Sample records for temperature specific heat

  1. Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles


    Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

  2. The Specific Heat of Matter at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Tari, A


    Recent discoveries of new materials and improvements in calorimetric techniques have given new impetus to the subject of specific heat. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of literature on the subject. This invaluable book, which goes some way towards remedying that, is concerned mainly with the specific heat of matter at ordinary temperatures. It discusses the principles that underlie the theory of specific heat and considers a number of theoretical models in some detail. The subject matter ranges from traditional materials to those recently discovered - heavy fermion compounds, high temper

  3. Low temperature specific heat of glasses: a non-extensive approach


    Razdan, Ashok


    Specific heat is calculated using Tsallis statistics. It is observed that it is possible to explain some low temperature specific heat properties of glasses using non-extensive approach. A similarity between temperature dependence of non-extensive specific heat and fractal specific heat is also discussed.

  4. Specific heat studies of pure Nb{sub 3}Sn single crystals at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, R; Morales, F [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Bernes, S, E-mail: escu@servidor.unam.m [Facultad de Ciencias QuImicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey Nuevo Leon (Mexico)


    Specific heat measurements performed on high purity vapor-grown Nb{sub 3}Sn crystals show clear features related to both the martensitic and superconducting transitions. Our measurements indicate that the martensitic anomaly does not display hysteresis, meaning that the martensitic transition could be a weak first-order or a second-order thermodynamic transition. Careful measurements of the two transition temperatures display an inverse correlation between them. At low temperature, specific heat measurements show the existence of a single superconducting energy gap feature.

  5. Low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, T.; Bernasconi, A.; Posselt, D.


    Specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements were made on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Evidence for a crossover between regimes of characteristically different excitations was observed. The data analysis indicates a "bump" in the density...

  6. Low-temperature specific-heat and thermal-conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.


    Specific heat, C(p), and thermal conductivity, lambda, have been measured on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Results for both C(p)(T) and lambda(T) confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected...

  7. Specifications for temperature measurement in the district heating sector; Anforderungen an die Temperaturmessung in der Fernwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathies, Nicolaus [Krohne Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Schupp, Reiner [MID-Cert GmbH, Essen (Germany)


    Wrong design of thermometers often causes faulty billing. Correct design depends on the requirements of the market segment and of the heating systems concerned. Additionally, aspects resulting from the measurement process and the environmental conditions must be taken into account as well as equipment-specific criteria. The authors outline the requirements to a correct temperature measurement. (orig./GL)

  8. Effects of phonon dimensionality in the specific heat of multiwall carbon nanotubes at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Guillermo A; Bekeris, V; Acha, C [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pab. 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escobar, M M; Goyanes, S [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pab. 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zilli, D; Cukierman, A L [PINMATE, Departamento de Industrias, FCEyN-UBA, Pab. Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Candal, R J, E-mail: gjorge@df.uba.a [Instituto de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Ambiente y EnergIa, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We have measured the specific heat at constant pressure, C{sub p}, of three different samples of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT). For all samples, C{sub p} departs from a graphitic behavior at T < 120 K. C{sub p} measurements show a temperature threshold from a linear regime for intermediate temperature to a higher-order power law for low temperatures. Moreover, it was found that this crossover only depends on the internal structure of the individual MWNT and not on the spatial order of the MWNT within a bundle.

  9. Modelling of Dynamic Transmission Cable Temperature Considering Soil-Specific Heat, Thermal Resistivity, and Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Anders, George J.; Holboell, Joachim


    as functions of the moisture content which is known to vary with time. Furthermore, issues related to the cooling effect during rainy weather are considered. The algorithm is based on the lumped parameters model and takes as input distributed temperature sensing measurements as well as the current and ambient......This paper presents an algorithm for the estimation of the time-dependent temperature evolution of power cables, when real-time temperature measurements of the cable surface or a point within its vicinity are available. The thermal resistivity and specific heat of the cable surroundings are varied...

  10. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature (United States)

    Willa, K.; Diao, Z.; Campanini, D.; Welp, U.; Divan, R.; Hudl, M.; Islam, Z.; Kwok, W.-K.; Rydh, A.


    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  11. Low-temperature specific heat in hydrogenated and Mn-doped La (Fe,Si ) 13 (United States)

    Lovell, Edmund; Ghivelder, Luis; Nicotina, Amanda; Turcaud, Jeremy; Bratko, Milan; Caplin, A. David; Basso, Vittorio; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Cohen, Lesley F.


    It is now well established that the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition in the magnetocaloric La (FeSi) 13 is a cooperative effect involving spin, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom. However, the influence of this correlated behavior on the ferromagnetic state is as yet little studied. Here we measure the specific heat at low temperatures in a systematic set of LaF exM nyS iz samples, with and without hydrogen, to extract the Sommerfeld coefficient, the Debye temperature, and the spin-wave stiffness. Substantial and systematic changes in magnitude of the Sommerfeld coefficient are observed with Mn substitution and introduction of hydrogen, showing that over and above the changes to the density of states at the Fermi energy there are significant enhanced d -band electronic interactions at play. The Sommerfeld coefficient is found to be 90 -210 mJ mo l-1K-2 , unusually high compared to that expected from band-structure calculations. The Debye temperature determined from the specific heat measurement is insensitive to Mn and Si doping but increases when hydrogen is introduced into the system. The Sommerfeld coefficient is reduced in magnetic field for all compositions that have a measurable spin-wave contribution. These results move our understanding of the cooperative effects forward in this important and interesting class of materials significantly and provide a basis for future theoretical development.

  12. The Low Temperature Specific Heat of Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Han


    Full Text Available The low temperature specific heat of polycrystalline perovskite-type Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3 manganese oxide has been investigated experimentally. It is found that the low temperature electron specific heat in zero magnetic field is obviously larger than that of ordinary rare-earth manganites oxide. To get the contribution of phonon to the specific heat precisely, the lattice specific heat is calculated by Debye model fitting. Results confirm that the low temperature specific heat of Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3 is related to the itinerant electrons in ferromagnetic clusters and the disorder in the sample.

  13. Low-temperature specific heat of the superconductor Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, V.H. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail:; Miller, W. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Bukowski, Z. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)


    The low-temperature specific heat of a superconductor Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} with T{sub c} = 2.2 {+-} 0.05 K has been measured in magnetic fields up to 5 T. In the normal state, the electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma}{sub n}, and the Debye temperature {theta}{sub D} are found to be 34.5(2) mJ mol{sup -1} K{sup -2} and 283(5) K, respectively. The enhanced {gamma}{sub n} value is interpreted as due to a narrow Mo-4d band pinned at the Fermi level. The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state can be analyzed in terms a phenomenological two BCS-like gap model with the gap widths 2{delta}{sub 1}/k{sub B}T{sub c} = 4.0 and 2{delta}{sub 2}/k{sub B}T{sub c} = 2.5, and relative weights of the molar electronic heat coefficients {gamma}{sub 1}/{gamma}{sub n} = 0.7 and {gamma}{sub 2}/{gamma}{sub n} = 0.3. Some characteristic thermodynamic parameters for the studied superconductor, like the specific heat jump at T{sub c}, {delta}C(T{sub c})/{gamma}{sub n}T{sub c}, the electron-phonon coupling constant, {lambda}{sub e-ph}, the upper H{sub c2} and thermodynamic critical H{sub c0} fields, the penetration depth {lambda}, coherence length {xi} and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter {kappa} are evaluated. The estimated values of parameters such as 2{delta}{sub 0}/k{sub B}T{sub c}, {delta}C(T{sub c})/{gamma}{sub n}T{sub c}, N(E{sub F}) and {lambda}{sub e-ph} suggest that Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} belongs to an intermediate-coupling regime. The electronic band structure calculations indicate that the density of states near the Fermi level is formed mainly by the Mo-4d orbitals and that there is no overlap between the Mo-4d and Sb-sp orbitals.

  14. Numerical Renormalization Group computation of temperature dependent specific heat for a two-channel Anderson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, J.V.B., E-mail: [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil); Ferreira, A.I.I.; Leite, A.H. [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil); Libero, V.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, SP, Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    The Numerical Renormalization Group (NRG) is applied to diagonalize a two-channel Anderson model describing a local magnetic impurity embedded in a fermionic bath. In spite of the difficulty in computing the specific heat using NRG, the interleaving discretization and multi-step iterative transformation virtually eliminate the numerical oscillations introduced by the logarithmic discretization of the conduction band. These allow to cover uniformly a large range of temperature, from the top of the band to a very small fraction of the bandwidth. This is relevant in describing, for instance, the presence of a low temperature Kondo resonance together with a high temperature Schottky peak, as well to cover Fermi and non-Fermi liquid regimes, like in the recent studied Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ni{sub 9}Ge{sub 4} family. We highlight the importance in describing the Schottky peak to define the number of degrees of freedom of the local levels, in order to correctly define the model to describe a given compound. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-channel Anderson model exhibits FL and nFL regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NRG, with interleaving and the multi-step procedures, solve Hamiltonian. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large temperature in the specific heat curves, from Kondo to Schottky peak. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ni{sub 9}Ge{sub 4} compound. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Schottky-like peak in this compound suggests J=9/2 multiplet at the impurity level.

  15. Unusual temperature dependence in the low-temperature specific heat of U3Ni5Al19 (United States)

    Kim, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.; Bauer, E. D.; Ronning, F.


    Specific heat has been measured down to 0.053 K on a single crystal of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet U3Ni5Al19 that orders at TN=23K . As has been previously reported, these data can be fitted between 0.4 and 4 K by the spin-fluctuation model of Moriya and Takimoto, which describes the contribution of weakly interacting critical spin fluctuations to the specific heat, C , where, as T→0 , C/T=γ0-a√T . However, below 0.35 K a noticeable divergence in C/ Ttilde logT dependence, consistent with the existence of strongly interacting fluctuations, is observed. This increase in the divergence of C/T at the lowest temperatures—which is contrary to the self-consistent renormalization theory of Moriya and Takimoto, which predicts √T dependence for C/T as T→0 and logT dependence at higher temperatures—has been measured as a function of magnetic field to further understand its origin. The field data in the low-temperature regime, where C/ Ttilde logT exhibit scaling with ΔB/T1.9 , further evidence that there exist strongly interacting fluctuations below 0.35 K in U3Ni5Al19 .

  16. Investigations of temperature dependences of electrical resistivity and specific heat capacity of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eser, Erhan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Polatlı Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, Polatlı, Ankara (Turkey); Koç, Hüseyin [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Muş Alparslan University, Muş (Turkey)


    In this study, we calculated the electrical resistivity and heat capacities of some ideal metals (Cu, Pt, and Pd) using a method that it employs the statistical model and Debye functions. The method is used to provide a simple and reliable analytical procedure for wide temperature range. The results obtained for the electrical resistivity and heat capacity have been compared with the results in literature. The results obtained at low temperature are in excellent agreement with experimental and theoretical results. Finally the used approximation and analytical method are a useful approach to calculate thermophysical properties of metals.

  17. Performance optimization of Brayton heat engine at maximum efficient power using temperature dependent specific heat of working fluid


    Kumar, Rajesh; Kaushik, S C; Kumar, Raj


    Efficient power optimization of Brayton heat engine with variable specific heat of the working fluid is analyzed from the view of finite time thermodynamics. The efficient power is defined as the multiplication of engine power and engine efficiency. Hence, the proposed method considers not only the power output but also the engine efficiency. Optimizing the efficient power gives a compromise between power and engine efficiency. Results obtained are compared with those obtained by using the ma...

  18. Low temperature specific heat of the spin-density-wave compound (TMTSF)2PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odin, J.; Lasjaunias, J.C.; Biljakovic, K.


    We report on specific heat measurements of the SDW compound (TMTSF)2PF6 between 2 and 25 K, performed by two different techniques. We discuss the two successive transitions which occur in this T-range : the SDW ordering transition at T = 12.1 K, and a glass transition around-3-3.5 K. The latter...

  19. The calculation of high-temperature equilibrium and nonequilibrium specific heat data for N2, O2 and NO (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard L.


    Specific heat data for high-temperature air species are needed to compute the temperature and enthalpy of gas mixtures in aerothermodynamics flowfield calculations. Accurate data are known only for temperatures under 6000 K, but are required for temperatures exceeding 25,000 K. In the present study, CP data are computed for N2, O2 and NO. The calculations are based on summations over all the vibration-rotation energy levels for all known bound electronic states. Estimates are made for the error introduced by the neglect of possible additional high-lying electronic states. In addition, a scheme for the partitioning of the internal energy into vibrational, rotational and electronic contributions is presented which consistently accounts for the nonseparable nature of the various energy modes. The multitemperature specific heat data are recommended for use in nonequilibrium flowfield models.

  20. The DNA electronic specific heat at low temperature: The role of aperiodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Mendes, G.A. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Albuquerque, E.L., E-mail: [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Fulco, U.L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Ujsághy, O. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Freire, V.N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, E.W.S. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)


    The electronic specific heat spectra at constant volume (C{sub V}) of a long-range correlated extended ladder model, mimicking a DNA molecule, is theoretically analyzed for a stacked array of a double-stranded structure made up from the nucleotides guanine G, adenine A, cytosine C and thymine T. The role of the aperiodicity on C{sub V} is discussed, considering two different nucleotide arrangements with increasing disorder, namely the Fibonacci and the Rudin–Shapiro quasiperiodic structures. Comparisons are made for different values of the band fillings, considering also a finite segment of natural DNA, as part of the human chromosome Ch22. -- Highlights: ► Quasiperiodic sequence to mimic the DNA nucleotides arrangement. ► Electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model. ► Electronic density of states. ► Electronic specific heat spectra.

  1. Accurate determination of specific heat at high temperatures using the flash diffusivity method (United States)

    Vandersande, J. W.; Zoltan, A.; Wood, C.


    The flash diffusivity method of Parker et al. (1961) was used to measure accurately the specific heat of test samples simultaneously with thermal diffusivity, thus obtaining the thermal conductivity of these materials directly. The accuracy of data obtained on two types of materials (n-type silicon-germanium alloys and niobium), was + or - 3 percent. It is shown that the method is applicable up to at least 1300 K.

  2. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willa, K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Diao, Z. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Laboratory of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Halmstad University, P.O. Box 823, SE-301 18 Halmstad, Sweden; Campanini, D. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Welp, U. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Divan, R. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Hudl, M. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Islam, Z. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Kwok, W. -K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Rydh, A. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden


    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-delta crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.


    Horn, F.L.; Binns, J.E.


    Apparatus for continuously and automatically measuring and computing the specific heat of a flowing solution is described. The invention provides for the continuous measurement of all the parameters required for the mathematical solution of this characteristic. The parameters are converted to logarithmic functions which are added and subtracted in accordance with the solution and a null-seeking servo reduces errors due to changing voltage drops to a minimum. Logarithmic potentiometers are utilized in a unique manner to accomplish these results.

  4. Food Legumes and Rising Temperatures: Effects, Adaptive Functional Mechanisms Specific to Reproductive Growth Stage and Strategies to Improve Heat Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sita


    Full Text Available Ambient temperatures are predicted to rise in the future owing to several reasons associated with global climate changes. These temperature increases can result in heat stress- a severe threat to crop production in most countries. Legumes are well-known for their impact on agricultural sustainability as well as their nutritional and health benefits. Heat stress imposes challenges for legume crops and has deleterious effects on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive growth of plants. High-temperature stress at the time of the reproductive stage is becoming a severe limitation for production of grain legumes as their cultivation expands to warmer environments and temperature variability increases due to climate change. The reproductive period is vital in the life cycle of all plants and is susceptible to high-temperature stress as various metabolic processes are adversely impacted during this phase, which reduces crop yield. Food legumes exposed to high-temperature stress during reproduction show flower abortion, pollen and ovule infertility, impaired fertilization, and reduced seed filling, leading to smaller seeds and poor yields. Through various breeding techniques, heat tolerance in major legumes can be enhanced to improve performance in the field. Omics approaches unravel different mechanisms underlying thermotolerance, which is imperative to understand the processes of molecular responses toward high-temperature stress.

  5. Alternating current calorimeter for specific heat capacity measurements at temperatures below 10 K and pressures up to 10 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeo, Kazunori, E-mail: [Cryogenics and Instrumental Analysis Division, N-BARD, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)


    A developed alternating current calorimeter for measuring the absolute value of specific heat C of a very small sample under a pressure up to 10 GPa and low temperature below 10 K is described. A Bridgman anvil cell made of tungsten carbide with a top diameter of 3 mm is used. A hollow at the top prevents expansion of the sample space over the anvil top. Two chip resistors, which act as a thermometer and a heater, are mounted on the outer part of a copper–beryllium gasket with a frying pan-like shape. Thus, the thermometer is not pressurized. In order to isolate the gasket from the anvil thermally, diamond powder with a grain size of 0.25 μm is placed on the anvil top. Two jumps of C at the superconducting transitions of Pb (3.3 mg) and In (5.0 mg) are observed under various pressures up to 9 GPa, as clearly as those at the ambient pressure.

  6. Low temperature nuclear heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, J.; Tarjanne, R. (comps.)


    The meeting was concerned with the use of low grade nuclear heat for district heating, desalination, process heat, and agriculture and aquaculture. The sessions covered applications and demand, heat sources, and economics.

  7. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia


    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  8. Evaluation of high specific-heat ceramic for regenerator use at temperatures between 2-30 K (United States)

    Lawless, W. N.


    Specific heat, thermal conductivity (both in the range 2-30 K), and microhardness data were measured on the ceramics labelled LS-8, LS-8A, and LS-8A doped with CsI, SnCl2, and AgCl. A work hardened sample of LS-8A was also studied in an effort to determine the feasibility of using these types of LS-8 materials to replace Pb spheres in the regenerator of the JPL cryocooler. The LS-8A materials are all more than an order of magnitude harder than Pb, and the dopants do not significantly improve the hardness. However, the SnCl2 dopant has a remarkable effect in improving the specific heat and thermal conductivity of LS-8A. The SnCl2 doping level which maximized the regenerator enthalpy change in going from an unloaded to a loaded condition was found to be 0.2 percent SnCl2 in LS-8A. It was also found that the enthalpy change for a regenerator employing the LS-8A material is more than three times larger than for the Pb spheres case. The use of rods, rather than spheres, of optimally doped LS-8A in regenerators is discussed.

  9. Specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine wood (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin


    In the range of 333 K to 413 K, the specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood was expressed by a linear function of temperature. No relationship was detected with specific gravity, growth rate, or distance from the pith; nor were differences found between earlywood and latewood.

  10. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.


    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  11. Exergy-based ecological performance of an irreversible Otto cycle with temperature-linear-relation variable specific heat of working fluid (United States)

    Ge, Yanlin; Chen, Lingen; Qin, Xiaoyong; Xie, Zhihui


    Considering internal irreversibility loss (IIL), friction loss (FL) and heat transfer loss (HTL), an irreversible Otto cycle (IOC) model is built up by using air standard (AS) assumption. Based on finite-time thermodynamics (FTT), computing entropy generation rate (EGR) by using the irreversible losses in the cycle, the ecological function (EF) performance of the cycle is optimized when the specific heat (SH) of the working fluid (WF) varies with temperature with linear relation. Some important expressions, including efficiency, power output, EGR and EF, are obtained. Moreover, the effects of variable SH of WF and three losses on cycle performance are investigated. The research conclusion can provide some guidelines for the actual Otto cycle engine performance optimization.

  12. Medium Deep High Temperature Heat Storage (United States)

    Bär, Kristian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel; Welsch, Bastian; Chauhan, Swarup; Homuth, Sebastian; Sass, Ingo


    Heating of buildings requires more than 25 % of the total end energy consumption in Germany. Shallow geothermal systems for indirect use as well as shallow geothermal heat storage systems like aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) or borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) typically provide low exergy heat. The temperature levels and ranges typically require a coupling with heat pumps. By storing hot water from solar panels or thermal power stations with temperatures of up to 110 °C a medium deep high temperature heat storage (MDHTS) can be operated on relatively high temperature levels of more than 45 °C. Storage depths of 500 m to 1,500 m below surface avoid conflicts with groundwater use for drinking water or other purposes. Permeability is typically also decreasing with greater depth; especially in the crystalline basement therefore conduction becomes the dominant heat transport process. Solar-thermal charging of a MDHTS is a very beneficial option for supplying heat in urban and rural systems. Feasibility and design criteria of different system configurations (depth, distance and number of BHE) are discussed. One system is designed to store and supply heat (300 kW) for an office building. The required boreholes are located in granodioritic bedrock. Resulting from this setup several challenges have to be addressed. The drilling and completion has to be planned carefully under consideration of the geological and tectonical situation at the specific site.

  13. High specific heat superconducting composite (United States)

    Steyert, Jr., William A.


    A composite superconductor formed from a high specific heat ceramic such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium-aluminum oxide and a conventional metal conductor such as copper or aluminum which are insolubly mixed together to provide adiabatic stability in a superconducting mode of operation. The addition of a few percent of insoluble gadolinium-aluminum oxide powder or gadolinium oxide powder to copper, increases the measured specific heat of the composite by one to two orders of magnitude below the K. level while maintaining the high thermal and electrical conductivity of the conventional metal conductor.

  14. On the specific heat of carbon steels


    Umino, Saburo


    The results of the pre:lent investigation may be summarized as follows: (1) The heat content of carbon steels at high temperatures was determined by the mixture method, while the oxidation of the specimen was prevented by passing a purified hydrogen gas through the furnace. The specimens were twelve kinds of steels with different carbon contents from 0.09 % to 2.84 % and the range of temperature was 23~250°C. (2) According to A. Meuthen, the specific heat is constant below the A1 point, but t...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V


    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  16. High Temperature Composite Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.


    High temperature composite heat exchangers are an enabling technology for a number of aeropropulsion applications. They offer the potential for mass reductions of greater than fifty percent over traditional metallics designs and enable vehicle and engine designs. Since they offer the ability to operate at significantly higher operating temperatures, they facilitate operation at reduced coolant flows and make possible temporary uncooled operation in temperature regimes, such as experienced during vehicle reentry, where traditional heat exchangers require coolant flow. This reduction in coolant requirements can translate into enhanced range or system payload. A brief review of the approaches and challengers to exploiting this important technology are presented, along with a status of recent government-funded projects.

  17. The specific heat of YBCO single crystals near Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, S.; Lawrie, I.D.; Howson, M.A. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom)


    The authors present results for the measured specific heat of YBCO single crystals between 80 and 110K. The specific heat has been measured using an a.c. optical heating technique with a temperature resolution of 15mK. The superconducting transition is marked by a sharply peaked {open_quote}Lambda{close_quote} like anomaly. The {open_quote}fluctuation{close_quote} contributions to the specific heat fit a logarithmic divergence very well.

  18. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests (United States)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.


    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  19. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrable, D.L.


    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment.

  20. High temperature active heat exchanger research for latent heat storage (United States)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.


    An active heat exchange method in a latent heat (salt) thermal energy storage system that prevents a low conductivity solid salt layer from forming on heat transfer surfaces was developed. An evaluation of suitable media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 to 400 C) limited the candidates to molten salts from the chloride, hydroxide and nitrate families, based on high storage capacity, good corrosion characteristics and availability in large quantities at reasonable cost. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a choride eutectic (20.5KCL o 24.5NaCL o 55.MgCl2% by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C. Various active heat exchange concepts were given a technical and economic comparison to a passive tube shell design for a reference application (300 MW sub t for 6 hours). Test hardware was then built for the most promising concept: a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counter flowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid (lead/Bismuth).

  1. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium -- Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers (United States)

    Sanzi, James L.


    Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  2. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers (United States)

    Sanzi, James L.


    Titanium-water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  3. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)


    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  4. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan


    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  5. Integrated Temperature Sensors based on Heat Diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vroonhoven, C.P.L.


    This thesis describes the theory, design and implementation of a new class of integrated temperature sensors, based on heat diffusion. In such sensors, temperature is sensed by measuring the time it takes for heat to diffuse through silicon. An on-chip thermal delay can be determined by geometry and

  6. Temperatures and Heat Flows in a Soil Enclosing a Slinky Horizontal Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Neuberger


    Full Text Available Temperature changes and heat flows in soils that host “slinky”-type horizontal heat exchangers are complex, but need to be understood if robust quantification of the thermal energy available to a ground-source heat pump is to be achieved. Of particular interest is the capacity of the thermal energy content of the soil to regenerate when the heat exchangers are not operating. Analysis of specific heat flows and the specific thermal energy regime within the soil, including that captured by the heat-exchangers, has been characterised by meticulous measurements. These reveal that high concentrations of antifreeze mix in the heat-transfer fluid of the heat exchanger have an adverse impact on heat flows discharged into the soil.

  7. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.


    , and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  8. Temperatures and Heat Flows in a Soil Enclosing a Slinky Horizontal Heat Exchanger


    Pavel Neuberger; Radomír Adamovský; Michaela Šeďová


    Temperature changes and heat flows in soils that host “slinky”-type horizontal heat exchangers are complex, but need to be understood if robust quantification of the thermal energy available to a ground-source heat pump is to be achieved. Of particular interest is the capacity of the thermal energy content of the soil to regenerate when the heat exchangers are not operating. Analysis of specific heat flows and the specific thermal energy regime within the soil, including that captured by the ...

  9. Specific heat properties of electrons in generalized Fibonacci quasicrystals (United States)

    Mauriz, P. W.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Albuquerque, E. L.


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the specific heat properties of electrons in one-dimensional quasiperiodic potentials, arranged in accordance with the generalized Fibonacci sequence. The electronic energy spectra are calculated using the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation in a tight-binding approximation. Both analytical and numerical results on the temperature dependence of the electron's specific heat associated with their multiscale fractal energy spectra are presented. We compare our numerical results with those found for the ordinary Fibonacci structure. A rich and varied behavior is found for the specific heat oscillations when T→0, with interesting physical consequences.

  10. Specific heat in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring (United States)

    Babanlı, A. M.; Ibragimov, B. G.


    In the present paper, we have calculated the specific heat and magnetization of a quantum ring of a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material in the presence of magnetic field. We take into account the effect of Rashba spin-orbital interaction, the exchange interaction and the Zeeman term on the specific heat. We have calculated the energy spectrum of the electrons in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring. Moreover we have calculated the specific heat dependency on the magnetic field and Mn concentration at finite temperature of a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring.

  11. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.


    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  12. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.


    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  13. Cappuccino and specific heat versus heat of vaporization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidden, Frits; Boomsma, Jorn; Schins, Anton; Van den Berg, Ed


    A cappuccino is prepared by adding about 50 mL frothing, foaming milk to a cup of espresso. Whole milk is best for foaming and the ideal milk temperature when adding it to the espresso is 65 °C. The espresso itself may be warmer than that. During the heating the milk should not burn, as that would

  14. TEACHING PHYSICS: Teaching about heat and temperature (United States)

    Carlton, Kevin


    Students encountering thermal physics at introductory level often have difficulty distinguishing between heat and temperature. It has been found with teacher education students at Canterbury Christ Church University College that challenging misconceptions by experiment and through discussion can quickly enable them to acquire the necessary concepts to equip them to develop their understanding of thermal physics. The key concepts are those of thermal equilibrium, the notion of flow of heat energy and the ability to differentiate between heat and temperature. This paper outlines a possible combination of activities to illustrate how this may be accomplished.

  15. Influence on Heat Transfer Coefficient of Heat Exchanger by Velocity and Heat Transfer Temperature Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang


    Full Text Available Aimed to insufficient heat transfer of heat exchanger, research the influence on the heat transfer coefficient impacted by velocity and heat transfer temperature difference of tube heat exchanger. According to the different heat transfer temperature difference and gas velocity,the experimental data were divided into group. Using the control variable method,the above two factors were analyzed separately. K一△T and k一:fitting curve were clone to obtain empirical function. The entire heat exchanger is as the study object,using numerical simulation methods,porous media,k一£model,second order upwind mode,and pressure一velocity coupling with SIMPLE algorithm,the entire heat exchanger temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution were given. Finally the trend of the heat transfer coefficient effected by the above two factors was gotten.

  16. Heat exchangers and recuperators for high temperature waste gases (United States)

    Meunier, H.

    General considerations on high temperature waste heat recovery are presented. Internal heat recovery through combustion air preheating and external heat recovery are addressed. Heat transfer and pressure drop in heat exchanger design are discussed.

  17. Systematic analysis of geothermal plants. Influence of temperatures in consumer systems on the specific cost of the distributed heat; Systemanalytische Erfassung von Nutzungsanlagen hydrogeothermaler Ressourcen. Einfluss der Temperaturen in den Abnehmersystemen auf den Waermegestehungspreis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schallenberg, K. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)


    On the basis of a general investigation of the impact of geological situation, thermal water loop and consumer structure on the economy of heating systems, different geothermal plants are analysed in detail. In the study, for example, variations of the temperature conditions in district heating systems were considered while the geologic conditions are maintained. It is shown that the specific costs calculated for the distributed heat are sensitive to the amount of heat extracted from the Earth`s interior. Therefore, it was necessary to make assumptions for the duration curve of the consumer system. An exponential duration curve was verified by comparison with data from an existing district heating system. The calculated specific heat costs for different network layouts are transformed finally into an equivalent investment potential. The results clearly indicate the possibilities for an optimization of the system when investments into the heating network would be made. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hydrogeothermale Nutzungsanlagen wurden auf Basis der Einflussgroessen Geologie, Thermalwasserkreis und Abnehmerstruktur systemanalytisch erfasst. Daraus ergibt sich die Grundlage zum Vergleich verschiedener Anlagen. Nachhaltige Einfluesse auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Geothermieanlagen ergeben sich aus der Betriebsweise der Abnehmerstruktur. Die dargestellten Untersuchungen zielen deshalb zunaechst auf die Variation der Temperaturparameter des Netzes und deren Einfluss auf die Waermegestehungskosten ab. Bei diesem Ansatz wurden zunaechst die geologischen Eingangsgroessen konstant gehalten. Grundlage der statischen Kostenrechnung in Anlehnung an VDI 2067 ist eine Kostenzusammenstellung der Einzelkomponenten einer geothermischen Heizzentrale. Um den geothermischen Beitrag zur Waermeversorgung moeglichst genau zu beschreiben, ist die Kenntnis von geordneten Jahresganglinien der Abnehmersysteme erforderlich. Zur mathematischen Beschreibung diente eine Exponentialfunktion, deren

  18. High-temperature heat-pump fluids (United States)

    Bertinat, M. P.


    Heat pumps could be immensely useful in many industrial processes, but standard working fluids are unsuitable for the high temperatures involved. The ideal high-temperature heat-pump fluid should have a high (but not too high) critical temperature, a moderate critical pressure ( approximately=5.0 MPa) and a low (but not too low) boiling point. There are many organic fluids that do meet the above thermodynamic criteria The author's list of 250 contained dozens of them including many of the common laboratory solvents such as ethanol, ether and especially acetone. Unfortunately most of them are highly flammable. The ideal work fluid for high-temperature heat pumps will probably always remain elusive and water, despite its drawbacks will continue to be the best choice in most applications

  19. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    , a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets and equipped with a radiant water-based floor heating and cooling system was studied by means of full-scale measurements, dynamic building simulations and thermodynamic evaluation tools. Thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house......A heating and cooling system could be divided into three parts: terminal units (emission system), distribution system, and heating and cooling plant (generation system). The choice of terminal unit directly affects the energy performance, and the indoor environment in that space. Therefore......, a holistic system evaluation is necessary to ensure an optimal indoor environment for the occupants and to achieve energy efficiency simultaneously. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling systems are one of the possible approaches to heat or cool indoor spaces in buildings. In this thesis...

  20. Evolution of the specific-heat anomaly of the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} under the influence of doping through application of pressure up to 10 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lortz, Rolf [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Junod, Alain [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Jaccard, Didier [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Wang, Yuxing [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Meingast, Christoph [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Masui, Takahiko [Superconductivity Research Laboratory-ISTEC, 10-13 Shinonome I-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135 (Japan); Tajima, Setsuko [Superconductivity Research Laboratory-ISTEC, 10-13 Shinonome I-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135 (Japan)


    The evolution of the specific-heat anomaly in the overdoped range of a single crystal of the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} has been studied under the influence of pressure up to 10 GPa, using AC calorimetry in a Bridgman-type pressure cell. We show that the specific-heat jump as well as the bulk T{sub c} are reduced with increasing pressure in accordance with a simple charge-transfer model. This new method enables us through pressure-induced charge transfer to study the doping dependence of the superconducting transition, as well as the evolution of the superconducting condensation energy on a single stoichiometric sample without adding atomic disorder.

  1. Measurement of the Specific Heat Using a Gravity Cancellation Approach (United States)

    Zhong, Fang


    The specific heat at constant volume C(sob V) of a simple fluid diverges near its liquid-vapor critical point. However, gravity-induced density stratification due to the divergence of isothermal susceptibility hinders the direct comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of renormalization group theory. In the past, a microgravity environment has been considered essential to eliminate the density stratification. We propose to perform specific heat measurements of He-3 on the ground using a method to cancel the density stratification. A He-3 fluid layer will be heated from below, using the thermal expansion of the fluid to cancel the hydrostatic compression. A 6% density stratification at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) can be cancelled to better than 0.1% with a steady 1.7 micro K temperature difference across a 0.05 cm thick fluid layer. A conventional AC calorimetry technique will be used to determine the heat capacity. The minimized bulk density stratification with a relaxation time 6500 sec at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) will stay unchanged during 1 Hz AC heating. The smear of the specific heat divergence due to the temperature difference across the cell is about 0.1% at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6). The combination of using High Resolution Thermometry with a 0.5 n K temperature resolution in the AC technique and the cancellation of the density stratification will enable C(sub V) to be measured down to a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6) with less than a 1% systematic error.

  2. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for frequency-dependent specific heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Nielsen, Johannes K.


    A derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation (FD) theorem for the frequency-dependent specific heat of a system described by a master equation is presented. The FD theorem is illustrated by a number of simple examples, including a system described by a linear Langevin equation, a two-level system......, and a system described by the energy master equation. It is shown that for two quite different models with low-energy cutoffs—a collection of two-level systems and a system described by the energy master equation—the frequency-dependent specific heat in dimensionless units becomes universal at low temperatures......, i.e., independent of both energy distribution and temperature. These two models give almost the same universal frequency-dependent specific heat, which compares favorably to experiments on supercooled alcohols....

  3. Dynamic specific heat of frustrated Ising spin rings

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, G


    The dynamic specific heat C(omega) is calculated exactly for rings of six coupled Ising spins within Glauber dynamics. We used the response of the internal energy to small temperature oscillations to find C(omega). The spin glass (SG) and disordered ferromagnetic (DFM) rings showed here have four energy minima and thus four diverging relaxation times in the time evolution of magnetization and three such times in the evolution of energy. The properties of the real and imaginary parts of dynamic specific heat are investigated for different temperatures and frequencies. The dynamic susceptibility is affected by the longest relaxing mode while the dynamic specific heat is not. Our results confirm that C(omega) is sensitive only to rapidly relaxing processes for ferromagnetic (FM) and anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) cases. (Author)

  4. Cappuccino and Specific Heat versus Heat of Vaporization (United States)

    Hidden, Frits; Boomsma, Jorn; Schins, Anton; van den Berg, Ed


    A cappuccino is prepared by adding about 50 mL frothing, foaming milk to a cup of espresso. Whole milk is best for foaming and the ideal milk temperature when adding it to the espresso is 65 [degrees]C. The espresso itself may be warmer than that. During the heating the milk should not burn, as that would spoil the taste. The best way is to heat…

  5. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature. (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad


    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  6. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir


    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck’s sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  7. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong


    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219

  8. The specific heat of the solid electrolyte system CuI - AgI (United States)

    Kusakabe, M.; Ito, Y.; Tamaki, S.


    The specific heat for AgI-doped CuI has been measured by the method of differential scanning calorimetry. Anomalous specific heats were observed around the transition temperature from non-superionic to superionic phases. These were well explained in terms of the Schottky-type excess specific heat.

  9. Specific heat of a non-local attractive Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calegari, E.J., E-mail: [Laboratório de Teoria da Matéria Condensada, Departamento de Física, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lobo, C.O. [Laboratório de Teoria da Matéria Condensada, Departamento de Física, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Magalhaes, S.G. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea s/n, 24210, 346, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Chaves, C.M.; Troper, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The specific heat C(T) of an attractive (interaction G<0) non-local Hubbard model is investigated within a two-pole approximation that leads to a set of correlation functions, which play an important role as a source of anomalies as the pseudogap. For a giving range of G and n{sub T} (where n{sub T}=n{sub ↑}+n{sub ↓}), the specific heat as a function of the temperature presents a two peak structure. Nevertehelesss, the presence of a pseudogap eliminates the two peak structure. The effects of the second nearest-neighbor hopping on C(T) are also investigated.

  10. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix


    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour....... Groundwater, seawater and air heat sources were compared with each other as well as to a scenario consisting of a combination of these heat sources. In addition, base load and peak load units were included. Characteristic parameters were the coefficient of performance, the number of full load hours......% groundwater, 22% seawater and 0% air resulted in highest COP of 3.33 for the given heat demand. Furthermore, the implementation of rule based short term storage made peak units redundant. The variation in base load capacity showed that heat pumps utilizing the analyzed heat sources could perform very...

  11. Cyclic high temperature heat storage using borehole heat exchangers (United States)

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Bauer, Sebastian


    The transition of the German energy supply towards mainly renewable energy sources like wind or solar power, termed "Energiewende", makes energy storage a requirement in order to compensate their fluctuating production and to ensure a reliable energy and power supply. One option is to store heat in the subsurface using borehole heat exchangers (BHEs). Efficiency of thermal storage is increasing with increasing temperatures, as heat at high temperatures is more easily injected and extracted than at temperatures at ambient levels. This work aims at quantifying achievable storage capacities, storage cycle times, injection and extraction rates as well as thermal and hydraulic effects induced in the subsurface for a BHE storage site in the shallow subsurface. To achieve these aims, simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites is performed. A detailed, high-resolution numerical simulation model was developed, that accounts for all BHE components in geometrical detail and incorporates the governing processes. This model was verified using high quality experimental data and is shown to achieve accurate simulation results with excellent fit to the available experimental data, but also leads to large computational times due to the large numerical meshes required for discretizing the highly transient effects. An approximate numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly was therefore developed for use in larger scale simulations. The approximate numerical model still includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with a deviation of less than 2% from the fully discretized model. Simulation times are reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. This model is then used to investigate achievable storage capacity, injection and extraction rates as well as induced effects for

  12. Experimental Research On Gas Injection High Temperature Heat Pump With An Economizer


    He, Yongning; Jin, Lei; Cao, Feng; Chen, Shengkun


    Gas injection technology is often used in cold regions to solve heat pump’s low heating capacity and high discharge temperature at low ambient temperature. Injecting gas into port opened at specific position of compressor could increase mass flow rate of compressor and total heating capacity of heat pump. Gas injection also changes compression ratio of compressor and decreases discharge temperature. An optimal gas injection pressure is got when the coefficient of performance reached to peak v...

  13. Integration of space heating and hot water supply in low temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael


    of the consumers involves both domestic hot water and space heating. Space heating may be provided at low temperature in low energy buildings. Domestic hot water, however, needs sufficient temperatures to avoid growth of legionella. If the network temperature is below the demand temperature, supplementary heating......District heating may supply many consumers efficiently, but the heat loss from the pipes to the ground is a challenge. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the network temperatures for which reason low temperature networks are proposed for future district heating. The heating demand...... is required by the consumer. We study conventional district heating at different temperatures and compare the energy and exergetic efficiency and annual heating cost to solutions that utilize electricity for supplementary heating of domestic hot water in low temperature district heating. This includes direct...

  14. Power generation from low-temperature heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakew, Amlaku Abie


    transcritical power cycle is operating at lower pump efficiency, the effect of a decrease in pump efficiency is equivalent to a decrease in turbine efficiency. The thermodynamic analysis is coupled with a 1D mean line turbine design. Both axial and radial turbines are considered. The Ainely and Mathieson loss model is used in the 1D axial turbine designs. It is observed that the blade height is generally small; the reason being high operating pressure and low flow rate. A novel approach to enhance the performance of low-temperature CO{sub 2} transcritical power cycles is investigated. From the thermodynamic analysis, it is observed that the pump work is significant and reduction of pump work will be translated to a gain in net power output. The mechanical driven pump is suggested to be replaced by a thermally driven pump. The working principle of thermally driven pump is by exploiting the phenomena in which the pressure of a closed vessel filled full with saturated liquid will rise when heated. A cascade of vessels is used to make the pressurizing process continuous. The time taken to pressurize is an important parameter for the performance of thermally driven pump. Pressurizing time depends on isochoric specific heat capacity of the working fluid, heat transfer coefficient, inlet conditions of heat source, tube diameter, and initial mass of the working fluid. When the pressurizing time is longer, more vessels are required to make the process continuous. It is shown that it possible to increase power output using a thermal driven pump, but additional equipments are required. An example of a possible application is a low-temperature CO{sub 2} power cycle integrated with a post-combustion carbon dioxide capture plant. The heat rejected by low temperature streams in the capture plant is used as a heat sources for power generation. It is found that utilization of heat of the capture plant improves the performance of the overall process. It shows that low-temperature transcritical

  15. Nonuniformity of Temperatures in Microwave Steam Heating of Lobster Tail. (United States)

    Fleischman, Gregory J


    The biennial Conference for Food Protection provides a formal process for all interested parties to influence food safety guidance. At a recent conference, an issue was raised culminating in a formal request to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to change its Food Code recommendation for safe cooking of seafood using microwave energy when steaming was also employed. The request was to treat microwave steam cooked seafood as a conventionally cooked raw animal product rather than a microwave cooked product, for which the safe cooking recommendation is more extensive owing to the complex temperature distributions in microwave heating. The request was motivated by a literature study that revealed a more uniform temperature distribution in microwave steam cooked whole lobster. In that study, single-point temperatures were recorded in various sections of the whole lobster, but only one temperature was recorded in the tail, although the large size of the tail could translate to multiple hot and cold points. The present study was conducted to examine lobster tail specifically, measuring temperatures at multiple points during microwave steam cooking. Large temperature differences, greater than 60°C at times, were found throughout the heating period. To compensate for such differences, the Food Code recommends a more extensive level of cooking when microwave energy, rather than conventional heat sources, is used. Therefore, a change in the Food Code regarding microwave steam heating cannot be recommended.

  16. Attributing the impacts of land-cover changes in temperate regions on surface temperature and heat fluxes to specific causes: Results from the first LUCID set of simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boisier, J.P.; Noblet-Ducoudré, de N.; Pitman, A.J.; Cruz, F.T.; Delire, C.; Hurk, van den B.J.J.M.; Molen, van der M.K.; Müller, C.; Voldoire, A.


    Surface cooling in temperate regions is a common biogeophysical response to historical Land-Use induced Land Cover Change (LULCC). The climate models involved in LUCID show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC-induced

  17. On the Specific Heat Capacity of CuO Nanofluid


    Le-Ping Zhou; Bu-Xuan Wang; Xiao-Feng Peng; Xiao-Ze Du; Yong-Ping Yang


    This paper reviews briefly the definition of heat capacity and clarifies the defined specific heat capacity and volumetric heat capacity. The specific heat capacity and volumetric heat capacity, with our measured experimental data for CuO nanofluids, are discussed as an illustrating example. The result indicates that the specific heat capacity of CuO nanofluid decreases gradually with increasing volume concentration of nanoparticles. The measurement and the prediction from the thermal equilib...

  18. Quantum Heat Engine and Negative Boltzmann Temperature (United States)

    Xi, Jing-Yi; Quan, Hai-Tao


    To clarify the ambiguity on negative Boltzmann temperature in literature, we study the Carnot and the Otto cycle with one of the heat reservoirs at the negative Boltzmann temperature based on a canonical ensemble description. The work extraction, entropy production and the efficiency of these cycles are explored. Conditions for constructing and properties of these thermodynamic cycles are elucidated. We find that the apparent “violation” of the second law of thermodynamics in these cycles are due to the fact that the traditional definition of thermodynamic efficiency is inappropriate in this situation. When properly understanding the efficiency and the adiabatic processes, in which the system crosses over “absolute ZERO” in a limit sense, the Carnot cycle with one of the heat reservoirs at a negative Boltzmann temperature can be understood straightforwardly, and it contradicts neither the second nor the third law of thermodynamics. Hence, negative Boltzmann temperature is a consistent concept in thermodynamics. We use a two-level system and an Ising spin system to illustrate our central results. Support from the National Science Foundation of China under Grants Nos. 11375012, 11534002, and The Recruitment Program of Global Youth Experts of China

  19. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk


    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  20. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.K. Johnson


    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  1. Evidence for line nodes in the energy gap for (La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15})CuO{sub 4} from low-temperature specific-heat measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. A. [Department of Chemistry, University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Phillips, N. E. [Department of Chemistry, University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Schilling, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Buffeteau, B. [CEA/Grenoble, DRFMC/LCP, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38942 Grenoble 9, (France); Calemczuk, R. [CEA/Grenoble, DRFMC/LCP, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38942 Grenoble 9, (France); Hargreaves, T. E. [CEA/Grenoble, DRFMC/LCP, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38942 Grenoble 9, (France); Marcenat, C. [CEA/Grenoble, DRFMC/LCP, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38942 Grenoble 9, (France); Dennis, K. W. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); McCallum, R. W. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); O' Connor, A. S. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)


    The dependence of the low-temperature specific heat of (La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15})CuO{sub 4} on magnetic field (H) is reported. Low concentrations of paramagnetic centers allow a different approach to analysis of the data that minimizes the problem of identifying the effects of the line nodes in the energy gap that are expected for d-wave pairing. As a consequence, these effects can be recognized even in the raw data. The data show evidence of the T{sup 2} term expected for H=0, and a well defined H{sup 1/2}T term for H{ne}0. They conform to a scaling relation recently predicted for d-wave pairing. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  2. Integration of Space Heating and Hot Water Supply in Low Temperature District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael


    pipes, where the water is at the highest temperature. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the temperatures in the network for which reason low temperature networks are proposed as a low loss solution for future district heating. However, the heating demand of the consumers involve both domestic...... hot water and space heating. Space heating may be provided at low temperature in modern low energy buildings. Domestic hot water, however, needs to reach sufficient temperatures to avoid growth of legionella bacteria. If the network temperature is below the temperature demand, supplementary heating...... is required by the consumer. In the present paper we study conventional district heating at different temperature levels and compare the energy efficiency, the exergetic efficiency and annual heating cost to solutions that utilize electricity for supplementary heating of domestic hot water in low temperature...

  3. CDC WONDER: Daily Air Temperatures and Heat Index (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Air Temperature and Heat Index data available on CDC WONDER are county-level daily average air temperatures and heat index measures spanning the years...

  4. Specific heat of NbTi from 0 to 7 T between 4. 2 and 20 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrod, S.A.; Miller, J.R.; Dresner, L.


