of new elements. The results are compared with those of the classical beam-bending element and analytical solution. The new element converges to the analytical results as powerful as the classical beam-bending element. The temperature effects on the buckling loads of the column with temperature dependent material properties are also examined.

  4. Integrated design of structures, controls, and materials (United States)

    Blankenship, G. L.


    In this talk we shall discuss algorithms and CAD tools for the design and analysis of structures for high performance applications using advanced composite materials. An extensive mathematical theory for optimal structural (e.g., shape) design was developed over the past thirty years. Aspects of this theory have been used in the design of components for hypersonic vehicles and thermal diffusion systems based on homogeneous materials. Enhancement of the design methods to include optimization of the microstructure of the component is a significant innovation which can lead to major enhancements in component performance. Our work is focused on the adaptation of existing theories of optimal structural design (e.g., optimal shape design) to treat the design of structures using advanced composite materials (e.g., fiber reinforced, resin matrix materials). In this talk we shall discuss models and algorithms for the design of simple structures from composite materials, focussing on a problem in thermal management. We shall also discuss methods for the integration of active structural controls into the design process.

  5. Freeze Casting for Assembling Bioinspired Structural Materials. (United States)

    Cheng, Qunfeng; Huang, Chuanjin; Tomsia, Antoni P


    Nature is very successful in designing strong and tough, lightweight materials. Examples include seashells, bone, teeth, fish scales, wood, bamboo, silk, and many others. A distinctive feature of all these materials is that their properties are far superior to those of their constituent phases. Many of these natural materials are lamellar or layered in nature. With its "brick and mortar" structure, nacre is an example of a layered material that exhibits extraordinary physical properties. Finding inspiration in living organisms to create bioinspired materials is the subject of intensive research. Several processing techniques have been proposed to design materials mimicking natural materials, such as layer-by-layer deposition, self-assembly, electrophoretic deposition, hydrogel casting, doctor blading, and many others. Freeze casting, also known as ice-templating, is a technique that has received considerable attention in recent years to produce bioinspired bulk materials. Here, recent advances in the freeze-casting technique are reviewed for fabricating lamellar scaffolds by assembling different dimensional building blocks, including nanoparticles, polymer chains, nanofibers, and nanosheets. These lamellar scaffolds are often infiltrated by a second phase, typically a soft polymer matrix, a hard ceramic matrix, or a metal matrix. The unique architecture of the resultant bioinspired structural materials displays excellent mechanical properties. The challenges of the current research in using the freeze-casting technique to create materials large enough to be useful are also discussed, and the technique's promise for fabricating high-performance nacre-inspired structural materials in the future is reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Myoglobin solvent structure at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, B.V.; Korszun, Z.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)


    The structure of the solvent surrounding myoglobin crystals has been analyzed using neutron diffraction data, and the results indicate that the water around the protein is not disordered, but rather lies in well-defined hydration shells. We have analyzed the structure of the solvent surrounding the protein by collecting neutron diffraction data at four different temperatures, namely, 80, 130, 180, and 240K. Relative Wilson Statistics applied to low resolution data showed evidence of a phase transition in the region of 180K. A plot of the liquidity factor, B{sub sn}, versus distance from the protein surface begins with a high plateau near the surface of the protein and drops to two minima at distances from the protein surface of about 2.35{Angstrom} and 3.85{Angstrom}. Two distinct hydration shells are observed. Both hydration shells are observed to expand as the temperature is increased.

  7. Temperature restrictions for materials used in aerospace industry for the near-Sun orbits (United States)

    Ancona, Elena; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.


    For near-Sun missions, the spacecraft approaches very close to the Sun and space environmental effects become relevant. Strong restrictions on how much close it can get derive from the maximum temperature that the used materials can stand, in order not to compromise the spacecraft's activity and functionalities. In other words, the minimum perihelion distance of a given mission can be determined based on the materials' temperature restrictions. The temperature of an object in space depends on its optical properties: reflectivity, absorptivity, transmissivity, and emissivity. Usually, it is considered as an approximation that the optical properties of materials are constant. However, emissivity depends on temperature. The consideration of the temperature dependence of emissivity and conductivity of materials used in the aerospace industry leads to the conclusion that the temperature dependence on the heliocentric distance is different from the case of constant optical properties [1]. Particularly, taking into account that emissivity is directly proportional to the temperature, the temperature of an object increases as r-2/5 when the heliocentric distance r decreases. This means that the same temperature will actually be reached at a different distance and, eventually, the spacecraft will be allowed to approach closer to the Sun without compromising its activities. We focused on metals used for aerospace structures (Al, Ti), however our analysis can be extended to all kinds of composite materials, once their optical properties - in particular emissivity - are defined.

  8. Advanced materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion (United States)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Vandersande, Jan W.; Wood, Charles


    A number of refractory semiconductors are under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for application in thermal to electric energy conversion for space power. The main thrust of the program is to improve or develop materials of high figure of merit and, therefore, high conversion efficiencies over a broad temperature range. Materials currently under investigation are represented by silicon-germanium alloys, lanthanum telluride, and boron carbide. The thermoelectric properties of each of these materials, and prospects for their further improvements, are discussed. Continued progress in thermoelectric materials technology can be expected to yield reliable space power systems with double to triple the efficiency of current state of the art systems.

  9. X-Aerogels for Structural Components and High Temperature Applications (United States)


    Future NASA missions and space explorations rely on the use of materials that are strong ultra lightweight and able to withstand extreme temperatures. Aerogels are low density (0.01-0.5 g/cu cm) high porosity materials that contain a glass like structure formed through standard sol-gel chemistry. As a result of these structural properties, aerogels are excellent thermal insulators and are able to withstand temperatures in excess of l,000 C. The open structure of aerogels, however, renders these materials extremely fragile (fracturing at stress forces less than 0.5 N/sq cm). The goal of NASA Glenn Research Center is to increase the strength of these materials by templating polymers and metals onto the surface of an aerogel network facilitating the use of this material for practical applications such as structural components of space vehicles used in exploration. The work this past year focused on two areas; (1) the research and development of new templated aerogels materials and (2) process development for future manufacturing of structural components. Research and development occurred on the production and characterization of new templating materials onto the standard silica aerogel. Materials examined included polymers such as polyimides, fluorinated isocyanates and epoxies, and, metals such as silver, gold and platinum. The final properties indicated that the density of the material formed using an isocyanate is around 0.50 g/cc with a strength greater than that of steel and has low thermal conductivity. The process used to construct these materials is extremely time consuming and labor intensive. One aspect of the project involved investigating the feasibility of shortening the process time by preparing the aerogels in the templating solvent. Traditionally the polymerization used THF as the solvent and after several washes to remove any residual monomers and water, the solvent around the aerogels was changed to acetonitrile for the templating step. This process

  10. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL


    the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. The focus of this document will be the overall range of DOE's structural materials research activities being conducted to support VHTR development. By far, the largest portion of material's R&D supporting VHTR development is that being performed directly as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Supplementary VHTR materials R&D being performed in the DOE program, including university and international research programs and that being performed under direct contracts with the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, will also be described. Specific areas of high-priority materials research that will be needed to deploy the NGNP and provide a basis for subsequent VHTRs are described, including the following: (1) Graphite: (a) Extensive unirradiated materials characterization and assessment of irradiation effects on properties must be performed to qualify new grades of graphite for nuclear service, including thermo-physical and mechanical properties and their changes, statistical variations from billot-to-billot and lot-to-lot, creep, and especially, irradiation creep. (b) Predictive models, as well as codification of the requirements and design methods for graphite core supports, must be developed to provide a basis for licensing. (2) Ceramics: Both fibrous and load-bearing ceramics must be qualified for environmental and radiation service as insulating materials. (3) Ceramic Composites: Carbon-carbon and SiC-SiC composites must be qualified for specialized usage in selected high-temperature components, such as core stabilizers, control rods, and insulating covers and ducting. This will require development of component-specific designs and fabrication processes, materials characterization, assessment of environmental and irradiation effects, and establishment of codes and standards for materials testing and design

  11. Understanding structural conservation through materials science:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Krarup Andersen, Cecil


    Mechanical properties and the structure of materials are key elements in understanding how structural interventions in conservation treatments affect cultural heritage objects. In this context, engineering mechanics can help determine the strength and stability found in art objects as it can...... provide both explanation and prediction of failure in materials. It has therefore shown to be an effective method for developing useful solutions to conservation problems. Since materials science and mechanics can help conservators predict the long term consequences of their treatments and provide them...... with tools to avoid future problems, it should be present in all conservation-restoration training programs to help promote students’ understanding of the degradation mechanisms in cultural materials (and their correlation with chemical and biological degradation) as well as the implications behind...

  12. Structure and properties of hybrid composite materials (United States)

    Chernyshova, T. A.; Kobeleva, L. I.; Bolotova, L. K.; Katin, I. V.


    The structure and interfacial interaction are studied in the hybrid aluminum-matrix composite materials fabricated by reactive casting combined with mechanical mixing of fillers with a metallic melt. The following types of hardening are considered: hardening by ceramic particles and by the phases formed as isolated inclusions or coatings on ceramic particles during in situ reactions. The hardness and tribological properties of the composite materials as functions of their compositions are discussed.

  13. Smart materials and structures for chemical sensors (United States)

    Basu, S.


    The latest development of materials and technology for building smart chemical sensors has been presented. Different kinds of chemical sensors working on the principle of chemical and physical transductions have been individually discussed. The sensor mechanism in each case of detection of inorganic and organic vapors has been indicated. The merits and demerits of different materials and sensors structures have been mentioned. Finally the strategic applications of some innovative chemical sensors have been clearly cited.

  14. Dynamic and structural control utilizing smart materials and structures (United States)

    Rogers, C. A.; Robertshaw, H. H.


    An account is given of several novel 'smart material' structural control concepts that are currently under development. The thrust of these investigations is the evolution of intelligent materials and structures superceding the recently defined variable-geometry trusses and shape memory alloy-reinforced composites; the substances envisioned will be able to autonomously evaluate emergent environmental conditions and adapt to them, and even change their operational objectives. While until now the primary objective of the developmental efforts presently discussed has been materials that mimic biological functions, entirely novel concepts may be formulated in due course.

  15. Impact of nesting material on mouse body temperature and physiology. (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P


    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24 °C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30 °C). Thus, mice are potentially cold stressed, which can alter metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. These physiological changes reflect impaired wellbeing, and affect scientific outcomes. We hypothesized that nesting material would allow mice to alleviate cold stress by controlling their thermal microenvironment, thus insulating them, reducing heat loss and thermogenic processes. Naïve C57BL/6, CD-1, and BALB/c mice (24 male and 24 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in standard cages at 20 °C either with or without 8 g nesting material for 4 weeks. Core body temperature was followed using intraperitoneal radio telemetry. The thermal properties of the nests were assessed using a thermal imaging camera, and related to nest quality. Higher scoring nests were negatively correlated with the mean radiated temperature and were thus more insulating. No effects of nesting material on body temperature were found. CD-1 mice with nesting material had higher end body weights than controls. No effect was seen in the other two strains. Mice with the telemetry implant had larger spleens than controls, possibly indicating an immune response to the implant or low level infection from the surgery. BALB/c mice express less mRNA for the UCP1 protein than mice without nesting material. This indicates that BALB/c's with nesting material do not utilize their brown fat to create heat as readily as controls. Nests can alleviate thermal discomfort by decreasing the amount of radiated heat and reduce the need for non-shivering thermogenesis. However, different strains appear to use different behavioral (through different primary modes of behavioral thermoregulation) and physiological strategies (utilizing thermogenesis to different degrees) to maintain a constant body temperature under cool standard laboratory ambient temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Electrical network method for the thermal or structural characterization of a conducting material sample or structure (United States)

    Ortiz, Marco G.


    A method for modeling a conducting material sample or structure system, as an electrical network of resistances in which each resistance of the network is representative of a specific physical region of the system. The method encompasses measuring a resistance between two external leads and using this measurement in a series of equations describing the network to solve for the network resistances for a specified region and temperature. A calibration system is then developed using the calculated resistances at specified temperatures. This allows for the translation of the calculated resistances to a region temperature. The method can also be used to detect and quantify structural defects in the system.

  17. Concurrent Probabilistic Simulation of High Temperature Composite Structural Response (United States)

    Abdi, Frank


    A computational structural/material analysis and design tool which would meet industry's future demand for expedience and reduced cost is presented. This unique software 'GENOA' is dedicated to parallel and high speed analysis to perform probabilistic evaluation of high temperature composite response of aerospace systems. The development is based on detailed integration and modification of diverse fields of specialized analysis techniques and mathematical models to combine their latest innovative capabilities into a commercially viable software package. The technique is specifically designed to exploit the availability of processors to perform computationally intense probabilistic analysis assessing uncertainties in structural reliability analysis and composite micromechanics. The primary objectives which were achieved in performing the development were: (1) Utilization of the power of parallel processing and static/dynamic load balancing optimization to make the complex simulation of structure, material and processing of high temperature composite affordable; (2) Computational integration and synchronization of probabilistic mathematics, structural/material mechanics and parallel computing; (3) Implementation of an innovative multi-level domain decomposition technique to identify the inherent parallelism, and increasing convergence rates through high- and low-level processor assignment; (4) Creating the framework for Portable Paralleled architecture for the machine independent Multi Instruction Multi Data, (MIMD), Single Instruction Multi Data (SIMD), hybrid and distributed workstation type of computers; and (5) Market evaluation. The results of Phase-2 effort provides a good basis for continuation and warrants Phase-3 government, and industry partnership.

  18. Layer like porous materials with hierarchical structure. (United States)

    Roth, Wieslaw J; Gil, Barbara; Makowski, Wacław; Marszalek, Bartosz; Eliášová, Pavla


    Many chemical compositions produce layered solids consisting of extended sheets with thickness not greater than a few nanometers. The layers are weakly bonded together in a crystal and can be modified into various nanoarchitectures including porous hierarchical structures. Several classes of 2-dimensional (2D) materials have been extensively studied and developed because of their potential usefulness as catalysts and sorbents. They are discussed in this review with focus on clays, layered transition metal oxides, silicates, layered double hydroxides, metal(iv) phosphates and phosphonates, especially zirconium, and zeolites. Pillaring and delamination are the primary methods for structural modification and pore tailoring. The reported approaches are described and compared for the different classes of materials. The methods of characterization include identification by X-ray diffraction and microscopy, pore size analysis and activity assessment by IR spectroscopy and catalytic testing. The discovery of layered zeolites was a fundamental breakthrough that created unprecedented opportunities because of (i) inherent strong acid sites that make them very active catalytically, (ii) porosity through the layers and (iii) bridging of 2D and 3D structures. Approximately 16 different types of layered zeolite structures and modifications have been identified as distinct forms. It is also expected that many among the over 200 recognized zeolite frameworks can produce layered precursors. Additional advances enabled by 2D zeolites include synthesis of layered materials by design, hierarchical structures obtained by direct synthesis and top-down preparation of layered materials from 3D frameworks.

  19. Low temperature dielectric properties of magnetoplumbite family of materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateshwaran, B.; Yao, M.; Guo, R.; Bhalla, A.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Technology; Pennsylvania State Univ.


    The magnetoplumbite family of materials exhibit properties that make them suitable to be used as substrates materials for microwave application. Four members of the family studied in this work are LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}, NdGaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 19}, CaGa{sub 6}Al{sub 6}O{sub 19} and CaGa{sub 12}O{sub 19}. Dielectric studies have been carried out over a temperature range of 4-300 K and a wide frequency range. All four exhibit a low dielectric constant with good temperature stability, low dielectric loss and favorable frequency dependence characteristics.

  20. Measurement of the high-temperature strain of UHTC materials using chemical composition gratings (United States)

    Xie, Weihua; Meng, Songhe; Jin, Hua; Du, Chong; Wang, Libin; Peng, Tao; Scarpa, F.; Huo, Shiyu


    This paper proposes a simple bonding and measuring technique to realise silica-based chemical composition gratings’ (CCGs) high temperature applications on hot structures. We describe a series of experiments on CCGs to measure the thermal and mechanical response characteristics of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials when the maximum temperature is above 1000 °C. Response characteristics are obtained at the heating and cooling stages. Results show that the wavelength response of the CCGs bonded on the UHTC plate increases non-linearly with increasing temperatures, but decreases almost linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature-dependent strain transfer coefficients are calculated theoretically and experimentally; results show that the values of strain transfer coefficients below 1000 °C are significantly affected by the thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate material and the interface. The strain transfer coefficient value tends to vary slowly between 0.616 and 0.626 above 700 °C.

  1. Experimental Observations on Material Damping at Cryogenic Temperatures (United States)

    Peng, Chia-Yen; Levine, Marie; Shido, Lillian; Leland, Robert


    This paper describes a unique experimental facility designed to measure damping of materials at cryogenic temperatures for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The test facility removes other sources of damping in the measurement by avoiding frictional interfaces, decoupling the test specimen from the support system, and by using a non-contacting measurement device. Damping data reported herein are obtained for materials (Aluminum, Aluminum/Terbium/Dysprosium, Titanium, Composites) vibrating in free-free bending modes with low strain levels (< 10(exp -6) ppm). The fundamental frequencies of material samples are ranged from 14 to 202 Hz. To provide the most beneficial data relevant to TPF-like precision optical space missions, the damping data are collected from room temperatures (around 293 K) to cryogenic temperatures (below 40 K) at unevenly-spaced intervals. More data points are collected over any region of interest. The test data shows a significant decrease in viscous damping at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic damping can be as low as 10(exp -4) %, but the amount of the damping decrease is a function of frequency and material. However, Titanium 15-3-3-3 shows a remarkable increase in damping at cryogenic temperatures. It demonstrates over one order of magnitude increase in damping in comparison to Aluminum 6061-T6. Given its other properties (e.g., good stiffness and low conductivity) this may prove itself to be a good candidate for the application on TPF. At room temperatures, the test data are correlated well with the damping predicted by the Zener theory. However, large discrepancies at cryogenic temperatures between the Zener theory and the test data are observed.

  2. Ordered mesoporous silica materials with complicated structures

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu


    Periodically ordered mesoporous silicas constitute one of the most important branches of porous materials that are extensively employed in various chemical engineering applications including adsorption, separation and catalysis. This short review gives an introduction to recently developed mesoporous silicas with emphasis on their complicated structures and synthesis mechanisms. In addition, two powerful techniques for solving complex mesoporous structures, electron crystallography and electron tomography, are compared to elucidate their respective strength and limitations. Some critical issues and challenges regarding the development of novel mesoporous structures as well as their applications are also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Summary of workshop on high temperature materials based on Laves phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Offices of Fossil Energy and Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy jointly sponsored the Workshop on High Temperature Materials Based on Laves Phases in conjunction with the Tenth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials held at the Radisson Summit Hill Hotel in Knoxville, Tennessee on May 14-16, 1996. The objective of this workshop was to review the current status and to address critical issues in the development of new-generation high-temperature structural materials based on Laves phases. The one-day workshop included two sessions of overview presentations and a session of discussion on critical scientific and technological issues. The Laves phases represent an abundant class of intermetallic alloys with possible high-temperature structural applications. Laves phases form at or near the AB{sub 2} composition, and there are over 360 binary Laves phases. The ability of these alloys to dissolve considerable amounts of ternary alloying additions provides over 900 combined binary and ternary Laves phases. Many Laves phases have unique properties which make them attractive for high-temperature structural use. At half their homologous temperature, they retain >0.85 of their ambient yield strength, which is higher than all other intermetallics. Many of the Laves phases also have high melting temperatures, excellent creep properties, reasonably low densities, and for alloys containing Cr, Al, Si or Be, good oxidation resistance. Despite these useful properties, the tendency for low-temperature brittleness has limited the potential application of this large class of alloys.

  4. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin


    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  5. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf


    Different corrosion resistant stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, pure nickel, Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L), niobium, platinum and gold rods were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature (200-400 °C) acidic water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance w...

  6. Structure and dynamics in network-forming materials. (United States)

    Wilson, Mark


    The study of the structure and dynamics of network-forming materials is reviewed. Experimental techniques used to extract key structural information are briefly considered. Strategies for building simulation models, based on both targeting key (experimentally-accessible) materials and on systematically controlling key model parameters, are discussed. As an example of the first class of materials, a key target system, SiO2, is used to highlight how the changing structure with applied pressure can be effectively modelled (in three dimensions) and used to link to both experimental results and simple structural models. As an example of the second class the topology of networks of tetrahedra in the MX2 stoichiometry are controlled using a single model parameter linked to the M-X-M bond angles. The evolution of ordering on multiple length-scales is observed as are the links between the static structure and key dynamical properties. The isomorphous relationship between the structures of amorphous Si and SiO2 is discussed as are the similarities and differences in the phase diagrams, the latter linked to potential polyamorphic and 'anomalous' (e.g. density maxima) behaviour. Links to both two-dimensional structures for C, Si and Ge and near-two-dimensional bilayers of SiO2 are discussed. Emerging low-dimensional structures in low temperature molten carbonates are also uncovered.

  7. Materializing a responsive interior: designing minimum energy structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie; Kofod, Guggi; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette


    This paper discusses a series of design-led experiments investigating future possibilities for architectural materialization relying on minimum energy structures as an example of adaptive structure. The structures have been made as laminates of elastic membrane under high tension with flexible......-active structures based on dielectric-elastomer, where energy-minimization and self-organization principles become central processes for the realization of shape-changing architectural surfaces. In Reef, a concept for self-actuated ceiling surface, we examine the integration of these dynamic structures...... frames possessing arbitrarily shaped holes. The structure is highly amenable to shape changes, which has been demonstrated in the case of electrical actuation of the elastic membrane (Kofod, Wirges et al. 2007), however, other means of actuation are possible, involving stimuli such as temperature...

  8. Magnetic antiskyrmions above room temperature in tetragonal Heusler materials (United States)

    Nayak, Ajaya K.; Kumar, Vivek; Ma, Tianping; Werner, Peter; Pippel, Eckhard; Sahoo, Roshnee; Damay, Franoise; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S. P.


    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically stable, vortex-like objects surrounded by chiral boundaries that separate a region of reversed magnetization from the surrounding magnetized material. They are closely related to nanoscopic chiral magnetic domain walls, which could be used as memory and logic elements for conventional and neuromorphic computing applications that go beyond Moore’s law. Of particular interest is ‘racetrack memory’, which is composed of vertical magnetic nanowires, each accommodating of the order of 100 domain walls, and that shows promise as a solid state, non-volatile memory with exceptional capacity and performance. Its performance is derived from the very high speeds (up to one kilometre per second) at which chiral domain walls can be moved with nanosecond current pulses in synthetic antiferromagnet racetracks. Because skyrmions are essentially composed of a pair of chiral domain walls closed in on themselves, but are, in principle, more stable to perturbations than the component domain walls themselves, they are attractive for use in spintronic applications, notably racetrack memory. Stabilization of skyrmions has generally been achieved in systems with broken inversion symmetry, in which the asymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction modifies the uniform magnetic state to a swirling state. Depending on the crystal symmetry, two distinct types of skyrmions have been observed experimentally, namely, Bloch and Néel skyrmions. Here we present the experimental manifestation of another type of skyrmion—the magnetic antiskyrmion—in acentric tetragonal Heusler compounds with D2d crystal symmetry. Antiskyrmions are characterized by boundary walls that have alternating Bloch and Néel type as one traces around the boundary. A spiral magnetic ground-state, which propagates in the tetragonal basal plane, is transformed into an antiskyrmion lattice state under magnetic fields applied along the tetragonal axis over a wide range of temperatures

  9. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Phillip, Bradley L.


    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compostions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  10. Frictional coefficients of structural materials in AC superconducting coils (United States)

    Sekine, N.; Takao, T.; Shoji, T.; Toyama, H.; Kashiwazaki, K.; Sugasawa, N.; Nakamura, K.; Kashima, T.; Yamanaka, A.; Takeo, M.; Sato, S.


    Dyneema ® and glass fiber reinforced plastics (DGFRPs) expand when they are cooled down to cryogenic temperature. Therefore, they may have applications as structural materials in superconducting magnets to increase stability against abrupt motion of superconductors in the magnets. To obtain the mechanical properties of DGFRPs, we measured coefficients of friction on surfaces of DGFRPs under various experimental conditions at three temperatures, four different forces, and two types of DGFRPs. In all of the experimental conditions, the measured coefficients of friction were quite low. The range of measured coefficients was 0.07-0.14.

  11. Low temperature impact testing of welded structural wrought iron (United States)

    Rogers, Zachary

    During the second half of the 19th century, structural wrought iron was commonly used in construction of bridges and other structures. Today, these remaining structures are still actively in use and may fall under the protection of historic preservation agencies. Continued use and protection leads to the need for inspection, maintenance, and repair of the wrought iron within these structures. Welding can be useful to achieve the appropriate repair, rehabilitation, or replacement of wrought iron members. There is currently very little published on modern welding techniques for historic wrought iron. There is also no pre-qualified method for this welding. The demand for welding in the repair of historic structural wrought iron has led to a line of research investigating shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) of historic wrought iron at the University of Colorado Denver. This prior research selected the weld type and other weld specifications to try and achieve a recognized specific welding procedure using modern SMAW technology and techniques. This thesis continues investigating SMAW of historic wrought iron. Specifically, this thesis addresses the toughness of these welds from analysis of the data collected from performing Charpy V-Notch (CVN) Impact Tests. Temperature was varied to observe the material response of the welds at low temperature. The wrought iron used in testing was from a historic vehicle bridge in Minnesota, USA. This area, and many other areas with wrought iron structures, can experience sustained or fluctuating temperatures far below freezing. Investigating the toughness of welds in historic wrought iron at these temperatures is necessary to fully understand material responses of the existing structures in need of maintenance and repair. It was shown that welded wrought iron is tougher and more ductile than non-welded wrought iron. In regards to toughness, welding is an acceptable repair method. Information on wrought iron, low temperature failure

  12. Rheology, microrheology and structure of soft materials (United States)

    Oppong, Felix K.

    We study the relationship between the bulk rheological properties and the micron-scale structure and rheology of different types of soft materials. The materials studied are Laponite, a colloidal clay suspension; Carbopol, a dispersion of microgel particles; hydroxyethyl cellulose, a linear polymer solution; and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose, an associative polymer. Bulk properties are measured using conventional shear rheometry. The micron-scale measurements are performed using techniques based on multiple particle tracking and dynamic light scattering. From the thermal motion of suspended tracer particles, we obtain information about the local structure and viscoelastic properties of the materials. We investigate the evolution of Laponite from a liquid to a gel and find that the process is length-scale dependent. We study the properties of Carbopol as a function of microgel concentration and find that as concentration increases, a jamming transition occurs which is related to the onset of yield stress on the bulk scale. We compare the viscoelastic properties of hydroxyethylcellulose and its associative derivative and observe that the hydrophobic interactions in the latter lead to much slower dynamics than in the unmodified polymer. A study of the stress relaxation in hydroxyethylcellulose showed that it depended on both the wait time after the application and removal of a large strain and on the type and magnitude of the deformation applied. Our work exploits the unique ability of microrheological techniques to probe both the rheology and structure of soft materials on the microscopic scale, which enables a better understanding of the relationship between bulk scale properties and microscopic structure in these systems. Keywords. Rheology, microrheology, soft materials, particle tracking, dynamic light scattering, viscoelasticity, yield stress, gelation, polymers.

  13. Influence of heat treatment on the structural and magnetic characteristics of (NdxPr1-x2Fe14B-based magnetic material for low-temperature application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Skotnicová


    Full Text Available Sintered Pr-Nd-Fe-B-based permanent magnets with 10 and 13 wt. % of Pr were prepared by traditional technology and then subjected to various heat treatments. Stoichiometric composition of the matrix grains corresponds to (Pr0.3Nd0.72Fe14B and (Pr0.4Nd0.62Fe14B compounds, respectively. Conducted thermomagnetic analysis to samples of these magnets showed the presence of spin-reorientation transition in temperature 95 and 75 K, respectively. This makes the magnet potentially applicable for low temperatures. For these compounds, we have determined the optimum heat-treatment conditions. The magnetic domain structure of the magnet subjected to an optimum heat treatment has been studied. The effect of different low-temperature heat treatments on the magnetic properties of magnets has been demonstrated.

  14. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian


    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  15. Materials and structures under shock and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Patrice


    In risk studies, engineers often have to consider the consequences of an accident leading to a shock on a construction. This can concern the impact of a ground vehicle or aircraft, or the effects of an explosion on an industrial site.This book presents a didactic approach starting with the theoretical elements of the mechanics of materials and structures, in order to develop their applications in the cases of shocks and impacts. The latter are studied on a local scale at first. They lead to stresses and strains in the form of waves propagating through the material, this movement then extending

  16. Apparatus for temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence characterization of materials (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr


    An apparatus for characterization of temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence (CL) of solid-state materials is presented. This device excites a specimen using an electron beam and the CL emission is collected from the specimen side opposite the e-beam irradiation. The design of the temperature-controlled specimen holder that enables cooling down to 100 K and heating up to 500 K is described. The desired specimen temperature is automatically stabilized using a PID controller, which is the proportional-integral-derivative control feedback loop. Moreover, the specimen holder provides in situ e-beam current measurement during the specimen excitation. The apparatus allows the measurement of the CL intensity, the CL spectrum, or the CL intensity decay depending on the specimen temperature, or on a variety of excitation conditions, such as excitation energy, electron current (dose), or excitation duration. The apparatus abilities are demonstrated by an example of the CL measurements of the YAG:Ce single-crystal scintillator.

  17. Temperature-responsive compounds as in situ gelling biomedical materials. (United States)

    Moon, Hyo Jung; Ko, Du Young; Park, Min Hee; Joo, Min Kyung; Jeong, Byeongmoon


    Aqueous solutions that undergo sol-to-gel transition as the temperature increases have been extensively studied during the last decade. The material can be designed by controlling the hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance of the material. Basically, the molecular weight of the hydrophilic block and hydrophobic block of a compound should be fine-tuned from the synthetic point of view. In addition, stereochemistry, microsequence, topology, and nanostructures of the compound also affect the transition temperature, gel window, phase diagram, and modulus of the gel. From a practical point of view, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and interactions between the material and drug or cell should be considered in designing a thermogelling material. The interactions are particularly important in that they control drug release profile and initial burst release of the drug in the drug delivery system, and affect cell proliferation, differentiation, and biomarker expression in three-dimensional cell culture and tissue engineering application. This review provides an in-depth summary of the recent progress of thermogelling systems including polymers, low molecular compounds, and nanoemulsions. Their biomedical applications were also comparatively discussed. In addition, perspectives on future material design of a new thermogelling material and its application are suggested.

  18. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators (United States)

    Caplan, Malcolm; Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich; Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich; Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich; Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich; Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich


    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron: 3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, and municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  19. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons (United States)

    Sterling, W. J.


    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  20. Refractory materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.


    Theoretical work of two decades ago adequately explained the transport behavior and effectively guided the development of thermoelectric materials of high conversion efficiencies of conventional semiconductors (e.g., SiGe alloys). The more significant contributions involved the estimaiation of optimum doping concentrations, the reduction of thermal conductivity by solid solution doping and the development of a variety of materials with ZT approx. 1 in the temperature range 300 K to 1200 K. ZT approx. 1 is not a theoretical limitation although, experimentally, values in excess of one were not achieved. Work has continued with emphasis on higher temperature energy conversion. A number of promising materials have been discovered in which it appears that ZT 1 is realizable. These materials are divided into two classes: (1) the rare-earth chalcogenides which behave as itinerant highly-degenerate n-type semiconductors at room-temperature, and (2) the boron-rich borides, which exhibit p-type small-polaronic hopping conductivity.

  1. Refractory materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.


    Theoretical work of two decades ago adequately explained the transport behavior and effectively guided the development of thermoelectric materials of high conversion efficiencies of conventional semiconductors (e.g., SiGe alloys). The more significant contributions involved the estimation of optimum doping concentrations, the reduction of thermal conductivity by solid solution doping and the development of a variety of materials with ZT approx. 1 in the temperature range 300 K to 1200 K. It was also shown that ZT approx. 1 is not a theoretical limitation although, experimentally, values in excess of one were not achieved. Work has continued with emphasis on higher temperature energy conversion. A number of promising materials have been discovered in which it appears that ZT > 1 is realizable. These materials can be divided into two classes: (i) the rare-earth chalcogenides, which behave as itinerant highly-degenerate n-type semiconductors at room-temperature, and (ii) the boron-rich borides, which exhibit p-type small-polaronic hopping conductivity.

  2. Nonlinearity in structural and electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, A.R.; Beardmore, K.M.; Ben-Naim, E. [and others


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project strengthens a nonlinear technology base relevant to a variety of problems arising in condensed matter and materials science, and applies this technology to those problems. In this way the controlled synthesis of, and experiments on, novel electronic and structural materials provide an important focus for nonlinear science, while nonlinear techniques help advance the understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of microstructure and dynamics in complex materials. This research is primarily focused on four topics: (1) materials microstructure: growth and evolution, and porous media; (2) textures in elastic/martensitic materials; (3) electro- and photo-active polymers; and (4) ultrafast photophysics in complex electronic materials. Accomplishments included the following: organization of a ``Nonlinear Materials`` seminar series and international conferences including ``Fracture, Friction and Deformation,`` ``Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions,`` and ``Landscape Paradigms in Physics and Biology``; invited talks at international conference on ``Synthetic Metals,`` ``Quantum Phase Transitions,`` ``1996 CECAM Euroconference,`` and the 1995 Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society; large-scale simulations and microscopic modeling of nonlinear coherent energy storage at crack tips and sliding interfaces; large-scale simulation and microscopic elasticity theory for precursor microstructure and dynamics at solid-solid diffusionless phase transformations; large-scale simulation of self-assembling organic thin films on inorganic substrates; analysis and simulation of smoothing of rough atomic surfaces; and modeling and analysis of flux pattern formation in equilibrium and nonequilibrium Josephson junction arrays and layered superconductors.

