Sample records for temperature solid state

  1. Mechanochemically assisted room temperature solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This communication reports a novel mechanochemically assisted room temperature solid state metathesis reaction for the synthesis of submicron-size alkaline-earth molybdates crystallizing in a tetragonal Scheelite structure. The solids were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA, SEM, EDAX and TEM to ascertain ...

  2. High Temperature Solid State Lithium Battery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable energy systems with high energy density capable of operating at high temperatures, pressures and radiation levels are needed for certain NASA missions....

  3. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys (United States)

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy


    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including Titanium and its alloys. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Various solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature to avoid detrimental changes to the microstructure. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining various titanium alloys using the solid state welding processes of FSW and TSW. Process descriptions and attributes of each weld process will be presented. Weld process set ]up and welding techniques will be discussed leading to the challenges experienced. Mechanical property data will also be presented.

  4. Iron salts in solid state and in frozen solutions as dosimeters for low irradiation temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T. [Facultad de Quimica UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Lartigue, J. [Facultad de Quimica UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543 C.P.4510, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Ramos, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543 C.P.4510, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mosqueira, G.F. [Direccion General de Divulgacion de la Ciencia de la UNAM, A.P. 70-487, C:P, D.F. Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Negron-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543 C.P.4510, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    The aim of this work is to study the irradiation of iron salts in solid state (heptahydrated ferrous sulfate) and in frozen acid solutions. The study is focused on finding their possible use as dosimeters for low temperature irradiations and high doses. The analysis of the samples was made by UV-visible and Moessbauer spectroscopies. The output signal was linear from 0 to 10 MGy for the solid samples, and 0-600 Gy for the frozen solutions. The obtained data is reproducible and easy to handle. For these reasons, heptahydrate iron sulfate is a suitable dosimeter for low temperature and high irradiation doses, in solid state, and in frozen solution.

  5. A new temperature-dependent equation of state of solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The equation of state (EOS) of condensed matter is important in many fields of basic and applied sciences including physics and geophysics. To explain an EOS and other thermodynamical properties of a substance, it is essential to study the forces between atoms and molecules. The exact evaluation of these forces from ...

  6. Temperature control in a continuously mixed bioreactor for solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.J.I.; Tramper, J.; Bakker, M.S.N.; Rinzema, A.


    A continuously mixed, aseptic paddle mixer was used successfully for solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus oryzae on whole wheat kernels. Continuous mixing improved temperature control and prevented inhomogeneities in the bed. Respiration rates found in this system were comparable to those

  7. Elements of solid state electronics based on soi-structures and si whiskers for cryogenic temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the study results of electrical properties of polycrystalline silicon films in silicon-on-insulator structures and Si whiskers in the temperature range of 4,2—70 K obtained by impedance measurements in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 250 kHz and the possibility of their use in solid-state electronics, functioning at cryogenic temperatures. Characteristics of samples obtained with impedance measurements allow to predict certain specifications of reactive elements of solid state electronics based on polycrystalline and single crystalline silicon, operable at low temperatures. Using the established dependencies, separate elements in the form of solid-state electronics capacitive and inductive elements as well as a combined system in an oscillatory circuit, operable at cryogenic temperatures, have been suggested. The features of developed system depend on the structure of samples and their doping level, which allows to change the required parameters of the elements of solid state electronics in a wide range.

  8. Flexible, low-temperature, solution processed ZnO-based perovskite solid state solar cells. (United States)

    Kumar, Mulmudi Hemant; Yantara, Natalia; Dharani, Sabba; Graetzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Boix, Pablo P; Mathews, Nripan


    A ZnO compact layer formed by electrodeposition and ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) allow the processing of low-temperature, solution based and flexible solid state perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. Conversion efficiencies of 8.90% were achieved on rigid substrates while the flexible ones yielded 2.62%.

  9. An analysis of the temperature distribution in finite solid-state laser rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrukh, U.O. (Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA 23668 (US)); Buoncristiani, A.M.; Byvik, C.E. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23665 (US))


    An expression for the time-dependent temperature distribution in a finite solid-state laser rod, for an arbitrary distribution of pump energy, has been derived. The specific case of end pumping by circular (constant) or Gaussian beams is included. This formulation was employed to predict the time evolution of temperature in Ti:sapphire laser rods and in Nd:YAG rods of specific dimensions.

  10. An analysis of the temperature distribution in finite solid-state laser rods (United States)

    Farrukh, Usamah O.; Buoncristiani, A. Martin; Byvik, Charles E.


    An expression for the time-dependent temperature distribution in a finite solid-state laser rod, for an arbitrary distribution of pump energy, has been derived. The specific case of end pumping by circular (constant) or Gaussian beams is included. This formulation was used to predict the time evolution of temperature in Ti:sapphire laser rods and in Nd:YAG rods of specific dimensions.