    Specific heat measurements are reported for an annealed Nb-44% Ti rod. A formula has been derived by thermodynamic arguments for the specific heat of Type II superconductors as a function of temperature and the applied magnetic field. (MOW)

  5. Heat waves and cause-specific mortality at all ages. (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Sartini, Claudio; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Dadvand, Payam; Cunillera, Jordi; Ostro, Bart; Sunyer, Jordi; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes


    Mortality has been shown to increase with extremely hot ambient temperatures. Details on the specific cause of mortality can be useful for improving preventive policies. Infants are often identified as a population that is vulnerable to extreme heat conditions; however, information on heat and infant mortality is scarce, with no studies reporting on cause-specific mortality. The study includes all deaths in the Catalonia region of Spain during the warm seasons of 1983-2006 (503,389 deaths). We used the case-crossover design to evaluate the association between the occurrence of extremely hot days (days with maximum temperature above the 95th percentile) and mortality. Total mortality and infant mortality were stratified into 66 and 8 causes of death, respectively. Three consecutive hot days increased total daily mortality by 19%. We calculated that 1.6% of all deaths were attributable to heat. About 40% of attributable deaths did not occur during heat-wave periods. The causes of death that were increased included cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, mental and nervous system disorders, infectious and digestive system diseases, diabetes, and some external causes such as suicide. In infants, the effect of heat was observed on the same day and was detected only for conditions originating in the perinatal period (relative risk = 1.53 [95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.02]). Within the perinatal causes, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive system, and hemorrhagic and hematologic disorders were the causes of death with stronger effects. Heat contributes to an increase in mortality from several causes. In infants, the first week of life is the most critical window of vulnerability.

  6. A New Method for the Determination of the Specific Heat Capacity Using Laser-Flash Calorimetry Down to 77K (United States)

    Göbel, A.; Hemberger, F.; Vidi, S.; Ebert, H.-P.


    A new method for evaluation of the specific heat capacity in the temperature regime between 77K and 330K using laser-flash calorimetry is presented. Usually, laser-flash calorimetry is accomplished by performing an additional laser-flash measurement on a reference specimen with a known specific heat capacity and by comparing the maximum rear-side temperatures rises. In this study, the calibration is achieved by comparison of the rear-side temperature rise to specific-heat-capacity data determined by other methods in an adjacent temperature regime. Subsequently, the thus yielded proportional factor is used for the evaluation of the specific heat capacity from laser-flash measurements at temperatures where no specific-heat-capacity data are available. The reliability of this method is shown by performing measurements on a material with known specific heat capacity, aluminum oxide. Furthermore, the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of borosilicate crown glass (BK7) was determined experimentally.

  7. Specific heat of PrNi{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim-Ngan, N.H. [Center for Solid State Physics, Sw Filip 5, 31-150, Krakow (Poland)]|[Van der Waals-Zeeman Laboratorium, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Radwanski, R.J. [Center for Solid State Physics, Sw Filip 5, 31-150, Krakow (Poland)]|[Inst. Physics and Informatics, Pedagogical University, 30-084, Krakow (Poland); Kayzel, F.E. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Laboratorium, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Franse, J.J.M. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Laboratorium, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Specific-heat measurements have been performed on single-crystalline PrNi{sub 5} from 1.3 to 250 K, in order to evaluate the contribution of the Pr subsystem. PrNi{sub 5} does not order magnetically down to the lowest temperatures as crystalline-electric-field (CEF) interactions, producing the non-magnetic singlet ground state {Gamma}{sub 4}, dominate the exchange interactions. Analysis of the specific heat unambiguously establishes the position of the two lowest excited levels at 33.7 K ({Gamma}{sub 1}) and 45.7 K ({Gamma}{sub 6}) which levels cannot be observed in inelastic-neutron-scattering experiments. A set of CEF parameters of the Pr{sup 3+} ion in the f{sup 2} configuration has been evaluated that gives the best account for all known experimental results of this compound. ((orig.)).

  8. ‘‘Cooling by Heating’’- Demonstrating the Significance of the Longitudinal Specific Heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Jon J.; Dyre, J. C.; Christensen, Tage Emil


    is generally considerably larger than in solids. This paper presents analytical solutions of the relevant coupled thermoviscoelastic equations. In general, there is a difference between the isobaric specific heat cp measured at constant isotropic pressure and the longitudinal specific heat cl pertaining...... between these two specific heats. For a typical glass-forming liquid, when the temperature at the surface is increased by 1 K, a lowering of the temperature at the sphere center of the order of 5 mK is expected if the experiment is performed at the glass transition. The cooling-by-heating effect......Heating a solid sphere at its surface induces mechanical stresses inside the sphere. If a finite amount of heat is supplied, the stresses gradually disappear as temperature becomes homogeneous throughout the sphere. We show that before this happens, there is a temporary lowering of pressure...

  9. Specific Heat and Second Sound Measurements with the DYNAMIX Instrument (United States)

    Nissen, Joel


    In addition to its primary role of studying non-linear heat transport effects near the lambda transition of He-4, the DYNAMX apparatus is suitable for measurements of the specific heat and the velocity of second sound. We plan to take advantage of available time on orbit to make measurements in these areas near to the lambda transition. The specific heat work would be similar to LPE, aimed at improving our knowledge of the singularity in the bulk heat capacity at the transition, but would provide more accurate results close to the transition. It would focus roughly equally on each side of the transition and would be synergistic with the CQ experiment, providing wider-range data at Q = 0. The second sound measurements are made possible by the fast time constant and high resolution of the DYNAMX thermometers, which allow accurate time-of-flight measurements of second sound pulses. It appears possible to measure the second sound velocity to about 1% at a reduced temperature of t = 5x10(exp -8) by averaging over a moderate number of pulses. The data would complement and extend earlier ground-based measurements, leading to improved tests of the theory of static critical phenomena at the lambda transition.

  10. Indoor temperatures for calculating room heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei


    In this study, a typical office room with a radiant heating system and a mechanical ventilation system was selected as the research subject. Indoor temperature formulas for calculating the room heat loss (including transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss) and heating capacity of the hybrid...... for calculating ventilation heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... change rates on the indoor temperatures were performed using the proposed model. When heated surface temperatures and air change rates were from 21.0 to 29.0 degrees C and from 0.5 to 4.0 h-1, the indoor temperatures for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss were between 20...

  11. Performance of ultra low temperature district heating systems with utility plant and booster heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Markussen, Wiebke Brix


    The optimal integration of booster heat pumps in ultra low temperature district heating (ULTDH) was investigated and compared to the performance of low temperature district heating. Two possible heat production technologies for the DH networks were analysed, namely extraction combined heat...... and power (CHP) and central heat pumps (HPs). The analysis focussed on the characteristic heat demands of newly build multi-story buildings and the results were based on the ratio of the individual demands compared to the total. It was found that the optimal return temperature was dependent on the forward...

  12. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  13. Heat waves measured with MODIS land surface temperature data predict changes in avian community structure (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff


    Heat waves are expected to become more frequent and severe as climate changes, with unknown consequences for biodiversity. We sought to identify ecologically-relevant broad-scale indicators of heat waves based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and interpolated air temperature data and assess their associations with avian community structure. Specifically, we...

  14. High-temperature self-circulating thermoacoustic heat exchanger (United States)

    Backhaus, S.; Swift, G. W.; Reid, R. S.


    Thermoacoustic and Stirling engines and refrigerators use heat exchangers to transfer heat between the oscillating flow of their thermodynamic working fluids and external heat sources and sinks. An acoustically driven heat-exchange loop uses an engine's own pressure oscillations to steadily circulate its own thermodynamic working fluid through a physically remote high-temperature heat source without using moving parts, allowing for a significant reduction in the cost and complexity of thermoacoustic and Stirling heat exchangers. The simplicity and flexibility of such heat-exchanger loops will allow thermoacoustic and Stirling machines to access diverse heat sources and sinks. Measurements of the temperatures at the interface between such a heat-exchange loop and the hot end of a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine are presented. When the steady flow is too small to flush out the mixing chamber in one acoustic cycle, the heat transfer to the regenerator is excellent, with important implications for practical use.

  15. Challenges in Smart Low-Temperature District Heating Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia


    Previous research and development shows that low temperature district heating (LTDH) system is economic feasible for low energy buildings and buildings at sparse areas. Coupling with reduced network temperature and well-designed district heating (DH) networks, LTDH can reduce network heat loss...... by up to 75% comparing with the current medium temperature district heating system. Further system efficiency improvement can be achieved through a holistic approach which includes measures such as reduced system design margin, enhanced demand side management and improved operation of decentralized heat...

  16. Model-based control of district heating supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Linn


    A model-based control strategy for the supply temperature to a district heating network was tested during three weeks at Idbaecken's CHP plant. The aim was to increase the electricity efficiency by a lower supply temperature, without risking the delivery reliability of heat to the district heating customers. Simulations and tests showed that at high loads, the mean supply temperature could be reduced by 4 deg C and the electricity production could be increased by 2.5%

  17. Utilization of low-temperature heat sources for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian


    Low-temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from marine diesel engines, industries and refrigeration plants to biomass, geothermal and solar heat sources. There is a great potential for enhancing the utilization of these heat sources by novel.......Both power production and heat pumps may benefit from the development as both technologies utilize a heat source. This makes it possible to cover the complete temperature range of low temperature sources. The development may contribute to significantly lower energy consumption in Danish industry and shipping...

  18. Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe for Precise Temperature Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research project will develop Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes (PCHPs) for precise temperature control (milli-Kelvin level). Several...

  19. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend


    Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network...... is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand...... optimization procedure and the network simultaneous factor. Through the simulation, the overall system energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system components are identified. Based on the results, suggestions are given to further reduce the system...

  20. Mapping of low temperature heat sources in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Holm, Fridolin Müller; Huang, Baijia


    heat. The total accessible waste heat potential is found to be approximately 266 PJ per year with 58 % of it below 100 °C. In the natural heat category, temperatures below 20 °C originate from ambient air, sea water and shallow geothermal energy, and temperatures up to 100 °C are found for solar...... and deep geothermal energy. The theoretical solar thermal potential alone would be above 500 PJ per year. For the development of advanced thermodynamic cycles for the integration of heat sources in the Danish energy system, several areas of interest are determined. In the maritime transport sector a high......Low temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from industrial processes and buildings to geothermal and solar heat sources. Technical advancements, such as heat pumps with novel cycle design and multi-component working fluids, make the utilisation of many...

  1. Temperature patterns in the gas infrared radiator heating area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurilenko N.I.


    Full Text Available The obtained results of experimental studies provide the basis for the heat transfer mechanism specification on the studied conditions that are typical for many practical applications. It was proved appropriateness of the natural convection and heat conduction process simulation while analyzing the heat transfer in rectangular enclosures with the radiant heating sources at the high bound.

  2. Unsteady Flow in a Supersonic Turbine with Variable Specific Heats (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Huber, Frank; Sondak, Douglas L.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)


    Modern high-work turbines can be compact, transonic, supersonic, counter-rotating, or use a dense drive gas. The vast majority of modern rocket turbine designs fall into these Categories. These turbines usually have large temperature variations across a given stage, and are characterized by large amounts of flow unsteadiness. The flow unsteadiness can have a major impact on the turbine performance and durability. For example, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel turbine, a high work, transonic design, was found to have an unsteady inter-row shock which reduced efficiency by 2 points and increased dynamic loading by 24 percent. The Revolutionary Reusable Technology Turbopump (RRTT), which uses full flow oxygen for its drive gas, was found to shed vortices with such energy as to raise serious blade durability concerns. In both cases, the sources of the problems were uncovered (before turbopump testing) with the application of validated, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the designs. In the case of the RRTT and the Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) turbines, the unsteady CFD codes have been used not just to identify problems, but to guide designs which mitigate problems due to unsteadiness. Using unsteady flow analyses as a part of the design process has led to turbine designs with higher performance (which affects temperature and mass flow rate) and fewer dynamics problems. One of the many assumptions made during the design and analysis of supersonic turbine stages is that the values of the specific heats are constant. In some analyses the value is based on an average of the expected upstream and downstream temperatures. In stages where the temperature can vary by 300 to 500 K, however, the assumption of constant fluid properties may lead to erroneous performance and durability predictions. In this study the suitability of assuming constant specific heats has been investigated by performing three-dimensional unsteady Navier

  3. Determination of Specific Heat Capacity on Composite Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials and Asphalt Mixtures by Heat Exchange System. (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zhou, Xue-Yan; Liu, Jiang; You, Zhanping; Wei, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Feng


    Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM) has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture cannot intuitively reflect the thermoregulation mechanism and efficiency of CPCM on asphalt mixture. The objective of this paper is to determine the specific heat capacity of CPCM and asphalt mixtures mixed with CPCM using the heat exchange system and the data acquisition system. Studies have shown that the temperature-rise curve of 5 °C CPCM has an obvious temperature plateau, while an asphalt mixture mixed with 5 °C CPCM does not; with increasing temperature, the specific heat capacities of both 5 °C CPCM and asphalt mixture first increase and then decrease, while the variation rate of 5 °C CPCM is larger than that of the asphalt mixture, and the maximum specific heat capacity of 5 °C CPCM appears around the initial phase change temperature. It is concluded that the temperature intervals of 5 °C CPCM are -18 °C-7 °C, 7 °C-25 °C and 25 °C-44 °C, respectively, and that of the asphalt mixture are -18 °C~10 °C, -10 °C~5 °C and 5 °C~28 °C. A low dosage of 5 °C CPCM has little influence on the specific heat capacity of asphalt mixture. Finally, the functions of specific heat capacities and temperature for CPCM and asphalt mixture mixed with CPCM were recommended by the sectional regression method.

  4. The Heat Is on: An Inquiry-Based Investigation for Specific Heat (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.


    A substantial number of upper-level science students and practicing physical science teachers demonstrate confusion about thermal equilibrium, heat transfer, heat capacity, and specific heat capacity. The traditional method of instruction, which involves learning the related definitions and equations, using equations to solve heat transfer…


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O' Brien; G.L. Hawkes


    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800°C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  6. Application of Abaqus to analysis of the temperature field in elements heated by moving heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Piekarska


    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal phenomena occurring during laser beam heating is presented in this paper. Numerical models of surface andvolumetric heat sources were presented and the influence of different laser beam heat source power distribution on temperature field wasanalyzed. Temperature field was obtained by a numerical solution the transient heat transfer equation with activity of inner heat sources using finite element method. Temperature distribution analysis in welded joint was performed in the ABAQUS/Standard solver. The DFLUXsubroutine was used for implementation of the movable welding heat source model. Temperature-depended thermophysical properties for steelwere assumed in computer simulations. Temperature distribution in laser beam surface heated and butt welded plates was numericallyestimated.

  7. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy


    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  8. Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems in Buildings Supplied by Low-Temperature District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek

    District heating (DH) systems supplied by renewable energy sources are one of the main solutions for achieving a fossil-free heating sector in Denmark by 2035. To reach this goal, the medium temperature DH used until now needs to transform to a new concept reflecting the requirement for lower heat...... loss from DH networks required by the reduced heating demand of low-energy and refurbished buildings combined with the lower supply temperatures required by using renewable heat sources. Both these needs meet in the recently developed concept of low-temperature DH designed with supply....../return temperatures as low as 50°C/25°C and highly insulated pipes with reduced inner diameter. With this design, the heat loss from the DH networks can be reduced to one quarter of the value for traditional DH designed and operated for temperatures of 80°C/40°C. However, such low temperatures bring challenges...

  9. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dietrich; Kallert, Anna; Blesl, Markus


    of the building stock. Low temperature district heating (LTDH) can contribute significantly to a more efficient use of energy resources as well as better integration of renewable energy (e.g. geothermal or solar heat), and surplus heat (e.g. industrial waste heat) into the heating sector. LTDH offers prospects......The building sector is responsible for more than one third of the final energy consumption of societies and produces the largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions of all sectors. This is due to the utilisation of combustion processes of mainly fossil fuels to satisfy the heating demand...... for both the demand side (community building structure) and the supply side (network properties or energy sources). Especially in connection with buildings that demand only low temperatures for space heating. The utilisation of lower temperatures reduces losses in pipelines and can increase the overall...

  10. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN


    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  11. Effect of heat treatment temperature on microstructure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of heat treatment temperature on microstructure and electrochemical properties of hollow carbon spheres prepared in high-pressure argon. Boyang Liu Yun ... 40 cycles. However, the discharge capacity of the HCSs decreases and the cycling performance is improved with the increase of heat treatment temperature.

  12. Heat index and adjusted temperature as surrogates for wet bulb globe temperature to screen for occupational heat stress. (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas E; Iheanacho, Ivory


    Ambient temperature and relative humidity are readily ava-ilable and thus tempting metrics for heat stress assessment. Two methods of using air temperature and relative humidity to create an index are Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature. The purposes of this article are: (1) to examine how well Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature estimated the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, and (2) to suggest how Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature can be used to screen for heat stress level. Psychrometric relationships were used to estimate values of actual WBGT for conditions of air temperature, relative humidity, and radiant heat at an air speed of 0.5 m/s. A relationship between Heat Index [°F] and WBGT [°C] was described by WBGT = -0.0034 HI(2) + 0.96 HI - 34. At lower Heat Index values, the equation estimated WBGTs that were ± 2 °C-WBGT around the actual value, and to about ± 0.5 °C-WBGT for Heat Index values > 100 °F. A relationship between Adjusted Temperature [°F] and WBGT [°C] was described by WBGT = 0.45 Tadj - 16. The actual WBGT was between 1 °C-WBGT below the estimated value and 1.4 °C-WBGT above. That is, there was a slight bias toward overestimating WBGT from Adjusted Temperature. Heat stress screening tables were constructed for metabolic rates of 180, 300, and 450 W. The screening decisions were divided into four categories: (1) exposure limit at rest. The authors do not recommend using Heat Index or Adjusted Temperature instead of WBGT, but they may be used to screen for circumstances when a more detailed analysis using WBGT is appropriate. A particular weakness is accounting for radiant heat; and neither air speed nor clothing was considered.

  13. Industrial heat pumps for high temperature process applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær

    Industrial processes often consume large quantities of heat, while of-ten dissipating large quantities of waste heat to the ambient. The main energy source for industrial heat supply is fossil fuels, either oil or nat-ural gas. Thus, the heat consumption of industrial processes often entail large...... with the absorber. It is found that the cost of most components are evenly distributed between operational and capital investment cost. The highest rate of avoidable environmental impact stems from the compressor. It is shown that the environmental impact of construction, transportation and disposal was negligible...... CO2 emissions as well as emission of other harmful pollutants. As heat pumps can upgrade low temperature waste heat to a high temperature heat supply using only a fraction of primary energy, heat pumps may be applied to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Further, Replacing oil...

  14. Assessing heat exchanger performance data using temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure operation of heat exchangers, the goal is to verify that the exchanger is performing, or will perform, at its design. This is especially relevant to coolers that typically operate at heat loads reduced from their design basis. In addition, any calculated performance acceptance criteria must also consider uncertainty and ...

  15. Determination of Ground Heat Exchangers Temperature Field in Geothermal Heat Pumps (United States)

    Zhurmilova, I.; Shtym, A.


    For the heating and cooling supply of buildings and constructions geothermal heat pumps using low-potential ground energy are applied by means of ground exchangers. The process of heat transfer in a system of ground exchangers is a phenomenon of complex heat transfer. The paper presents a mathematical modeling of heat exchange processes, the temperature fields are built which are necessary for the determination of the ground array that ensures an adequate supply of low potential energy excluding the freezing of soil around the pipes in the ground heat exchangers and guaranteeing a reliable operation of geothermal heat pumps.

  16. The Nominal/Generic Specific Heat per Average Atom Concept for CHNO Energetic Materials (United States)


    HMX can exist in different solid polymorphic forms. At a certain temperature, TT, one form may change to another form if the heat energy of...NUMBERS 14. SUBJECT TERMS TNT, HMX , PBX-9502, Specific Heat, Reactive Temperatures, Shock Loaded Explosives, Shock Reaction Criteria 17. SECURITY...This report is devoted to substantiating this N/G CP per average atom concept and illustrating its practical utilization via examples for TNT, HMX

  17. Urban heat : natural and anthropogenic factors influencing urban air temperatures


    N. E. Theeuwes


    The urban heat island effect is a phenomenon observed worldwide, i.e. evening and nocturnal temperatures in cities are usually several degrees higher than in the surrounding countryside. The main goal of this thesis is to understand the processes that drive the urban air temperature and the urban heat island. First, the effects of street geometry and open water bodies on the diurnal cycle of the urban air temperatures were investigated. This was followed by a search for a universal scaling of...

  18. Innovative system for delivery of low temperature district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ivanov Ianakiev


    Full Text Available An innovative Low Temperature District Heating (LTDH local network is developed in Nottingham, supported by REMOURBAN project, part of the H2020 Smart City and Community Lighthouse scheme. It was proposed that a branch emanating from the return pipe of the of the existing district heating system in Nottingham would be created to use low temperature heating for the first time in UK. The development is aimed to extract wasted (unused heat from existing district heating system and make it more efficient and profitable. Four maisonette blocks of 94 low-raised flats, at Nottingham demo site of the REMOURBAN project will be connected to this new LTDH system. The scheme will provide a primary supply of heat and hot water at approximately 50oC to 60oC. Innovated solutions have been put forward to overcome certain barriers, such as legionella related risks and peak loads during extreme heating seasons and occasional maintenance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belimenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently, one of the priorities of energy conservation is a cost savings for heating in commercial and residential buildings by the stored thermal energy during the night and its return in the daytime. Economic effect is achieved due to the difference in tariffs for the cost of electricity in the daytime and at night. One of the most common types of devices that allow accumulating and giving the resulting heat are solid heat accumulators. The main purpose of the work: 1 software development for the calculation of the temperature field of a flat solid heat accumulator, working due to the heat energy accumulation in the volume of thermal storage material without phase transition; 2 determination the temperature distribution in its volumes at convective heat transfer. Methodology. To achieve the study objectives a heat transfer theory and Laplace integral transform were used. On its base the problems of determining the temperature fields in the channels of heat accumulators, having different cross-sectional shapes were solved. Findings. Authors have developed the method of calculation and obtained solutions for the determination of temperature fields in channels of the solid heat accumulator in conditions of convective heat transfer. Temperature fields over length and thickness of channels were investigated. Experimental studies on physical models and industrial equipment were conducted. Originality. For the first time the technique of calculating the temperature field in the channels of different cross-section for the solid heat accumulator in the charging and discharging modes was proposed. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental research. Practical value. The proposed technique is used in the design of solid heat accumulators of different power as well as full-scale production of them was organized.

  20. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump (United States)

    Sekret, Robert; Nitkiewicz, Anna


    Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  1. Ambient temperature and added heat wave effects on hospitalizations in California from 1999 to 2009. (United States)

    Sherbakov, Toki; Malig, Brian; Guirguis, Kristen; Gershunov, Alexander; Basu, Rupa


    Investigators have examined how heat waves or incremental changes in temperature affect health outcomes, but few have examined both simultaneously. We utilized distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) to explore temperature associations and evaluate possible added heat wave effects on hospitalizations in 16 climate zones throughout California from May through October 1999-2009. We define heat waves as a period when daily mean temperatures were above the zone- and month-specific 95th percentile for at least two consecutive days. DLNMs were used to estimate climate zone-specific non-linear temperature and heat wave effects, which were then combined using random effects meta-analysis to produce an overall estimate for each. With higher temperatures, admissions for acute renal failure, appendicitis, dehydration, ischemic stroke, mental health, non-infectious enteritis, and primary diabetes were significantly increased, with added effects from heat waves observed for acute renal failure and dehydration. Higher temperatures also predicted statistically significant decreases in hypertension admissions, respiratory admissions, and respiratory diseases with secondary diagnoses of diabetes, though heat waves independently predicted an added increase in risk for both respiratory types. Our findings provide evidence that both heat wave and temperature exposures can exert effects independently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The discontinuity of the specific heat for the 5D Ising model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Lundow


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the behaviour of the specific heat around the critical point of the Ising model in dimension 5 to 7. We find a specific heat discontinuity, like that for the mean field Ising model, and provide estimates for the left and right hand limits of the specific heat at the critical point. We also estimate the singular exponents, describing how the specific heat approaches those limits. Additionally, we make a smaller scale investigation of the same properties in dimension 6 and 7, and provide strongly improved estimates for the critical temperature Kc in d=5,6,7 which bring the best MC-estimate closer to those obtained by long high temperature series expansions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin


    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. New constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. Two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.

  4. Exergetic evaluation of heat pump booster configurations in a low temperature district heating network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian


    with a heat pump, as the remaining heat demands are often not required at temperature levels as high as the tap water. The scope of this work is to evaluate the power consumption and second law efficiency of booster heat pumps for tap water production in a low temperature district heating network. The heat...... pump and storage arrangement is evaluated based on a tapping sequence from the Danish standards (DS439). Based an initial investigation of possible designs, three configurations have been chosen for the evaluation. Of the three heat pumps, two are implemented on the primary side to boost the network...... exchanger sizes and the isentropic efficiency of the compressor used in the heat pump. The superior configuration shows exergetic efficiencies higher than 0.5 when forward temperatures is around 45 ºC....

  5. Optimization of Temperature Schedule Parameters on Heat Supply in Power-and-Heat Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin


    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning optimization of a temperature schedule in the district heating systems with steam-turbine thermal power stations having average initial steam parameters. It has been shown in the paper that upkeeping of an optimum network water temperature permits to increase an energy efficiency of heat supply due to additional systematic saving of fuel. 

  6. On the averaging of ratios of specific heats in a multicomponent planetary atmosphere (United States)

    Dubisch, R.


    The use of adiabatic relations in the calculation of planetary atmospheres requires knowledge of the ratio of specific heats of a mixture of gases under various pressure and temperature conditions. It is shown that errors introduced by simple averaging of the ratio of specific heats in a multicomponent atmosphere can be roughly 0.4%. Therefore, the gamma-averaging error can become important when integrating through the atmosphere to a large depth.

  7. Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian


    In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit...... in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared....... The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR...

  8. Simulating canopy temperature for modelling heat stress in cereals (United States)

    Crop models must be improved to account for the large effects of heat stress effects on crop yields. To date, most approaches in crop models use air temperature despite evidence that crop canopy temperature better explains yield reductions associated with high temperature events. This study presents...

  9. Pulmonary artery and intestinal temperatures during heat stress and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, James; Ganio, Matthew S; Seifert, Thomas


    In humans, whole body heating and cooling are used to address physiological questions where core temperature is central to the investigated hypotheses. Core temperature can be measured in various locations throughout the human body. The measurement of intestinal temperature is increasingly used...

  10. The influence of heat sink temperature on the seasonal efficiency of shallow geothermal heat pumps (United States)

    Pełka, Grzegorz; Luboń, Wojciech; Sowiżdżał, Anna; Malik, Daniel


    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps (GSHP), are the most efficient heating and cooling technology utilized nowadays. In the AGH-UST Educational and Research Laboratory of Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Saving in Miękinia, shallow geothermal heat is utilized for heating. In the article, the seasonal efficiency of two geothermal heat pump systems are described during the 2014/2015 heating season, defined as the period between 1st October 2014 and 30th April 2015. The first system has 10.9 kW heating capacity (according to European Standard EN 14511 B0W35) and extracts heat from three vertical geothermal loops at a depth of 80m each. During the heating season, tests warmed up the buffer to 40°C. The second system has a 17.03 kW heating capacity and extracts heat from three vertical geothermal loops at a depth of 100 m each, and the temperature of the buffer was 50°C. During the entire heating season, the water temperatures of the buffers was constant. Seasonal performance factors were calculated, defined as the quotient of heat delivered by a heat pump to the system and the sum of electricity consumed by the compressor, source pump, sink pump and controller of heat pumps. The measurements and calculations give the following results: - The first system was supplied with 13 857 kWh/a of heat and consumed 3 388 kWh/a electricity. The SPF was 4.09 and the average temperature of outlet water from heat pump was 40.8°C, and the average temperature of brine flows into the evaporator was 3.7 °C; - The second system was supplied with 12 545 kWh/a of heat and consumed 3 874 kWh/a electricity. The SPF was 3.24 and the average temperature of outlet water from heat pump was 51.6°C, and the average temperature of brine flows into the evaporator was 5.3°C. To summarize, the data shown above presents the real SPF of the two systems. It will be significant in helping to predict the SPF of objects which will be equipped with ground source heat pumps.

  11. Heat transfer and temperature distribution in a catalyst oven of 250mm diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, G.


    The catalyst oven tested was a tube, which was surrounded by a steam-heated jacket, had air passing upward through it, and was filled with cylindrical pills of catalysts. Measurement of heat flow, temperature, and pressure drop was taken at various places in the tube and at various flow rates of air. Higher flow rates of air produced a quicker reaching of a steady-state temperature distribution in the catalyst tube, but even then there was strong temperature gradient from the heated walls of the tube down to the middle of the tube. The report gave formulas for calculating the heat-conductivity coefficient for the catalyst from temperatures at various positions, specific heat of the air, amount of air, and dimensions of catalyst space. Also it gave a formula for calculating the Reynolds number from the specific gravity of the air, velocity of the air in an empty tube, viscosity of the air, and the dimensions of the catalyst pills. Among other graphs with the report was a graph plotting the heat-conductivity coefficient against the Reynolds number. The report also contained some discussion about how the functions would change if different gases were used, if temperature conditions were changed, or if the gas were heated before entry into the tube. The report also gave formulas for calculating pressure drops, heat transfer coefficients, Nusselt numbers, and Peclet numbers. 1 figure, 1 table, 8 graphs.

  12. Identification of the Peptide PyroQ-βCasein194-209as a Highly Specific and Sensitive Marker to Differentiate between Ultrahigh-Temperature Processed (UHT) Milk and Mildly Heated Milk. (United States)

    Dalabasmaz, Sevim; Ebner, Jennifer; Pischetsrieder, Monika


    In this study, a new approach was introduced to identify marker peptides that reflect the thermal treatment of commercial milk samples and differentiate ultrahigh-temperature processed (UHT) milk from mildly heated milk. Peptide profiles of training set samples, pasteurized (n = 20), extended shelf life (n = 29), and UHT (n = 29) milk, were recorded by MALDI-TOF-MS after StageTip microextraction. As marker candidates, 13 peptides were selected, and their cutoff levels were defined. The quality of the cutoff levels was then tested with a blind test set. Thus, the peptide m/z 1701.0, which was identified as pyroQ-βcasein 194-209 , could ideally differentiate UHT milk from mildly heated milk with an accuracy of 100%. Due to its high reliability and sensitivity, this peptide may be applied in routine analysis to monitor thermal processing of milk. An additional heating experiment showed that the marker peptide candidates are formed during milk processing by endogenous enzymes and selective thermal cleavage.

  13. Conjugated Conduction-Free Convection Heat Transfer in an Annulus Heated at Either Constant Wall Temperature or Constant Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate numerically the effect of thermal boundary conditions on conjugated conduction-free convection heat transfer in an annulus between two concentric cylinders using Fourier Spectral method. The inner wall of the annulus is heated and maintained at either CWT (Constant Wall Temperature or CHF (Constant Heat Flux, while the outer wall is maintained at constant temperature. CHF case is relatively more significant for high pressure industrial applications, but it has not received much attention. This study particularly focuses the latter case (CHF. The main influencing parameters on flow and thermal fields within the annulus are: Rayleigh number Ra; thickness of inner wall Rs; radius ratio Rr and inner wall-fluid thermal conductivity ratio Kr. The study has shown that the increase in Kr increases the heat transfer rate through the annulus for heating at CWT and decreases the inner wall dimensionless temperature for heating at CHF and vice versa. It has also been proved that as the Rs increases at fixed Ra and Rr, the heat transfer rate decreases for heating at CWT and the inner wall dimensionless temperature increases for heating at CHF at Kr 1 depends on Rr. It has been shown that for certain combinations of controlling parameters there will be a value of Rr at which heat transfer rate will be minimum in the annulus in case of heating at CWT, while

  14. Estimating local heat transfer coefficients from thin wall temperature measurements (United States)

    Gazizov, I. M.; Davletshin, I. A.; Paereliy, A. A.


    An approach to experimental estimation of local heat transfer coefficient on a plane wall has been described. The approach is based on measurements of heat-transfer fluid and wall temperatures during some certain time of wall cooling. The wall was a thin plate, a printed circuit board, made of composite epoxy material covered with a copper layer. The temperature field can be considered uniform across the plate thickness when heat transfer is moderate and thermal resistance of the plate in transversal direction is low. This significantly simplifies the heat balance written for the wall sections that is used to estimate the heat transfer coefficient. The copper layer on the plate etched to form a single strip acted as resistance thermometers that measured the local temperature of the wall.

  15. Thermoelectric harvesting of low temperature natural/waste heat (United States)

    Rowe, David Michael


    Apart from specialized space requirements current development in applications of thermoelectric generation mainly relate to reducing harmful carbon emissions and decreasing costly fuel consumption through the recovery of exhaust heat from fossil fuel powered engines and emissions from industrial utilities. Focus on these applications is to the detriment of the wider exploitations of thermoelectrics with other sources of heat energy, and in particular natural occurring and waste low temperature heat, receiving little, if any, attention. In this presentation thermoelectric generation applications, both potential and real in harvesting low temperature waste/natural heat are reviewed. The use of thermoelectrics to harvest solar energy, ocean thermal energy, geothermal heat and waste heat are discussed and their credibility as future large-scale sources of electrical power assessed.

  16. Analysis of heat exchanger network for temperature fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zunlong


    Full Text Available Subject to temperature disturbance, exchangers in heat exchanger network will interact. It is necessary to evaluate the degree of temperature fluctuation in the network. There is inherently linear relationship between output and inlet temperatures of heat exchanger network. Based on this, the concept of temperature-change sensitivity coefficient was put forward. Quantitative influence of temperature fluctuation in the network was carried out in order to examine transmission character of temperature fluctuation in the system. And the information was obtained for improving the design quality of heat exchanger network. Favorable results were obtained by the introduced method compared with the experimental results. These results will assist engineers to distinguish primary and secondary influencing factors, which can be used in observing and controlling influencing factors accurately.

  17. Calculation of Vertical Temperature Gradients in Heated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overby, H.; Steen-Thøde, Mogens

    This paper deals with a simple model which predicts the vertical temperature gradient in a heated room. The gradient is calculated from a dimensionless temperature profile which is determined by two room air temperatures only, the mean temperature in the occupied zone and the mean temperature...... in the zone above the occupied zone. A model to calculate the two air temperatures has been developed and implemented in Suncode- PC, a thermal analysis programme for residential and small commercial buildings. The dimensionless temperature profile based on measurements in a laboratory test room is presented...

  18. Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital for survival in Solanum tuberosum L. in vivo condition. Bengyella Louis, Pranab Roy, Tamgue Ousman, Sayanika Waikhom Devi, Narayan Chandra Talukdar ...

  19. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. K. [Johnson Research LLC, Pueblo West, CO (United States)


    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  20. Estimation of Surface Temperature and Heat Flux by Inverse Heat Transfer Methods Using Internal Temperatures Measured While Radiantly Heating a Carbon/Carbon Specimen up to 1920 F (United States)

    Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David


    The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.

  1. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage. (United States)

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia


    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  2. High temperature thermographic measurements of laser heated silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhadj, S; Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Cooke, D J; Bude, J D; Johnson, M; Feit, M; Draggoo, V; Bisson, S E


    In situ spatial and temporal surface temperature profiles of CO{sub 2} laser-heated silica were obtained using a long wave infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe camera. Solutions to the linear diffusion equation with volumetric and surface heating are shown to describe the temperature evolution for a range of beam powers, over which the peak surface temperature scales linearly with power. These solutions were used with on-axis steady state and transient experimental temperatures to extract thermal diffusivity and conductivity for a variety of materials, including silica, spinel, sapphire, and lithium fluoride. Experimentally-derived thermal properties agreed well with reported values and, for silica, thermal conductivity and diffusivity are shown to be approximately independent of temperature between 300 and 2800K. While for silica our analysis based on a temperature independent thermal conductivity is shown to be accurate, for other materials studied this treatment yields effective thermal properties that represent reasonable approximations for laser heating. Implementation of a single-wavelength radiation measurement in the semi-transparent regime is generally discussed, and estimates of the apparent temperature deviation from the actual outer surface temperature are also presented. The experimental approach and the simple analysis presented yield surface temperature measurements that can be used to validate more complex physical models, help discriminate dominant heat transport mechanisms, and to predict temperature distribution and evolution during laser-based material processing.

  3. Linking Surface Urban Heat Islands with Groundwater Temperatures. (United States)

    Benz, Susanne A; Bayer, Peter; Goettsche, Frank M; Olesen, Folke S; Blum, Philipp


    Urban temperatures are typically, but not necessarily, elevated compared to their rural surroundings. This phenomenon of urban heat islands (UHI) exists both above and below the ground. These zones are coupled through conductive heat transport. However, the precise process is not sufficiently understood. Using satellite-derived land surface temperature and interpolated groundwater temperature measurements, we compare the spatial properties of both kinds of heat islands in four German cities and find correlations of up to 80%. The best correlation is found in older, mature cities such as Cologne and Berlin. However, in 95% of the analyzed areas, groundwater temperatures are higher than land surface temperatures due to additional subsurface heat sources such as buildings and their basements. Local groundwater hot spots under city centers and under industrial areas are not revealed by satellite-derived land surface temperatures. Hence, we propose an estimation method that relates groundwater temperatures to mean annual land-surface temperatures, building density, and elevated basement temperatures. Using this method, we are able to accurately estimate regional groundwater temperatures with a mean absolute error of 0.9 K.

  4. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik


    The focus on reduction of fossil fuelled electricity generation has increased the attention on exploitation of low grade heat as the energy source for electricity producing power plants. Low grade heat is heat, which isavailable at a low temperature, e.g. from waste heat from marine diesel engines...... and industrial processes orfrom geothermal and solar heat sources. Utilization of such heat sources makes it possible to produce electricity with no additional burning of fossil fuel, and does therefore represent an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel based electricity production. Utilization...... of low grade heat is not feasible with conventional steam Rankine cycles (steam engines) due to undesirable properties of steam. Instead the organic Rankine cycle is typically used, since it enables thechoice of a working fluid, e.g. hydrocarbons or refrigerants, with desirable properties. One of the key...

  5. The Effects of the Heat and Moisture Exchanger on Humidity, Airway Temperature, and Core Body Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delventhal, Mary


    Findings from several studies have demonstrated that the use of a heat and moisture exchanger increases airway humidity, which in turn increases mean airway temperature and prevents decreases in core body temperature...

  6. Quantum criticality at the superconductor-insulator transition revealed by specific heat measurements. (United States)

    Poran, S; Nguyen-Duc, T; Auerbach, A; Dupuis, N; Frydman, A; Bourgeois, Olivier


    The superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is considered an excellent example of a quantum phase transition that is driven by quantum fluctuations at zero temperature. The quantum critical point is characterized by a diverging correlation length and a vanishing energy scale. Low-energy fluctuations near quantum criticality may be experimentally detected by specific heat, c p , measurements. Here we use a unique highly sensitive experiment to measure c p of two-dimensional granular Pb films through the SIT. The specific heat shows the usual jump at the mean field superconducting transition temperature marking the onset of Cooper pairs formation. As the film thickness is tuned towards the SIT, is relatively unchanged, while the magnitude of the jump and low-temperature specific heat increase significantly. This behaviour is taken as the thermodynamic fingerprint of quantum criticality in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition.

  7. The Use Of Multifrequency Induction Heating For Temperature Distribution Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smalcerz A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of controlling temperature field distribution in inductively heated charge. The change of its distribution was obtained using the sequential one-, two-, and three-frequency heating. The study was conducted as a multi-variant computer simulation of hard coupled electromagnetic and temperature fields. For the analysis, a professional calculation software package utilizing the finite element method, Flux 3D, was used. The problem of obtaining an appropriate temperature distribution in the heated charge of a complex shape is very important in many practical applications. A typical example is hardening of gear wheels. For such an application, it is necessary to obtain (on the surface and at a desired depth an uniform temperature distribution on the tooth face, top land and bottom land of the gear. The obtained temperature should have proper distribution and value. Such a distribution is very difficult to achieve.

  8. Specific heat of pristine and brominated graphite fibers, composites and HOPG. [Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Chen; Maciag, Carolyn


    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to obtain specific heat values of pristine and brominated P-100 graphite fibers and brominated P-100/epoxy composite as well as pristine and brominated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for comparison. Based on the experimental results obtained, specific heat values are calculated for several different temperatures, with a standard deviation estimated at 1.4 percent of the average values. The data presented here are useful in designing heat transfer devices (such as airplane de-icing heaters) from bromine fibers.

  9. Phonon hydrodynamics for nanoscale heat transport at ordinary temperatures (United States)

    Guo, Yangyu; Wang, Moran


    The classical Fourier's law fails in extremely small and ultrafast heat conduction even at ordinary temperatures due to strong thermodynamic nonequilibrium effects. In this work, a macroscopic phonon hydrodynamic equation beyond Fourier's law with a relaxation term and nonlocal terms is derived through a perturbation expansion to the phonon Boltzmann equation around a four-moment nonequilibrium solution. The temperature jump and heat flux tangential retardant boundary conditions are developed based on the Maxwell model of the phonon-boundary interaction. Extensive steady-state and transient nanoscale heat transport cases are modeled by the phonon hydrodynamic model, which produces quantitative predictions in good agreement with available phonon Boltzmann equation solutions and experimental results. The phonon hydrodynamic model provides a simple and elegant mathematical description of non-Fourier heat conduction with a clear and intuitive physical picture. The present work will promote deeper understanding and macroscopic modeling of heat transport in extreme states.

  10. Decentralized substations for low-temperature district heating with no Legionella risk, and low return temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend


    To improve energy efficiency and give more access to renewable energy sources, low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is a promising concept to be realized in the future. However, concern about Legionella proliferation restricts applying low-temperature district heating in conventional systems...

  11. Multi-Temperature Heat Pump with Cascade Compressor Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.


    Full Text Available The object of the study is a multifunctional heat pump with several evaporators and condensers designed for simultaneous provision of technological processes with heat and cold. The aim of the work is the development and study of the scheme for this type of heat pumps, which ensures minimum irreversibility in the "compressor-gas coolers" chain, without the use of adjustable ejectors installed after evaporators and used as flow mixers. The obtained technical solution ensures the stabilization of the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP and prescribed thermal regimes of heat exchangers at a variable flow rate of the refrigerant. The novelty of the elaboration is inclusion a compressor of the first stage with a serially connected intermediate heat exchanger and a control valve that are located before the compressor inlet of the second stage of the heat pump, which allows to establish a rational pressure after the first stage of the compressors. A scheme is proposed for regulating the temperature at the inlet of the first stage compressors by regulating the flow through the primary circuits of the recuperative heat exchangers. The first stage compressor control system allows providing the required modes of operation of the heat pump. It is established, because of the exergetic analysis of the sections of the hydraulic circuit of heat pump located between the evaporators and gas coolers that the reduction of irreversible losses in the heat pump is ensured due to the optimal choice of the superheat value of the gas after the evaporators.

  12. Hovering in the heat: effects of environmental temperature on heat regulation in foraging hummingbirds. (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Langland, Kathleen M; Wethington, Susan M; Powers, Sean D; Graham, Catherine H; Tobalske, Bret W


    At high temperature (greater than 40°C) endotherms experience reduced passive heat dissipation (radiation, conduction and convection) and increased reliance on evaporative heat loss. High temperatures challenge flying birds due to heat produced by wing muscles. Hummingbirds depend on flight for foraging, yet inhabit hot regions. We used infrared thermography to explore how lower passive heat dissipation during flight impacts body-heat management in broad-billed (Cynanthus latirostris, 3.0 g), black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri, 3.0 g), Rivoli's (Eugenes fulgens, 7.5 g) and blue-throated (Lampornis clemenciae, 8.0 g) hummingbirds in southeastern Arizona and calliope hummingbirds (Selasphorus calliope, 2.6 g) in Montana. Thermal gradients driving passive heat dissipation through eye, shoulder and feet dissipation areas are eliminated between 36 and 40°C. Thermal gradients persisted at higher temperatures in smaller species, possibly allowing them to inhabit warmer sites. All species experienced extended daytime periods lacking thermal gradients. Broad-billed hummingbirds lacking thermal gradients regulated the mean total-body surface temperature at approximately 38°C, suggesting behavioural thermoregulation. Blue-throated hummingbirds were inactive when lacking passive heat dissipation and hence might have the lowest temperature tolerance of the four species. Use of thermal refugia permitted hummingbirds to tolerate higher temperatures, but climate change could eliminate refugia, forcing distributional shifts in hummingbird populations.

  13. Urban heat : natural and anthropogenic factors influencing urban air temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, N.E.


    The urban heat island effect is a phenomenon observed worldwide, i.e. evening and nocturnal temperatures in cities are usually several degrees higher than in the surrounding countryside. The main goal of this thesis is to understand the processes that drive the urban air temperature and the urban

  14. Analysis of temperature distribution in a heat conducting fiber with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperature distribution in a heat conducting fiber is computed using the Galerkin Finite Element Method in the present study. The weak form of the governing differential equation is obtained and nodal temperatures for linear and quadratic interpolation functions for different mesh densities are calculated for Neumann ...

  15. Can the frequency-dependent specific heat be measured by thermal effusion methods?


    Christensen, Tage; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.


    It has recently been shown that plane-plate heat effusion methods devised for wide-frequency specific-heat spectroscopy do not give the isobaric specific heat, but rather the so-called longitudinal specific heat. Here it is shown that heat effusion in a spherical symmetric geometry also involves the longitudinal specific heat.

  16. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; BushPE, John D [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)


    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  17. The Heat Is On! Using Particle Models to Change Students' Conceptions of Heat and Temperature (United States)

    Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott


    Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and temperature. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or change and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and…

  18. Heat conductivity of high-temperature thermal insulators (United States)

    Kharlamov, A. G.

    The book deals essentially with the mechanisms of heat transfer by conduction, convection, and thermal radiation in absorbing and transmitting media. Particular attention is given to materials for gas-cooled reactor systems, the temperature dependent conductivities of high-temperature insulations in vacuum, and the thermal conductivities of MgO, Al2O3, ZrO2, and other powders at temperatures up to 2000 C. The thermal conductivity of pyrolitic graphite and graphite foam are studied.

  19. Plasma heating power dissipation in low temperature hydrogen plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Komppula, J


    Theoretical framework for power dissipation in low temperature plasmas in corona equilibrium is developed. The framework is based on fundamental conservation laws and reaction cross sections and is only weakly sensitive to plasma parameters, e.g. electron temperature and density. The theory is applied to low temperature atomic and molecular hydrogen laboratory plasmas for which the plasma heating power dissipation to photon emission, ionization and chemical potential is calculated. The calculated photon emission is compared to recent experimental results.

  20. Heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in electroslag welding (United States)

    Debroy, T.; Szekely, J.; Eagar, T. W.


    A formulation is presented to calculate, in three dimensions, the important process parameters such as the voltage profiles, heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in the slag and metal phases for an electroslag welding system. It is shown that the current is significantly larger for the electroslag welding process than that of the electroslag refining process operating with equivalent slag, electrode and other geometrical variables. Calculations show that the heat generation patterns are highly sensitive to the geometrical location of the electrode in the slag and that a relatively minor error in the alignment of the electrode can cause a major asymmetry in the heat generation pattern. The temperature fields in the slag and the metal phases are calculated in three dimensions and the roles played by various factors on the heat balance are assessed. The computation accounts for the transport of heat from the slag to the metal phase by the liquid metal drops, the energy loss due to electrolysis and the energy required for the heating of the cold slag charge. Using the computed values of the weld rate the possible decrease in the heat input due to a) the decrease of the plate gap and b) the use of multiple electrodes is calculated. The values of heat input obtained from independent experiments are compared with model predictions. Possible effects of imposing an external magnetic field during the welding are examined.