  3. Nondestructive Testing of Materials and Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Akkaya, Yılmaz


    Condition assessment and characterization of materials and structures by means of nondestructive testing (NDT) methods is a priority need around the world to meet the challenges associated with the durability, maintenance, rehabilitation, retrofitting, renewal and health monitoring of new and existing infrastructures including historic monuments. Numerous NDT methods that make use of certain components of the electromagnetic and acoustic spectra are currently in use to this effect with various levels of success and there is an intensive worldwide research effort aimed at improving the existing methods and developing new ones. The knowledge and information compiled in this book captures the current state-of-the-art in NDT methods and their application to civil and other engineering materials and structures. Critical reviews and advanced interdisciplinary discussions by world-renowned researchers point to the capabilities and limitations of the currently used NDT methods and shed light on current and future res...

  4. Structure of grain boundaries in hexagonal materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sarrazit, F


    which allows the behaviour of line-defects to be studied in complex interfacial processes. The work presented in this thesis describes experimental and theoretical aspects associated with the structure of grain boundaries in hexagonal materials. It has been found useful to classify grain boundaries as low-angle, special or general on the basis of their structure. High-angle grain boundaries were investigated in tungsten carbide (WC) using conventional electron microscopy techniques, and three examples characteristic of the interfaces observed in this material were studied extensively. Three-dimensionally periodic patterns are proposed as plausible reference configurations, and the Burgers vectors of observed interfacial dislocations were predicted using a theory developed recently. The comparison of experimental observations with theoretical predictions proved to be difficult as contrast simulation techniques require further development for analysis to be completed confidently. Another part of this work invol...

  5. Electronic structure and magnetism of complex materials

    CERN Document Server

    Papaconstantopoulos, D A


    Recent developments in electronic structure theory have led to a new understanding of magnetic materials at the microscopic level. This enables a truly first-principles approach to investigations of technologically important magnetic materials. Among these advances have been practical schemes for handling non-collinear magnetic systems, including relativity, understanding of the origins and role of orbital magnetism within band structure formalisms, density functional approaches for magnons and low-lying spin excitations, understanding of the interplay of orbital, spin and lattice orderings in complex oxides, transport theories for layered systems, and the theory of magnetic interactions in doped semiconductors. The book covers these recent developments with review articles by some of the main originators of these advances.

  6. On Structure and Properties of Amorphous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew H. Stachurski


    Full Text Available Mechanical, optical, magnetic and electronic properties of amorphous materials hold great promise towards current and emergent technologies. We distinguish at least four categories of amorphous (glassy materials: (i metallic; (ii thin films; (iii organic and inorganic thermoplastics; and (iv amorphous permanent networks. Some fundamental questions about the atomic arrangements remain unresolved. This paper focuses on the models of atomic arrangements in amorphous materials. The earliest ideas of Bernal on the structure of liquids were followed by experiments and computer models for the packing of spheres. Modern approach is to carry out computer simulations with prediction that can be tested by experiments. A geometrical concept of an ideal amorphous solid is presented as a novel contribution to the understanding of atomic arrangements in amorphous solids.

  7. On Structure and Properties of Amorphous Materials. (United States)

    Stachurski, Zbigniew H


    Mechanical, optical, magnetic and electronic properties of amorphous materials hold great promise towards current and emergent technologies. We distinguish at least four categories of amorphous (glassy) materials: (i) metallic; (ii) thin films; (iii) organic and inorganic thermoplastics; and (iv) amorphous permanent networks. Some fundamental questions about the atomic arrangements remain unresolved. This paper focuses on the models of atomic arrangements in amorphous materials. The earliest ideas of Bernal on the structure of liquids were followed by experiments and computer models for the packing of spheres. Modern approach is to carry out computer simulations with prediction that can be tested by experiments. A geometrical concept of an ideal amorphous solid is presented as a novel contribution to the understanding of atomic arrangements in amorphous solids.

  8. A novel high-temperature furnace for combined in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and infrared thermal imaging to investigate the effects of thermal gradients upon the structure of ceramic materials. (United States)

    Robinson, James B; Brown, Leon D; Jervis, Rhodri; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O; Millichamp, Jason; Mason, Thomas J; Neville, Tobias P; Eastwood, David S; Reinhard, Christina; Lee, Peter D; Brett, Daniel J L; Shearing, Paul R


    A new technique combining in situ X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation and infrared thermal imaging is reported. The technique enables the application, generation and measurement of significant thermal gradients, and furthermore allows the direct spatial correlation of thermal and crystallographic measurements. The design and implementation of a novel furnace enabling the simultaneous thermal and X-ray measurements is described. The technique is expected to have wide applicability in material science and engineering; here it has been applied to the study of solid oxide fuel cells at high temperature.

  9. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)


    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  10. Organic Materials for Time-Temperature Integrator Devices. (United States)

    Cavallini, Massimiliano; Melucci, Manuela


    Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) are devices capable of recording the thermal history of a system. They have an enormous impact in the food and pharmaceutical industries. TTIs exploit several irreversible thermally activated transitions such as recrystallization, dewetting, smoothening, chemical decomposition, and polymorphic transitions, usually considered drawbacks for many technological applications. The aim of this article is to sensitize research groups working in organic synthesis and surface science toward TTI devices, enlarging the prospects of many new materials. We reviewed the principal applications highlighting the need and criticisms of TTIs, which offer a new opportunity for the development of many materials.

  11. High-Temperature Electronic Materials: Silicon Carbide and Diamond (United States)

    Willander, Magnus; Friesel, Milan; Wahab, Qamar-Ul; Straumal, Boris

    The physical and chemical properties of wide-band-gap semiconductors make these materials an ideal choice for device fabrication for applications in many different areas, e.g. light emitters, high-temperature and high-power electronics, high-power microwave devices, micro-electromechanical system (MEM) technology, and substrates for semiconductor preparation. These semiconductors have been recognized for several decades as being suitable for these applications, but until recently the low material quality has not allowed the fabrication of high-quality devices. In this chapter, we review the wide-band-gap semiconductors, silicon carbide and diamond.

  12. Material degradation due to moisture and temperature. Part 1: mathematical model, analysis, and analytical solutions (United States)

    Xu, C.; Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.


    The mechanical response, serviceability, and load-bearing capacity of materials and structural components can be adversely affected due to external stimuli, which include exposure to a corrosive chemical species, high temperatures, temperature fluctuations (i.e., freezing-thawing), cyclic mechanical loading, just to name a few. It is, therefore, of paramount importance in several branches of engineering—ranging from aerospace engineering, civil engineering to biomedical engineering—to have a fundamental understanding of degradation of materials, as the materials in these applications are often subjected to adverse environments. As a result of recent advancements in material science, new materials such as fiber-reinforced polymers and multi-functional materials that exhibit high ductility have been developed and widely used, for example, as infrastructural materials or in medical devices (e.g., stents). The traditional small-strain approaches of modeling these materials will not be adequate. In this paper, we study degradation of materials due to an exposure to chemical species and temperature under large strain and large deformations. In the first part of our research work, we present a consistent mathematical model with firm thermodynamic underpinning. We then obtain semi-analytical solutions of several canonical problems to illustrate the nature of the quasi-static and unsteady behaviors of degrading hyperelastic solids.

  13. Fiber Optic Sensors for Smart Materials and Structures (United States)

    Singh, H.; Chang, C. C.; Boyer, T.; Sirkis, J. S.


    In this paper we describe recently developed fiber sensors which are capable of monitoring the health of smart-structures. The unobstrusive geometry of these sensors make them an excellent choice for embedding the sensor in composite materials to measure internal states of strain in structures and materials. Some of these sensors have gage lengths that can be tailored from tens of microns to many meters. We will describe various demodulation schemes (Pseudo-Heterodyne, Synthetic-Heterodyne, Homodyne, Differential-Cross Multiplier, and Single Channel Phase-Tracker) to obtain high bandwidth measurements, enabling measurement of static to high frequency impact generated strains with a dynamic response exceeding tens of thousands of microstrains. In addition, we will show that we can tailor the fiber sensor to either measure only strain and reject temperature response or measure only the temperature, or measure both temperature and strain simultaneously. We will also demonstrate the ability to measure multiple strain components inside a host simultaneously using a single fiber sensor embedded in the host using a certain sensor type and transverse strain immunity using another sensor type. Additionally we will show the ability to measure temperature up to 100 C using fiber optic sensors.

  14. Room temperature Sieving of Hydrogen Isotopes Using 2-D Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krentz, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Serkiz, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Velten, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Xiao, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Hydrogen isotope separation is critical to the DOE’s mission in environmental remediation and nuclear nonproliferation. Isotope separation is also a critical technology for the NNSA, and the ability to perform the separations at room temperature with a relatively small amount of power and space would be a major advancement for their respective missions. Recent work has shown that 2-D materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride can act as an isotopic sieve at room temperature; efficiently separating hydrogen isotopes in water with reported separation ratios of 10:1 for hydrogen: deuterium separation for a single pass. The work performed here suggests that this technique has merit, and furthermore, we are investigating optimization and scale up of the required 2-D material based membranes.

  15. Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes (United States)

    Pol, Chetan A.; Ghige, Suvarna K.; Gosavi, Suchitra R.; Hazarey, Vinay K.


    Background: Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C–400°C–600°C–800°C–1000°C) on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Results: Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Conclusion: Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics. PMID:26005305

  16. Radiative sky cooling: fundamental physics, materials, structures, and applications (United States)

    Sun, Xingshu; Sun, Yubo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bermel, Peter


    Radiative sky cooling reduces the temperature of a system by promoting heat exchange with the sky; its key advantage is that no input energy is required. We will review the origins of radiative sky cooling from ancient times to the modern day, and illustrate how the fundamental physics of radiative cooling calls for a combination of properties that may not occur in bulk materials. A detailed comparison with recent modeling and experiments on nanophotonic structures will then illustrate the advantages of this recently emerging approach. Potential applications of these radiative cooling materials to a variety of temperature-sensitive optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaics, thermophotovoltaics, rectennas, and infrared detectors, will then be discussed. This review will conclude by forecasting the prospects for the field as a whole in both terrestrial and space-based systems.

  17. Nanostructured Composite Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion (United States)


    classes of materials, half-Heusler intermetallic bulk nanocomposites and bismuth -telluride based nanocomposites; • Complete structural and...measurements K. Stokes Physics/AMRI Bismuth telluride/metallic nanoparticle composites, transport measurements J. Wiley Chemistry/AMRI inclusions for nanocomposites. Here, the nanoparticles are synthesized by sol-gel chemistry using hafnium(IV) tert-butoxide and ammonium hydroxide

  18. WS2 as an excellent high-temperature thermoelectric material

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala


    The potential of WS2 as a thermoelectric material is assessed. The electronic contribution to the thermoelectric properties is calculated within the constant relaxation time approximation from the electronic band structure, whereas the lattice contribution is evaluated using self-consistently calculated phonon lifetimes. In addition, the dependence of the lattice thermal conductivity on the mean free path of the phonons is determined.

  19. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped ZnO....... Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...... for conventional ZnO materials. For Al-doped ZnO, α- and γ-Al2O3 were selectively used as dopants in order to understand the doping mechanism of each phase and their effects on the thermoelectric properties. The samples were prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique from precursors calcined at various...

  20. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvid E. Pasto


    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO{sub x} and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required.

  1. Thermal Expansion Studies of Selected High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials (United States)

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Caillat, Thierry; Brandon, Erik; Van Der Walde, Keith; Maricic, Lina; Sayir, Ali


    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) generate electrical power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes (typically plutonium-238) into electricity using a thermoelectric converter. RTGs have been successfully used to power a number of space missions and have demonstrated their reliability over an extended period of time (tens of years) and are compact, rugged, radiation resistant, scalable, and produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. System conversion efficiency for state-of-practice RTGs is about 6% and specific power less than or equal to 5.1 W/kg. Higher specific power would result in more on-board power for the same RTG mass, or less RTG mass for the same on-board power. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been leading, under the advanced thermoelectric converter (ATEC) project, the development of new high-temperature thermoelectric materials and components for integration into advanced, more efficient RTGs. Thermoelectric materials investigated to date include skutterudites, the Yb14MnSb11 compound, and SiGe alloys. The development of long-lived thermoelectric couples based on some of these materials has been initiated and is assisted by a thermo-mechanical stress analysis to ensure that all stresses under both fabrication and operation conditions will be within yield limits for those materials. Several physical parameters are needed as input to this analysis. Among those parameters, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is critically important. Thermal expansion coefficient measurements of several thermoelectric materials under consideration for ATEC are described in this paper. The stress response at the interfaces in material stacks subjected to changes in temperature is discussed, drawing on work from the literature and project-specific tools developed here. The degree of CTE mismatch and the associated effect on the formation of stress is highlighted.

  2. Predicting High Temperature Dislocation Physics in HCP Crystal Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Abigail [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carpenter, John S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez Saez, Enrique [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report applies models and experiments to answer key questions about the way materials deform; specifics regarding phase field dislocations dynamics; as well as high temperature rolling experiments.

  3. Heat treated 9 Cr-1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher


    The invention relates to a composition and heat treatment for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to C. The novel combination of composition and heat treatment produces a heat treated material containing both large primary titanium carbides and small secondary titanium carbides. The primary titanium carbides contribute to creep strength while the secondary titanium carbides act to maintain a higher level of chromium in the finished steel for increased oxidation resistance, and strengthen the steel by impeding the movement of dislocations through the crystal structure. The heat treated material provides improved performance at comparable cost to commonly used high-temperature steels such as ASTM P91 and ASTM P92, and requires heat treatment consisting solely of austenization, rapid cooling, tempering, and final cooling, avoiding the need for any hot-working in the austenite temperature range.

  4. Room-temperature Electrochemical Synthesis of Carbide-derived Carbons and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Nanomaterials Group. Materials Science and Engineering Dept.


    This project addresses room-temperature electrochemical etching as an energy-efficient route to synthesis of 3D nanoporous carbon networks and layered 2D carbons and related structures, as well as provides fundamental understanding of structure and properties of materials produced by this method. Carbide-derived-carbons (CDCs) are a growing class of nanostructured carbon materials with properties that are desirable for many applications, such as electrical energy and gas storage. The structure of these functional materials is tunable by the choice of the starting carbide precursor, synthesis method, and process parameters. Moving from high-temperature synthesis of CDCs through vacuum decomposition above 1400°C and chlorination above 400°C, our studies under the previous DOE BES support led to identification of precursor materials and processing conditions for CDC synthesis at temperatures as low as 200°C, resulting in amorphous and highly reactive porous carbons. We also investigated synthesis of monolithic CDC films from carbide films at 250-1200°C. The results of our early studies provided new insights into CDC formation, led to development of materials for capacitive energy storage, and enabled fundamental understanding of the electrolyte ions confinement in nanoporous carbons.

  5. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir


    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  6. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part I. High Temperature Structure Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H


    A preliminary guideline for the design and evaluation of LMR high temperature structure is presented based upon ASME B and PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The main contents of this guideline are the materials, general design, vessel, piping, core support structure, pumps, valves, fabrication, examination, and testing for the class 1 components. The ratcheting evaluation, enhanced creep assessment, welds design and evaluation, inelastic analysis approach, piping design alternatives, and bellows design method are described in appendices. A user of this guideline should follow the essential procedures and may refer to other pertinent codes, standards, laws, regulations, or other pertinent documents when this guideline does not lead to proper design of the structure. While this guideline adopts major procedures of Subsection NH, it refers to the RCC-MR and/or DDS in some amount for the items where these codes have excellency to improve this guideline.

  7. Ageing in civil engineering materials and structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Jean-Marc [SETEC TPI, Tour Gamma D 58, quai de la Rapee, 75583 Paris (France)


    SETEC TPI will address the 'Aging' topic of the Dijon Symposium by talking about: aging in civil engineering materials and structures, prevention of aging phenomena, in-operation monitoring of degradations related to aging and compensatory measures required to maintain a good safety level. Works as the Millau viaduct, the EdF skyscraper at La Defense - Paris, the renovation of the Grand Palais of Paris and special structures with Monaco's floating dam as well as the 'number 10' shaped gateway boat at Marseilles are illustrations for the issues discussed. The durability of civil engineering structures has become a major concern for designers. The Millau viaduct is designed for a service life of 120 years, and the Monaco dam for 100 years. Calculation rules have been evolving toward the incorporation of the concept of life cycle, for example, the Eurocodes 2 rules (reinforced concrete). The talk will expose the factors which are being taken into account to delay aging versus structure types. This part will be focused towards materials and corresponding regulations: - Reinforced concrete (coating of reinforcements, opening of cracks, choice of reinforcement types), BAEL and Eurocodes 2 rules; - Frame steel (protection, sacrificial anode), CM66 and Eurocodes 3 rules. New materials will also be mentioned: - Ultra high-performance fiber/concrete, with the example of CERACEM applied at Millau for the covering of the toll area barrier; - Titanium, which is starting to appear in the building trades, as for instance for the Beijing China Opera House shell. The second part of the talk will be devoted to a specific case namely, the 'number 10' shaped gateway bridge, a prestressed concrete structure immersed in the Port of Marseilles, which will be used to illustrate the aging phenomenon in a corrosive environment. We will focus on the types of inspection series performed by the Autonomous Port Authority of Marseilles to check the behavior of

  8. Optical Spectroscopy of Nano Materials and Structures (United States)

    Guo, Wenhao

    In this thesis, nanostructures and nanomaterials ranging from 3D to OD will be studied compresively, by using optical methods. Firstly, for 3D and 2D nanomaterials, nanoporous zeolite crystals, such as AFI and AEL are introduced as host materials to accommodate diatomic iodine molecules. Polarized Raman spectroscopy is utilized to identify the two configurations of iodine molecules to stay in the channels of AEL: the lying mode (the bond of the two atoms is parallel to the direction of the channels) and the standing mode (the bond is perpendicular to the direction of the channels). The lying mode and standing mode are switchable and can be well controlled by the amount of water molecules inside the crystal, revealed by both molecule dynamics simulation and experiment observation. With more water molecules inside, iodine molecules choose to stay in the standing mode, while with less water molecules, iodine molecules prefer to lie along the channel. Therefore, the configurations of molecules could be precisely controlled, globally by the surrounding pressure and temperature, and locally by the laser light. Ii is believed that this easy and reversible control of single molecule will be valuable in nanostructured devices, such as molecular sieving or molecular detection. Secondly, for 1D case, the PL spectrum of ZnO nanowire under uniaxial strain is studied. When a ZnO nanowire is bent, besides the lattice constant induced bandgap change on the tensile and compressive sides, there is a piezoelectric field generated along the cross section. This piezoelectric potential, together with the bandgap changes induced by the deformation, will redistribute the electrons excited by incident photons from valence band to conduction band. As a result, the electrons occupying the states at the tensile side will largely outnumbered the ones at the compressive side. Therefore, the PL spectrum we collected at the whole cross section will manifest a redshift, other than the peak

  9. Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes. (United States)

    Pol, Chetan A; Ghige, Suvarna K; Gosavi, Suchitra R; Hazarey, Vinay K


    Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C-400°C-600°C-800°C-1000°C) on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics.

  10. Adhesion of Dental Materials to Tooth Structure (United States)

    Mitra, Sumita B.


    The understanding and proper application of the principles of adhesion has brought forth a new paradigm in the realm of esthetic dentistry. Modern restorative tooth procedures can now conserve the remaining tooth-structure and also provide for the strengthening of the tooth. Adhesive restorative techniques call for the application and curing of the dental adhesive at the interface between the tooth tissue and the filling material. Hence the success of the restoration depends largely on the integrity of this interface. The mechanism of adhesion of the bonding materials to the dental hard tissue will be discussed in this paper. There are four main steps that occur during the application of the dental adhesive to the oral hard tissues: 1) The first step is the creation of a microstructure in the tooth enamel or dentin by means of an acidic material. This can be through the application of a separate etchant or can be accomplished in situ by the adhesive/primer. This agent has to be effective in removing or modifying the proteinaceous “smear” layer, which would otherwise act as a weak boundary layer on the surface to be bonded. 2) The primer/adhesive must then be able to wet and penetrate the microstructure created in the tooth. Since the surface energies of etched enamel and that of etched dentin are different finding one material to prime both types of dental tissues can be quite challenging. 3) The ionomer types of materials, particularly those that are carboxylate ion-containing, can chemically bond with the calcium ions of the hydroxyapatite mineral. 4) Polymerization in situ allows for micromechanical interlocking of the adhesive. The importance of having the right mechanical properties of the cured adhesive layer and its role in absorbing and dissipating stresses encountered by a restored tooth will also be discussed.

  11. Materials for the scavenging of hydrogen at high temperatures (United States)

    Shepodd, T.J.; Phillip, B.L.


    A hydrogen getter composition is described comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluoropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases. 7 figs.

  12. Thermal-Structures and Materials Testing Laboratory (United States)

    Teate, Anthony A.


    Since its inception and successful implementation in 1997 at James Madison University, the Thermal Structures and Materials Testing Laboratory (T-SaMTL) funded by the NASA Langley Research Center is evolving into one of the University's premier and exemplary efforts to increase minority representation in the sciences and mathematics. Serving ten (10) students and faculty directly and almost fifty (50) students indirectly, T-SAMTL, through its recruitment efforts, workshops, mentoring program, tutorial services and its research and computational laboratories has marked the completion of the first year with support from NASA totaling $ 100,000. Beginning as an innovative academic research and mentoring program for underrepresented minority science and mathematics students, the program now boasts a constituency which consists of 50% graduating seniors in the spring of 1998 with 50% planning to go to graduate school. The program's intent is to increase the number of underrepresented minorities who receive doctoral degrees in the sciences by initiating an academically enriched research program aimed at strengthening the academic and self actualization skills of undergraduate students with the potential to pursue doctoral study in the sciences. The program provides financial assistance, academic enrichment, and professional and personal development support for minority students who demonstrate the potential and strong desire to pursue careers in the sciences and mathematics. James Madison University was awarded the first $100,000, in April 1997, by The NASA Langley Research Center for establishment and support of its Thermal Structures and Materials Testing

  13. Fast Detection of Material Deformation through Structural Dissimilarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Parkinson, Dilworth


    Designing materials that are resistant to extreme temperatures and brittleness relies on assessing structural dynamics of samples. Algorithms are critically important to characterize material deformation under stress conditions. Here, we report on our design of coarse-grain parallel algorithms for image quality assessment based on structural information and on crack detection of gigabyte-scale experimental datasets. We show how key steps can be decomposed into distinct processing flows, one based on structural similarity (SSIM) quality measure, and another on spectral content. These algorithms act upon image blocks that fit into memory, and can execute independently. We discuss the scientific relevance of the problem, key developments, and decomposition of complementary tasks into separate executions. We show how to apply SSIM to detect material degradation, and illustrate how this metric can be allied to spectral analysis for structure probing, while using tiled multi-resolution pyramids stored in HDF5 chunked multi-dimensional arrays. Results show that the proposed experimental data representation supports an average compression rate of 10X, and data compression scales linearly with the data size. We also illustrate how to correlate SSIM to crack formation, and how to use our numerical schemes to enable fast detection of deformation from 3D datasets evolving in time.

  14. Embrittlement and Flow Localization in Reactor Structural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xianglin Wu; Xiao Pan; James Stubbins


    Many reactor components and structural members are made from metal alloys due, in large part, to their strength and ability to resist brittle fracture by plastic deformation. However, brittle fracture can occur when structural material cannot undergo extensive, or even limited, plastic deformation due to irradiation exposure. Certain irradiation conditions lead to the development of a damage microstructure where plastic flow is limited to very small volumes or regions of material, as opposed to the general plastic flow in unexposed materials. This process is referred to as flow localization or plastic instability. The true stress at the onset of necking is a constant regardless of the irradiation level. It is called 'critical stress' and this critical stress has strong temperature dependence. Interrupted tensile testes of 316L SS have been performed to investigate the microstructure evolution and competing mechanism between mechanic twinning and planar slip which are believed to be the controlling mechanism for flow localization. Deformation twinning is the major contribution of strain hardening and good ductility for low temperatures, and the activation of twinning system is determined by the critical twinning stress. Phases transform and texture analyses are also discussed in this study. Finite element analysis is carried out to complement the microstructural analysis and for the prediction of materaials performance with and without stress concentration and irradiation.

  15. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (ORNL)


    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP

  16. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik


    Different types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high...... to corrosion under strong anodic polarisation. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance in the simulated PEM electrolyser medium. In particular, Inconel 625 was the most promising among the tested corrosion-resistant alloys for the anodic compartment in high temperature steam electrolysis...

  17. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID


    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  18. Ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive for piezoelectric composite material (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liao, Qingwei; Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Zhong, Chao; Zhang, Di


    Limited by the low thermal resistance of composite material, ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive with curing temperature less than 100 °C needed urgently for the surface conduction treatment of piezoelectric composite material. An ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive with high adhesion strength for the applications of piezoelectric composite material was investigated. The crystal structure of cured adhesive, SEM/EDS analysis, thermal analysis, adhesive properties and conductive properties of different content of nano-silver filler or micron-silver doping samples were studied. The results show that with 60 wt.% nano-silver filler the ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive had the relatively good conductivity as volume resistivity of 2.37 × 10-4 Ω cm, and good adhesion strength of 5.13 MPa. Minor micron-doping (below 15 wt.%) could improve conductivity, but would decrease other properties. The ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive could successfully applied to piezoelectric composite material.

  19. Structure Prediction for Multicomponent Materials Using Biminima (United States)

    Schebarchov, D.; Wales, D. J.


    The potential energy surface of a heteroparticle system will contain points that are local minima in both coordinate space and permutation space for the different species. We introduce the term biminima to describe these special points, and we formulate a deterministic scheme for finding them. Our search algorithm generates a converging sequence of particle-identity swaps, each accompanied by a number of local geometry relaxations. For selected binary atomic clusters of size N=NA+NB≤98, convergence to a biminimum on average takes 3NANB relaxations, and the number of biminima grows with the preference for mixing. The new framework unifies continuous and combinatorial optimization, providing a powerful tool for structure prediction and rational design of multicomponent materials.

  20. Integrated Thermal Structures and Materials Overview (United States)

    Jensen, Brian


    The accomplishments of the project this viewgraph presentation summarizes (integrated thermal structures and materials) include the following: (1) Langley Research Center prepared five resins with Tgs as high as 625 F, less than 1% volatiles, moderate toughness, and low melt viscosity and sent to Boeing or Lockheed Martin; (2) Glenn Research Center prepared four resins with Tgs as high as 700 F, less than 10% volatiles, and low melt viscosity and sent to Boeing; (3) Boeing successfully fabricated 2'x2'x36 ply composites by resin infusion of stitched preforms from all NASA supplied resins; and (4) Lockheed Martin successfully fabricated 13"x14"x16 ply composites by resin transfer molding from all NASA supplied resins.

  1. A finite element technique for non-deterministic thermal deformation analyses including temperature dependent material properties (United States)

    Case, W. R., Jr.; Walston, W. H., Jr.


    A technique utilizing the finite element displacement method is developed for the static analysis of structures subjected to non-deterministic thermal loading in which the material properties, assumed isotropic, are temperature dependent. Matrix equations are developed for the first two statistical moments of the displacements using a third order series expansion for the displacements in terms of the random temperatures. Sample problems are included to demonstrate the range of applicability of the third order series solutions. These solutions are compared with results from Monte Carlo analyses and also, for some problems, with solutions obtained by numerically integrating equations for the statistical properties of the displacements. In general, it is shown that the effect of temperature dependent material properties can have a significant effect on the covariances of the displacements.

  2. Mechanics and properties of composed materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Altenbach, Holm


    This volume details the latest trends in characterization and developments of composed materials and structures, including textile composites, sandwich plates, hollow sphere structures, reinforced concrete as well as classical fibre reinforced materials.

  3. Boundary film for structural ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A.


    Structural ceramic materials, like metals, will require lubrication if they are to be used extensively for tribological applications. The use of thin soft metallic coatings (specifically Ag) as a boundary film during mineral oil lubrication of silicon nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) and zirconia (ZrO[sub 2]) ceramic materials was investigated in this study. With a pin-on-flat contact configuration in reciprocating sliding, the steady friction coefficient was reduced by a factor of 2 (0.14 [minus]0.16 vs. 0.06--0.07) when the flats were coated with Ag. Also, with Ag coatings the wear of pins was reduced to an unmeasurable level, whereas, in the absence of Ag coatings specific wear rates of [approx]2 [times] 10[sup [minus]9] -- 4 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] mm[sup 3]/Nm and [approx]7 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] -- 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] mm[sup 3]/Nm were measured for Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] and ZrO[sub 2] pins respectively. In addition to preventing direct contact between pins and flats, thereby reducing wear, the Ag coatings also act as a solid lubricant, help dissipate flash heating, and accelerate modification of the [lambda] ratio.

  4. Boundary film for structural ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A.


    Structural ceramic materials, like metals, will require lubrication if they are to be used extensively for tribological applications. The use of thin soft metallic coatings (specifically Ag) as a boundary film during mineral oil lubrication of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) ceramic materials was investigated in this study. With a pin-on-flat contact configuration in reciprocating sliding, the steady friction coefficient was reduced by a factor of 2 (0.14 {minus}0.16 vs. 0.06--0.07) when the flats were coated with Ag. Also, with Ag coatings the wear of pins was reduced to an unmeasurable level, whereas, in the absence of Ag coatings specific wear rates of {approx}2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} -- 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} mm{sup 3}/Nm and {approx}7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} -- 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mm{sup 3}/Nm were measured for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} pins respectively. In addition to preventing direct contact between pins and flats, thereby reducing wear, the Ag coatings also act as a solid lubricant, help dissipate flash heating, and accelerate modification of the {lambda} ratio.

  5. Comparison of Measurements of Internal Temperatures in Ablation Material by Various Thermocouple Configurations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dow, Marvin


    .... The measurement of internal temperatures in materials with low values of thermal conductivity subjected to severe heating by thermocouples requires that the thermocouple produce a minimum temperature...

  6. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncé, S., E-mail:; Gillet, Y.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gonze, X. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Chemin des étoiles 8, bte L07.03.01, B-1348 Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Marini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Salaria Km 29.3, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Verstraete, M. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Physique des matériaux et nanostructures, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, B-4000 Liège (Belgium)


    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure.

  7. Electronic Structure of the Bismuth Family of High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Lisa


    High temperature superconductivity remains the central intellectual problem in condensed matter physics fifteen years after its discovery. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) directly probes the electronic structure, and has played an important role in the field of high temperature superconductors. With the recent advances in sample growth and the photoemission technique, we are able to study the electronic structure in great detail, and address regimes that were previously inaccessible. This thesis work contains systematic photoemission studies of the electronic structure of the Bi-family of high temperature superconductors, which include the single-layer system (Bi2201), the bi-layer system (Bi2212), and the tri-layer system (Bi2223). We show that, unlike conventional BCS superconductors, phase coherence information emerges in the single particle excitation spectrum of high temperature superconductors as the superconducting peak in Bi2212. The universality and various properties of this superconducting peak are studied in various systems. We argue that the origin of the superconducting peak may provide the key to understanding the mechanism of High-Tc superconductors. In addition, we identified a new experimental energy scale in the bilayer material, the anisotropic intra-bilayer coupling energy. For a long time, it was predicted that this energy scale would cause bilayer band splitting. We observe this phenomenon, for the first time, in heavily overdoped Bi2212. This new observation requires the revision of the previous picture of the electronic excitation in the Brillouin zone boundary. As the first ARPES study of a trilayer system, various detailed electronic proper- ties of Bi2223 are examined. We show that, comparing with Bi2212, both superconducting gap and relative superconducting peak intensity become larger in Bi2223, however, the strength of the interlayer coupling within each unit cell is possibly weaker. These results suggest that the

  8. Applications of smart materials in structural engineering. (United States)


    With the development of materials and technology, many new materials find their applications in civil engineering to deal with the deteriorating infrastructure. Smart material is a promising example that deserves a wide focus, from research to applic...

  9. Energetic Materials and Atomic Force Microscopy: Structure and Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, B.L.; Weese, R.K.; Zaug, J.M.


    Understanding the structure and composition of energetic materials at the sub-micron level is imperative for the fundamental studies of hot-spot formation and structural composition of energetic materials. Using in situ high-temperature AFM we have observed the solid-solid phase transition of Octahydro-1,3,5,7,-tetrazocine, HMX, in real time. Massive surface reconstruction occurs during the 1st-order transition. The temperature induced increase in void space and surface roughness observed in the delta phase polymorph of HMX serve to increase the growth rate and volume of shock initiated hot spots and possibly reaction sensitivity. HMX exists in four solid phase polymorphs, labeled {alpha}, {beta}, {chi}, and {delta}. The phase conversion of the {beta} phase to the {delta} phase involves a major disruption of the crystal lattice. The energy required to bring about this change is a measurable quantity. Multiple thermal analysis techniques carried out simultaneously are preferable because the results are directly comparable. Thermal methods are dynamic techniques, where heating or cooling is applied to a sample, unless isothermal conditions are employed. Thermogravimetic Analysis, TGA, can be used to quantify decomposition components in a substance while Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, can be used to measure the heat flow or the specific heat capacity, with respect to time and temperature. The advantage of TGA/DTA analysis is that the measurement of weight loss and heat flow are taken simultaneously and the observed events are directly related with respect to time and temperature. TGA/DTA experiments were performed to help us take a different look at the chemical nature of HMX and aid us in understanding the void formation process.

  10. AMSAHTS 1990: Advances in Materials Science and Applications of High Temperature Superconductors (United States)

    Bennett, Larry H. (Editor); Flom, Yury (Editor); Moorjani, Kishin (Editor)


    This publication is comprised of abstracts for oral and poster presentations scheduled for AMSAHTS '90. The conference focused on understanding high temperature superconductivity with special emphasis on materials issues and applications. AMSAHTS 90, highlighted the state of the art in fundamental understanding of the nature of high-Tc superconductivity (HTSC) as well as the chemistry, structure, properties, processing and stability of HTSC oxides. As a special feature of the conference, space applications of HTSC were discussed by NASA and Navy specialists.

  11. Corrosion of structural materials by lead-based reactor coolants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, D. P.; Leibowitz, L.; Maroni, V. A.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Raraz, A. G.