  11. Characterization of polymorphic solid-state changes using variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karjalainen, Milja; Airaksinen, Sari; Rantanen, Jukka


    The aim of this study was to use variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction (VT-XRPD) to understand the solid-state changes in the pharmaceutical materials during heating. The model compounds studied were sulfathiazole, theophylline and nitrofurantoin. This study showed that the polymorph form...... of sulfathiazole SUTHAZ01 was very stable and SUTHAZ02 changed as a function of temperature to SUTHAZ01. Theophylline monohydrate changed via its metastable form to its anhydrous form during heating and nitrofurantoin monohydrate changed via amorphous form to its anhydrous form during heating. The crystallinity...... of SUTHAZ01, SUTHAZ02 and theophylline monohydrate were very high and stable. Nitrofurantoin monohydrate was also very crystalline at room temperature but during heating at lower temperatures the crystallinity decreased and started to increase strongly at the temperature where the sample had changed...

  12. Microscale solid-state thermal diodes enabling ambient temperature thermal circuits for energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Song


    Thermal diodes, or devices that transport thermal energy asymmetrically, analogous to electrical diodes, hold promise for thermal energy harvesting and conservation, as well as for phononics or information processing. The junction of a phase change material and phase invariant material can form a thermal diode; however, there are limited constituent materials available for a given target temperature, particularly near ambient. In this work, we demonstrate that a micro and nanoporous polystyrene foam can house a paraffin-based phase change material, fused to PMMA, to produce mechanically robust, solid-state thermal diodes capable of ambient operation with Young\\'s moduli larger than 11.5 MPa and 55.2 MPa above and below the melting transition point, respectively. Moreover, the composites show significant changes in thermal conductivity above and below the melting point of the constituent paraffin and rectification that is well-described by our previous theory and the Maxwell–Eucken model. Maximum thermal rectifications range from 1.18 to 1.34. We show that such devices perform reliably enough to operate in thermal diode bridges, dynamic thermal circuits capable of transforming oscillating temperature inputs into single polarity temperature differences – analogous to an electrical diode bridge with widespread implications for transient thermal energy harvesting and conservation. Overall, our approach yields mechanically robust, solid-state thermal diodes capable of engineering design from a mathematical model of phase change and thermal transport, with implications for energy harvesting.

  13. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Actinide Tetraborides by Solid-State Metathesis Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupinetti, Anthony J.; Garcia, Eduardo; Abney, Kent D.


    The synthesis of actinide tetraborides including uranium tetraboride (UB,), plutonium tetraboride (PUB,) and thorium tetraboride (ThB{sub 4}) by a solid-state metathesis reaction are demonstrated. The present method significantly lowers the temperature required to {approx_equal}850 C. As an example, when UCl{sub 4}, is reacted with an excess of MgB{sub 2}, at 850 C, crystalline UB, is formed. Powder X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES data support the reduction of UCl{sub 3}, as the initial step in the reaction. The UB, product is purified by washing water and drying.

  14. Scalable architecture for a room temperature solid-state quantum information processor. (United States)

    Yao, N Y; Jiang, L; Gorshkov, A V; Maurer, P C; Giedke, G; Cirac, J I; Lukin, M D


    The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Here we propose and analyse an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at room temperature. Our approach is based on recent experimental advances involving nitrogen-vacancy colour centres in diamond. In particular, we demonstrate that the multiple challenges associated with operation at ambient temperature, individual addressing at the nanoscale, strong qubit coupling, robustness against disorder and low decoherence rates can be simultaneously achieved under realistic, experimentally relevant conditions. The architecture uses a novel approach to quantum information transfer and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Moreover, it alleviates the stringent constraints currently limiting the realization of scalable quantum processors and will provide fundamental insights into the physics of non-equilibrium many-body quantum systems.

  15. Low Temperature Solid-State Synthesis and Characterization of LaBO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun KIPÇAK


    Full Text Available Rare earth (lanthanide series borates, possess high vacuum ultraviolet (VUV transparency, large electronic band gaps, chemical and environmental stability and exceptionally large optical damage thresholds and used in the development of plasma display panels (PDPs. In this study the synthesis of lanthanum borates via solid-state method is studied. For this purpose, lanthanum oxide (La2O3 and boric acid (H3BO3 are used for as lanthanum and boron sources, respectively. Different elemental molar ratios of La to B (between 3:1 to 1:6 as La2O3:H3BO3 were reacted by solid-state method at the reaction temperatures between 500°C - 700°C with the constant reaction time of 4 h. Following the synthesis, characterizations of the synthesized products are conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM. From the results of the experiments, three types of lanthanum borates of; La3BO6, LaBO3 and La(BO23 were observed at different reaction parameters. Among these three types of lanthanum borates LaBO3 phase were obtained as a major phase.