  1. Entropy Generation of Desalination Powered by Variable Temperature Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Warsinger


    Full Text Available Powering desalination by waste heat is often proposed to mitigate energy consumption and environmental impact; however, thorough technology comparisons are lacking in the literature. This work numerically models the efficiency of six representative desalination technologies powered by waste heat at 50, 70, 90, and 120 °C, where applicable. Entropy generation and Second Law efficiency analysis are applied for the systems and their components. The technologies considered are thermal desalination by multistage flash (MSF, multiple effect distillation (MED, multistage vacuum membrane distillation (MSVMD, humidification-dehumidification (HDH, and organic Rankine cycles (ORCs paired with mechanical technologies of reverse osmosis (RO and mechanical vapor compression (MVC. The most efficient technology was RO, followed by MED. Performances among MSF, MSVMD, and MVC were similar but the relative performance varied with waste heat temperature or system size. Entropy generation in thermal technologies increases at lower waste heat temperatures largely in the feed or brine portions of the various heat exchangers used. This occurs largely because lower temperatures reduce recovery, increasing the relative flow rates of feed and brine. However, HDH (without extractions had the reverse trend, only being competitive at lower temperatures. For the mechanical technologies, the energy efficiency only varies with temperature because of the significant losses from the ORC.

  2. Synthesis of Bottom Hole Temperatures and Heat Flow Data (United States)

    Gosnold, W. D.; Crowell, A. M.


    The development of a National Geothermal Data System ( promises to provide industry, governmental agencies and researchers with a wealth of data on United States geothermal resources. Two of the larger data sets in the NDGS effort are the bottom-hole temperature data set from oil and gas drilling and the heat flow data set. The BHT data are being compiled by state geological surveys in a Bore Hole Observation Template that can include up to 76 different attributes for each well. The heat flow data are being compiled by a consortium led by the SMU Geothermal Laboratory in a Heat Flow Template that can include up to 63 different atrributes for each heat flow site. The key data for geothermal resource development are temperature, depth and the reservoir properties that control production capacity. The UND geothermal laboratory has assembled the BHT and heat flow data sets for North Dakota, Nebraska and Minnesota and we have compared how accurately the key geothermal data may be independently determined from each data set and by synthesis of both data sets. The BHT data provide temperature at depth, but it is well-documented that BHT data were recorded at non-equilibrium conditions and generally underestimate actual formation temperatures. Heat flow data include a measured temperature gradient, although the gradient may apply to only a short segment of the borehole temperature measurement. Synthesis of these two data sets provides checks that can prevent errors in data interpretation. We compared BHT data from the Denver Basin and Williston Basin to equilibrium temperature vs. depth profiles measured in deep boreholes and developed a thermal stratigraphy approach that permits correction of the BHT data for each basin.

  3. Theoretical analysis for the specific heat and thermal parameters of solid C60 (United States)

    Soto, J. R.; Calles, A.; Castro, J. J.


    We present the results of a theoretical analysis for the thermal parameters and phonon contribution to the specific heat in solid C60. The phonon contribution to the specific heat is calculated through the solution of the corresponding dynamical matrix, for different points in the Brillouin zone, and the construccion of the partial and generalized phonon density of states. The force constants are obtained from a first principle calculation, using a SCF Hartree-Fock wave function from the Gaussian 92 program. The thermal parameters reported are the effective temperatures and vibrational amplitudes as a function of temperature. Using this model we present a parametization scheme in order to reproduce the general behaviour of the experimental specific heat for these materials.

  4. The influence of using heat storage with PCM on inlet and outlet temperatures in substation in DHS (United States)

    Nogaj, Kinga; Turski, Michał; Sekret, Robert


    The main objective of this article is to indicate the direction of development of new generation heating systems that use phase change materials, and the important criteria needed when choosing a phase change material. The work contains a detailed classification of materials using the latent heat of organic and inorganic PCM. This references the technical possibilities of existing heat storage technologies. A specific objective was adopted to determine the effect of using heat storage with PCM on inlet and outlet temperatures in substation in district heating systems. The scope of the study included determining the parameters of the heat distribution network as a function of an outdoor air temperature within the range of -20°C to + 12°C. The object of analysis was chosen to be the heating system parameters: supply 120°C and return 60°C. It is located on the surface of 160km2, and supplies heat to 240,000 residents. The total length of the district heating network is 170 km. Based on the study, it was found that the most advantageous material that accumulates heat depends on the return temperature in the heating network. For the above analyzed case, the return temperature was in the range of 46°C to 57°C. The analysis showed that the most preferred materials using heat of phase change, have possible applications in heating networks and received a return temperature including salt hydrates, such as MgSO4·7H2O and Na2S2O3·5H2. The introduction of stored heat for the district heating system with the phase change material in the form of salt hydrates, allows the return temperature in the district heating to remain at temperatures compatible with the adopted regulatory table for temperatures outside the standard heating season.

  5. “Cooling by Heating”—Demonstrating the Significance of the Longitudinal Specific Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon J. Papini


    Full Text Available Heating a solid sphere at its surface induces mechanical stresses inside the sphere. If a finite amount of heat is supplied, the stresses gradually disappear as temperature becomes homogeneous throughout the sphere. We show that before this happens, there is a temporary lowering of pressure and density in the interior of the sphere, inducing a transient lowering of the temperature here. For ordinary solids this effect is small because c_{p}≅c_{V}. For fluent liquids the effect is negligible because their dynamic shear modulus vanishes. For a liquid at its glass transition, however, the effect is generally considerably larger than in solids. This paper presents analytical solutions of the relevant coupled thermoviscoelastic equations. In general, there is a difference between the isobaric specific heat c_{p} measured at constant isotropic pressure and the longitudinal specific heat c_{l} pertaining to mechanical boundary conditions that confine the associated expansion to be longitudinal. In the exact treatment of heat propagation, the heat-diffusion constant contains c_{l} rather than c_{p}. We show that the key parameter controlling the magnitude of the “cooling-by-heating“ effect is the relative difference between these two specific heats. For a typical glass-forming liquid, when the temperature at the surface is increased by 1 K, a lowering of the temperature at the sphere center of the order of 5 mK is expected if the experiment is performed at the glass transition. The cooling-by-heating effect is confirmed by measurements on a glucose sphere at the glass transition.

  6. Optical fiber temperature sensors: applications in heat treatments for foods (United States)

    Sosa-Morales, María Elena; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; López-Malo, Aurelio


    Heat treatments are important methods to provide safe foods. Conventional heat treatments involve the application of steam and recently microwave treatments have been studied and applied as they are considered as fast, clean and efficient. Optical fiber sensing is an excellent tool to measure the temperature during microwave treatments. This paper shows the application of optical fiber temperature sensing during the heat treatment of different foods such as vegetables (jalapeño pepper and cilantro), cheese and ostrich meat. Reaching the target temperature, important bacteria were inactivated: Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli. Thus, the use of optical fiber sensors has resulted be a useful way to develop protocols to inactivate microorganisms and to propose new methods for food processing.

  7. Future changes of temperature and heat waves in Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Wendy; Lin, Qianguo; Liao, Renfei; Fan, Yurui


    Apparent changes in the temperature patterns in recent years brought many challenges to the province of Ontario, Canada. As the need for adapting to climate change challenges increases, the development of reliable climate projections becomes a crucial task. In this study, a regional climate modeling system, Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS), is used to simulate the temperature patterns in Ontario. Three PRECIS runs with a resolution of 25 km × 25 km are carried out to simulate the present (1961-1990) temperature variations. There is a good match between the simulated and observed data, which validates the performance of PRECIS in reproducing temperature changes in Ontario. Future changes of daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures during the period 2071-2100 are then projected under the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios using PRECIS. Spatial variations of annual mean temperature, mean diurnal range, and temperature seasonality are generated. Furthermore, heat waves defined based on the exceedance of local climatology and their temporal and spatial characteristics are analyzed. The results indicate that the highest temperature and the most intensive heat waves are most likely to occur at the Toronto-Windsor corridor in Southern Ontario. The Northern Ontario, in spite of the relatively low projected temperature, would be under the risk of long-lasting heat waves, and thus needs effective measures to enhance its climate resilience in the future. This study can assist the decision makers in better understanding the future temperature changes in Ontario and provide decision support for mitigating heat-related loss.

  8. Heat Transfer Modeling for Rigid High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.


    Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through a high-temperature, high-porosity, rigid multiple-fiber fibrous insulation was modeled using a thermal model previously used to model heat transfer in flexible single-fiber fibrous insulation. The rigid insulation studied was alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) at densities between 130 and 260 kilograms per cubic meter. The model consists of using the diffusion approximation for radiation heat transfer, a semi-empirical solid conduction model, and a standard gas conduction model. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were estimated from steady-state thermal measurements in nitrogen gas at various temperatures and environmental pressures. The heat transfer modeling methodology was evaluated by comparison with standard thermal conductivity measurements, and steady-state thermal measurements in helium and carbon dioxide gases. The heat transfer model is applicable over the temperature range of 300 to 1360 K, pressure range of 0.133 to 101.3 x 10(exp 3) Pa, and over the insulation density range of 130 to 260 kilograms per cubic meter in various gaseous environments.

  9. An analysis of boundary-effects in obtaining the frequency dependent specific heat by effusivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Behrens, Claus

    The frequency dependent specific heat is a significant response function characterizing the glass transition. Contrary to the dielectric response it is not easily measured over many decades. The introduction of the 3-omega method, where the temperature oscillations at a planar oscillatoric heat...... generator is measured, made this possible. The method relied on a 1-d solution to the heat diffusion equation. There have been attempts to invoke the boundary effects to first order. However we present the fully 3-d solution to the problem including these effects. The frequency range can hereby...

  10. Specific heat of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, R.W.L.; Neal, P.D. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Fazeli, F.; Aniolek, M. [CanmetMATERIALS, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Gezgin, S. [NETZSCH-Geratebau GmbH, Wittelsbacherstr, Selb/Bavaria (Germany)


    Specific heats of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material have been measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) between 100{sup o}C and 1200{sup c}C using a heating and cooling rate of 20{sup o}C/min. A hysteresis was observed in the specific heat curves between heating and cooling. A maximum value occurs at a higher temperature on heating than on cooling, and the magnitude is larger for cooling when compared to heating. The as-manufactured tube material showed a small enthalpy change during first heating, attributed to decomposition of meta-stable β-Zr; and this did not appear on second heating after being first heated to 1200{sup o}C. Further studies are suggested to characterize the hysteresis behaviour. (author)

  11. Effect of nonmagnetic and magnetic impurities on the specific heat jump in anisotropic superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Openov, LA

    The specific-heat jump DeltaC at a critical temperature T-c in an anisotropic superconductor containing both potential and spin-flip scatterers is calculated within a weak-coupling mean-field approximation. It is shown that the presence of even a small amount of spin-flip scatterers in the sample

  12. Laboratory Activity: Specific Heat by Change in Internal Energy of Silly Putty (United States)

    Koser, John


    Students in introductory physics courses often don't study thermodynamics or thermodynamic events. If any thermal physics is taught in introductory courses (e.g., Physics 101 for Liberal Arts Majors), it usually involves the concepts of specific heat and various temperature scales. Seldom are the first and second laws of thermodynamics taught in…

  13. Combined Heat Transfer in High-Porosity High-Temperature Fibrous Insulations: Theory and Experimental Validation (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Miller, Steve D.; Knutson, Jeffry R.


    Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through various high-temperature, high-porosity, unbonded (loose) fibrous insulations was modeled based on first principles. The diffusion approximation was used for modeling the radiation component of heat transfer in the optically thick insulations. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were derived from experimental data. Semi-empirical formulations were used to model the solid conduction contribution of heat transfer in fibrous insulations with the relevant parameters inferred from thermal conductivity measurements at cryogenic temperatures in a vacuum. The specific extinction coefficient for radiation heat transfer was obtained from high-temperature steady-state thermal measurements with large temperature gradients maintained across the sample thickness in a vacuum. Standard gas conduction modeling was used in the heat transfer formulation. This heat transfer modeling methodology was applied to silica, two types of alumina, and a zirconia-based fibrous insulation, and to a variation of opacified fibrous insulation (OFI). OFI is a class of insulations manufactured by embedding efficient ceramic opacifiers in various unbonded fibrous insulations to significantly attenuate the radiation component of heat transfer. The heat transfer modeling methodology was validated by comparison with more rigorous analytical solutions and with standard thermal conductivity measurements. The validated heat transfer model is applicable to various densities of these high-porosity insulations as long as the fiber properties are the same (index of refraction, size distribution, orientation, and length). Furthermore, the heat transfer data for these insulations can be obtained at any static pressure in any working gas environment without the need to perform tests in various gases at various pressures.

  14. Heat Shock Factor 1 Deficiency Affects Systemic Body Temperature Regulation. (United States)

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Noichl, Erik; Stahr, Anna; Korf, Horst-Werner; Reinke, Hans; von Gall, Charlotte


    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a ubiquitous heat-sensitive transcription factor that mediates heat shock protein transcription in response to cellular stress, such as increased temperature, in order to protect the organism against misfolded proteins. In this study, we analysed the effect of HSF1 deficiency on core body temperature regulation. Body temperature, locomotor activity, and food consumption of wild-type mice and HSF1-deficient mice were recorded. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were measured by ELISA. Gene expression in brown adipose tissue was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Hypothalamic HSF1 and its co-localisation with tyrosine hydroxylase was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. HSF1-deficient mice showed an increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia), decreased overall locomotor activity, and decreased levels of prolactin in pituitary and blood plasma reminiscent of cold adaptation. HSF1 could be detected in various hypothalamic regions involved in temperature regulation, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in hypothalamic thermoregulation. Moreover, HSF1 co-localises with tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in the hypothalamic control of prolactin release. In brown adipose tissue, levels of prolactin receptor and uncoupled protein 1 were increased in HSF1-deficient mice, consistent with an up-regulation of heat production. Our data suggest a role of HSF1 in systemic thermoregulation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Estimating Temperature Rise Due to Flashlamp Heating Using Irreversible Temperature Indicators (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.


    One of the nondestructive thermography inspection techniques uses photographic flashlamps. The flashlamps provide a short duration (about 0.005 sec) heat pulse. The short burst of energy results in a momentary rise in the surface temperature of the part. The temperature rise may be detrimental to the top layer of the part being exposed. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the nondestructive nature of the technique. Amount of the temperature rise determines whether the flashlamp heating would be detrimental to the part. A direct method for the temperature measurement is to use of an infrared pyrometer that has much shorter response time than the flash duration. In this paper, an alternative technique is given using the irreversible temperature 'indicators. This is an indirect technique and it measures the temperature rise on the irreversible temperature indicators and computes the incident heat flux. Once the heat flux is known, the temperature rise on the part can be computed. A wedge shaped irreversible temperature indicator for measuring the heat flux is proposed. A procedure is given to use the wedge indicator.

  16. Temperature control for kinetic refolding of heat-denatured ovalbumin. (United States)

    Tani, F; Shirai, N; Onishi, T; Venelle, F; Yasumoto, K; Doi, E


    The folding of heat-denatured ovalbumin, a non-inhibitory serpin with a molecular size of 45 kDa, was examined. Ovalbumin was heat-denatured at 80 degrees C under nonreducing conditions at pH 7.5 and then cooled either slowly or rapidly. Slow cooling allowed the heat-denatured ovalbumin to refold to its native structure with subsequent resistance to digestion by trypsin. Upon rapid cooling, by contrast, the heat-denatured molecules assumed the metastable non-native conformations that were susceptible to trypsin. The non-native species were marginally stable for several days at a low temperature, but the molecules were transformed slowly into the native conformation. Considering data from size-exclusion chromatography and from analyses of CD, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, and adsorption of the dye 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate, we postulated that the non-native species that accumulated upon rapid cooling were compact but structureless globules with disordered side chains collectively as a folding intermediate. Temperature-jumped CD experiments revealed biphasic kinetics for the refolding process of heat-denatured ovalbumin, with the features of increasing and subsequently decreasing amplitude of the rapid and the slow phases, respectively, with the decrease in folding temperature. The temperature dependence of the refolding kinetics indicated that the yield of renaturation was maximal at about 55 degrees C. These findings suggested the kinetic partitioning of heat-denatured ovalbumin between alternative fates, slow renaturation to the native state and rapid collapse to the metastable intermediate state. Analysis of disulfide pairing revealed the formation of a scrambled form with non-native disulfide interactions in both the heat-denatured state and the intermediate state that accumulated upon rapid cooling, suggesting that non-native disulfide pairing is responsible for the kinetic barriers that retard the correct folding of ovalbumin.

  17. Analysis of convective longitudinal fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Sobamowo


    Full Text Available In this study, analysis of heat transfer in a longitudinal rectangular fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation was carried out using finite difference method. The developed systems of non-linear equations that resulted from the discretization using finite difference scheme were solved with the aid of MATLAB using fsolve. The numerical solution was validated with the exact solution for the linear problem. The developed heat transfer models were used to investigate the effects of thermo-geometric parameters, coefficient of heat transfer and thermal conductivity (non-linear parameters on the temperature distribution, heat transfer and thermal performance of the longitudinal rectangular fin. From the results, it shows that the fin temperature distribution, the total heat transfer, and the fin efficiency are significantly affected by the thermo-geometric parameters of the fin. Also, for the solution to be thermally stable, the fin thermo-geometric parameter must not exceed a specific value. However, it was established that the increase in temperature-dependent properties and internal heat generation values increases the thermal stability range of the thermo-geometric parameter. The results obtained in this analysis serve as basis for comparison of any other method of analysis of the problem.

  18. Determination of the specific heat petroleum derivates; Determinacao do calor especifico de derivados ultrapesados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Hernandez, Julie A.; Zuniga Linan, Lamia; Jardini, Andre; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens Maciel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    In the development of the specific mathematical modeling for heavy and ultra heavy petroleum fractions in a molecular distiller is very important the definition of physical and chemical parameters as density and specific heat of the mixture, the enthalpy of vaporization, among others, since they are used in the energy balance. Information on these properties and their variation with temperature are found in the open literature for mixture with few components (simple mixtures). However, for multicomponent solutions consisting of complex mixtures such as oil and its heavy and ultraheavy fractions, available data are few, or are limited to low temperatures. The specific heat is an important property in the energy balance. This property can be measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), which gives results with great sensitivity and accuracy. This paper presents the variation of specific heat with the temperature of ultra-heavy oil fractions in the range from 80 deg to 350 deg C . Through the study of this variation, the equation nowadays used can be adjusted, in order to determine the specific heat. New values of the constants are determined, so that the equation can be used for these complex products, optimizing the estimative of Cp and so no experimental data are always necessary for simulations. (author)

  19. CARS Temperature Measurements in a Combustion-Heated Supersonic Jet (United States)

    Tedder, S. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.


    Measurements were made in a combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric free jet from a nozzle with a diameter of 6.35 cm using dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). The resulting mean and standard deviation temperature maps are presented. The temperature results show that the gas temperature on the centerline remains constant for approximately 5 nozzle diameters. As the heated gas mixes with the ambient air further downstream the mean temperature decreases. The standard deviation map shows evidence of the increase of turbulence in the shear layer as the jet proceeds downstream and mixes with the ambient air. The challenges of collecting data in a harsh environment are discussed along with influences to the data. The yield of the data collected is presented and possible improvements to the yield is presented are discussed.

  20. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.


    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000ÀC showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  1. Combined function specification-regularization procedure for solution of inverse heat conduction problem (United States)

    Beck, J. V.; Murio, D. A.


    The inverse heat conduction problem involves the calculation of surface heat flux and/or temperature histories from transient, measured temperatures inside solids. This paper proposes and investigates a new combined procedure that is based on two different methods. One of these methods is the sequential function specification method which was originally proposed by Beck. The other method is the regularization method which has been used by Tikhonov and others. The combined method uses the sequential feature of the function specification method and the special function that is minimized in the regularization method. A test case is investigated of a semi-infinite body exposed to a heat flux that is initially zero, has a step increase and then drops to zero. A wide range of parameters is investigated. The combined procedure is much more computationally efficient than the usual regularization procedure when all the flux components are found simultaneously and yet the calculated values found by combined method are little different.

  2. Measurement of the specific heat capacity of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D.T.; Roger, P


    With the objective of implementing graphite calorimetry at the BIPM to measure absorbed dose, an experimental assembly has recently been constructed to measure the specific heat capacity of graphite. A status description of the apparatus and results from the first measurements are given. The outcome is discussed and the experimental uncertainty is reviewed. (authors)

  3. Specific heat of the simple-cubic Ising model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.


    We provide an expression quantitatively describing the specific heat of the Ising model on the simple-cubic lattice in the critical region. This expression is based on finite-size scaling of numerical results obtained by means of a Monte Carlo method. It agrees satisfactorily with series expansions

  4. Temperature Histories in Ceramic-Insulated Heat-Sink Nozzle (United States)

    Ciepluch, Carl C.


    Temperature histories were calculated for a composite nozzle wall by a simplified numerical integration calculation procedure. These calculations indicated that there is a unique ratio of insulation and metal heat-sink thickness that will minimize total wall thickness for a given operating condition and required running time. The optimum insulation and metal thickness will vary throughout the nozzle as a result of the variation in heat-transfer rate. The use of low chamber pressure results in a significant increase in the maximum running time of a given weight nozzle. Experimentally measured wall temperatures were lower than those calculated. This was due in part to the assumption of one-dimensional or slab heat flow in the calculation procedure.

  5. Fast temperature programming in gas chromatography using resistive heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallüge, J.; Ou-Aissa, R.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Veraart, J.R.


    The features of a resistive-heated capillary column for fast temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) have been evaluated. Experiments were carried out using a commercial available EZ Flash GC, an assembly which can be used to upgrade existing gas chromatographs. The capillary column is placed

  6. Temperature mapping, thermal diffusivity and subsoil heat flux at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal diffusivity () of the soil has been calculated by range and lag methods and also from amplitudes and phase angles of first and second harmonics. The two methods lead to similar results. Diurnal soil heat ux and soil temperatures at different depths are modelled and found to be comparable with observations.

  7. Temperature mapping, thermal diffusivity and subsoil heat flux at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the day by intense solar radiation than the lay- ers beneath, resulting in temperature gradient between the surface and subsoil on the one hand and surface and air layers near the ground on the other. Within the soil this causes heat flow downward as a thermal wave, the amplitude of which changes with depth. Estimation of ...

  8. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 13, Internal Energy, Heat, and Temperature. (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the thirteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to internal energy, heat, and temperature. The topics are concerned with collisions, thermometers, friction forces, degrees Centigrade and Fahrenheit, calories, Brownian motion, and state changes. The…

  9. Longitudinal spin Seebeck coefficient: heat flux vs. temperature difference method. (United States)

    Sola, A; Bougiatioti, P; Kuepferling, M; Meier, D; Reiss, G; Pasquale, M; Kuschel, T; Basso, V


    The determination of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) coefficient is currently plagued by a large uncertainty due to the poor reproducibility of the experimental conditions used in its measurement. In this work we present a detailed analysis of two different methods used for the determination of the LSSE coefficient. We have performed LSSE experiments in different laboratories, by using different setups and employing both the temperature difference method and the heat flux method. We found that the lack of reproducibility can be mainly attributed to the thermal contact resistance between the sample and the thermal baths which generate the temperature gradient. Due to the variation of the thermal resistance, we found that the scaling of the LSSE voltage to the heat flux through the sample rather than to the temperature difference across the sample greatly reduces the uncertainty. The characteristics of a single YIG/Pt LSSE device obtained with two different setups was (1.143 ± 0.007) 10-7 Vm/W and (1.101 ± 0.015) 10-7 Vm/W with the heat flux method and (2.313 ± 0.017) 10-7 V/K and (4.956 ± 0.005) 10-7 V/K with the temperature difference method. This shows that systematic errors can be considerably reduced with the heat flux method.

  10. Startup analysis for a high temperature gas loaded heat pipe (United States)

    Sockol, P. M.


    A model for the rapid startup of a high-temperature gas-loaded heat pipe is presented. A two-dimensional diffusion analysis is used to determine the rate of energy transport by the vapor between the hot and cold zones of the pipe. The vapor transport rate is then incorporated in a simple thermal model of the startup of a radiation-cooled heat pipe. Numerical results for an argon-lithium system show that radial diffusion to the cold wall can produce large vapor flow rates during a rapid startup. The results also show that startup is not initiated until the vapor pressure p sub v in the hot zone reaches a precise value proportional to the initial gas pressure p sub i. Through proper choice of p sub i, startup can be delayed until p sub v is large enough to support a heat-transfer rate sufficient to overcome a thermal load on the heat pipe.

  11. Heat Transfer in High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran


    The combined radiation/conduction heat transfer in high-porosity, high-temperature fibrous insulations was investigated experimentally and numerically. The effective thermal conductivity of fibrous insulation samples was measured over the temperature range of 300-1300 K and environmental pressure range of 1.33 x 10(exp -5)-101.32 kPa. The fibrous insulation samples tested had nominal densities of 24, 48, and 72 kilograms per cubic meter and thicknesses of 13.3, 26.6 and 39.9 millimeters. Seven samples were tested such that the applied heat flux vector was aligned with local gravity vector to eliminate natural convection as a mode of heat transfer. Two samples were tested with reverse orientation to investigate natural convection effects. It was determined that for the fibrous insulation densities and thicknesses investigated no heat transfer takes place through natural convection. A finite volume numerical model was developed to solve the governing combined radiation and conduction heat transfer equations. Various methods of modeling the gas/solid conduction interaction in fibrous insulations were investigated. The radiation heat transfer was modeled using the modified two-flux approximation assuming anisotropic scattering and gray medium. A genetic-algorithm based parameter estimation technique was utilized with this model to determine the relevant radiative properties of the fibrous insulation over the temperature range of 300-1300 K. The parameter estimation was performed by least square minimization of the difference between measured and predicted values of effective thermal conductivity at a density of 24 kilograms per cubic meters and at nominal pressures of 1.33 x 10(exp -4) and 99.98 kPa. The numerical model was validated by comparison with steady-state effective thermal conductivity measurements at other densities and pressures. The numerical model was also validated by comparison with a transient thermal test simulating reentry aerodynamic heating

  12. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation (United States)

    Bolonina, Alona; Bolonins, Genadijs; Blumberga, Dagnija


    District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with reduced district heating supply temperature. Conclusions on the benefits of new operation modes are introduced.

  13. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolonina Alona


    Full Text Available District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with reduced district heating supply temperature. Conclusions on the benefits of new operation modes are introduced.

  14. Spin excitations and the electronic specific heat of URu2Si2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, T.E.; Buyers, W.J.L.


    and conduction electrons yields m*/m(b) almost-equal-to 7.7 for T T(N) which is sufficient to account for the difference between band-structure calculations and the measured electronic specific heat. In addition, inclusion of the temperature dependence of the spin...... excitations as T(N) is approached from below reproduces, qualitatively, the peak observed in the specific heat at T(N). The peak arises from a gap in the spin, not charge spectrum below T(N)....

  15. A Comprehensive Study of a Micro-Channel Heat Sink Using Integrated Thin-Film Temperature Sensors. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jiejun; He, Jian; Wu, Chuangui; Luo, Wenbo; Shuai, Yao; Zhang, Wanli; Chen, Xiancai; Zhang, Jian; Lin, Jia


    A micro-channel heat sink is a promising cooling method for high power integrated circuits (IC). However, the understanding of such a micro-channel device is not sufficient, because the tools for studying it are very limited. The details inside the micro-channels are not readily available. In this letter, a micro-channel heat sink is comprehensively studied using the integrated temperature sensors. The highly sensitive thin film temperature sensors can accurately monitor the temperature change in the micro-channel in real time. The outstanding heat dissipation performance of the micro-channel heat sink is proven in terms of maximum temperature, cooling speed and heat resistance. The temperature profile along the micro-channel is extracted, and even small temperature perturbations can be detected. The heat source formed temperature peak shifts towards the flow direction with the increasing flow rate. However, the temperature non-uniformity is independent of flow rate, but solely dependent on the heating power. Specific designs for minimizing the temperature non-uniformity are necessary. In addition, the experimental results from the integrated temperature sensors match the simulation results well. This can be used to directly verify the modeling results, helping to build a convincing simulation model. The integrated sensor could be a powerful tool for studying the micro-channel based heat sink.

  16. Temperature and heat in informal settlements in Nairobi. (United States)

    Scott, Anna A; Misiani, Herbert; Okoth, Jerrim; Jordan, Asha; Gohlke, Julia; Ouma, Gilbert; Arrighi, Julie; Zaitchik, Ben F; Jjemba, Eddie; Verjee, Safia; Waugh, Darryn W


    Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or "slums" are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity. We show how temperature, humidity and heat index differ in several informal settlements, including in Kibera, the largest slum neighborhood in Africa, and find that temperature and a thermal comfort index known colloquially as the heat index regularly exceed measurements at the Dagoretti observation station by several degrees Celsius. These temperatures are within the range of temperatures previously associated with mortality increases of several percent in youth and elderly populations in informal settlements. We relate these changes to surface properties such as satellite-derived albedo, vegetation indices, and elevation.

  17. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments. (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou


    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100-2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700-1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  18. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tairan, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  19. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou


    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100-2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700-1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  20. Material Specific Design for Room Temperature Superconductivity (United States)

    Isikaku-Ironkwe, O.-Paul; Ofe, Uko; Oriaku, Chijioke; Asiegbu, Dan; Oguzi, Emeka


    The transition temperature, Tc, of superconductors has been increased sevenfold from 23K in Nb3Ge to 164K in Hg-1223. A further two-fold increase would get us to above room temperature superconductivity. Studying high temperature superconductors (HTSCs), we have developed a formula that expresses Tc in terms of electronegativity, valence electrons, Ne, atomic number, Z, formula mass and a coupling constant, Ko. We observe an increasing linear relationship between Tc and Ko. Ko also correlates with formula mass and atomic number and the number of atoms in the compound. By our formula, Hg-1223 has Ko = 70. We propose, using our design algorithm, that room temperature superconductivity may be realized in a system with ko = 160; electronegativity = 2.5, Ne/Sqrt Z = 0.8. We proceed to show combinations of oxides and elements that will yield the required parameters for synthesizing reproducible room temperature superconductivity.

  1. Experimental Investigation on the Specific Heat of Carbonized Phenolic Resin-Based Ablative Materials (United States)

    Zhao, Te; Ye, Hong; Zhang, Lisong; Cai, Qilin


    As typical phenolic resin-based ablative materials, the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic composites are widely used in aerospace field. The specific heat of the carbonized ablators after ablation is an important thermophysical parameter in the process of heat transfer, but it is rarely reported. In this investigation, the carbonized samples of the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic were obtained through carbonization experiments, and the specific heat of the carbonized samples was determined by a 3D DSC from 150 °C to 970 °C. Structural and compositional characterizations were performed to determine the mass fractions of the fiber and the carbonized product of phenolic which are the two constituents of the carbonized samples, while the specific heat of each constituent was also measured by 3D DSC. The masses of the carbonized samples were reduced when heated to a high temperature in the specific heat measurements, due to the thermal degradation of the carbonized product of phenolic resin in the carbonized samples. The raw experimental specific heat of the two carbonized samples and the carbonized product of phenolic resin was modified according to the quality changes of the carbonized samples presented by TGA results. Based on the mass fraction and the specific heat of each constituent, a weighted average method was adopted to obtain the calculated results of the carbonized samples. Due to the unconsolidated property of the fiber samples which impacts the reliability of the DSC measurement, there is a certain deviation between the experimental and calculated results of the carbonized samples. Considering the similarity of composition and structure, the data of quartz glass and graphite were used to substitute the specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber, respectively, resulting in better agreements with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the accurate specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber bundles was obtained by

  2. Heat-related deaths in hot cities: estimates of human tolerance to high temperature thresholds. (United States)

    Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J; Ruddell, Benjamin L; Ruddell, Darren M


    In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90-97 °F; 32.2-36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  3. The effects of summer temperature and heat waves on heat-related illness in a coastal city of China, 2011-2013. (United States)

    Bai, Li; Ding, Gangqiang; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Su, Buda; Qin, Dahe; Xu, Guozhang; Liu, Qiyong


    Devastating health effects from recent heat waves in China have highlighted the importance of understanding health consequences from extreme heat stress. Despite the increasing mortality from extreme heat, very limited studies have quantified the effects of summer extreme temperature on heat-related illnesses in China. The associations between extreme heat and daily heat-related illnesses that occurred in the summers of 2011-2013 in Ningbo, China, have been examined, using a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) based on 3862 cases. The excess morbidities of heat-related illness during each heat wave have been calculated separately and the cumulative heat wave effects on age-, sex-, and cause-specific illnesses in each year along lags have been estimated as well. After controlling the effect of relative humidity, it is found that maximum temperature, rather than heat index, was a better predictor of heat-related illnesses in summers. A positive association between maximum temperatures and occurrence of heat-related diseases was apparent, especially at short lag effects. Six heat waves during the period of 2011-2013 were identified and all associated with excess heat-related illnesses. Relative to the average values for the corresponding periods in 2011 and 2012, a total estimated 679 extra heat-related illnesses occurred during three heat waves in 2013. The significant prolonged heat wave effects on total heat-related illnesses during heat waves in three study years have also been identified. The strongest cumulative effect of heat waves was on severe heat diseases in 2013, with a 10-fold increased risk. More males than females, individuals with more severe forms of illness, were more affected by the heat. However, all age groups were vulnerable. Recent heat waves had a substantial and delayed effect on heat illnesses in Ningbo. Relevant active well-organized public health initiatives should be implemented to reduce the adverse effects of heat extremes on the

  4. High-temperature industrial process heat: technology assessment and introduction rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Three specific topics of interest to DOE are addressed: to establish the significance and identify the role of high-temperature process heat in the nation's energy economy; to identify the role of solar thermal power in these high-temperature industrial applications in terms of possible markets and economic potential; and to recommend programmatic approaches for these solar thermal high-temperature process heat activities, including proposed content for initial Request for Proposals (RFPs) to accomplish such activities. The scope of the work required to accomplish these three purposes included the following: review of US industrial energy requirements, survey of current DOE low-temperature Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program, examination of high-temperature solar thermal electric systems already developed or under development by DOE and industry, and coordination with the high-energy user segments of industry (i.e., cement, chemical and petroleum) to find additional markets for some or all of the systems or components being developed in the DOE solar thermal electric program. Statistical data are presented identifying energy allocations to process heat and defining DOE's involvement. Three current fossil fuel process heat system examples are provided and the corresponding solar potential is identified.

  5. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature (United States)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.


    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  6. Estimating thermal diffusivity and specific heat from needle probe thermal conductivity data (United States)

    Waite, W.F.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.


    Thermal diffusivity and specific heat can be estimated from thermal conductivity measurements made using a standard needle probe and a suitably high data acquisition rate. Thermal properties are calculated from the measured temperature change in a sample subjected to heating by a needle probe. Accurate thermal conductivity measurements are obtained from a linear fit to many tens or hundreds of temperature change data points. In contrast, thermal diffusivity calculations require a nonlinear fit to the measured temperature change occurring in the first few tenths of a second of the measurement, resulting in a lower accuracy than that obtained for thermal conductivity. Specific heat is calculated from the ratio of thermal conductivity to diffusivity, and thus can have an uncertainty no better than that of the diffusivity estimate. Our thermal conductivity measurements of ice Ih and of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, made using a 1.6 mm outer diameter needle probe and a data acquisition rate of 18.2 pointss, agree with published results. Our thermal diffusivity and specific heat results reproduce published results within 25% for ice Ih and 3% for THF hydrate. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Replacement of unsteady heat transfer coefficient by equivalent steady-state one when calculating temperature oscillations in a thermal layer (United States)

    Supel’nyak, M. I.


    Features of calculation of temperature oscillations which are damped in a surface layer of a solid and which are having a small range in comparison with range of temperature of the fluid medium surrounding the solid at heat transfer coefficient changing in time under the periodic law are considered. For the specified case the equations for approximate definition of constant and oscillating components of temperature field of a solid are received. The possibility of use of appropriately chosen steady-state coefficient when calculating the temperature oscillations instead of unsteady heat-transfer coefficient is investigated. Dependence for definition of such equivalent constant heat-transfer coefficient is determined. With its help the research of temperature oscillations of solids with canonical form for some specific conditions of heat transfer is undertaken. Comparison of the obtained data with results of exact solutions of a problem of heat conductivity by which the limits to applicability of the offered approach are defined is carried out.

  8. The 55 K specific heat anomaly in palladium hydride (United States)

    Jacobi, N.; Vaughan, R. W.


    A specific heat anomaly in PdH and PdD has been observed by Aston et al. (1957) close to 55 K. Its position was found to be independent of hydrogen concentration and its magnitude to be linear in hydrogen concentration. Ferguson's (1965) and Brodowsky's (1972) explanations of the anomaly are shown to be unsatisfactory. This is true also for the detailed mechanical statistical model proposed by Staford and McLellan (1974) for interstitial solid solutions of hydrogen in transition metals. It is shown that Gopal's (1966) simple Schottky model of specific heat anomaly, which considers a system of several levels with Boltzmann statistics, provides much better agreement with experiment than the more elaborate models, both in magnitude and in predicting a linear dependence on hydrogen concentration.

  9. Entropy, specific heat, susceptibility, and Rushbrooke inequality in percolation (United States)

    Hassan, M. K.; Alam, D.; Jitu, Z. I.; Rahman, M. M.


    We investigate percolation, a probabilistic model for continuous phase transition, on square and weighted planar stochastic lattices. In its thermal counterpart, entropy is minimally low where order parameter (OP) is maximally high and vice versa. In addition, specific heat, OP, and susceptibility exhibit power law when approaching the critical point and the corresponding critical exponents α ,β ,γ respectably obey the Rushbrooke inequality (RI) α +2 β +γ ≥2 . Their analogs in percolation, however, remain elusive. We define entropy and specific heat and redefine susceptibility for percolation and show that they behave exactly in the same way as their thermal counterpart. We also show that RI holds for both the lattices albeit they belong to different universality classes.

  10. Loop Heat Pipe Temperature Oscillation Induced by Gravity Assist and Reservoir Heating (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Garrison, Matt; Patel, Deepak; Robinson, Frank; Ottenstein, Laura


    The Laser Thermal Control System (LCTS) for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) to be installed on NASA's Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) consists of a constant conductance heat pipe and a loop heat pipe (LHP) with an associated radiator. During the recent thermal vacuum testing of the LTCS where the LHP condenser/radiator was placed in a vertical position above the evaporator and reservoir, it was found that the LHP reservoir control heater power requirement was much higher than the analytical model had predicted. Even with the control heater turned on continuously at its full power, the reservoir could not be maintained at its desired set point temperature. An investigation of the LHP behaviors found that the root cause of the problem was fluid flow and reservoir temperature oscillations, which led to persistent alternate forward and reversed flow along the liquid line and an imbalance between the vapor mass flow rate in the vapor line and liquid mass flow rate in the liquid line. The flow and temperature oscillations were caused by an interaction between gravity and reservoir heating, and were exacerbated by the large thermal mass of the instrument simulator which modulated the net heat load to the evaporator, and the vertical radiator/condenser which induced a variable gravitational pressure head. Furthermore, causes and effects of the contributing factors to flow and temperature oscillations intermingled.

  11. Heat Transfer Retardation at Elevated Temperatures. Phase I. Analysis of Heat Transfer Retardation Configurations and Materials. (United States)


    The cenospheres (which are spherical, hollow glass particles) are heated in a mold in air or any inert atmosphere at firing temperatures in the range of...between 2500 to 3000 F, and the cenospheres then shrink together to form a closed-pore ceramic foam. The two problems with the closed-pore foam

  12. Evaluation of selected advanced heat exchangers for waste heat recuperation of high temperature streams (United States)

    Bliem, C. J.; Kochan, R.; Mittl, J. C.; Piscitella, R. R.; Schafer, J.; Synder, A.; Wiggins, D.; Zabriskie, J. N.


    The design, functional and cost requirements for high-temperature, heat recovery systems (recuperators) and describes the state-of-the-art systems, emerging industrial technologies and new concepts developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. are discussed. All systems/concepts are then evaluated and compared with respect to corrosion/durability, fouling, performance, operation and maintenance, and economics.

  13. Specific heat of the two-dimensional Hubbard model at weak to intermediate coupling. (United States)

    Roy, S.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.


    We show how, in the weak to intermediate coupling regime, the thermodynamics of the two-dimensional t-t'-U Hubbard model can be obtained from the Two-Particle Self-Consistent approach.[1] The results agree with Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We then compute the specific heat and the double occupancy. Close to half-filling, the rapid decrease of double occupancy with decreasing temperature signals a growing antiferromagnetic correlation length and a concomitant pseudogap. The decrease in double occupancy corresponds to an increase in the local magnetic moment and to a decrease in potential energy. These phenomena manifest themselves as a low temperature peak in the specific heat. The high-temperature peak in the specific heat arises from the kinetic energy and is much less sensitive to antiferromagnetic correlations. We obtain the domain, in the temperature-doping plane, where a pseudogap appears and we study the evolution of this domain with U and t'. With a large enough frustration t', there is a complete suppression of the pseudogap. [1] Y.M. Vilk and A.-M.S. Tremblay, J. Phys. I France 7, 1309 (1997).

  14. Infrared Low Temperature Turbine Vane Rough Surface Heat Transfer Measurements (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.; Spuckler, C. M.; Lucci, B. L.; Camperchioli, W. P.


    Turbine vane heat transfer distributions obtained using an infrared camera technique are described. Infrared thermography was used because noncontact surface temperature measurements were desired. Surface temperatures were 80 C or less. Tests were conducted in a three vane linear cascade, with inlet pressures between 0.14 and 1.02 atm., and exit Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.7, and 0.9, for turbulence intensities of approximately 1 and 10%. Measurements were taken on the vane suction side, and on the pressure side leading edge region. The designs for both the vane and test facility are discussed. The approach used to account for conduction within the vane is described. Midspan heat transfer distributions are given for the range of test conditions.



    Chus R. V.; Koshchayev A. G.; Kostenko S. V.; Koshchaeva O. V.


    During the research, we have developed a low-temperature zonal heating panels with an infrared emitter to create a local microclimate for piglets in the suckling period. This heater is lightweight and durable frame in the form of an inverted box size 400 mm x 1800 mm, attached to the wall of the building swivel. Top frame mounted thermostat is connected to a temperature sensor mounted directly on a metal plate with a thickness of 1 mm, painted in black color. In the upper part of the inner ca...

  16. Conversion of medium and low temperature heat to power (United States)

    Fischer, Johann; Wendland, Martin; Lai, Ngoc Anh


    Presently most electricity is produced in power plants which use high temperature heat supplied by coal, oil, gas or nuclear fission and Clausius-Rankine cycles (CRC) with water as working fluid (WF). On the other hand, geo-, solar-, ocean-, and biogenic-heat have medium and low temperatures. At these temperatures, however, the use of other WF and/or other cycles can yield higher efficiencies than those of the water-CRC. For an assessment of the efficiency we model systems which include the heat transfer to and from the WF and the cycle. Optimization criterion is the exergy efficiency defined as the ratio of the net power output to the incoming exergy flow of the heat carrier. First, for a better understanding we discuss some thermodynamic properties of the WFs: 1) the critical point parameters, 2) the shape of the vapour- liquid coexistence curve in the temperature vs entropy (T,s)-diagram which may be either bell-shaped or overhanging [1,2], and 3) the shape of sub- and supercritical isobars for pure fluids and fluid mixtures. Second, we show that the problems of a CRC with water at lower temperatures are 1) the shape of the T,s-diagram and 2) the exergy loss during heat transfer to the WF. The first problem can be overcome by using an organic working fluid in the CRC which then is called organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The second problem is reduced by supercritical organic Rankine cycles (sORC) [1,2], trilateral cycles (TLC) and the more general power-flash cycles (PFC) [2], and organic flash cycles (OFC) [3]. Next, selected results for systems with the above mentioned cycles will be presented. The heat carrier inlet temperatures THC range from 120°C to 350°C.The pure working fluids are water, refrigerants, alkanes, aromates and siloxanes and have to be selected to match with THC. It is found that TLC with water have the highest efficiencies but show very large volume flows at lower temperatures. Moreover, expansion machines for TLC and PFC are still under

  17. Simulation of the airflow and temperature distribution in heated greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougoul, S.; Zeroual, S.; Azil, A. [Batna Univ., Batna (Algeria). Dept. of Physics; Boulard, T. [Unit of Integrated Research in Horticulture, Sophia Antipolis (France)


    The climate inside greenhouses depends on the external conditions such as wind velocity, outside temperature, and external moisture, as well as interior conditions such as heating, humidification, dehumidification, and ventilation. Plant transpiration and condensation on the walls are also factors that affect climate and vegetation. The interaction of various forms of mass and thermal transfer with plants results in a complex process. This paper presented an analysis of the heating process in a reduced scale mono-span greenhouse module using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The purpose of the study was to validate some experimental data and to investigate how heating tubes influenced airflow and temperature patterns inside the greenhouse. Simulations were conducted in empty greenhouses with and without open sided roof vents. The results obtained were satisfactory by comparison to the experimental ones. In the closed greenhouses, the average temperature and velocity calculated were in good agreement with those measured. Maximum air velocity values inside the greenhouse were observed near the opening section and along the wall and floor, whereas air velocity was lowest in the centre of greenhouse. The presence of plants was also investigated in a particular configuration. 18 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  18. Measuring the temperature history of isochorically heated warm dense metals (United States)

    McGuffey, Chris; Kim, J.; Park, J.; Moody, J.; Emig, J.; Heeter, B.; Dozieres, M.; Beg, Fn; McLean, Hs


    A pump-probe platform has been designed for soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy near edge structure measurements in isochorically heated Al or Cu samples with temperature of 10s to 100s of eV. The method is compatible with dual picosecond-class laser systems and may be used to measure the temperature of the sample heated directly by the pump laser or by a laser-driven proton beam Knowledge of the temperature history of warm dense samples will aid equation of state measurements. First, various low- to mid-Z targets were evaluated for their suitability as continuum X-ray backlighters over the range 200-1800 eV using a 10 J picosecond-class laser with relativistic peak intensity Alloys were found to be more suitable than single-element backlighters. Second, the heated sample package was designed with consideration of target thickness and tamp layers using atomic physics codes. The results of the first demonstration attempts will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-SC0014600.