    Advanced nuclear reactor design has, in recent years, focused increasingly on the use of heavy-liquid-metal coolants, such as lead and lead-bismuth eutectic. Similarly, programs on accelerator-based transmutation systems have also considered the use of such coolants. Russian experience with heavy-metal coolants for nuclear reactors has lent credence to the validity of this approach. Of significant concern is the compatibility of structural materials with these coolants. We have used a thermal convection-based test method to allow exposure of candidate materials to molten lead and lead-bismuth flowing under a temperature gradient. The gradient was deemed essential in evaluating the behavior of the test materials in that should preferential dissolution of components of the test material occur we would expect dissolution in the hotter regions and deposition in the colder regions, thus promoting material transport. Results from the interactions of a Si-rich mild steel alloy, AISI S5, and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel, HT-9, with the molten lead-bismuth are presented.

  12. High Temperature Structures With Inherent Protection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The hot structures for current space vehicles require an atmospheric entry thermal protection system. Reusable hot structures that can function without requiring any...

  13. Mechanical and materials engineering of modern structure and component design

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm


    This book presents the latest findings on mechanical and materials engineering as applied to the design of modern engineering materials and components. The contributions cover the classical fields of mechanical, civil and materials engineering, as well as bioengineering and advanced materials processing and optimization. The materials and structures discussed can be categorized into modern steels, aluminium and titanium alloys, polymers/composite materials, biological and natural materials, material hybrids and modern nano-based materials. Analytical modelling, numerical simulation, state-of-the-art design tools and advanced experimental techniques are applied to characterize the materials’ performance and to design and optimize structures in different fields of engineering applications.

  14. Temperature dependence of the elastic constant of Borassus Flabellifier 'BF' material by acoustic response (United States)

    Phadke, Sushil; Dshrivastava, B.; Dagaonkar, N.; Mishra, Ashutosh


    The homogeneous continuous materials are widely used for many structural applications. Migrations of atoms or molecules are the mechanism of mechanical and kinetic processes in materials for their synthesis processing as well as for their structural evolutions. The elastic constant of solids provides valuable information on their mechanical and dynamical properties. In particular, they provide information on the stability and stiffness of materials. In the present study author investigated relation between elastic constant and temperature in Borassus Flabellifier 'BF' wood part. Determination of elastic properties of material is based on the longitudinal wave's velocities via ultrasonic methods. The resonant frequencies of the specimens were measured by Ultrasonic Interferometer (for solids) dual frequency using longitudinal cubic piezoelectric crystal of quartz of frequency 123.62 KHz. The temperature variations from room temperature were done by PID control unit, Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India. Characterization of the samples was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM) Model JEOL JSM5400 at 5.0kvx750, 10 μm.

  15. Effect of calcination temperature on the structure and visible-light photocatalytic activities of (N, S and C) co-doped TiO{sub 2} nano-materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, X.F., E-mail: [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Institute of Metallurgical Resource and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Metallurgical Resource Recycling Science, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Engineering and Technology Research Center of Boron Resource, Comprehensive Utilization, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Provincial Universities Key Laboratory of Boron Resource Ecological, Utilization Technology and Boron Materials, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xue, X.X.; Yang, H. [Institute of Metallurgical Resource and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Metallurgical Resource Recycling Science, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Engineering and Technology Research Center of Boron Resource, Comprehensive Utilization, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Provincial Universities Key Laboratory of Boron Resource Ecological, Utilization Technology and Boron Materials, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chen, C.; Li, X.; Niu, M.C.; Gao, X.Y.; Yang, Y.T. [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)


    Graphical abstract: (N, S and C) co-doped TiO{sub 2} samples show good photocatalytic activity for Cr(VI) reduction under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • (N, S and C) co-doping in TiO{sub 2} can preserve the anatase form to higher temperature. • (N, S and C) co-doped TiO{sub 2} samples can absorb both UV and visible light. • The band gap energy of the sample significantly reduced after (N, S and C) co-doping. • (N, S and C) co-doped TiO{sub 2} samples effective for visible light induced reduction of Cr(VI). - Abstract: The (N, S and C) co-doped TiO{sub 2} samples (NSC-TiO{sub 2}) were synthesized by the sol–gel method combining with the high energy ball milling method calcined at the different temperature (400–700 °C), employing butyl titanate as the titanium source and thiourea as the doping agent. The structures of NSC-TiO{sub 2} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities were checked through the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) as a model compound under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the (N, S and C) co-doping and the calcination temperature played important role on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the samples. According to XPS spectra, sulfur was mainly attributed to the Ti−O−S bond; nitrogen was ascribed to the Ti−O−N and Ti−N bonds; carbon was assigned to the Ti−O−C bond in the NSC-TiO{sub 2} samples. (N, S and C) co-doped TiO{sub 2} samples calcinated at 500 °C exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than that of the other samples under visible light irradiation, which can be

  16. Nano-structured TiO2 film fabricated at room temperature and its acoustic properties (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Cao, Wenwu; Jiang, Bei; Zhang, D S; Zheng, H; Zhou, Q; Shung, K K


    Nano-structured TiO2 thin film has been successfully fabricated at room temperature. Using a quarter wavelength characterization method, we have measured the acoustic impedance of this porous film, which can be adjusted from 5.3 to 7.19 Mrayl by curing it at different temperatures. The uniform microstructure and easy fabrication at room temperature make this material an excellent candidate for matching layers of ultra-high frequency ultrasonic imaging transducers. PMID:19672322


    The objective of the study was to evaluate several low-temperature characteristics of Challenge 5100, a new protective clothing material developed by Chemical Fabrics Corporation. The low temperature characteristics of three other protective clothing materials were also evaluated...

  18. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey


    Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...... proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). All samples were exposed to anodic polarisation in 85% phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Platinum and gold plates were tested for the valid comparison. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy...... and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results show that stainless steels are the most inclined to corrosion under high anodic polarization. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance under conditions, simulating HTPEMWE. In particular, Inconel625 is the most promising alloy...

  19. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)


    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux

  20. Low temperature magnetic structure of MnSe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we report low temperature neutron diffraction studies on MnSe in order to understand the anomalous behaviour of their magnetic and transport prop- erties. Our study indicates that at low temperatures MnSe has two coexisting crystal structures, high temperature NaCl and hexagonal NiAs. NiAs phase ...

  1. Temperature dependence of the magnetization of canted spin structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Henrik; Lefmann, Kim; Brok, Erik


    for the temperature dependence of the magnetization of a simple canted spin structure in which relaxation can take place at finite temperatures between spin configurations with different canting angles. We show that the saturation magnetization may either decrease or increase with decreasing temperature, depending...

  2. Recommended reference materials for realization of physicochemical properties pressure-volume-temperature relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Herington, E F G


    Recommended Reference Materials for Realization of Physicochemical Properties presents recommendations of reference materials for use in measurements involving physicochemical properties, namely, vapor pressure; liquid-vapor critical temperature and critical pressure; orthobaric volumes of liquid and vapor; pressure-volume-temperature properties of the unsaturated vapor or gas; and pressure-volume-temperature properties of the compressed liquid. This monograph focuses on reference materials for vapor pressures at temperatures up to 770 K, as well as critical temperatures and critical pressures

  3. Measurements on insulating materials at cryogenic temperatures. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Progress made to date on developing instrumentation and measurement methodology for studying high-voltage dielectric losses at cryogenic temperatures is detailed. The work described has been done in support of ERDA-funded ac superconducting transmission line projects at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the Linde Division of the Union Carbide Corporation (UCC-Linde). Dissipation factor measurements have been made at a temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K and at stresses up to 40 kV/mm. Care has been taken to insure that errors in dissipation factor measurements are less than +-1 x 10/sup -6/. Sample dielectrics have included polymer tapes of interest to BNL and epoxy spacer material of interest to UCC-Linde. When dissipation factor measurements are made at high voltage, losses at sample interfaces become important. Flexible superconducting cables are designed to have many layers of coaxially wound plastic tape serving as the insulation. The spaces between tape layers will be impregnated with helium at pressures up to 1.5 MPa. Plans to investigate high-voltage dielectric losses under these conditions are discussed including a technique for measuring partial discharges using pulse-height analysis.

  4. Improved Creep Measurements for Ultra-High Temperature Materials (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Ye, X.; Rogers, Jan R.


    Our team has developed a novel approach to measuring creep at extremely high temperatures using electrostatic levitation (ESL). This method has been demonstrated on niobium up to 2300 C, while ESL has melted tungsten (3400 C). This method has been extended to lower temperatures and higher stresses and applied to new materials, including a niobium-based superalloy, MASC. High-precision machined spheres of the sample are levitated in the NASA MSFC ESL, a national user facility and heated with a laser. The samples are rotated with an induction motor at up to 30,000 revolutions per second. The rapid rotation loads the sample through centripetal acceleration, producing a shear stress of about 60 MPa at the center, causing the sample to deform. The deformation of the sample is captured on high-speed video, which is analyzed by machine-vision software from the University of Massachusetts. The deformations are compared to finite element models to determine the constitutive constants in the creep relation. Furthermore, the non-contact method exploits stress gradients within the sample to determine the stress exponent in a single test.

  5. Materials, structures, and devices for high-speed electronics (United States)

    Woollam, John A.; Snyder, Paul G.


    Advances in materials, devices, and instrumentation made under this grant began with ex-situ null ellipsometric measurements of simple dielectric films on bulk substrates. Today highly automated and rapid spectroscopic ellipsometers are used for ex-situ characterization of very complex multilayer epitaxial structures. Even more impressive is the in-situ capability, not only for characterization but also for the actual control of the growth and etching of epitaxial layers. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has expanded from the research lab to become an integral part of the production of materials and structures for state of the art high speed devices. Along the way, it has contributed much to our understanding of the growth characteristics and material properties. The following areas of research are summarized: Si3N4 on GaAs, null ellipsometry; diamondlike carbon films; variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) development; GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures; Ta-Cu diffusion barrier films on GaAs; GaAs-AlGaAs superlattices and multiple quantum wells; superconductivity; in situ elevated temperature measurements of III-V's; optical constants of thermodynamically stable InGaAs; doping dependence of optical constants of GaAs; in situ ellipsometric studies of III-V epitaxial growth; photothermal spectroscopy; microellipsometry; and Si passivation and Si/SiGe strained-layer superlattices.

  6. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan J. Jacobson


    Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study were perovskite oxides based on substituted LaFeO{sub 3} (P1 compositions), where significant data in single cell tests exist at PNNL for example, for La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ. The materials selection was then extended to La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions (K1 compositions), and then in a longer range task we evaluated the possibility of completely unexplored group of materials that are also perovskite related, the ABM{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}. A key component of the research strategy was to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. In the initial phase, we did this in parallel with

  7. Model of the magnetization of nanocrystalline materials at low temperatures (United States)

    Bian, Q.; Niewczas, M.


    A theoretical model incorporating the material texture has been developed to simulate the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline materials at low temperatures where the effect of thermal energy on magnetization is neglected. The method is based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) theory and it describes the magnetization dynamics of individual grains in the effective field. The modified LLG equation incorporates the intrinsic fields from the intragrain magnetocrystalline and grain boundary anisotropies and the interacting fields from intergrain dipolar and exchange couplings between the neighbouring grains. The model is applied to study magnetic properties of textured nanocrystalline Ni samples at 2K and is capable to reproduce closely the hysteresis loop behaviour at different orientations of applied magnetic field. Nanocrystalline Ni shows the grain boundary anisotropy constant K 1 s = - 6.0 × 104 J / m 3 and the intergrain exchange coupling denoted by the effective exchange constant Ap = 2.16 × 10-11 J/m. Analytical expressions to estimate the intergrain exchange energy density and the effective exchange constant have been formulated.

  8. The Development of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Additive Manufactured Autoclave Tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    In this work, ORNL and Techmer investigated and screened different high temperature thermoplastic reinforced materials to fabricate composite molds for autoclave processes using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. This project directly led to the development and commercial release of two printable, high temperature composite materials available through Techmer PM. These new materials are targeted for high temperature tooling made via large scale additive manufacturing.

  9. Current and temperature structure of Rihand Lake

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Swamy, G.N.; Sadhuram, Y.

    The environmental parameters such as wind, water and air temperatures, and currents were measured in Rihand Lake, Madhya Pradesh, India during the hotest months, May-June of 1983. Rihand is an artificial lake having an area of 300 km super(2...

  10. Status of LWR primary pressure boundary structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Se Hwan; Hong, Jun Hwa; Byun, Taek Sang; Kang, Sung Sik; Ryu, Woo Seog; Lee, Bong Sang; Kook, Il Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The integrity of major systems, structures and components is a prerequisite to the economy and safety of an existing light water reactor and also for the next generation reactors. As few reactor structural materials are being manufactured by domestic companies, based on economic and safety reasons, a new demand to improve the quality of domestic reactor structural materials and to develop reactor structural steels has arisen. Investigations on the state-of-the-art of the materials specifications, performance and current state of structural materials development were performed as a first step to domestic reactor structural steel development and summarized the result in the present report. (Author) 10 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Reversible Hydrogen Storage MaterialsStructure, Chemistry, and Electronic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Ian M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Johnson, Duane D. [Ames Lab., Iowa


    To understand the processes involved in the uptake and release of hydrogen from candidate light-weight metal hydride storage systems, a combination of materials characterization techniques and first principle calculation methods have been employed. In addition to conventional microstructural characterization in the transmission electron microscope, which provides projected information about the through thickness microstructure, electron tomography methods were employed to determine the three-dimensional spatial distribution of catalyst species for select systems both before and after dehydrogenation. Catalyst species identification as well as compositional analysis of the storage material before and after hydrogen charging and discharging was performed using a combination of energy dispersive spectroscopy, EDS, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS. The characterization effort was coupled with first-principles, electronic-structure and thermodynamic techniques to predict and assess meta-stable and stable phases, reaction pathways, and thermodynamic and kinetic barriers. Systems studied included:NaAlH4, CaH2/CaB6 and Ca(BH4)2, MgH2/MgB2, Ni-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, TiH2-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, LiBH4, Aluminum-based systems and Aluminum

  12. Laser Materials Processing for NASA's Aerospace Structural Materials (United States)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Hunyady, Thomas A.


    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, and surface treatment. Due to the multifunctional nature of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed, these attributes are attractive in order to support long-term missions in space. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications. Specifically, size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials are all concerns. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in solidstate laser (e.g., diode-pumped lasers) and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques in space has increased significantly. A review of the historical development of lasers from their infancy to the present will be used to show how these issues may be addressed. The review will also indicate where further development is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. Both short- and long-term space missions will benefit from the development of a universal laser-based tool with low power consumption, improved process flexibility, compactness (e.g., miniaturization), robustness, and automation for maximum utility with a minimum of human interaction. The potential advantages of using lasers with suitable wavelength and beam properties for future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will be discussed. The laser processing experiments in the present report were performed using a diode pumped, pulsed/continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (50 W max average laser power), with a 1064 nm wavelength. The processed materials included Ti-6AI-4V, Al-2219 and Al-2090. For Phase I of this project, the laser process conditions were varied and optimized

  13. Thin film materials and devices for resistive temperature sensing applications (United States)

    Basantani, Hitesh A.

    Thin films of vanadium oxide (VOx) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are the two dominant material systems used in resistive infrared radiation detectors (microbolometers) for sensing long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths in the 8--14 microm range. Typical thin films of VO x (x films of hydrogenated germanium (SiGe:H) have |TCR| between 3%/K to 4%/K. Devices made from either of these materials have resulted in similar device performance with NETD ≈ 25 mK. The performance of the microbolometers is limited by the electronic noise, especially 1/f noise. Therefore, regardless of the choice of bolometer sensing material and read out circuitry, manufacturers are constantly striving to reduce 1/f noise while simultaneously increasing TCR to give better signal to noise ratios in their bolometers and ultimately, better image quality with more thermal information to the end user. In this work, thin films of VOx and hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H), having TCR values > 4 %/K are investigated as potential candidates for higher sensitivity next generation of microbolometers. Thin films of VO x were deposited by Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) (˜85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivity ranging from 104 O--cm to 2.1 x 104 O--cm, TCR varying from --4%/K to --5%/K, normalized Hooge parameter (alphaH/n) of 5 x 10 -21 to 5 x 10-18 cm3. Thin films of Ge:H were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by incorporating an increasing amount of crystal fraction in the growing thin films. Thin films of Ge:H having a mixed phase, amorphous + nanocrystalline, having a |TCR| > 6 %/K were deposited with resistivity Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials have higher resistivity and therefore unacceptable large electrical resistance in a lateral resistor configuration. This work looks at an alternate bolometer device design which incorporates higher TCR materials in a vertically


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Laminated structure is becoming more popular in cookware markets; however, there seems to be a lack of enough scientific studies to evaluate its pros and cons, and to show that how it functions. A numerical model using a finite element method with temperature-dependent material properties has been performed to investigate material and layer dependence of temperature distribution in multi-layer multi-metal plate exposed to irregular heating. Behavior of two parameters including mean temperature value and uniformity on the inner surface of plate under variations of thermal properties and geometrical conditions have been studied. The results indicate that conductive metals used as first layer in bi-layer plates have better thermal performance than those used in the second layer. In addition, since cookware manufacturers increasingly prefer to use all-clad aluminium plate, recently, this structure is analysed in the present study as well. The results show all-clad copper and aluminum plate possesses lower temperature gradient compared with single layer aluminum and all-clad aluminum core plates.

  15. Manganese mono-boride, an inexpensive room temperature ferromagnetic hard material (United States)

    Ma, Shuailing; Bao, Kuo; Tao, Qiang; Zhu, Pinwen; Ma, Teng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yazhou; Cui, Tian


    We synthesized orthorhombic FeB-type MnB (space group: Pnma) with high pressure and high temperature method. MnB is a promising soft magnetic material, which is ferromagnetic with Curie temperature as high as 546.3 K, and high magnetization value up to 155.5 emu/g, and comparatively low coercive field. The strong room temperature ferromagnetic properties stem from the positive exchange-correlation between manganese atoms and the large number of unpaired Mn 3d electrons. The asymptotic Vickers hardness (AVH) is 15.7 GPa which is far higher than that of traditional ferromagnetic materials. The high hardness is ascribed to the zigzag boron chains running through manganese lattice, as unraveled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result and first principle calculations. This exploration opens a new class of materials with the integration of superior mechanical properties, lower cost, electrical conductivity, and fantastic soft magnetic properties which will be significant for scientific research and industrial application as advanced structural and functional materials.

  16. Manganese mono-boride, an inexpensive room temperature ferromagnetic hard material. (United States)

    Ma, Shuailing; Bao, Kuo; Tao, Qiang; Zhu, Pinwen; Ma, Teng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yazhou; Cui, Tian


    We synthesized orthorhombic FeB-type MnB (space group: Pnma) with high pressure and high temperature method. MnB is a promising soft magnetic material, which is ferromagnetic with Curie temperature as high as 546.3 K, and high magnetization value up to 155.5 emu/g, and comparatively low coercive field. The strong room temperature ferromagnetic properties stem from the positive exchange-correlation between manganese atoms and the large number of unpaired Mn 3d electrons. The asymptotic Vickers hardness (AVH) is 15.7 GPa which is far higher than that of traditional ferromagnetic materials. The high hardness is ascribed to the zigzag boron chains running through manganese lattice, as unraveled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result and first principle calculations. This exploration opens a new class of materials with the integration of superior mechanical properties, lower cost, electrical conductivity, and fantastic soft magnetic properties which will be significant for scientific research and industrial application as advanced structural and functional materials.

  17. Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Daniel E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Collaborative Biotechnologies


    New materials are needed to significantly improve the efficiencies of energy harnessing, transduction and storage, yet the synthesis of advanced composites and multi-metallic semiconductors with nanostructures optimized for these functions remains poorly understood and even less well controlled. To help address this need, we proposed three goals: (1) to further investigate the hierarchical structure of the biologically synthesized silica comprising the skeletal spicules of sponges that we discovered, to better resolve the role and mechanism of templating by the hierarchically assembled silicatein protein filament; (2) to extend our molecular and genetic analyses and engineering of silicatein, the self-assembling, structure-directing, silica-synthesizing enzyme we discovered and characterized, to better understand and manipulate the catalysis and templating of semiconductor synthesis,; and (3) to further investigate, scale up and harness the biologically inspired, low-temperature, kinetically controlled catalytic synthesis method we developed (based on the mechanism we discovered in silicatein) to investigate the kinetic control of the structure-function relationships in magnetic materials, and develop new materials for energy applications. The bio-inspired catalytic synthesis method we have developed is low-cost, low temperature, and operates without the use of polluting chemicals. In addition to direct applications for improvement of batteries and fuel cells, the broader impact of this research includes a deeper fundamental understanding of the factors governing kinetically controlled synthesis and its control of the emergent nanostructure and performance of a wide range of nanomaterials for energy applications.

  18. Probability based high temperature engineering creep and structural fire resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Razdolsky, Leo


    This volume on structural fire resistance is for aerospace, structural, and fire prevention engineers; architects, and educators. It bridges the gap between prescriptive- and performance-based methods and simplifies very complex and comprehensive computer analyses to the point that the structural fire resistance and high temperature creep deformations will have a simple, approximate analytical expression that can be used in structural analysis and design. The book emphasizes methods of the theory of engineering creep (stress-strain diagrams) and mathematical operations quite distinct from those of solid mechanics absent high-temperature creep deformations, in particular the classical theory of elasticity and structural engineering. Dr. Razdolsky’s previous books focused on methods of computing the ultimate structural design load to the different fire scenarios. The current work is devoted to the computing of the estimated ultimate resistance of the structure taking into account the effect of high temperatur...

  19. Electronic Structure, Localization and 5f Occupancy in Pu Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, John J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beaux, Miles F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Durakiewicz, Tomasz [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Kevin S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Eric D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobash, Paul H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The electronic structure of delta plutonium ({delta}-Pu) and plutonium compounds is investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results for {delta}-Pu show a small component of the valence electronic structure which might reasonably be associated with a 5f{sup 6} configuration. PES results for PuTe are used as an indication for the 5f{sup 6} configuration due to the presence of atomic multiplet structure. Temperature dependent PES data on {delta}-Pu indicate a narrow peak centered 20 meV below the Fermi energy and 100 meV wide. The first PES data for PuCoIn5 indicate a 5f electronic structure more localized than the 5fs in the closely related PuCoGa{sub 5}. There is support from the PES data for a description of Pu materials with an electronic configuration of 5f{sup 5} with some admixture of 5f{sup 6} as well as a localized/delocalized 5f{sup 5} description.

  20. Structure and thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, study of the thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials against significant grain growth is both scientific and technological interest. A sharp increase in grain size (to micron levels) during consolidation of nanocrystalline powders to obtain fully dense materials may consequently result in the loss of some unique ...

  1. Material, Structural Design of Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Stone and concrete are two materials generally used for the construction of rubble mound breakwaters. This paper deals with concrete only.......Stone and concrete are two materials generally used for the construction of rubble mound breakwaters. This paper deals with concrete only....

  2. Structured Piezoelectric Composites : Materials and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.


    The piezoelectric effect, which causes a material to generate a voltage when it deforms, is very suitable for making integrated sensors, and (micro-) generators. However, conventional piezoelectric materials are either brittle ceramics or certain polymers with a low thermal stability, which limits

  3. Composite materials application on FORMOSAT-5 remote sensing instrument structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chueh Kuo


    Full Text Available Composite material has been widely applied in space vehicle structures due to its light weight and designed stiffness modulus. Some special mechanical properties that cannot be changed in general metal materials, such as low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion and directional material stiffness can be artificially adjusted in composite materials to meet the user’s requirements. Space-qualified Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP composite materials are applied In the FORMOSAT-5 Remote Sensing (RSI structure because of its light weight and low CTE characteristics. The RSI structural elements include the primary mirror supporting plate, secondary mirror supporting ring, and supporting frame. These elements are designed, manufactured, and verified using composite materials to meet specifications. The structure manufacturing process, detailed material properties, and CFRP structural element validation methods are introduced in this paper.

  4. High temperature corrosion of separator materials for MCFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Tanimoto, Kazumi; Kojima, Toshikatsu [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others


    The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is one of promising high efficiency power generation devices with low emission. Molten carbonate used for its electrolyte plays an important role in MCFC. It separates between anode and cathode gas environment and provides ionic conductivity on MCFC operation. Stainless steel is conventionally used as separator/current collector materials in MCFC cathode environment. As corrosion of the components of MCFC caused by the electrolyte proceeds with the electrolyte consumption, the corrosion in the MCFC is related to its performance and life. To understand and inhibit the corrosion in the MCFC is important to realize MCFC power generation system. We have studied the effect of alkaline earth carbonate addition into carbonate on corrosion of type 316L stainless steel. In this paper, we describe the effect of the temperature on corrosion behavior of type 316L stainless steel with carbonate mixture, (Li{sub 0.62}K{sub 0.38}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, under the cathode environment in out-of-cell test.

  5. Microstructure characterization and magnetic properties of nano structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.C


    The present thesis deals with the unique microstructural properties and their novel magnetic properties of core-shell Ni-Ce nano composite particles, carbon encapsulated Fe, Co, and Ni nanoparticles and the nano crystallization behavior of typical ferromagnetic Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} ribbons. These properties have intensively been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy [eds.]; selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED), Ft-IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition, magnetic moments measurements at different temperatures and applied fields have been performed by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The present studies may provide the insights for the better understanding of the correlation between the unique microstructure and novel magnetic properties for several magnetic nano structured materials. (Author)

  6. Electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the high temperature crystal structures of GexSb2Te3+x (x=1,2,3) phase change material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.


    The crystal structures of GeSb2Te4, Ge2Sb2Te5, and Ge3Sb2Te6 were determined using electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The structure determined for the former two crystals deviates from the ones proposed in the literature. These crystal structures were

  7. Material with core-shell structure (United States)

    Luhrs, Claudia [Rio Rancho, NM; Richard, Monique N [Ann Arbor, MI; Dehne, Aaron [Maumee, OH; Phillips, Jonathan [Rio Rancho, NM; Stamm, Kimber L [Ann Arbor, MI; Fanson, Paul T [Brighton, MI


    Disclosed is a material having a composite particle, the composite particle including an outer shell and a core. The core is made from a lithium alloying material and the outer shell has an inner volume that is greater in size than the core of the lithium alloying material. In some instances, the outer mean diameter of the outer shell is less than 500 nanometers and the core occupies between 5 and 99% of the inner volume. In addition, the outer shell can have an average wall thickness of less than 100 nanometers.

  8. Computational Design of Ageless Structural Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crack initiation and propagation is a dominant failure mode for many materials and applications – usually managed via damage tolerance approaches." ...

  9. Dynamic time warping for temperature compensation in structural health monitoring (United States)

    Douglass, Alexander; Harley, Joel B.


    Guided wave structural health monitoring uses ultrasonic waves to identify changes in structures. To identify these changes, most guided wave methods require a pristine baseline measurement with which other measurements are compared. Damage signatures arise when there is a deviation between the baseline and the recorded measurement. However, temperature significantly complicates this analysis by creating misalignment between the baseline and measurements. This leads to false alarms of damage and significantly reduces the reliability of these systems. Several methods have been created to account for these temperature perturbations. Yet, most of these compensation methods fail in harsh, highly variable temperature conditions or require a prohibitive amount of prior data. In this paper, we use an algorithm known as dynamic time warping to compensate for temperature in these harsh conditions. We demonstrate that dynamic time warping is able to account for temperature variations whereas the more traditional baseline signal stretch method is unable to resolve damage under high temperature fluctuations.

  10. Temperature rise on dentin caused by temporary crown and fixed partial denture materials: influencing factors. (United States)

    Seelbach, Paul; Finger, Werner J; Ferger, Paul; Balkenhol, Markus


    Temporary crowns and fixed partial denture materials (t-c&b) generate exothermic heat during polymerization. The amount of temperature, reaching the pulp chamber, is dependent on the residual thickness of the prepared dentin as well as the volume of the t-c&b used. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both factors on the temperature rise at the pulpal dentin surface as well as in the bulk of the t-c&b during polymerization. Four t-c&bs (Luxatemp AM Plus, Protemp 3 Garant, Structur Premium, Trim) were used to fabricate flat cylindrical specimens (∅ 15.5mm) of different thicknesses (1, 2 and 4mm) using an over-impression placed on top of dentin discs (thickness 0.5, 1 and 2mm). Temperature was recorded at the pulpal dentin surface as well as inside the t-c&b (n=6). Data was subjected to parametric statistics (α=0.05). Peak temperatures inside the t-c&b varied between 37.0°C and 51.9°C and at the pulpal dentin side between 37.0°C and 50.6°C. The maximum temperatures registered depended significantly on the thickness of the dentin disc and t-c&b, respectively (ANOVA ptemperatures were reached 2-3 min after start of mixing (dimethacrylates) and 6 min (mono-methacrylate), respectively, whereas Trim exhibited significantly higher peak temperatures (ptemperature rise may become critical if the material is not cooled properly. Composite-based t-c&bs showed significant lower curing temperatures than Trim and should therefore be preferred in daily practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Micro-Test Structure for the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Metal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingying Ren


    Full Text Available An innovative micro-test structure for detecting the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC of metal materials is presented in this work. Throughout this method, a whole temperature sensing moveable structures are supported by four groups of cascaded chevrons beams and packed together. Thermal expansion of the metal material causes the deflection of the cascaded chevrons, which leads to the capacitance variation. By detecting the capacitance value at different temperatures, the TEC value of the metal materials can be calculated. A finite element model has been established to verify the relationship between the TEC of the material and the displacement of the structure on horizontal and vertical directions, thus a function of temperature for different values of TEC can be deduced. In order to verify the analytical model, a suspended-capacitive micro-test structure has been fabricated by MetalMUMPs process and tested in a climate chamber. Test results show that in the temperature range from 30 °C to 80 °C, the TEC of the test material is 13.4 × 10−6 °C−1 with a maximum relative error of 0.8% compared with the given curve of relationship between displacement and temperature.

  12. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan


    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  13. Properties of magnetocaloric materials with a distribution of Curie temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders


    The magnetocaloric properties of inhomogeneous ferromagnets that contain distributions of Curie temperatures are considered as a function of the width of such a distribution. Assuming a normal distribution of the Curie temperature, the average adiabatic temperature change, ΔTad, the isothermal...

  14. Composite materials application on FORMOSAT-5 remote sensing instrument structure


    Jen-Chueh Kuo; Heng-Chuan Hung; Mei-Yi Yang; Chia-Ray Chen; Jer Lin


    Composite material has been widely applied in space vehicle structures due to its light weight and designed stiffness modulus. Some special mechanical properties that cannot be changed in general metal materials, such as low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) and directional material stiffness can be artificially adjusted in composite materials to meet the userâs requirements. Space-qualified Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite materials are applied In the FORMOSAT-5 Remote S...

  15. The changing market for wood materials used in farm structures. (United States)

    David C. Baumgartner


    This reports describes the number, type, and size of farm structures built in a 17-state area during the years 1963-1965, together with information relating to the use and marketing of wood materials in such structures.

  16. 2nd Generation RLV Airframe Structures and Materials (United States)

    Johnson, Theodore F.


    The goals and objectives of the project summarized in this viewgraph presentation are the following: (1) Develop and demonstrate verified airframe and cryotank structural design and analysis technologies, including damage tolerance, safety, reliability, and residual strength technologies, robust nonlinear shell and cryotank analysis technologies, high-fidelity analysis and design technologies for local structural detail features and joints, and high-fidelity analysis technologies for sandwich structures; (2) Demonstrate low cost, robust materials and processing, including polymeric matrix composite (PMC) and metallic materials and processing, and refractory composite and metallic hot structures materials and processing; (3) Develop and demonstrate robust airframe structures and validated integrated airframe structural concepts, including low cost fabrication and joining, operations efficient designs and inspection techniques (non-destructive evaluation), scale-up and integrated thermal structure tests, and airframe structures IVHM; (4) Demonstrate low cost, robust repair techniques; and (5) Develop verified integrated airframe structural concepts, including integrated structural concepts.

  17. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures... temperatures for self-reactive materials. (a) General. When the § 172.101 table of this subchapter specifies... packagings meeting Packing Group I are not authorized. Self-reactive materials which require temperature...

  18. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials. When... constructed of carbon steel which is in elevated temperature material service is excepted from § 178.345-7(d...

  19. Multi-Material Design Optimization of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Christian Frier

    This PhD thesis entitled “Multi-Material Design Optimization of Composite Structures” addresses the design problem of choosing materials in an optimal manner under a resource constraint so as to maximize the integral stiffness of a structure under static loading conditions. In particular stiffness...... design of laminated composite structures is studied including the problem of orienting orthotropic material optimally. The approach taken in this work is to consider this multi-material design problem as a generalized topology optimization problem including multiple candidate materials with known...... properties. The modeling encompasses discrete orientationing of orthotropic materials, selection between different distinct materials as well as removal of material representing holes in the structure within a unified parametrization. The direct generalization of two-phase topology optimization to any number...

  20. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins


    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  1. Combustion and Plasma Synthesis of High-Temperature Materials (United States)

    Munir, Z. A.; Holt, J. B.