  16. Solid state NMR studies for a new carbonization process with high temperature preheating (United States)

    Saito, Koji; Hatakeyama, Moriaki; Komaki, Ikuo; Katoh, Kenji


    A new carbonization process with rapid preheating and coke discharging at medium temperature has been developed in Japan. The result of this process shows that even when no or slightly coking coal is by 50 wt% the coking property is improved and a coking coke with cold strength usable at blast furnace can be manufactured with the new carbonization process. The mechanism of the coking property improvement was examined by coal properties using mainly solid state NMR ( 1H CRAMPS and 13C SPE/MAS, CP/MAS) and NMR imaging (single point imaging, in-situ imaging). It has been clarified that the molecular structure of coal is relaxed by the rapid heating treatment and, in addition, there is a close relation between hydrogen bonding and relaxation of the molecular structure of coal.

  17. Transient analytical solution of temperature distribution and fracture limits in pulsed solid-state laser rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibib Khalid S.


    Full Text Available The exact analytical solution of axis-symmetry transient temperature and Tresca failure stress in pulsed mode solid-state laser rod is derived using integral transform method. The result obtained from this work is compared with previously published data and good agreement is found. The effect of increasing period is studied, and it is found that at constant pulse width as the period is increased, the allowable pumping power is increased too. Furthermore, the effect of changing pulse width with a constant period is studied, and it is found that as the pulse width is increased, the allowable pumping power is decreased. The effect of duty cycle is studied also and it is found that as duty cycle is increased the allowable pumping power is decreased. This work permits proper selection of pulse width, period and duty cycle to avoid laser rod fracture while obtaining maximum output laser power in the designing of laser system.

  18. Modelling of simultaneous effect of moisture and temperature on A. niger growth in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi-Esfahani, Z.; Shojaosadati, S.A.; Rinzema, A.


    In the present work a two factorial design of experiments was applied to study the simultaneous effect of temperature and moisture on A. niger growth in the solid-state fermentation (SSF). The increase of water content to more than 55% at the temperatures 35 and 40degreesC decreases microorganism

  19. Room Temperature Solid State Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of a Zinc Complex with Pyromellitic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Gui Yang


    Full Text Available The complex [Zn2(btca(H2O4] was synthesized with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H4btca and zinc acetate as materials via a room-temperature solid state reaction. The composition and structure of the complex were characterized by elemental analyses (EA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and thermogravimetric (TG analysis. The index results of X-ray powder diffraction data showed that the crystal structure of the complex belonged to monoclinic system with cell parameters a = 9.882 Å, b = 21.311 Å, c = 15.746 Å, and β = 100.69°. In order to expand the application of the complex, the nanometer zinc oxide was prepared by using the complex as a precursor, and the effect of the thermal decomposition temperature on the preparation of the nanometer zinc oxide was studied. The results showed that the grain size of zinc oxide gradually grew with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature, the obtained nanometer zinc oxide was spherical, and the diameter of the particles was about 25 nm.

  20. Process control of solid-state fermentation : simultaneous control of temperature and moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.I.


    Solid-state fermentation (SSF), i.e. cultivation of micro-organisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free-flowing water, is an alternative for submerged fermentation (SmF) for the production of biotechnological products. In recent years, research on SSF has led to a

  1. Room-Temperature Performance of Poly(Ethylene Ether Carbonate)-Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries. (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Chae; Park, Myung-Soo; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Ue, Makoto; Eftekhari, Ali; Kim, Dong-Won


    Amorphous poly(ethylene ether carbonate) (PEEC), which is a copolymer of ethylene oxide and ethylene carbonate, was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ethylene carbonate. This route overcame the common issue of low conductivity of poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes at low temperatures, and thus the solid polymer electrolyte could be successfully employed at the room temperature. Introducing the ethylene carbonate units into PEEC improved the ionic conductivity, electrochemical stability and lithium transference number compared with PEO. A cross-linked solid polymer electrolyte was synthesized by photo cross-linking reaction using PEEC and tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate as a cross-linking agent, in the form of a flexible thin film. The solid-state Li/LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cell assembled with solid polymer electrolyte based on cross-linked PEEC delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 141.4 mAh g-1 and exhibited good capacity retention at room temperature. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this solid polymer electrolyte in all-solid-state lithium batteries that can operate at ambient temperatures.

  2. Experimental study on solid state reduction of chromite with rising temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekkonen, M.; Syynimaa, A.; Holappa, L.