  19. Performance analysis of a low-temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination prototype

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw


    This paper discusses the performance analysis of an advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with an internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. The AD cycle employs the adsorption-desorption principles to convert sea or brackish water into high-grade potable water with total dissolved solids (TDS) less than 10 ppm (mg/L) utilizing low-temperature heat source. The salient features of the AD cycle are the utilization of low temperature waste heat (typically 55 C to 85 C) with the employment of an environment-friendly silica gel/water pair and the low maintenance as it has no major moving parts other than the pumps and valves. For improved performance of the AD pilot plant, the internal heat recovery scheme between the condenser and evaporator has been implemented with a run-about water circuit between them. The efficacy of the scheme is analyzed in terms of key performance indicators such as the specific daily water production (SDWP) and the performance ratio (PR). Extensive experiments were performed for assorted heat source temperatures ranging from 70 C to 50 C. From the experiments, the SDWP of the AD cycle with the proposed heat recovery scheme is found to be 15 m3 of water per ton of silica gel that is almost twice that of the yield obtained by a conventional AD cycle for the same operation conditions. Another important finding of AD desalination plant is that the advanced AD cycle could still be operational with an inlet heat source temperature of 50 C and yet achieving a SDWP of 4.3 m3 - a feat that never seen by any heat-driven cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Research of the Border Mobility Influence on the Half-Space Temperature Field Under Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Vlasov


    Full Text Available Among the problems of unsteady heat conduction, tasks that can be solved in analytical closedform hold a special place. This species can be used both for parametric optimization of thermal protection of structures and for testing of computational algorithms.The previous paper presented an analytical solution of the problem to find the half-space temperature field with the uniformly moving boundary, which was under the external heat flux of constant power. In this paper we consider a similar problem, but the law of the moving boundary is assumed to be arbitrary nondecreasing, and the power of the heat flux can vary over time.An analytical dependence of the problem solution on the temperature of a moving boundary was obtained by using the Fourier transformation in the spatial variable. To determine the temperature of moving boundary, Volterra integral equation of the second kind was drawn. The solution of this equation was numerically conducted using a specially developed computational algorithm.The obtained representation was used to research the most characteristic features of the process to form the temperature field in studied area when implementing the various laws of boundaries motion and different operating conditions for the external heat flux influence. Using computational experiments allowed us to find that the asymptotic nature of this dependence confirms the results obtained in previous work. It has been established that the nonlinear character of both the boundary motion law and the external heat flux power variation law mainly affect the specifics of the transition process.

  1. High Efficiency Heat Exchanger for High Temperature and High Pressure Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division


    CompRex, LLC (CompRex) specializes in the design and manufacture of compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for high temperature and high pressure applications. CompRex’s proprietary compact technology not only increases heat exchange efficiency by at least 25 % but also reduces footprint by at least a factor of ten compared to traditional shell-and-tube solutions of the same capacity and by 15 to 20 % compared to other currently available Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) solutions. As a result, CompRex’s solution is especially suitable for Brayton cycle supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) systems given its high efficiency and significantly lower capital and operating expenses. CompRex has already successfully demonstrated its technology and ability to deliver with a pilot-scale compact heat exchanger that was under contract by the Naval Nuclear Laboratory for sCO2 power cycle development. The performance tested unit met or exceeded the thermal and hydraulic specifications with measured heat transfer between 95 to 98 % of maximum heat transfer and temperature and pressure drop values all consistent with the modeled values. CompRex’s vision is to commercialize its compact technology and become the leading provider for compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for various applications including Brayton cycle sCO2 systems. One of the limitations of the sCO2 Brayton power cycle is the design and manufacturing of efficient heat exchangers at extreme operating conditions. Current diffusion-bonded heat exchangers have limitations on the channel size through which the fluid travels, resulting in excessive solid material per heat exchanger volume. CompRex’s design allows for more open area and shorter fluid proximity for increased heat transfer efficiency while sustaining the structural integrity needed for the application. CompRex is developing a novel improvement to its current heat exchanger design where fluids are directed to alternating

  2. Generic Guide Specification for Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, WKT


    The attached Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pump (GHP) Guide Specifications have been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the intent to assist federal agency sites and engineers in the preparation of construction specifications for GHP projects. These specifications have been developed in the industry-standard Construction Specification Institute (CSI) format and cover several of the most popular members of the family of GHP systems. These guide specifications are applicable to projects whether the financing is with conventional appropriations, arranged by GHP specialty ESCOs under the U.S. Department of Energy's Technology-Specific GHP Super ESPCs, arranged by utilities under Utility Energy Service Contracts (UESCs) or arranged by generalist ESCOs under the various regional ESPCs. These specifications can provide several benefits to the end user that will help ensure successful GHP system installations. GHP guide specifications will help to streamline the specification development, review, and approval process because the architecture and engineering (AE) firm will be working from the familiar CSI format instead of developing the specifications from other sources. The guide specifications help to provide uniformity, standardization, and consistency in both the construction specifications and system installations across multiple federal sites. This standardization can provide future benefits to the federal sites in respect to both maintenance and operations. GHP guide specifications can help to ensure that the agency is getting its money's worth from the GHP system by preventing the use of marginal or inferior components and equipment. The agency and its AE do not have to start from scratch when developing specifications and can use the specification as a template and/or a checklist in developing both the design and the contract documents. The guide specifications can save project costs by reducing the engineering effort required

  3. On the Specific Features of Temperature Evolution in Ultracold Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yu V


    A theoretical interpretation of the recent experimental studies of temperature evolution in the course of time in the freely-expanding ultracold plasma bunches, released from a magneto-optical trap, is discussed. The most interesting result is finding the asymptotics of the form T_e ~ t^{-(1.2 +/- 0.1)} instead of t^{-2}, which was expected for the rarefied monatomic gas during inertial expansion. As follows from our consideration, the substantially decelerated decay of the temperature can be well explained by the specific features of the equation of state for the ultracold plasmas with strong Coulomb's coupling, whereas a heat release due to inelastic processes (in particular, three-body recombination) does not play an appreciable role in the first approximation. This conclusion is confirmed both by approximate analytical estimates, based on the model of "virialization" of the charged-particle energies, and by the results of "ab initio" numerical simulation. Moreover, the simulation shows that the above-ment...

  4. Method for solving the problem of nonlinear heating a cylindrical body with unknown initial temperature (United States)

    Yaparova, N.


    We consider the problem of heating a cylindrical body with an internal thermal source when the main characteristics of the material such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and material density depend on the temperature at each point of the body. We can control the surface temperature and the heat flow from the surface inside the cylinder, but it is impossible to measure the temperature on axis and the initial temperature in the entire body. This problem is associated with the temperature measurement challenge and appears in non-destructive testing, in thermal monitoring of heat treatment and technical diagnostics of operating equipment. The mathematical model of heating is represented as nonlinear parabolic PDE with the unknown initial condition. In this problem, both the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are given and it is required to calculate the temperature values at the internal points of the body. To solve this problem, we propose the numerical method based on using of finite-difference equations and a regularization technique. The computational scheme involves solving the problem at each spatial step. As a result, we obtain the temperature function at each internal point of the cylinder beginning from the surface down to the axis. The application of the regularization technique ensures the stability of the scheme and allows us to significantly simplify the computational procedure. We investigate the stability of the computational scheme and prove the dependence of the stability on the discretization steps and error level of the measurement results. To obtain the experimental temperature error estimates, computational experiments were carried out. The computational results are consistent with the theoretical error estimates and confirm the efficiency and reliability of the proposed computational scheme.

  5. High Performance Cascading Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle with Internal Heat Recovery Driven by a Low Grade Heat Source Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ueda


    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of an advanced cascading adsorption cycle that utilizes a driven heat source temperature between 90–130 ºC. The cycle consists of four beds that contain silica gel as an adsorber fill. Two of the beds work in a single stage cycle that is driven by an external heat source, while the other two beds work in a mass recovery cycle that is driven by waste heat of sensible and adsorption heat of the high temperature cycle. The performances, in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP and the specific cooling power (SCP, are compared with conventional cascading-without-mass-recovery and single-stage cycles. The paper also presents the effect of the adsorbent mass on performance. The results show that the proposed cycle with mass recovery produces as high of a COP as the COP that is produced by the conventional cascading cycle. However, it produces a lower SCP than that of the single-stage cycle.

  6. Specific heat of CePb{sub 3} in magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietri, R.; Andraka, B.


    The specific heat of polycrystalline CePb{sub 3} was measured in magnetic fields to 14 T and temperatures down to 0.4 K. An anomaly related to an aniferromagnetic phase transition is effectively attenuated by magnetic fields and disappears for fields larger than 6 T. The electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma} increases for small fields, has a maximum value at 6 T, and decreases for larger fields. This field dependence of {gamma} correlates with previously studied quadratic temperature coefficient of the resistivity as a function of a magnetic field. A/{gamma}{sup 2} is field dependent below 6 T, but constant ({approx}10{sup -5} {Omega}cmK{sup 2}mol{sup 2}J{sup -2}) for fields larger than 6 T within the experimental uncertainty.

  7. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.


    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior of...... SiO2 are most likely not due to fractal behavior.......The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior...

  8. Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses. (United States)

    Park, So Lee; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hettenbach, Susan M; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L


    Serological diagnosis is a critical component for disease surveillance and is important to address the increase in incidence and disease burden of alphaviruses, such as the chikungunya (CHIKV) and Ross River (RRV) viruses. The gold standard for serological diagnosis is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which demonstrates the neutralizing capacity of serum samples after the removal of complement activity and adventitious viruses. This procedure is normally performed following inactivation of the virus at 56°C for 30min. Although this protocol has been widely accepted for the inactivation of envelope RNA viruses, recent studies have demonstrated that prolonged heat inactivation is required to completely inactivate two alphaviruses, Western equine encephalitis virus and CHIKV. Incomplete inactivation of viruses poses a laboratory biosafety risk and can also lead to spurious test results. Despite its importance in ensuring the safety of laboratory personnel as well as test integrity, systematic investigation on the thermostability of alphaviruses has not been performed. In this study, the temperature tolerance and heat inactivation profiles of RRV, Barmah Forest, and o'nyong-nyong viruses were determined. Variations in thermostability were observed within the Semliki forest serocomplex. Therefore, evidence-based heat inactivation procedures for alphaviruses are recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of temperature in deep boreholes and evaluation of geothermal heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta; Sundberg, Anders (GEO INNOVA AB, Linkoeping (Sweden))


    This report presents modelling of temperature and temperature gradients in boreholes in Laxemar and Forsmark and fitting to measured temperature data. The modelling is performed with an analytical expression including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat flow, internal heat generation and climate events in the past. As a result of the fitting procedure it is also possible to evaluate local heat flow values for the two sites. However, since there is no independent evaluation of the heat flow, uncertainties in for example thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the palaeoclimate temperature curve are transferred into uncertainties in the heat flow. Both for Forsmark and Laxemar, reasonably good fits were achieved between models and data on borehole temperatures. However, none of the general models achieved a fit within the 95% confidence intervals of the measurements. This was achieved in some cases for the additional optimised models. Several of the model parameters are uncertain. A good model fit does not automatically imply that 'correct' values have been used for these parameters. Similar model fits can be expected with different sets of parameter values. The palaeoclimatically corrected surface mean heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar is suggested to be 61 and 56 mW/m2 respectively. If all uncertainties are combined, including data uncertainties, the total uncertainty in the heat flow determination is judged to be within +12% to -14% for both sites. The corrections for palaeoclimate are quite large and verify the need of site-specific climate descriptions. Estimations of the current ground surface temperature have been made by extrapolations from measured temperature logging. The mean extrapolated ground surface temperature in Forsmark and Laxemar is estimated to 6.5 deg and 7.3 deg C respectively. This is approximately 1.7 deg C higher for Forsmark, and 1.6 deg C higher for Laxemar compared to data in the report SKB-TR-06-23. Comparison with

  10. Density of states, specific heat and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in PrOs4Sb12 (United States)

    Abu Alrub, Tayseer; Curnoe, Stephanie


    We present a theoretical study of the density of states, specific heat and nuclear spin-relaxation rate in the unconventional superconductor PrOs4Sb12. In this material, superconductivity is best described by a three component order parameter in the triplet channel. Instead of nodes, deep dips appear in the gap function producing power law temperature dependencies at higher temperatures and exponential suppression at low temperatures of the specific heat and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate. Various experimental observations will be discussed in this context.

  11. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change. (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier


    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Experimental study of energy performance in low-temperature hydronic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesaraki, Arefeh; Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Ploskić, Adnan


    Energy consumption, thermal environment and environmental impacts were analytically and experimentally studied for different types of heat emitters. The heat emitters studied were conventional radiator, ventilation radiator, and floor heating with medium-, low-, and very-low-temperature supply, r...

  13. Heat priming induces trans-generational tolerance to high temperature stress in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eWang


    Full Text Available Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH, the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1 which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production.

  14. Analyses of Effects of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Edge Temperature Using Inverse Heat Conduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro dos Santos


    Full Text Available During machining energy is transformed into heat due to plastic deformation of the workpiece surface and friction between tool and workpiece. High temperatures are generated in the region of the cutting edge, which have a very important influence on wear rate of the cutting tool and on tool life. This work proposes the estimation of heat flux at the chip-tool interface using inverse techniques. Factors which influence the temperature distribution at the AISI M32C high speed steel tool rake face during machining of a ABNT 12L14 steel workpiece were also investigated. The temperature distribution was predicted using finite volume elements. A transient 3D numerical code using irregular and nonstaggered mesh was developed to solve the nonlinear heat diffusion equation. To validate the software, experimental tests were made. The inverse problem was solved using the function specification method. Heat fluxes at the tool-workpiece interface were estimated using inverse problems techniques and experimental temperatures. Tests were performed to study the effect of cutting parameters on cutting edge temperature. The results were compared with those of the tool-work thermocouple technique and a fair agreement was obtained.

  15. Simultaneous determination of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat in sI methane hydrate (United States)

    Waite, W.F.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.


    Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of sI methane hydrate were measured as functions of temperature and pressure using a needle probe technique. The temperature dependence was measured between −20°C and 17°C at 31.5 MPa. The pressure dependence was measured between 31.5 and 102 MPa at 14.4°C. Only weak temperature and pressure dependencies were observed. Methane hydrate thermal conductivity differs from that of water by less than 10 per cent, too little to provide a sensitive measure of hydrate content in water-saturated systems. Thermal diffusivity of methane hydrate is more than twice that of water, however, and its specific heat is about half that of water. Thus, when drilling into or through hydrate-rich sediment, heat from the borehole can raise the formation temperature more than 20 per cent faster than if the formation's pore space contains only water. Thermal properties of methane hydrate should be considered in safety and economic assessments of hydrate-bearing sediment.

  16. A new experimental method to determine specific heat capacity of inhomogeneous concrete material with incorporated microencapsulated-PCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund


    The study presented in this paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the specific heat capacity as a function of the temperature Cp (T) of concrete mixed with various amounts of phase change material (PCM). The tested specimens are prepared by directly mixing concrete and microencapsulated...... PCM. This paper describes the development of the new material and the experimental set-up to determine the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete material. Moreover, various methods are proposed and compared to calculate the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete. Finally, it is hoped...

  17. Metal foam sandwich structure as a high temperature heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimijazi, H.R.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T.W.; Mostaghimi, J.; Chandra, S. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)


    Nickel-based superalloys can be used at temperatures up to 1050 C in air. Superalloy open cell foam sheets with skin layers plasma sprayed on both sides can be used as high temperature heat exchangers provided that the two deposited skins are dense and well adhered to the open cell foam. In this study alloy 625 skins were deposited on each side of a sheet of metal foam by APS and HVOF to form a sandwich structure. Two densities of open cell foams, 20 and 10 pores per linear inch (ppi), were used in this study as the core. The initial Ni foam was converted to an alloy composition by plasma spraying aluminum and chromium on the foam's struts with subsequent diffusion/solutionizing heat treatments before the alloy 625 skins were deposited. The microstructure of the coatings and the interface between the struts and skins was investigated. A layer of Ni-Al alloy was formed near the surface of the struts as a result of the heat treatment. The foam struts were imbedded more deeply into the coatings deposited by HVOF than the coatings deposited by APS. (orig.)

  18. The Effect of Heating Temperature on the Prooxidant and Hydroperoxide Decomposition Activity of Myoglobin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BERISHA, Adrian; ENDO, Yasushi; FUJIMOTO, Kenshiro


    Solutions of myoglobin from the heart of a horse were heated at various temperatures to assess the effect of heating temperature on the prooxidant and hydroperoxide decomposition activity of myoglobin...

  19. Temperature measurement methods during direct heat arterial tissue fusion. (United States)

    Cezo, James D; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth D; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark E


    Fusion of biological tissues through direct and indirect heating is a growing area of medical research, yet there are still major gaps in understanding this procedure. Several companies have developed devices which fuse blood vessels, but little is known about the tissue's response to the stimuli. The need for accurate measurements of tissue behavior during tissue fusion is essential for the continued development and improvement of energy delivery devices. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperatures experienced during tissue fusion and the resulting burst pressure of the fused arteries. An array of thermocouples was placed in the lumen of a porcine splenic artery segment and sealed using a ConMed Altrus thermal fusion device. The temperatures within the tissue, in the device, and at the tissue-device interface were recorded. These measurements were then analyzed to calculate the temperature profile in the lumen of the artery. The temperature in the artery at the site of tissue fusion was measured to range from 142 to 163 °C using the ConMed Altrus. The corresponding burst pressure for arteries fused at this temperature was measured as 416 ± 79 mmHg. This study represents the first known experimental measurement of temperature at the site of vessel sealing found in the literature.

  20. Taking the Temperature of the Interiors of Magnetically Heated Nanoparticles (United States)


    The temperature increase inside mesoporous silica nanoparticles induced by encapsulated smaller superparamagnetic nanocrystals in an oscillating magnetic field is measured using a crystalline optical nanothermometer. The detection mechanism is based on the temperature-dependent intensity ratio of two luminescence bands in the upconversion emission spectrum of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+. A facile stepwise phase transfer method is developed to construct a dual-core mesoporous silica nanoparticle that contains both a nanoheater and a nanothermometer in its interior. The magnetically induced heating inside the nanoparticles varies with different experimental conditions, including the magnetic field induction power, the exposure time to the magnetic field, and the magnetic nanocrystal size. The temperature increase of the immediate nanoenvironment around the magnetic nanocrystals is monitored continuously during the magnetic oscillating field exposure. The interior of the nanoparticles becomes much hotter than the macroscopic solution and cools to the temperature of the ambient fluid on a time scale of seconds after the magnetic field is turned off. This continuous absolute temperature detection method offers quantitative insight into the nanoenvironment around magnetic materials and opens a path for optimizing local temperature controls for physical and biomedical applications. PMID:24779552

  1. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood. (United States)

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi


    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Achieving low return temperature for domestic hot water preparation by ultra-low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Svendsen, Svend


    to achieve high efficiency of the ULTDH system, the return temperature should be as low as possible. For the energy-efficient buildings in the future, it is feasible to use ULTDH to cover the space heating demand. However, considering the comfort and hygiene requirements of domestic hot water (DHW...

  3. Temperature measurement by IR camera of heated device to high temperature during a short time (United States)

    Sonneck-Museux, Nathanaëlle; Vergé, Philippe; Judic, Jean-Pierre; Edard, Pierrick


    A device allowing heating a liquid to high temperatures during a very short time has been conceived in our laboratory. The goal of this survey is to find the suitable experimental configurations, so that tested material affected by the temperatures coved between 200 and 750°C. This study is achieved to the Solar Furnace of the DGA in Odeillo. The cavity containing the liquid is a thermocouple sleeve (capillary) in Inconel 600. Its extremity is closed tightly by a removable steel plug permitting the tightness after replenishment. An electromagnet associated to a generator of delay permit to make fall the whole after the solar irradiation in liquid nitrogen in order to stop the reaction of "deterioration" of the tested product. According to capillary dimensions and to heating time, the temperature measurement using a pyrometer is not possible. A second possibility is using thermocouple, but it is not easy to join this captor on Inconel 600. Using by infrared camera allows observing the presence or the absence of inflammation during the solar irradiation and the sleeve fall too. The measures of temperatures by thermocouple show a lot of variability. The measures comparison with those by infrared camera shows a phenomenon of "heat well". Several score of tests to the solar furnace have been achieved in different experimental configurations. Nine experimental configurations have been validated, for variable flux of 100 to 500W/cm². The observation by infrared camera permitted to validate the conceived system and to verify the homogeneity of the sleeve heated.

  4. Definition of temperature thresholds: the example of the French heat wave warning system (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Wagner, Vérène; Le Tertre, Alain; Laaidi, Karine; Honoré, Cyrille; Bénichou, Françoise; Beaudeau, Pascal


    Heat-related deaths should be somewhat preventable. In France, some prevention measures are activated when minimum and maximum temperatures averaged over three days reach city-specific thresholds. The current thresholds were computed based on a descriptive analysis of past heat waves and on local expert judgement. We tested whether a different method would confirm these thresholds. The study was set in the six cities of Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Nantes, Strasbourg and Limoges between 1973 and 2003. For each city, we estimated the excess in mortality associated with different temperature thresholds, using a generalised additive model, controlling for long-time trends, seasons and days of the week. These models were used to compute the mortality predicted by different percentiles of temperatures. The thresholds were chosen as the percentiles associated with a significant excess mortality. In all cities, there was a good correlation between current thresholds and the thresholds derived from the models, with 0°C to 3°C differences for averaged maximum temperatures. Both set of thresholds were able to anticipate the main periods of excess mortality during the summers of 1973 to 2003. A simple method relying on descriptive analysis and expert judgement is sufficient to define protective temperature thresholds and to prevent heat wave mortality. As temperatures are increasing along with the climate change and adaptation is ongoing, more research is required to understand if and when thresholds should be modified.

  5. Analysis of frozen startup of high-temperature heat pipes and three-dimensional modeling of block-heated heat pipes (United States)

    Faghri, Amir


    The use of high-temperature heat pipes has been proposed for cooling the leading edges and nose cones of re-entry vehicles, rail guns, and laser mirrors, as well as for the thermal management of future hypersonic vehicle structures. The startup behavior of high temperature heat pipes from the frozen state was investigated both numerically and experimentally for various heat loads and input locations. A high temperature sodium/stainless steel heat pipe with multiple heat sources and sinks was fabricated, processed, and tested. A numerical simulation of the transient heat pipe performance including the vapor region, wick structure, and the heat pipe wall is given. Furthermore, experimental and numerical analyses of several operating parameters of a low-temperature copper-water heat pipe under uniform circumferential heating and block heating has been performed. Finally, a numerical analysis of transient heat pipe performance including nonconventional heat pipes with nonuniform heat distributions is presented. Numerical calculations were then made for a leading edge heat pipe with localized high heat fluxes.

  6. In the Heat of the Moment: Biomarkers as a Tool to Measure Coseismic Temperature Rise (United States)

    Coffey, G. L.; Savage, H. M.; Polissar, P. J.; Carpenter, B. M.; Collettini, C.


    During earthquake slip, frictional resistance within a fault can lead to the generation of extremely high temperatures. As a consequence, investigating temperature rise within fault zones provides a promising mechanism for the detection of past large earthquakes. Evidence of frictional heating is often sparse, but a variety of techniques have been successfully applied to identify past heating events, these include vitrinite reflectance, pseudotachylytes, and fission track thermochronology. Here we explore the use of biomarkers as an alternative approach to identification and quantification of temperature rise in faults and apply it to different faults. Biomarkers offer significant advantages as a tool to measure temperature rise as they are abundant in the rock record, undergo systematic structural changes as they are heated, and are stable over a range of different time-temperature windows. Specifically, we are interested in methylphenanthrenes, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is formed during the diagenesis of organic material. As temperature increases we see that the abundance of thermally stable methylphenanthrene isomers also increases, while the abundance of thermally unstable isomers decreases. Thermal maturity is quantified using the modified methylphenanthrene index (MPI-3), which increases with increasing maturity and is dependent both on the temperature and duration of heating. We present preliminary results from the Muddy Mountain thrust in Nevada and the Spoleto and Monte Maggio faults in the Northern Apennines of Italy, locations which demonstrate clear fault zone architecture with well-defined principal slip zones (PSZs). High-resolution sampling of these locations was completed to construct temperature profiles across the fault zone and gain an understanding of how small-scale complexity may influence earthquake rupture.

  7. Heat flux measurements of Tb{sub 3}M series (M=Co, Rh and Ru): Specific heat and magnetocaloric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, J.C.B., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Lombardi, G.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Reis, R.D. dos [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Freitas, H.E.; Cardoso, L.P.; Mansanares, A.M.; Gandra, F.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil)


    We report on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the Tb{sub 3}M series, with M=Co, Rh and Ru, obtained using a heat flux technique. The specific heat of Tb{sub 3}Co and Tb{sub 3}Rh are very similar, with a first order type transition occurring around 6 K below the magnetic ordering temperature without any corresponding feature on the magnetization. The slightly enhanced electronic specific heat, the Debye temperature around 150 K and the presence of the magnetic specific heat well above the ordering temperature are also characteristic of many other compounds of the R{sub 3}M family (R=Rare Earth). The specific heat for Tb{sub 3}Ru, however, presents two peaks at 37 K and 74 K. The magnetization shows that below the first peak the system presents an antiferromagnetic behavior and is paramagnetic above 74 K. We obtained a magnetocaloric effect for M=Co and Rh, −∆S=12 J/kg K, but for Tb{sub 3}Ru it is less than 3 J/kg K (μ{sub 0}∆H=5 T). We believe that the experimental results show that the MCE is directly related with the process of hybridization of the (R)5d-(M)d electrons that occurs in the R{sub 3}M materials.

  8. Heat-conduction error of temperature sensors in a fluid flow with nonuniform and unsteady temperature distribution. (United States)

    Khine, Soe Minn; Houra, Tomoya; Tagawa, Masato


    In temperature measurement of non-isothermal fluid flows by a contact-type temperature sensor, heat conduction along the sensor body can cause significant measurement error which is called "heat-conduction error." The conventional formula for estimating the heat-conduction error was derived under the condition that the fluid temperature to be measured is uniform. Thus, if we apply the conventional formula to a thermal field with temperature gradient, the heat-conduction error will be underestimated. In the present study, we have newly introduced a universal physical model of a temperature-measurement system to estimate accurately the heat-conduction error even if a temperature gradient exists in non-isothermal fluid flows. Accordingly, we have been able to successfully derive a widely applicable estimation and/or evaluation formula of the heat-conduction error. Then, we have verified experimentally the effectiveness of the proposed formula using the two non-isothermal fields-a wake flow formed behind a heated cylinder and a candle flame-whose fluid-dynamical characteristics should be quite different. As a result, it is confirmed that the proposed formula can represent accurately the experimental behaviors of the heat-conduction error which cannot be explained appropriately by the existing formula. In addition, we have analyzed theoretically the effects of the heat-conduction error on the fluctuating temperature measurement of a non-isothermal unsteady fluid flow to derive the frequency response of the temperature sensor to be used. The analysis result shows that the heat-conduction error in temperature-fluctuation measurement appears only in a low-frequency range. Therefore, if the power-spectrum distribution of temperature fluctuations to be measured is sufficiently away from the low-frequency range, the heat-conduction error has virtually no effect on the temperature-fluctuation measurements even by the temperature sensor accompanying the heat-conduction error in

  9. Towards a Future of District Heating Systems with Low-Temperature Operation together with Non-Fossil Fuel Heat Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dinçer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend


    This study focused on investigation of non-fossil fuel heat sources to be supplied to low-energy district heating systems operating in low temperature such as 55 C and 25 C in terms of, respectively, supply and return. Vast variety of heat sources classed in categories such as fossil fuel...

  10. Effect of the rate of temperature increase on water quality during heating in electromagnetic- and gas-heated pans. (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Ken


    More rapid increases in the pH value and hardness during electromagnetic heating of a pan of water were observed than when the pan was heated by LNG or LPG. The water quality changed universally in several tap water samples across Japan. This quality change was closely correlated with the rate of temperature increase, irrespective of heating by electromagnetic induction, LNG or LPG.

  11. The specific heat of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Larrea, I. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Lopez-Echarri, A. [Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail:; Bocanegra, E.H. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); No, M.L. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); San Juan, J.M. [Dpto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)


    The specific heat of Cu{sub 81.8}Al{sub 13.7}Ni{sub 4.5} (AK10) shape memory alloy has been studied by means of conventional DSC and adiabatic calorimetry techniques. The transformation temperatures and the shape of the calorimetric curves obtained by adiabatic calorimetry do not show any noticeable dependence on the temperature measurement rates, contrarily to what is observed by other calorimetric techniques. The dynamical character of the various experimental methods together with the influence of the latent heat associated to the first order character of these phase transitions are discussed. The specific heat of AK10 has been measured from 50 to 350 K which covers the phase transformation temperature range. The forward and reverse martensitic transformation peaks were found at 299.5 and 304.6 K, showing a thermal hysteresis of 5.1 deg. C. The C {sub p} accuracy can be estimated in 0.1% of C {sub p} and permits a reliable assignment of the following values to the phase transition thermodynamic functions: {delta}H = 7.4 {+-} 0.2 J/g and {delta}S = 0.025 {+-} 0.001 J/gK.

  12. Stage-specific heat effects: timing and duration of heat waves alter demographic rates of a global insect pest. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rudolf, Volker H W; Ma, Chun-Sen


    The frequency and duration of periods with high temperatures are expected to increase under global warming. Thus, even short-lived organisms are increasingly likely to experience periods of hot temperatures at some point of their life-cycle. Despite recent progress, it remains unclear how various temperature experiences during the life-cycle of organisms affect demographic traits. We simulated hot days (daily mean temperature of 30 °C) increasingly experienced under field conditions and investigated how the timing and duration of such hot days during the life cycle of Plutella xylostella affects adult traits. We show that hot days experienced during some life stages (but not all) altered adult lifespan, fecundity, and oviposition patterns. Importantly, the effects of hot days were contingent on which stage was affected, and these stage-specific effects were not always additive. Thus, adults that experience different temporal patterns of hot periods (i.e., changes in timing and duration) during their life-cycle often had different demographic rates and reproductive patterns. These results indicate that we cannot predict the effects of current and future climate on natural populations by simply focusing on changes in the mean temperature. Instead, we need to incorporate the temporal patterns of heat events relative to the life-cycle of organisms to describe population dynamics and how they will respond to future climate change.

  13. Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams (United States)

    Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.; Constantz, J.


    Commonly measured water quality parameters were compared to heat as tracers of stream water exchange with ground water. Temperature, specific conductance, and chloride were sampled at various frequencies in the stream and adjacent wells over a 2-year period. Strong seasonal variations in stream water were observed for temperature and specific conductance. In observation wells where the temperature response correlated to stream water, chloride and specific conductance values were similar to stream water values as well, indicating significant stream water exchange with ground water. At sites where ground water temperature fluctuations were negligible, chloride and/or specific conductance values did not correlate to stream water values, indicating that ground water was not significantly influenced by exchange with stream water. Best-fit simulation modeling was performed at two sites to derive temperature-based estimates of hydraulic conductivities of the alluvial sediments between the stream and wells. These estimates were used in solute transport simulations for a comparison of measured and simulated values for chloride and specific conductance. Simulation results showed that hydraulic conductivities vary seasonally and annually. This variability was a result of seasonal changes in temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity and scouring or clogging of the streambed. Specific conductance fits were good, while chloride data were difficult to fit due to the infrequent (quarterly) stream water chloride measurements during the study period. Combined analyses of temperature, chloride, and specific conductance led to improved quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of stream water exchange with shallow ground water in an alluvial system. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  14. Low temperature heat capacity of lutetium and lutetium hydrogen alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome, David Keith [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The heat capacity of high purity electrotransport refined lutetium was measured between 1 and 20°K. Results for thetaD were in excellent agreement with theta values determined from elastic constant measurements. The heat capacity of a series of lutetium-hydrogen solid solution alloys was determined and results showed an increase in γ to about 11.3 mJ/g-atom-K2 for hydrogen content increasing from zero to about one atomic percent. Above one percent hydrogen γ decreased with increasing hydrogen contents. The C/T data showed an increase with temperature decreasing below about 2.5°K for samples with 0.1 to 1.5 atomic percent hydrogen. This accounts for a large amount of scatter in thetaD versus hydrogen content in this range. The heat capacity of a bulk sample of lutetium dihydride was measured between 1 and 20°K and showed a large increase in thetaD and a large decrease in ..gamma.. compared to pure lutetium.

  15. Containment for the low temperature district nuclear-heating reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Shuyan (Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)); Dong Duo (Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China))


    An integral arrangement is adopted for the Low Temperature District Nuclear-Heating Reactor. The primary heat exchangers, control rod drives and spent fuel elements are put in the reactor pressure vessel together with the reactor core. The primary coolant flows in natural circulation through the reactor core and the primary heat exchangers. The primary coolant pipes penetrating the wall of the reactor pressure vessel are all of small diameters. The reactor vessel constitutes the main part of the pressure boundary of the primary coolant. Therefore a small sized metallic containment closed to the wall of the reactor vessel can be used for the reactor. Design principles and functions of the containment are the same as for the containment of a PWR. But the adoption of a small sized containment brings about some benefits such as a short period of manufacturing, relatively low cost, and ease for sealing. A loss of primary coolant accident would not be happening during a rupture accident of the primary coolant pressure boundary inside the containment owing to its intrinsic safety. (orig.).

  16. Proposition of updating the method used in calculating the heat demand based on a new concept of design outdoor temperature and of building – soil boundary heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The dimensioning of the heating systems equipping new and existing buildings, in the case of their energy-related upgrading is an extremely important activity in the context of reaching the targets of the European Directive 31 /2010 / UE concerning the Buildings Energy Performance (PEC. The accurate determination, phenomenological based, of the buildings thermal response leads to determining the climatic parameters representative for the climatic zones and for the buildings structure.Unlike the EN 12831: 2003 European Regulation, the design outdoor temperature in the conditions of Romania’s various zones was determined by the identification of the thermal response specific to the transient conditions of the heat transfer through the composite structures of the opaque and glazing closing components with the thermal response in idealized, steadystate conditions; thus, the design outdoor temperature was determined, which is conditioned by an acceptable discomfort during the coldest pentads of a 48 years climatic statistics (1961-2008. The climatic parameter which generates the modeling similitude is the virtual outdoor temperature which allows the use of the steady-state conditions mathematical formalism in issues of heat transfer in transient conditions. A dependency relation between the design indoor temperature, identical to the resulting indoor temperature (different from the operational temperature and the air volume average temperature is emphasized.Special attention is given to the heat transfer at the building-soil boundary, in the form of various practical solutions (buildings the basement of which is not directly heated, equipped or not with heating systems, directly heated and occupied, as well as buildings on plinths; in all the cases, the solutions approached are specific to the envelope which is or not thermally insulated.

  17. Metamagnetic-like anomalies in f-electron systems investigated by specific heat measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yuji; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Sugawara, Hitoshi [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Andreev, A.V.; Sechovsky, V.; Havela, L.; Settai, Rikio; Onuki, Yoshichika


    We report the results on the specific heat (C) and magnetocaloric effect measurements in 4f- and 5f-compounds exhibiting metamagnetic-like anomaly (MLA) at field (H) around H{sub M} from the paramagnetic ground state. The MLA in Ce-compounds (CeRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CeCu{sub 6}) and UCoAl have both close resemblance and apparent difference; the first order character has been confirmed for UCoAl but not for the Ce compounds. For the Ce compounds, a single peak C(H)/T at H{sub M} at lowest temperature splits into double peaks at finite temperatures. For UCoAl, a step-like decreases of C(H)/T across H{sub M} at lowest temperature changes to a peak structure around HM at higher temperatures. (author)

  18. Sex specific effects of heat induced hormesis in Hsf-deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J G; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kristensen, K V


    In insects mild heat stress early in life has been reported to increase life span and heat resistance later in life, a phenomenon termed hormesis. Here, we test if the induction of the heat shock response by mild heat stress is mediating hormesis in longevity and heat resistance at older age....... To test this hypothesis we used two heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) mutant stocks. One stock harbours a mutation giving rise to a heat sensitive Hsf which inactivates the heat shock response at high temperature and the other is a rescued mutant giving rise to a wild-type phenotype. We measured...... longevity, heat resistance and expression level of a heat shock protein, Hsp70, in controls and mildly heat treated flies. We found a marked difference between males and females with males showing a beneficial effect of the early heat treatment on longevity and heat resistance later in life in the rescued...

  19. Diamond thin film temperature and heat-flux sensors (United States)

    Aslam, M.; Yang, G. S.; Masood, A.; Fredricks, R.


    Diamond film temperature and heat-flux sensors are developed using a technology compatible with silicon integrated circuit processing. The technology involves diamond nucleation, patterning, doping, and metallization. Multi-sensor test chips were designed and fabricated to study the thermistor behavior. The minimum feature size (device width) for 1st and 2nd generation chips are 160 and 5 micron, respectively. The p-type diamond thermistors on the 1st generation test chip show temperature and response time ranges of 80-1270 K and 0.29-25 microseconds, respectively. An array of diamond thermistors, acting as heat flux sensors, was successfully fabricated on an oxidized Si rod with a diameter of 1 cm. Some problems were encountered in the patterning of the Pt/Ti ohmic contacts on the rod, due mainly to the surface roughness of the diamond film. The use of thermistors with a minimum width of 5 micron (to improve the spatial resolution of measurement) resulted in lithographic problems related to surface roughness of diamond films. We improved the mean surface roughness from 124 nm to 30 nm by using an ultra high nucleation density of 10(exp 11)/sq cm. To deposit thermistors with such small dimensions on a curved surface, a new 3-D diamond patterning technique is currently under development. This involves writing a diamond seed pattern directly on the curved surface by a computer-controlled nozzle.

  20. Students’ Conception on Heat and Temperature toward Science Process Skill (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Sukarmin, S.; Suparmi, S.; Aminah, N. S.


    This research is aimed to analyze the effect of students’ conception toward science process skill. This is a descriptive research with subjects of the research were 10th-grade students in Surakarta from high, medium and low categorized school. The sample selection uses purposive sampling technique based on physics score in national examination four latest years. Data in this research collecting from essay test, two-tier multiple choice test, and interview. Two-tier multiple choice test consists of 30 question that contains an indicator of science process skill. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it shows that students’ conception of heat and temperature affect science process skill of students. The students’ conception that still contains the wrong concept can emerge misconception. For the future research, it is suggested to improve students’ conceptual understanding and students’ science process skill with appropriate learning method and assessment instrument because heat and temperature is one of physics material that closely related with students’ daily life.

  1. Temperature-dependent transformation thermotics for unsteady states: Switchable concentrator for transient heat flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying, E-mail: [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, Xiangying, E-mail: [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, Jiping, E-mail: [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ni, Yushan, E-mail: [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    For manipulating heat flow efficiently, recently we established a theory of temperature-dependent transformation thermotics which holds for steady-state cases. Here, we develop the theory to unsteady-state cases by considering the generalized Fourier's law for transient thermal conduction. As a result, we are allowed to propose a new class of intelligent thermal metamaterial — switchable concentrator, which is made of inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. When environmental temperature is below or above a critical value, the concentrator is automatically switched on, namely, it helps to focus heat flux in a specific region. However, the focusing does not affect the distribution pattern of temperature outside the concentrator. We also perform finite-element simulations to confirm the switching effect according to the effective medium theory by assembling homogeneous isotropic materials, which bring more convenience for experimental fabrication than inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. This work may help to figure out new intelligent thermal devices, which provide more flexibility in controlling heat flow, and it may also be useful in other fields that are sensitive to temperature gradient, such as the Seebeck effect. - Highlights: • Established the unsteady-state temperature dependent transformation thermotics. • A thermal concentrator with switchable functionality. • An effective-medium design for experimental realization.

  2. Experimental Study of the Performance of Air Source Heat Pump Systems Assisted by Low-Temperature Solar-Heated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Wu


    Full Text Available Due to the low temperatures, the heating efficiency of air source heat pump systems during the winter is very low. To address this problem, a low-temperature solar hot water system was added to a basic air source heat pump system. Several parameters were tested and analyzed. The heat collection efficiency of the solar collector was analyzed under low-temperature conditions. The factors that affect the performance of the heat pumps, such as the fluid temperature, pressure, and energy savings, were analyzed for cases where the solar energy auxiliary heat pump and the air source heat pump are used independently. The optimal heating temperature and the changes in the fluid temperature were determined. The influence of the compression ratio and the coefficient of performance (COP were investigated theoretically. The results revealed the parameters that are important to the performance of the system. Several measures for improving the COP of the heat pump units are provided for other applications and future research.

  3. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Bogdanović


    Full Text Available For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  4. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P


    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  5. Specific heat of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 4 O sub 8 near T sub c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, J.O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Tomeno, Izumi; Miyatake, Takayuki; Itoh, Takao; Tai, Keishi; Koshizuka, Naoki; Tanaka, Shoji (International Superconductivity Tech. Center, Tokyo (Japan). Superconductivity Research Lab.)


    Specific heat measurements are reported for a polycrystalline, bulk sample of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} prepared at high oxygen pressure. The magnitude of the idealized specific heat jump {triangle}C{sub p}/T at {Tc} (= 80 {plus minus} 0.5K) is 15.5 {plus minus} 2 mJ/K{sup 2}-mole. The transition width {triangle} {Tc} is about 3K. The size of the jump is greatly reduced compared to YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The normal state magnetic susceptibility is somewhat smaller than in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and is temperature dependent. The results suggest a smaller electronic density of states for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Water-filled heat pipe useful at moderate temperatures (United States)

    Mc Kinney, B. G.


    Heat pipe is used in the primary heat exchanger for nuclear power plants, as a heat sink for high-power electronic devices, and in a closed-cycle heat rejection mechanism for cryogenic storage tanks. It serves simultaneously as a heat transfer device and as a structural member.

  7. Temperature and Heat Flow Rate Calibration of a Calvet Calorimeter from 0 {°}C to 190 {°}C (United States)

    Kim, Daeho; Lee, Joohyun; Kwon, Suyong


    This study describes the temperature and heat flow rate calibrations of a Calvet calorimeter (SETARAM, BT2.15) in the temperature range of 0-190 {°}C. Temperature calibration is carried out using three reference materials, namely water, gallium, and indium, as specified in the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The sample temperature of the Calvet calorimeter is corrected by the obtained mean value, -0.489 {°}C, of the measured extrapolated peak onset temperature (Te) when the heating rate (β) is zero (Δ T_corr (β = 0)). The heat flow rate is calibrated using a reference material with a known heat capacity, namely SRM 720 α -Al2O3 (synthetic sapphire), which is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. From the heat flow rate measurements of the blank baseline and SRM 720, the proportional calibration factor, K_{Φ }, in the 0-190 {°}C temperature range was determined. The specific heat capacity of copper was measured with the obtained calibration values, and the measured data show consistency with the reference value.

  8. Heat flow evolution of the Earth from paleomantle temperatures: Evidence for increasing heat loss since ∼2.5 Ga (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier


    Earth currently loses two to five times as much heat through its surface as it is internally produced by radioactivity. This proportion cannot be extrapolated into the past, because it would imply high interior temperatures and catastrophic melting of the planet in ancient times. The heat loss evolution of the Earth cannot therefore be described by a constant heat flow decreasing. This is consistent with previous work finding that the mantle heated up until ∼2.5-3.0 Ga and then progressively cooled down. The present work derives a first-order heat loss evolution of the Earth by comparing the evolution of the total heat content of the silicate Earth (as described by mantle potential temperatures deduced from the melting conditions of ancient non-arc basalts) with the total radioactive heat production. The results show that the heat flow was declining, and the mantle heating-up, until ∼2.5 Ga, but that after this time the heat flow has been slowly (but constantly) increasing, and the mantle cooling-down, until the present-day. The change in heat loss trend is roughly coeval with other major geological, geochemical and environmental changes, and could indicate the starting of the modern-style of plate tectonics. This work provides therefore the first quantitative evidence of change in terrestrial heat loss regime, and suggests that substantial variations in the internal heat budget occurred during Earth's history.

  9. High temperature heat recovery systems; Les recuperateurs de chaleur a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.


    A state-of-the-art of high temperature heat recovery systems has been made to highlight the advantages of recovery in different energy cycles, and to compare the different geometries, materials and fabrication processes used by the different manufacturers. This leads to define the criteria that a heat recovery system must satisfy in gas turbine cogeneration applications. The pre-dimensioning of a recovery system has been performed in order to compare different geometries and to evaluate them with respect to the criteria defined in the bibliographic study. Finally, the new configuration of the 'Claire' loop has permitted to experimentally characterize a recovery system with an innovative technology based on an helical geometry. These tests have permitted to obtain the global data of the recovery system (efficiency, pressure drop, global exchange coefficient, friction coefficient, velocity and temperature profiles) and to position it with respect to the criteria defined in the bibliographic study. (J.S.)

  10. Monte Carlo method for photon heating using temperature-dependent optical properties. (United States)

    Slade, Adam Broadbent; Aguilar, Guillermo


    The Monte Carlo method for photon transport is often used to predict the volumetric heating that an optical source will induce inside a tissue or material. This method relies on constant (with respect to temperature) optical properties, specifically the coefficients of scattering and absorption. In reality, optical coefficients are typically temperature-dependent, leading to error in simulation results. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that can incorporate variable properties and accurately simulate systems where the temperature will greatly vary, such as in the case of laser-thawing of frozen tissues. A numerical simulation was developed that utilizes the Monte Carlo method for photon transport to simulate the thermal response of a system that allows temperature-dependent optical and thermal properties. This was done by combining traditional Monte Carlo photon transport with a heat transfer simulation to provide a feedback loop that selects local properties based on current temperatures, for each moment in time. Additionally, photon steps are segmented to accurately obtain path lengths within a homogenous (but not isothermal) material. Validation of the simulation was done using comparisons to established Monte Carlo simulations using constant properties, and a comparison to the Beer-Lambert law for temperature-variable properties. The simulation is able to accurately predict the thermal response of a system whose properties can vary with temperature. The difference in results between variable-property and constant property methods for the representative system of laser-heated silicon can become larger than 100K. This simulation will return more accurate results of optical irradiation absorption in a material which undergoes a large change in temperature. This increased accuracy in simulated results leads to better thermal predictions in living tissues and can provide enhanced planning and improved experimental and procedural outcomes. Copyright

  11. Prevalence of Temperature Dependent Heat Capacity Changes in Protein-DNA Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.-C.; Richard, A.J.; Kausiki, D.; LiCata, V.J.


    A large, negative {Delta}Cp of DNA binding is a thermodynamic property of the majority of sequence-specific DNA-protein interactions, and a common, but not universal property of non-sequence-specific DNA binding. In a recent study of the binding of Taq polymerase to DNA, we showed that both the full-length polymerase and its 'Klentaq' large fragment bind to primed-template DNA with significant negative heat capacities. Herein, we have extended this analysis by analyzing this data for temperature-variable heat capacity effects ({Delta}{Delta}Cp), and have similarly analyzed an additional 47 protein-DNA binding pairs from the scientific literature. Over half of the systems examined can be easily fit to a function that includes a {Delta}{Delta}Cp parameter. Of these, 90% display negative {Delta}{Delta}Cp values, with the result that the {Delta}Cp of DNA binding will become more negative with rising temperature. The results of this collective analysis have potentially significant consequences for current quantitative theories relating {Delta}Cp values to changes in accessible surface area, which rely on the assumption of temperature invariance of the {Delta}Cp of binding. Solution structural data for Klentaq polymerase demonstrate that the observed heat capacity effects are not the result of a coupled folding event.

  12. Heat pump air conditioning system for pure electric vehicle at ultra-low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-Jun


    Full Text Available When the ordinary heat pump air conditioning system of a pure electric vehicle runs at ultra-low temperature, the discharge temperature of compressor will be too high and the heating capacity of the system will decay seriously, it will lead to inactivity of the heating system. In order to solve this problem, a modification is put forward, and an experiment is also designed. The experimental results show that in the same conditions, this new heating system increases more than 20% of the heating capacity; when the outside environment temperature is negative 20 degrees, the discharge temperature of compressor is below 60 degrees.