    KEYNOTE ADDRESS. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis: Twenty Years of Search and Findings (A. Merzhanov). SOLID-STATE COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS. Recent Progress in Combustion Synthesis of High-Performance Materials in Japan (M. Koizumi & Y. Miyamoto). Modeling and Numerical Computation of a Nonsteady SHS Process (A. Bayliss & B. Matkowsky). New Models of Quasiperiodic Burning in Combustion Synthesis (S. Margolis, et al.). Modeling of SHS Operations (V. Hlavacek, et al.). Combustion Theory for Sandwiches of Alloyable Materials (R. Armstrong & M. Koszykowski). Observations on the Combustion Reaction Between Thin Foils of Ni and Al (U. Anselmi-Tamburini & Z. Munir). Combustion Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (Y. Kaieda, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Nickel Aluminides (B. Rabin, et al.). Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of NiTi Intermetallics (H. Yi & J. Moore). Shock-Induced Chemical Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (S. Work, et al.). Advanced Ceramics Via SHS (T. DeAngelis & D. Weiss). In-Situ Formation of SiC and SiC-C Blocked Solids by Self-Combustion Synthesis (S. Ikeda, et al.). Powder Purity and Morphology Effects in Combustion-Synthesis Reactions (L. Kecskes, et al.). Simultaneous Synthesis and Densification of Ceramic Components Under Gas Pressure by SHS (Y. Miyamoto & M. Koizumi). The Use of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of High-Density Titanium Diboride (P. Zavitsanos, et al.). Metal--Ceramic Composite Pipes Produced by a Centrifugal-Thermit Process (O. Odawara). Simultaneous Combustion Synthesis and Densification of AIN (S. Dunmead, et al.). Fabrication of a Functionally Gradient Material by Using a Self-Propagating Reaction Process (N. Sata, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Oxide-Carbide Composites (L. Wang, et al.). Heterogeneous Reaction Mechanisms in the Si-C System Under Conditions of Solid Combustion (R. Pampuch, et al.). Experimental Modeling of Particle-Particle Interactions During SHS of TiB2 -Al2O3 (K. Logan

  2. Flow behaviour of autoclaved, 20% cold worked, Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube material in the temperature range of room temperature to 800 °C (United States)

    Dureja, A. K.; Sinha, S. K.; Srivastava, Ankit; Sinha, R. K.; Chakravartty, J. K.; Seshu, P.; Pawaskar, D. N.


    Pressure tube material of Indian Heavy Water Reactors is 20% cold-worked and stress relieved Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Inherent variability in the process parameters during the fabrication stages of pressure tube and also along the length of component have their effect on micro-structural and texture properties of the material, which in turn affect its strength parameters (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength) and flow characteristics. Data of tensile tests carried out in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 °C using the samples taken out from a single pressure tube have been used to develop correlations for characterizing the strength parameters' variation as a function of axial location along length of the tube and the test temperature. Applicability of Ramberg-Osgood, Holloman and Voce's correlations for defining the post yield behaviour of the material has been investigated. Effect of strain rate change on the deformation behaviour has also been studied.

  3. Conference Analysis Report of Assessments on Defect and Damage for a High Temperature Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon


    This report presents the analysis on the state-of-the-art research trends on creep-fatigue damage, defect assessment of high temperature structure, development of heat resistant materials and their behavior at high temperature based on the papers presented in the two international conferences of ASME PVP 2008 which was held in Chicago in July 2008 and CF-5(5th International Conference on Creep, Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue) which was held in Kalpakkam, India in September 2008.

  4. Course Modules on Structural Health Monitoring with Smart Materials (United States)

    Shih, Hui-Ru; Walters, Wilbur L.; Zheng, Wei; Everett, Jessica


    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is an emerging technology that has multiple applications. SHM emerged from the wide field of smart structures, and it also encompasses disciplines such as structural dynamics, materials and structures, nondestructive testing, sensors and actuators, data acquisition, signal processing, and possibly much more. To…

  5. Synthesis of Hollow Sphere and 1D Structural Materials by Sol-Gel Process. (United States)

    Li, Fa-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Jun


    The sol-gel method is a simple and facile wet chemical process for fabricating advanced materials with high homogeneity, high purity, and excellent chemical reactivity at a relatively low temperature. By adjusting the processing parameters, the sol-gel technique can be used to prepare hollow sphere and 1D structural materials that exhibit a wide application in the fields of catalyst, drug or gene carriers, photoactive, sensors and Li-ion batteries. This feature article reviewed the development of the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials using the sol-gel method. The effects of calcination temperature, soaking time, pH value, surfactant, etc., on the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials were summarized, and their formation mechanisms were generalized. Finally, possible future research directions of the sol-gel technique were outlined.

  6. Synthesis of Hollow Sphere and 1D Structural Materials by Sol-Gel Process (United States)

    Li, Fa-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Jun


    The sol-gel method is a simple and facile wet chemical process for fabricating advanced materials with high homogeneity, high purity, and excellent chemical reactivity at a relatively low temperature. By adjusting the processing parameters, the sol-gel technique can be used to prepare hollow sphere and 1D structural materials that exhibit a wide application in the fields of catalyst, drug or gene carriers, photoactive, sensors and Li-ion batteries. This feature article reviewed the development of the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials using the sol-gel method. The effects of calcination temperature, soaking time, pH value, surfactant, etc., on the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials were summarized, and their formation mechanisms were generalized. Finally, possible future research directions of the sol-gel technique were outlined. PMID:28841188

  7. Carbon materials derived from rice husks at low and high temperatures (United States)

    Melvin, G. J. H.; Wang, Z.; Siambun, N. J.; Rahman, M. M.


    Rice husk (RH) can be classified as an agriculture residue, majorly produced from by-product of rice milling industries. However, RHs are only mainly utilized for low value energy resource. A great number of researches and innovations have shown that heat treated RHs can turn into valuable carbon materials. In this study, the RHs were carbonized at 800°C and 2500°C, respectively. Their structure, morphology, elemental composition, and quality were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The carbon materials obtained from low and high temperature carbonization processes showed different characteristics. High purity and crystallinity of carbon materials were obtained from RHs carbonized at 2500°C. Furthermore, from Raman results, RHs carbonized at 2500°C exhibited low D/G ratio. This further reveals that the RHs carbonized at 2500°C possess minimal defects. The unique characteristics of RHs carbonized at high temperature indicate that they could be a promising material to be utilized in particular or various applications.

  8. Influence of the temperature on materials electric behaviour: Understanding and students’ learning difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Carmona


    Full Text Available In this article, we defend that in the teaching/learning of the electricity, its contents must be associa ted with contents concerning the structure and behaviour of the matter. Thus, it is possible to understand some electricity topics as the influence of the temperature on electric behaviour of materials. In this sense, we propose a conceptual framework for its teaching, coherent with the Spanish Physics and Chemistry curriculum of Secondary Education. Likewise, we show the results of a research carried out with 60 pupils (age 14-15, about theirs understanding levels and theirs learning difficulties regarding considered topic.

  9. Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustic Controls (United States)


    materials" for intelligent systems. utilizing nonlinear physical pheomea. he words - mart materal" have different meanings for different people. and...caused pears that the litting is reasonably good for these limited by the presence of impurities in their chemicals), the data dta points, the kinks at x

  10. RF structure design of the China Material Irradiation Facility RFQ (United States)

    Li, Chenxing; He, Yuan; Xu, Xianbo; Zhang, Zhouli; Wang, Fengfeng; Dou, Weiping; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Tieshan


    The radio frequency structure design of the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for the front end of China Material Irradiation Facility (CMIF), which is an accelerator based neutron irradiation facility for fusion reactor material qualification, has been completed. The RFQ is specified to accelerate 10 mA continuous deuteron beams from the energies of 20 keV/u to 1.5 MeV/u within the vane length of 5250 mm. The working frequency of the RFQ is selected to 162.5 MHz and the inter-vane voltage is set to 65 kV. Four-vane cavity type is selected and the cavity structure is designed drawing on the experience of China Initiative Accelerator Driven System (CIADS) Injector II RFQ. In order to reduce the azimuthal asymmetry of the field caused from errors in fabrication and assembly, a frequency separation between the working mode and its nearest dipole mode is reached to 17.66 MHz by utilizing 20 pairs of π-mode stabilizing loops (PISLs) distributed along the longitudinal direction with equal intervals. For the purpose of tuning, 100 slug tuners were introduced to compensate the errors caused by machining and assembly. In order to obtain a homogeneous electrical field distribution along cavity, vane cutbacks are introduced and output endplate is modified. Multi-physics study of the cavity with radio frequency power and water cooling is performed to obtain the water temperature tuning coefficients. Through comparing to the worldwide CW RFQs, it is indicated that the power density of the designed structure is moderate for operation under continuous wave (CW) mode.

  11. Photonic Bandgap Structures as Meta-Materials (United States)

    Yablonovitch, Eli


    Engineering design is sometimes inspired by Nature. The natural world is filled with crystals, periodic structures which interact with Schrodinger Waves. Drawing on this analogy, we are designing artificial crystal structures which are intended for Electromagnetic Waves instead. This has now unleashed the collective scientific imagination, engendering a profusion of synthetic electromagnetic crystal structures. In correspondence to semiconductor crystals these usually have an electromagnetic bandgap, a band of frequencies in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden. We will present here a portfolio of various 2 and 3 dimensional crystal structures which have been conceived, and indicate the applications, such as opto-electronic light emitters, radio antennas, and color pigments, for which they are intended.

  12. Lightweight Materials and Structures (LMS): Inflatable Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Inflatable Structures (InSTAR) project goal is to demonstrate long term durability of inflatable habitat structures for potential utilization as either in-space...

  13. Structures and Materials Competency Vision and Purpose at NASA Langley (United States)

    Shuart, Mark J.


    Vision: The revolutionary materials and structures technologies developed at NASA Langley Research Center meet the needs of the Aerospace Community and benefit the quality of life on Earth Purpose: Develop and deliver useable research and technology results to meet Agency program objectives and to enable the Agency to develop future aerospace materials and structures

  14. Development of a Low Temperature Irradiation Capsule for Research Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Lee, Cheol Yong; Yang, Sung Woo; Shin, Yoon Taek; Park, Seng Jae; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A new capsule design was prepared and tested at HANARO for a neutron irradiation of core materials of research reactors as a part of the research reactor development project. Irradiation testing of the materials including graphite, beryllium, and zircaloy-4 that are supposed to be used as core materials in research reactors was required for irradiation at up to 8 reactor operation cycles at low temperature (<100 .deg. C). Therefore, three instrumented capsules were designed and fabricated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the core materials (Graphite, Be, Zircaloy-4) of research reactors. The capsules were first designed and fabricated to irradiate materials at low temperature (<100 .deg. C) for a long cycle of 8 irradiation cycles at HANARO. Therefore, the safety of the new designed capsule should be fully checked before irradiation testing. Out-pile performance and endurance testing before HANARO irradiation testing was performed using a capsule under a 110% condition of a reactor coolant flow amount. The structural integrity of the capsule was analyzed in terms of a vibration-induced fatigue cracking of a rod tip of the capsule that is suspected to be the most vulnerable part of a capsule. Another two capsules were irradiated at HANARO for 4 cycles, and one capsule was transferred to a hot cell to examine the integrity of the rod tip of the capsule. After confirming the soundness of the 4 cycle-irradiated capsule, the remaining capsule was irradiated at up to 8 cycles at HANARO. Based on the structural integrity analysis of the capsule, an improved capsule design will be suggested for a longer irradiation test at HANARO.

  15. SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) propellant and polymer materials structural modeling (United States)

    Moore, Carleton J.


    The following investigation reviews and evaluates the use of stress relaxation test data for the structural analysis of Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellants and other polymer materials used for liners, insulators, inhibitors, and seals. The stress relaxation data is examined and a new mathematical structural model is proposed. This model has potentially wide application to structural analysis of polymer materials and other materials generally characterized as being made of viscoelastic materials. A dynamic modulus is derived from the new model for stress relaxation modulus and is compared to the old viscoelastic model and experimental data.

  16. Thermoelectric Materials With the Skutterudite Structure: New Results (United States)

    Fleurial, J. -P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.


    New experimental findings on semiconductors with the relatively complex 32 atom unit cell skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values larger than for state-of- the-art thermoelectric materials. An overview of recent results is provided, and current approaches to experimentally achieving high ZT in skutterudite materials are discussed.

  17. High Temperature Advanced Structural Composites. Volume 3. Mechanics (United States)


    funcions of 00. For an incrase in temperature and stress denoted by A6, and so, we can now write do, - BAz; 6) do + b.(x; 9,) Ae, (5.1) with b,(x 9...Plasticity Theory of Fibrous Composite Materials," Metal Matriz Composites: Testig, Ana44iis, an Faiure Modes, ASTM STP 1032, W.S. Johnson, ed., American...diagraams of matriz material at various temperatures. 420 Table 1. Elastic Properties for Boron and Graphite Fibers Properties B Gr (****) E13 (MPa

  18. Pore structure and growth kinetics in carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, S.


    Pore structure of glassy carbon (GC) and pyrolytic graphite (PG) have been investigated. GC is one of the most impervious of solids finding applications in prosthetic devices and fuel cells while PG is used extensively in the aerospace industry. One third of the microstructure of GC consists of closed pores inaccessible to fluids. The microstructure of this material has been characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution electron microscopy. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) has been used to measure the angstrom sized pores and to follow the evolution of pore surface area as a function of heat treatment temperature (HTT) and heat treatment time (HTt) at constant temperature. From these measurements an analysis of the surface area kinetics was made to find out if rate processes are involved and to locate graphitization occurring at pore surfaces. PG on the other hand has been found to have larger sized pores that comprise five percent of its volume. In addition to being closed these pores are oriented. Some pore models are proposed for PG and the existing scattering theory from oriented ellipsoids is modified to include the proposed shapes.

  19. SRM propellant and polymer materials structural test program (United States)

    Moore, Carleton J.


    The SRM propellant and polymer materials structural test program has potentially wide application to the testing and structural analysis of polymer materials and other materials generally characterized as being made of viscoelastic materials. The test program will provide a basis for characterization of the dynamic failure criteria for Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellant, insulation, inhibitor and liners. This experimental investigation will also endeavor to obtain a consistent complete set of materials test data. This test will be used to improve and revise the presently used theoretical math models for SRM propellant, insulators, inhibitor, liners, and O-ring seals.

  20. Structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C.J.


    The selection of structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamak-type fusion reactors is considered. The important criteria are working stress, radiation resistance, electromagnetic interaction, and general feasibility. The most advantageous materials appear to be face-centered-cubic alloys in the Fe-Ni-Cr system, but high-modulus composites may be necessary where severe pulsed magnetic fields are present. Special-purpose structural materials are considered briefly.

  1. Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects (United States)

    Kung, Harold H; Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M; Kung, Mayfair C


    Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

  2. Calculation of Temperature in Sliding Joint Designed as a Part of Foundation Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajka Radim


    Full Text Available In case of expected horizontal deformation of subsoil or foundation structure it is possible to use rheological asphalt sliding joint to eliminate internal forces caused with friction. Material characteristics of asphalt are temperature sensitive. In science literature it is possible to find data with temperatures expected in footing bottom, however it was decided to complement this information with temperatures measured in-situ in foundation slab for super-computer building in campus of VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava. In the paper measured and calculated temperatures are compared for the first days after concreting the foundation structure. Besides the temperature of environment also significant influence of heat of cement hydration are taken into account.

  3. Programmable thermal emissivity structures based on bioinspired self-shape materials (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, N.; Siakavellas, N. J.


    Programmable thermal emissivity structures based on the bioinspired self-shape anisotropic materials were developed at macro-scale, and further studied theoretically at smaller scale. We study a novel concept, incorporating materials that are capable of transforming their shape via microstructural rearrangements under temperature stimuli, while avoiding the use of exotic shape memory materials or complex micro-mechanisms. Thus, programmed thermal emissivity behaviour of a surface is achievable. The self-shape structure reacts according to the temperature of the surrounding environment or the radiative heat flux. A surface which incorporates self-shape structures can be designed to quickly absorb radiative heat energy at low temperature levels, but is simultaneously capable of passively controlling its maximum temperature in order to prevent overheating. It resembles a “game” of colours, where two or more materials coexist with different values of thermal emissivity/ absorptivity/ reflectivity. The transformation of the structure conceals or reveals one of the materials, creating a surface with programmable - and therefore, variable- effective thermal emissivity. Variable thermal emissivity surfaces may be developed with a total hemispherical emissivity ratio (ɛEff_H/ɛEff_L) equal to 28.

  4. Structural materials for the next generation of technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Voorde, Marcel Hubert


    1. Overview of advanced technologies; i.e. aerospace-aeronautics; automobile; energy technology; accelerator engineering etc. and the need for new structural materials. 2. Familiarisation with polymers, metals and alloys, structural ceramics, composites and surface engineering. The study of modern materials processing, generation of a materials data base, engineering properties includind NDE, radiation damage etc. 3. Development of new materials for the next generation of technologies; including the spin-off of materials developed for space and military purposes to industrial applications. 4. Materials selection for modern accelerator engineering. 5. Materials research in Europe, USA and Japan. Material R & D programmes sponsored by the European Union and the collaboration of CERN in EU sponsored programmes.

  5. Types of architectural structures and the use of smart materials (United States)

    Tavşan, Cengiz; Sipahi, Serkan


    The developments in technology following the industrial revolution had their share of impact on both construction techniques, and material technologies. The change in the materials used by the construction industry brought along numerous innovations, which, in turn, took on an autonomous trend of development given the rise of nano-tech materials. Today, nano-tech materials are used extensively in numerous construction categories. Nano-tech materials, in general, are characterized by their reactionary nature, with the intent of repeating the reactions again and again under certain conditions. That is why nano-tech materials are often called smart materials. In construction industry, smart materials are categorized under 4 major perspectives: Shape-shifting smart materials, power generating smart materials, self-maintenance smart materials, and smart materials providing a high level of insulation. In architecture, various categories of construction often tend to exhibit their own approaches to design, materials, and construction techniques. This is a direct consequence of the need for different solutions for different functions. In this context, the use of technological materials should lead to the use of a set of smart materials for a given category of structures, while another category utilizes yet another set. In the present study, the smart materials used in specific categories of structures were reviewed with reference to nano-tech practices implemented in Europe, with a view to try and reveal the changes in the use of smart materials with reference to categories of structures. The study entails a discussion to test the hypothesis that nano-tech materials vary with reference to structure categories, on the basis of 18 examples from various structure categories, built by the construction firms with the highest level of potential in terms of doing business in Europe. The study comprises 3 major sections: The first section reiterates what the literature has to say

  6. Smart Materials in Structural Health Monitoring, Control and Biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Soh, Chee-Kiong; Bhalla, Suresh


    "Smart Materials in Structural Health Monitoring, Control and Biomechanics" presents the latest developments in structural health monitoring, vibration control and biomechanics using smart materials. The book mainly focuses on piezoelectric, fibre optic and ionic polymer metal composite materials. It introduces concepts from the very basics and leads to advanced modelling (analytical/ numerical), practical aspects (including software/ hardware issues) and case studies spanning civil, mechanical and aerospace structures, including bridges, rocks and underground structures. This book is intended for practicing engineers, researchers from academic and R&D institutions and postgraduate students in the fields of smart materials and structures, structural health monitoring, vibration control and biomedical engineering. Professor Chee-Kiong Soh and Associate Professor Yaowen Yang both work at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Dr. Suresh Bhalla is an A...

  7. Titanium nitride as a refractory plasmonic material for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Li, Wen-Wei; Boltasseva, Alexandra


    The use of titanium nitride as a plasmonic material for high temperature applications such as solar/thermophotovoltaics is studied numerically and experimentally. Performance of titanium nitride is compared with widely used materials in each field. © 2014 OSA....

  8. On catastrophic fracture of steel structures at temperatures lower than cold brittleness threshold (United States)

    Kornev, V. M.


    The paper considers crack propagation in elements of homogeneous steel structures and those with welded joints. For analysis of failure of the structures, diagrams of quasi-brittle fracture have been plotted. When constructing quasi-brittle fracture diagrams, the model of elastic-plastic material having an ultimate strain was used. The data report for quasi-brittle fracture diagrams of common elements of structures has been given. Analysis of parameters used in the proposed model was carried out for temperatures near or lower the brittleness threshold. Parameters of the model are selected from two laboratory experiments (critical stress intensity factor and classical stress-strain diagram) performed at appropriate temperatures. It has been established that weld structures with cracks in the vicinity of a welded joint exhibit decreased crack toughness. The effect of structure break under monotonic loading conditions is clearly visible inasmuch as ultimate loads essentially decrease with increasing a crack length. The attention is given to the parameter characterizing plastic material deformation and exhaustion of plasticity resource under preliminary plastic material deformation. After the plasticity resource is exhausted, the temperature of brittleness threshold approaches a room temperature.

  9. Design of Spintronic Materials with Simple Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, C Y; Qian, M C; Liu, K; Yang, L H; Pask, J E


    A brief comparison of conventional electronics and spintronics is given. The key features of half metallic binary compounds with the zincblende structure are presented, using MnAs as an example. We discuss the interactions responsible for the half metallic properties. Special properties of superlattices and a digital ferromagnetic heterostructure incorporating zincblende half metals are also discussed.

  10. Structure and Properties of Energetic Materials (United States)


    Dense Suspensions , L.J. Struble, C.F. Zukoski, G. Maitland, 1993. ISBN: 1-55899-184-0 Volume 290-Dynamics in Small Confining Systems. J.M. Drake, D.D...Awschalom, J. Klafter, R. Kopelman, 1993, ISBN: 1-55899-185-9 Volume 291-Materials Theory and Modelling. P.D. Bristowe, J. Broughton , J.M. Newsam...function of density produced in a single PolyRho shot. The rate stick consisted of 1/2 inch diameter pellets. To help bridge the gap between the bench

  11. Active Structural Fibers for Multifunctional Composite Materials (United States)


    a “smart board” for vibration suppression. More recently Sato et al. [5] applied a hydrothermal method to grow PZT coating onto nickel titanium...material with controlled thickness. The process dispersed 3 wt% of BaTiO3 nano-powder (BaTiO3, 99.95%, average particle size: 100nm, cubic phase...following reaction 2H2O + 2e – <==> H2 + 2OH – . This hydrolysis reaction results in the accumulation of colloidal particles near the electrode

  12. Controlling pesticide release via structuring agropolymer and nanoclays based materials. (United States)

    Chevillard, Anne; Angellier-Coussy, Hélène; Guillard, Valérie; Gontard, Nathalie; Gastaldi, Emmanuelle


    The potential use of nanoclays for modulating transfer properties of active agents in bio-sourced polymers was explored. For this purpose, new pesticide formulations were designed by combining wheat gluten, ethofumesate (model pesticide) and three montmorillonites (MMT) using a bi-vis extrusion process. Controlled release properties, evaluated through release experiments in water, were discussed in relation to the material formulations and their resulting structure. Partition coefficients were calculated from experimental data and diffusivity values were identified with a Fick's second law mechanistic model. The effect of temperature on release pattern was also evaluated and the activation energy of diffusion was determined. Ethofumesate release was slowed down for all wheat gluten based-formulations as compared to the commercial product. This slow release effect was increased in the presence of hydrophobic MMTs, due to a higher affinity for ethofumesate than for wheat gluten. Contrarily, hydrophilic MMT, displaying a greater affinity for wheat gluten than for ethofumesate seemed ineffective to slow down its release despite the tortuous pathway achieved through a well-exfoliated structure. To conclude, the release mechanisms would be rather governed by pesticide/MMT interactions than MMT/polymer matrix in the case of a hydrophobic pesticide such as ethofumesate and a hydrophilic matrix such as wheat gluten. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural Properties of Concrete Materials Containing RoadCem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Holmes


    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a preliminary study to assess the structural and material properties of a nonstandard, concrete type mix containing RoadCem, a traditional soil stabilising additive. Two different mixes determined the effect of adding RoadCem in terms of compressive and flexural strengths, breaking strain, thermal expansion and contraction behaviour, permeability using a falling head, and Young’s modulus. RoadCem is a fine powder containing alkali metals and synthetic zeolites which are complemented with a complex activator. RoadCem modifies the dynamics and chemistry of cement hydration by enhancing the crystallisation process and forming longer needle crystalline structures. It reduces the heat of hydration with an early strength development. Varying the volume in the mix varies the viscosity and alters curing times while maintaining the water cement ratio. The results from this study have shown a modest increase in compressive strength and Young’s modulus with improvements in thermal performance, particularly at low temperatures. The flexural strength of the two mixes was similar with a much reduced permeability in the RoadCem mix. The results demonstrate the improved performance of concrete incorporating RoadCem but further improvements are possible by using a better graded aggregate and controlling the maximum dry density and moisture contents.

  14. Ab initio studies of equations of state and chemical reactions of reactive structural materials (United States)

    Zaharieva, Roussislava

    subject of studies of the shock or thermally induced chemical reactions of the two solids comprising these reactive materials, from first principles, is a relatively new field of study. The published literature on ab initio techniques or quantum mechanics based approaches consists of the ab initio or ab initio-molecular dynamics studies in related fields that contain a solid and a gas. One such study in the literature involves a gas and a solid. This is an investigation of the adsorption of gasses such as carbon monoxide (CO) on Tungsten. The motivation for these studies is to synthesize alternate or synthetic fuel technology by Fischer-Tropsch process. In this thesis these studies are first to establish the procedure for solid-solid reaction and then to extend that to consider the effects of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energy and chemisorptions of CO on tungsten. Then in this thesis, similar studies are also conducted on the effect of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energies of Titanium and hydrogen. The motivations are again to understand the method and extend the method to such solid-solid reactions. A second motivation is to seek strained conditions that favor hydrogen storage and strain conditions that release hydrogen easily when needed. Following the establishment of ab initio and ab initio studies of chemical reactions between a solid and a gas, the next step of research is to study thermally induced chemical reaction between two solids (Ni+Al). Thus, specific new studies of the thesis are as follows: (1) Ab initio Studies of Binding energies associated with chemisorption of (a) CO on W surfaces (111, and 100) at elevated temperatures and strains and (b) adsorption of hydrogen in titanium base. (2) Equations of state of mixtures of reactive material structures from ab initio methods. (3) Ab initio studies of the reaction initiation, transition states and reaction products of intermetallic mixtures of (Ni+Al) at elevated

  15. Solid lubricant materials for high temperatures: A review (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.


    Solid lubricants that can be used above 300 C in air are discussed, including coatings and self-lubricating composite bearing materials. The lubricants considered are representative dichalcogenides, graphite, graphite fluoride, polyimides, soft oxides, oxidatively stable fluorides, and hard coating materials. A few general design considerations revelant to solid lubrication are interspersed.

  16. A materials perspective on Li-ion batteries at extreme temperatures (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F.; Babu, Ganguli; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Kalaga, Kaushik; Sayed, Farheen N.; Kato, Keiko; Joyner, Jarin; Ajayan, Pulickel M.


    With the continuous upsurge in demand for energy storage, batteries are increasingly required to operate under extreme environmental conditions. Although they are at the technological forefront, Li-ion batteries have long been limited to room temperature, as internal phenomena during their operation cause thermal fluctuations. This has been the reason for many battery explosions in recent consumer products. While traditional efforts to address these issues focused on thermal management strategies, the performance and safety of Li-ion batteries at both low (60 °C) temperatures are inherently related to their respective components, such as electrode and electrolyte materials and the so-called solid-electrolyte interphases. This Review examines recent research that considers thermal tolerance of Li-ion batteries from a materials perspective, spanning a wide temperature spectrum (-60 °C to 150 °C). The structural stability of promising cathodes, issues with anode passivation, and the competency of various electrolyte, binder and current collectors are compared for their thermal workability. The possibilities offered by each of these cell components could extend the environmental frontiers of commercial Li-ion batteries.

  17. Synthesis, structure and low temperature study of electric transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. Layered perovskite oxides are a promising group of mixed- conducting materials with potential applications for oxygen- separation membranes, gas sensor devices and electrodes of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (Moseley and. Williams 1989; Meixner and Lampe 1996; Skinner and Kil-.

  18. Temperature Dependent Local Atomic Structure of LuFe2O4 (United States)

    Liu, S.; Zhang, H.; Ghose, S.; Cheong, S.-W.; Emge, T.; Chen, Y.-S.; Tyson, T.

    The LuFe2O4 system has be studied intensively as a novel material with charge ordered driven ferroelectricity. However, the existence and origin of electric polarization and it coupling to the magnetic structure are open questions still to be addressed. Distinctly differing experiments yield different results. In this work, structural measurements on multiple length scales have been conducted over a broad range of temperatures. We have studied the correlation between the structural distortion and the electronic/magnetic properties in single-crystalline LuFe2O4 by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature and orientation dependent Raman spectroscopy, temperature dependent X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements and DFT modeling. The nature of the observed local atomic and electronic structural changes will be discussed and compared with previous work. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER46402.

  19. Optimization of structures under material parameter uncertainty using evidence theory (United States)

    Salehghaffari, S.; Rais-Rohani, M.; Marin, E. B.; Bammann, D. J.


    An evidence-based approach is developed for optimization of structural components under material parameter uncertainty. The approach is applied to evidence-based design optimization (EBDO) of externally stiffened circular tubes under axial impact load using an isotropic-elastic-plastic plasticity model to simulate dynamic material behaviour. Uncertainty modelling considers the changes in material parameters that are caused by variability in material properties as well as incertitude and errors in experimental data and procedure to determine the material parameters. Spatial variation of material parameters across the structural component is modelled using a field joint belief structure and propagated for the calculation of evidence-based objective function and design constraints. Surrogate models are used in both uncertainty propagation and solution of the optimization problem. The methodology and the solution to the EBDO example problem are presented and discussed.

  20. Structures and Materials of Reactor Internals for PWR in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Kim, W. S.; Kwon, S. C.; Kwon, J. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, H. P.; Yoo, C. S.; Lee, S. R.; Jung, M. K.; Hwang, S. S


    Nuclear reactor types in Korea are PWR type reactor (Westinghouse, Combustion Engineering, Farmatome type) and CANDU type reactor. Structures and Materials for reactor internal of PWR type were investigated. Reactor internal was composed of lower core support structure, upper core support assembly, incore instrumentation support structure. Lower core support structure of these structures is the most important. The major material for the reactor internal is type 304 and 316 stainless steel and radial support clevis bolts are made of Inconel. The main damage mechanism for reactor internal was IASCC and the effect of IASCC on reactor internal was investigated. The accident for reactor internal was also investigate.

  1. On Optimal Shapes in Materials and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli


    of parametrization, the problem of material/hole design for maximum bulk modulus is analysed. A simple optimality criterion is derived and with a simple superelliptic parametrization, agreement with Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are found. More general examples including nonequal principal strains, nonlinear elasticity...... that these three objectives have the same solution, at least within the limits of geometrical constraints, including the parametrization. Without involving stress/strain fields, the proof holds for 3D-problems, for power-law nonlinear elasticity and for anisotropic elasticity. To clarify the importance...... and orthotropic elasticity show the versatility of the optimality criterion approach. In spite of this, the mathematical programming approach will be used in the future study of the multiparameter and/or multipurpose problems....

  2. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson


    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made.

  3. Manufacture of Nano Structures in Polymer Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pedersen, H.C.; Staun, Jacob


    is based on a systematic approach including manufacturing processes and production system capabilities. The process chain associated with micro and nano injection moulding usually comprises silicon or photoresist mastering, electroforming and polymer processing. Additionally, if the produced polymer...... components are to be used in a microsystem, subsequent handling and assembly is necessary. The present paper describes the process chain related to the manufacture of optical gratings with nanometer-sized structures. The problems of each process step and the challenges of establishing a coherent production...

  4. Stresses and strains in pavement structures due to the effect of temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Mila


    Full Text Available At its absolute amount, stresses due to the effect of temperature in the pavement structures, especially those rigid, are often of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from vehicles' load, but it happens that due to such impact many slabs become cracked before the road is handed over into operation. The temperature stresses which occur in pavement structures include stresses due to bending and buckling, stresses due to friction and hidden stresses. Stresses caused by the influence of temperature in the pavement structure during the day are generally below the strength of the component materials so they do not cause the consequences for structure. However, appearance of residual stresses and their accumulation after a sufficiently long period of time may lead to failure in structure, i.e. thermal fatigue. The paper presents the effects of temperature changes on the pavement structures in the physical and mechanical terms, and the manner in which the temperature is taken into account during the design of pavement structures.

  5. Characterization of energetic materials at temperatures approaching cookoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renlund, A.M.; Miller, J.C.; Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.; Hobbs, M.L.


    The authors conducted experiments that monitored the response of heated, confined energetic materials in both fixed-volume and fixed-load configurations. They studied a variety of HMX-based materials, looking at the effects of particle size and binders. The {beta}-{delta} phase transition near 170 C led to a more reactive state. Materials that underwent complete transition in the fixed-load experiments (allowed to expand fully to accommodate the 5% volume increase) cooked off faster than those in the fixed-volume configuration.

  6. Temperature-dependent structure evolution in liquid gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, L. H.; Wang, X. D.; Yu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, F.; Sun, Y.; Cao, Q. P.; Xie, H. L.; Xiao, T. Q.; Zhang, D. X.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Ren, Y.; Jiang, J. Z.


    Temperature-dependent atomistic structure evolution of liquid gallium (Ga) has been investigated by using in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiment and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Both experimental and theoretical results reveal the existence of a liquid structural change around 1000 K in liquid Ga. Below and above this temperature the liquid exhibits differences in activation energy for selfdiffusion, temperature-dependent heat capacity, coordination numbers, density, viscosity, electric resistivity and thermoelectric power, which are reflected from structural changes of the bond-orientational order parameter Q6, fraction of covalent dimers, averaged string length and local atomic packing. This finding will trigger more studies on the liquid-to-liquid crossover in metallic melts.

  7. Neutron Scattering Studies of Nanomagnetism and Artificially Structured Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Bader, S.D.; Borchers, J.A.; Felcher, G.P.; Furdyna, J.K.; Hoffmann, A.; Kortright, J.B.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Schulthess, T.C.; Sinha, S.K.; Toney, M.F.; Weller, D.; Wolf, S.


    Nanostructured magnetic materials are intensively studied due to their unusual properties and promise for possible applications. The key issues in these materials relate to the connection between their physical properties (transport, magnetism, mechanical, etc.) and their chemical-physical structure. In principle, a detailed knowledge of the chemical and physical structure allows calculation of their physical properties. Theoretical and computational methods are rapidly evolving so that magnetic properties of nanostructured materials might soon be predicted. Success in this endeavor requires detailed quantitative understanding of the magnetic structure and properties.

  8. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is to develop new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  9. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is developing new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  10. The impact of sintering temperature on structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of zinc titanate nanocrystals (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, P.; Murugu thiruvalluvan, T. M. V.; Arivanandhan, M.; Jayakumari, T.; Anandan, P.