    The solid state reduction of preoxidized sintered chromite pellets, raw pellets, process pellets and lumpy ores have been studied with rising temperature 700-1520 deg C under CO-atmosphere in order to better simulate the conditions in the upper part of a real submerged arc furnace. According to the reduction degree curves the reduction behaviour of chromite pellets seems to be similar. The reduction rate was slow at the beginning but increased rapidly when the temperature reached about 1000 deg C. The final reduction degree was highest in the case of process pellets and lowest in the case of raw pellet. In the case of preoxidized pellets there was not much difference of the reduction rate and final reduction degree between different oxidation states. In the case of lumpy ores the reduction rate and the final reduction degree was much lower compared to the pellets. Optical photographs, phase and microanalysis show that the reduction has proceeded further in the surface of the samples and confirmed also that the reduction degree remained lower in the case of raw pellet and lumpy ores which was also seen from the reduction degree curves. According to the experiments in the case of preoxidized pellets the effect of oxidation state on the reduction rate was not observed due to small difference in the oxidation state of the samples. But when comparing the reduction of preoxidized pellets and unoxidised raw pellet we can say that preoxidation promotes the reduction. The final reduction degree of the raw pellet remained lower than in the case of preoxidized pellets. (orig.)

  3. Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloy Tubes for USC and Heat-Exchanger Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimal Kad


    The principal objective of this project was to develop materials enabling joining technologies for use in forward looking heat-exchanger fabrication in Brayton cycle HIPPS, IGCC, FutureGen concepts capable of operating at temperatures in excess of 1000{degree}C as well as conventional technology upgrades via Ultra Super-Critical (USC) Rankine-cycle boilers capable of operating at 760{degree}C (1400F)/38.5MPa (5500psi) steam, while still using coal as the principal fossil fuel. The underlying mission in Rankine, Brayton or Brayton-Rankine, or IGCC combined cycle heat engine is a steady quest to improving operating efficiency while mitigating global environmental concerns. There has been a progressive move to higher overall cycle efficiencies, and in the case of fossil fuels this has accelerated recently in part because of concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, notably CO{sub 2}. For a heat engine, the overall efficiency is closely related to the difference between the highest temperature in the cycle and the lowest temperature. In most cases, efficiency gains are prompted by an increase in the high temperature, and this in turn has led to increasing demands on the materials of construction used in the high temperature end of the systems. Our migration to new advanced Ni-base and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys poses significant fabrication challenges, as these materials are not readily weldable or the weld performs poorly in the high temperature creep regime. Thus the joining challenge is two-fold to a) devise appropriate joining methodologies for similar/dissimilar Ni-base and ODS alloys while b) preserving the near baseline creep performance in the welded region. Our program focus is on solid state joining of similar and dissimilar metals/alloys for heat exchanger components currently under consideration for the USC, HIPPS and IGCC power systems. The emphasis is to manipulate the joining methods and variables available to optimize joint creep

  4. Proton conducting membranes for high temperature fuel cells with solid state water free membranes (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)


    A water free, proton conducting membrane for use in a fuel cell is fabricated as a highly conducting sheet of converted solid state organic amine salt, such as converted acid salt of triethylenediamine with two quaternized tertiary nitrogen atoms, combined with a nanoparticulate oxide and a stable binder combined with the converted solid state organic amine salt to form a polymeric electrolyte membrane. In one embodiment the membrane is derived from triethylenediamine sulfate, hydrogen phosphate or trifiate, an oxoanion with at least one ionizable hydrogen, organic tertiary amine bisulfate, polymeric quaternized amine bisulfate or phosphate, or polymeric organic compounds with quaternizable nitrogen combined with Nafion to form an intimate network with ionic interactions.

  5. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald


    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  6. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert


    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  7. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y


    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  8. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  9. Computer program MCAP-TOSS calculates steady-state fluid dynamics of coolant in parallel channels and temperature distribution in surrounding heat-generating solid (United States)

    Lee, A. Y.


    Computer program calculates the steady state fluid distribution, temperature rise, and pressure drop of a coolant, the material temperature distribution of a heat generating solid, and the heat flux distributions at the fluid-solid interfaces. It performs the necessary iterations automatically within the computer, in one machine run.