  13. Anomalous dependence of the heat capacity of supercooled water on pressure and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Stepanov


    Full Text Available In some papers, dependences of the isobaric heat capacity of water versus pressure and temperature were obtained. It is shown that these dependences contradict both the dependence of heat capacity on temperature for supercooled water, and an important thermodynamic equation for the dependence of heat capacity on pressure. A possible explanation for this contradiction is proposed.

  14. Toronto’s Urban Heat Island—Exploring the Relationship between Land Use and Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Hussain


    Full Text Available The urban heat island effect is linked to the built environment and threatens human health during extreme heat events. In this study, we analyzed whether characteristic land uses within an urban area are associated with higher or lower surface temperatures, and whether concentrations of “hot” land uses exacerbate this relationship. Zonal statistics on a thermal remote sensing image for the City of Toronto revealed statistically significant differences between high average temperatures for commercial and resource/industrial land use (29.1 °C, and low average temperatures for parks and recreational land (25.1 °C and water bodies (23.1 °C. Furthermore, higher concentrations of either of these land uses were associated with more extreme surface temperatures. We also present selected neighborhoods to illustrate these results. The paper concludes by recommending that municipal planners and decision-makers formulate policies and regulations that are specific to the problematic land uses, in order to mitigate extreme heat.

  15. High Performance Cascading Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle with Internal Heat Recovery Driven by a Low Grade Heat Source Temperature


    Yuki Ueda; Atsushi Akisawa; Aep Saepul Uyun; Takahiko Miyazaki


    This paper presents the performance of an advanced cascading adsorption cycle that utilizes a driven heat source temperature between 90–130 ºC. The cycle consists of four beds that contain silica gel as an adsorber fill. Two of the beds work in a single stage cycle that is driven by an external heat source, while the other two beds work in a mass recovery cycle that is driven by waste heat of sensible and adsorption heat of the high temperature cycle. The performances, in terms of the coeffic...

  16. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is proposed for a Portable Life Support System to remove and reject heat and carbon dioxide...

  17. Heat Transport in Interacting Magnetized Electron Temperature Filaments (United States)

    Sydora, Richard; Karbashewski, Scott; van Compernolle, Bart; Poulos, Matt; Morales, George


    Results are presented from basic heat transport experiments and numerical simulations of multiple magnetized electron temperature filaments in close proximity. This arrangement samples cross-field transport from nonlinear drift-Alfven waves and large scale convective cells. Experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The setup consists of three biased CeB6 crystal cathodes that inject low energy electrons (below ionization energy) along a strong magnetic field into a pre-existing large and cold plasma forming 3 electron temperature filaments embedded in a colder plasma, and far from the machine walls. A triangular spatial pattern is chosen for the thermal sources and multiple axial and transverse probe measurements allow for determination of the cross-field mode patterns and axial filament length. We have characterized the spontaneous thermal waves and drift-Alfven waves that develop on an individual filament when a single source is activated. When the 3 sources are activated, and in close proximity, a complex wave pattern emerges due to interference of the various wave modes leading to enhanced cross-field transport and chaotic mixing. Steep thermal gradients develop in a periphery region of the filaments where higher azimuthal wavenumber drift-Alfven modes are excited. Detailed spectral analysis and comparison with nonlinear fluid and gyrokinetic simulations will be reported. Work Supported by NSERC, Canada and NSF-DOE, USA.

  18. Improving thermal performance of an existing UK district heat network: a case for temperature optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunzi, Michele; Boukhanouf, Rabah; Li, Hongwei


    This paper presents results of a research study into improving energy performance of small-scale district heat network through water supply and return temperature optimization technique. The case study involves establishing the baseline heat demand of the estate’s buildings, benchmarking...... the existing heat network operating parameters, and defining the optimum supply and return temperature. A stepwise temperature optimization technique of plate radiators heat emitters was applied to control the buildings indoor thermal comfort using night set back temperature strategy of 21/18 °C....... It was established that the heat network return temperature could be lowered from the current measured average of 55 °C to 35.6 °C, resulting in overall reduction of heat distribution losses and fuel consumption of 10% and 9% respectively. Hence, the study demonstrates the potential of operating existing heat...

  19. A GPU Heterogeneous Cluster Scheduling Model for Preventing Temperature Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yun-Peng


    Full Text Available With the development of GPU general-purpose computing, GPU heterogeneous cluster has become a widely used parallel data processing solution in modern data center. Temperature management and controlling has become a new research hotspot in big data continuous computing. Temperature heat island in cluster has important influence on computing reliability and energy efficiency. In order to prevent the occurrence of GPU cluster temperature heat island, a big data task scheduling model for preventing temperature heat island was proposed. In this model, temperature, reliability and computing performance are taken into account to reduce node performance difference and improve throughput per unit time in cluster. Temperature heat islands caused by slow nodes are prevented by optimizing scheduling. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can control node temperature and prevent the occurrence of temperature heat island under the premise of guaranteeing computing performance and reliability.

  20. Industrial heat pumps for high temperatures - a pilot project; Industrielle varmepumper for hoeje temperaturer - et forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Weel, M.; Mikkelsen, J. [Weel and Sandvig, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


    This project investigates the possibility of using mass produced and inexpensive turbo compressor technology for heat pumping in the industry. The compressors are designed for the compression of air and used by the automotive industry in connection with turbo-chargers. The heat pumps are primarily intended to use water as the working medium, which in addition to having no environmental loads, is suitable for the heat pumping at temperatures above about 60 deg. C and up to about 200 deg. C, a temperature level which is considerably higher than what has previously been observed covered with heat pumping. In this project, a Danish-produced high-speed gear (Rotrex) is used, which has just been developed to said compressor technology. In cooperation with Rotrex, the modifications relevant to a standard unit were analyzed and assessed. The project identified some areas of industry where heat pumping using this technology is considered to be attractive. A pilot plant operating with steam in a total of 12 hours is demonstrated. In more than 3 hours, the pilot plant was coupled so that it delivered useful heat supply to the evaporator. The plant has during the tests worked satisfactorily, and there is no evidence of problems with leaks in the compressor shaft sealings, neither in relation to the leakage of oil or steam, which was one of the central issues to clarify with the demonstration. In the limited testing period no problems were detected that could not be immediately resolved, i.e. the transmission in the form of a belt drive with high speed from the engine to the friction gear. In the determination of the performance of the compressor during the trial operation with steam as a working medium, it is shown that the conversion efficiency are within the expected range when taking into account the uncertainties in the measurements and the calculation method. In the experiment, no measurement of steam flow through the compressor was made, because of a greatly reduced

  1. Anomalous Schottky Specific Heat and Structural Distortion in Ferromagnetic PrAl2 (United States)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, D.; Mudryk, Y.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V. K.


    Unique from other rare earth dialuminides, PrAl2 undergoes a cubic to tetragonal distortion below T=30K in a zero magnetic field, but the system recovers its cubic symmetry upon the application of an external magnetic field of 10 kOe via a lifting of the 4f crystal field splitting. The nuclear Schottky specific heat in PrAl2 is anomalously high compared to that of pure Pr metal. First principles calculations reveal that the 4f crystal field splitting in the tetragonally distorted phase of PrAl2 underpins the observed unusual low temperature phenomena.

  2. Temperature dependence of electronic heat capacity in Holstein model of DNA (United States)

    Fialko, N.; Sobolev, E.; Lakhno, V.


    The dynamics of charge migration was modeled to calculate temperature dependencies of its thermodynamic equilibrium values such as energy and electronic heat capacity in homogeneous adenine fragments. The energy varies from nearly polaron one at T ∼ 0 to midpoint of the conductivity band at high temperatures. The peak on the graph of electronic heat capacity is observed at the polaron decay temperature.

  3. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature


    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran


    In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  4. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran


    Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  5. An Empirical Temperature Variance Source Model in Heated Jets (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James


    An acoustic analogy approach is implemented that models the sources of jet noise in heated jets. The equivalent sources of turbulent mixing noise are recognized as the differences between the fluctuating and Favre-averaged Reynolds stresses and enthalpy fluxes. While in a conventional acoustic analogy only Reynolds stress components are scrutinized for their noise generation properties, it is now accepted that a comprehensive source model should include the additional entropy source term. Following Goldstein s generalized acoustic analogy, the set of Euler equations are divided into two sets of equations that govern a non-radiating base flow plus its residual components. When the base flow is considered as a locally parallel mean flow, the residual equations may be rearranged to form an inhomogeneous third-order wave equation. A general solution is written subsequently using a Green s function method while all non-linear terms are treated as the equivalent sources of aerodynamic sound and are modeled accordingly. In a previous study, a specialized Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver was implemented to compute the variance of thermal fluctuations that determine the enthalpy flux source strength. The main objective here is to present an empirical model capable of providing a reasonable estimate of the stagnation temperature variance in a jet. Such a model is parameterized as a function of the mean stagnation temperature gradient in the jet, and is evaluated using commonly available RANS solvers. The ensuing thermal source distribution is compared with measurements as well as computational result from a dedicated RANS solver that employs an enthalpy variance and dissipation rate model. Turbulent mixing noise predictions are presented for a wide range of jet temperature ratios from 1.0 to 3.20.

  6. Local temperature measurement in the vicinity of electromagnetically heated magnetite and gold nanoparticles (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Kane, Ravi S.; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra


    This paper describes a new technique employing fluorescent quantum dots as temperature probes for measuring the temperature rise in the proximity of nanoparticles heated by a radio frequency (rf) electromagnetic field. The remote heating of nanoparticles by an rf field is a promising approach to control biological transformations at the molecular level. In principle, the heat dissipated by each nanoparticle might produce a temperature increase in its proximity, facilitating a change in the molecules directly attached to it but not in the others. Although this method has been demonstrated to provide control over biological transformations, the proposed mechanism involves producing and maintaining large temperature differences across small distances, in the range of several degrees Celsius across tens of nanometers. Existing theories for heat generation and transfer in rf heated nanoparticle systems cannot account for these gradients. To better understand the limitations of local heating, the temperature in the vicinity of rf heated nanoparticles was measured. Dilute aqueous suspensions of gold and magnetite nanoparticles were remotely heated by an rf field between 600-800 kHz. Two systems were investigated: a control sample consisting of quantum dots mixed with nanoparticles and a solution of quantum dots covalently linked to nanoparticles. The temperature of the fluorescent probes represents the average temperature in the former and the local temperature in the later. For the experimental conditions employed in this study, the measured temperature rise in the vicinity of rf heated nanoparticles were similar to the average or "bulk" temperature, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  7. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR of pacu (17 - 1,050 g at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10 for pacu (2.06 shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1 from body mass (W, kg and water temperature (T, °C, and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  8. Curie Temperature and Microstructural Changes Due to the Heating Treatment of Magnetic Amorphous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondro J.


    Full Text Available Three distinct alloys: Fe86Zr7Nb1Cu1B5, Fe82Zr7Nb2Cu1B8, and Fe81Pt5Zr7Nb1Cu1B5 were characterized both magnetically and structurally. The samples, obtained with spinning roller method as a ribbons 3 mm in width and 20 μm thick, were investigated as-quenched and after each step of a multi steps heating treatment procedure. Each sample was annealed at four steps, fifteen minutes at every temperature, starting from 573K+600K up to +700K depending on type of alloy. Mössbauer spectroscopy data and transmission electron microscope (HRE M pictures confirmed that the as-quenched samples are fully amorphous. This is not changed after the first stages of treatment heating leads to a reduction of free volumes. The heating treatment has a great influence on the magnetic susceptibilities. The treatment up to 600K improves soft magnetic properties: an χ increase was observed, from about 400 to almost 1000 for the samples of alloys without Pt, and from about 200 to 450 at maximum, for the Fe81Pt5Zr7Nb1Cu1B5. Further heating, at more elevated temperatures, leads to magnetic hardening of the samples. Curie temperatures, established from the location of Hopkinson’s maxima on the χ(T curve are in very good agreement with those obtained from the data of specific magnetization, σ(T, measured in a field of 0.75T. As a critical parameter β was chosen to be equal 0.36 for these calculations, it confirmed that the alloys may be considered as ferromagnetic of Heisenberg type. Heating treatment resulted in decreasing of TC. These changes are within a range of several K.

  9. First and Second-Law Efficiency Analysis and ANN Prediction of a Diesel Cycle with Internal Irreversibility, Variable Specific Heats, Heat Loss, and Friction Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi


    Full Text Available The variability of specific heats, internal irreversibility, heat and frictional losses are neglected in air-standard analysis for different internal combustion engine cycles. In this paper, the performance of an air-standard Diesel cycle with considerations of internal irreversibility described by using the compression and expansion efficiencies, variable specific heats, and losses due to heat transfer and friction is investigated by using finite-time thermodynamics. Artificial neural network (ANN is proposed for predicting the thermal efficiency and power output values versus the minimum and the maximum temperatures of the cycle and also the compression ratio. Results show that the first-law efficiency and the output power reach their maximum at a critical compression ratio for specific fixed parameters. The first-law efficiency increases as the heat leakage decreases; however the heat leakage has no direct effect on the output power. The results also show that irreversibilities have depressing effects on the performance of the cycle. Finally, a comparison between the results of the thermodynamic analysis and the ANN prediction shows a maximum difference of 0.181% and 0.194% in estimating the thermal efficiency and the output power. The obtained results in this paper can be useful for evaluating and improving the performance of practical Diesel engines.

  10. Renewable-based low-temperature district heating for existing buildings in various stages of refurbishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Svendsen, Svend


    Denmark is aiming for a fossil-free heating sector for buildings by 2035. Judging by the national heating plan, this will be achieved mainly by a further spread of DH (district heating) based on the renewable heat sources. To make the most cost-effective use of these sources, the DH supply...... and, for 98% of the year, to below 60 °C. However for the temperatures below 60 °C a low-temperature DH substation is required for DHW (domestic hot water) heating. This research shows that renewable sources of heat can be integrated into the DH system without problems and contribute to the fossil...

  11. Energy-effective method for low-temperature deaeration of make-up water on the heating supply system of heat power plants (United States)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Pazushkina, O. V.; Kudryavtseva, E. V.


    The technology for low-temperature deaeration of make-up water of heating supply systems is developed that makes it possible to substantially enhance the energy efficiency of heat power plants (HPPs). As a desorbing agent for deaeration of make-up water of heating supply systems, it is proposed to use not steam or superheated water but a gas supplied to boiler burners. Natural gas supplied to steam boilers of HPPs has very low or often negative temperature after reducing devices. At the same time, it is virtually corrosive gas-free (oxygen and carbon dioxide) and, therefore, can be successfully used as the desorbing agent for water deaeration. These factors make it possible to perform deaeration of make-up water of heating supply systems at relatively low temperatures (10-30°C). Mixing of the cold deaerated make-up water with the return delivery water results in a significant decrease in the temperature the return delivery water before a lower delivery heater of a dual-purpose turbine plant, increase in the power output with the heat consumption, and, consequently, enhancement in the operation efficiency of the HPP. The article presents the calculation of the consumption of gas theoretically required for deaeration and reveals the evaluation of the energy efficiency of the technology for a typical energy unit of thermal power station. The mass transfer efficiency of the deaeration of the make-up water of heating supply systems is estimated for the case of using natural gas as the desorbing agent for which the specific gas consumption required theoretically for deaeration is calculated. It is shown that the consumption of natural gas used as fuel in boilers of HPPs is sufficient for the deaeration of any volumes of the make-up water of heating supply systems. The energy efficiency of the developed technology is evaluated for a typical heat power-generating unit of the HPP with a T-100-12.8 turbine. The calculation showed that the application of the new technology

  12. Calor específico e densidade da polpa de cajá (Spondias lutea L. com diferentes concentrações de sólidos solúveis sob baixas temperaturas Cajá pulp (Spondias lutea L. specific heat and density for different soluble solids concentrations at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. R. M. Cavalcanti Mata


    line, some thermo-physics properties like the specific heat and the density change themselves according to the negative temperatures and the total soluble solids content. Then, it's necessary to know those properties mainly when cryogenic equipments are operated, where the temperatures can be -196 ºC to have the appropriate dimension of machines and equipment. Therefore, in this work, it was determined the cajá pulp density and the specific heat for 4 different levels of total soluble solids (natural of the pulp; 20; 40 and 60% and temperatures from -196 to -18 ºC. The density was obtained by the rate between mass of the pulp and its volume. The volume was determined by the displacement of mass (water and the specific heat was determined by the balance of heating among the mass of the pulp, the mass of the cylinder that contains the pulp and the mass of the ice. The results allow to conclude that: a the cajá pulp density increases in function of the variation of the temperature from -18 to -196 °C, and also as a function of the increase of the total soluble solids content from 9 to 60 °Brix; b the cajá pulp specific heat decreases according to the decrease of the temperature and it increases according to the concentration of total soluble solids.

  13. Experimental study of temperature distribution in rubber material during microwave heating and vulcanization process (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Long; Li, Tao; Liang, Yun; Sun, Bin; Li, Qing-Ling


    Microwave technology has been employed to heat sheet rubber, the optical fiber temperature online monitor and optical fiber temperature sensor have been employed to measure the temperature in sheet rubber. The temperature of sheet rubber increased with increase of heating time during microwave heating process in which the maximum of temperature was vulcanization process in which the maximum of temperature was vulcanization process of sheet rubber, the maximum of rate of temperature rising and the maximum of temperature belong to the central zone of sheet rubber, so the distribution of electric field was uneven in heating chamber, which led to the uneven temperature distribution of sheet rubber. The higher electric field intensity value converges on the central zone of sheet rubber.

  14. Measurement of specific heat and thermal conductivity of supported and suspended graphene by a comprehensive Raman optothermal method. (United States)

    Li, Qin-Yi; Xia, Kailun; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Qunyang; Takahashi, Koji; Zhang, Xing


    The last decade has seen the rapid growth of research on two-dimensional (2D) materials, represented by graphene, but research on their thermophysical properties is still far from sufficient owing to the experimental challenges. Herein, we report the first measurement of the specific heat of multilayer and monolayer graphene in both supported and suspended geometries. Their thermal conductivities were also simultaneously measured using a comprehensive Raman optothermal method without needing to know the laser absorption. Both continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed lasers were used to heat the samples, based on consideration of the variable laser spot radius and pulse duration as well as the heat conduction within the substrate. The error from the laser absorption was eliminated by comparing the Raman-measured temperature rises for different spot radii and pulse durations. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were extracted by analytically fitting the temperature rise ratios as a function of spot size and pulse duration, respectively. The measured specific heat was about 700 J (kg K)(-1) at room temperature, which is in accordance with theoretical predictions, and the measured thermal conductivities were in the range of 0.84-1.5 × 10(3) W (m K)(-1). The measurement method demonstrated here can be used to investigate in situ and comprehensively the thermophysical properties of many other emerging 2D materials.

  15. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson


    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  16. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson


    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  17. Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperature and heat budget in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, during the fair weather conditions, at the central and northern locations, the upper layer gained heat energy, while the sea surface lost (gained) heat energy at northern (central) location. This and lower values of eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat (0.0045 and 0.0150m2/s) and the northward intensification ...

  18. Magnetization, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of hexagonal ErMnO3 single crystals (United States)

    Song, J. D.; Fan, C.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Zhang, F. B.; Zhao, J. Y.; Liu, X. G.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Y. J.; Wang, J. F.; Sun, X. F.


    We report a study of magnetism and magnetic transitions of hexagonal ErMnO3 single crystals by magnetization, specific heat, and heat transport measurements. Magnetization data show that the c -axis magnetic field induces three magnetic transitions at 0.8, 12, and 28 T. The specific heat shows a peak at 2.2 K, which is due to a magnetic transition of Er3 + moments. For low-T thermal conductivity (κ ), a clear diplike feature appears in the κ (H ) isotherm at 1-1.25 T for H ∥a b , while in the case of H ∥c , a steplike increase is observed at 0.5-0.8 T. The transition fields in κ (H ) are in good agreement with those obtained from magnetization, and the anomaly of κ can be understood by a spin-phonon scattering scenario. The natures of magnetic structures and corresponding field-induced transitions at low temperatures are discussed.

  19. Modelling temperature-dependent heat production over decades in High Arctic coal waste rock piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, P.E.


    Subsurface heat production from oxidation of pyrite is an important process that may increase subsurface temperatures within coal waste rock piles and increase the release of acid mine drainage, AMD. Waste rock piles in the Arctic are especially vulnerable to changes in subsurface temperatures...... as the release of AMD normally is limited by permafrost. Here we show that temperatures within a 20 year old heat-producing waste rock pile in Svalbard (78°N) can be modelled by the one-dimensional heat and water flow model (CoupModel) with a new temperature-dependent heat-production module that includes both...... biological and chemical oxidation processes and heat source depletion over time. Inputs to the model are meteorological measurements, physical properties of the waste rock material and measured subsurface heat-production rates. Measured mean annual subsurface temperatures within the waste rock pile are up...

  20. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad E.; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, Heather L.


    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA Subassembly (MTSAS) was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort was testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon's EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. Lunar environment testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 Nomenclature loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This exceeded any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  1. Uncertainties in the estimation of specific absorption rate during radiofrequency alternating magnetic field induced non-adiabatic heating of ferrofluids (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John


    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is becoming a viable cancer treatment methodology where the alternating magnetic field induced heating of magnetic fluid is utilized for ablating the cancerous cells or making them more susceptible to the conventional treatments. The heating efficiency in MFH is quantified in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR), which is defined as the heating power generated per unit mass. In majority of the experimental studies, SAR is evaluated from the temperature rise curves, obtained under non-adiabatic experimental conditions, which is prone to various thermodynamic uncertainties. A proper understanding of the experimental uncertainties and its remedies is a prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible SAR. Here, we study the thermodynamic uncertainties associated with peripheral heating, delayed heating, heat loss from the sample and spatial variation in the temperature profile within the sample. Using first order approximations, an adiabatic reconstruction protocol for the measured temperature rise curves is developed for SAR estimation, which is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from the computationally intense slope corrected method. Our experimental findings clearly show that the peripheral and delayed heating are due to radiation heat transfer from the heating coils and slower response time of the sensor, respectively. Our results suggest that the peripheral heating is linearly proportional to the sample area to volume ratio and coil temperature. It is also observed that peripheral heating decreases in presence of a non-magnetic insulating shielding. The delayed heating is found to contribute up to ~25% uncertainties in SAR values. As the SAR values are very sensitive to the initial slope determination method, explicit mention of the range of linear regression analysis is appropriate to reproduce the results. The effect of sample volume to area ratio on linear heat loss rate is systematically studied and the

  2. Using distributed temperature sensing to monitor field scale dynamics of ground surface temperature and related substrate heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bense, V.F.; Read, T.; Verhoef, A.


    We present one of the first studies of the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) along fibre-optic cables to purposely monitor spatial and temporal variations in ground surface temperature (GST) and soil temperature, and provide an estimate of the heat flux at the base of the canopy layer

  3. Thermal analysis of heat and power plant with high temperature reactor and intermediate steam cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fic Adam


    Full Text Available Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle, which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle. The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.

  4. Thermal analysis of heat and power plant with high temperature reactor and intermediate steam cycle (United States)

    Fic, Adam; Składzień, Jan; Gabriel, Michał


    Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle), which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle). The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.

  5. Analysis of the Potential of Low-Temperature Heat Pump Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Neuberger


    Full Text Available The paper deals with an analysis of temperatures of ground masses in the proximities of linear and slinky-type HGHE (horizontal ground heat exchanger. It evaluates and compares the potentials of HGHEs and ambient air. The reason and aim of the verification was to gain knowledge of the temperature course of the monitored low-temperature heat pump energy sources during heating periods and periods of stagnation and to analyse the knowledge in terms of the potential to use those sources for heat pumps. The study was conducted in the years 2012–2015 during three heating periods and three periods of HGHEs stagnation. The results revealed that linear HGHE had the highest temperature potential of the observed low-temperature heat pump energy sources. The average daily temperatures of the ground mass surrounding the linear HGHE were the highest ranging from 7.08 °C to 9.20 °C during the heating periods, and having the lowest temperature variation range of 12.62–15.14 K, the relative frequency of the average daily temperatures of the ground mass being the highest at 22.64% in the temperature range containing the mode of all monitored temperatures in a recorded interval of [4.10, 6.00] °C. Ambient air had lower temperature potential than the monitored HGHEs.

  6. How Vial Geometry Variability Influences Heat Transfer and Product Temperature During Freeze-Drying. (United States)

    Scutellà, Bernadette; Passot, Stéphanie; Bourlés, Erwan; Fonseca, Fernanda; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian


    Vial design features can play a significant role in heat transfer between the shelf and the product and, consequently, in the final quality of the freeze-dried product. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the variability of some geometrical dimensions of a set of tubing vials commonly used for pharmaceuticals production on the distribution of the vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) and its potential consequence on product temperature. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water and 8 combinations of chamber pressure (4-50 Pa) and shelf temperature (-40°C and 0°C) in 2 freeze-dryers. Kv values were individually determined for 100 vials located in the center of the shelf. Vial bottom curvature depth and contact area between the vial and the shelf were carefully measured for 120 vials and these data were used to calculate Kv distribution due to variability in vial geometry. At low pressures commonly used for sensitive products (below 10 Pa), the vial-shelf contact area appeared crucial for explaining Kv heterogeneity and was found to generate, in our study, a product temperature distribution of approximately 2°C during sublimation. Our approach provides quantitative guidelines for defining vial geometry tolerance specifications and product temperature safety margins. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mathematical Simulation of Heat Transfer in Heterogenous Forest Fuel Layer Influenced by Heated Up to High Temperatures Steel Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskiy Nikolay V.


    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of forest fuel layer renders the important influence on forest fire occurrence processes. One of sources of the raised temperature on forested territories is metal particles heated up to high temperatures. Such particles can be formed as a result of welding of metals on forested territories. The present paper represents the heat transfer research in forest fuel at the influence of metal particle heated up to high temperatures. The heterogonous forest fuel layer with inclusions of small wooden branches and chips is considered. Such object research is urgent especially at fire forecasting on forest cutting. The technology of mathematical simulation is used. The two-dimensional problem of heat transfer in forest fuel layer structure with wood inclusions is solved.

  8. Temperature stress differentially modulates transcription in meiotic anthers of heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzotti Mario


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in temperature occur naturally during plant growth and reproduction. However, in the hot summers this variation may become stressful and damaging for the molecular mechanisms involved in proper cell growth, impairing thus plant development and particularly fruit-set in many crop plants. Tolerance to such a stress can be achieved by constitutive gene expression or by rapid changes in gene expression, which ultimately leads to protection against thermal damage. We have used cDNA-AFLP and microarray analyses to compare the early response of the tomato meiotic anther transcriptome to moderate heat stress conditions (32°C in a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype. In the light of the expected global temperature increases, elucidating such protective mechanisms and identifying candidate tolerance genes can be used to improve breeding strategies for crop tolerance to heat stress. Results The cDNA-AFLP analysis shows that 30 h of moderate heat stress (MHS alter the expression of approximately 1% of the studied transcript-derived fragments in a heat-sensitive genotype. The major effect is gene down-regulation after the first 2 h of stress. The microarray analysis subsequently applied to elucidate early responses of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype, also shows about 1% of the genes having significant changes in expression after the 2 h of stress. The tolerant genotype not only reacts with moderate transcriptomic changes but also exhibits constitutively higher expression levels of genes involved in protection and thermotolerance. Conclusion In contrast to the heat-sensitive genotype, the heat-tolerant genotype exhibits moderate transcriptional changes under moderate heat stress. Moreover, the heat-tolerant genotype also shows a different constitutive gene expression profile compared to the heat-sensitive genotype, indicating genetic differences in adaptation to increased temperatures. In

  9. Specific heat and Hall effect of the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice UCu0.9Sb2 (United States)

    Tran, V. H.; Bukowski, Z.


    We have investigated the electrical resistivity ρ, specific heat C p and Hall coefficient R H on a single crystal of a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice UCu0.9Sb2. The experimental ρ (T) , C p (T) and {{R}\\text{H}}(T) data evidence a bulk magnetic phase transition at {{T}\\text{C}}=113 K, and additionally exhibit an unexpected bump located in the temperature range T C/10-T C/3. UCu0.9Sb2 has an enhanced electronic specific heat coefficient γ ˜ 71 mJ molK-2, corresponding to Kondo temperature {{T}\\text{K}}˜ 6.8 K. An analysis of the Hall effect data for j//(a, b)-plane and H// c-axis reveals that the low-temperature ordinary Hall coefficient R 0 is positive, suggesting that p-type electrical conductivity is dominant. The density of the carriers at 2 K is about 0.6 holes f.u.-1, which may categorize the studied compound into class of low carrier density compounds. Combined γ and R 0 data divulge an effective mass of charge carriers {{m}\\ast}˜ 27 m e . This finding together with quite low Hall mobility {μ\\text{H}}=25 cm2 Vs-1 and Kadowaki-Woods ratio {{r}\\text{KW}}=0.98× ~{{10}-5} μ Ω cm (mol K2 mJ-1)2, manifest the development of heavy-fermion state in the ferromagnetic UCu0.9Sb2 compound at low temperatures.

  10. Adjusting temperatures to heating needs in rooms equipped with heating floors; Ajuster les temperatures aux besoins dans les locaux equipes de planchers chauffants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, G.


    The water temperature at the input of a heating floor grid can vary for several reasons. The lack of a balancing system or a bad adjustment can lead to a variation of the flow rate in the loops. These two criteria which control the thermal-hydraulic equilibrium of a room can also disturb the thermal comfort of the occupants (lack of heating, overheating, flow noise etc..). This technical paper analyzes numerically the impacts of water temperature and flow rate changes on the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of a heating floor. (J.S.)

  11. The development of the concepts of heat and temperature in 10-13 year-olds (United States)

    Shayer, Michael; Wylam, Hugh

    A crucial issue in the theory of science education at present is the problem of how much it is possible to generalize about steps in understanding achieved by different pupils in a given topic. Many Piagetians believe that there are qualitatively different steps followed in the same succession by all pupils: some Ausubelians believe that there is no such order, and that for each pupil the best criterion for the teacher is the pupil's present knowledge. One purpose of this study is to shed light on this issue. The study to be described made use of three inputs. The development of a technique of psychometrising Piaget by an English team based at London University provided a way of extending a study by Erickson (1977) of personal conceptual inventories to testing a sample of 200 children by a 68 item demonstrated group-test. In addition a team of curriculum developers had provided a tentative list of objectives for the teaching of Heat to Middle School students. The schools in which the study was carried out wished to know which of the objectives were more suitable for 9 or for 12 year-olds. The group-test utilized descriptors both from the Erickson study and from the list of curriculum objectives. In addition to the Heat test a Piagetian group-test (NFER, 1979) in the area of Volume and Heaviness was administered to see whether the development of concepts of Heat could be mapped onto Piagetian stages of development. Test-items in nine aspects of heat were written, with some of the experiments to be demonstrated to the class. These aspects included Conduction, Expansion, Composition of Heat, Temperature Scales, Changes of State, etc. Factor analysis of the data showed that one factor was sufficient to explain the common-factor variance of the heat scales, and that the Heat test was also unifactor with the Piagetian test. It was possible to describe Early Concrete, Late Concrete and Early Formal levels of understanding in the area of Heat and Temperature. In this

  12. Investigation on medium temperature heat pipe receiver used in parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Dongdong; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yun; Li, Sihai; Zhuang, Jun [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). Inst. of Thermal Energy Engineering


    In this paper, a novel medium temperature (250{proportional_to}500 C) heat pipe receiver was developed for parabolic trough solar collector and the feasibility study on the receiver was carried out. The lifetime analysis, thermal analysis and economic analysis of the heat pipe receiver were presented. The result showed that the heat pipe receiver was flexible, easily maintained, low manufacture cost and could be working reliability in the temperature and heat flux conditions of parabolic trough solar collector with a high heat collect efficiency. (orig.)

  13. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric


    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance with the a.......03 kg NOx per heating square meter for a typical case in Harbin.......A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance...... with the actual heat demand. This results in 15-30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance...

  14. Influence of temperature on specific retention volumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature dependence of specific retention volumes Vog of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of environmental importance between the gas and liquid stationary phase (polydimethysiloxane, PDMS) are presented, determined by gas chromatographic method. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution were calculated ...

  15. Effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interface temperature and surface energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wen

    Full Text Available The microwave-assisted leaching was a new approach to intensify the copper recovery from chalcopyrite by hydrometallurgy. In this work, the effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interfacial reaction temperature and surface energy were investigated. The activation energy of chalcopyrite leaching was affected indistinctively by the microwave-assisted heating (39.1 kJ/mol compared with the conventional heating (43.9 kJ/mol. However, the boiling point of the leaching system increased through microwave-assisted heating. Because of the improved boiling point and the selective heating of microwave, the interfacial reaction temperature increased significantly, which gave rise to the increase of the leaching recovery of copper. Moreover, the surface energy of the chalcopyrite through microwave-assisted heating was also enhanced, which was beneficial to strengthen the leaching of chalcopyrite. Keywords: Microwave-assisted heating, Chalcopyrite, Leaching kinetics, Interface temperature, Surface energy

  16. Multiple pulse-heating experiments with different current to determine total emissivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Yuichiro


    A modified pulse-heating method is proposed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the hemispherical total emissivity, specific heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a series of rapid resistive self-heating experiments on a sample heated at different temperature rates. The method is used to measure the three properties of the IG-110 grade of isotropic graphite at temperatures from 850 to 1800 K. The problem of the extrinsic heating-rate effect, which reduces the accuracy of the measurements, is successfully mitigated by compensating for the generally neglected experimental error associated with the electrical measurands (current and voltage). The results obtained by the proposed method can be validated by the linearity of measured quantities used in the property determinations. The results are in reasonably good agreement with previously published data, which demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method, in particular, to the resistivity and total emissivity measurements. An interesting result is the existence of a minimum in the emissivity of the isotropic graphite at around 1120 K, consistent with the electrical resistivity results.

  17. How to Measure Heat Capacity at Low Temperatures (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    This chapter is devoted to the description of calorimetric techniques used to measure heat capacity of solids: pulse heat calorimetry (Sect. 2.3), relaxation calorimetry (Sect. 2.4), dual slope calorimetry (Sect. 2.5), a.c. calorimetry (Sect. 2.6), differential scanning calorimetry (Sect. 2.7). Examples of measurements of heat capacity are reported in Sects. 2.3 and 2.4.

  18. Biomass Pyrolysis: Comments on Some Sources of Confusions in the Definitions of Temperatures and Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lédé


    Full Text Available Biomass pyrolysis is usually characterized on the basis of temperature and heating rate. Unfortunately, these parameters are badly defined in processing reactors as well as in laboratory devices. From the results of simplified models, the present paper points out the significant mistakes that can be made when assuming that the actual temperature and heating rate of reacting biomass particles are the same as those of the external heating medium. The difficulties in defining these two parameters are underlined in both cases of a heat source temperature supposed to be constant or to increase with time.

  19. Identifying the optimal supply temperature in district heating networks - A modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Soma; Bojesen, Carsten


    The number of low-energy and energy renovated buildings with considerably low heating demand has been continuously increasing in recent years. Combined with utilizing low temperature sources, this development raises the necessity of introducing a new generation of District Heating [DH] Systems...... of this study is to develop a model for thermo-hydraulic calculation of low temperature DH system. The modelling is performed with emphasis on transient heat transfer in pipe networks. The pseudo-dynamic approach is adopted to model the District Heating Network [DHN] behaviour which estimates the temperature...

  20. Note: Heated sample platform for in situ temperature-programmed XPS. (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander; Tatarchuk, Bruce J


    We present the design, fabrication, and performance of the multi-specimen heated platform for linear in situ heating during the Temperature-Programmed XPS (TPXPS). The platform is versatile, compatible with high vacuum (HV) and bakeout. The heater platform is tested under in situ linear heating of typical high surface area sorbent∕catalyst support--nanoporous TiO(2). The platform allows the TPXPS of multiple samples located on specimen disk that can be transferred in and out of the TPXPS chamber. Electric characteristics, temperature and pressure curves are provided. Heating power supply, PID temperature controller, data-logging hardware and software are described.

  1. Influence of heating rate on sorbitic transformation temperature of tempering C45 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kulawik


    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of speed heating influence on sorbitic transormation temperature of tempering C45 steel is presented. On thebasis of dilatometric research, functions associating heating time with initial and final temperature of sorbitic transformation have beendetermined as well as the size structural (γ and thermal (α expansion coefficients of quenching and tempering structures have beenestimated.

  2. Improving efficiency of heat pumps by use of zeotropic mixtures for different temperature glides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zühlsdorf, Benjamin; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Cignitti, Stefano


    The present study demonstrates the optimization of a heat pump for an application with a large temperature glide on the sink and a smaller temperature glide on the source side. The study includes a simulation of a heat pump cycle for all possible binary mixtures from a list of 14 natural...

  3. Alternative solutions for inhibiting Legionella in domestic hot water systems based on low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend


    concern is the multiplication of Legionella due to insufficient temperature elevation with low-temperature supply. The aim of this study was to find optimal solutions to this dilemma for specific situations. The solutions were of two types: alternative system designs and various methods of sterilization....... The alternative design approach can eliminate the risk factors of Legionella by local temperature boosting and restricting system volume. Decentralized substations, micro heat pumps, electric heating elements and electric heat tracing are all investigated as alternative designs. With regard to sterilization...... and compared. Finally, recommendations are given for their use in practice. Practical application: The methods for inhibiting Legionella should fit into applicable situations according to their characteristics. This study aims to recommend optimum solutions for inhibiting Legionella in LTDH scenarios...

  4. The TX-model - a quantitative heat loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinki, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analysing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that would enable the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of advanced IR-thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX - model has been developed, based on the fact that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground have a temperature signature on the ground surface. Qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques primarily make use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss per unit length. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature profile perpendicular to the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but is also affected by other parameters such as burial depth, heat diffusivity, wind, precipitation and so on. In order to analyse the parameters influencing the TX- factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is by and large unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at different sites in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and USA through a co-operative research program organised and partially financed by the IEA District Heating Programme, Task III, and

  5. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria. (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Gautier, Roland; Nick, Marcel; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A


    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species, populations, individuals, and even within individuals. Age- or developmental stage- and sex-specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature, despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage- and sex- specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), a species common throughout the northern hemisphere that generally favours cool climates. Exposure of eggs to temperatures up to 32°C did not affect larval hatching rate, but subsequent egg-to-adult survival at a benign temperature was reduced. Permanent transfer from benign (18°C) to hot temperatures (up to 31°C) at different larval and pupal stages strongly decreased egg-to-adult survival, though survival continuously improved the later the transfer occurred. Temporary transfer for only two days increased mortality more weakly, survival being lowest when temperature stress was imposed early during the larval or pupal stages. Adult flies provided with sugar and water tolerated 31°C longer than previously thought (5 days in males to 9 days in females). Eggs were thus less susceptible to thermal stress than larvae, pupae or adults, in agreement with the hypothesis that more mobile stages require less physiological protection against heat because they can behaviourally thermoregulate. The probability of mating, of laying a clutch, and hatching success were generally independently reduced by exposure of females or males to warm temperatures (24°C) during the juvenile or adult stages, with some interactions evident. High temperature stress thus affects survival differentially depending on when it occurs during the juvenile or the pre-reproductive adult life stage, and affects reproductive success via the mating behaviour of both sexes, female physiology in terms of

  6. Design and modelling of a novel compact power cycle for low temperature heat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, Jorrit; Skovrup, Morten Juel; Elmegaard, Brian


    Power cycles for the efficient use of low temperature heat sources experience increasing attention. This paper describes an alternative cycle design that offers potential advantages in terms of heat source exploitation. A concept for a reciprocating expander is presented that performs both, work...... calculation results for use with a steady state cycle evaluation. An organic Rankine cycle model is developed and used for a comparison. The performance of the expander itself and the different requirements regarding heat source and temperature levels are studied....

  7. The use of ESR technique for assessment of heating temperatures of archaeological lentil samples (United States)

    Aydaş, Canan; Engin, Birol; Dönmez, Emel Oybak; Belli, Oktay


    Heat-induced paramagnetic centers in modern and archaeological lentils ( Lens culinaris, Medik.) were studied by X-band (9.3 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The modern red lentil samples were heated in an electrical furnace at increasing temperatures in the range 70-500 °C. The ESR spectral parameters (the intensity, g-value and peak-to-peak line width) of the heat-induced organic radicals were investigated for modern red lentil ( Lens culinaris, Medik.) samples. The obtained ESR spectra indicate that the relative number of heat-induced paramagnetic species and peak-to-peak line widths depends on the temperature and heating time of the modern lentil. The g-values also depend on the heating temperature but not heating time. Heated modern red lentils produced a range of organic radicals with g-values from g = 2.0062 to 2.0035. ESR signals of carbonised archaeological lentil samples from two archaeological deposits of the Van province in Turkey were studied and g-values, peak-to-peak line widths, intensities and elemental compositions were compared with those obtained for modern samples in order to assess at which temperature these archaeological lentils were heated in prehistoric sites. The maximum temperatures of the previous heating of carbonised UA5 and Y11 lentil seeds are as follows about 500 °C and above 500 °C, respectively.

  8. Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Based Temperature-Controlled Heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the performance analysis of a heat exchanger using simulations for an Adaptive Network based Fuzzy Inference System toolbox developed with MATLAB. The plant transfer function is derived based on process reaction curve obtained from a heat exchanger pilot plant and then the model is used to ...

  9. Exergy and Energy Analysis of Low Temperature District Heating Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    . The network thermal and hydraulic conditions were simulated under steady state with an in-house district heating network design and simulation code. Through simulation, the overall system energetic and exergetic efficiencies were calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Rode, Carsten; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    control sensor which was already installed. The room was heated by means of electrical radiators, which should be able to control the indoor environment to guarantee the desired thermal conditions for the occupants and to supply heat according to desired load patterns. Five series of experiments were done...

  11. Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 12, 2012 ... Conclusion. The ability to rapidly escape heat mediated HSPs inhibition at the onset of severe heat-stress is crucial for survival in potato. This potential can serve as a selection criterion for breeding primal varieties and generating thermo tolerant genotypes adaptable to the estimated mean global warming ...

  12. A new simplified model to calculate surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    In this paper, a new simplified model to calculate surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor heating and cooling system was proposed and established using the conduction shape factor. Measured data from references were used to validate the proposed model. The results showed...... that the maximum differences between the calculated surface temperature and heat transfer using the proposed model and the measured data were 0.8 ºC and 8.1 W/m2 for radiant floor heating system when average water temperature between 40 ºC and 60 ºC. For the corresponding values were 0.3 ºC and 2.0 W/m2...... for radiant floor cooling systems when average water temperature between 10 ºC and 20 ºC. Numerically simulated data in this study were also used to validate the proposed model. The results showed that the surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor calculated by the proposed model agreed very well...

  13. Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop heat pipe and loop heat pipe (LHP) working fluids for what is known as the intermediate...

  14. Influence of a weak dc electric field on tricritical phase transition in TGSe: evidence of different specific heat behaviour on cooling and heating runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, F J; Gallardo, M C; Jimenez, J; Cerro, J del [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto Ciencia Materiales Sevilla, Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, PO Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)


    The para-ferroelectric tricritical phase transition of a single crystal of triglycine selenate (TGSe) has been studied in the neighbourhood of the transition temperature, under weak electric fields, E, using a highly sensitive calorimetric technique. The specific heat, c{sub E}, under fields in the range between 5 and 175 V cm{sup -1} and close to transition temperature (0.2 K), shows different behaviour on cooling and on heating at a temperature variation rate of {+-} 0.03 K h{sup -1}; for Theating and on cooling runs is discussed and it is concluded that data on heating correspond to the thermal equilibrium.

  15. Fabrication of High-Temperature Heat Exchangers by Plasma Spraying Exterior Skins on Nickel Foams (United States)

    Hafeez, P.; Yugeswaran, S.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.; Coyle, T. W.


    Thermal-sprayed heat exchangers were tested at high temperatures (750 °C), and their performances were compared to the foam heat exchangers made by brazing Inconel sheets to their surface. Nickel foil was brazed to the exterior surface of 10-mm-thick layers of 10 and 40 PPI nickel foam. A plasma torch was used to spray an Inconel coating on the surface of the foil. A burner test rig was built to produce hot combustion gases that flowed over exposed face of the heat exchanger. Cooling air flowed through the foam heat exchanger at rates of up to 200 SLPM. Surface temperature and air inlet/exit temperature were measured. Heat transfer to air flowing through the foam was significantly higher for the thermally sprayed heat exchangers than for the brazed heat exchangers. On an average, thermally sprayed heat exchangers show 36% higher heat transfer than conventionally brazed foam heat exchangers. At low flow rates, the convective resistance is large (~4 × 10-2 m2 K/W), and the effect of thermal contact resistance is negligible. At higher flow rates, the convective resistance decreases (~2 × 10-3 m2 K/W), and the lower contact resistance of the thermally sprayed heat exchanger provides better performance than the brazed heat exchangers.

  16. Optimum efficiencies and phase change temperatures in latent heat storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Nakamura, H. (Daido Inst. of Tech., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Reistad, G.M. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)


    This paper presents an analysis of a class of latent heat storage systems (LHSS). The analysis is based on a lumped model (the basic model) that allows a broad class of LHSSs to be completely specified, with only two parameters and a set of operating temperatures, while still retaining the main thermodynamic aspects associated with its operation. Characterization of the performance in this manner permits the broad base application potential of such systems to be viewed. This modeling is in contrast to most studies to date, which employ many parameters to include details of specific systems, and therefore obscure, to a great extent, this broad-based application potential. The basic model is later modified in three ways to analyze operating conditions that either occur in practical units or are desirable for an improved operation of the units. The modifications include, first, the consideration of the LHSS as being formed by many independent phase-change material (PCM) capsules. Second, the possibility of having PCMs with different phase change temperatures filling the capsules. Third, the case when the PCM melts over a temperature range. The results indicate that the efficiency of the basic model represents a higher bound for the efficient operation of LHSSs with negligible sensible storage capacity, and a single PCM. Using multiple PCMs within a LHSS results in higher efficiencies. These efficiencies set higher bounds for efficiency of any sensible or latent heat storage system, and also represent the only possibility for reversible operation of LHSS.

  17. The effect of humidified heated breathing circuit on core body temperature in perioperative hypothermia during thyroid surgery. (United States)

    Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Ho Sik; Moon, Se Ho; Do Jeong, Hyeon; Jeon, Young Jae; Do Han, Keung; Koh, Hyun Jung


    Purpose: During general anesthesia, human body easily reaches a hypothermic state, which is mainly caused by heat redistribution. Most studies suggested that humidified heated breathing circuits (HHBC) have little influence on maintenance of the core temperature during early phase of anesthesia. This study was aimed at examining heat preservation effect with HHBC in case of undergoing surgery with less exposure of surgical fields and short surgical duration. Methods: Patients aged 19 to 70 yr - old, ASA-PS I or II who were scheduled for elective thyroidectomy were assigned and divided to the group using HHBC (G1) and the group using conventional circuit (G2) by random allocation. During operation, core, skin, and room temperatures were measured every 5minutes by specific thermometer. Results: G1 was decreased by a lesser extent than G2 in core temperature, apparently higher at 30 and 60 minutes after induction. Skin and room temperatures showed no differences between the two groups (p>0.05). Consequently, we confirmed HHBC efficiently prevented a decrease in core temperature during early period in small operation which has difficulty in preparing warming devices or environments were not usually considered. Conclusions: This study showed that HHBC influences heat redistribution in early period of operation and can lessen the magnitude of the decrease in core body temperature. Therefore, it can be applied efficiently for other active warming devices in mild hypothermia.