    The effect of sintering temperature and Ti:Zn ratio of precursor solutions on the structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of Zinc titanate (TZO) nanocrystals have been investigated. TZO nanocrystals were synthesized by changing the molar ratio of precursors of Zn and Ti sources by sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were sintered at different temperatures and the formation of multi phases of TZO were analysed by x-ray diffraction studies. The morphological properties and composition of TZO samples were studied by FESEM, TEM and XPS analysis. The thermoelectric properties of the TZO have been studied by measuring the Seebeck coefficient of the materials at various temperature. It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient of TZO sample increases with increasing Zn content in the sample especially at high temperature.

  11. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  12. Response of Soft Continuous Structures and Topological Defects to a Temperature Gradient (United States)

    Kurita, Rei; Mitsui, Shun; Tanaka, Hajime


    Thermophoresis, which is mass transport induced by a temperature gradient, has recently attracted considerable attention as a new way to transport materials. So far the study has been focused on the transport of discrete structures such as colloidal particles, proteins, and polymers in solutions. However, the response of soft continuous structures such as membranes and gels to a temperature gradient has been largely unexplored. Here we study the behavior of a lamellar phase made of stacked surfactant bilayer membranes under a temperature gradient. We find the migration of membranes towards a low-temperature region, causing the increase in the degree of membrane undulation fluctuations towards that direction. This is contrary to our intuition that the fluctuations are weaker at a lower temperature. We show that this can be explained by temperature-gradient-induced migration of membranes under the topological constraint coming from the connectivity of each membrane. We also reveal that the pattern of an edge dislocation array formed in a wedge-shaped cell can be controlled by a temperature gradient. These findings suggest that application of a temperature gradient provides a novel way to control the organization of soft continuous structures such as membranes, gels, and foams, in a manner essentially different from the other types of fields, and to manipulate topological defects.

  13. High Temperature Membrane with Humidification-Independent Cluster Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Ludwig [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)


    The objective of this project was to develop high temperature membranes to facilitate the wide-spread deployment of hydrogen fuel cells. High temperature membranes offer significant advantages in PEM system operation, overall capital and operating costs. State-of-the-art Nafion-based membranes are inadequate for the high temperature operation. These conventional membranes become unstable at higher temperatures (90-120°C) and lose their conductivity, particularly at low relative humidity. In this program, alternate materials were developed to enable fabrication of novel high performance composite membranes. FCE’s concept for the multi-component composite membrane, named mC2, has been used in the design of more conductive membranes.

  14. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher


    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  15. Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin-Maricel Jureschi


    Full Text Available The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices.

  16. Temperature-driven topological quantum phase transitions in a phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5. (United States)

    Eremeev, S V; Rusinov, I P; Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V


    The Ge2Sb2Te5 is a phase-change material widely used in optical memory devices and is a leading candidate for next generation non-volatile random access memory devices which are key elements of various electronics and portable systems. Despite the compound is under intense investigation its electronic structure is currently not fully understood. The present work sheds new light on the electronic structure of the Ge2Sb2Te5 crystalline phases. We demonstrate by predicting from first-principles calculations that stable crystal structures of Ge2Sb2Te5 possess different topological quantum phases: a topological insulator phase is realized in low-temperature structure and Weyl semimetal phase is a characteristic of the high-temperature structure. Since the structural phase transitions are caused by the temperature the switching between different topologically non-trivial phases can be driven by variation of the temperature. The obtained results reveal the rich physics of the Ge2Sb2Te5 compound and open previously unexplored possibility for spintronics applications of this material, substantially expanding its application potential.

  17. Structural and Machine Design Using Piezoceramic Materials: A Guide for Structural Design Engineers (United States)

    Inman, Daniel J.; Cudney, Harley H.


    Using piezoceramic materials is one way the design engineer can create structures which have an ability to both sense and respond to their environment. Piezoceramic materials can be used to create structural sensors and structural actuators. Because piezoceramic materials have transduction as a material property, their sensing or actuation functions are a result of what happens to the material. This is different than discrete devices we might attach to the structure. For example, attaching an accelerometer to a structure will yield an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration at the attachment point on the structure. Using a electromagnetic shaker as an actuator will create an applied force at the attachment point. Active material elements in a structural design are not easily modeled as providing transduction at a point, but rather they change the physics of the structure in the areas where they are used. Hence, a designer must not think of adding discrete devices to a structure to obtain an effect, but rather must design a structural system which accounts for the physical principles of all the elements in the structure. The purpose of this manual is to provide practicing engineers the information necessary to incorporate piezoelectric materials in structural design and machine design. First, we will review the solid-state physics of piezoelectric materials. Then we will discuss the physical characteristics of the electrical-active material-structural system. We will present the elements of this system which must be considered as part of the design task for a structural engineer. We will cover simple modeling techniques and review the features and capabilities of commercial design tools that are available. We will then cover practical how-to elements of working with piezoceramic materials. We will review sources of piezoceramic materials and built-up devices, and their characteristics. Finally, we will provide two design examples using piezoceramic

  18. Design and analysis of aerospace structures at elevated temperatures. [aircraft, missiles, and space platforms (United States)

    Chang, C. I.


    An account is given of approaches that have emerged as useful in the incorporation of thermal loading considerations into advanced composite materials-based aerospace structural design practices. Sources of structural heating encompass not only propulsion system heat and aerodynamic surface heating at supersonic speeds, but the growing possibility of intense thermal fluxes from directed-energy weapons. The composite materials in question range from intrinsically nonheat-resistant polymer matrix systems to metal-matrix composites, and increasingly to such ceramic-matrix composites as carbon/carbon, which are explicitly intended for elevated temperature operation.

  19. Quantitative property-structural relation modeling on polymeric dielectric materials (United States)

    Wu, Ke

    Nowadays, polymeric materials have attracted more and more attention in dielectric applications. But searching for a material with desired properties is still largely based on trial and error. To facilitate the development of new polymeric materials, heuristic models built using the Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) techniques can provide reliable "working solutions". In this thesis, the application of QSPR on polymeric materials is studied from two angles: descriptors and algorithms. A novel set of descriptors, called infinite chain descriptors (ICD), are developed to encode the chemical features of pure polymers. ICD is designed to eliminate the uncertainty of polymer conformations and inconsistency of molecular representation of polymers. Models for the dielectric constant, band gap, dielectric loss tangent and glass transition temperatures of organic polymers are built with high prediction accuracy. Two new algorithms, the physics-enlightened learning method (PELM) and multi-mechanism detection, are designed to deal with two typical challenges in material QSPR. PELM is a meta-algorithm that utilizes the classic physical theory as guidance to construct the candidate learning function. It shows better out-of-domain prediction accuracy compared to the classic machine learning algorithm (support vector machine). Multi-mechanism detection is built based on a cluster-weighted mixing model similar to a Gaussian mixture model. The idea is to separate the data into subsets where each subset can be modeled by a much simpler model. The case study on glass transition temperature shows that this method can provide better overall prediction accuracy even though less data is available for each subset model. In addition, the techniques developed in this work are also applied to polymer nanocomposites (PNC). PNC are new materials with outstanding dielectric properties. As a key factor in determining the dispersion state of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix

  20. Mesoscopic hydrothermodynamics of complex-structured materials. (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Áurea R; Silva, A A P; Luzzi, Roberto; Casas-Vázquez, J; Jou, David


    Some experimental results in the study of disordered systems, polymeric fluids, solutions of micelles and surfactants, ionic-glass conductors, and others show a hydrodynamic behavior labeled "anomalous" with properties described by some kind of fractional power laws in place of the standard ones. This is a consequence of the fractal-like structure that is present in these systems of which we do not have a detailed description, thus impairing the application of the conventional ensemble formalism of statistical mechanics. In order to obtain a physical picture of the phenomenon for making predictions which may help with technological and industrial decisions, one may resort to different styles (so-called nonconventional) in statistical mechanics. In that way can be introduced a theory for handling such impaired situations, a nonconventional mesoscopic hydrothermodynamics (MHT). We illustrate the question presenting an application in a contracted description of such nonconventional MHT, consisting in the use of the Renyi approach to derive a set of coupled nonstandard evolution equations, one for the density, a nonconventional Maxwell-Cattaneo equation, which in a limiting case goes over a non-Fickian diffusion equation, and other for the velocity in fluids under forced flow. For illustration the theory is applied to the study of the hydrodynamic motion in several soft-matter systems under several conditions such as streaming flow appearing in electrophoretic techniques and flow generated by harmonic forces arising in optical traps. The equivalence with Lévy processes is discussed and comparison with experiment is done.

  1. 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Carlos


    This work was compiled with expanded and reviewed contributions from the 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, that was held from 3 to 6 June 2015 at Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal. The Conference provided a comprehensive forum for discussing the current state of the art in the field as well as generating inspiration for future ideas specifically on a multidisciplinary level. The scope of the Conference included topics related to the following areas: Fundamentals of smart materials and structures; Modeling/formulation and characterization of smart actuators, sensors and smart material systems; Trends and developments in diverse areas such as material science including composite materials, intelligent hydrogels, interfacial phenomena, phase boundaries and boundary layers of phase boundaries, control, micro- and nano-systems, electronics, etc. to be considered for smart systems; Comparative evaluation of different smart actuators and sensors; Analysis of structural concepts and des...

  2. Apparatus and test method for characterizing the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials (United States)

    Yao, Bao-guo; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, De-pin


    In order to evaluate the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials such as fabrics treated with phase change material microcapsules, a new apparatus was developed. The apparatus and the test method can measure the heat flux, temperature, and displacement signals during the dynamic contact and then quickly give an evaluation for the temperature regulating properties by simulating the dynamic heat transfer and temperature regulating process when the materials contact the body skin. A series of indices including the psychosensory intensity, regulating capability index, and relative regulating index were defined to characterize the temperature regulating properties. The measurement principle, the evaluation criteria and grading method, the experimental setup and the test results discussion, and the gage capability analysis of the apparatus are presented. The new apparatus provides a method for the objective measurement and evaluation of the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

  3. Physics and Materials Science of High Temperature Superconductors (United States)


    SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF BULK HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS. F. M. Costa and J. M. Vieira, Departamento de Eng. Ceramica e de Vidro, Universidade de Aveiro...Lisboa, Portugal; F. Costa, Dep Eng Ceramica e do Vidro, Universidade de Aveiro, P-3800 Avaerio, Portugal; and J. M. Alves and M. M. Godinho, Dep Fisica

  4. Temperature and pH sensors based on graphenic materials. (United States)

    Salvo, P; Calisi, N; Melai, B; Cortigiani, B; Mannini, M; Caneschi, A; Lorenzetti, G; Paoletti, C; Lomonaco, T; Paolicchi, A; Scataglini, I; Dini, V; Romanelli, M; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F


    Point-of-care applications and patients' real-time monitoring outside a clinical setting would require disposable and durable sensors to provide better therapies and quality of life for patients. This paper describes the fabrication and performances of a temperature and a pH sensor on a biocompatible and wearable board for healthcare applications. The temperature sensor was based on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layer that changed its electrical resistivity with the temperature. When tested in a human serum sample between 25 and 43°C, the sensor had a sensitivity of 110±10Ω/°C and an error of 0.4±0.1°C compared with the reference value set in a thermostatic bath. The pH sensor, based on a graphene oxide (GO) sensitive layer, had a sensitivity of 40±4mV/pH in the pH range between 4 and 10. Five sensor prototypes were tested in a human serum sample over one week and the maximum deviation of the average response from reference values obtained by a glass electrode was 0.2pH units. For biological applications, the temperature and pH sensors were successfully tested for in vitro cytotoxicity with human fibroblast cells (MRC-5) over 24h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering Materials for Very High Temperatures: An ONRL Workshop (United States)


    high temperature, time-dependent strength of hot isostatically pressed (HIP’ed) Y-TZP (Swab, Katz, & Starita , 1987). In this instance a commercially...12, p-137-14 6. Swab, J, Katz, R. N. & Starita , C., (1987), unpublished research. Tracy, C. & Slavin, M. J., (1927), Presented at 89th annual meeting

  6. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials for Waste Heat Regeneration (United States)


    Seebeck effect (17, 18). ............................................................................................7 Figure 7. Carrier concentration...5) where is Planck’s constant and is the density of states effective mass. The Seebeck coefficient is proportional to temperature... effect (17, 18). 2.2 The Electrical Conductivity The flow of current associated with the Seebeck voltage logically creates the search for TE

  7. Immobilization of actinides in stable mineral type and ceramic materials (high temperature synthesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, O.; Konovalov, E.


    Alternative vitrification technologies are being developed in the world for the immobilization of high radioactive waste in materials with improved thermodynamic stability, as well as improved chemical and thermal stability and stability to radiation. Oxides, synthesized in the form of analogs to rock-forming minerals and ceramics, are among those materials that have highly stable properties and are compatible with the environment. In choosing the appropriate material, we need to be guided by its geometric stability, the minimal number of cations in the structure of the material and the presence of structural elements in the mineral that are isomorphs of uranium and thorium, actinoids found in nature. Rare earth elements, yttrium, zirconium and calcium are therefore suitable. The minerals listed in the table (with the exception of the zircon) are pegatites by origin, i.e. they are formed towards the end of the magma crystallization of silicates form the residual melt, enriched with Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Ce, Y, U and Th. Uranium and thorium in the form of isomorphic admixtures form part of the lattice of the mineral. These minerals, which are rather simple in composition and structure and are formed under high temperatures, may be viewed as natural physio-chemical systems that are stable and long-lived in natural environments. The similarity of the properties of actinoids and lanthanoids plays an important role in the geochemistry of uranium and thorium; however, uranium (IV) is closer to the {open_quotes}heavy{close_quotes} group of lanthanoids (the yttrium group) while thorium (IV) is closer to the {open_quotes}light{close_quotes} group (the cerium group). That is why rare earth minerals contain uranium and thorium in the form of isomorphic admixtures.

  8. Low Cost, Lightweight, Multifunctional Structural Shielding Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR involves the development of a lightweight innovative material for use as structure and radiation shielding in one. APS has assembled a uniquely qualified...

  9. Application of Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials to Inflatable Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovation is a weight-optimized, inflatable structure that incorporates radiation shielding materials into its construction, for use as a habitation module or...

  10. Alternative materials for FDOT sign structures : phase I literature review. (United States)


    Inspections of tubular sign structures by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) have : revealed occurrences of premature corrosion on the inside of galvanized steel tubes. As a result, FDOT : engineers are seeking alternative materials that...

  11. Materials and structures for stretchable energy storage and conversion devices. (United States)

    Xie, Keyu; Wei, Bingqing


    Stretchable energy storage and conversion devices (ESCDs) are attracting intensive attention due to their promising and potential applications in realistic consumer products, ranging from portable electronics, bio-integrated devices, space satellites, and electric vehicles to buildings with arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Material synthesis and structural design are core in the development of highly stretchable supercapacitors, batteries, and solar cells for practical applications. This review provides a brief summary of research development on the stretchable ESCDs in the past decade, from structural design strategies to novel materials synthesis. The focuses are on the fundamental insights of mechanical characteristics of materials and structures on the performance of the stretchable ESCDs, as well as challenges for their practical applications. Finally, some of the important directions in the areas of material synthesis and structural design facing the stretchable ESCDs are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, S.; Heung, L.


    Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

  13. Porous Organic Materials: Strategic Design and Structure-Function Correlation. (United States)

    Das, Saikat; Heasman, Patrick; Ben, Teng; Qiu, Shilun


    Porous organic materials have garnered colossal interest with the scientific fraternity due to their excellent gas sorption performances, catalytic abilities, energy storage capacities, and other intriguing applications. This review encompasses the recent significant breakthroughs and the conventional functions and practices in the field of porous organic materials to find useful applications and imparts a comprehensive understanding of the strategic evolution of the design and synthetic approaches of porous organic materials with tunable characteristics. We present an exhaustive analysis of the design strategies with special emphasis on the topologies of crystalline and amorphous porous organic materials. In addition to elucidating the structure-function correlation and state-of-the-art applications of porous organic materials, we address the challenges and restrictions that prevent us from realizing porous organic materials with tailored structures and properties for useful applications.

  14. Nonlinear phononics and structural control of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankowsky, Roman


    Mid-infrared light pulses can be used to resonantly excite infrared-active vibrational modes for the phase control of strongly correlated materials on subpicosecond timescales. As the energy is transferred directly into atomic motions, dissipation into the electronic system is reduced, allowing for the emergence of unusual low energy collective properties. Light-induced superconductivity, insulator-metal transitions and melting of magnetic order demonstrate the potential of this method. An understanding of the mechanism, by which these transitions are driven, is however missing. The aim of this work is to uncover this process by investigating the nonlinear lattice dynamics induced by the excitation and to elucidate their contribution to the modulation of collective properties of strongly correlated materials. The first signature of nonlinear lattice dynamics was reported in the observation of coherent phonon oscillations, resonant with the excitation of an infrared-active phonon mode in a manganite. This nonlinear phononic coupling can be described within a model, which predicts not only oscillatory coherent phonons dynamics but also directional atomic displacements along the coupled modes on average, which could cause the previously observed transitions. We verified this directional response and quantified the anharmonic coupling constant by tracing the atomic motions in a time-resolved hard X-ray diffraction experiment with sub-picometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. In a subsequent study, we investigated the role of nonlinear lattice dynamics in the emergence of superconductivity far above the equilibrium transition temperature, an intriguing effect found to follow lattice excitation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. By combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the anharmonic coupling constants with time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments, we identified a structural rearrangement, which appears and decays with the same temporal

  15. High temperature properties of dispersion strengthened Al-Al4C3 materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besterci, M.; Slesar, M.; Miskovicova, M.; Pelikan, K.


    One of the most important properties of dispersion strengthened materials is their strength stability at high temperatures. The strength and plasticity of the material Al + 5 vol. pct Al4C3, tested in the temperature range from 100 to 400 C, are analyzed. On the basis of the experiments the functions for the temperature dependence of the strength and plasticity are described, the deformation process is evaluated, and the fracture mechanisms are quantified. 17 references.

  16. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Bogdanović


    Full Text Available For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  17. Optimization of Structure and Material Properties for Solids Composed of Softening Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Guedes, J.M.; J.M., Plaxton


    be expressed as a convex problem. However, the optimal distribution of material properties predicted in the nonlinear problem depends on the magnitude of load, in contrast to the case with linear material. Computational solutions are presented for several example problems, showing how the optimal designs vary......Recent results on the design of material properties in the context of global structural optimization provide, in analytical form, a prediction of the optimal material tensor distributions for two or three dimensional continuum structures. The model developed for that purpose is extended here...

  18. Two-phase materials for high-temperature service

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN


    Full Text Available viewed on the scale of the precipitate particles The structure consists of cubes of the g0 phase, an ordered L12 structure based on Ni3Al, stacked in a simple cubic array in a matrix of g, a disordered face- centred cubic lattice, also nickel-based. The g... phases show lattice coherence after standard heat treatments. 2.2. Current superalloys viewed on the atomic scale The great strength of the two-phase structure is com- parison with either of its components is explained as follows. In both phases, glide...

  19. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fudouzi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  20. Application of composite materials in structures of modern airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін


    Full Text Available  The application efficiency  of composite plastic materials in structures of modern civil and military airplanes are investigated. Detaled analisys of Antonov branch airplanes is presented on general diagrams. The 25–27%  diaposon of the mass reduction that was achieved due to composite materials application is determined.

  1. Application of composite materials in structures of modern airplanes


    В.В. Астанін; А.В. Хоменко; ШЕВЧЕНКО О.А.


     The application efficiency  of composite plastic materials in structures of modern civil and military airplanes are investigated. Detaled analisys of Antonov branch airplanes is presented on general diagrams. The 25–27%  diaposon of the mass reduction that was achieved due to composite materials application is determined.

  2. Simultaneous dynamic electrical and structural measurements of functional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchini, C.; Stewart, M.; Muñiz-Piniella, A.; Wooldridge, J. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, P.; McMitchell, S. R. C.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.; Wermeille, D.; Lucas, C. A. [XMaS, The UK-CRG, ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Lepadatu, S. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bikondoa, O.; Hase, T. P. A. [XMaS, The UK-CRG, ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lesourd, M. [ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dontsov, D. [SIOS Meßtechnik GmbH, Am Vogelherd 46, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Cain, M. G. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Electrosciences Ltd., Farnham, Surrey GU9 9QT (United Kingdom)


    A new materials characterization system developed at the XMaS beamline, located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, is presented. We show that this new capability allows to measure the atomic structural evolution (crystallography) of piezoelectric materials whilst simultaneously measuring the overall strain characteristics and electrical response to dynamically (ac) applied external stimuli.

  3. Advanced Low Temperature Thermoelectric Materials for Cryogenic Power Generation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work we will: 1) develop novel TE materials  with a factor of 2x or more improvement in the dimensionless TE figure of merit (ZT) over state-of-the-art...

  4. Combustion and Plasma Synthesis of High Temperature Materials (United States)


    cc 0v Table 4. Characteristics of Some Refractory Materials Dolomite and Magnesite-Based Characteristics Dolomite - Magnesite- Based Based...Other routes also exist such as calcination of organo-metallic compounds with a nitriding agent. Recently, thermal plasma processes have been used for

  5. Bone quality: the material and structural basis of bone strength. (United States)

    Seeman, Ego


    The material composition and structural design of bone determine its strength. Structure determines loads that can be tolerated but loads also determine structure. Bone modifies its material composition and structure to accommodate loads by adaptive modeling and remodeling. Adaptation is successful during growth but not aging because accumulating insults, including a reduction in the volume of bone formed in the basic multicellular unit (BMU), increased resorption in the BMU, increased remodeling rate in midlife in women and in some men because of sex hormone deficiency, and in both sexes in old age as a consequence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and reduced periosteal bone formation, all of which compromises the material composition of bone and its structure. An understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation and failed adaptation provides rational approaches to interventions that can prevent or restore bone fragility.

  6. A quantification model for the structure of clay materials. (United States)

    Tang, Liansheng; Sang, Haitao; Chen, Haokun; Sun, Yinlei; Zhang, Longjian


    In this paper, the quantification for clay structure is explicitly explained, and the approach and goals of quantification are also discussed. The authors consider that the purpose of the quantification for clay structure is to determine some parameters that can be used to quantitatively characterize the impact of clay structure on the macro-mechanical behaviour. According to the system theory and the law of energy conservation, a quantification model for the structure characteristics of clay materials is established and three quantitative parameters (i.e., deformation structure potential, strength structure potential and comprehensive structure potential) are proposed. And the corresponding tests are conducted. The experimental results show that these quantitative parameters can accurately reflect the influence of clay structure on the deformation behaviour, strength behaviour and the relative magnitude of structural influence on the above two quantitative parameters, respectively. These quantitative parameters have explicit mechanical meanings, and can be used to characterize the structural influences of clay on its mechanical behaviour.

  7. Thin Film Materials and Devices for Resistive Temperature Sensing Applications (United States)


    is based on the phenomenon known as the Seebeck effect . Named after the T. Seebeck who first observed this effect , he noted that there is a current...this effect is known as the thermal electromotive force. A device which uses the Seebeck effect for the measurement of temperature is known as a...21 Figure 2-7. Graph showing the effect of total deposition pressure on TCR and resistivity of deposited pm-Ge:H thin films

  8. Low temperature mechanical properties of metallic glasses - Connection with structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bengus, VZ; Tabachnikova, ED; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav


    Available data on plasticity and strength of metallic glasses below the room temperature (down to 0.5 K) are considered and explained on the basis of the polycluster model of amorphous solids especially with taking into consideration possible atomic structure of clusters and defects of intercluster

  9. Glassy Carbon Coating Deposited on Hybrid Structure of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of production metal matrix composites with aluminum oxide foam covered by glassy carbon layer used as reinforcement. The glassy carbon coating was formed for decreasing of friction coefficient and reducing the wear. In first step of technology liquid glassy carbon precursor is on ceramic foam deposited, subsequently cured and carbonated at elevated temperature. In this way ceramic foam is covered with glassy carbon coating with thickness of 2-8 μm. It provides desirable amount of glassy carbon in the structure of the material. In the next step, porous spheres with carbon coating are infiltrated by liquid matrix of Al-Cu-Mg alloy. Thereby, equable distribution of glassy carbon in composite volume is achieved. Moreover, typical problems for composites reinforced by particles like sedimentation, agglomeration and clustering of particles are avoided. Tribological characteristics during friction in air versus cast iron as a counterpart were made. Produced composites with glassy carbon layer are characterised by friction coefficient between 0.08-0.20, thus meeting the typical conditions for solid lubricants.

  10. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials (United States)


    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  11. Characterization of temperature-dependent optical material properties of polymer powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laumer, Tobias [Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); SAOT Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); CRC Collaborative Research Center 814 - Additive Manufacturing, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Stichel, Thomas; Bock, Thomas; Amend, Philipp [Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); CRC Collaborative Research Center 814 - Additive Manufacturing, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Schmidt, Michael [Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Photonic Technologies, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); SAOT Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); CRC Collaborative Research Center 814 - Additive Manufacturing, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)


    In former works, the optical material properties of different polymer powders used for Laser Beam Melting (LBM) at room temperature have been analyzed. With a measurement setup using two integration spheres, it was shown that the optical material properties of polymer powders differ significantly due to multiple reflections within the powder compared to solid bodies of the same material. Additionally, the absorption behavior of the single particles shows an important influence on the overall optical material properties, especially the reflectance of the powder bed. Now the setup is modified to allow measurements at higher temperatures. Because crystalline areas of semi-crystalline thermoplastics are mainly responsible for the absorption of the laser radiation, the influence of the temperature increase on the overall optical material properties is analyzed. As material, conventional polyamide 12 and polypropylene as new polymer powder material, is used. By comparing results at room temperature and at higher temperatures towards the melting point, the temperature-dependent optical material properties and their influence on the beam-matter interaction during the process are discussed. It is shown that the phase transition during melting leads to significant changes of the optical material properties of the analyzed powders.

  12. Structure-property relationships of multiferroic materials: A nano perspective (United States)

    Bai, Feiming

    The integration of sensors, actuators, and control systems is an ongoing process in a wide range of applications covering automotive, medical, military, and consumer electronic markets. Four major families of ceramic and metallic actuators are under development: piezoelectrics, electrostrictors, magnetostrictors, and shape-memory alloys. All of these materials undergo at least two phase transformations with coupled thermodynamic order parameters. These transformations lead to complex domain wall behaviors, which are driven by electric fields (ferroelectrics), magnetic fields (ferromagnetics), or mechanical stress (ferroelastics) as they transform from nonferroic to ferroic states, contributing to the sensing and actuating capabilities. This research focuses on two multiferroic crystals, Pb(Mg1/3Nb 2/3)O3-PbTiO3 and Fe-Ga, which are characterized by the co-existence and coupling of ferroelectric polarization and ferroelastic strain, or ferro-magnetization and ferroelastic strain. These materials break the conventional boundary between piezoelectric and electrostrictors, or magnetostrictors and shape-memory alloys. Upon applying field or in a poled condition, they yield not only a large strain but also a large strain over field ratio, which is desired and much benefits for advanced actuator and sensor applications. In this thesis, particular attention has been given to understand the structure-property relationships of these two types of materials from atomic to the nano/macro scale. X-ray and neutron diffraction were used to obtain the lattice structure and phase transformation characteristics. Piezoresponse and magnetic force microscopy were performed to establish the dependence of domain configurations on composition, thermal history and applied fields. It has been found that polar nano regions (PNRs) make significant contributions to the enhanced electromechanical properties of PMN-x%PT crystals via assisting intermediate phase transformation. With increasing PT

  13. Temperature dependent optical characterization of Ni-TiO2 thin films as potential photocatalytic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnarayan De


    Full Text Available Along with other transition metal doped titanium dioxide materials, Ni-TiO2 is considered to be one of the most efficient materials for catalytic applications due to its suitable energy band positions in the electronic structure. The present manuscript explores the possibility of improving the photocatalytic activity of RF magnetron sputtered Ni-TiO2 films upon heat treatment. Optical, structural and morphological and photocatalytic properties of the films have been investigated in detail for as deposited and heat treated samples. Evolution of refractive index (RI and total film thickness as estimated from spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization are found to be in agreement with the trend in density and total film thickness estimated from grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurement. Interestingly, the evolution of these macroscopic properties were found to be correlated with the corresponding microstructural modifications realized in terms of anatase to rutile phase transformation and appearance of a secondary phase namely NiTiO3 at high temperature. Corresponding morphological properties of the films were also found to be temperature dependent which leads to modifications in the grain structure. An appreciable reduction of optical band gap from 2.9 to 2.5 eV of Ni-TiO2 thin films was also observed as a result of post deposition heat treatment. Testing of photocatalytic activity of the films performed under UV illumination demonstrates heat treatment under atmospheric ambience to be an effective means to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of transition metal doped titania samples.

  14. Temperature Dependence and Magnetic Properties of Injection Molding Tool Materials Used in Induction Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    To analyze the heating phase of an induction heated injection molding tool precisely, the temperature-dependent magnetic properties, B–H curves, and the hysteresis loss are necessary for the molding tool materials. Hence, injection molding tool steels, core materials among other materials have...

  15. Unfolding the band structure of electronic and photonic materials (United States)

    Maspero, Ross

    In this thesis, we develop a generalised unfolding formalism to investigate the electronic and photonic properties of aperiodically-structured materials. We initially focus on GaAsBi alloys for electronic systems and Penrose-structured materials for photonic systems, aperiodic materials that cannot be easily studied using conventional band structure methods. We then extend our study to the supercell approach which facilitates an accurate modelling of the aperiodic structures at the price of obscuring essential physical information, due to a band folding effect. Then introducing a generalised unfolding algorithm, we return the supercell band structure to a traditional form that can again be used to analyse the electronic and photonic properties of the system. GaAsBi, which is a material with the potential to suppress the dominant loss mechanisms in telecommunications devices, was studied using the unfolded supercell band structure approach. We investigated the effect of bismuth on the properties of a host GaAs structure, including band movement, band broadening and effective mass. We validated our approach through a detailed comparison of both band movement and effective masses to the currently available experimental data. Then, we introduced a formalism for calculating the CHSH Auger recombination rates from our unfolded band structure, which will assist in determining the efficiency of the material. Quasicrystalline photonic materials built on the skeleton of Penrose lattices have proven to display photonic properties comparable to the ones found in photonic crystals, but with the added promise of increased isotropy. The photonic band structure of these materials is a prime target for the unfolding formalism because it allows a full exploration of the influence of the increased geometrical symmetry on their photonic characteristics. Furthermore, the network structure investigated demonstrated the existence of a sub-fundamental photonic band gap, a characteristic

  16. Tailoring hierarchical structures in selective laser melted materials (United States)

    Olsen, Jon; Zhou, Xin; Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng; Wang, Dianzheng; Yu, Chenfan; Wang, Yafei; Li, Kailun; Xing, Leilei; Ma, Jing; Cui, Daqing; Liu, Wei; Shen, Zhijian


    With selective laser melting the potential to manufacture a wide variety of geometries from different materials has presented itself. Interest in this technology keeps growing every year, and with that growth a deeper understanding of the process and resulting materials is urgently needed. In this paper we present a short overview of the structural elements that appear during selective laser melting, and explain how to tailor them to achieve specific structures and material properties. Melt-pools, texture and grains, subgrain cells, and inclusions are the elements discussed herein, and tailoring of these elements can have effects on density, and corrosion resistance, as well as mechanical properties in general.

  17. Topology optimization of coated structures and material interface problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole


    This paper presents a novel method for including coated structures and prescribed material interface properties into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. Several elements of the method are applicable to a broader range of interface problems. The approach extends the standard SIMP...... method by including the normalized norm of the spatial gradient of the design field into the material interpolation function, enforcing coating material at interfaces by attributing particular properties. The length scales of the base structure and the coating are separated by introducing a two...

  18. Amorphous and Nanocrystalline High Temperature Magnetic Material for PWR (United States)


    in collaboration with Magnetics, Inc. has produced nanopowders of the HITPERM materials. The work was extended to include study of...the interfacial stresses between the substrate and coating that arises during the coating processes. Alumina , Beryllia, Forsterite and Pt were...trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of plasma synthesized ferrite coatings. NiZn ferrites were sprayed onto Alumina substrates using the

  19. Study on high temperature design methodology of heat-resistant materials for GEN-IV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. W.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, J. H.; Park, D. G.; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Hing, J. H


    Analysis of the existing high temperature design and assessment codes such as US(ASME-NH,Draft Code Case for Alloy 617), France(RCC-MR), UK(R5), Japan(BDS/DDS/FDS) for Gen IV reactor structure has been carried out. In addition the scope and fields for research and development is needed in the future have been defined. For assessing the high temperature creep cracks, time dependent fracture mechanics (TDFM) parameters of the C and Ct were analyzed. The creep propagation data were obtained from the creep crack growth tests for type 316LN stainless steels, and creep crack growth testing machine for Gen-IV system up to 950 .deg. C was set up. Damage mechanism and causes for creep-fatigue were investigated. The difference between prediction creep-fatigue life and experimental life were investigated. Material properties for analysis creep-fatigue damage were recommended. The assessment procedure (Draft) on creep-fatigue crack initiation has been developed based on the technical appendix A16 of French RCC-MR code. Ultrasonic wave signal against creep ruptured specimens of type 316LN stainless steel was obtained. It was identified that creep damage can be evaluated by ultrasonic method. The NDT techniques evaluated include Barkhausen noise, magnetic hysteresis parameters, positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering. Experimental procedure and evaluation method of material integrity were developed through the fracture toughness test of Cr-Mo steel.

  20. Temperature Dependence Characterization of Layered Materials via the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (United States)

    Zhang, Haoxiang; Stevens, Christopher; Paul, Jagannath; Karaiskaj, Denis; Miller, Casey

    The Curie temperature of PyCu alloy films can be controlled by Cu content. The additional thickness in layered materials changes the Cure temperature and hence the magnetic coupling between permalloy and Cu layers. The decoupling is investigated by the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) as a function of temperature around the Curie temperature. The measurements reveal the coupling dynamics between permalloy and Co in novel magnetic heterostructures. This research at USF is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  1. Using IDA to Understand Electron Temperature Structures in High Temperature Discharges in the Madison Symmetric Torus (United States)

    Reusch, L. M.; Galante, M. E.; den Hartog, D. J.; Franz, P.; Johnson, J. R.; McGarry, M. B.; Stephens, H. D.