  10. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann


    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  11. A Comparative Study of Temperature Optimal Control in a Solid State Fermentation Process for Edible Mushroom Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Gurubel


    Full Text Available In this paper, optimal control strategies for temperature trajectory determination in order to maximize thermophilic bacteria in a fed-batch solid-state fermentation reactor are proposed. This process is modeled by nonlinear differential equations, which has been previously validated experimentally with scale reactor temperature profiles. The dynamic input aeration rate of the reactor is determined to increase microorganisms growth of a selective substrate for edible mushroom cultivation. In industrial practice, the process is comprised of three thermal stages with constant input air flow and three types of microorganisms in a 150-hour lapse. Scytalidium thermophilum and actinobacteria are desired in order to obtain a final biomass composition with acceptable microorganisms concentration. The Steepest Descent gradient algorithm in continuous time and the Gradient Projection algorithm in discrete-time are used for the process optimal control. A comparison of simulation results in the presence of disturbances is presented, where the resulting temperature trajectories exhibit similar tendencies as industrial data.

  12. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R


    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  13. Low temperature solid-state wetting and formation of nanowelds in silver nanowires (United States)

    Radmilović, Vuk V.; Göbelt, Manuela; Ophus, Colin; Christiansen, Silke; Spiecker, Erdmann; Radmilović, Velimir R.


    This article focuses on the microscopic mechanism of thermally induced nanoweld formation between silver nanowires (AgNWs) which is a key process for improving electrical conductivity in NW networks employed for transparent electrodes. Focused ion beam sectioning and transmission electron microscopy were applied in order to elucidate the atomic structure of a welded NW including measurement of the wetting contact angle and characterization of defect structure with atomic accuracy, which provides fundamental information on the welding mechanism. Crystal lattice strain, obtained by direct evaluation of atomic column displacements in high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images, was shown to be non-uniform among the five twin segments of the AgNW pentagonal structure. It was found that the pentagonal cross-sectional morphology of AgNWs has a dominant effect on the formation of nanowelds by controlling initial wetting as well as diffusion of Ag atoms between the NWs. Due to complete solid-state wetting, at an angle of ˜4.8°, the welding process starts with homoepitaxial nucleation of an initial Ag layer on (100) surface facets, considered to have an infinitely large radius of curvature. However, the strong driving force for this process due to the Gibbs-Thomson effect, requires the NW contact to occur through the corner of the pentagonal cross-section of the second NW providing a small radius of curvature. After the initial layer is formed, the welded zone continues to grow and extends out epitaxially to the neighboring twin segments.

  14. Solid state polymerization of pet/pc extruded blend: effect of reaction temperature on thermal, morphological and viscosity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Claudio Mendes


    Full Text Available A systematic study of solid state polymerization (SSP, concerning the melt extruded blend of poly(ethylene terephthalate/polycarbonate (catalyzed PET/PC, 80/20 wt %, as a function of temperature range (180-190°C for a fixed time (6 h is presented. The materials obtained were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG, optical microscopy (OM and intrinsic viscosity (IV analysis. After SSP, at all reaction temperatures, PET glass transition and heating crystallization temperatures slightly decreased, melting temperature slightly increased, while degree of crystallinity was practically invariable. The DTG curves indicated that, at least, three phases remained. The OM images revealed that the morphology is constituted of a PET matrix and a PC dispersed phase. In the interfacial region we noticed the appearance of structures like bridges linking the matrix and the dispersed domains. These bridges were correlated to the PET/PC block copolymer obtained during blending in the molten state. IV increased for all polymerization temperatures, due to the occurrence of PET chain extension reactions - esterification and transesterification. The IV range for bottle grade PET was achieved.

  15. Interface Characterization of Cu-Cu and Cu-Ag-Cu Low Temperature Solid State Bonds. (United States)


    Metals". Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde , Vol. 69, pp. 287-292, 1978. - °. - X . .’ . ŗ. Miedema, A. R. and F. J. A. DenBroeder, "On the Interfacial Energy...In Solid-Liquid and Solid-Sc1:_ Metal Combinations", Zeitschrrft fur Metallkunde , Vol. 70, pp. 14-20, 1979. -4. Czichos, H., "The Mechanism of the

  16. Heating and temperature gradients of lipid bilayer samples induced by RF irradiation in MAS solid-state NMR experiments. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Zhao, Weijing; Wang, Liying; Yang, Jun