  18. Experimental investigation of stabilization of flowing water temperature with a water-PCM heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charvat Pavel


    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the stabilization of water temperature with a water-PCM heat exchanger. The water-PCM heat exchanger was of a rather simple design. It was a round tube, through which the water flowed, surrounded with an annular layer of PCM. The heat exchanger was divided into one meter long segments (modules and the water temperature was monitored at the outlet of each of the segments. A paraffin-based PCM with the melting temperature of 42 °C was used in the experiments. The experimental set-up consisted of two water reservoirs kept at different temperatures, the water-PCM heat exchanger, PC controlled valves and a data acquisition system. As the first step a response to a step change in the water temperature at the inlet of the heat exchanger was investigated. Subsequently, a series of experiments with a square wave change of temperature at the inlet of the exchanger were carried out. The square wave temperature profile was achieved by periodic switching between the two water reservoirs. Several amplitudes and periods of temperature square wave were used. The results of experiments show that a water-PCM heat exchanger can effectively be used to stabilize the flowing water temperature when the inlet temperature changes are around the melting range of the PCM.

  19. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of Low and Medium Temperature District Heating Network Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    In this paper, energetic and exergetic approaches were applied to an exemplary low temperature district heating (LTDH) network with supply/return water temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The small LTDH network is annexed to a large medium temperature district heating (MTDH) network. The LTDH network can ...... will reduce the amount of water supply from the MTDH network and improve the system energy conversion efficiency. Through the simulation, the system energetic and exergetic efficiencies based on the two network integration approaches were calculated and evaluated.......In this paper, energetic and exergetic approaches were applied to an exemplary low temperature district heating (LTDH) network with supply/return water temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The small LTDH network is annexed to a large medium temperature district heating (MTDH) network. The LTDH network can...

  20. A reduced core to skin temperature gradient, not a critical core temperature, affects aerobic capacity in the heat. (United States)

    Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C


    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the core to skin temperature gradient during incremental running to volitional fatigue across varying environmental conditions. A secondary aim was to determine if a "critical" core temperature would dictate volitional fatigue during running in the heat. 60 participants (n=49 male, n=11 female; 24±5 yrs, 177±11 cm, 75±13 kg) completed the study. Participants were uniformly stratified into a specific exercise temperature group (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C) based on a 3-mile run performance. Participants were equipped with core and chest skin temperature sensors and a heart rate monitor, entered an environmental chamber (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C), and rested in the seated position for 10 min before performing a walk/run to volitional exhaustion. Initial treadmill speed was 3.2 km h(-1) with a 0% grade. Every 3 min, starting with speed, speed and grade increased in an alternating pattern (speed increased by 0.805 km h(-1), grade increased by 0.5%). Time to volitional fatigue was longer for the 18 °C and 26 °C group compared to the 42 °C group, (58.1±9.3 and 62.6±6.5 min vs. 51.3±8.3 min, respectively, pskin gradient for the 18 °C and 26 °C groups was larger compared to 42 °C group (halfway: 2.6±0.7 and 2.0±0.6 vs. 1.3±0.5 for the 18 °C, 26 °C and 42 °C groups, respectively; finish: 3.3±0.7 and 3.5±1.1 vs. 2.1±0.9 for the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, respectively, ptemperature and heart rate response during the exercise trials. The current data demonstrate a 13% and 22% longer run time to exhaustion for the 18 °C and 26 °C group, respectively, compared to the 42 °C group despite no differences in beginning and ending core temperatures or baseline 3-mile run time. This capacity difference appears to result from a magnified core to skin gradient via an environmental temperature advantageous to convective heat loss, and in part from an increased sweat rate. Copyright

  1. Imaging heat transfer processes in a fluid with temperature sensitive paint (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Liu, Tianshu; Luo, Weili


    The temperature profile inside a fluid was imaged by temperature sensitive paint in a quasi one-dimensional cell, where temperature gradients were established by heating on one side of the sample and cooling on the other. Similar experiment was performed on colloids consisting nanoparticles suspended in solvent. The change of the profile for different heat-transfer processes as functions of time will be discussed.

  2. Analysis of geothermal temperatures for heat pumps application in Paraná (Brasil)


    Santos Alexandre F.; de Souza Heraldo J. L.; Cantao Mauricio P.; Gaspar Pedro D.


    Geothermal heat pumps are broadly used in developed countries but scarcely in Brazil, in part because there is a lack of Brazilian soil temperature data. The aims of this work are: to present soil temperature measurements and to compare geothermal heat pump system performances with conventional air conditioning systems. Geothermal temperature measurement results are shown for ten Paraná State cities, representing different soil and climate conditions. The measurements ...

  3. Heat and fuel coupled operation of a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell with a heat exchanger methanol steam reformer (United States)

    Schuller, G.; Vázquez, F. Vidal; Waiblinger, W.; Auvinen, S.; Ribeirinha, P.


    In this work a methanol steam reforming (MSR) reactor has been operated thermally coupled to a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack (HT-PEMFC) utilizing its waste heat. The operating temperature of the coupled system was 180 °C which is significantly lower than the conventional operating temperature of the MSR process which is around 250 °C. A newly designed heat exchanger reformer has been developed by VTT (Technical Research Center of Finland LTD) and was equipped with commercially available CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 (BASF RP-60) catalyst. The liquid cooled, 165 cm2, 12-cell stack used for the measurements was supplied by Serenergy A/S. The off-heat from the electrochemical fuel cell reaction was transferred to the reforming reactor using triethylene glycol (TEG) as heat transfer fluid. The system was operated up to 0.4 A cm-2 generating an electrical power output of 427 Wel. A total stack waste heat utilization of 86.4% was achieved. It has been shown that it is possible to transfer sufficient heat from the fuel cell stack to the liquid circuit in order to provide the needed amount for vaporizing and reforming of the methanol-water-mixture. Furthermore a set of recommendations is given for future system design considerations.

  4. Deconvoluting physical and chemical heat: Temperature and spiciness influence flavor differently. (United States)

    Kapaun, Camille L; Dando, Robin


    Flavor is an essential, rich and rewarding part of human life. We refer to both physical and chemical heat in similar terms; elevated temperature and capsaicin are both termed hot. Both influence our perception of flavor, however little research exists into the possibly divergent effect of chemical and physical heat on flavor. A human sensory panel was recruited to determine the equivalent level of capsaicin to match the heat of several physical temperatures. In a subsequent session, the intensities of multiple concentrations of tastant solutions were scaled by the same panel. Finally, panelists evaluated tastants plus equivalent chemical or physical "heat". All basic tastes aside from umami were influenced by heat, capsaicin, or both. Interestingly, capsaicin blocked bitter taste input much more powerfully than elevated temperature. This suggests that despite converging percepts, chemical and physical heat have a fundamentally different effect on the perception of flavor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lattice specific heat and local density of states of Ni-based dilute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to calculate the local density of states of substitutional impurities and lattice specific heat in different alloys. The resonance ... therefore, we have calculated lattice specific heat of a number of dilute alloys and discussed the results in the light of ..... [9] J C Ho and R Viswanathan, Phys. Rev. 172, 705 (1968). [10] M Dixon, F E ...

  6. Specific heat of Ho sub 2 Co sub 17 and Er sub 2 Co sub 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franse, J.J.M.; Klaasse, J.C.P.; Sinnema, S. (Amsterdam Univ. (NL). Natuurkunding Lab.); Radwanski, R.J. (University of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (PL). Solid State Physics Dept.)


    The specific heat of polycrystalline samples of Ho{sub 2}Co{sub 17} and Er{sub 2}Co{sub 17} has been measured between 1.25 K and 38 K in zero field and in an applied field of 5 T. The electronic, lattice, nuclear and crystal field contributions to the specific heat have been separated.

  7. Effect of heat treatment on transformation temperatures and bending properties of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. (United States)

    Yahata, Y; Yoneyama, T; Hayashi, Y; Ebihara, A; Doi, H; Hanawa, T; Suda, H


    To investigate the effect of heat treatment on the bending properties of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments in relation to their transformation behaviour. Nickel-titanium super-elastic alloy wire (1.00 mm Ø) was processed into a conical shape with a 0.30 mm diameter tip and 0.06 taper. The heat treatment temperature was set at 440 or 500 degrees C for a period of 10 or 30 min. Nonheat-treated specimens were used as controls. The phase transformation behaviour was examined using differential scanning calorimetry. A cantilever-bending test was used to evaluate the bending properties of the specimens. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test (P = 0.05). The transformation temperature was higher for each heat treatment condition compared with the control. Two clear thermal peaks were observed for the heat treatment at 440 degrees C. The specimen heated at 440 degrees C for 30 min exhibited the highest temperatures for M(s) and A(f), with subsequently lower temperatures observed for specimens heated at 440 degrees C for 10 min, 500 degrees C for 30 min, 500 degrees C for 10 min, and control specimens. The sample heated at 440 degrees C for 30 min had the lowest bending load values (P treatment time was less than that of heat treatment temperature. Change in the transformation behaviour by heat treatment may be effective in increasing the flexibility of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

  8. Evaporation of oil-water emulsion drops when heated at high temperature (United States)

    Strizhak, P. A.; Piskunov, M. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Voytkov, I. S.


    An experimental study on conditions and main characteristics for high-temperature (more than 700 K) evaporation of oil-water drops is presented. The high-temperature water purification from impurities can be the main practical application of research results. Thus, the heating of drops is implemented by the two typical schemes: on a massive substrate (the heating conditions are similar to those achieved in a heating chamber) and in a flow of the heated air. In the latter case, the heating conditions correspond to those attained while moving water drops with impurities in a counter high-temperature gaseous flow in the process of water purification. Evaporation time as function of heating temperature is presented. The influence of oil product concentration in an emulsion drop on evaporation characteristics is discussed. The conditions for intensive flash boiling of an emulsion drop and its explosive breakup with formation of the fine droplets cloud are pointed out. Heat fluxes required for intensive flash boiling and explosive breakup of a drop with further formation of the fine aerosol are determined in the boundary layer of a drop. The fundamental differences between flash boiling and explosive breakup of an emulsion drop when heated on a substrate and in a flow of the heated air are described. The main prospects for the development of the high-temperature water purification technology are detailed taking into account the fast emulsion drop breakup investigated in the paper.

  9. Better latent heat and specific heat of stearic acid with magnetite/graphene nanocomposite addition for thermal storage application (United States)

    Andiarto, R.; Nuryadin, M. K.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.


    In our previous study, the addition of Magnetite (Fe3O4) into Stearic acid (Sa) as an organic phase change material (PCM) shows an enhancement in the latent heat for thermal energy storage applications. The latent heat of the PCM can also be increased by adding graphene material. Therefore, in this research, the thermal properties of Sa have been studied by the sonication method for several different concentrations of Fe3O4/Graphene nanocomposite additions. The structural properties of all of the samples were observed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Melting-solidifying behavior and specific heat value were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal degradation process of all samples was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Based on the DSC results, the presence of Fe3O4/Graphene in the Sa enhances the latent heat up to 20%. The specific heat value of the mixture was also found to be increased as the concentration of Fe3O4/Graphene to Sa increased. The TGA results show a lowered thermal degradation process of the Sa by the addition of the Fe3O4/Graphene which indicates a higher thermal stability of the mixture. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the addition of Fe3O4/Graphene to Sa improves both the sensible heat and the latent heat of the mixture which are very important for thermal energy storage applications

  10. Recovery of low temperature heat in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick


    Full Text Available Energy consumption in oil mills is a major item of costs and a sensitive point in the production of biofuels. To improve their performance, industrials can recover lowtemperature heat thanks to a new technology of heat exchangers suitable for treating granular solid materials. Information about the energy requirements of the rapeseed crushing being not readily available, the article gives a detailed assessment of consumption items (per ton of seed: 263 MJ for preparation operations and 284 MJ for solvent extraction. These exchangers used as pre-conditioners saves about 55 MJ.t−1 of heat by use of steam condensates. We could go further in use of these devices on the one hand to recover heat from press cake and meal, and secondly to use recovered energy to dry and warm up the seeds before pre-pressing. In this configuration, the energy savings could reach 38% of current needs.

  11. Transient Modeling and Analysis of a Metabolic Heat-Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) System for a PLSS (United States)

    Iacomini, Christie; Powers, Aaron; Speight, Garland; Padilla, Sebastian; Paul, Heather L.


    A Metabolic heat-regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) system is being developed for carbon dioxide, water and thermal control in a lunar and martian portable life support system (PLSS). A previous system analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of MTSA on PLSS design. That effort was Mars specific and assumed liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) coolant made from martian resources. Transient effects were not considered but rather average conditions were used throughout the analysis. This effort takes into further consideration the transient effects inherent in the cycling MTSA system as well as assesses the use of water as coolant. Standard heat transfer, thermodynamic, and heat exchanger methods are presented to conduct the analysis. Assumptions and model verification are discussed. The tool was used to perform various system studies. Coolant selection was explored and takes into account different operational scenarios as the minimum bed temperature is driven by the sublimation temperature of the coolant (water being significantly higher than LCO2). From this, coolant mass is sized coupled with sorbent bed mass because MTSA adsorption performance decreases with increasing sublimation temperature. Reduction in heat exchanger performance and even removal of certain heat exchangers, like a recuperative one between the two sorbent beds, is also investigated. Finally, the coolant flow rate is varied over the cycle to determine if there is a more optimal means of cooling the bed from a mass perspective. Results of these studies and subsequent recommendations for system design are presented.

  12. A noncontact measurement technique for the specific heat and total hemispherical emissivity of undercooled refractory materials (United States)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu


    A noncontact measurement technique for the constant pressure specific heat (cpl) and the total hemispherical emissivity (ɛTl) of undercooled refractory materials is presented. In purely radiative cooling, a simple formula which relates the post-recalescence isotherm duration and the undercooling level to cpl is derived. This technique also allows us to measure ɛTl once cpl is known. The experiments were performed using the high-temperature high-vacuum electrostatic levitator at JPL in which 2-3 mm diameter metallic samples can be levitated, melted, and radiatively cooled in vacuum. The averaged specific heats and total hemispherical emissivities of Zr and Ni over the undercooled regions agree well with the results obtained by drop calorimetry: cpl,av(Zr)=40.8±0.9 J/mol K, ɛTl,av(Zr)=0.28±0.01, cpl,av(Ni)=42.6±0.8 J/mol K, and ɛTl,av(Ni)=0.16±0.01.

  13. Improvement of stability of Nb3Sn superconductors by introducing high specific heat substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X. [Fermilab; Li, P. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Peng, X. [Unlisted, US, OH


    High-J c Nb3Sn conductors have low stability against perturbations, which accounts for the slow training rates of high-field Nb3Sn magnets. While it is known that adding substances with high specific heat (C) into Nb3Sn wires can increase their overall specific heat and thus improve their stability, there has not been a practical method that is compatible with the fabrication of long-length conductors. In this work, we put forward a scheme to introduce such substances to distributed-barrier Nb3Sn wires, which adds minimum difficulty to the wire manufacturing process. Multifilamentary wires using a mixture of Cu and high-C Gd2O3 powders have been successfully fabricated along this line. Measurements showed that addition of Gd2O3 had no negative effects on residual resitivity ratio or non-Cu J c, and that flux jumps were remarkably reduced, and minimum quench energy values at 4.2 K, 14 T were increased by a factor of three, indicating that stability was significantly improved. We also discussed the influences of the positioning of high-C substances and their thermal diffusivity on their effectiveness in reducing the superconductor temperature rise against perturbations. Based on these results, we proposed an optimized conductor architecture to maximize the effectiveness of this approach.

  14. Heat treated 9 Cr-1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher


    The invention relates to a composition and heat treatment for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to C. The novel combination of composition and heat treatment produces a heat treated material containing both large primary titanium carbides and small secondary titanium carbides. The primary titanium carbides contribute to creep strength while the secondary titanium carbides act to maintain a higher level of chromium in the finished steel for increased oxidation resistance, and strengthen the steel by impeding the movement of dislocations through the crystal structure. The heat treated material provides improved performance at comparable cost to commonly used high-temperature steels such as ASTM P91 and ASTM P92, and requires heat treatment consisting solely of austenization, rapid cooling, tempering, and final cooling, avoiding the need for any hot-working in the austenite temperature range.

  15. Preventing Heat Injuries by Predicting Individualized Human Core Temperature (United States)


    hardware/software warning system of an impending rise in TC and generate alerts to potentially prevent heat injuries. PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES BY...real-time warning system. 4.0 CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, we developed an alert algorithm to provide reliable ahead-of-time warning of an impending... warning system that can be deployed in ambulatory settings. Currently, we are in the process of integrating this model with the alert algorithm in a

  16. Some specific features of subcooled boiling heat transfer and crisis at extremely high heat flux densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotovsky, M.A. [Polzunov Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Forced convection boiling is the process used widely in a lot of industry branches including NPP. Heat transfer intensity under forced convection boiling is considered in different way in dependence on conditions. One of main problems for the process considered is an influence of interaction between forced flow and boiling on heat transfer character. For saturated water case a transition from ''pure'' forced convection to nucleate boiling can be realized in smooth form. (author)

  17. Accuracy of Zero-Heat-Flux Cutaneous Temperature in Intensive Care Adults. (United States)

    Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Lamarche, Solène; Kerforne, Thomas; Bénard, Thierry; Giraud, Benoit; Bellier, Rémy; Carise, Elsa; Frasca, Denis; Mimoz, Olivier


    To compare accuracy of a continuous noninvasive cutaneous temperature using zero-heat-flux method to esophageal temperature and arterial temperature. Prospective study. ICU and NeuroICU, University Hospital. Fifty-two ICU patients over a 4-month period who required continuous temperature monitoring were included in the study, after informed consent. All patients had esophageal temperature probe and a noninvasive cutaneous device to monitor their core temperature continuously. In seven patients who required cardiac output monitoring, continuous iliac arterial temperature was collected. Simultaneous core temperatures were recorded from 1 to 5 days. Comparison to the esophageal temperature, considered as the reference in this study, used the Bland and Altman method with adjustment for multiple measurements per patient. The esophageal temperature ranged from 33°C to 39.7°C, 61,298 pairs of temperature using zero-heat-flux and esophageal temperature were collected and 1,850 triple of temperature using zero-heat-flux, esophageal temperature, and arterial temperature. Bias and limits of agreement for temperature using zero-heat-flux were 0.19°C ± 0.53°C compared with esophageal temperature with an absolute difference of temperature pairs equal to or lower than 0.5°C of 92.6% (95% CI, 91.9-93.4%) of cases and equal to or lower than 1°C for 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7-100.0%) of cases. Compared with arterial temperature, bias and limits of agreement were -0.00°C ± 0.36°C with an absolute difference of temperature pairs equal to or lower than 0.5°C of 99.8% (95% CI, 95.3-100%) of cases. All absolute difference of temperature pairs between temperature using zero-heat-flux and arterial temperature and between arterial temperature and esophageal temperature were equal to or lower than 1°C. No local or systemic serious complication was observed. These results suggest a comparable reliability of the cutaneous sensor using the zero-heat-flux method compared with esophageal or

  18. The effect of air velocity on heat stress at increased air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Wang, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Guoqiang

    to the temperature difference between the surfaces of animals and the surrounding air, and this temperature difference declines when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. Consequently it can it by expected that the effect of air velocity decreases at increased air temperature. The literature...... on different categories of farm animals to determine how the effect of air velocity depends on the air temperature. A new expression to calculate the chilling effect of increased air velocity was suggested. In addition to the parameters air velocity and air temperature this new expression included three......Increased air velocity is a frequently used method to reduce heat stress of farm animals housed in warm conditions. The main reason why the method works is that higher air velocity increases the convective heat release from the animals. Convective heat release from the animals is strongly related...

  19. Investigations of Temperatures of Phase Transformations of Low-Alloyed Reinforcing Steel within the Heat Treatment Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargul T.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of DSC analysis of steel B500SP produced in the process of continuous casting, which is intended for the production reinforcement rods with high ductility. Studies were carried out in the temperature range below 1000°C in a protective atmosphere of helium during samples heating program. The main objective of the study was to determine the temperature range of austenite structure formation during heating. As a result of performed experiments: Ac1s, Ac1f – temperatures of the beginning and finish of the eutectoid transformation, Ac2 – Curie temperature of the ferrite magnetic transformation and the temperature Ac3 of transformation of proeutectoid ferrite into austenite were elaborated. Experimental determination of phase transformations temperatures of steel B500SP has great importance for production technology of reinforcement rods, because good mechanical properties of rods are formed by the special thermal treatment in Tempcore process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko Ekaterina Sergeevna


    Full Text Available The co-authors have solved the problem of an unsteady temperature field inside a structural beam, if one of its ends is exposed to heating. The problem was solved using a traditional Fourier method. The solution derived by the co-authors was verified by the comparison of the final temperature field and the input data. MathCAD-14 software was employed to make calculations and to generate figures. Application of analytical methods, like Fourier series formalism, in combination with computing aids makes it possible to study both qualitative and quantitative constituents of the process of heat redistribution inside structural units in case of exposure to contingency actions. There will be no uniform temperature reduction in the course of intensive cooling of rod ends after the thermal exposure. If the value of the temperature conductivity coefficient is equal to .01, in 12 hours the residual heating may reach 20 % of the initial heating temperature.

  1. Determination of Radiative Heat Transfer Coefficient at High Temperatures Using a Combined Experimental-Computational Technique (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Kočí, Jan; Korecký, Tomáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert Č.


    The radiative heat transfer coefficient at high temperatures is determined using a combination of experimental measurement and computational modeling. In the experimental part, cement mortar specimen is heated in a laboratory furnace to 600°C and the temperature field inside is recorded using built-in K-type thermocouples connected to a data logger. The measured temperatures are then used as input parameters in the three dimensional computational modeling whose objective is to find the best correlation between the measured and calculated data via four free parameters, namely the thermal conductivity of the specimen, effective thermal conductivity of thermal insulation, and heat transfer coefficients at normal and high temperatures. The optimization procedure which is performed using the genetic algorithms provides the value of the high-temperature radiative heat transfer coefficient of 3.64 W/(m2K).

  2. Temperature specification in atomistic molecular dynamics and its impact on simulation efficacy (United States)

    Ocaya, R. O.; Terblans, J. J.


    Temperature is a vital thermodynamical function for physical systems. Knowledge of system temperature permits assessment of system ergodicity, entropy, system state and stability. Rapid theoretical and computational developments in the fields of condensed matter physics, chemistry, material science, molecular biology, nanotechnology and others necessitate clarity in the temperature specification. Temperature-based materials simulations, both standalone and distributed computing, are projected to grow in prominence over diverse research fields. In this article we discuss the apparent variability of temperature modeling formalisms used currently in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, with respect to system energetics,dynamics and structural evolution. Commercial simulation programs, which by nature are heuristic, do not openly discuss this fundamental question. We address temperature specification in the context of atomistic molecular dynamics. We define a thermostat at 400K relative to a heat bath at 300K firstly using a modified ab-initio Newtonian method, and secondly using a Monte-Carlo method. The thermostatic vacancy formation and cohesion energies, equilibrium lattice constant for FCC copper is then calculated. Finally we compare and contrast the results.

  3. High temperature latent heat thermal energy storage to augment solar thermal propulsion for microsatellites (United States)

    Gilpin, Matthew R.

    technology for the platform. The use of silicon and boron as high temperature latent heat thermal energy storage materials has been in the background of solar thermal research for decades without a substantial investigation. This is despite a broad agreement in the literature about the performance benefits obtainable from a latent heat mechanisms which provides a high energy storage density and quasi-isothermal heat release at high temperature. In this work, an experimental approach was taken to uncover the practical concerns associated specifically with applying silicon as an energy storage material. A new solar furnace was built and characterized enabling the creation of molten silicon in the laboratory. These tests have demonstrated the basic feasibility of a molten silicon based thermal energy storage system and have highlighted asymmetric heat transfer as well as silicon expansion damage to be the primary engineering concerns for the technology. For cylindrical geometries, it has been shown that reduced fill factors can prevent damage to graphite walled silicon containers at the expense of decreased energy storage density. Concurrent with experimental testing, a cooling model was written using the "enthalpy method" to calculate the phase change process and predict test section performance. Despite a simplistic phase change model, and experimentally demonstrated complexities of the freezing process, results coincided with experimental data. It is thus possible to capture essential system behaviors of a latent heat thermal energy storage system even with low fidelity freezing kinetics modeling allowing the use of standard tools to obtain reasonable results. Finally, a technological road map is provided listing extant technological concerns and potential solutions. Improvements in container design and an increased understanding of convective coupling efficiency will ultimately enable both high temperature latent heat thermal energy storage and a new class of high

  4. Experimental thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat values for mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon (United States)

    Perkins, R. A.; Cieszkiewicz, M. T.


    Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity obtained with a transient hot-wire apparatus are reported for three mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Values of the specific heat, Cp, are calculated from these measured values and the density calculated with an equation of state. The measurements were made at temperatures between 65 and 303 K with pressures between 0.1 and 70 MPa. The data cover the vapor, liquid, and supercritical gas phases for the three mixtures. The total reported points are 1066 for the air mixture (78.11 percent nitrogen, 20.97 percent oxygen, and 0.92 percent argon), 1058 for the 50 percent nitrogen, 50 percent oxygen mixture, and 864 for the 25 percent nitrogen, 75 oxygen mixture. Empirical thermal conductivity correlations are provided for the three mixtures.

  5. Effect of impurity pinning on conduction and specific heat in the Luttinger liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemenko, S.N. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute for Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the RAS, Mokhovaya str. 11-7, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation)], E-mail:; Remizov, S.V.; Shapiro, D.S.; Vakhitov, R.R. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute for Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the RAS, Mokhovaya str. 11-7, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation)


    We study theoretically two effects related to impurity depinning that are common for 1D Luttinger liquid (LL) and linear-chain charge-density wave (CDW) conductors. First, we consider the electron transport through a single impurity in a 1D conducting channel and study a new regime of conduction related to LL sliding at voltage above a threshold one. The DC current in this regime is accompanied by oscillations with frequency f=I/e. This resembles the CDW depinning in linear-chain conductors, the Josephson effect, and the Coulomb blockade. Second, we found that strong pinning of the LL by impurities leads to a magnetic field dependence of the low-temperature specific heat similar to that observed experimentally in CDW compounds. We interpret this in favor of possibility of formation of the LL in linear-chain compounds.

  6. Solid and liquid Equation of state for initially porous aluminum where specific heat is constant (United States)

    Forbes, Jerry W.; Lemar, E. R.; Brown, Mary


    A porous solid's initial state is off the thermodynamic surface of the non-porous solid to start with but when pressure is high enough to cause total pore collapse or crush up, then the final states are on the condensed matter thermodynamic surfaces. The Hugoniot for the fully compacted solid is above the Principle Hugoniot with pressure, temperature and internal energy increased at a given v. There are a number of ways to define this hotter Hugoniot, which can be referenced to other thermodynamic paths on this thermodynamic surface. The choice here was to use the Vinet isotherm to define a consistent thermodynamic surface for the solid and melt phase of 6061 aluminum where specific heat is constant for the P-v-T space of interest. Analytical equations are developed for PH and TH.

  7. Ambient high temperature and mortality in Jinan, China: A study of heat thresholds and vulnerable populations. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhidong; Xu, Lei; Gao, Jinghong; Liu, Xiaobo; Wu, Haixia; Wang, Jun; Yu, Jieqiong; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong


    Understanding the health consequences of continuously rising temperatures-as is projected for China-is important in terms of developing heat-health adaptation and intervention programs. This study aimed to examine the association between mortality and daily maximum (T max ), mean (T mean ), and minimum (T min ) temperatures in warmer months; to explore threshold temperatures; and to identify optimal heat indicators and vulnerable populations. Daily data on temperature and mortality were obtained for the period 2007-2013. Heat thresholds for condition-specific mortality were estimated using an observed/expected analysis. We used a generalised additive model with a quasi-Poisson distribution to examine the association between mortality and T max /T min /T mean values higher than the threshold values, after adjustment for covariates. T max /T mean /T min thresholds were 32/28/24°C for non-accidental deaths; 32/28/24°C for cardiovascular deaths; 35/31/26°C for respiratory deaths; and 34/31/28°C for diabetes-related deaths. For each 1°C increase in T max /T mean /T min above the threshold, the mortality risk of non-accidental-, cardiovascular-, respiratory, and diabetes-related death increased by 2.8/5.3/4.8%, 4.1/7.2/6.6%, 6.6/25.3/14.7%, and 13.3/30.5/47.6%, respectively. Thresholds for mortality differed according to health condition when stratified by sex, age, and education level. For non-accidental deaths, effects were significant in individuals aged ≥65 years (relative risk=1.038, 95% confidence interval: 1.026-1.050), but not for those ≤64 years. For most outcomes, women and people ≥65 years were more vulnerable. High temperature significantly increases the risk of mortality in the population of Jinan, China. Climate change with rising temperatures may bring about the situation worse. Public health programs should be improved and implemented to prevent and reduce health risks during hot days, especially for the identified vulnerable groups. Copyright

  8. Population-specificity of heat stress gene induction in northern and southern eelgrass Zostera marina populations under simulated global warming. (United States)

    Bergmann, Nina; Winters, Gidon; Rauch, Gisep; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Gu, Jenny; Nelle, Peter; Fricke, Birgit; Reusch, Thorsten B H


    Summer heat waves have already resulted in mortality of coastal communities, including ecologically important seagrass meadows. Gene expression studies from controlled experiments can provide important insight as to how species/genotypes react to extreme events that will increase under global warming. In a common stress garden, we exposed three populations of eelgrass, Zostera marina, to extreme sea surface temperatures, simulating the 2003-European heat wave. Populations came from locations widely differing in their thermal regime, two northern European locations [Ebeltoft (Kattegat), Doverodde (Limfjord, Baltic Sea)], and one southern population from Gabicce Mare (Adriatic Sea), allowing to test for population specificity in the response to a realistic heat stress event. Eelgrass survival and growth as well as the expression of 12 stress associated candidate genes were assessed during and after the heat wave. Contrary to expectations, all populations suffered equally from 3 weeks of heat stress in terms of shoot loss. In contrast, populations markedly differed in multivariate measures of gene expression. While the gene expression profiles converged to pre-stress values directly after the heat wave, stress correlated genes were upregulated again 4 weeks later, in line with the observed delay in shoot loss. Target genes had to be selected based on functional knowledge in terrestrial plants, nevertheless, 10/12 genes were induced relative to the control treatment at least once during the heat wave in the fully marine plant Z. marina. This study underlines the importance of realistic stress and recovery scenarios in studying the impact of predicted climate change.

  9. The Optimal Evaporation Temperature of Subcritical ORC Based on Second Law Efficiency for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Xu


    Full Text Available The subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC with 28 working fluids for waste heat recovery is discussed in this paper. The effects of the temperature of the waste heat, the critical temperature of working fluids and the pinch temperature difference in the evaporator on the optimal evaporation temperature (OET of the ORC have been investigated. The second law efficiency of the system is regarded as the objective function and the evaporation temperature is optimized by using the quadratic approximations method. The results show that the OET will appear for the temperature ranges investigated when the critical temperatures of working fluids are lower than the waste heat temperatures by 18 ± 5 K under the pinch temperature difference of 5 K in the evaporator. Additionally, the ORC always exhibits the OET when the pinch temperature difference in the evaporator is raised under the fixed waste heat temperature. The maximum second law efficiency will decrease with the increase of pinch temperature difference in the evaporator.

  10. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Nnamchi


    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  11. Temperature, Heat Flow and Dynamics of The Lithosphere: The East European Platform (United States)

    Khristoforova, N.

    The experimental study of temperature and heat flow anomalies was made on the East European platform and adjacent regions. Temperature measurements were made on 360 structures in 1230 deep boreholes which had steady-state temperature regime. Research results convince us that there is the spatial periodical pattern of terrestrial heat flow. The detailed analysis of temperature and heat flow maps and profiles shows the periodical structure of the field but not its fluctuational inhomogeneity. Maps of this sort can be used to identify the geometry of asthenosphere convection flows. The most realistic numerical experiments to date have been conducted. The experimental geothermic data assumes that there are sets of convection cells in the upper mantle. Be- sides, the peculiarities of the heat flow and temperature distribution may be explained by the existence of hexagonal convection cells in the asthenosphere. The cellular pat- tern of heat flow where large maxima of a certain form are closely connected with heat flow minima should be specially emphasized. The variation of terrestrial heat flow is closely related to recent vertical crustal movements. An adequate simplified mathe- matical model is suggested to describe this dependence, and the calculated heat flows are remarkably consistent with the experimental ones.

  12. Specific heat of ovendry spruce pine wood and bark (United States)

    Peter Koch


    Wood and bark from 72 trees of Pinus glabra Walt. were evaluated with a Perkin-Elmer DSC-1B scanning calorimeter; a total of 6,696 observations was made in the temperature range 60 to 140oC. The samples were from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama - the major commercial range of the species.

  13. Temperature and humidity based projections of a rapid rise in global heat stress exposure during the 21st century (United States)

    Coffel, Ethan D.; Horton, Radley M.; de Sherbinin, Alex


    As a result of global increases in both temperature and specific humidity, heat stress is projected to intensify throughout the 21st century. Some of the regions most susceptible to dangerous heat and humidity combinations are also among the most densely populated. Consequently, there is the potential for widespread exposure to wet bulb temperatures that approach and in some cases exceed postulated theoretical limits of human tolerance by mid- to late-century. We project that by 2080 the relative frequency of present-day extreme wet bulb temperature events could rise by a factor of 100–250 (approximately double the frequency change projected for temperature alone) in the tropics and parts of the mid-latitudes, areas which are projected to contain approximately half the world’s population. In addition, population exposure to wet bulb temperatures that exceed recent deadly heat waves may increase by a factor of five to ten, with 150–750 million person-days of exposure to wet bulb temperatures above those seen in today’s most severe heat waves by 2070–2080. Under RCP 8.5, exposure to wet bulb temperatures above 35 °C—the theoretical limit for human tolerance—could exceed a million person-days per year by 2080. Limiting emissions to follow RCP 4.5 entirely eliminates exposure to that extreme threshold. Some of the most affected regions, especially Northeast India and coastal West Africa, currently have scarce cooling infrastructure, relatively low adaptive capacity, and rapidly growing populations. In the coming decades heat stress may prove to be one of the most widely experienced and directly dangerous aspects of climate change, posing a severe threat to human health, energy infrastructure, and outdoor activities ranging from agricultural production to military training.

  14. Study of the high-temperature corrosion of heat-resisting alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, K.


    An experimental study is reported of the corrosion resistance of the heat-resistant materials which play such an important role in the development of high-efficiency coal gasification combined-cycle power generation. Specifically, a study was made of the high-temperature and molten salt corrosion of nickel base alloys in coal combustion gas environments. The authors outline various types of high-temperature corrosion which occur: oxidation, sulfidation, decarburization and carburizing, nitridation, hot corrosion and halogenation. The mechanisms involved in molten salt corrosion are explained with reference to various models and currently available data. Finally, a study of electro-chemical measuring methods is reported. The authors conclude that future work on corrosion in coal gasification combined cycle power generation systems should concentrate on the following items: 1) elucidating the conditions under which molten salts form; 2) developing methods for predicting the quantity of molten salts which will form, and for assessing their contribution to corrosion; 3) evaluating the corrosion resistance of specific alloys to molten salts of given composition; 4) clarifying the effect of alloy surface temperature on corrosion resistance and local corrosion; and 5) developing techniques for predicting the amount of corrosion. 24 references, 28 figures, 7 tables.

  15. Theoretical overview of heating power and necessary heating supply temperatures in typical Danish single-family houses from the 1900s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend


    As existing buildings are renovated and energy-efficiency measures are implemented to meet requirements for reduced energy consumption, it becomes easier to heat our homes with low-temperature heating. This study set out to investigate how much the heating system supply temperature can be reduced...

  16. Bench heating for potplant cultivation : analysis of effects of root- and air temperature on growth, development and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelezang, J.V.M.


    This thesis deals with the application of bench heating systems for potplant cultivation, which were developed for application of low temperature heating water from flue gas condensers and external waste heat sources. Compared to the traditional way of heating, a 'reversed' temperature

  17. A study on specific heat capacities of Li-ion cell components and their influence on thermal management (United States)

    Loges, André; Herberger, Sabrina; Seegert, Philipp; Wetzel, Thomas


    Thermal models of Li-ion cells on various geometrical scales and with various complexity have been developed in the past to account for the temperature dependent behaviour of Li-ion cells. These models require accurate data on thermal material properties to offer reliable validation and interpretation of the results. In this context a thorough study on the specific heat capacities of Li-ion cells starting from raw materials and electrode coatings to representative unit cells of jelly rolls/electrode stacks with lumped values was conducted. The specific heat capacity is reported as a function of temperature and state of charge (SOC). Seven Li-ion cells from different manufactures with different cell chemistry, application and design were considered and generally applicable correlations were developed. A 2D thermal model of an automotive Li-ion cell for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) application illustrates the influence of specific heat capacity on the effectivity of cooling concepts and the temperature development of Li-ion cells.

  18. Application of thermohydraulic dispatcher in low temperature district heating systems for decreasing heat carrier transportation energy cost and increasing reliability of heat supply (United States)

    Yavorovsky, Y. V.; Romanov, D. O.; Sennikov, V. V.; Sultanguzin, I. A.; Malenkov, A. S.; Zhigulina, E. V.; Lulaev, A. V.


    Low pressure district heating systems have low breakdown rate and allow decreasing heat carrier transportation energy cost by means of avoiding throttling of available water head. One of the basic elements of such systems is thermohydraulic dispatcher (THD) which separates primary circuit and secondary circuit (or circuits) that allows avoiding mutual hydraulic influence of circuits on each other and reducing water heads of network pumps. Analysis of perspective ways of using thermohydraulic dispatcher (THD) in low temperature district heating systems is made in this paper. Principal scheme and mathematical model of low pressure and temperature district heating system based on CHP generation with THD are considered. The main advantages of such systems are pointed out.

  19. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: Influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge (United States)

    The difference in the response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kilograms body weight) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 31...

  20. Researching of the possibility of using absorption heat exchangers for creating the low return temperature heat supply systems based on CHP generation (United States)

    Yavorovsky, Y. V.; Malenkov, A. S.; Zhigulina, Y. V.; Romanov, D. O.; Kurzanov, S. Y.


    This paper deals with the variant of modernization of the heat point within urban heat supply network in order to create the system of heat and cold supply on its basis, providing the suppliers with heat in cold months and with heat and cold in warm months. However, in cold months in the course of heating system operation, the reverse delivery water temperature is maintained below 40 °C. The analysis of heat and power indicators of the heat and cold supply system under different operating conditions throughout the year was conducted. The possibility to use the existing heat networks for the cold supply needs was estimated. The advantages of the system over the traditional heat supply systems that use Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant as a heat source as exemplified by heat supply system from CHP with ST-80 turbine were demonstrated.

  1. Effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interface temperature and surface energy (United States)

    Wen, Tong; Zhao, Yunliang; Xiao, Qihang; Ma, Qiulin; Kang, Shichang; Li, Hongqiang; Song, Shaoxian

    The microwave-assisted leaching was a new approach to intensify the copper recovery from chalcopyrite by hydrometallurgy. In this work, the effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interfacial reaction temperature and surface energy were investigated. The activation energy of chalcopyrite leaching was affected indistinctively by the microwave-assisted heating (39.1 kJ/mol) compared with the conventional heating (43.9 kJ/mol). However, the boiling point of the leaching system increased through microwave-assisted heating. Because of the improved boiling point and the selective heating of microwave, the interfacial reaction temperature increased significantly, which gave rise to the increase of the leaching recovery of copper. Moreover, the surface energy of the chalcopyrite through microwave-assisted heating was also enhanced, which was beneficial to strengthen the leaching of chalcopyrite.

  2. Optimized space heating system operation with the aim of lowering the primary return temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljunggren, Patrick; Johansson, Per-Olof; Wollerstrand, Janusz.


    The paper presents results from a study aiming at minimizing the primary return temperature from a district heating (DH) substation by optimizing the control algorithm for a space heating system connected to the DH grid via a heat exchanger (HEX). As shown in a previous study, an optimal (i.e. minimum) DH return temperature exists for each and every heat load. By varying the radiator flow and the radiator supply temperature this optimum can be found. A space heating system is traditionally designed for a constant circulation flow rate combined with a suitable control curve for the space heating supply temperature as a function of the outdoor temperature. Optimal choice of the control curve varies from case to case and is an issue both we and others have dealt with in previous work. In the paper, theoretical control curves for optimal control of the space heating system in order to minimize the DH return temperature has been derived by calculating how supply temperature and circulation flow should be varied with the heat load. The estimated gain was found to vary strongly, depending on the actual conditions; however, assuming realistic conditions, it was seen that the gain can be as much as a reduction of 6 deg C of the DH return temperature from the radiator HEX on yearly average. This paper presents theoretical knowledge and shows results supported with practical experiments. Based on these results a method for adaptive choice of parameter values for an optimized controller can be developed. One of the advantages with such an algorithm is that it will automatically adapt to changed conditions, e.g. variation in primary supply temperature

  3. Solar heating and cooling system with absorption chiller and low temperature latent heat storage: Energetic performance and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, M.; Keil, C.; Hiebler, S.; Mehling, H.; Schweigler, C. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) (Germany)


    Absorption cooling systems based on water/lithium bromide (LiBr) solution typically require an open wet cooling tower to transfer the reject heat to the ambient. Yet, water consumption, the need for water make-up and cleaning, formation of fog, and the risk of Legionella bacteria growth are hindering factors for the implementation of small solar cooling systems. The application of a latent heat storage supporting the heat rejection of the absorption chiller in conjunction with a dry cooling system allows eliminating the wet cooling tower. By that means heat rejection of the chiller is shifted to periods with lower ambient temperatures, i.e. night time or off-peak hours. The system concept and the hydraulic scheme together with an analysis of the energetic performance of the system are presented, followed by a report on the operation of a first pilot installation. (author)

  4. Effect of heat treatment temperature on microstructure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Keywords. Hollow carbon spheres; heat treatment; gas pressure; lithium ion battery. 1. Introduction. The development of portable devices in recent years has ..... project of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and. Shanghai Education Development Foundation Science and. Technology (No. 09CG53), Science and ...

  5. Effect of high energy electron beam (10MeV) on specific heat capacity of low-density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite nano-composite. (United States)

    Soltani, Z; Ziaie, F; Ghaffari, M; Beigzadeh, A M


    In the present work, thermal properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose LDPE reinforced with different weight percents of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powder which was synthesized via hydrolysis method are produced. The samples were irradiated with 10MeV electron beam at doses of 75 to 250kGy. Specific heat capacity measurement have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 25, 50, 75 and 100°C using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) apparatus and the effect of three parameters include of temperature, irradiation dose and the amount of HAP nano particles as additives on the specific heat capacity of PE/HAP have been investigated precisely. The MTDSC results indicate that the specific heat capacity have decreased by addition of nano sized HAP as reinforcement for LDPE. On the other hand, the effect of radiation dose is reduction in the specific heat capacity in all materials including LDPE and its nano composites. The HAP nano particles along with cross-link junctions due to radiation restrain the movement of the polymer chains in the vicinity of each particle and improve the immobility of polymer chains and consequently lead to reduction in specific heat capacity. Also, the obtained results confirm that the radiation effect on the specific heat capacity is more efficient than the reinforcing effect of nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermo-mechanics in packed beds: Modeling and design of high temperature heat storage


    Dreißigacker, Volker


    Several novel power plant technologies, such as concentrating solar power (CSP) plants or adiabatic compressed air storage (ACAES), depend on heat storage systems as a central plant element. Where gaseous heat transfer media at elevated temperature levels are used, a regenerator-type heat storage is a particularly cost-effective solution. A large-scale design based on a packed bed inventory can further reduce investment costs, but is fraught with the risk of mechanical failures caused by the ...

  7. A One-Source Approach for Estimating Land Surface Heat Fluxes Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Yang


    Full Text Available The partitioning of available energy between sensible heat and latent heat is important for precise water resources planning and management in the context of global climate change. Land surface temperature (LST is a key variable in energy balance process and remotely sensed LST is widely used for estimating surface heat fluxes at regional scale. However, the inequality between LST and aerodynamic surface temperature (Taero poses a great challenge for regional heat fluxes estimation in one-source energy balance models. To address this issue, we proposed a One-Source Model for Land (OSML to estimate regional surface heat fluxes without requirements for empirical extra resistance, roughness parameterization and wind velocity. The proposed OSML employs both conceptual VFC/LST trapezoid model and the electrical analog formula of sensible heat flux (H to analytically estimate the radiometric-convective resistance (rae via a quartic equation. To evaluate the performance of OSML, the model was applied to the Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX in United States and the Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE in China, using remotely sensed retrievals as auxiliary data sets at regional scale. Validated against tower-based surface fluxes observations, the root mean square deviation (RMSD of H and latent heat flux (LE from OSML are 34.5 W/m2 and 46.5 W/m2 at SMACEX site and 50.1 W/m2 and 67.0 W/m2 at MUSOEXE site. The performance of OSML is very comparable to other published studies. In addition, the proposed OSML model demonstrates similar skills of predicting surface heat fluxes in comparison to SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System. Since OSML does not require specification of aerodynamic surface characteristics, roughness parameterization and meteorological conditions with high spatial variation such as wind speed, this proposed method shows high potential for routinely acquisition of latent heat flux estimation

  8. Development of two tier test to assess conceptual understanding in heat and temperature (United States)

    Winarti; Cari; Suparmi; Sunarno, Widha; Istiyono, Edi


    Heat and temperature is a concept that has been learnt from primary school to undergraduate levels. One problem about heat and temperature is that they are presented abstractly, theoretical concept. A student conceptual frameworks develop from their daily experiences. The purpose of this research was to develop a two-tier test of heat and temperature concept and measure conceptual understanding of heat and temperature of the student. This study consist of two method is qualitative and quantitative method. The two-tier test was developed using procedures defined by Borg and Gall. The two-tier test consisted of 20 question and was tested for 137 students for collecting data. The result of the study showed that the two-tier test was effective in determining the students’ conceptual understanding and also it might be used as an alternative for assessment and evaluation of students’ achievement

  9. What are the relative roles of heating and cooling in generating solar wind temperature anisotropies? (United States)

    Maruca, B A; Kasper, J C; Bale, S D


    Temperature anisotropy in the solar wind results from a combination of mechanisms of anisotropic heating (e.g., cyclotron-resonant heating and dissipation of kinetic Alfvén waves) and cooling (e.g., Chew-Goldberger-Low double-adiabatic expansion). In contrast, anisotropy-driven instabilities such as the cyclotron, mirror, and firehose instabilities limit the allowable departure of the plasma from isotropy. This study used data from the Faraday cups on the Wind spacecraft to examine scalar temperature and temperature components of protons. Plasma unstable to the mirror or firehose instability was found to be about 3-4 times hotter than stable plasma. Since anisotropy-driven instabilities are not understood to heat the plasma, these results suggest that heating processes are more effective than cooling processes at creating and maintaining proton temperature anisotropy in the solar wind.