    The Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch is equipped with two independent electron temperature (Te) diagnostics: Thomson scattering (TS) and double-filter soft x-ray (SXR). Both diagnostics are able to measure Te at a rate up to 25 kHz and are in good qualitative agreement in the hot plasma core, where Te > 1 keV. We are able to combine information from both TS and SXR diagnostics along with prior physics knowledge using integrated data analysis techniques (IDA) [R. Fischer and A. Dinklage, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4237 (2004)] to improve the precision and utility of Te measurements on MST. Using IDA, there is a factor of 4 improvement in the uncertainty of all temperature measurements. We have also implemented a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis for analyzing the various temperature structures that MST is capable of sustaining. We have compared emissivity maps and flux surface reconstructions to the electron temperatures from several discharges to characterize the phenomenology of temperature structures in high temperature plasmas in MST. Work supported by US DOE and NSF.

  2. Theoretical temperature model with experimental validation for CLIC Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2126138; Vamvakas, Alex; Alme, Johan

    Micron level stability of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) components is one of the main requirements to meet the luminosity goal for the future $48 \\,km$ long underground linear accelerator. The radio frequency (RF) power used for beam acceleration causes heat generation within the aligned structures, resulting in mechanical movements and structural deformations. A dedicated control of the air- and water- cooling system in the tunnel is therefore crucial to improve alignment accuracy. This thesis investigates the thermo-mechanical behavior of the CLIC Accelerating Structure (AS). In CLIC, the AS must be aligned to a precision of $10\\,\\mu m$. The thesis shows that a relatively simple theoretical model can be used within reasonable accuracy to predict the temperature response of an AS as a function of the applied RF power. During failure scenarios or maintenance interventions, the RF power is turned off resulting in no heat dissipation and decrease in the overall temperature of the components. The theoretica...

  3. Optical Fiber Strain Instrumentation for High Temperature Aerospace Structural Monitoring (United States)

    Wang, A.


    The objective of the program is the development and laboratory demonstration of sensors based on silica optical fibers for measurement of high temperature strain for aerospace materials evaluations. A complete fiber strain sensor system based on white-light interferometry was designed and implemented. An experiment set-up was constructed to permit testing of strain measurement up to 850 C. The strain is created by bending an alumina cantilever beam to which is the fiber sensor is attached. The strain calibration is provided by the application of known beam deflections. To ensure the high temperature operation capability of the sensor, gold-coated single-mode fiber is used. Moreover, a new method of sensor surface attachment which permits accurate sensor gage length determination is also developed. Excellent results were obtained at temperatures up to 800-850 C.

  4. Mesoporous Germanium Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery with Exceptional Cycling Stability in Wide Temperature Range. (United States)

    Choi, Sinho; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kim, Jieun; Choi, Nam-Soon; Song, Hyun-Kon; Wang, Guoxiu; Park, Soojin


    Porous structured materials have unique architectures and are promising for lithium-ion batteries to enhance performances. In particular, mesoporous materials have many advantages including a high surface area and large void spaces which can increase reactivity and accessibility of lithium ions. This study reports a synthesis of newly developed mesoporous germanium (Ge) particles prepared by a zincothermic reduction at a mild temperature for high performance lithium-ion batteries which can operate in a wide temperature range. The optimized Ge battery anodes with the mesoporous structure exhibit outstanding electrochemical properties in a wide temperature ranging from -20 to 60 °C. Ge anodes exhibit a stable cycling retention at various temperatures (capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles at 25 °C, 84% after 300 cycles at 60 °C, and 50% after 50 cycles at -20 °C). Furthermore, full cells consisting of the mesoporous Ge anode and an LiFePO4 cathode show an excellent cyclability at -20 and 25 °C. Mesoporous Ge materials synthesized by the zincothermic reduction can be potentially applied as high performance anode materials for practical lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Promising Thermoelectric Bulk Materials with 2D Structures. (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Zhao, Li-Dong


    Given that more than two thirds of all energy is lost, mostly as waste heat, in utilization processes worldwide, thermoelectric materials, which can directly convert waste heat to electricity, provide an alternative option for optimizing energy utilization processes. After the prediction that superlattices may show high thermoelectric performance, various methods based on quantum effects and superlattice theory have been adopted to analyze bulk materials, leading to the rapid development of thermoelectric materials. Bulk materials with two-dimensional (2D) structures show outstanding properties, and their high performance originates from both their low thermal conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient due to their strong anisotropic features. Here, the advantages of superlattices for enhancing the thermoelectric performance, the transport mechanism in bulk materials with 2D structures, and optimization methods are discussed. The phenomenological transport mechanism in these materials indicates that thermal conductivities are reduced in 2D materials with intrinsically short mean free paths. Recent progress in the transport mechanisms of Bi 2 Te 3 -, SnSe-, and BiCuSeO-based systems is summarized. Finally, possible research directions to enhance the thermoelectric performance of bulk materials with 2D structures are briefly considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications (United States)

    Deo, Ravi B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Holzwarth, Richard C.


    A survey of current applications of composite materials and structures in military, transport and General Aviation aircraft is presented to assess the maturity of composites technology, and the payoffs realized. The results of the survey show that performance requirements and the potential to reduce life cycle costs for military aircraft and direct operating costs for transport aircraft are the main reasons for the selection of composite materials for current aircraft applications. Initial acquisition costs of composite airframe components are affected by high material costs and complex certification tests which appear to discourage the widespread use of composite materials for aircraft applications. Material suppliers have performed very well to date in developing resin matrix and fiber systems for improved mechanical, durability and damage tolerance performance. The next challenge for material suppliers is to reduce material costs and to develop materials that are suitable for simplified and inexpensive manufacturing processes. The focus of airframe manufacturers should be on the development of structural designs that reduce assembly costs by the use of large-scale integration of airframe components with unitized structures and manufacturing processes that minimize excessive manual labor.

  7. Effect of retro-reflective materials on temperature environment in tents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang


    Full Text Available Due to the low thermal inertia and poor thermal insulation of ultrathin envelope in tents, its indoor temperature environment is extremely bad and its occupants are tormented. Especially under the high solar radiation, both indoor air temperature and inner surface radiation temperature increase rapidly. And thereby, decreasing radiation heat gain in summer is necessary to refine indoor temperature environment in tents. Retro-reflective materials make it a reasonable choice due to their high reflectivity for solar radiation. To reveal the temperature environment improvement of tents by integrating with retro-reflective materials, a comparative experiment is carried out under the summer climatic conditions of Chengdu city, China. Experimental results show that due to integrating with retro-reflective materials, indoor air peak temperature in the tent can be reduced by more than 7.7 °C, while inner surface radiant temperature can be lowered up to 4.8 °C in the day time. It shows retro-reflective materials could refine indoor temperature environment in tents. Through a comparison of the walls in different orientations, on which retro-reflective materials are covered, the top, east and north walls are found to be better choices, while the north wall is the worst one for retro-reflective materials.

  8. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Structural response and failure analysis (United States)

    Dorris, William J.; Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Tien; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.


    Non-linear analysis methods were adapted and incorporated in a finite element based DIAL code. These methods are necessary to evaluate the global response of a stiffened structure under combined in-plane and out-of-plane loading. These methods include the Arc Length method and target point analysis procedure. A new interface material model was implemented that can model elastic-plastic behavior of the bond adhesive. Direct application of this method is in skin/stiffener interface failure assessment. Addition of the AML (angle minus longitudinal or load) failure procedure and Hasin's failure criteria provides added capability in the failure predictions. Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis modules were developed as interactive pre-and post-processors. Each module provides the means of performing self-initiated finite elements based analysis of primary structures such as a flat or curved stiffened panel; a corrugated flat sandwich panel; and a curved geodesic fuselage panel. This module brings finite element analysis into the design of composite structures without the requirement for the user to know much about the techniques and procedures needed to actually perform a finite element analysis from scratch. An interactive finite element code was developed to predict bolted joint strength considering material and geometrical non-linearity. The developed method conducts an ultimate strength failure analysis using a set of material degradation models.

  9. Improved High Temperature Superconductor Materials for Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozhaev, Peter; Khoryushin, Alexey; Mozhaeva, Julia


    Effects of yttria addition on the structural and electrical properties of the YBCO thin films are studied. The films were deposited on (LaAlO3).3-(Sr2AlTaO8).7 substrates by pulsed laser ablation from targets with different elemental composition. The contents of elements in the film depend mainly...

  10. Materials for High-Temperature Hydrogen Fluorine Environments. (United States)


    was detected). This complete phase diagram is being determined,(i) and the solid solution region extends to 57 mol % LaF3 in SrF2 with maximum melting...lanthanum chromite (LaCrQ 3 ), yttrium (Y), yttrium oxide (Y2 03 ), nickel aluminide (NiAl), Y20 3 doped Ni, magnesium oxide (MgO), aluminum oxide...with externally wound cooling coils. Figure 1 is an as-built flow diagram of the material test facility as designed by the Y’-12 Engineering Division

  11. Analysis of bulk heterojunction material parameters using lateral device structures (United States)

    Danielson, Eric; Ooi, Zi-En; Liang, Kelly; Morris, Joshua; Lombardo, Christopher; Dodabalapur, Ananth


    We review the key optoelectronic properties of lateral organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) device structures with asymmetric contacts. These structures are used to develop a detailed model of charge transport and recombination properties within materials used for organic photovoltaics. They permit a variety of direct measurement techniques, such as nonlinear optical microscopy and in situ potentiometry, as well as photoconductive gain and carrier drift length studies from photocurrent measurements. We present a theoretical framework that describes the charge transport physics within these devices. The experimental results presented are in agreement with this framework and can be used to measure carrier concentrations, recombination coefficients, and carrier mobilities within BHJ materials. Lateral device structures offer a useful complement to measurements on vertical photovoltaic structures and provide a more complete and detailed picture of organic BHJ materials.

  12. Structural Materials for Efficient Energy Production Systems; Materiales estructurales para sistemas eficientes de produccion de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Briceno, D.


    Increasing the efficiency of electric power production systems implies increasing the operating temperature above those of systems currently in operation. The viability of new systems depends completely on the availability of structural materials that withstand the operating conditions specified in the design: adequate features under mechanical stress at high temperatures and compatibility with the medium. In the case of nuclear systems (fission, fusion), an important requirement is their response to irradiation induced damage. In spite of the significant differences that exist in the design of nuclear power plants, fusion reactors, innovative fission systems, supercritical fossil plants, biomass plants, solar concentration thermal plants, etc., all of them have as a common characteristic the use of resistant materials at high temperatures. The qualification of existing materials for the new and more demanding operating conditions and the development of new materials is one of the challenges faced by the electric power production industry. The science of materials and the understanding of the basic processes that take place in structural materials on exposure to the operating conditions of energy production systems are the tools that are available to obtain safe and economically viable solutions. (Authors) 4 refs.

  13. Investigation of medium and high temperature phase change materials (United States)

    Heine, D.; Kraehling, H.


    A detailed description of the programs for acquisition and analysis of the test results is given. Basically it concerns three programs. The TEST program controls the recording of the test data. With the THELLI program it is possible to follow the temperature curve recorded for each individual thermoelement during the test. With the AUSW program the test data can be analyzed, to determine, for example, the melting point and the start of melting. The first results of the service life tests are discussed. From these it is attempted to draw inferences for the subsequent tests. An attempt is made to focus on the determination of the area-related mass loss, the reduction in thickness and the corrosion rate as well as optical and scanning electron microscope evaluation.

  14. Microstructure and Room Temperature Compressive Deformation Behavior of Cold-Sprayed High-Strength Cu Bulk Material (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Park, Chan-Hee; Lee, Kee-Ahn


    This study investigated the room temperature compressive deformation behavior of Cu bulk material manufactured by cold spray process. Initial microstructural observation identified a unique microstructure with grain size of hundreds of nm in the particle interface area and relatively coarse grains in all other areas. Room temperature compressive results confirmed cold-sprayed Cu to have a yield strength of 340 MPa, which is similar to materials manufactured by severe plastic deformation process such as equal channel angular press. In addition, strain softening phenomenon, which is rarely found in room temperature compressive deformation, was observed. According to such unique characteristics, continuous microstructure evolution and surface fractures according to the strain ( ɛ t = 0.3/0.6/0.9) of the material were observed, and considerations were made for deformation and fracture behavior. Microstructural observation after compressive deformation confirmed that average grain size decreased as the strain increased, and the fraction of the low-angle boundary, which has an indirect relationship with dislocation density, showed a tendency to decrease in ɛ t = 0.3-0.6 region where the strain softening phenomenon occurs. Based on the results described above, this study was able to identify the possibility of manufacturing cold-sprayed Cu bulk material for structural material and its room temperature deformation behavior.

  15. Materials and Components for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Radhika


    Full Text Available This article summarizes the recent advancements made in the area of materials and components for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs. LT-SOFC is a new trend in SOFCtechnology since high temperature SOFC puts very high demands on the materials and too expensive to match marketability. The current status of the electrolyte and electrode materials used in SOFCs, their specific features and the need for utilizing them for LT-SOFC are presented precisely in this review article. The section on electrolytes gives an overview of zirconia, lanthanum gallate and ceria based materials. Also, this review article explains the application of different anode, cathode and interconnect materials used for SOFC systems. SOFC can result in better performance with the application of liquid fuels such methanol and ethanol. As a whole, this review article discusses the novel materials suitable for operation of SOFC systems especially for low temperature operation.

  16. Feasibility of using microencapsulated phase change materials as filler for improving low temperature performance of rubber sealing materials. (United States)

    Tiwari, Avinash; Shubin, Sergey N; Alcock, Ben; Freidin, Alexander B; Thorkildsen, Brede; Echtermeyer, Andreas T


    The feasibility of a novel composite rubber sealing material to improve sealing under transient cooling (in a so-called blowdown scenario) is investigated here. A composite of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) filled with Micro Encapsulated Phase Change Materials (MEPCM) is described. The fillers contain phase change materials that release heat during the phase transformation from liquid to solid while cooling. This exotherm locally heats the rubber and may improve the function of the seal during a blowdown event. A representative HNBR-MEPCM composite was made and the critical thermal and mechanical properties were obtained by simulating the temperature distribution during a blowdown event. Simulations predict that the MEPCM composites can delay the temperature decrease in a region of the seal during the transient blowdown. A sensitivity analysis of material properties is also presented which highlights possible avenues of improvement of the MEPCMs for sealing applications.

  17. Carcinogenic organic residual compounds readsorbed on thermally reduced graphene materials are released at low temperature. (United States)

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Wong, Gwendeline K S; Webster, Richard D; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin


    The preliminary oxidation of graphite to graphite oxide followed by a thermal exfoliation is one of the methods most frequently employed in the preparation of graphene. Such thermally reduced graphene can be widely used for several applications that range from coatings to sensing device fabrication. It is therefore important to investigate in detail the fabrication procedure, the structural features of the resulting graphene, and its potential toxicological effects. Low-molecular-weight and carcinogenic compounds are known to be generated during the thermal reduction/exfoliation of graphite oxide. Such compounds are readsorbed onto the reduced material during the cooling process. We investigate here the composition of the organic compounds that are adsorbed onto the graphene material and show that they can be easily released during the following processing steps even at temperatures as low as 50 °C. Some of the released organic compounds are classified as highly carcinogenic. The results shown here are important not only from a chemical point of view to better understand the composition and properties of the graphene material produced, but also to bring attention to the potential toxicological effects that the synthesis itself or the post-production processes can cause. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Performance of a Novel Hydrophobic Mesoporous Material for High Temperature Catalytic Oxidation of Naphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Zhao


    Full Text Available A high surface area, hydrophobic mesoporous material, MFS, has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal synthesis method using a perfluorinated surfactant, SURFLON S-386, as the single template. N2 adsorption and TEM were employed to characterize the pore structure and morphology of MFS. Static water adsorption test indicates that the hydrophobicity of MFS is significantly higher than that of MCM-41. XPS and Py-GC/MS analysis confirmed the existence of perfluoroalkyl groups in MFS which led to its high hydrophobicity. MFS was used as a support for CuO in experiments of catalytic combustion of naphthalene, where it showed a significant advantage over MCM-41 and ZSM-5. SEM was helpful in understanding why CuO-MFS performed so well in the catalytic combustion of naphthalene. Experimental results indicated that MFS was a suitable support for catalytic combustion of large molecular organic compounds, especially for some high temperature catalytic reactions when water vapor was present.

  19. The Application of High Temperature Superconducting Materials to Power Switches

    CERN Document Server

    March, S A; Ballarino, A


    Superconducting switches may find application in superconducting magnet systems that require energy extraction. Such superconducting switches could be bypass-switches that are operated in conjunction with a parallel resistor or dump-switches where all of the energy is dissipated in the switch itself. Bypass-switches are more suited to higher energy circuits as a portion of the energy can be dissipated in the external dump resistor. Dump- switches require less material and triggering energy as a lower switch resistance is needed to achieve the required total dump resistance. Both superconducting bypass-switches and superconducting dump-switches can be ther- mally activated. Switching times that are comparable to those obtained with mechanical bypass-switch systems can be achieved using a co-wound heater that is powered by a ca- pacitor discharge. Switches that have fast thermal diffusion times through the insulation can be modelled as a lumped system whereas those with slow thermal diffusion times were modelle...

  20. The Optical Janus Effect: Asymmetric Structural Color Reflection Materials. (United States)

    England, Grant T; Russell, Calvin; Shirman, Elijah; Kay, Theresa; Vogel, Nicolas; Aizenberg, Joanna


    Structurally colored materials are often used for their resistance to photobleaching and their complex viewing-direction-dependent optical properties. Frequently, absorption has been added to these types of materials in order to improve the color saturation by mitigating the effects of nonspecific scattering that is present in most samples due to imperfect manufacturing procedures. The combination of absorbing elements and structural coloration often yields emergent optical properties. Here, a new hybrid architecture is introduced that leads to an interesting, highly directional optical effect. By localizing absorption in a thin layer within a transparent, structurally colored multilayer material, an optical Janus effect is created, wherein the observed reflected color is different on one side of the sample than on the other. A systematic characterization of the optical properties of these structures as a function of their geometry and composition is performed. The experimental studies are coupled with a theoretical analysis that enables a precise, rational design of various optical Janus structures with highly controlled color, pattern, and fabrication approaches. These asymmetrically colored materials will open applications in art, architecture, semitransparent solar cells, and security features in anticounterfeiting materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find


    In the initial phase of an aircraft design, it is valuable to be capable of predicting temperature rise and thermal elongation depending on the actual threat from lightning currents. In this paper equations are stated to calculate the temperature rise of different structures. The analytical...... expressions established, accounts for the geometry of the structure (round conductor, rectangular cross section, pipe, plane sheet, etc), the material properties (Aluminum, Copper, Carbon Fiber Composites, etc.), the frequency of the current (skin depth) and the Specific Energy (Action Integral). For linear...... structures (wires, bars etc.), the result is the resistance of the structure, the final temperature, and the thermal elongation depending on geometry and material properties. Regarding arc injection in the centre of plane specimens the equations enables calculation of the temperature as a function...

  2. Structural transformation of Sb-based high-speed phase-change material. (United States)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Rie; Yamada, Noboru; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kifune, Kouichi


    The crystal structure of a phase-change recording material (the compound Ag(3.4)In(3.7)Sb(76.4)Te(16.5)) enclosed in a vacuum capillary tube was investigated at various temperatures in a heating process using a large Debye-Scherrer camera installed in BL02B2 at SPring-8. The amorphous phase of this material turns into a crystalline phase at around 416 K; this crystalline phase has an A7-type structure with atoms of Ag, In, Sb or Te randomly occupying the 6c site in the space group. This structure was maintained up to around 545 K as a single phase, although thermal expansion of the crystal lattice was observed. However, above this temperature, phase separation into AgInTe(2) and Sb-Te transpired. The first fragment, AgInTe(2), reliably maintained its crystal structure up to the melting temperature. On the other hand, the atomic configuration of the Sb-Te gradually varied with increasing temperature. This gradual structural transformation can be described as a continuous growth of the modulation period γ.

  3. Variations in erosive wear of metallic materials with temperature via the electron work function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Yu, Bin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); Yan, X.G. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Li, D.Y., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)


    Mechanical properties of metals are intrinsically determined by their electron behavior, which is largely reflected by the electron work function (EWF or φ). Since the work function varies with temperature, the dependence of material properties on temperature could be predicted via variations in work function with temperature. Combining a hardness – φ relationship and the dependence of work function on temperature, a temperature-dependent model for predicting solid-particle erosion is proposed. Erosive wear losses of copper, nickel, and carbon steel as sample materials were measured at different temperatures. Results of the tests are consistent with the theoretical prediction. This study demonstrates a promising parameter, electron work function, for looking into fundamental aspects of wear phenomena, which would also help develop alternative methodologies for material design. - Highlights: • Metallic materials' wear resistance is influenced by temperature. • Electron work function (EWF) intrinsically determines materials' wear resistance. • An EWF-based temperature-dependent solid-particle erosion model is proposed.

  4. Temperature rise and stress induced by microcracks in accelerating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhu


    Full Text Available The temperature rise and induced stress due to Ohmic heating in the vicinity of microcracks on the walls of high-gradient accelerating structures are considered. The temperature rise and induced stress depend on the orientation of the crack with respect to the rf magnetic field, the shape of the crack, and the power and duration of the rf pulse. Under certain conditions the presence of cracks can double the temperature rise over that of a smooth surface. Stress at the bottom of the cracks can be several times larger than that of the case when there are no cracks. We study these effects both analytically and by computer simulation. It is shown that the stress in cracks is maximal when the crack depth is on the order of the thermal penetration depth.

  5. Rare earth chalcogenides for use as high temperature thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michiels, Jhn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    In the first part of the thesis, the electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Hall effect were measured in Xy(Y2S3)1-y (X = Cu, B, or Al), for y = 0.05 (Cu, B) or 0.025-0.075 for Al, in order to determine their potential as high- temperature (HT)(300-1000 C) thermoelectrics. Results indicate that Cu, B, Al- doped Y2S3 are not useful as HT thermoelectrics. In the second part, phase stability of γ-cubic LaSe1.47-1.48 and NdSe1.47 was measured periodically during annealing at 800 or 1000 C for the same purpose. In the Nd selenide, β phase increased with time, while the Nd selenide showed no sign of this second phase. It is concluded that the La selenide is not promising for use as HT thermoelectric due to the γ-to-β transformation, whereas the Nd selenide is promising.

  6. Templating for hierarchical structure control in carbon materials. (United States)

    Schrettl, Stephen; Schulte, Bjoern; Frauenrath, Holger


    Carbon-based materials show a remarkable variety of physical properties. For this reason, they have recently been explored for many advanced applications and emerging technologies. In the absence of actual "chemical" functionalities in these materials, tailoring these physical properties requires control on all levels of the structural hierarchy, from the atomic structure (carbon connectivity, defects, impurities), to the supramolecular level (domain orientations), nanoscopic length scale (domain sizes, porosity), microscopic structure (morphology), and macroscopic aspects (shape, surface chemistry). When preparing carbon materials, all these features can be tailored through the use of hard, soft, or molecular templates. Based on such templating approaches or through their combination, tremendous progress towards hierarchically structured carbon materials has recently been accomplished. Novel carbon nanomaterials such as brick-walled carbon tubes, carbon nanotube forests, coral-like carbon monoliths, or functional carbon nanosheets have become available, some of which exhibit unusual combinations of electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties. This review aims to discuss how the different templating approaches allow the control of structure formation on various length scales, how hierarchical structure formation can be realized, and which challenges remain, such as the detailed control over the carbon connectivity or the surface chemistry.

  7. Efficient frequency response analysis of structures with viscoelastic materials (United States)

    Swenson, Eric Dexter

    Noise and vibration levels in structures like automobiles and aircraft have been reduced through the application of viscoelastic materials (VEMs) as damping treatments for many years [18, 34, 37]. Adding a VEM to a structure makes accurate prediction of a structure's response to harmonic excitations challenging. This is because the VEM's properties, including the Young's modulus, damping coefficient, and shear modulus, vary significantly as functions of both frequency of excitation and temperature [34]. The solution algorithm presented in this research takes advantage of the fact that the VEM properties typically vary smoothly with frequency by interpolating VEM property variations between known values at perhaps a half dozen frequencies. The typical finite element (FE) discretization targeted by this work has millions of FE degrees of freedom in order to obtain acceptable accuracy over the frequency range of interest and is typically solved at hundreds of frequencies for tens to hundreds of load cases. Accurate approximate solutions to this large frequency response problem (FRP) can be computed efficiently on an approximating subspace. To decrease the cost of factoring the resulting reduced FRP at every frequency, the dimension of the approximating subspace is minimized by replacing hundreds to thousands of eigenvectors with a significantly smaller number of enrichment vectors called residual flexibility vectors (RFVs), damping deformation vectors (DDVs), and dynamic response vectors (DRVs). The RFVs and DDVs represent quasistatic response to loads and to dashpot forces, respectively, and including RFVs and DDVs in the approximating subspace is a common industrial practice. The use of DRVs, which are corrections to approximate solutions of the FRP at select frequencies, is new. Because computing DRVs is very expensive on the FE subspace, we accurately approximate DRVs in a reduced subspace associated with the automated multilevel substructuring (AMLS) method. Also

  8. Neutron scattering experiments on high-temperature superconducting materials: Foreign trip report, September 13, 1988--October 4, 1988 (United States)

    Mook, H. A.


    The trip to the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) was made to perform neutron scattering experiments on the new high temperature superconducting materials. Part of this work could have been accomplished at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL had it been operational; other parts utilized the special instrumentation at the ILL available at no other place. Experiments performed were the following: high energy magnetic excitations in pure and Ba-doped La2CuO4, magnetic excitations and structural phase transitions in the Bi2Ba2Cu1O6 superconductor, search for the fluxoid lattice in the high temperature materials, and magnetic spin structures in ErBa2Cu3O7 and GdBa2Cu3O6.5. Measurements were also made on supermirrors important for polarizing and neutron guide applications.

  9. Structural disorder and electron transport in graphene at low temperatures (United States)

    Bobenko, N. G.; Egorushkin, V. E.; Melnikova, N. V.; Ponomarev, A. N.; Belosludtseva, A. A.; Barkalov, L. D.


    A theoretical study of electron transport characteristics of metalized epitaxial graphene with impurities and structural inhomogeneous of the short-range order type was performed. The electron relaxation time, mean free path, and diffusion coefficient were calculated and shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding values for phonon characteristics. It means that electron scattering on the short-range ordered domains has to be taken into account, especially at low temperatures when it may dominate phonon scattering.

  10. High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program: 19th Annual Report, October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, Arvid [ORNL


    Annual Report contains overview of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program and includes selected highlights of user activities for FY2006. Report is submitted to individuals within sponsoring DOE agency and to other interested individuals.

  11. Recent developments of discrete material optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik; Sørensen, Rene


    This work will give a quick summary of recent developments of the Discrete Material Optimization approach for structural optimization of laminated composite structures. This approach can be seen as a multi-material topology optimization approach for selecting the best ply material and number....... The different interpolation schemes used are described, and it is briefly outlined how design rules/manufacturing constraints can be included in the optimization. The approach has been demonstrated for a number of global design criteria like mass, compliance, buckling load factors, etc., but recent work makes...... it possible also to include local criteria such as strength criteria in the formulations. This is illustrated by structural optimization of a corner hinged laminated plate in this paper, and at ICCM20 it will also be demonstrated for optimization of a main spar from a wind turbine blade....

  12. Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, J.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

  13. Friction and wear studies on the temperature dependence of brake-pad materials containing brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddoumy Fatima


    Full Text Available Brake pad materials for automobile applications are basically polymer matrix composites. Various reinforcing constituents used in brake pads are organic, metallic and ceramic fillers which play among others an important role on the mechanical and thermal properties, and the wear resistance at high temperature. Friction and wear depend on various parameters such as the micro-chemical structure of the pad and of the metallic counter-face, the rotation speed, the pressure, and the contact surface temperature (M.G. Jacko 1983. This latter parameter can be locally as high as 600 up to 1.500 ∘C depending on the brake type (M.G. Jacko 1983; Blau 2001. Thermal models have been developed to study interface effects at contacting surfaces (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Frictional energy can be dissipated through different mechanisms such as oxidation, rise in temperature, formation of wear particles, entropy changes associated to viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation, and noise generation (Eddoumy, Addiego et al. 2011. Studies of friction brake show that more than 95% of the dissipated energy is transformed into heat (Kasem, Thevenet et al.; Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Thermal analysis is therefore a primordial step in the study of brake systems since it provides thermo-mechanical properties (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. The influence of the addition of metallic fibers on the performance of organic friction composites has been investigated using friction tests (Qu, Zhang et al. 2004. Benefits or limitations of the different fibers have been reported, however the issues of thermo-mechanical properties or effect of temperature on friction and wear behavior were not yet investigated (Bijwe, Kumar et al. 2008. No effort was done to correlate the thermo-mechanical and thermal properties with the friction and wear behavior. An important prerequisite is to get a good understanding on how brake materials behave. However, a link

  14. Temperature-dependent electrical properties of graphene inkjet-printed on flexible materials. (United States)

    Kong, De; Le, Linh T; Li, Yue; Zunino, James L; Lee, Woo


    Graphene electrode was fabricated by inkjet printing, as a new means of directly writing and micropatterning the electrode onto flexible polymeric materials. Graphene oxide sheets were dispersed in water and subsequently reduced using an infrared heat lamp at a temperature of ~200 °C in 10 min. Spacing between adjacent ink droplets and the number of printing layers were used to tailor the electrode's electrical sheet resistance as low as 0.3 MΩ/□ and optical transparency as high as 86%. The graphene electrode was found to be stable under mechanical flexing and behave as a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) material, exhibiting rapid electrical resistance decrease with temperature increase. Temperature sensitivity of the graphene electrode was similar to that of conventional NTC materials, but with faster response time by an order of magnitude. This finding suggests the potential use of the inkjet-printed graphene electrode as a writable, very thin, mechanically flexible, and transparent temperature sensor.

  15. Hierarchically porous materials: synthesis strategies and structure design. (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, Yu; Rooke, Joanna Claire; Sanchez, Clément; Su, Bao-Lian


    Owing to their immense potential in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation and life science applications, significant interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of hierarchically porous materials. The hierarchy of materials on porosity, structural, morphological, and component levels is key for high performance in all kinds of applications. Synthesis and applications of hierarchically structured porous materials have become a rapidly evolving field of current interest. A large series of synthesis methods have been developed. This review addresses recent advances made in studies of this topic. After identifying the advantages and problems of natural hierarchically porous materials, synthetic hierarchically porous materials are presented. The synthesis strategies used to prepare hierarchically porous materials are first introduced and the features of synthesis and the resulting structures are presented using a series of examples. These involve templating methods (surfactant templating, nanocasting, macroporous polymer templating, colloidal crystal templating and bioinspired process, i.e. biotemplating), conventional techniques (supercritical fluids, emulsion, freeze-drying, breath figures, selective leaching, phase separation, zeolitization process, and replication) and basic methods (sol-gel controlling and post-treatment), as well as self-formation phenomenon of porous hierarchy. A series of detailed examples are given to show methods for the synthesis of hierarchically porous structures with various chemical compositions (dual porosities: micro-micropores, micro-mesopores, micro-macropores, meso-mesopores, meso-macropores, multiple porosities: micro-meso-macropores and meso-meso-macropores). We hope that this review will be helpful for those entering the field and also for those in the field who want quick access to helpful reference information about the synthesis of new hierarchically porous materials and

  16. Novel Nanocomposite Structures as Active and Passive Barrier Materials (United States)


    and zeolites to make composite materials, the resulting membranes effectively blocked CEES while still transporting water at a flux rate above DoD...vapor but also allowed CEES vapor to penetrate. By incorporating amines and zeolites to make composite materials, the resulting functional groups were chosen because of their hydrophilic nature. Figure 2: Structures of diol-functionalized RTILs While preparing a new

  17. Structural integrity of materials in nuclear service: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.


    This report contains 679 abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) computer file dated 1973 through 1976 covering material properties with respect to structural integrity. All materials important to the nuclear industry (except concrete) are covered for mechanical properties, chemical properties, corrosion, fracture or failure, radiation damage, creep, cracking, and swelling. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for the convenience of the user.

  18. Ultrasonic tomography of multilayer structures of high contrast materials (United States)

    Doyle, T. E.


    Ultrasonic tomography was investigated for the testing of alternating layers of fiber-reinforced composite and rubber bonded between two steel components. The method used nonparallel linear arrays in a crosswell configuration and an iterative reconstruction technique. A waveform and spectrum analysis method was also developed to provide greater sensitivity to material variations. The results show that these structures can be inspected with excellent spatial and material property definition using elementary tomography and signal processing approaches.

  19. Application of CCG Sensors to a High-Temperature Structure Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Load (United States)

    Xie, Weihua; Meng, Songhe; Jin, Hua; Du, Chong; Wang, Libin; Peng, Tao; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Xu, Chenghai


    This paper presents a simple methodology to perform a high temperature coupled thermo-mechanical test using ultra-high temperature ceramic material specimens (UHTCs), which are equipped with chemical composition gratings sensors (CCGs). The methodology also considers the presence of coupled loading within the response provided by the CCG sensors. The theoretical strain of the UHTCs specimens calculated with this technique shows a maximum relative error of 2.15% between the analytical and experimental data. To further verify the validity of the results from the tests, a Finite Element (FE) model has been developed to simulate the temperature, stress and strain fields within the UHTC structure equipped with the CCG. The results show that the compressive stress exceeds the material strength at the bonding area, and this originates a failure by fracture of the supporting structure in the hot environment. The results related to the strain fields show that the relative error with the experimental data decrease with an increase of temperature. The relative error is less than 15% when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, and only 6.71% at 695 °C. PMID:27754356

  20. Application of CCG Sensors to a High-Temperature Structure Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Xie


    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple methodology to perform a high temperature coupled thermo-mechanical test using ultra-high temperature ceramic material specimens (UHTCs, which are equipped with chemical composition gratings sensors (CCGs. The methodology also considers the presence of coupled loading within the response provided by the CCG sensors. The theoretical strain of the UHTCs specimens calculated with this technique shows a maximum relative error of 2.15% between the analytical and experimental data. To further verify the validity of the results from the tests, a Finite Element (FE model has been developed to simulate the temperature, stress and strain fields within the UHTC structure equipped with the CCG. The results show that the compressive stress exceeds the material strength at the bonding area, and this originates a failure by fracture of the supporting structure in the hot environment. The results related to the strain fields show that the relative error with the experimental data decrease with an increase of temperature. The relative error is less than 15% when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, and only 6.71% at 695 °C.