    The MAS solid-state NMR has been a powerful technique for studying membrane proteins within the native-like lipid bilayer environment. In general, RF irradiation in MAS NMR experiments can heat and potentially destroy expensive membrane protein samples. However, under practical MAS NMR experimental conditions, detailed characterization of RF heating effect of lipid bilayer samples is still lacking. Herein, using (1) H chemical shift of water for temperature calibration, we systematically study the dependence of RF heating on hydration levels and salt concentrations of three lipids in MAS NMR experiments. Under practical (1) H decoupling conditions used in biological MAS NMR experiments, three lipids show different dependence of RF heating on hydration levels as well as salt concentrations, which are closely associated with the properties of lipids. The maximum temperature elevation of about 10 °C is similar for the three lipids containing 200% hydration, which is much lower than that in static solid-state NMR experiments. The RF heating due to salt is observed to be less than that due to hydration, with a maximum temperature elevation of less than 4 °C in the hydrated samples containing 120 mmol l(-1) of salt. Upon RF irradiation, the temperature gradient across the sample is observed to be greatly increased up to 20 °C, as demonstrated by the remarkable broadening of (1) H signal of water. Based on detailed characterization of RF heating effect, we demonstrate that RF heating and temperature gradient can be significantly reduced by decreasing the hydration levels of lipid bilayer samples from 200% to 30%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Temperature dependence of the heat capacities in the solid state of 18 mono-, di-, and poly-saccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Segura, Gerardo O. [Laboratorio de Biofisicoquimica, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Campos, Myriam [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Costas, Miguel [Laboratorio de Biofisicoquimica, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail:; Torres, Luis A. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)], E-mail:


    The temperature dependence of the heat capacities in solid state C{sub p}(T) of 18 mono-, di-, and poly-saccharides has been determined using a power-compensation differential scanning calorimeter. The saccharides were {alpha}-D-xylose, D-ribose, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, methyl-{beta}-D-ribose, {alpha}-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, {alpha}-D-mannose, {beta}-D-fructose, {alpha}-D-galactose, methyl-{alpha}-D-glucose, sucrose, maltose monohydrate, {alpha}-lactose monohydrate, cellobiose, maltotriose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, {alpha}-cyclodextrin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin. The measurements were carried out at atmospheric pressure and from T = (288.15 to 358.15) K for 15 saccharides and from T = (288.15 to 328.15) K for D-ribose, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, and methyl-{beta}-D-ribose. The present results are compared against literature values both at single temperatures, where most of the data are available, and throughout a range of temperatures, i.e., for C{sub p}(T). The predictions of a recently published correlation for organic solids are briefly discussed. By grouping saccharides in subsets, our present results can be used to compare amongst saccharide isomers and to assess the effect of different chemical groups and molecular size.

  18. Large scale synthesis and formation mechanism of silver nanoparticles in solid-state reactions at ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiqin, E-mail: [State Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science and Technology, Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Tian, Yakun; Xiao, Yuanhua; Sun, Yuan [State Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science and Technology, Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Li, Feng [State Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science and Technology, Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); American Advanced Nanotechnology, Houston, TX 77459 (United States)


    Highlights: • AgNPs were prepared by solid state reaction at ambient temperature. • Only silver nitrate and ascorbic acid were needed in this reaction. • The size of the AgNPs can be tuned conveniently. • Formation mechanism of the AgNPs was investigated. - Abstract: A one-step strategy for preparing Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) on large scale is demonstrated successfully, based on solid-state reactions at ambient temperature. The environmentally friendly synthesis can be achieved by simply grinding AgNO{sub 3} and ascorbic acid (AA) for about 30 min without adding any solvent and organic protectors. The size of AgNPs can be readily controlled by adjusting the reaction parameters such as AgNO{sub 3}/AA molar ratio and reaction time. The nanostructures of AgNPs and their formation mechanism have been also investigated with XRD, FTIR, FESEM, HRTEM and HPLC–MS. It was found that AA can reduce Ag{sup +} into Ag{sup 0} to form AgNPs directly in accompanying with its first oxidation into 2,3-diketogulonic acid (2,3-DKG) and then a series of fragmentary species of 2,3-DKG.

  19. Proteomic analysis of temperature dependent extracellular proteins from Aspergillus fumigatus grown under solid-state culture condition. (United States)

    Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Sze, Siu Kwan


    Fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are filamentous ubiquitous saprophytes that play a major role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and also are considered as cell factories for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals, and industrially important enzymes. Analysis of extracellular secreted biomass degrading enzymes using complex lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate by solid-state fermentation could be a more practical approach to evaluate application of the enzymes for lignocellulosic biorefinery. This study isolated a fungal strain from compost, identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, and further analyzed it for lignocellulolytic enzymes at different temperatures using label free quantitative proteomics. The profile of secretome composition discovered cellulases, hemicellulases, lignin degrading proteins, peptidases and proteases, and transport and hypothetical proteins; while protein abundances and further their hierarchical clustering analysis revealed temperature dependent expression of these enzymes during solid-state fermentation of sawdust. The enzyme activities and protein abundances as determined by exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) indicated the maximum activities at the range of 40-50 °C, demonstrating the thermophilic nature of the isolate A. fumigatus LF9. Characterization of the thermostability of secretome suggested the potential of the isolated fungal strain in the production of thermophilic biomass degrading enzymes for industrial application.