  10. The effect of heating temperature and methods towards the formability of deep drawn square metal cup (United States)

    Basril, M. A. M.; Teng, H. M.; Azuddin, M.; Choudhury, I. A.


    Deep drawing operation is one of the most crucial sheet metal forming processes in industrial applications, but it usually requires expensive multi-step production processes, which is necessary in order to produce complex parts. On top of that, room temperature may cause poor formability or failure due to mechanical properties of the material. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of heating temperature and the most efficient heating position to perform warm square deep drawing operation without failure. Besides that, this study also aims to compare the thickness distribution of drawn cup’s profile obtained from experiment and finite element analysis. A warm formability study of aluminium, mild steel and stainless steel sheet metals are tested by deep drawing experimental methods. The Taguchi approach, which applies L9 orthogonal array, is used to conduct experiments. Different sizes of square blanks are deep drawn at room temperature, 100°C, 150°C and 200°C using three heating techniques, which are heating die only, heating punch only and heating both the die and punch. The results show that warm deep drawing process has more uniform thickness distribution within the square cup profile compared to room temperature condition. Furthermore, maximum thinning condition at the punch corner is noticeably reduced. Lower and upper limit of heating temperature exists, as there is a low and high-temperature failure. Combination of stainless steel with 45 mm blank size, heating temperature of 150°C and die heating technique is optimal in order to obtain uniform thickness distribution in square cup deep drawing process.

  11. Temperature Dependence and Magnetic Properties of Injection Molding Tool Materials Used in Induction Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    To analyze the heating phase of an induction heated injection molding tool precisely, the temperature-dependent magnetic properties, B–H curves, and the hysteresis loss are necessary for the molding tool materials. Hence, injection molding tool steels, core materials among other materials have...

  12. Modelling of Temperature Profiles and Transport Scaling in Auxiliary Heated Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callen, J.D.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.


    -mode) scaling with input power, . The constant heat pinch or excess temperature gradient model leads to the offset linear law for the total stored energy W with Pin, W = τinc Pin + W(0), which describes JET auxiliary heating data quite well. It also provides definitions for the incremental energy confinement...

  13. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars


    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...

  14. Innovative Hybrid CHP systems for high temperature heating plant in existing buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Santoli, Livio; Lo Basso, Gianluigi; Nastasi, B.; d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca R.; Mazzarella and Piercarlo, Livio


    This paper deals with the potential role of new hybrid CHP systems application providing both electricity and heat which are compatible with the building architectural and landscape limitations. In detail, three different plant layout options for high temperature heat production along with the

  15. Air Temperature, Heat Sums, and Pollen Shedding Phenology of Longleaf Pine (United States)

    William D. Boyer


    Between 1957 and 1966, pollen shedding by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) in southwestern Alabama peaked at dates ranging from February 23 to April 3. January 1 and 50°F was the combination of starting date and threshold air temperature that minimized annual variations in heat sums before the trees flowered. The heat sum required for peak...

  16. Measurement and Model Validation of Nanofluid Specific Heat Capacity with Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry O'Hanley


    Full Text Available Nanofluids are being considered for heat transfer applications; therefore it is important to know their thermophysical properties accurately. In this paper we focused on nanofluid specific heat capacity. Currently, there exist two models to predict a nanofluid specific heat capacity as a function of nanoparticle concentration and material. Model I is a straight volume-weighted average; Model II is based on the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the particles and the surrounding fluid. These two models give significantly different predictions for a given system. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, a robust experimental methodology for measuring the heat capacity of fluids, the specific heat capacities of water-based silica, alumina, and copper oxide nanofluids were measured. Nanoparticle concentrations were varied between 5 wt% and 50 wt%. Test results were found to be in excellent agreement with Model II, while the predictions of Model I deviated very significantly from the data. Therefore, Model II is recommended for nanofluids.

  17. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...... properties with a fine resolution, down to 1 millimeter. Special attention needs to be taken when determining the specific heat capacity in the comparative method. First of all, the test and reference sample should be of nearly identical thickness. Secondly, their heat diffusion time should be comparable, so...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity....

  18. Experiment and simulation of temperature characteristics of intermittently-controlled ground heat exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qing; Li, Ming; Yu, Ming [Department of Thermal Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun (China)


    Because of poor heat transfer coefficients of soil/rock, ground source heat pumps (GSHP) or underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems always occupy a large area and need many ground heat exchangers. This initial energy investment is so heavy that it cannot be used on a large-scale. Intermittent operation can reduce the extreme temperatures around the ground heat exchangers (GHEs) and keep the temperature in reasonable range. The aim of this study is to implement an experiment and develop a dynamic model of hydronic heating systems of GSHP in order to get a more fair comparison of energy efficiency between continuously controlled and intermittently controlled systems. Factors such as thermal inertia, temperature levels and lag time are also considered to see how they affect the efficiency. It is shown that temperature variation is related to the intermittent period and that intermittence prolongs the heat transfer without reaching at an utmost temperature (operation limitation). An effectively controlled intermittent process can optimize the capacity of heat exchange units so as to achieve better application of the ground energy. Additionally, the intermittent control can decrease the number of GHEs of GSHP and UTES systems and keep better working conditions. (author)

  19. Temperature Control at DBS Electrodes using Heat Sink: Experimentally Validated FEM Model of DBS lead Architecture (United States)

    Elwassif, Maged M.; Datta, Abhishek; Rahman, Asif; Bikson, Marom


    There is a growing interest in the use of Deep Brain Stimulation for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders and other neurological and psychiatric conditions. The extent of temperature increases around DBS electrodes during normal operation (joule heating and increased metabolic activity) or coupling with an external source (e.g. MRI) remains poorly understood and methods to mitigate temperature increases are being actively investigated. We developed a heat transfer finite element method simulation of DBS incorporating the realistic architecture of Medtronic 3389 leads. The temperature changes were analyzed considering different electrode configurations, stimulation protocols, and tissue properties. The heat-transfer model results were then validated using micro-thermocouple measurements during DBS lead stimulation in a saline bath. FEM results indicate that lead design (materials and geometry) may have a central role in controlling temperature rise by conducting heat. We show how modifying lead design can effectively control temperature increases. The robustness of this heat-sink approach over complimentary heat-mitigation technologies follows from several features: 1) it is insensitive to the mechanisms of heating (e.g. nature of magnetic coupling); 2) does not interfere with device efficacy; and 3) can be practically implemented in a broad range of implanted devices without modifying the normal device operations or the implant procedure. PMID:22764359

  20. Analysis and research on promising solutions of low temperature district heating without risk of legionella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Fog, Jette M.


    resources. The most crucial restriction for applying low temperature district heating is the worry about the breakout of legionella, which exists preferably in low temperature hot water systems. Several novel techniques such as electric tracing and flat station were investigated for such dilemma. The pros...... and cons were compared in this paper. Both the energy and economy saving ratios were analysed comparing with high temperature supply scenario. Furthermore, the viability of the applications in different types of buildings for low temperature district heating (LTDH) was also discussed by using dynamic...

  1. Heat flow and subsurface temperature distributions in central and western New York. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S.; Fromm, K.A.


    Existing data in western and central New York indicates the possibility of a low-temperature, direct-use geothermal resource. This report evaluates the heat flow and provides a representation of temperatures at depth in this area. This has been done by: (1) analyzing known temperature distributions, (2) measuring the thermal conductivity of sedimentary rock units. Based on this information, areas of higher-than-normal heat flow and temperatures in possible geothermal source reservoirs are described to aid in targeting areas for the exploitation of geothermal energy in New York.

  2. Effect of heat transfer correlations on the fuel temperature prediction of SCWRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa-Martínez Erick-Gilberto


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a numerical analysis of the effect of different heat transfer correlations on the prediction of the cladding wall temperature in a supercritical water reactor at nominal operating conditions. The neutronics process with temperature feedback effects, the heat transfer in the fuel rod, and the thermal-hydraulics in the core were simulated with a three-pass core design.

  3. An apparatus for the specific heat measurement of undercooled liquids (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Gatewood, J. R.; Trinh, E. H.


    This paper describes a drop calorimeter with an electromagnetic levitator that was specifically built for enthalpy measurements of undercooled liquids, including high-melting-point metals. Design diagrams of this device and of a furnace for making a suspended drop are presented together with results of measurements on an aluminum sample.

  4. Low Temperature Heat Source Utilization Current and Advanced Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, James H. Jr.; Dambly, Benjamin W.


    Once a geothermal heat source has been identified as having the potential for development, and its thermal, physical, and chemical characteristics have been determined, a method of utilization must be decided upon. This compendium will touch upon some of these concerns, and hopefully will provide the reader with a better understanding of technologies being developed that will be applicable to geothermal development in East Africa, as well as other parts of the world. The appendices contain detailed reports on Down-the-Well Turbo Pump, The Vapor-Turbine Cycle for Geothermal Power Generation, Heat Exchanger Design for Geothermal Power Plants, and a Feasibility Study of Combined Power and Water Desalting Plant Using Hot Geothermal Water. [DJE-2005

  5. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.


    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  6. A novel conditional gene silencing method using a tumor-specific and heat-inducible siRNA system. (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Liao, Yi; Feng, Jianguo; Tang, Liling


    RNAi technology is an invaluable tool for investigating gene function. However, the non-temporal and non-spatial control is the primary limitation, which leads to siRNA leakiness and off-target effects. In this study, we inserted three kinds of HSE into tumor specific promoter hTERT, which aims to construct a temperature-inducible and tumor-specific RNAi plasmid vector. In our system, the expression of mature siRNA is tightly controlled by the heat shock-inducible and tumor-specific promoters. From the expression level of RNA and protein, we determined the efficiency of the inducible siRNA system by targeting SNCG gene in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Results showed that the controllable siRNA system could be induced to initiate siRNA expression by heat-induce. The silencing effect of SNCG is on a relative low level (10 %) at 37 °C, while it is significantly increased to 50 or 60 % after heat inducing at 43 °C. This new conditional siRNA system provides a novel approach to drive the siRNA expression by heat-inducible and tumor-specific promoter.

  7. Temperature fields produced by traveling distributed heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagar, T.W.; Tsai, N.S.


    The solution of a traveling distributed heat source on a semi-infinite plate provides information about both the size and the shape of arc weld pools. The results indicate that both welding process variables (current, arc length and travel speed) and material parameters (thermal diffusivity) have significant effects on weld shape. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results on carbon steels, stainless steel, titanium and aluminum with good agreement. 25 references, 23 figures, 1 table.

  8. Specific microRNAs Regulate Heat Stress Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehammer, Camilla; Podolska, Agnieszka; Mackowiak, Sebastian D


    to heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans and show that a discrete subset of miRNAs is thermoregulated. Using in-depth phenotypic analyses of miRNA deletion mutant strains we reveal multiple developmental and post-developmental survival and behavioral functions for specific miRNAs during heat stress. We...

  9. Heat exchanger temperature response for duty-cycle transients in the NGNP/HTE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, R. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    Control system studies were performed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) interfaced to the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) plant. Temperature change and associated thermal stresses are important factors in determining plant lifetime. In the NGNP the design objective of a 40 year lifetime for the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) in particular is seen as a challenge. A control system was designed to minimize temperature changes in the IHX and more generally at all high-temperature locations in the plant for duty-cycle transients. In the NGNP this includes structures at the reactor outlet and at the inlet to the turbine. This problem was approached by identifying those high-level factors that determine temperature rates of change. First are the set of duty cycle transients over which the control engineer has little control but which none-the-less must be addressed. Second is the partitioning of the temperature response into a quasi-static component and a transient component. These two components are largely independent of each other and when addressed as such greater understanding of temperature change mechanisms and how to deal with them is achieved. Third is the manner in which energy and mass flow rates are managed. Generally one aims for a temperature distribution that minimizes spatial non-uniformity of thermal expansion in a component with time. This is can be achieved by maintaining a fixed spatial temperature distribution in a component during transients. A general rule of thumb for heat exchangers is to maintain flow rate proportional to thermal power. Additionally the product of instantaneous flow rate and heat capacity should be maintained the same on both sides of the heat exchanger. Fourth inherent mechanisms for stable behavior should not be compromised by active controllers that can introduce new feedback paths and potentially create under-damped response. Applications of these principles to the development of a plant control strategy for

  10. Influence of ambient temperature and minute ventilation on passive and active heat and moisture exchangers. (United States)

    Lellouche, François; Qader, Siham; Taillé, Solenne; Lyazidi, Aissam; Brochard, Laurent


    During invasive mechanical ventilation, inspired gases must be humidified. We previously showed that high ambient temperature greatly impaired the hygrometric performance of heated wire-heated humidifiers. The aim of this bench and clinical study was to assess the humidification performance of passive and active heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and the impact of ambient temperature and ventilator settings. We first tested on the bench a device with passive and active humidification properties (Humid-Heat, Teleflex), and 2 passive hydrophobic/hygroscopic HMEs (Hygrobac and Hygrobac S, Tyco Healthcare). The devices were tested at 3 different ambient temperatures (from 22 to 30 °C), and at 2 minute ventilation settings (10 and 20 L/min). Inspired gas hygrometry was measured at the Y-piece with the psychrometric method. In addition to the bench study, we measured the hygrometry of inspired gases in 2 different clinical studies. In 15 mechanically ventilated patients, we evaluated Humid-Heat at different settings. Additionally, we evaluated Humid-Heat and compared it with Hygrobac in a crossover study in 10 patients. On the bench, with the Hygrobac and Hygrobac S the inspired absolute humidity was ∼ 30 mg H2O/L, and with the Humid-Heat, slightly Heat provided inspired humidity in a range from 28.5 to 42.0 mg H2O/L, depending on settings, and was only weakly influenced by the patient's body temperature. In this study both passive and active HMEs had stable humidification performance with negligible influence of ambient temperature and minute ventilation. This contrasts with previous findings with heated wire-heated humidifiers. Although there are no clear data demonstrating that higher humidification impacts outcomes, it is worth noting that humidity was significantly higher with the active HME.

  11. Heat transfer coefficient: Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System vs. water immersion. (United States)

    English, M J; Hemmerling, T M


    To improve heat transfer, the Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (Medivance, Inc., Louisville, CO, USA) features an adhesive, water-conditioned, highly conductive hydrogel pad for intimate skin contact. This study measured and compared the heat transfer coefficient (h), i.e. heat transfer efficiency, of this pad (hPAD), in a heated model and in nine volunteers' thighs; and of 10 degrees C water (hWATER) in 33 head-out immersions by 11 volunteers. Volunteer studies had ethical approval and written informed consent. Calibrated heat flux transducers measured heat flux (W m-2). Temperature gradient (DeltaT) was measured between skin and pad or water temperatures. Temperature gradient was changed through the pad's water temperature controller or by skin cooling on immersion. The heat transfer coefficient is the slope of W m-2/DeltaT: its unit is W m-2 degrees C-1. Average with (95% CI) was: model, hPAD = 110.4 (107.8-113.1), R2 = 0.99, n = 45; volunteers, hPAD = 109.8 (95.5-124.1), R2 = 0.83, n = 51; and water immersion, hWATER = 107.1 (98.1-116), R2 = 0.86, n = 94. The heat transfer coefficient for the pad was the same in the model and volunteers, and equivalent to hWATER. Therefore, for the same DeltaT and heat transfer area, the Arctic Sun's heat transfer rate would equal water immersion. This has important implications for body cooling/rewarming rates.

  12. Optimization and simulation of low-temperature combustion and heat transfer in an Uhde carbonization furnace (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yongfa; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lei; Liu, Gaihuan


    The temperature distribution inside a low-temperature combustion chamber with circuited flame path during the low temperature pyrolysis of lignite was simulated using the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The temperature distribution in the Uhde combustion chamber showed that the temperature is very non-uniform and could therefore not meet the requirements for industrial heat transfer. After optimizing the furnace, by adding a self-made gas-guide structure to the heat transfer section as well as adjusting the gas flow size in the flame path, the temperature distribution became uniform, and the average temperature (550-650 °C) became suitable for industrial low-temperature pyrolysis. The Realizable k-epsilon model, P-1 model, and the Non-premixed model were used to calculate the temperature distribution for the combustion of coke-oven gas and air inside the combustion chamber. Our simulation is consistent with our experimental results within an error range of 40-80 °C. The one-dimensional unsteady state heat conduction differential equation ρ nolimits_{coal} Cnolimits_{coal} partial T/partial t = partial /partial x(λ partial T/partial x) can be used to calculate the heat transfer process. Our results can serve as a first theoretical base and may enable technological advances with regard to lignite pyrolysis.

  13. Effective temperature in nonequilibrium state with heat flux using discrete variable model (United States)

    Sobolev, S. L.


    The effective temperature, which acts as a criterion for thermalization in systems with heat flux, has been introduced on the bases of a relatively simple discrete variable model (DVM). The DVM is inherently nonlocal and can be used to describe multi-length and -time scale heat conduction including low-dimensional and sub-continuum regimes. Under far from equilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature and the corresponding nonequilibrium entropy go to zero, which points to a possible generalization of the third law in nonequilibrium situations.

  14. Satellite air temperature estimation for monitoring the canopy layer heat island of Milan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichierri, Manuele; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo


    In this work, satellite maps of the urban heat island of Milan are produced using satellite-based infrared sensor data. For this aim, we developed suitable algorithms employing satellite brightness temperatures for the direct air temperature estimation 2 m above the surface (canopy layer), showing...... 2007 and 2010 were processed. Analysis of the canopy layer heat island (CLHI) maps during summer months reveals an average heat island effect of 3–4K during nighttime (with some peaks around 5K) and a weak CLHI intensity during daytime. In addition, the satellite maps reveal a well defined island shape...

  15. The Effect of Baffles on the Temperature Distribution and Heat-transfer Coefficients of Finned Cylinders (United States)

    Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Vern G


    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of baffles on the temperature distribution and the heat-transfer coefficient of finned cylinders. The tests were conducted in a 30-inch wind tunnel on electrically heated cylinders with fins of 0.25 and 0.31 inch pitch. The results of these tests showed that the use of integral baffles gave a reduction of 31.9 percent in the rear wall temperatures and an increase of 54.2 percent in the heat transfer coefficient as compared with a cylinder without baffles.

  16. Lattice specific heat and local density of states of Ni-based dilute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based dilute alloys has been carried out. Lattice Green's function method has been used to calculate the local density of states of substitutional impurities and lattice specific heat in different alloys. The resonance condition has been investigated for ...

  17. Geometric Characteristics of Methane Steam Reforming with Low Temperature Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Gahui; Yun, Jinwon; Yu, Sangseok [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In a hybrid fuel cell system, low-temperature reforming technology, which uses waste heat as a heat source, is applied to improve system efficiency. A low temperature reformer is required to optimize geometry in low thermal conditions so that the reformer can achieve the proper methane conversion rate. This study analyzed internal temperature distributions and the reaction patterns of a reformer by considering the change of the shape factor on the limited heat supply condition. Unlike the case of a high temperature reformer, analysis showed that the reaction of a low temperature reformer takes place primarily in the high temperature region of the reactor exit. In addition, it was confirmed that the efficiency can be improved by reducing the GHSV (gas hourly space velocity) or increasing the heat transfer area in the radial direction. Through reacting characteristic analysis, according to change of the aspect ratio, it was confirmed that a low temperature reformer can improve the efficiency by increasing the heat transfer in the radial direction, rather than in the longitudinal direction.

  18. A Review of Heating and Temperature Control in Microfluidic Systems: Techniques and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Caroline Jullien


    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the different techniques developed over the last decade to regulate the temperature within microfluidic systems. A variety of different approaches has been adopted, from external heating sources to Joule heating, microwaves or the use of lasers to cite just a few examples. The scope of the technical solutions developed to date is impressive and encompasses for instance temperature ramp rates ranging from 0.1 to 2,000 °C/s leading to homogeneous temperatures from −3 °C to 120 °C, and constant gradients from 6 to 40 °C/mm with a fair degree of accuracy. We also examine some recent strategies developed for applications such as digital microfluidics, where integration of a heating source to generate a temperature gradient offers control of a key parameter, without necessarily requiring great accuracy. Conversely, Temperature Gradient Focusing requires high accuracy in order to control both the concentration and separation of charged species. In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction requires both accuracy (homogeneous temperature and integration to carry out demanding heating cycles. The spectrum of applications requiring temperature regulation is growing rapidly with increasingly important implications for the physical, chemical and biotechnological sectors, depending on the relevant heating technique.

  19. Development of numerical model for predicting heat generation and temperatures in MSW landfills. (United States)

    Hanson, James L; Yeşiller, Nazli; Onnen, Michael T; Liu, Wei-Lien; Oettle, Nicolas K; Marinos, Janelle A


    A numerical modeling approach has been developed for predicting temperatures in municipal solid waste landfills. Model formulation and details of boundary conditions are described. Model performance was evaluated using field data from a landfill in Michigan, USA. The numerical approach was based on finite element analysis incorporating transient conductive heat transfer. Heat generation functions representing decomposition of wastes were empirically developed and incorporated to the formulation. Thermal properties of materials were determined using experimental testing, field observations, and data reported in literature. The boundary conditions consisted of seasonal temperature cycles at the ground surface and constant temperatures at the far-field boundary. Heat generation functions were developed sequentially using varying degrees of conceptual complexity in modeling. First a step-function was developed to represent initial (aerobic) and residual (anaerobic) conditions. Second, an exponential growth-decay function was established. Third, the function was scaled for temperature dependency. Finally, an energy-expended function was developed to simulate heat generation with waste age as a function of temperature. Results are presented and compared to field data for the temperature-dependent growth-decay functions. The formulations developed can be used for prediction of temperatures within various components of landfill systems (liner, waste mass, cover, and surrounding subgrade), determination of frost depths, and determination of heat gain due to decomposition of wastes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review of Heating and Temperature Control in Microfluidic Systems: Techniques and Applications (United States)

    Miralles, Vincent; Huerre, Axel; Malloggi, Florent; Jullien, Marie-Caroline


    This review presents an overview of the different techniques developed over the last decade to regulate the temperature within microfluidic systems. A variety of different approaches has been adopted, from external heating sources to Joule heating, microwaves or the use of lasers to cite just a few examples. The scope of the technical solutions developed to date is impressive and encompasses for instance temperature ramp rates ranging from 0.1 to 2,000 °C/s leading to homogeneous temperatures from −3 °C to 120 °C, and constant gradients from 6 to 40 °C/mm with a fair degree of accuracy. We also examine some recent strategies developed for applications such as digital microfluidics, where integration of a heating source to generate a temperature gradient offers control of a key parameter, without necessarily requiring great accuracy. Conversely, Temperature Gradient Focusing requires high accuracy in order to control both the concentration and separation of charged species. In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction requires both accuracy (homogeneous temperature) and integration to carry out demanding heating cycles. The spectrum of applications requiring temperature regulation is growing rapidly with increasingly important implications for the physical, chemical and biotechnological sectors, depending on the relevant heating technique. PMID:26835667

  1. Linking potential heat source and sink to urban heat island: Heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on land surface temperature. (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Cao, Qiwen; Lang, Kun; Wu, Jiansheng


    Rapid urbanization has significantly contributed to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Regulating landscape composition and configuration would help mitigate the UHI in megacities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as a case study area, we defined heat source and heat sink and identified strong and weak sources as well as strong and weak sinks according to the natural and socioeconomic factors influencing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, the potential thermal contributions of heat source and heat sink patches were differentiated. Then, the heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on LST were examined by using semiparametric geographically weighted regression (SGWR) models. The results showed that landscape composition has more significant effects on thermal environment than configuration. For a strong source, the percentage of patches has a positive impact on LST. Additionally, when mosaicked with some heat sink, even a small improvement in the degree of dispersion of a strong source helps to alleviate UHI. For a weak source, the percentage and density of patches have positive impacts on LST. For a strong sink, the percentage, density, and degree of aggregation of patches have negative impacts on LST. The effects of edge density and patch shape complexity vary spatially with the fragmentation of a strong sink. Similarly, the impacts of a weak sink are mainly exerted via the characteristics of percent, density, and shape complexity of patches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Heat stress in pigs is accompanied by adipose tissue-specific responses that favor increased triglyceride storage. (United States)

    Qu, H; Yan, H; Lu, H; Donkin, S S; Ajuwon, K M


    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects all aspects of performance in pigs. Although certain tissue-specific responses in the liver, skeletal muscle, and intestine are known, there is paucity of information on responses within the adipose tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to delineate adipose tissue responses during HS in pigs. Thirty crossbred (Ossabaw × Duroc × Landrace) pigs were assigned to 3 treatments for 7 d. Treatments were 1) control and libitum fed (CON) with room temperature set at 20°C ± 1°C, 2) pair fed (PF) with room temperature as the CON treatment but pair fed to HS pigs, and 3) HS with room temperature 35°C ± 1°C and ad libitum access to feed. Compared with CON pigs, HS pigs had decreased feed intake and elevated skin temperature and respiration rate ( Heat stress also caused increased heat shock protein 70 (HSP70; = 0.067) and CCAT/enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP) content ( < 0.05) in the mesenteric fat compared with the CON treatment. In conclusion, induction of PCK1 expression in adipose tissue by HS suggests elevated glyceroneogenesis might be involved in the increased fat storage in pigs under HS.

  3. Identifying (subsurface) anthropogenic heat sources that influence temperature in the drinking water distribution system (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M.; Blokker, Mirjam; de Kater, Henk; Lafort, Rob


    The water temperature in the drinking water distribution system and at customers' taps approaches the surrounding soil temperature at a depth of 1 m. Water temperature is an important determinant of water quality. In the Netherlands drinking water is distributed without additional residual disinfectant and the temperature of drinking water at customers' taps is not allowed to exceed 25 °C. In recent decades, the urban (sub)surface has been getting more occupied by various types of infrastructures, and some of these can be heat sources. Only recently have the anthropogenic sources and their influence on the underground been studied on coarse spatial scales. Little is known about the urban shallow underground heat profile on small spatial scales, of the order of 10 m × 10 m. Routine water quality samples at the tap in urban areas have shown up locations - so-called hotspots - in the city, with relatively high soil temperatures - up to 7 °C warmer - compared to the soil temperatures in the surrounding rural areas. Yet the sources and the locations of these hotspots have not been identified. It is expected that with climate change during a warm summer the soil temperature in the hotspots can be above 25 °C. The objective of this paper is to find a method to identify heat sources and urban characteristics that locally influence the soil temperature. The proposed method combines mapping of urban anthropogenic heat sources, retrospective modelling of the soil temperature, analysis of water temperature measurements at the tap, and extensive soil temperature measurements. This approach provided insight into the typical range of the variation of the urban soil temperature, and it is a first step to identifying areas with potential underground heat stress towards thermal underground management in cities.

  4. Evaluations of different domestic hot water preparing methods with ultra-low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend


    of Legionella in the DHW (domestic hot water) and assure the comfortable temperature, all substations were installed with supplementary heating devices. Detailed measurements were taken in the substations, including the electricity demand of the supplementary heating devices. To compare the energy and economic...... performance of the substations, separate models were built based on standard assumptions. The relative heat and electricity delivered for preparing DHW were calculated. The results showed that substations with storage tanks and heat pumps have high relative electricity demand, which leads to higher integrated...

  5. Expieriences On Low-Temperature District Heating In Lystrup – Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Jan Eric; Christiansen, Christian Holm; Brand, Marek


    This paper includes main findings made during the Danish governmentally founded project “Development and Demonstration of Low-Energy District Heating for Low-Energy Buildings”, EFP2007, and the Danish governmentally founded project ”CO2-reductions in Low-Energy Buildings and Communities...... by implementing Low-temperature district heating systems. Demonstration cases in EnergyFlexHouse and Boligforeningen Ringgården” EUDP 2011. A key challenge for optimum and competitive district heating (DH) system operation is reducing heat loss in networks. Today building regulations in most countries demand...

  6. Temperature fluctuation and heat capacity in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Guo Liang; Chen Jin Gen; He Ze-Jun; Long Jia-Li; Lu Zhao-Hui; Ma Yu-Gang; Sá Ben-Hao; Shen Wen-Qing; Wang Kun; Wei Yi-Bin; Zhang Hu-Yong; Zhong Chen


    We used LUCIAE3.0 model to simulate the Pb+Pb and C+C in SPS energy. The heat capacity was then extracted from event-by-event temperature fluctuation. It is found that the heat capacity per hadron multiplicity decreases with the increasing of beam energy and impact parameter for a given reaction system. While the hadron mass increases, the heat capacity per hadron multiplicity rises. In addition, we found that, for a given hadron, the heat capacity per hadron multiplicity is almost the same regardless of the reaction system. Some discussions were also given.

  7. Heat exchanger design considerations for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.; Van Hagan, T.H.; King, J.H.; Spring, A.H.


    Various aspects of the high-temperature heat exchanger conceptual designs for the gas turbine (HTGR-GT) and process heat (HTGR-PH) plants are discussed. Topics include technology background, heat exchanger types, surface geometry, thermal sizing, performance, material selection, mechanical design, fabrication, and the systems-related impact of installation and integration of the units in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. The impact of future technology developments, such as the utilization of nonmetallic materials and advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction, is also discussed.

  8. Determination of heat transfer into a wedge model in a hypersonic flow using temperature-sensitive paint (United States)

    Risius, Steffen; Beck, Walter H.; Klein, Christian; Henne, Ulrich; Wagner, Alexander


    Heat loads on spacecraft traveling at hypersonic speed are of major interest for their designers. Several tests using temperature-sensitive paints (TSP) have been carried out in long duration shock tunnels to determine these heat loads; generally paint layers were thin, so that certain assumptions could be invoked to enable a good estimate of the thermal parameter ρck (a material property) to be obtained—the value of this parameter is needed to determine heat loads from the TSP. Very few measurements have been carried out in impulse facilities [viz. shock tunnels such as the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen (HEG)], where test times are much shorter. Presented here are TSP temperature measurements and subsequently derived heat loads on a ramp model placed in a hypersonic flow in HEG (specific enthalpy h 0 = 3.3 MJ kg-1, Mach number M = 7.4, temperature T ∞ = 277 K, density ρ ∞ = 11 g m-3). A number of fluorescence intensity images were acquired, from which, with the help of calibration data, temperature field data on the model surface were determined. From these the heat load into the surface was calculated, using an assumption of a 1D, semi-infinite heat transfer model. ρck for the paint was determined using an insitu calibration with a Medtherm coaxial thermocouple mounted on the model; Medtherm ρck is known. Finally presented are sources of various measurement uncertainties, arising from: (1) estimation of ρck; (2) intensity measurement in the chosen interrogation area; (3) paint time response.

  9. Heat balance model for a human body in the form of wet bulb globe temperature indices. (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kuwabara, Kohei; Horiba, Yosuke; Sawada, Shin-Ichi


    The purpose of this study is to expand the empirically derived wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to a rational thermal index based on the heat balance for a human body. We derive the heat balance model in the same form as the WBGT for a human engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production of 174W/m 2 while wearing typical vapor-permeable clothing under shady and sunny conditions. Two important relationships are revealed based on this derivation: (1) the natural wet bulb and black globe temperature coefficients in the WBGT coincide with the heat balance equation for a human body with a fixed skin wettedness of approximately 0.45 at a fixed skin temperature; and (2) the WBGT can be interpreted as the environmental potential to increase skin temperature rather than the heat storage rate of a human body. We propose an adjustment factor calculation method that supports the application of WBGT for humans dressed in various clothing types and working under various air velocity conditions. Concurrently, we note difficulties in adjusting the WBGT by using a single factor for humans wearing vapor-impermeable protective clothing. The WBGT for shady conditions does not need adjustment depending on the positive radiant field (i.e., when a radiant heat source exists), whereas that for the sunny condition requires adjustments because it underestimates heat stress, which may result in insufficient human protection measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High temperature heat pumps for industrial cooling; Hoejtemperatur varmepumper til industriel koeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lars; Nielsen, Jacob [Advansor A/S, Aarhus (Denmark); Kronborg, H. [Cronborg, Holstebro (Denmark); Skouenborg, K. [Jensens Koekken, Struer (Denmark)


    This report deals with theoretical analysis of various types of integration of heat pumps in the industry, as well as a demonstration plant that serves the project's practical execution. The report describes the system integration between heat pumps and existing industrial cooling systems. Ammonia plants in industry are estimated to have an allocation of 85%, which is why only an analysis of this type of installation as surplus heat supplier is included in this report. In contrast, heat pumps with both CO{sub 2} and Isobutane as the refrigerant are analysed, since these are the interesting coolants for generating high temperature heat. It can be seen through the project that the combination of heat pump with existing cooling installations may produce favorable situations where the efficiency of the heat pump is extremely high while at the same time electricity and water consumption for the cooling system is reduced. The analysis reflects that CO{sub 2} is preferred over Isobutane in the cases where a high level of temperature boost is desired, whereas Isobutane is preferable at low level of temperature boost. In the demonstration project, the report shows that the heat pump alone has a COP of 4.1, while the achieved COP is 5.5 when by considering the system as a whole. In addition to increased performance the solution profits by having a reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 81 tons/year and a saving of 470,000 DKK/year. (LN)

  11. Variation of the ratio of specific heats across a detached bow shock (United States)

    Chao, J. K.; Wiskerchen, M. J.


    Equations are derived which allow the ratio of specific heats behind the earth's bow shock to be evaluated if several pre-shock parameters (the specific-heat ratio, the Alfvenic Mach number, the sonic Mach number, and the angle between the shock normal at the stagnation point and the magnetic field) and the density jump across the shock are known. Numerical examples show that the dependence of the post-shock ratio on the pre-shock ratio is weak.

  12. Performance of low-temperature district heating for low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Svendsen, Svend


    houses, which was previously developed and reported in the project “Development and demonstration of low-energy district heating for low energy housing” [EFP, 2007]. Two different concepts of low energy district heating substations are tested, and measurements of their performance aim to document......A Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) network supplying district heating water with temperature 50°C was built in Lærkehaven-Lystrup, Denmark, as a part of the ongoing “Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Programme” [EUDP, 2008] focused on “CO2-reduction in low energy buildings...... and communities by implementation of low temperature district heating systems”. The network supplies 40 detached Low Energy Houses built in accordance with the requirements of the Danish low energy class 1. The project aims to test and evaluate in real conditions the concept of LEDH for the supply of low energy...

  13. Performing spectroscopic and specific heat studies of improper ferroelectrics (United States)

    Coleman, L. B.


    The results of infrared measurements on Ni-Br, Cu-Cl, and Fe-I boracite improper ferroelectrics and far infrared measurements of Ni-Br boracite are presented. The boracites have the general formula X3B7O3Y, where X = divalent metal and Y = halogen. They undergo a first order phase transition from a high temperature paraelectric phase with cubic symmetry to a ferroelectric phase with orthorhombic symmetry. The boracites are "improper ferroelectrics" since the spontaneous polarization is not the primary order parameter in the cubic-orthorhombic phase transition. Current understanding of these materials is that the primary order parameter is associated with a doubly degenerate zone-boundary phonon in the cubic phase. The degenerate critical modes become homogeneous and split into the A sub 1 and A sub 2 modes in the orthorhombic phase, doubling the volume of the primitive cell. An harmonic coupling between the softing A sub 1 and a low frequency A sub 1 optic mode induces a spontaneous polarization as a secondary effect in the ferroelectric phase. This secondary non-critical nature of the ferroelectric mode earns these materials the "improper" title and is responsible for their unique properties and high figure of merit in detector use.

  14. Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger (United States)

    Im, Kwan H.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.


    A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits.

  15. Numerical simulations of loops heated to solar flare temperatures. III - Asymmetrical heating (United States)

    Cheng, C.-C.; Doschek, G. A.; Karpen, J. T.


    A numerical model is defined for asymmetric full solar flare loop heating and comparisons are made with observational data. The Dynamic Flux Tube Model is used to describe the heating process in terms of one-dimensional, two fluid conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum. An adaptive grid allows for the downward movement of the transition region caused by an advancing conduction front. A loop 20,000 km long is considered, along with a flare heating system and the hydrodynamic evolution of the loop. The model was applied to generating line profiles and spatial X-ray and UV line distributions, which were compared with SMM, P78-1 and Hintori data for Fe, Ca and Mg spectra. Little agreement was obtained, and it is suggested that flares be treated as multi-loop phenomena. Finally, it is concluded that chromospheric evaporation is not an effective mechanism for generating the soft X-ray bursts associated with flares.

  16. Empirical equations for viscosity and specific heat capacity determination of paraffin PCM and fatty acid PCM (United States)

    Barreneche, C.; Ferrer, G.; Palacios, A.; Solé, A.; Inés Fernández, A.; Cabeza, L. F.


    Phase change materials (PCM) used in thermal energy storage (TES) systems have been presented, over recent years, as one of the most effective options in energy storage. Paraffin and fatty acids are some of the most used PCM in TES systems, as they have high phase change enthalpy and in addition they do not present subcooling nor hysteresis and have proper cycling stability. The simulations and design of TES systems require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of PCM. Thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat capacity (Cp) can be experimentally determined, but these are material and time consuming tasks. To avoid or to reduce them, and to have reliable data without the need of experimentation, thermal properties can be calculated by empirical equations. In this study, five different equations are given to calculate the viscosity and specific heat capacity of fatty acid PCM and paraffin PCM. Two of these equations concern, respectively, the empirical calculation of the viscosity and liquid Cp of the whole paraffin PCM family, while the other three equations presented are for the corresponding calculation of viscosity, solid Cp, liquid Cp of the whole fatty acid family of PCM. Therefore, this study summarize the work performed to obtain the main empirical equations to measure the above mentioned properties for whole fatty acid PCM family and whole paraffin PCM family. Moreover, empirical equations have been obtained to calculate these properties for other materials of these PCM groups and these empirical equations can be extrapolated for PCM with higher or lower phase change temperatures within a lower relative error 4%.

  17. Modelling the variation of land surface temperature as determinant of risk of heat-related health events (United States)


    Background The evaluation of exposure to ambient temperatures in epidemiological studies has generally been based on records from meteorological stations which may not adequately represent local temperature variability. Here we propose a spatially explicit model to estimate local exposure to temperatures of large populations under various meteorological conditions based on satellite and meteorological data. Methods A general linear model was used to estimate surface temperatures using 15 LANDSAT 5 and LANDSAT 7 images for Quebec Province, Canada between 1987 and 2002 and spanning the months of June to August. The images encompassed both rural and urban landscapes and predictors included: meteorological records of temperature and wind speed, distance to major water bodies, Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI), land cover (built and bare land, water, or vegetation), latitude, longitude, and week of the year. Results The model explained 77% of the variance in surface temperature, accounting for both temporal and spatial variations. The standard error of estimates was 1.42°C. Land cover and NDVI were strong predictors of surface temperature. Conclusions This study suggests that a statistical approach to estimating surface temperature incorporating both spatially explicit satellite data and time-varying meteorological data may be relevant to assessing exposure to heat during the warm season in the Quebec. By allowing the estimation of space- and time-specific surface temperatures, this model may also be used to assess the possible impacts of land use changes under various meteorological conditions. It can be applied to assess heat exposure within a large population and at relatively fine-grained scale. It may be used to evaluate the acute health effect of heat exposure over long time frames. The method proposed here could be replicated in other areas around the globe for which satellite data and meteorological data is available. PMID:21251286

  18. Modelling the variation of land surface temperature as determinant of risk of heat-related health events. (United States)

    Kestens, Yan; Brand, Allan; Fournier, Michel; Goudreau, Sophie; Kosatsky, Tom; Maloley, Matthew; Smargiassi, Audrey


    The evaluation of exposure to ambient temperatures in epidemiological studies has generally been based on records from meteorological stations which may not adequately represent local temperature variability. Here we propose a spatially explicit model to estimate local exposure to temperatures of large populations under various meteorological conditions based on satellite and meteorological data. A general linear model was used to estimate surface temperatures using 15 LANDSAT 5 and LANDSAT 7 images for Quebec Province, Canada between 1987 and 2002 and spanning the months of June to August. The images encompassed both rural and urban landscapes and predictors included: meteorological records of temperature and wind speed, distance to major water bodies, Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI), land cover (built and bare land, water, or vegetation), latitude, longitude, and week of the year. The model explained 77% of the variance in surface temperature, accounting for both temporal and spatial variations. The standard error of estimates was 1.42°C. Land cover and NDVI were strong predictors of surface temperature. This study suggests that a statistical approach to estimating surface temperature incorporating both spatially explicit satellite data and time-varying meteorological data may be relevant to assessing exposure to heat during the warm season in the Quebec. By allowing the estimation of space- and time-specific surface temperatures, this model may also be used to assess the possible impacts of land use changes under various meteorological conditions. It can be applied to assess heat exposure within a large population and at relatively fine-grained scale. It may be used to evaluate the acute health effect of heat exposure over long time frames. The method proposed here could be replicated in other areas around the globe for which satellite data and meteorological data is available.

  19. Susceptibility of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) developmental stages to high temperatures used during structural heat treatments. (United States)

    Mahroof, R; Subramanyam, B


    Heating the ambient air of a whole, or a portion of a food-processing facility to 50 to 60 degrees C and maintaining these elevated temperatures for 24 to 36 h, is an old technology, referred to as heat treatment. There is renewed interest in adopting heat treatments around the world as a viable insect control alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. There is limited published information on responses of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), exposed to elevated temperatures typically used during heat treatments. Time-mortality relationships were determined for eggs, fifth-instars (wandering-phase larvae), pupae, and adults of P. interpunctella exposed to five constant temperatures between 44 and 52 degrees C. Mortality of each stage increased with increasing temperature and exposure time. In general, fifth-instars were the most heat-tolerant stage at all temperatures tested. Exposure for a minimum of 34 min at 50 degrees C was required to kill 99% of the fifth-instars. It is proposed that heat treatments aimed at controlling fifth-instars should be able to control all other stages of P. interpunctella.

  20. Viscous heating in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: implications for magma flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa


    Full Text Available Viscous heating plays an important role in the dynamics of fluids with strongly temperature-dependent viscosity because of the coupling between the energy and momentum equations. The heat generated by viscous friction produces a local temperature increase near the tube walls with a consequent decrease of the viscosity which may dramatically change the temperature and velocity profiles. These processes are mainly controlled by the Peclét number, the Nahme number, the flow rate and the thermal boundary conditions. The problem of viscous heating in fluids was investigated in the past for its practical interest in the polymer industry, and was invoked to explain some rheological behaviours of silicate melts, but was not completely applied to study magma flows. In this paper we focus on the thermal and mechanical effects caused by viscous heating in tubes of finite lengths. We find that in magma flows at high Nahme number and typical flow rates, viscous heating is responsible for the evolution from Poiseuille flow, with a uniform temperature distribution at the inlet, to a plug flow with a hotter layer near the walls. When the temperature gradients  induced by viscous heating are very pronounced, local instabilities may occur and the triggering of secondary flows is possible. For completeness, this paper also describes magma flow in infinitely long tubes both at steady state and in transient phase.

  1. Lauric and myristic acids eutectic mixture as phase change material for low-temperature heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keles, Sadat; Kaygusuz, Kamil [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Trabzon (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Gaziosmanpasa Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Tokat (Turkey)


    Lauric acid (m.p.: 42.6 deg C) and myristic acid (m.p.: 52.2 deg C) are phase change materials (PCM) having quite high melting points which can limit their use in low-temperature solar applications such as solar space heating and greenhouse heating. However, their melting temperatures can be tailored to appropriate value by preparing a eutectic mixture of lauric acid (LA) and myristic acid (MA). In the present study, the thermal analysis based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique shows that the mixture of 66.0 wt% LA forms a eutectic mixture having melting temperature of 34.2 deg C and the latent heat of fusion of 166.8 J g{sup -1} . This study also considers the experimental establishment of thermal characteristics of the eutectic PCM in a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe heat storage system. Thermal performance of the PCM was evaluated with respect to the effect of inlet temperature and mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid on those characteristics during the heat charging and discharging processes. The DSC thermal analysis and the experimental results indicate that the LA-MA eutectic PCM can be potential material for low-temperature solar energy storage applications in terms of its thermo-physical and thermal characteristics. (Author)

  2. Climate variability of heat waves and their associated diurnal temperature range variations in Taiwan (United States)

    Kueh, M.-T.; Lin, C.-Y.; Chuang, Y.-J.; Sheng, Y.-F.; Chien, Y.-Y.


    This study investigates heat waves in Taiwan and their maintenance mechanism, based upon observations and dynamically downscaled simulations. A 95th percentile threshold is used for identifying hot extremes over a period of consecutive days. Heat waves are forecast to become more severe in the future projection. Daily minimum temperatures are generally high and diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) are relatively large. The daily minimum temperature serves as the primary control in the variation in DTR during heat waves. An apparent increase in the daily minimum temperature suggests elevated heat stress at nighttime during future heat waves. Heat waves in Taiwan are associated with abnormal warming and drying atmospheric conditions under the control of an enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high. The surrounding waters serve as a vast moisture source to suppress the drying magnitude in the surface layer as the temperature rises, thereby ensuring a high humidity level during the hot spell. The subsidence and adiabatic warming above can trap the warm and humid air in the surface layer, leading to positive feedback to the abnormally hot surface condition. The associated warming and drying atmospheric conditions cover certain spatial extents, suggesting that the extreme situation identified here is not confined to just an island-wide hot spell; the abnormal hot weather can take place across a broad geographical area.

  3. Experimental study on density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and viscosity of water-ethylene glycol mixture dispersed with carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshkumar Jayabalan


    Full Text Available This article presents the effect of adding multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT in water – ethylene glycol mixture on density and various thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity. Density of nanofluids was measured using standard volumetric flask method and the data showed a good agreement with the mixing theory. The maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 11 % was noticed for the nanofluids with 0.9 wt. %. Due to lower specific heat of the MWCNT, the specific heat of the nanofluids decreased in proportion with the MWCNT concentration. The rheological analysis showed that the transition region from shear thinning to Newtonian extended to the higher shear stress range compared to that of base fluids. Viscosity ratio of the nanofluids augmented anomalously with respect to increase in temperature and about 2.25 fold increase was observed in the temperature range of 30 – 40 ˚C. The modified model of Maron and Pierce predicted the viscosity of the nanofluids with the inclusion of effect of aspect ratio of MWCNT and nanoparticle aggregates.