  1. Temperature Effects on Adhesive Bond Strengths and Modulus for Commonly Used Spacecraft Structural Adhesives (United States)

    Ojeda, Cassandra E.; Oakes, Eric J.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Aldi, Dominic; Forsberg, Gustaf A.


    A study was performed to observe how changes in temperature and substrate material affected the strength and modulus of an adhesive bondline. Seven different adhesives commonly used in aerospace bonded structures were tested. Aluminum, titanium and Invar adherends were cleaned and primed, then bonded using the manufacturer's recommendations. Following surface preparation, the coupons were bonded with the adhesives. The single lap shear coupons were then pull tested per ASTM D 1002 Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap-Joint over a temperature range from -150 deg C up to +150 deg C. The ultimate strength was calculated and the resulting data were converted into B-basis design allowables. Average and Bbasis results were compared. Results obtained using aluminum adherends are reported. The effects of using different adherend materials and temperature were also studied and will be reported in a subsequent paper. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study variations in adhesive modulus with temperature. This work resulted in a highly useful database for comparing adhesive performance over a wide range of temperatures, and has facilitated selection of the appropriate adhesive for spacecraft structure applications.

  2. 500 C Electronic Packaging and Dielectric Materials for High Temperature Applications (United States)

    Chen, Liang-yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.


    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for exploring the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by these high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed. High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for probing the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and eventual applications of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high electronics and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed.

  3. YAG:Yb3+ crystal as a potential material for optical temperature sensors (United States)

    Demirkhanyan, H. G.; Demirkhanyan, G. G.; Kostanyan, R. B.


    The possibilities are discussed of Y3Al5O12:Yb3+ crystal as a material for an optical temperature sensor (OTS) based on the temperature dependences of the more intense spectral emission lines and on the ratio of the absorption coefficients from the ground and first excited Stark sublevels. The operating temperature and average sensitivity for OTSs are determined. It is shown that the former is an effective method for an OTS in a cryogenic temperature range (40–130 K) and the latter in a high temperature range (500–1000 K).

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of hydrothermal assisted zinc oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Guru Nisha; Sankar Ganesh, R.; Karthigeyan, A., E-mail:


    Zinc oxide nanorods were grown employing a low cost hydrothermal method on microslide glass substrates pre-coated with ZnO seed layer. The as grown nanorods were annealed in air at 350 °C, 450 °C and 550 °C. The effect of annealing at different temperatures on morphology, structural, optical and electrical properties was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopic, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectral, photoluminescence and electrical studies. The X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples showed wurtzite structure preferentially oriented along the c-axis (0 0 2) direction. It was found that diameter of the nanorods increased with increasing of annealing temperature. The UV–vis absorption spectra showed a red shift from which it was inferred that the optical bandgap of the material decreases from 3.33 eV to 3.28 eV with increase in annealing temperature. Photoluminescence measurements showed increase in the UV emission intensity with respect to annealing temperature and also produced additional peaks attributed to defects and impurities. Annealing the ZnO nanorod structures at various temperatures evidently showed that the sample annealed at 550 °C acquired the lowest resistivity about 1.62 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm. - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method on microslide glass substrates. • Pre-deposited ZnO seeds were used. • Structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorods were studied. • Crystalline structure of ZnO nanorods was improved with increase in annealing temperature. • Resistivity decrease was observed with increase in the annealing temperature.

  5. Impact analysis of automotive structures with distributed smart material systems (United States)

    Peelamedu, Saravanan M.; Naganathan, Ganapathy; Buckley, Stephen J.


    New class of automobiles has structural skins that are quite different from their current designs. Particularly, new families of composite skins are developed with new injection molding processes. These skins while support the concept of lighter vehicles of the future, are also susceptible to damage upon impact. It is important that their design should be based on a better understanding on the type of impact loads and the resulting strains and damage. It is possible that these skins can be integrally designed with active materials to counter damages. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of a new class of automotive skins, using piezoceramic as a smart material. The main objective is to consider the complex system with, the skin to be modeled as a layered plate structure involving a lightweight material with foam and active materials imbedded on them. To begin with a cantilever beam structure is subjected to a load through piezoceramic and the resulting strain at the active material site is predicted accounting for the material properties, piezoceramic thickness, adhesive thickness including the effect of adhesives. A finite element analysis is carried out to compare experimental work. Further work in this direction would provide an analytical tool that will provide the basis for algorithms to predict and counter impacts on the future class of automobiles.

  6. Characterization of Structure and Damage in Materials in Four Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, I. M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Schuh, C. A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vetrano, J. S. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Browning, N. D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Field, D. P. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Jensen, D. J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Miller, M. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baker, I. [Darmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Dunand, D. C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dunin-Borkowski, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Kabius, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, T. [Cameca Instruments Corp., Madison, WI (United States); Lozano-Perez, S. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Misra, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rohrer, G. S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rollett, A. D. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Taheri, M. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thompson, G. B. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Uchic, M. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Wang, X. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Was, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    The materials characterization toolbox has recently experienced a number of parallel revolutionary advances, foreshadowing a time in the near future when materials scientists can quantify material structure across orders of magnitude in length and time scales (i.e., in four dimensions) completely. This paper presents a viewpoint on the materials characterization field, reviewing its recent past, evaluating its present capabilities, and proposing directions for its future development. Electron microscopy; atom-probe tomography; X-ray, neutron and electron tomography; serial sectioning tomography; and diffraction-based analysis methods are reviewed, and opportunities for their future development are highlighted. Particular attention is paid to studies that have pioneered the synergetic use of multiple techniques to provide complementary views of a single structure or process; several of these studies represent the state-of-the-art in characterization, and suggest a trajectory for the continued development of the field. Based on this review, a set of grand challenges for characterization science is identified, including suggestions for instrumentation advances, scientific problems in microstructure analysis, and complex structure evolution problems involving materials damage. The future of microstructural characterization is proposed to be one not only where individual techniques are pushed to their limits, but where the community devises strategies of technique synergy to address complex multiscale problems in materials science and engineering.

  7. In situ measurements of high temperature growth of correlated systems: a materials by design scheme (United States)

    He, Hua

    There is great interest in developing new ways to use predictive theory to accelerate materials synthesis. We have previously shown that DFT +DMFT electronic structure calculations are successful at predicting gaps and ordered moments, even when correlations are very strong.[ 1 , 2 ] Building on these results, we set out to explore an even closer integration of theory and synthesis, aiming to discover new routes for doping Mott insulators and producing new superconductors. In situ high temperature high energy X-ray diffraction is used to determine the crystal structures of compounds just as they form from the growths, and the structural information is used as input for DFT +DMFT calculations that predict functionality, closing the synthesis loop by suggesting productive new directions. Using this approach, we have investigated the transition metal oxysulfide system Ba-Co-S-O and successfully discovered the new compound BaCoSO, and identified it as an interesting small gap Mott insulator by DFT +DMFT calculations even before any traditional crystal growth is attempted in the lab We acknowledge the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering for providing the NSSEFF funds that supported this research.

  8. Austenitic Steels at Low Temperature: Joint International Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, T; ICEC-ICMC


    The need for alternate energy sources has led to the develop­ ment of prototype fusion and MHD reactors. Both possible energy systems in current designs usually require the use of magnetic fields for plasma confinement and concentration. For the creation and maintenance of large 5 to 15 tesla magnetic fields, supercon­ ducting magnets appear more economical. But the high magnetic fields create large forces, and the complexities of the conceptual reactors create severe space restrictions. The combination of re­ quirements, plus the desire to keep construction costs at a mini­ mum, has created a need for stronger structural alloys for service at liquid helium temperature (4 K). The complexity of the required structures requires that these alloys be weldable. Furthermore, since the plasma is influenced by magnetic fields and since magnet­ ic forces from the use of ferromagnetic materials in many configur­ ations may be additive, the best structural alloy for most applica­ tions should be nonmagnetic. Thes...

  9. A Comparative Study on Damage Mechanism of Sandwich Structures with Different Core Materials under Lightning Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyan Yan


    Full Text Available Wind turbine blades are easily struck by lightning, a phenomenon that has attracted more and more attention in recent years. On this subject a large current experiment was conducted on three typical blade sandwich structures to simulate the natural lightning-induced arc effects. The resulting damage to different composite materials has been compared: polyvinyl chloride (PVC and polyethylene terephthalate (PET suffered pyrolysis and cracks inside, while the damage to balsa wood was fibers breaking off and large delamination between it and the resin layer, and only a little chemical pyrolysis. To analyze the damage mechanism on sandwich structures of different materials, a finite element method (FEM model to calculate the temperature and pressure distribution was built, taking into consideration heat transfer and flow expansion due to impulse currents. According to the simulation results, PVC had the most severe temperature and pressure distribution, while PET and balsa wood were in the better condition after the experiments. The temperature distribution results explained clearly why balsa wood suffered much less chemical pyrolysis than PVC. Since balsa wood had better thermal stability than PET, the pyrolysis area of PET was obviously larger than that of balsa wood too. Increasing the volume fraction of solid components of porous materials can efficiently decrease the heat transfer velocity in porous materials. Permeability didn’t influence that much. The findings provide support for optimum material selection and design in blade manufacturing.

  10. Multilayer "Steel/Vanadium Alloy/Steel" Hybrid Material Obtained by High-Pressure Torsion at Different Temperatures (United States)

    Rogachev, S. O.; Nikulin, S. A.; Rozhnov, A. B.; Khatkevich, V. M.; Nechaykina, T. A.; Gorshenkov, M. V.; Sundeev, R. V.


    The severe plastic deformation (SPD) method for joining dissimilar metal materials to obtain a multilayer hybrid material having an ultrafine or nanoscale structure was proposed. A nanostructured multilayer "0.08C-18Cr-0.5Ti steel/V-10Ti-5Cr alloy/0.08C-18Cr-0.5Ti steel" hybrid material was obtained by high-pressure torsion (HPT) at different temperatures. The analysis of the structure of the hybrid material and its components was carried out by the methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopies. The distribution of chemical elements in the cross section of the hybrid material was studied by X-ray microanalysis. The microhardness was measured to estimate the hybrid material hardening after HPT. Tight joint zones between the layers of the hybrid material were formed during HPT. The fragmentation of the steel and vanadium alloy layers was observed, and the "mixing" of the layers occurred after HPT at 293 K and 473 K (20 °C and 200 °C). A smoother interface between the layers was observed after HPT at 673 K (400 °C). The significant hardening (2.0 to 3.5×) of each layer of the hybrid material was observed as a result of HPT.

  11. Low Temperature Mechanical Testing of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy-Resin Composite Materials (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Biss, Emily J.


    The use of cryogenic fuels (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) in current space transportation vehicles, in combination with the proposed use of composite materials in such applications, requires an understanding of how such materials behave at cryogenic temperatures. In this investigation, tensile intralaminar shear tests were performed at room, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen temperatures to evaluate the effect of temperature on the mechanical response of the IM7/8551-7 carbon-fiber/epoxy-resin system. Quasi-isotropic lay-ups were also tested to represent a more realistic lay-up. It was found that the matrix became both increasingly resistant to microcracking and stiffer with decreasing temperature. A marginal increase in matrix shear strength with decreasing temperature was also observed. Temperature did not appear to affect the integrity of the fiber-matrix bond.

  12. A simple method to measure the complex permittivity of materials at variable temperatures (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Yang; Liu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Di; Wu, Shiyue; Yuan, Jianping; Li, Lixin


    Measurement of the complex permittivity (CP) of a material at different temperatures in microwave heating applications is difficult and complicated. In this paper a simple and convenient method is employed to measure the CP of a material over variable temperature. In this method the temperature of a sample is increased experimentally to obtain the formula for the relationship between CP and temperature by a genetic algorithm. We chose agar solution (sample) and a Yangshao reactor (microwave heating system) to validate the reliability and feasibility of this method. The physical parameters (the heat capacity, C p , density, ρ, and thermal conductivity, k) of the sample are set as constants in the process of simulation and inversion. We analyze the influence of the variation of physical parameters with temperature on the accuracy of the inversion results. It is demonstrated that the variation of these physical parameters has little effect on the inversion results in a certain temperature range.

  13. Measurement of water transfer and swelling stress in the buffer material due to temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Chijimatsu, M.; Fujita, A.


    Coefficients concerning the water transfer in the buffer material was obtained by empirically giving a temperature gradient, and the swelling stress was measured when water was soaked in the sample under the uniform temperature and temperature gradient conditions. The distributions of temperature and water in the buffer material empirically given a temperature gradient were measured to deduce water diffusion constant due to the temperature gradient. The diffusion constant was the order of 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s/degC. As a result of a equitemperature soaking test, it was found that the swelling stress of the part where soaktion was slow was greater than that of the part with fast soaking at a stage of non-uniform water distribution. The water soaking quantity to the sample and swelling stress reached a stationary state after 7000 hours and the water distribution in the whole sample was found saturated. (H. Baba)

  14. Laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallo, L., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Mezel, C., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); CEA Le Ripault, 37260 Monts (France); Guillemot, F., E-mail: [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Chimier, B., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Bourgeade, A., E-mail: [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France); Regan, C., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Duchateau, G., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Souquet, A., E-mail: [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Hebert, D., E-mail: [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study we model nanomaterial structuring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser energy deposition is discussed first. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full and approximate models are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic material response is addressed via hydrodynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sild effects are accounted for - Abstract: Interaction of ultrafast laser, i.e. from the femtosecond (fs) to the nanosecond (ns) regime, with initially transparent matter may produce very high energy density hot spots in the bulk as well as at the material surface, depending on focusing conditions. In the fs regime, absorption is due to ionisation of the dielectric, which enables absorption process to begin, and then hydrodynamic to take place. In the ns regime both absorption and hydrodynamic are coupled to each other, which complexifies considerably the comprehension but matter structuration looks similar. A numerical tool including solution of 3D Maxwell equations and a rate equation for free electrons is first compared to some available simple models of laser energy absorption. Then, subsequent material deformation, i.e. structuration, is determined by solving hydrodynamic equations, including or not solid behaviour. We show that nature of the final structures strongly depends on the amount of deposited energy and on the shape of the absorption zone. Then we address some problems related to laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials in the fs, ps and ns regimes.

  15. Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography. (United States)

    Bleuet, Pierre; Welcomme, Eléonore; Dooryhée, Eric; Susini, Jean; Hodeau, Jean-Louis; Walter, Philippe


    The advent of nanosciences calls for the development of local structural probes, in particular to characterize ill-ordered or heterogeneous materials. Furthermore, because materials properties are often related to their heterogeneity and the hierarchical arrangement of their structure, different structural probes covering a wide range of scales are required. X-ray diffraction is one of the prime structural methods but suffers from a relatively poor detection limit, whereas transmission electron analysis involves destructive sample preparation. Here we show the potential of coupling pencil-beam tomography with X-ray diffraction to examine unidentified phases in nanomaterials and polycrystalline materials. The demonstration is carried out on a high-pressure pellet containing several carbon phases and on a heterogeneous powder containing chalcedony and iron pigments. The present method enables a non-invasive structural refinement with a weight sensitivity of one part per thousand. It enables the extraction of the scattering patterns of amorphous and crystalline compounds with similar atomic densities and compositions. Furthermore, such a diffraction-tomography experiment can be carried out simultaneously with X-ray fluorescence, Compton and absorption tomographies, enabling a multimodal analysis of prime importance in materials science, chemistry, geology, environmental science, medical science, palaeontology and cultural heritage.

  16. Bioinspired materials: from low to high dimensional structure. (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Wang, Zhen; Cai, Chao; Shen, Heng; Liang, Feiyue; Wang, Dong; Wang, Chunyan; Zhu, Tang; Guo, Jing; Wang, Yongxin; Liu, Xiaofang; Duan, Chunting; Wang, Hao; Mao, Yunzeng; Jia, Xin; Dong, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Jian


    The surprising properties of biomaterials are the results of billions of years of evolution. Generally, biomaterials are assembled under mild conditions with very limited supply of constituents available for living organism, and their amazing properties largely result from the sophisticated hierarchical structures. Following the biomimetic principles to prepare manmade materials has drawn great research interests in materials science and engineering. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in fabricating bioinspired materials with the emphasis on mimicking the structure from one to three dimensions. Selected examples are described with a focus on the relationship between the structural characters and the corresponding functions. For one-dimensional materials, spider fibers, polar bear hair, multichannel plant roots and so on have been involved. Natural structure color and color shifting surfaces, and the antifouling, antireflective coatings of biomaterials are chosen as the typical examples of the two-dimensional biomimicking. The outstanding protection performance, and the stimuli responsive and self-healing functions of biomaterials based on the sophisticated hierarchical bulk structures are the emphases of the three-dimensional mimicking. Finally, a summary and outlook are given. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cell-based composite materials with programmed structures and functions (United States)



    The present invention is directed to the use of silicic acid to transform biological materials, including cellular architecture into inorganic materials to provide biocomposites (nanomaterials) with stabilized structure and function. In the present invention, there has been discovered a means to stabilize the structure and function of biological materials, including cells, biomolecules, peptides, proteins (especially including enzymes), lipids, lipid vesicles, polysaccharides, cytoskeletal filaments, tissue and organs with silicic acid such that these materials may be used as biocomposites. In many instances, these materials retain their original biological activity and may be used in harsh conditions which would otherwise destroy the integrity of the biological material. In certain instances, these biomaterials may be storage stable for long periods of time and reconstituted after storage to return the biological material back to its original form. In addition, by exposing an entire cell to form CSCs, the CSCs may function to provide a unique system to study enzymes or a cascade of enzymes which are otherwise unavailable.

  18. Equivalent-Continuum Modeling of Nano-Structured Materials (United States)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.


    A method has been developed for modeling structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with an equivalent-continuum model. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As an important example with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the model has been applied to determine the effective continuum geometry of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the equivalent-continuum model has been developed with an effective thickness. This effective thickness has been shown to be similar to, but slightly smaller than, the interatomic spacing of graphite.

  19. Cardiac tissue structure, properties, and performance: a materials science perspective. (United States)

    Golob, Mark; Moss, Richard L; Chesler, Naomi C


    From an engineering perspective, many forms of heart disease can be thought of as a reduction in biomaterial performance, in which the biomaterial is the tissue comprising the ventricular wall. In materials science, the structure and properties of a material are recognized to be interconnected with performance. In addition, for most measurements of structure, properties, and performance, some processing is required. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding cardiac tissue structure, properties, and performance as well as the processing steps taken to acquire those measurements. Understanding the impact of these factors and their interactions may enhance our understanding of heart function and heart failure. We also review design considerations for cardiac tissue property and performance measurements because, to date, most data on cardiac tissue has been obtained under non-physiological loading conditions. Novel measurement systems that account for these design considerations may improve future experiments and lead to greater insight into cardiac tissue structure, properties, and ultimately performance.

  20. Method and apparatus for fabricating a composite structure consisting of a filamentary material in a metal matrix (United States)

    Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.


    A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure.

  1. Evaluating the coefficient of thermal expansion using time periods of minimal thermal gradient for a temperature driven structural health monitoring (United States)

    Reilly, J.; Abdel-Jaber, H.; Yarnold, M.; Glisic, B.


    Structural Health Monitoring aims to characterize the performance of a structure from a combination of recorded sensor data and analytic techniques. Many methods are concerned with quantifying the elastic response of the structure, treating temperature changes as noise in the analysis. While these elastic profiles do demonstrate a portion of structural behavior, thermal loads on a structure can induce comparable strains to elastic loads. Understanding this relationship between the temperature of the structure and the resultant strain and displacement can provide in depth knowledge of the structural condition. A necessary parameter for this form of analysis is the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). The CTE of a material relates the amount of expansion or contraction a material undergoes per degree change in temperature, and can be determined from temperature-strain relationship given that the thermal strain can be isolated. Many times with concrete, the actual amount of expansion with temperature in situ varies from the given values for the CTE due to thermally generated elastic strain, which complicates evaluation of the CTE. To accurately characterize the relationship between temperature and strain on a structure, the actual thermal behavior of the structure needs to be analyzed. This rate can vary for different parts of a structure, depending on boundary conditions. In a case of unrestrained structures, the strain in the structure should be linearly related to the temperature change. Thermal gradients in a structure can affect this relationship, as they induce curvature and deplanations in the cross section. This paper proposes a method that addresses these challenges in evaluating the CTE.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSUB Andrei


    Full Text Available Using thermal insulation in negative temperature acts to reduce heat flow to the cooled space or to objects that have a temperature below ambient temperature. To achieve economic operation of the space to be cooled insulation thickness and quality is an important factor. In this article we want to compare three products used in thermal insulation at negative temperatures: expanded polystyrene, non-woven and wool coats. The materials will be tested with a mechanical vapor compression refrigerator capable of producing temperatures in the range +4 .. -35 ° C, managed by a programmer Dixel capable of recording values between +40. .. -60 °C. Refrigeration insulation enclosure was made with 100 mm expanded polystyrene. On one side of the enclosure will be a cut of 250 * 250 mm, chosen in a central position where the material will be introduced to be tested. The dimensions of the samples are 250 * 250 * 60 mm. To check the insulation properties of materials it will be used a temperature logger capable of recording with two probes temperatures between +125...-40° C. One of the probes will be inserted inside the refrigerator and the second probe will be positioned to the outside of the test material adhered to an aluminum plate, in order to read a average temperature. The difference in thickness of the insulation shall be filled with non-woven material. Hardening the assembly will be made using a 6 mm thick OSB board. The materials will be tested in an identical ambient temperature and humidity.

  3. Temperature response of biological materials to pulsed non-ablative CO2 laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, M. J.; Kemper, J.; Gijsbers, G. H.; van der Meulen, F. W.; van Gemert, M. J.


    This paper presents surface temperature responses of various tissue phantoms and in vitro and in vivo biological materials in air to non-ablative pulsed CO2 laser irradiation, measured with a thermocamera. We studied cooling off behavior of the materials after a laser pulse, to come to an

  4. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  5. Structure and characteristics of functional powder composite materials obtained by spark plasma sintering (United States)

    Oglezneva, S. A.; Kachenyuk, M. N.; Kulmeteva, V. B.; Ogleznev, N. B.


    The article describes the results of spark plasma sintering of ceramic materials based on titanium carbide, titanium carbosilicide, ceramic composite materials based on zirconium oxide, strengthened by carbon nanostructures and composite materials of electrotechnical purpose based on copper with addition of carbon structures and titanium carbosilicide. The research shows that the spark plasma sintering can achieve relative density of the material up to 98%. The effect of sintering temperature on the phase composition, density and porosity of the final product has been studied. It was found that with addition of carbon nanostructures the relative density and hardness decrease, but the fracture strength of ZrO2 increases up to times 2. The relative erosion resistance of the electrodes made of composite copper-based powder materials, obtained by spark plasma sintering during electroerosion treatment of tool steel exceeds that parameter of pure copper up to times 15.

  6. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials. (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald


    This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements.

  7. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald


    This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements. PMID:26784192

  8. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Ramakrishnan


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements.

  9. Changes in the macromolecular structure of coals with pyrolysis temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndaji, F.E.; Butterfield, I.M.; Thomas, K.M. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Northern Carbon Research Labs., Dept. of Chemistry


    The macromolecular structure of coal is characterised by its cross-link density. This paper describes a study of the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the macromolecular structure of coal using solvent swelling techniques. Heat treatment initially dissociates the intermolecular interactions in the coal and cleaves some cross-links, leading to increase in the solvent swelling of the coal, which indicates a decrease in the cross-link density. The solvent swelling reaches a maximum before cross-linking reactions predominate, causing a progressive increase in cross-link density and a decrease in solvent swelling. For lower-rank coals there appears to be an overlap (near the temperature of minimum cross-link density) of the dissociation of intermolecular interactions and thermal decomposition. Appreciable decrease in the apparent cross-link density of high-rank coals as indicated by increase in solvent swelling was observed only after thermal decomposition had commenced. Major decomposition involves cross-linking reactions leading to the formation of chars. However, the solvent swelling characteristics continue to change above the resolidification temperature, eventually ceasing at {approximately}600{degree}C. The results are discussed in relation to measurements of thermoplastic properties and devolatilization characteristics. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Effect of low-temperature conditions on passive layer growth in Li intercalation materials: In situ impedance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoukov, E.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Yoon, C.O.; Lee, H. [Korea Kumho Petrochemical Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Kumho Chemical Labs.


    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the formation of insulating layers at the surfaces of microscopic particles of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), graphite, and hard carbon during the first Li-intercalation into these materials at ambient temperature as well as at {minus}20 C. Investigations were carried out in a three-electrode sandwich cell, designed for impedance measurements in the frequency range 64 kHz to 5 mHz. The impedance spectra, obtained in the potential range 1.5 and 0.02 V during the first charge, were analyzed by complex nonlinear least square fits. A new model, taking into account the porous structure of the intercalation material, electrochemical processes at the interface, as well as spherical diffusion of Li ions toward the centers of the particles, has been used for this analysis. The first intercalation at {minus}20 C results in formation of an insulating layer, which is about 90 times thinner than in the room-temperature case, as concluded from an analysis of experimental results. The irreversible capacity loss, which is 1.3 times larger at {minus}20 C that at room temperature, is ascribed to the formation of a porous precipitate of electrolyte decomposition products on the particle surface. Additional Li intercalation at room temperature results in an irreversible capacity loss of 26% from the initial value, and formation of a composite layer, including low-temperature and room-temperature deposited components.

  11. Highlighting material structure with transmission electron diffraction correlation coefficient maps. (United States)

    Kiss, Ákos K; Rauch, Edgar F; Lábár, János L


    Correlation coefficient maps are constructed by computing the differences between neighboring diffraction patterns collected in a transmission electron microscope in scanning mode. The maps are shown to highlight material structural features like grain boundaries, second phase particles or dislocations. The inclination of the inner crystal interfaces are directly deduced from the resulting contrast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Advanced Materials and Technologies for Structural Performance Improvement


    Stefano Sorace; Bert Blocken; Claudio Borri; Luca Caracoglia; Francisco Javier Molina; Gerhardt Müller


    The development of advanced materials and technologies for application to new and existing structures, infrastructures, and equipment, aiming at improving their response to service and extreme loads, represents an emerging issue both from an academic and a professional viewpoint. Relevant performance assessment procedures, based on effective experimental verification methods [1] and refined numerical simulation models [2], are quickly evolving as well. New or improved ...

  13. Materials and Structures Enabling Vanishing Optically Triggered Sensors (United States)


    Materials and Structures Enabling Vanishing Optically Triggered Sensors Paul A. Kohl School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Georgia...polymers in the fabrication of vaporizing devices, such as sensors . However, they have been troublesome to synthesize and keep stable during storage...phthalaldehyde; vaporizing sensors Introduction Thermodynamically unstable polymers have emerged in applications where a catalytic response to a

  14. Moisture resistance of SU-8 and KMPR as structural material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Melai, J.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    This paper treats the moisture resistance of SU-8 and KMPR, two photoresists considered as structural material in microsystems. Our experiments focus on the moisture resistance of newly developed radiation imaging detectors containing these resists. Since these microsystems will be used unpackaged,

  15. Could Nano-Structured Materials Enable the Improved Pressure Vessels for Deep Atmospheric Probes? (United States)

    Srivastava, D.; Fuentes, A.; Bienstock, B.; Arnold, J. O.


    A viewgraph presentation on the use of Nano-Structured Materials to enable pressure vessel structures for deep atmospheric probes is shown. The topics include: 1) High Temperature/Pressure in Key X-Environments; 2) The Case for Use of Nano-Structured Materials Pressure Vessel Design; 3) Carbon based Nanomaterials; 4) Nanotube production & purification; 5) Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes; 6) CNT-composites: Example (Polymer); 7) Effect of Loading sequence on Composite with 8% by volume; 8) Models for Particulate Reinforced Composites; 9) Fullerene/Ti Composite for High Strength-Insulating Layer; 10) Fullerene/Epoxy Composite for High Strength-Insulating Layer; 11) Models for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composites; 12) Tensile Strength for Discontinuous Fiber Composite; 13) Ti + SWNT Composites: Thermal/Mechanical; 14) Ti + SWNT Composites: Tensile Strength; and 15) Nano-structured Shell for Pressure Vessels.

  16. Max Phase Materials And Coatings For High Temperature Heat Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Rodriguez, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Olson, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fuentes, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Molten salts have been used as heat transfer fluids in a variety of applications within proposed Gen IV nuclear designs and in advanced power system such as Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). However, operating at elevated temperatures can cause corrosion in many materials. This work developed coating technologies for MAX phase materials on Haynes-230 and characterized the corrosion of the coatings in the presence of commercial MgCl2-KCl molten salt. Cold spraying of Ti2AlC and physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Ti2AlC or Zr2AlC were tested to determine the most effective form of coating MAX phases on structural substrates. Corrosion testing at 850°C for 100 hrs showed that 3.9 μm Ti2AlC by PVD was slightly protective while 117 μm Ti2AlC by cold spray and 3.6 μm Zr2AlC by PVD were completely protective. None of the tests showed decomposition of the coating (Ti or Zr) into the salt

  17. Structure, tribotechnical, and thermophysical characteristics of the fluoroplastic carbonnanotubes material. (United States)

    Revo, Sergiy; Alekseev, Alexandre; Ivanenko, Ekaterina; Labii, Toufik; Boubertakh, Abdelhamid; Hamamda, Smail


    In this work, we studied a nanocomposite material made from fluoroplastic which contains 20 wt.% multi-walled nanotubes. In order to complete the present work, we have used different thermodynamic and mechanical techniques. The introduction of nanotubes in the F4 polymer matrix has completely changed the tribological and thermodynamic properties of the studied nanocomposite material. The compression strength becomes 20% higher than that of the F4 polymer matrix. Meanwhile the wear resistance achieves an order of magnitude 100 times greaterthan that of F4. Moreover, a friction coefficient is about 25% to 30% lower than that of a similar material and especially that of F4 material. Differential scanning calorimetric study showed that the glassy phase transition appears at about 330°C, which confirms that the degradation of the studied nanocomposite occurs at relatively higher temperature. This result confirms the one concerning the change in tribological properties. Dilatometric study revealed that the thermal expansion coefficient has been increased. The observed relative elongation measurement change depends on the direction along which the measurement has been done and confirms, in turn, the anisotropic character of the studied material. These results suggest that the metallic materials could be replaced by nanocomposite compounds which present good physical properties.

  18. Identification of material properties of sandwich structure with piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemčík R.


    Full Text Available The work focuses on light-weight sandwich structures made of carbon-epoxy skins and foam core which have unique bending stiffness compared to conventional materials. The skins are manufactured by vacuum autoclave technology from unidirectional prepregs and the sandwich is then glued together. The resulting material properties of the structure usually differ from those provided by manufacturer or even those obtained from experimental tests on separate materials, which makes computational models unreliable. Therefore, the properties are identified using the combination of experimental analysis of the sandwich with attached piezoelectric transducer and corresponding static and modal finite element analyses. Simple mathematical optimization with repetitive finite element solution is used. The model is then verified by transient analysis when the piezoelectric patch is excited by harmonic signals covering the first two eigen-frequencies and the induced oscillations are measured by laser sensor.

  19. RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald


    This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...

  20. Thermocyclic recovery and damage accumulation of irradiated austenitic structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, L.A. [Central Research Inst. of Structural Materials (CRISM), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rybin, V.V. [Central Research Inst. of Structural Materials (CRISM), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Thermocyclic behaviour of austenitic materials: 16%Cr-11%Ni, 16%Cr-15%Ni, 20%Cr-45%Ni has been investigated after being irradiated in WWR and BOR-60 reactors at a temperature of about 300 C up to fluences of approximately 10{sup 25} and 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2}. Strength and strain characteristics of irradiated materials are recovered during thermocycling (50-300 C) and reached initial unirradiated values. Simultaneously to the recovery processes an intensive accumulation of thermocyclic damage takes place with early material fracture. Thermal fatigue failure has shown an intergranular mode. It is assumed that two opposite processes take place during thermocycling: recovery in grain volume and the accumulation of damage along grain boundaries, which do not compensate each other. (orig.).

  1. Pengaruh Variasi Kecepatan Stiring & Temperatur Sintering Terhadap Perubahan Struktur Mikro & Fase Material Sensor Gas Tio2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Dewi Ratnasari


    Full Text Available Penelitian material untuk sensor gas ini menggunakan bahan dasar TiO2 dan zat pelarut H2SO4 pekat 98% . Metode pembentuk sol-gel dilakukan dengan sampel di stiring menggunakan magnetic stirrer selama 2,5 jam, kecepatan 600, 700 dan 800 rpm dengan temperatur 200 º C hingga terbentuk gel. Drying dilakukan selama 1 jam dengan temperatur 350 º C, proses kalsinasi selama 1 jam temperatur 500 ºC. Proses selanjutnya serbuk TiO2 dikompaksi dengan tekanan 200 bar agar terbentuk padatan / pellet. Sintering dilakukan pada temperatur 700 ºC selama 1 jam. Karakterisasi material dilakukan dengan alat uji Scanning Electron microscope (SEM dan X-ray diffraction (XRD untuk menganalisa perubahan struktur mikro & fase material keramik TiO2. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian difraksi sinar–x (XRD, variasi stiring 600 rpm, 700 rpm & 800 rpm telah merubah fase anatase (raw material menjadi unstabil fase orthohombik (TiOSO4. Sintering pada temperatur 700 ͦ C telah menyebabkan unstabil fase TiOSO4 menjadi stabil fase TiO2 anatase. Sintesa sol-gel stiring 700 rpm dan 800 rpm dilanjutkan sintering 700 ͦ C menyebabkan reduksi kation Titanium. Berdasarkan hasil SEM, proses sol-gel dapat mereduksi raw material menjadi 130 nm pada kecepatan stiring 700 rpm temperatur operasi 200 ͦ C selama 150 menit.