  20. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D


    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  1. Development of a high current high temperature SiC MOSFET based solid-state power controller (United States)

    Guo, Yuanbo

    Solid-State Power Controllers (SSPCs) are critical components in the development of electric aircraft and must be small in size, fast in response, and have high reliability. They are also proposed for use in microgrids to improve the power quality and system reliability. The development of Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor switches provides a series of improvements for the SSPCs in both electrical and thermal performances. In the proposed SSPC design investigation, SiC MOSFETs die are mounted on cast-aluminum traces, under which are an aluminum nitride (AlN) layer and an aluminum composite base plate. The concept of i2t and its application in solid state protection is discussed in detail. Transient thermal characterizations of SiC MOSFETs are provided for a nearly-all-aluminum package by Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The SSPC is targeted for 120A nominal, 1200A fault current, 270V DC system, and working at 105°C environment with a maximum 350°C transient junction temperature capability.

  2. The influence of temperature on kinetics in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Sonsbeek, H.M. van; Hage, J.C.; Kaynak, A.; Knol, W.


    In this paper, correlations between temperature and kinetics of Trichoderma reesei QM9414 growing on wheat bran are described in terms of glucosamine production, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production. Maximum growth temperature (T(max)) being approximately 314 K, is estimated by

  3. New room temperature high resolution solid-state detector (CdZnTe) for hard x rays and gamma rays (United States)

    Stewart, Amyelizabeth C.; Desai, Upendra D.


    The new CdZnTe high 'Z' material represents a significant improvement in detectors for high energy photons. With the thicknesses available, photons up to 100 keV can be efficiently detected. This material has a wide band gap of 1.5 - 2.2 eV which allows it to operate at room temperature while providing high spectral resolution. Results of resolution evaluations are presented. This detector can be used for high resolution spectral measurements of photons in x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, offering a significant reduction in the weight, power, and volume of the detector system compared to more conventional detector types such as scintillation counters. In addition, the detector will have the simplicity and reliability of solid-state construction. The CdZnTe detector, as a new development, has not yet been evaluated in space. The Get Away Special program can provide this opportunity.

  4. Solid-state lithium battery (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross


    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  5. Growth temperature of different local isolates of Bacillus sp. in the solid state affects production of raw starch digesting amylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šokarda-Slavić Marinela


    Full Text Available Natural amylase producers, wild type strains of Bacillus sp., were isolated from different regions of Serbia. Strains with the highest amylase activity based on the starch-agar plate test were grown on solid-state fermentation (SSF on triticale. The influence of the substrate and different cultivation temperature (28 and 37°C on the production of amylase was examined. The tested strains produced α-amylases when grown on triticale grains both at 28 and at 37°C, but the activity of amylases and the number and intensity of the produced isoforms were different. Significant hydrolysis of raw cornstarch was obtained with the Bacillus sp. strains 2B, 5B, 18 and 24B. The produced α-amylases hydrolyzed raw cornstarch at a temperature below the temperature of gelatinization, but the ability for hydrolysis was not directly related to the total enzyme activity, suggesting that only certain isoforms are involved in the hydrolysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172048

  6. Model of Laser-Induced Temperature Changes in Solid-State Optical Refrigerators (United States)


    thermic , and the material cools as a result of laser excitation. Two-band differential luminescence thermometry TBDLT, a technique that measures laser...boundary at a given temperature, or Neu- mann boundary conditions, which hold the boundary at a given heat flow rate e.g., imperfect insulation . Here

  7. Temperature quenched DODAB dispersions: fluid and solid state coexistence and complex formation with oppositely charged surfactant. (United States)

    Cocquyt, Jan; Olsson, Ulf; Olofsson, Gerd; Van der Meeren, Paul


    Dilute dispersions of the synthetic bilayer forming double-chained cationic lipid dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) were investigated. In dispersions sonicated above the chain melting temperature Tm (approximately 45 degrees C) it was found by H NMR that about 50% of the surfactant chains remained fluid when the samples were cooled to room temperature, which is 20 degrees C below Tm. In contrast, there was no sign of a fluid fraction in unsonicated samples at room temperature. The addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to DODAB dispersions at room temperature resulted in the formation of an essentially stoichiometric DODA-DS complex with frozen chains, as seen by titration calorimetry and H NMR experiments. For sonicated samples, turbidity experiments demonstrated that, after a fast complexation reaction, the system remains colloidally stable unless the SDS-to-DODAB mixing ratio is too close to unity. H NMR experiments also showed that in the unreacted DODAB the fraction of fluid chains remained close to 50%, indicating either that SDS reacts equally fast with fluid and frozen DODAB or that there is a relaxation of the fluid fraction after the complexation. The melting enthalpy and the melting temperature of the alkyl chains rise gradually as the mixing ratio increases. We observed with cryo-TEM that the fraction of large unilamellar vesicles was significantly larger after addition of SDS. This indicates vesicle fusion. Based on both wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering patterns, the structure of the equimolar SDS-DODAB complex at 25 degress C was proposed to be lamellar.