  4. Investigating Comfort Temperatures and Heat Transfer in Sleeping Bags (United States)

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara


    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton's law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers' claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  5. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials for Waste Heat Regeneration (United States)


    Seebeck effect (17, 18). ............................................................................................7 Figure 7. Carrier concentration...5) where is Planck’s constant and is the density of states effective mass. The Seebeck coefficient is proportional to temperature... effect (17, 18). 2.2 The Electrical Conductivity The flow of current associated with the Seebeck voltage logically creates the search for TE

  6. Investigating comfort temperatures and heat transfer in sleeping bags (United States)

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara


    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton’s law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers’ claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  7. Future Changes in Heat Stress over East Asia Resulting from Different Target Temperature Increases (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Min; Min, Seung-Ki


    In assessing the impact of global warming, it is very important to understand the change in comprehensive heat stress as a function of several variables, rather than only temperature. Furthermore, in order to assess and implement the target temperature goals of the 2015 Paris Agreement, it is essential to have effective and scientifically valid information to predict and measure regional impact. In this study, the future changes in summer heat stress over East Asia were examined based on the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using CMIP5 multimodel simulations (historical and RCP scenario simulations), and differences in heat stress changes were assessed between 1.5-degree and 2-degree warmer worlds. Future boreal summer heat stress of land regions over East Asia, in excess of the 50-year return value, shows a rapid and nonlinear increase from the 2000s, and it is expected that severe heat stress will occur in the overall East Asia region by the 2040s. In particular, extreme heat stress events were found to occur much more frequently than summer mean intensity of heat stress. Comparisons of the increase in heat stress between 1.5-degree and 2-degree warmer worlds indicated a 20% decrease in the area experiencing severe heat stress over East Asia, and relatively large benefits (i.e. less frequent and less severe heat stress) were found in the southeastern China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan compared to other regions. Further, the equilibrium scenarios showed a larger increase in heat stress over East Asia than the transient scenarios, particularly in case of the 1.5-degree warmer world, which was found due to warmer water in the northwestern North Pacific in the equilibrium scenarios.

  8. Investigation of operational temperature conditions of steam generating surfaces with critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remizov, O.V.


    The design and construction of reliable once-through steam generators requires a knowledge of temperature conditions along the entire length of the steam generating surface including regions affected by deteriorated heat transfer and dryout. Experimental and calculated data on temperatures in these regions are presented and compared. (LCL)

  9. Multi-boiling Heat Transfer Analysis of a Convective Straight Fin with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Properties and Internal Heat Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbeminiyi Sobamowo


    Full Text Available In this study, by using the finite volume method, the heat transfer in a convective straight fin with temperature-dependent thermal properties and an internal heat generation under multi-boiling heat transfer modes are analyzed. In this regard, the local heat transfer coefficient is considered to vary within a power-law function of temperature. In the present study, the coexistence of all the boiling modes is taken into consideration. The developed heat transfer models and the corresponding numerical solutions are used to investigate the effects of various thermo-geometric parameters on the thermal performance of the longitudinal rectangular fin. The results shows that the fin temperature distribution, the total heat transfer, and the fin efficiency are significantly affected by the thermo-geometric parameters of the fin and the internal heat generation within the fin. The obtained results can provide a platform for improvements in the design of the fin in the heat transfer equipment.

  10. Effect of rotational speed modulation on heat transport in a fluid layer with temperature dependent viscosity and internal heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bhadauria


    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the combined effect of rotation speed modulation and internal heating on thermal instability in a temperature dependent viscous horizontal fluid layer. Rayleigh–Bénard momentum equation with Coriolis term has been considered to describe the convective flow. The system is rotating about it is own axis with non-uniform rotational speed. In particular, a time-periodic and sinusoidally varying rotational speed has been considered. A weak nonlinear stability analysis is performed to find the effect of modulation on heat transport. Nusselt number is obtained in terms of amplitude of convection and internal Rayleigh number, and depicted graphically for showing the effects of various parameters of the system. The effect of modulated rotation speed is found to have a stabilizing effect for different values of modulation frequency. Further, internal heating and thermo-rheological parameters are found to destabilize the system.

  11. Critical behavior of 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water: Measurements of specific heat, dynamic light scattering, and shear viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaev, S. Z.; Behrends, R.; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer


    2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April......2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April...

  12. Mean surface temperature prediction models for broiler chickens—a study of sensible heat flow (United States)

    Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Castro, Ariane Cristina; Vieira, Frederico Marcio Corrêa


    Body surface temperature can be used to evaluate thermal equilibrium in animals. The bodies of broiler chickens, like those of all birds, are partially covered by feathers. Thus, the heat flow at the boundary layer between broilers' bodies and the environment differs between feathered and featherless areas. The aim of this investigation was to use linear regression models incorporating environmental parameters and age to predict the surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas of broiler chickens. The trial was conducted in a climate chamber, and 576 broilers were distributed in two groups. In the first trial, 288 broilers were monitored after exposure to comfortable or stressful conditions during a 6-week rearing period. Another 288 broilers were measured under the same conditions to test the predictive power of the models. Sensible heat flow was calculated, and for the regions covered by feathers, sensible heat flow was predicted based on the estimated surface temperatures. The surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas can be predicted based on air, black globe or operative temperatures. According to the sensible heat flow model, the broilers' ability to maintain thermal equilibrium by convection and radiation decreased during the rearing period. Sensible heat flow estimated based on estimated surface temperatures can be used to predict animal responses to comfortable and stressful conditions.

  13. Heat sterilization of ash (Fraxinus spp.) firewood : heat-treating options, temperature monitoring and thermal verification (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Richard Bergman; T. Mace


    Because of the potential risk associated with moving emerald ash borer (EAB)-infested firewood, the interstate movement of all hardwood firewood in the USA is currently restricted under the Federal quarantine. Communities and firewood producers are now faced with decisions on how to treat their firewood for interstate commerce. The new US Federal regulations for heat...

  14. Effect of Indoor Temperature on Physical Performance in Older Adults during Days with Normal Temperature and Heat Waves. (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Stotz, Anja; Beyer, Nina; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A; Becker, Clemens; Rapp, Kilian; Klenk, Jochen


    Indoor temperature is relevant with regard to mortality and heat-related self-perceived health problems. The aim of this study was to describe the association between indoor temperature and physical performance in older adults. Eighty-one older adults (84% women, mean age 80.9 years, standard deviation 6.53) were visited every four weeks from May to October 2015 and additionally during two heat waves in July and August 2015. Indoor temperature, habitual gait speed, chair-rise performance and balance were assessed. Baseline assessment of gait speed was used to create two subgroups (lower versus higher gait speed) based on frailty criteria. The strongest effect of increasing temperature on habitual gait speed was observed in the subgroup of adults with higher gait speed (-0.087 m/s per increase of 10 °C; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.136; -0.038). The strongest effects on timed chair-rise and balance performance were observed in the subgroup of adults with lower gait speed (2.03 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: 0.79; 3.28) and -3.92 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: -7.31; -0.52), respectively). Comparing results of physical performance in absentia of a heat wave and during a heat wave, habitual gait speed was negatively affected by heat in the total group and subgroup of adults with higher gait speed, chair-rise performance was negatively affected in all groups and balance was not affected. The study provides arguments for exercise interventions in general for older adults, because a better physical fitness might alleviate impediments of physical capacity and might provide resources for adequate adaptation in older adults during heat stress.

  15. An automated flow calorimeter for heat capacity and enthalpy measurements at elevated temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesavage, V.F.


    The need for highly accurate thermal property data for a broad range of new application fluids is well documented. To facilitate expansion of the current thermophysical database, an automated flow calorimeter was developed for the measurement of highly accurate isobaric heat capacities and enthalpies of fluids at elevated temperatures and pressures. The experimental technique utilizes traditional electrical power input, adiabatic flow calorimetry with a precision metering pump that eliminates the need for on-line flow rate monitoring. In addition, a complete automation system, greatly simplifies the operation of the apparatus and increases the rapidity of the measurement process. The range over which the instrument was tested, was 300--600 K and 0--12 Mpa, although the calorimeter should perform up to the original design goals of 700 K and 30 MPa. The new flow calorimeter was evaluated by measuring the mean, isobaric, specific heat capacities of liquid water and n-pentane. These experiments yielded an average deviation from the standard literature data of +0.02% and a total variation of 0.05%. Additional data analysis indicated that the overall measurement uncertainty was conservatively estimated as 0.2% with an anticipated precision of 0.1--0.15% at all operating conditions. 44 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Calculation of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity of sedimentary rocks using petrophysical well logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels; Förster, Andrea


    In this study, equations are developed that predict for synthetic sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evapourates) thermal properties comprising thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity. The rock groups are composed of mineral assemblages with variable contents...... of each property vary depending on the selected well-log combination. Best prediction is in the range of 2–8 per cent for the specific heat capacity, of 5–10 per cent for the thermal conductivity, and of 8–15 for the thermal diffusivity, respectively. Well-log derived thermal conductivity is validated...... by laboratory data measured on cores from deep boreholes of the Danish Basin, the North German Basin, and the Molasse Basin. Additional validation of thermal conductivity was performed by comparing predicted and measured temperature logs. The maximum deviation between these logs is conductivity...

  17. The specific heat of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, N.; Howson, M.A. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Abell, S. [Universities of Birmingham and Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others


    The specific heat of twinned and detwinned single crystal samples of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} have been measured with magnetic fields up to 8 tesla applied parallel to the c-axes of the crystals. The samples measured had transition temperatures around 90K and transition widths from 0.3 K to 2 K. The data exhibits scaling behaviour characteristic of the 3-dimensional X-Y model with critical exponents consistent with those observed in superfluid {sup 4}He. The authors then compare the scaling properties of the specific heat in the different samples and look for the {open_quote}universal{close_quote} nature of the scaling function.

  18. Calibration of temperature measurement by infrared pyrometry in microwave heating of powder materials: an exothermic reaction based approach. (United States)

    Luo, S D; Yang, Y F; Schaffer, G B; Qian, M


    Accurate temperature measurement remains a challenge for microwave heating of powder materials. We propose a temperature calibration method based on exothermic reactions and the resultant thermal runaway that occurs during microwave heating. The approach was demonstrated on microwave heating of four titanium alloys. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the threshold reaction temperature for each selected titanium alloy. This served as a standard for the microwave heating of these titanium alloys. Infrared pyrometric temperature measurements were then calibrated by comparing the starting temperature of each thermal runaway event with the threshold reaction temperature.

  19. High resolution numerical modelling of high temperature heat storage in geological media (United States)

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Bauer, Sebastian


    Increasing use of energy stemming from renewable sources, such as wind or solar power plants, requires development of new and improvement of existing energy storage options on different time scales. One potential storage option is high temperature heat storage with temperatures of up to 100°C in the geological subsurface using borehole heat exchanger (BHE). Numerical scenario simulations are performed to assess feasibility and storage capacity and, furthermore, to predict the effects induced. To allow for accurate and reliable results, the BHE must be represented correctly and realistic in the numerical model. Therefore, a detailed model of a single BHE and the surrounding aquifer, accounting for the full geometry and component parametrisation (circulating working fluid, pipe and grout), is set up. This model setup is used to simulate an experimental data set from a laboratory sandbox by Beier et al. (2011), containing an 18 m long single U-tube BHE centered horizontally along it. Temperature curves observed in different radial distances as well as at the pipe outflow can be matched well with the model setup used, which is thus verified. Potential geological formations for high temperature heat storage are located in greater depths below fresh water aquifers that are used for drinking water. Therefore, the above model is adapted to represent a 100 m long vertical double U-tube BHE placed in an average depth of 500 m. The processes of heat transport and groundwater flow are coupled by water density and viscosity, which both depend on pressure and temperature. A sensitivity study is done to quantify the effects of the thermal parameters of grout and aquifer on the amount of heat stored and the temperature distribution in the aquifer. It was found that the amount of heat stored through the BHE is most sensitive to the heat conductivity of the aquifer. Increasing the aquifer heat conductivity by 50 % increases the amount of heat stored in the numerical model by 30

  20. Simulation of temperature in office with building integrated heating and cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter


    by raising the temperature of the concrete to slightly above the desired room temperature. Another way of solving the problem of cooling is by using building integrated cooling in floors. This technique utilizes the thermal mass of concrete in the floors, by integrating PEX pipes in the floor. By maintaining...... the temperature of the concrete to a level slightly below the desired room temperature, the concrete will work as an absorber for the excess heat in the office. This can significantly reduce the need for air conditioning, which will give both improved indoor climate and lower energy costs in the building...... and thermal comfort parameters. The model is based on a numerical Finite Control Volume (FCV) method for the heat transfer in walls, ceiling, windows and floor. The model uses both convective and radiative heat transfer to the room air and between the room surfaces. The simulation model can be used...

  1. Mathematical Simulation of Convective Heat Transfer in the Low-Temperature Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shestakov Igor A.


    Full Text Available The article shows the results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in the low-temperature storage of liquefied natural gas. Regime of natural convection in an enclosure with different intensity of the heat flux at the external borders are investigated. Was examined two-dimensional nonstationary problem within the model of Navier-Stokes in dimensionless variables “vorticity - stream function - temperature”. Distributions of hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures that characterize the basic regularities of the processes are obtained. Circulating flows are determined and carried out the analysis of vortices formation mechanism and the temperature distribution in solution at conditions of natural convection when the Grashof number (Gr = 106. A significant influence of heat transfer rate on solutions boundary on flow structure and temperature field in LNG storage tanks.

  2. Calculations of Temperature, Conductive Heat Flux, and Heat Wave Velocities Due to Radiant Heating of Opaque Materials (United States)


    presentation and the help of Dr. Anthony Kotlar with the Mathcad calculations are greatly appreciated. vi INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 1 1. Introduction...Corporation. Mathcad 2001; Needham, MA, 2001. 4. Joseph, D. D.; Preziosi, L. Heat Waves. Rev. Modern Physics 1989, 61 (1), 41–73. 5. Cao, B-Y; Guo, Z-Y

  3. Magnetic field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat of the doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DB3EPSA)0.5. (United States)

    Djurado, D; Pron, A; Jacquot, J F; Travers, J P; Adriano, C; Vargas, J M; Pagliuso, P G; Rettori, C; Lesseux, G G; Fier, I; Walmsley, L


    Specific heat, magnetization and electron spin resonance (ESR) data obtained from a self-standing film of the doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DB3EPSA)(0.5) are shown. No long range magnetic order has been observed at zero magnetic field, above 2 K. For a magnetic field of 3.3 kOe applied perpendicular to the plane of the film, a clear signature of an induced ordered state can be seen in the specific heat data and ESR also reveals this antiferromagnetic order. An electronic contribution is detected from ESR, magnetization and specific heat; however, for T ≤ 5 K, the specific heat data show the existence of a gap. Magnetization data also show a low temperature dominant Curie behaviour which cannot be seen from ESR, probably due to a very large linewidth, suggesting short range correlations among spin 1/2 polarons.

  4. Generation of high-temperature steam from unused thermal energy by a novel adsorption heat pump (United States)

    Nakaso, Koichi; Eshima, Shotaro; Fukai, Jun


    For the effective utilization of unused thermal energy, the novel adsorption heat pump system for generating high-temperature steam is proposed. This system adopts a direct heat exchange method to the adsorption heat pump to increase heat transfer rate between adsorbent and heat transfer fluid. The heat pump system consists of two processes: steam generation process and regeneration process. In the steam generation process, water is directly introduced to the adsorbent. In the regeneration process, dry gas is introduced to the adsorbent. In this study, the performance of the system is numerically evaluated. The efficiency of the heat pump system is calculated by the ratio of enthalpy of product steam to input energy. To calculate the enthalpy of steam, mass of steam generated is estimated based on the progress of the regeneration process. Input energy of the heat pump system consists of the blower power to introduce dry gas and the thermal energy to heat dry gas. The effect of the operating condition on the performance of the steam generation process is studied. It is found there is the appropriate regeneration time to maximize the efficiency of the heat pump system.

  5. Microbial biomass and activity in soils with different moisture content heated at high temperatures (United States)

    Barreiro, Ana; Lombao, Alba; Martin, Angela; Cancelo-González, Javier; Carballas, Tarsy; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat


    It is well known that soil properties determining the thermal transmissivity (moisture, texture, organic matter, etc.) and the duration and temperatures reached during soil heating are key factors driving the fire-induced changes in soil microbial communities. However, despite its interest, the information about this topic is scarce. The aim of the present study is to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the impact of the thermal shock (infrared lamps reaching temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 400 °C) on microbial communities of three acid soils under different moisture level (0 %, 25 % and 50 % per soil volume). Soil temperature was measured with thermocouples and the impact of soil heating was evaluated by means of the analysis of the temperature-time curves calculating the maximum temperature reached (Tmax) and the degree-hours (GH) as an estimation of the amount of heat supplied to the samples (fire severity). The bacterial growth (leucine incorporation) and the total microbial biomass (PLFA) were measured immediately after the heating and one month after the incubation of reinoculated soils. The results showed clearly the importance of moisture level in the transmission of heat through the soil and hence in the further direct impact of high temperatures on microorganisms living in soil. In general, the values of microbial parameters analyzed were low, particularly immediately after soil heating at higher temperatures; the bacterial activity measurements (leucine incorporation technique) being more sensitive to detect the thermal shock showed than total biomass measurements (PLFA). After 1 month incubation, soil microbial communities tend to recover due to the proliferation of surviving population using as substrate the dead microorganisms (soil sterilization). Thus, time elapsed after the heating was found to be decisive when examining the relationships between the microbial properties and the soil heating parameters (GH, Tmax). Analysis of results also

  6. Evaporation heat transfer of carbon dioxide at low temperature inside a horizontal smooth tube (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-In; Son, Chang-Hyo; Jung, Suk-Ho; Jeon, Min-Ju; Yang, Dong-Il


    In this paper, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient of carbon dioxide at low temperature of -30 to -20 °C in a horizontal smooth tube was investigated experimentally. The test devices consist of mass flowmeter, pre-heater, magnetic gear pump, test section (evaporator), condenser and liquid receiver. Test section is made of cooper tube. Inner and outer diameter of the test section is 8 and 9.52 mm, respectively. The experiment is conducted at mass fluxes from 100 to 300 kg/m2 s, saturation temperature from -30 to -20 °C. The main results are summarized as follows: In case that the mass flux of carbon dioxide is 100 kg/m2 s, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient is almost constant regardless of vapor quality. In case of 200 and 300 kg/m2 s, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient increases steadily with increasing vapor quality. For the same mass flux, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient increases as the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant decreases. In comparison of heat transfer correlations with the experimental result, the evaporation heat transfer correlations do not predict them exactly. Therefore, more accurate heat transfer correlation than the previous one is required.

  7. Detection of heat wave using Kalpana-1 VHRR land surface temperature product over India (United States)

    Shah, Dhiraj; Pandya, Mehul R.; Pathak, Vishal N.; Darji, Nikunj P.; Trivedi, Himanshu J.


    Heat Waves can have notable impacts on human mortality, ecosystem, economics and energy supply. The effect of heat wave is much more intense during summer than the other seasons. During the period of April to June, spells of very hot weather occur over certain regions of India and global warming scenario may result in further increases of such temperature anomalies and corresponding heat waves conditions. In this paper, satellite observations have been used to detect the heat wave conditions prevailing over India for the period of May-June 2015. The Kalpana-1 VHRR derived land surface temperature (LST) products have been used in the analysis to detect the heat wave affected regions over India. Results from the analysis shows the detection of heat wave affected pixels over Indian land mass. It can be seen that during the study period the parts of the west India, Indo-gangetic plane, Telangana and part of Vidarbh was under severe heat wave conditions which is also confirmed with Automatic Weather Station (AWS) air temperature observations.

  8. Specific heat of Nb{sub 3}Sn: The case for a single gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Y. J., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Jian; Sung, Zu Hawn; Lee, Peter J.; Larbalestier, D. C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)


    The important influence of multiple gaps in the superconductivity of MgB{sub 2} and Fe-based compounds, especially because of the possibility that manipulation of a second gap can significantly raise the upper critical field H{sub c2}, has refocused attention on Nb{sub 3}Sn because anomalies in both specific heat and point-contact tunneling studies have led to the proposal that Nb{sub 3}Sn is also a two-gap superconductor. Here, we search for evidence of the second gap in a careful study of the influence of the homogenization temperature on the sample uniformity. We show that it is very difficult to fabricate samples that are both homogeneous and stoichiometric. We find so-called “second-gap” anomalies disappear only after high temperature and long-term annealing. Such a well-annealed sample shows only a strong, electron-phonon-coupled, single-gap behavior. In contrast, samples reacted and annealed at lower temperatures, as in the earlier two-gap studies, show small chemical composition variations of the A15 phase. We propose that the second gap sightings are actually due to variation of T{sub c} within very difficult-to-fully homogenize samples. A curiosity of the A15 Nb{sub 3}Sn phase is that almost any mixture of Nb and Sn tries to form a stoichiometric A15 composition, but the residue of course contains off-stoichiometric A15, Nb, and other phases when the Nb:Sn ratio departs from the true 3:1 stoichiometry.

  9. Phonon and electron temperature and non-Fourier heat transport in thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlomagno, I.; Cimmelli, V.A. [Department of Mathematics, Computer Science and Economics, University of Basilicata, Campus Macchia Romana, Viale dell' Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Sellitto, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)


    We present a thermodynamic model of heat conductor which allows for different temperatures of phonons and electrons. This model is applied to calculate the steady-state radial temperature profile in a circular thin layer. The compatibility of the obtained temperature profiles with the second law of thermodynamics is investigated in view of the requirement of positive entropy production and of a nonlocal constitutive equation for the entropy flux.

  10. Cascading in district heating substations - in pursuit of low return temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljunggren, P.; Wollerstrand, J.; Frederiksen, S. [Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden)


    Building heating and provision of domestic hot water is characterised by a variation of temperature levels which provides a basis for lowered district heating network return temperature (increased cooling of primary water), by employing cascading of heat exchangers in substations. A number of previous studies have shown this, although the calculated gain has generally turned out to be rather small. Thus, in practice cascading often meets difficulties of justifying the higher investment cost associated with a more complicated substation configuration. The present study demonstrates, by simulations based on reliable modelling that especially when substantial heat losses from internal building pipes, leading hot service water to faucets, are compensated for, as is commonly done by re-circulating water in bigger buildings, that cascading can be adopted to achieve significant improvements in primary water cooling. On the basis of the results derived it can be recommended to divide heating of service water into two stages in most cases whenever re-circulation is performed, either in a parallel connection with a heat exchanger for space heating, or in a two-stage connection scheme where the entire primary flow is cooled in a pre-heater. Three-stage cascading can in some cases produce significant additional improvement. This is especially so in cases of a rather high service water temperature, such as 50-60 deg C (nowadays usually employed to prevent growth of Legionella bacteria), combined with a relatively modest space heating load (well-insulated buildings) at low temperature levels of water circulating in the hydronic system. Three-stage cascading can be configured in various ways: One scheme, previously used in certain Swedish towns, may be advantageous from a dynamic control point of view, but tends to cause heat exchanger scaling with hard town's water. An alternative type of three-stage configuration avoids this disadvantage, thus providing an attractive

  11. Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat. (United States)

    Clarke, N D; Maclaren, D P M; Reilly, T; Drust, B


    Ingestion of carbohydrate and reducing core body temperature pre-exercise, either separately or combined, may have ergogenic effects during prolonged intermittent exercise in hot conditions. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise and the impact on subsequent high-intensity exercise performance in the heat. Twelve male soccer players performed a soccer-specific intermittent protocol for 90 min in the heat (30.5°C and 42.2% r.h.) on four occasions. On two occasions, the participants underwent a pre-cooling manoeuvre. During these sessions either a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHOc) or a placebo was consumed at (PLAc). During the remaining sessions either the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO) or placebo (PLA) was consumed. At 15-min intervals throughout the protocol participants performed a mental concentration test. Following the soccer-specific protocol participants performed a self-chosen pace test and a test of high-intensity exercise capacity. The period of pre-cooling significantly reduced core temperature, muscle temperature and thermal sensation (P carbohydrate during exercise enhances exercise capacity and helps maintain mental performance during intermittent exercise in hot conditions.

  12. Avoiding high return temperatures with absorption coolers in district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, (Sweden); Zinko, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University (Sweden)


    In many countries, much attention is turned to achieve as high temperature difference as possible between supply and return temperature and especially low return temperatures under varying operational conditions. The reason is that some types of production plants can be operated more efficiently with low return temperatures, such as biomass boilers with stack gas coolers, co-generation plants or heat-pumps, to mention some. On the other hand, the big difference between summer and winter load of district heating plants and the increasing demand for chill supply increases also the interest for the use of absorption chillers (ABC) in district heating systems. However, in the normal case of using single effect ABC relatively high return temperatures are delivered to the DH system. In systems with a high amount of ABC load, this can significantly impair the efficiency of the production plants and the overall operational efficiency of the network. In this study, we are investigating the role of two different types of ABC as well as the possibility of matching chiller operation with the existing heat loads in order to achieve suitable low return temperatures. Especially, we also investigate which DH return temperatures will be delivered from DH networks using ABCs in different configurations. (orig.)

  13. A new decay heat standard proposition based on a technical specifications guide for computation codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, Frederic; Garzenne, Claude [EDF R and D SINETICS, 1 av. du Gal de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Diop, Cheikh [CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ebalard, Sylvie [AREVA, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Sargeni, Antonio [IRSN, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France)


    The existing ISO international decay heat standard provides the basis for calculating the decay heat power of non-recycled nuclear fuel of light water reactors. Computing decay heat with this standard can be really efficient for standard uranium fuels. Though, for Mixed Oxide fuels, high Burn-Up uranium fuels or for non standard irradiation sequences, decay heat can only be estimated by more complex decay heat computation codes. Therefore, a new ISO international standard, a 'Technical specifications guide for decay heat computation' has been proposed to reflect the international way to compute decay heat in light water reactors. The aim of this article is to give the justifications for the methods that lead to simplified modelization of the decay heat and that will be put into this standard. These methods are useful for rapid and precise determination of reaction rates and for nuclide chains simplifications. We propose also a simple method to evaluate the sensitivity of decay heat computations with respect to nuclear data. (authors)

  14. A study of the disorder in heavily doped Ba1-xLaxF2+x by neutron scattering, ionic conductivity and specific heat measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Hessel; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Kjems, Jørgen


    The ionic disorder in single crystals of the fluorite-type solid solutions Ba1-xLaxF2+x (with x=0.209 and x=0.492) has been studied in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 degrees C by diffuse neutron scattering, ionic conductivity, and specific heat measurements. From the diffuse...... neutron scattering it was found that the disorder was dominated by 222 clusters, which at low temperatures (T>10-10s), in agreement with NMB results which suggest a jump frequency below 75 MHz. The temperatures at which the steepest slopes are found in the loss of correlations and in the conductivity...... coincide at approximately 650 degrees C. At this temperature no clear anomaly is observed in the specific heat. Based on these findings the authors propose a conduction mechanisms where F- ions are moving through the lattice by means of rearrangements of the 222 clusters....

  15. Comparison of Low-temperature District Heating Concepts in a Long-Term Energy System Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Yang, Xiaochen


    renewable energy systems. This study compares three alternative concepts for DH temperature level: Low temperature (55/25 °C), Ultra-low temperature with electric boosting (45/25 °C), and Ultra-low temperature with heat pump boosting (35/20 °C) taking into account the grid losses, production efficiencies...... and building requirements. The scenarios are modelled and analysed in the analysis tool EnergyPLAN and compared on primary energy supply and socioeconomic costs. The results show that the low temperature solution (55/25°C) has the lowest costs, reducing the total costs by about 100 M€/year in 2050....

  16. Temperature Sensor Feasibility Study of Wireless Sensor Network Applications for Heating Efficiency Maintenance in High-Rise Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freliha B.


    Full Text Available Cities are responsible for 60%-80% of the world’s energy use and for approximately the same percentage of greenhouse gas emissions. The existing multi-apartment buildings of multifamily housing sector are often energy inefficient, and the heating system does not ensure optimization of heat distribution of individual apartments. Heat distribution, heating system balancing, heat loss detection and calculation, individual heat energy accounting are difficult tasks to accomplish. This article deals with the temperature monitoring system designed to retrieve temperature differences necessary for overall building heat monitoring and individual apartment monitoring. The sensor testing case study process and its measurements are analysed.

  17. Cool Roofs in Guangzhou, China: Outdoor Air Temperature Reductions during Heat Waves and Typical Summer Conditions. (United States)

    Cao, Meichun; Rosado, Pablo; Lin, Zhaohui; Levinson, Ronnen; Millstein, Dev


    In this paper, we simulate temperature reductions during heat-wave events and during typical summer conditions from the installation of highly reflective "cool" roofs in the Chinese megacity of Guangzhou. We simulate temperature reductions during six of the strongest historical heat-wave events over the past decade, finding average urban midday temperature reductions of 1.2 °C. In comparison, we simulate 25 typical summer weeks between 2004 and 2008, finding average urban midday temperature reductions of 0.8 °C, indicating that air temperature sensitivity to urban albedo in Guangzhou varies with meteorological conditions. We find that roughly three-fourths of the variance in air temperature reductions across all episodes can be accounted for by a linear regression, including only three basic properties related to the meteorological conditions: mean daytime temperature, humidity, and ventilation to the greater Guangzhou urban area. While these results highlight the potential for cool roofs to mitigate peak temperatures during heat waves, the temperature reductions reported here are based on the upper bound case, which increases albedos of all roofs (but does not modify road albedo or wall albedo).

  18. Pressure and temperature development in solar heating system during stagnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Chen, Ziqian


    This paper presents an investigation of stagnation in solar collectors and the effects it will have on the collector loop. At a laboratory test stand at the Technical University of Denmark, a pressurized solar collector loop was designed to test different numbers of collectors and different designs...... of the pipes of the solar collector loop. During the investigation the pre-pressure of the expansion vessel and system filling pressure was changed. The investigations showed that a large pressurised expansion vessel will protect the collector loop from critically high temperatures as long as the solar...

  19. Effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with radiant heating and mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Fang, Lei


    The present study focused on the effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV). The vertical distribution of air temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and the hori......The present study focused on the effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV). The vertical distribution of air temperature and velocity in the occupied zone...... are relevant to the design and control of the hybrid systems with radiant heating systems and mechanical ventilation systems....

  20. The Feasibility of Conformal Thermal Therapy with Transurethral Ultrasound Heating Applicators and MR Temperature Feedback (United States)

    Choy, Vanessa; Tang, Kee; Wachsmuth, Jeff; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael


    Transurethral thermal therapy offers a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of prostate diseases including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Accurate heating of a targeted region of the gland can be achieved through the use of a rotating directional heating source incorporating planar ultrasound transducers, and the implementation of active temperature feedback along the beam direction during heating provided by magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry. The performance of this control method with practical spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution (such as angular alignment, spatial resolution, update rate for temperature feedback (imaging time), and the presence of noise) for thermal feedback using a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner was investigated in simulations. As expected, the control algorithm was most sensitive to the presence of noise, with noticeable degradation in its performance above ±2°C of temperature uncertainty. With respect to temporal resolution, acceptable performance was achieved at update rates of 5s or faster. The control algorithm was relatively insensitive to reduced spatial resolution due to the broad nature of the heating pattern produced by the heating applicator, this provides an opportunity to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The overall simulation results confirm that existing clinical 1.5T MR imagers are capable of providing adequate temperature feedback for transurethral thermal therapy without special pulse sequences or enhanced imaging hardware.

  1. Effect of sintering temperature and heating mode on consolidation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Densification behaviour, phase transformation, microstructural evolution and hardness values of microwave sintered Al–7Zn–2·5Mg–1Cu ... study investigates densification behaviour, phase transfor- mation, microstructure development ... testing, flat dog-bone shaped specimens were prepared as per. MPIF specification 10.

  2. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1 (United States)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.


    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  3. Summer outdoor temperature and occupational heat-related illnesses in Quebec (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Smargiassi, Audrey [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), Montreal, QC (Canada); Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice [Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Montreal, QC (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Direction de santé publique, Agence de la santé et des services sociaux de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Zayed, Joseph [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Montreal, QC (Canada); Labrèche, France, E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Montreal, QC (Canada)


    Background: Predicted rise in global mean temperature and intensification of heat waves associated with climate change present an increasing challenge for occupational health and safety. Although important scientific knowledge has been gathered on the health effects of heat, very few studies have focused on quantifying the association between outdoor heat and mortality or morbidity among workers. Objective: To quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer outdoor temperatures. Methods: We modeled 259 heat-related illnesses compensated by the Workers' Compensation Board of Quebec between May and September, from 1998 to 2010, with maximum daily summer outdoor temperatures in 16 health regions of Quebec (Canada) using generalized linear models with negative binomial distributions, and estimated the pooled effect sizes for all regions combined, by sex and age groups, and for different time lags with random-effect models for meta-analyses. Results: The mean daily compensation count was 0.13 for all regions of Quebec combined. The relationship between daily counts of compensations and maximum daily temperatures was log-linear; the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of daily heat-related compensations per 1 °C increase in daily maximum temperatures was 1.419 (95% CI 1.326 to 1.520). Associations were similar for men and women and by age groups. Increases in daily maximum temperatures at lags 1 and 2 and for two and three-day lag averages were also associated with increases in daily counts of compensations (IRRs of 1.206 to 1.471 for every 1 °C increase in temperature). Conclusion: This study is the first to quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer temperatures in Canada. The model (risk function) developed in this study could be useful to improve the assessment of future impacts of predicted summer outdoor temperatures on workers and vulnerable groups, particularly in

  4. Measurement of Ion Motional Heating Rates over a Range of Trap Frequencies and Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzewicz, C D; Chiaverini, J


    We present measurements of the motional heating rate of a trapped ion at different trap frequencies and temperatures between $\\sim$0.6 and 1.5 MHz and $\\sim$4 and 295 K. Additionally, we examine the possible effect of adsorbed surface contaminants with boiling points below $\\sim$105$^{\\circ}$C by measuring the ion heating rate before and after locally baking our ion trap chip under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We compare the heating rates presented here to those calculated from available electric-field noise models. We can tightly constrain a subset of these models based on their expected frequency and temperature scaling interdependence. Discrepancies between the measured results and predicted values point to the need for refinement of theoretical noise models in order to more fully understand the mechanisms behind motional trapped-ion heating.

  5. Reproducibility of High-Q SRF Cavities by High Temperature Heat Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB


    Recent work on high-temperature (> 600 °C) heat treatment of ingot Nb cavities in a customized vacuum furnace for several hours showed the possibility of achieving Q0-values of up to ~5×1010 at 2.0 K, 1.5 GHz and accelerating gradients of ~20 MV/m. This contribution presents results on further studies of the heat treatment process to produce cavities with high Q0 values for continuous-wave accelerator application. Single-cell cavities of different Nb purity have been processed through few cycles of heat-treatments and chemical etching. Measurements of Q0 as a function of temperature at low RF field and of Q0 as a function of the RF field at or below 2.0 K have been made after each treatment. Measurements by TOF-SIMS of the impurities depth profiles were made on samples heat treated with the cavities.

  6. Measuring convective heat transfer coefficients of nanofluids over a circular fine wire maintaining a constant temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shinpyo [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper describes a measuring apparatus that can be used to appraise the effectiveness of nanofluids as new heat transfer enhancing fluids. A couple of apparatuses using fine hot wires as sensors have been proposed for this purpose; however, they have a technical weakness related to the uncertain working conditions of the sensor. The present method used the convective heat transfer coefficient from a hot wire as an indication of the heat transfer effectiveness of the nanofluid, where the temperature of the wire remains constant during the experiment. The operating principle and experimental procedure are explained in detail, and the validity of the system is tested with pure base fluids. The effects of particle concentration, velocity, and temperature on the heat transfer coefficients of the nanofluids are discussed comprehensively using the experimental data for graphite nanolubrication oil.

  7. Circadian rhythms in bed rest: Monitoring core body temperature via heat-flux approach is superior to skin surface temperature. (United States)

    Mendt, Stefan; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Nordine, Michael; Steinach, Mathias; Opatz, Oliver; Belavý, Daniel; Felsenberg, Dieter; Koch, Jochim; Shang, Peng; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Stahn, Alexander


    Continuous recordings of core body temperature (CBT) are a well-established approach in describing circadian rhythms. Given the discomfort of invasive CBT measurement techniques, the use of skin temperature recordings has been proposed as a surrogate. More recently, we proposed a heat-flux approach (the so-called Double Sensor) for monitoring CBT. Studies investigating the reliability of the heat-flux approach over a 24-hour period, as well as comparisons with skin temperature recordings, are however lacking. The first aim of the study was therefore to compare rectal, skin, and heat-flux temperature recordings for monitoring circadian rhythm. In addition, to assess the optimal placement of sensor probes, we also investigated the effect of different anatomical measurement sites, i.e. sensor probes positioned at the forehead vs. the sternum. Data were collected as part of the Berlin BedRest study (BBR2-2) under controlled, standardized, and thermoneutral conditions. 24-hours temperature data of seven healthy males were collected after 50 days of -6° head-down tilt bed-rest. Mean Pearson correlation coefficients indicated a high association between rectal and forehead temperature recordings (r > 0.80 for skin and Double Sensor). In contrast, only a poor to moderate relationship was observed for sensors positioned at the sternum (r = -0.02 and r = 0.52 for skin and Double Sensor, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses further confirmed the feasibility of the forehead as a preferred monitoring site. The phase difference between forehead Double Sensor and rectal recordings was not statistically different from zero (p = 0.313), and was significantly smaller than the phase difference between forehead skin and rectal temperatures (p = 0.016). These findings were substantiated by cosinor analyses, revealing significant differences for mesor, amplitude, and acrophase between rectal and forehead skin temperature recordings, but not between forehead Double Sensor and rectal

  8. Half-Space Temperature Field with a Movable Thermally Thin-Coated Boundary Under External Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Vlasov


    Full Text Available In engineering practice analytical methods of the mathematical theory of heat conduction hold a special place. This is due to many reasons, in particular, because of the fact that the solutions of the relevant problems represented in analytically closed form, can be used not only for a parametric analysis of the studied temperature field and to explore the specific features of its formation, but also to test the developed computational algorithms, which are aimed at solving real-world application heat and mass transfer problems. Difficulties arising when using the analytical mathematical theory methods of heat conduction in practice are well known. Also they are significantly exacerbated if the boundaries of the system under study are movable, even in the simplest case, when the law of motion is known.The main goal of the conducted research is to have an analytically closed-form problem solution for finding the orthotropic half-space temperature field, a boundary of which has thermally thin coating exposed to extremely concentrated stationary external heat flux and uniformly moves parallel to itself.The assumption that the covering of the boundary is thermally thin, allowed to realize the idea of \\concentrated capacity", that is to accept the hypothesis that the mean-thickness coating temperature is equal to the temperature of its boundaries. This assumption allowed us to reduce the problem under consideration to a mixed problem for a parabolic equation with a specific boundary condition.The Hankel integral transform of zero order with respect to the radial variable and the Laplace transform with respect to the temporal variable were used to solve the reduced problem. These techniques have allowed us to submit the required solution as an iterated integral.

  9. Compilation of Data on Radionuclide Data for Specific Activity, Specific Heat and Fission Product Yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, A.; Thomason, R.S.


    This compilation was undertaken to update the data used in calculation of curie and heat loadings of waste containers in the Solid Waste Management Facility. The data has broad general use and has been cross-checked extensively in order to be of use in the Materials Accountability arena. The fission product cross-sections have been included because they are of use in the Environmental Remediation and Waste Management areas where radionuclides which are not readily detectable need to be calculated from the relative fission yields and material dispersion data.

  10. Characteristics of low-temperature short heat pipes with a nozzle-shaped vapor channel (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.


    This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical studies of heat transfer and swirling pulsating flows in short low-temperature heat pipes whose vapor channels have the form of a conical nozzle. It has been found that as the evaporator of the heat pipe is heated, pressure pulsations occur in the vapor channel starting at a certain threshold value of the heat power, which is due to the start of boiling in the evaporator. The frequency of the pulsations has been measured, and their dependence on the superheat of the evaporator has been determined. It has been found that in heat pipes with a conical vapor channel, pulsations occur at lower evaporator superheats and the pulsation frequency is greater than in heat pipes of the same size with a standard cylindrical vapor channel. It has been shown that the curve of the heat-transfer coefficient versus thermal load on the evaporator has an inflection corresponding to the start of boiling in the capillary porous evaporator of the heat pipe.

  11. Modeling of Aerobrake Ballute Stagnation Point Temperature and Heat Transfer to Inflation Gas (United States)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.


    A trailing Ballute drag device concept for spacecraft aerocapture is considered. A thermal model for calculation of the Ballute membrane temperature and the inflation gas temperature is developed. An algorithm capturing the most salient features of the concept is implemented. In conjunction with the thermal model, trajectory calculations for two candidate missions, Titan Explorer and Neptune Orbiter missions, are used to estimate the stagnation point temperature and the inflation gas temperature. Radiation from both sides of the membrane at the stagnation point and conduction to the inflating gas is included. The results showed that the radiation from the membrane and to a much lesser extent conduction to the inflating gas, are likely to be the controlling heat transfer mechanisms and that the increase in gas temperature due to aerodynamic heating is of secondary importance.

  12. Observed changes in seasonal heat waves and warm temperature extremes in the Romanian Carpathians (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin


    Extreme high temperature have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum temperatures over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum temperature at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project ( The seasonal changes in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm temperature extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum temperature distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous temperature-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.

  13. Thermal sensation, rate of temperature change, and the heat dissipation design for tablet computers. (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Hedge, Alan; Cosley, Daniel


    Past research has shown that the rate of change of skin surface temperature can affect thermal sensation. This study investigated users' thermal responses to a tablet heating surface with different heat pads and different temperature change rates. The test conditions included: A. keeping the surface at a constant 42 °C, B. increasing the surface temperature from 38 °C to 42 °C at a rate of 0.02 °C/s in progressive intervals, C. increasing the temperature at 0.15 °C/s in progressive intervals, and D. Heating two left and right side pads alternately from 38 °C to 42 °C at 0.15 °C/s in progressive intervals. Overall results showed the lowest temperature change rate of 0.02 °C/s was most preferred in terms of thermal comfort. The findings suggest a potential to improve user thermal experience by dissipating tablet computer heat at a lower temperature change rate, or by alternating the dissipation areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of boundary heat flux using experimental temperature data in turbulent forced convection flow (United States)

    Parwani, Ajit K.; Talukdar, Prabal; Subbarao, P. M. V.


    Heat flux at the boundary of a duct is estimated using the inverse technique based on conjugate gradient method (CGM) with an adjoint equation. A two-dimensional inverse forced convection hydrodynamically fully developed turbulent flow is considered. The simulations are performed with temperature data measured in the experimental test performed on a wind tunnel. The results show that the present numerical model with CGM is robust and accurate enough to estimate the strength and position of boundary heat flux.

  15. Constant-pressure specific heat to hemispherical total emissivity ratio for undercooled liquid nickel, zirconium, and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rulison, A.J.; Rhim, W.K. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were obtained using the high-temperature, high-vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) have been analyzed to determine the ratio between the constant-pressure specific heat and the hemispherical total emissivity, c{sub p}(T)/{var_epsilon}{sub T}(T). This ratio determined over a wide liquid temperature range for each material allows one to determine c{sub p}(T) if {var_epsilon}{sub T}(T) is known or vice versa. Following the recipe, the hemispherical total emissivities for each sample at its melting temperature, {var_epsilon}{sub T}(T{sub m}), have been determined using c{sub p}(T{sub m}) values available in the literature. They are 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17, for Ni, Zr, and Si, respectively.

  16. Constant-pressure specific heat to hemispherical total emissivity ratio for undercooled liquid nickel, Zirconium, and Silicon (United States)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu


    Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were obtained using the high-temperature, high-vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) have been analyzed to determine the ratio between the constant-pressure specific heat and the hemispherical total emissivity, c p(T)/∈T(T).This ratio determined over a wide liquid temperature range for each material allows us to determine c p(T) if ∈T (T) is known or vice versa.Following the recipe, the hemispherical total emissivities for each sample at its melting temperature, ∈T (T) m, have been determined using c p(Tm) values available in the literature. They are 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17, for Ni, Zr, and Si, respectively.

  17. Constant-Pressure Specific Heat to Hemispherical Total Emissivity Ratio for Undercooled Liquid Nickel, Zirconium, and Silicon (United States)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu


    Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were obtained using the high-temperature, high-vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) have been analyzed to determine the ratio between the constant-pressure specific heat and the hemispherical total emissivity, c(sub p)(T)epsilon(sub T)(T). This ratio determined over a wide liquid temperature range for each material allows us to determine c(sub p)(T) if epsilon(sub T)(T) is known or vice versa. Following the recipe, the hemi-spherical total emissivities for each sample at its melting temperature, epsilon(sub T)(T(sub M)), have been determined using c(sub p)(T(sub m)) values available in the literature. They are 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17, for Ni, Zr, and Si, respectively.

  18. Modeling Of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) Subassembly For Prototype Design (United States)

    Bower, Chad E.; Padilla, Sebastian A.; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, Heather L.


    This paper describes modeling methods for the three core components of a Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) subassembly: a sorbent bed, a sublimation (cooling) heat exchanger (SHX), and a condensing icing (warming) heat exchanger (CIHX). The primary function of the MTSA, removing carbon dioxide from a space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation loop, is performed via the sorbent bed. The CIHX is used to heat the sorbent bed for desorption and to remove moisture from the ventilation loop while the SHX is alternately employed to cool the sorbent bed via sublimation of a spray of water at low pressure to prepare the reconditioned bed for the next cycle. This paper describes subsystem heat a mass transfer modeling methodologies relevant to the description of the MTSA subassembly in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT. Several areas of particular modeling interest are discussed. In the sorbent bed, capture of the translating carbon dioxide (CO2) front and associated local energy and mass balance in both adsorbing and desorbing modes is covered. The CIHX poses particular challenges for modeling in SINDA/FLUINT as accounting for solids states in fluid submodels are not a native capability. Methods for capturing phase change and latent heat of ice as well as the transport properties across a layer of low density accreted frost are developed. This extended modeling capacity is applicable to temperatures greater than 258 K. To extend applicability to the minimum device temperature of 235 K, a method for a mapped transformation of temperatures from below the limit temperatures to some value above is given along with descriptions for associated material property transformations and the resulting impacts to total heat and mass transfer. Similar considerations are given for the SHX along with functional relationships for areal sublimation rates as limited by flow mechanics in t1he outlet duct.

  19. Laminar convective heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluids with constant wall temperature (United States)

    Hojjat, M.; Etemad, S. Gh.; Bagheri, R.; Thibault, J.


    Nanofluids are obtained by dispersing homogeneously nanoparticles into a base fluid. Nanofluids often exhibit higher heat transfer rate in comparison with the base fluid. In the present study, forced convection heat transfer under laminar flow conditions was investigated experimentally for three types of non-Newtonian nanofluids in a circular tube with constant wall temperature. CMC solution was used as the base fluid and γ-Al2O3, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed to create nanodispersions of different concentrations. Nanofluids as well as the base fluid show shear thinning (pseudoplastic) rheological behavior. Results show that the presence of nanoparticles increases the convective heat transfer of the nanodispersions in comparison with the base fluid. The convective heat transfer enhancement is more significant when both the Peclet number and the nanoparticle concentration are increased. The increase in convective heat transfer is higher than the increase caused by the augmentation of the effective thermal conductivity.

  20. Numerical analysis of jet impingement heat transfer at high jet Reynolds number and large temperature difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore


    Jet impingement heat transfer from a round gas jet to a flat wall was investigated numerically for a ratio of 2 between the jet inlet to wall distance and the jet inlet diameter. The influence of turbulence intensity at the jet inlet and choice of turbulence model on the wall heat transfer...... was investigated at a jet Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 and a temperature difference between jet inlet and wall of 1600 K. The focus was on the convective heat transfer contribution as thermal radiation was not included in the investigation. A considerable influence of the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet...... was observed in the stagnation region, where the wall heat flux increased by a factor of almost 3 when increasing the turbulence intensity from 1.5% to 10%. The choice of turbulence model also influenced the heat transfer predictions significantly, especially in the stagnation region, where differences of up...