  2. Quantification of the effect of hysteresis on the adiabatic temperature change in magnetocaloric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein


    description of the phase transition at varying magnetic fields and temperatures. Using detailed experimental property data, a Preisach type model is used to describe the thermal hysteresis effects and simulate the material under realistic working conditions. We find that the adiabatic temperature change......We quantify the effect of hysteresis on the performance of the magnetocaloric first order material Gd5Si2Ge2 undergoing an ideal active magnetic regenerator (AMR) cycle. The material is carefully characterized through magnetometry (VSM) and calorimetry (DSC) in order to enable an accurate model...

  3. [Effect of high-temperature phase change material on the performance of infrared decoy]. (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Xin; Han, Ai-Jun; Ye, Ming-Quan; Zhao, Min-Chun


    The impact of the high-temperature phase change material on conventional infrared decoy's combustion performance and infrared radiation characteristics was studied. The selected high-temperature phase change materials did not reduce infrared radiation in the 3-5 microm or 8-14 microm band of infrared decoy, while extended the burning time, and reduced the burning rate of the grain, thus prolonged the effective interference time of IR decoy. The results show the phase change material is effective infrared decoy functional additives.

  4. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: Density functional theory plus U approach (United States)

    Zhang, Yachao


    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (Tc) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the Tc of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔEHL and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract Tc by exploiting the ΔH/T - T and ΔS - T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in Tc of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting Tc of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.

  5. Structural characterization of graphite materials prepared from anthracites of different characteristics: a comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gonzalez; Miguel A. Montes-Moran; Isabel Suarez-Ruiz; Ana B. Garcia [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)


    Graphite materials were prepared from two Spanish anthracites, AF and ATO, by heating at different temperatures within the range 2000-2800{sup o}C. XRD and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the degrees of crystallinity and crystal orientation of the materials. This work also aimed to evaluate the influence of elemental composition, texture (as measured by optical microscopy), and mineral matter of the raw anthracites on their ability to graphitize. Two temperature segments were discerned during the development of crystallinity. The first segment exhibited major improvements in crystal parameters, which afterward reached a plateau value. Raman parameters indicated that further improvement in crystal orientation could be obtained after heating at the highest temperature (2800{sup o}C). The limiting temperature at which the materials showed their highest degree of structural order, i.e., the temperature at which the plateau was reached, was lower for the most graphitizable anthracite (AF). This anthracite was found to have higher hydrogen and mineral matter (specifically Al, Fe, K, and Si) contents. However, the textural anisotropy of this most graphitizable anthracite was lower than that of the other anthracite under study (ATO). Optical microscopy characterization of the carbonized materials showed that this trend changed after heating the anthracites at 1000{sup o}C, i.e., the anisotropy of the texture in the carbonized AF was higher than that of the corresponding carbonized material prepared from ATO. It was concluded that the structural and textural changes of the anthracites during carbonization, which are related with both their microtexture and hydrogen content, influence the graphitization process. 36 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.


    Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X.

  7. Flow behaviour of autoclaved, 20% cold worked, Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube material in the temperature range of room temperature to 800 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dureja, A.K., E-mail: [Reactor Design and Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India); Sinha, S.K.; Srivastava, Ankit; Sinha, R.K. [Reactor Design and Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Materials' Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India); Seshu, P.; Pawaskar, D.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 76 (India)


    Pressure tube material of Indian Heavy Water Reactors is 20% cold-worked and stress relieved Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Inherent variability in the process parameters during the fabrication stages of pressure tube and also along the length of component have their effect on micro-structural and texture properties of the material, which in turn affect its strength parameters (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength) and flow characteristics. Data of tensile tests carried out in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 deg. C using the samples taken out from a single pressure tube have been used to develop correlations for characterizing the strength parameters' variation as a function of axial location along length of the tube and the test temperature. Applicability of Ramberg-Osgood, Holloman and Voce's correlations for defining the post yield behaviour of the material has been investigated. Effect of strain rate change on the deformation behaviour has also been studied.

  8. New Construction and Catalyst Support Materials for Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis presents an attractive technology allowing to produce hydrogen for further use as a renewable energy source in the "Hydrogen cycle". Electrolysis of water steam at elevated temperatures has several advantages over the low temperature process....... However, at the same time it involves increased demands to dimensional and chemical stability of components against corrosion environment. Therefore, materials utilized in low temperature PEM electrolyzers cannot be used in systems operating above 100 °C and new candidates should be tested. The materials...... gives an introduction into the subject and Chapter 2 subsequently presents the theoretical background of the topic and describes techniques used to characterize catalysts and construction materials. Chapter 3 presents general principles and overview of materials used for PEM water electrolysis. Chapter...

  9. A Review on Die Attach Materials for SiC-Based High-Temperature Power Devices (United States)

    Chin, Hui Shun; Cheong, Kuan Yew; Ismail, Ahmad Badri


    Recently, high-temperature power devices have become a popular discussion topic because of their various potential applications in the automotive, down-hole oil and gas industries for well logging, aircraft, space exploration, nuclear environments, and radars. Devices for these applications are fabricated on silicon carbide-based semiconductor material. For these devices to perform effectively, an appropriate die attach material with specific requirements must be selected and employed correctly. This article presents a review of this topic, with a focus on the die attach materials operating at temperatures higher than 623 K (350 °C). Future challenges and prospects related to high-temperature die attach materials also are proposed at the end of this article.

  10. Recent Progress in Nanostructured Oxide TE Materials for Power Generation at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Linderoth, Søren

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials, which can convert waste heat into electricity, could play an important role in a global sustainable energy solution and environmental problems. Metal oxides have been considered as potential TE materials for power generation that can operate at high temperatures......σT/κ , where S, σ, T and κ are the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, absolute temperature and thermal conductivity, respectively). We have fabricated high-quality oxide TE materials based on Ca3Co4O9 by optimizing the method for synthesis, modifying the compositions...... and by nanostructuring. This report will focus on the high temperature TE properties of heavy ions doping nanostrcutred Ca3Co4O9 oxides, which exhibit promising ZT, implying suitable polycrystalline oxide TE materials for power generation from waste heat....

  11. Effects of Novel Structure Bonding Materials on Properties of Aeronautical Acrylic


    Li, Zhisheng; Zhang, Hongfeng; Li, Lei; Yan, Yue


    Novel structure bonding materials, J-351 epoxy adhesive film with low curing temperature and liquid modified acrylate SY-50s adhesive were chosen and characterized. The effects of adhesives on the mechanical properties of acrylic were studied. The results reveal that both adhesives have excellent bonding properties to acrylic. The stress-solvent crazing value of J-351 is higher than that of SY-50s. With the application of adhesive on the surface, mechanical properties of acrylic are declined....

  12. On the Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Composite Material Structures (United States)

    Vinson, Jack

    During the period between 1993 and 2004, the author, as well as some colleagues and graduate students, had the honor to be supported by the Office of Naval Research to conduct research in several aspects of the behavior of structures composed of composite materials. The topics involved in this research program were numerous, but all contributed to increasing the understanding of how various structures that are useful for marine applications behaved. More specifically, the research topics focused on the reaction of structures that were made of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites when subjected to various loads and environmental conditions. This included the behavior of beam, plate/panel and shell structures. It involved studies that are applicable to fiberglass, graphite/carbon and Kevlar fibers imbedded in epoxy, polyester and other polymeric matrices. Unidirectional, cross-ply, angle ply, and woven composites were involved, both in laminated, monocoque as well as in sandwich constructions. Mid-plane symmetric as well as asymmetric laminates were studied, the latter involving bending-stretching coupling and other couplings that only can be achieved with advanced composite materials. The composite structures studied involved static loads, dynamic loading, shock loading as well as thermal and hygrothermal environments. One major consideration was determining the mechanical properties of composite materials subjected to high strain rates because the mechanical properties vary so significantly as the strain rate increases. A considerable number of references are cited for further reading and study for those interested.

  13. Structural integrity of engineering composite materials: a cracking good yarn. (United States)

    Beaumont, Peter W R; Soutis, Costas


    Predicting precisely where a crack will develop in a material under stress and exactly when in time catastrophic fracture of the component will occur is one the oldest unsolved mysteries in the design and building of large-scale engineering structures. Where human life depends upon engineering ingenuity, the burden of testing to prove a 'fracture safe design' is immense. Fitness considerations for long-life implementation of large composite structures include understanding phenomena such as impact, fatigue, creep and stress corrosion cracking that affect reliability, life expectancy and durability of structure. Structural integrity analysis treats the design, the materials used, and figures out how best components and parts can be joined, and takes service duty into account. However, there are conflicting aims in the complete design process of designing simultaneously for high efficiency and safety assurance throughout an economically viable lifetime with an acceptable level of risk. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Functional materials discovery using energy-structure-function maps. (United States)

    Pulido, Angeles; Chen, Linjiang; Kaczorowski, Tomasz; Holden, Daniel; Little, Marc A; Chong, Samantha Y; Slater, Benjamin J; McMahon, David P; Bonillo, Baltasar; Stackhouse, Chloe J; Stephenson, Andrew; Kane, Christopher M; Clowes, Rob; Hasell, Tom; Cooper, Andrew I; Day, Graeme M


    Molecular crystals cannot be designed in the same manner as macroscopic objects, because they do not assemble according to simple, intuitive rules. Their structures result from the balance of many weak interactions, rather than from the strong and predictable bonding patterns found in metal-organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks. Hence, design strategies that assume a topology or other structural blueprint will often fail. Here we combine computational crystal structure prediction and property prediction to build energy-structure-function maps that describe the possible structures and properties that are available to a candidate molecule. Using these maps, we identify a highly porous solid, which has the lowest density reported for a molecular crystal so far. Both the structure of the crystal and its physical properties, such as methane storage capacity and guest-molecule selectivity, are predicted using the molecular structure as the only input. More generally, energy-structure-function maps could be used to guide the experimental discovery of materials with any target function that can be calculated from predicted crystal structures, such as electronic structure or mechanical properties.

  15. Pelamis WEC - main body structural design and materials selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.


    This report summarises the results of a study evaluating the potential use of rolled steel, glass reinforced plastic, wood-epoxy laminate, and different forms of concrete as primary structural materials for the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as part of a strategy to refine the design by highlighting cost savings for long-term manufacture. Details are given of the drawing up of a load spectrum in order to assess the candidate structures, the choice of glass reinforced plastic, concrete, and steel for further evaluation based on preliminary screening, the assessment of the material requirements for each candidate structure, and cost estimates. The advantages of the use of concrete are discussed and recommendations are presented.

  16. Global Materials Structure Search with Chemically Motivated Coordinates. (United States)

    Panosetti, Chiara; Krautgasser, Konstantin; Palagin, Dennis; Reuter, Karsten; Maurer, Reinhard J


    Identification of relevant reaction pathways in ever more complex composite materials and nanostructures poses a central challenge to computational materials discovery. Efficient global structure search, tailored to identify chemically relevant intermediates, could provide the necessary first-principles atomistic insight to enable a rational process design. In this work we modify a common feature of global geometry optimization schemes by employing automatically generated collective curvilinear coordinates. The similarity of these coordinates to molecular vibrations enhances the generation of chemically meaningful trial structures for covalently bound systems. In the application to hydrogenated Si clusters, we concomitantly observe a significantly increased efficiency in identifying low-energy structures and exploit it for an extensive sampling of potential products of silicon-cluster soft landing on Si(001) surfaces.

  17. Rate- and Temperature-Dependent Material Behavior of a Multilayer Polymer Battery Separator (United States)

    Avdeev, Ilya; Martinsen, Michael; Francis, Alex


    Designing battery packs for safety in automotive applications requires multiscale modeling, as macroscopic deformations due to impact cause the mechanical failure of individual cells on a sub-millimeter level. The separator material plays a critical role in this process, as the thinning or perforating of the separator can lead to thermal runaway and catastrophic failure of an entire battery pack. The electrochemical properties of various polymer separators have been extensively investigated; however, the dependency of mechanical properties of these thin films on various factors, such as high temperature and strain rate, has not been sufficiently characterized. In this study, the macroscopic mechanical properties of a multilayer polymer thin film used as a battery separator are studied experimentally at various temperatures, strain rates, and solvent saturations. Due to the anisotropy of the material, material testing was conducted in two perpendicular directions (machine and transverse directions). Material samples were tested in both dry and saturated conditions at several temperatures, and it was found that temperature and strain rate have a nearly linear effect on the stress experienced by the material. Additionally, saturating the separator material in a common lithium-ion solvent had softened it and had a positive effect on its toughness. The experimental results obtained in this study can be used to develop mathematical constitutive models of the multilayer separator material for subsequent numerical simulations and design.

  18. A Two-Dimensional Liquid Structure Explains the Elevated Melting Temperatures of Gallium Nanoclusters. (United States)

    Steenbergen, Krista G; Gaston, Nicola


    Melting in finite-sized materials differs in two ways from the solid-liquid phase transition in bulk systems. First, there is an inherent scaling of the melting temperature below that of the bulk, known as melting point depression. Second, at small sizes changes in melting temperature become nonmonotonic and show a size-dependence that is sensitive to the structure of the particle. Melting temperatures that exceed those of the bulk material have been shown to occur for a very limited range of nanoclusters, including gallium, but have still never been ascribed a convincing physical explanation. Here, we analyze the structure of the liquid phase in gallium clusters based on molecular dynamics simulations that reproduce the greater-than-bulk melting behavior observed in experiments. We observe persistent nonspherical shape distortion indicating a stabilization of the surface, which invalidates the paradigm of melting point depression. This shape distortion suggests that the surface acts as a constraint on the liquid state that lowers its entropy relative to that of the bulk liquid and thus raises the melting temperature.

  19. Novel cost controlled materials and processing for primary structures (United States)

    Dastin, S. J.


    Textile laminates, developed a number of years ago, have recently been shown to be applicable to primary aircraft structures for both small and large components. Such structures have the potential to reduce acquisition costs but require advanced automated processing to keep costs controlled while verifying product reliability and assuring structural integrity, durability and affordable life-cycle costs. Recently, resin systems and graphite-reinforced woven shapes have been developed that have the potential for improved RTM processes for aircraft structures. Ciba-Geigy, Brochier Division has registered an RTM prepreg reinforcement called 'Injectex' that has shown effectivity for aircraft components. Other novel approaches discussed are thermotropic resins producing components by injection molding and ceramic polymers for long-duration hot structures. The potential of such materials and processing will be reviewed along with initial information/data available to date.

  20. An elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects and its application to numerical study (United States)

    Shi, Chu; Hu, Zhiqiang; Luo, Yu


    To simulate the FPSO-iceberg collision process more accurately, an elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects is proposed and applied. The model behaves linearly elastic until it reaches the `Tsai-Wu' yield surfaces, which are a series of concentric elliptical curves of different sizes. Decreasing temperature results in a large yield surface. Failure criteria, based on the influence of accumulated plastic strain and hydrostatic pressure, are built into the model. Based on published experimental data on the relationship between depth and temperature in icebergs, three typical iceberg temperature profiles are proposed. According to these, ice elements located at different depths have different temperatures. The model is incorporated into LS-DYNA using a user-defined subroutine and applied to a simulation of FPSO collisions with different types of iceberg. Simulated area-pressure curves are compared with design codes to validate the iceberg model. The influence of iceberg shape and temperature on the collision process is analyzed. It is indicated that FPSO structural damage not only depends on the relative strength between the iceberg and the structure, but also depends on the local shape of the iceberg.

  1. Modeling the Local Structure of Amorphous Materials: A Density Functional Theory Investigation (United States)

    Gong, Kai; Ozcelik, Ongun; White, Claire

    Here, we present an iterative methodology alternating between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to uncover the detailed atomic structure of highly amorphous materials. In this methodology, the DFT calculations are used to maintain chemical feasibility of the atomic structure, while the experimentally-driven refinements allow for exploration of the potential energy landscape. Through this iterative process, a final structure is obtained that is not only thermodynamically favorable but also in agreement with experiment data. Previously, we have demonstrated the applicability of similar DFT-PDF iterative methods in metakaolin and amorphous magnesium carbonate. Here, we have modified the methodology and applied it to resolve the atomic structure of ground granulated blast-furnace slag, a highly disordered calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate glassy material. Prior to applying the iterative process, a high temperature molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to generate a reasonable starting structure, which was found to be crucial. The iterative methodology outlined here is expected to be readily transferable to other disordered material systems where detailed atomic structures are currently not available. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1362039.

  2. Biologically inspired autonomous structural materials with controlled toughening and healing (United States)

    Garcia, Michael E.; Sodano, Henry A.


    The field of structural health monitoring (SHM) has made significant contributions in the field of prognosis and damage detection in the past decade. The advantageous use of this technology has not been integrated into operational structures to prevent damage from propagating or to heal injured regions under real time loading conditions. Rather, current systems relay this information to a central processor or human operator, who then determines a course of action such as altering the mission or scheduling repair maintenance. Biological systems exhibit advanced sensory and healing traits that can be applied to the design of material systems. For instance, bone is the major structural component in vertebrates; however, unlike modern structural materials, bone has many properties that make it effective for arresting the propagation of cracks and subsequent healing of the fractured area. The foremost goal for the development of future adaptive structures is to mimic biological systems, similar to bone, such that the material system can detect damage and deploy defensive traits to impede damage from propagating, thus preventing catastrophic failure while in operation. After sensing and stalling the propagation of damage, the structure must then be repaired autonomously using self healing mechanisms motivated by biological systems. Here a novel autonomous system is developed using shape memory polymers (SMPs), that employs an optical fiber network as both a damage detection sensor and a network to deliver stimulus to the damage site initiating adaptation and healing. In the presence of damage the fiber optic fractures allowing a high power laser diode to deposit a controlled level of thermal energy at the fractured sight locally reducing the modulus and blunting the crack tip, which significantly slows the crack growth rate. By applying a pre-induced strain field and utilizing the shape memory recovery effect, thermal energy can be deployed to close the crack and return

  3. Study of the local structure of materials with novel properties (United States)

    Cao, Daliang

    The Local structure of a material is important information needed in order to fully understand its macroscopic properties. The X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) technique is a local probe that is very useful when studying a system without long range order or a system with significant local distortions. The XAFS technique is also very useful for studying some defects or very lightly doped elements in a system to determine their local physical and chemical environment. A brief introduction to the XAFS theory and experimental setup will be presented in the first part of this thesis. The second part of this thesis is the experimental study of the local structure of several colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) materials, which include La1-xCaxMnO 3 (LCMO) systems as well as Ti and Ga doped LCMO materials. The local distortions of the Mn atoms were studied and compared with the transport properties and magnetization data for each sample. We found that the Mn local distortions are strongly correlated with the magnetization of the material. Although the electron transport in a CMR sample was proposed to have a direct coupling with the sample's magnetization in the Double Exchange (DE) mechanism, we found that was not always the case. The XAFS results for the negative thermal expansion (NTE) material, ZrW 2O8, and thermoelectric materials, filled skutterudites, are presented in the third part. The measurements of the local structure for ZrW2O8 shows that the originally proposed model with a large transverse vibration of the middle O atom in the WO-Zr linkage cannot be the primary origin of NTE in ZrW2O8. A rigid-tentpole model is presented to explain both the XAFS results as well as the absence of a soft-mode displacive phase transition in this material. As to the filled skutterudite, which has a general form of RT4X12 (R = Lanthanide, actinide, or alkali earth; T = Fe, Ru, Os; X = P, As, Sb), both X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption

  4. Failure modes and materials design for biomechanical layer structures (United States)

    Deng, Yan

    Ceramic materials are finding increasing usage in the area of biomechanical replacements---dental crowns, hip and bone implants, etc.---where strength, wear resistance, biocompatibility, chemical durability and even aesthetics are critical issues. Aesthetic ceramic crowns have been widely used in dentistry to replace damaged or missing teeth. However, the failure rates of ceramic crowns, especially all-ceramic crowns, can be 1%˜6% per year, which is not satisfactory to patients. The materials limitations and underlying fracture mechanisms of these prostheses are not well understood. In this thesis, fundamental fracture and damage mechanisms in model dental bilayer and trilayer structures are studied. Principle failure modes are identified from in situ experimentation and confirmed by fracture mechanics analysis. In bilayer structures of ceramic/polycarbonate (representative of ceramic crown/dentin structure), three major damage sources are identified: (i) top-surface cone cracks or (ii) quasiplasticity, dominating in thick ceramic bilayers; (iii) bottom-surface radial cracks, dominating in thin ceramic bilayers. Critical load P for each damage mode are measured in six dental ceramics: Y-TZP zirconia, glass-infiltrated zirconia and alumina (InCeram), glass-ceramic (Empress II), Porcelain (Mark II and Empress) bonded to polymer substrates, as a function of ceramic thickness d in the range of 100 mum to 10 mm. P is found independent of d for mode (i) and (ii), but has a d 2 relations for mode (iii)---bottom surface radial cracking. In trilayer structures of glass/core-ceramic/polycarbonate (representing veneer porcelain/core/dentin structures), three inner fracture origins are identified: radial cracks from the bottom surface in the (i) first and (ii) second layers; and (iii) quasiplasticity in core-ceramic layer. The role of relative veneer/core thickness, d1/d 2 and materials properties is investigated for three core materials with different modulus (114--270GPa

  5. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others


    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging that at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The ferritic-martensitic steels HT-9 and F82H show significantly greater reductions in fracture toughness that the austenitic stainless steels.

  6. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Mark R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  7. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material. (United States)

    Hutchinson, Michael J; Hutchinson, Mark R


    Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints), brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period). Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of Celsius for over 20 minutes. Clinicians should be

  8. Application of fiber-reinforced bismaleimide materials to aircraft nacelle structures (United States)

    Peros, Vasilios; Ruth, John; Trawinski, David


    Existing aircraft engine nacelle structures employ advanced composite materials to reduce weight and thereby increase overall performance. Use of advanced composite materials on existing aircraft nacelle structures includes fiber-reinforced epoxy structures and has typically been limited to regions furthest away from the hot engine core. Portions of the nacelle structure that are closer to the engine require materials with a higher temperature capability. In these portions, existing nacelle structures employ aluminum sandwich construction and skin/stringer construction. The aluminum structure is composed of many detail parts and assemblies and is usually protected by some form of ablative, insulator, or metallic thermal shield. A one-piece composite inner cowl for a new-generation engine nacelle structure has been designed using fiber-reinforced bismaleimide (BMI) materials and honeycomb core in a sandwich construction. The new composite design has many advantages over the existing aluminum structure. Multiple details were integrated into the one-piece composite design, thereby significantly reducing the number of detail parts and fasteners. The use of lightweight materials and the reduction of the number of joints result in a significant weight reduction over the aluminum design; manufacturing labor and the overall number of tools required have also been reduced. Several significant technical issues were addressed in the development of a BMI composite design. Technical evaluation of the available BMI systems led to the selection of a toughened BMI material which was resistant to microcracking under thermal cyclic loading and enhanced the damage tolerance of the structure. Technical evaluation of the degradation of BMI materials in contact with aluminum and other metals validated methods for isolation of the various materials. Graphite-reinforced BMI in contact with aluminum and some steels was found to degrade in salt spray testing. Isolation techniques such as


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles-Wrenn, M.B.


    The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide the experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines necessary to assure long-term structural integrity of automotive composite components. The initial focus of the ORNL Durability Project was on composite materials consisting of polyurethane reinforced with E-glass. Current focus of the project is on composite materials reinforced with carbon fibers. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the individual specimen test date. Basic mechanical property testing and results for two chopped-fiber composite materials, one reinforced with glass- and the other with carbon fiber are provided. Both materials use the same polyurethane matrix. Preforms for both materials were produced using the P4 process. Behavioral trends, effects of temperature and environment, and corresponding design knockdown factors are established for both materials. Effects of prior short-time loads and of prior thermal cycling are discussed.

  10. Shock structure and temperature overshoot in macroscopic multi-temperature model of mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madjarević, Damir, E-mail:; Simić, Srboljub, E-mail: [Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Ruggeri, Tommaso, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics, University of Bologna, Via Saragozza 8, 40123 Bologna (Italy)


    The paper discusses the shock structure in macroscopic multi-temperature model of gaseous mixtures, recently established within the framework of extended thermodynamics. The study is restricted to weak and moderate shocks in a binary mixture of ideal gases with negligible viscosity and heat conductivity. The model predicts the existence of temperature overshoot of heavier constituent, like more sophisticated approaches, but also puts in evidence its non-monotonic behavior not documented in other studies. This phenomenon is explained as a consequence of weak energy exchange between the constituents, either due to large mass difference, or large rarefaction of the mixture. In the range of small Mach number it is also shown that shock thickness (or equivalently, the inverse of Knudsen number) decreases with the increase of Mach number, as well as when the mixture tends to behave like a single-component gas (small mass difference and/or presence of one constituent in traces)

  11. Biomimetic Structural Materials: Inspiration from Design and Assembly. (United States)

    Yaraghi, Nicholas A; Kisailus, David


    Nature assembles weak organic and inorganic constituents into sophisticated hierarchical structures, forming structural composites that demonstrate impressive combinations of strength and toughness. Two such composites are the nacre structure forming the inner layer of many mollusk shells, whose brick-and-mortar architecture has been the gold standard for biomimetic composites, and the cuticle forming the arthropod exoskeleton, whose helicoidal fiber-reinforced architecture has only recently attracted interest for structural biomimetics. In this review, we detail recent biomimetic efforts for the fabrication of strong and tough composite materials possessing the brick-and-mortar and helicoidal architectures. Techniques discussed for the fabrication of nacre- and cuticle-mimetic structures include freeze casting, layer-by-layer deposition, spray deposition, magnetically assisted slip casting, fiber-reinforced composite processing, additive manufacturing, and cholesteric self-assembly. Advantages and limitations to these processes are discussed, as well as the future outlook on the biomimetic landscape for structural composite materials. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry Volume 69 is April 20, 2018. Please see for revised estimates.

  12. Mesoporous In2O3: Effect of Material Structure on the Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. X. Cheng


    Full Text Available We present a semiconductor gas sensor based on mesoporous In2O3 (m-In2O3. The m-In2O3 was successfully fabricated by a simple sol-gel process, using block copolymer PE6800 as a soft template. The results of gas sensing reveal that the m-In2O3 prepared at room temperature shows higher resistance, which plays the key role in its greater sensitivity. The pore structure of material has an influence on gas adsorption on the material surface, which further affects response-recovery time of gas sensor.

  13. Structural design methodologies for ceramic-based material systems (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.


    One of the primary pacing items for realizing the full potential of ceramic-based structural components is the development of new design methods and protocols. The focus here is on low temperature, fast-fracture analysis of monolithic, whisker-toughened, laminated, and woven ceramic composites. A number of design models and criteria are highlighted. Public domain computer algorithms, which aid engineers in predicting the fast-fracture reliability of structural components, are mentioned. Emphasis is not placed on evaluating the models, but instead is focused on the issues relevant to the current state of the art.

  14. Uncertainty Quantification in Experimental Structural Dynamics Identification of Composite Material Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luczak, Marcin; Peeters, Bart; Kahsin, Maciej


    Aerospace and wind energy structures are extensively using components made of composite materials. Since these structures are subjected to dynamic environments with time-varying loading conditions, it is important to model their dynamic behavior and validate these models by means of vibration...... for uncertainty evaluation in experimentally estimated models. Investigated structures are plates, fuselage panels and helicopter main rotor blades as they represent different complexity levels ranging from coupon, through sub-component up to fully assembled structures made of composite materials. To evaluate...

  15. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Bingmu


    In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.

  16. The Influence of Aging Period, Freezing Temperature and Packaging Material on Frozen Beef Chemical Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Sri Widati


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the influences of aging period, freezing temperature and packaging material on the frozen beef chemical quality. The material of the study was 2-3 years old Ongole grade beef of the Longissimus dorsi part,  and was then classified into 3 treat­ments, namely A (aging periode; 0, 12 and 24 hours, B (freezing temperature; -10°C and -20°C and C (packaging material; aluminum foil (Al, polyprophylene (PP, poly­ethylene (PE and without packaging material. The ob­served variables were water content, crude protein, fat, ash content. The data were analyzed by the Completely Randomized Design (CRD in the Factorial (3x2x4 pattern. The results indicated that the aging periode de­creased the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, and decreased the crude protein but increased the fat content insignificantly. The lower freezing temperature prevented the decreases of the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, but prevented the decrease of crude protein, fat content insignificantly. The packaging material could prevent the decreases of water content, ash content sig­nificantly (P<0.05, but prevent the decreases of protein, and fat content insignificantly. A significant interaction (P<0.05 occured between the freezing temperature and packaging material factors on ash content of the frozen beef. The conclusion was the frozen beef without aging has a high of water content, protein, and ash, but has a low fat content.Temperature at -200C and using aluminium foil packaging can prevent decreasing quality of frozen beef. Keywords : Aging period, freezing temperature,  packaging material

  17. Origin of the structure-directing effect resulting in identical topological open-framework materials. (United States)

    Xin, Liang; Sun, Huai; Xu, Ruren; Yan, Wenfu


    In the synthesis of zeolites and related crystalline materials with open-frameworks, a single structure is obtained in the presence of many different templates, known as the "one-structure/multiple-templates" phenomenon. However, the reasons behind this phenomenon have yet to be elucidated. By analyzing the possible starting point of crystallization in several "one-structure/multiple-templates" systems and applying the molecular dynamics simulation to such systems, we found that the template-framework binding free energy level or charge transfer (exchange) degree was the key to the structure-directing effect of a template. This discovery explains why the structure-directing effect of a template can be affected by many variables, such as the nature of the source materials, molar composition of the initial reaction mixture (recipe), mineralizers, type of solvent, and heating temperature. In the synthesis of zeolites and related crystalline materials with open-frameworks, the template or organic additive played a topological structure-directing role instead of a structure-directing role.

  18. The impact of individual materials parameters on color temperature reproducibility among phosphor converted LED sources (United States)

    Schweitzer, Susanne; Nemitz, Wolfgang; Sommer, Christian; Hartmann, Paul; Fulmek, Paul; Nicolics, Johann; Pachler, Peter; Hoschopf, Hans; Schrank, Franz; Langer, Gregor; Wenzl, Franz P.


    For a systematic approach to improve the white light quality of phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for general lighting applications it is imperative to get the individual sources of error for color temperature reproducibility under control. In this regard, it is imperative to understand how compositional, optical and materials properties of the color conversion element (CCE), which typically consists of phosphor particles embedded in a transparent matrix material, affect the constancy of a desired color temperature of a white LED source. In this contribution we use an LED assembly consisting of an LED die mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) by chip-on-board technology and a CCE with a glob-top configuration as a model system and discuss the impact of potential sources for color temperature deviation among individual devices. Parameters that are investigated include imprecisions in the amount of materials deposition, deviations from the target value for the phosphor concentration in the matrix material, deviations from the target value for the particle sizes of the phosphor material, deviations from the target values for the refractive indexes of phosphor and matrix material as well as deviations from the reflectivity of the substrate surface. From these studies, some general conclusions can be drawn which of these parameters have the largest impact on color deviation and have to be controlled most precisely in a fabrication process in regard of color temperature reproducibility among individual white LED sources.

  19. Welding stainless steels for structures operating at liquid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherell, C.E.


    Superconducting magnets for fusion energy reactors require massive monolithic stainless steel weldments which must operate at extremely low temperatures under stresses approaching 100 ksi (700 MPa). A three-year study was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing heavy-section welds having usable levels of strength and toughness at 4.2/sup 0/K for fabrication of these structures in Type 304LN plate. Seven welding processes were evaluated. Test weldments in full-thickness plate were made under severe restraint to simulate that of actual structures. Type 316L filler metal was used for most welds. Welds deposited under some conditions and which solidify as primary austenite have exhibited intergranular embrittlement at 4.2/sup 0/K. This is believed to be associated with grain boundary metal carbides or carbonitrides precipitated during reheating of already deposited beads by subsequent passes. Weld deposits which solidify as primary delta ferrite appear immune. Through use of fully austenitic filler metals of low nitrogen content under controlled shielded metal arc welding conditions, and through use of filler metals solidifying as primary delta ferrite where only minimum residuals remain to room temperature, welds of Type 316L composition have been made with 4.2K yield strength matching that of Type 304LN plate and acceptable levels of soundness, ductility and toughness.

  20. The influence of high temperatures on the tribological properties of automotive friction materials (United States)

    Savage, Luke

    Temperatures of over 800C can be generated at the frictional interface within the brake systems of large vehicles, such high temperatures result in severe wear at the frictional interface, and can also lead to a very dangerous condition known as brake fade, characterised by a sharp fall in the coefficient of friction between the pad and disc, resulting in a catastrophic loss of braking efficiency. Common friction materials are very specialised composites often containing up to 15 components bound together within a phenolic resin matrix. The high temperature behaviour of the various constituents of friction materials were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, focusing in particular on the thermal decomposition of the phenolic resin matrix material, where it has been firmly established that the thermal decomposition products of phenolic resin are the primary cause of brake fade. This has lead to the development of a novel approach for reducing fade in conventional resin based friction materials, involving a partial carbonisation to 400C. The high temperature wear characteristics of both modified and conventional friction materials were examined using standard dynamometer tests, as well as a 'continuous drag' type test machine, equipped with a heating facility. During this study a number of factors were identified as the main influences on the overall wear behaviour of friction materials. These included test temperature, sample test history, and the various effects of friction films, which were the subject of a detailed analysis. The formation of friction films was found to be an important facet of a successful friction material, producing a reduction in wear at the frictional interface. Films were examined and analysed using EDX, SEM, and X-ray diffraction techniques, which revealed the presence of a high proportion of magnetite (Fe3O4), containing iron which originated from the disc surface. It was established that the incorporation of iron in friction