  8. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R


    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  9. Line-Broadening in Low-Temperature Solid-State NMR Spectra of Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas; Dotta, Claudio; Balacescu, Livia; Gath, Julia; Hunkeler, Andreas [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: [Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)


    The temperature-dependent resonance-line broadening of HET-s(218–289) in its amyloid form is investigated in the range between 110 K and 280 K. Significant differences are observed between residues in the structured hydrophobic triangular core, which are broadened the least and can be detected down to 100 K, and in the solvent-exposed parts, which are broadened the most and often disappear from the observed spectrum around 200 K. Below the freezing of the bulk water, around 273 K, the protein fibrils are still surrounded by a layer of mobile water whose thickness decreases with temperature, leading to drying out of the fibrils.

  10. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J


    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  11. Integrated on-chip solid state capacitor based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers, grown using a CMOS temperature compatible process (United States)

    Saleem, Amin M.; Andersson, Rickard; Desmaris, Vincent; Enoksson, Peter


    Complete miniaturized on-chip integrated solid-state capacitors have been fabricated based on conformal coating of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs), using a CMOS temperature compatible microfabrication processes. The 5 μm long VACNFs, operating as electrode, are grown on a silicon substrate and conformally coated by aluminum oxide dielectric using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The areal (footprint) capacitance density value of 11-15 nF/mm2 is realized with high reproducibility. The CMOS temperature compatible microfabrication, ultra-low profile (less than 7 μm thickness) and high capacitance density would enables direct integration of micro energy storage devices on the active CMOS chip, multi-chip package and passives on silicon or glass interposer. A model is developed to calculate the surface area of VACNFs and the effective capacitance from the devices. It is thereby shown that 71% of surface area of the VACNFs has contributed to the measured capacitance, and by using the entire area the capacitance can potentially be increased.

  12. The influence of ionizing radiation, temperature, and light on eplerenone in the solid state. (United States)

    Dettlaff, Katarzyna; Ogrodowczyk, Magdalena; Kycler, Witold; Dołhań, Agnieszka; Cwiertnia, Barbara; Garbacki, Piotr; Jelińska, Anna


    Eplerenone was subjected to the influence of ionizing radiation in the form of a high-energy electron beam (25-400 kGy), high temperature (90°C RH 0% and 60°C RH 76.4%), and light (6 mln lux h). An HPLC method was used to determine the content of eplerenone and to establish the impurity profile of all samples. As eplerenone was found to be a compound of great resistance to the above stress factors with the exception of high doses of ionizing radiation (≥ 200 kGy) when its degradation was above 1%, it is possible to sterilize eplerenone by radiation method with the standard dose of 25 kGy. Based on the analysis of impurities and degradation products, the mechanism of radiodegradation was demonstrated to differ from the mechanisms of photo- and thermodegradation. The observation that the DSC curves for the nondegraded and degraded samples of eplerenone were significantly different only under exposure to the electron beam confirmed the applicability of DSC for studies of radiolytic degradation of eplerenone.

  13. Solid-State Nuclear Power (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.


    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  14. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe


    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  15. Nylon 6 polymerization in the solid state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Amirtharaj, John; Kamp, Henk


    The postcondensation of nylon 6 in the solid state was studied. The reactions were carried out on fine powder in a fluidized bed reactor in a stream of dry nitrogen in the temperature range 110-205°C and during 1-24 h. The solid-state polymerization (SSP) did not follow melt kinetics, but was found

  16. Facile synthesis of PbTiO3 truncated octahedra via solid-state reaction and their application in low-temperature CO oxidation by loading Pt nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Simin


    Perovskite PbTiO3 (PTO) nanocrystals with a truncated octahedral morphology have been prepared by a facile solid-state reaction. Pt nanoparticles preferentially nucleated on the {111} facet of PTO nanocrystals exhibit a remarkable low-temperature catalytic activity towards CO oxidation from a temperature as low as 30 °C and achieve 100% conversion at ∼50 °C. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  17. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C


    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  18. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John


    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  19. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others


    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  20. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald


    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  1. Solid state optical microscope (United States)

    Young, Ian T.


    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  2. Solid-state proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.


    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Room-temperature storage of quantum entanglement using decoherence-free subspace in a solid-state spin system (United States)

    Wang, F.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Zu, C.; Hou, P.-Y.; Yuan, X.-X.; Wang, W.-B.; Zhang, W.-G.; He, L.; Chang, X.-Y.; Duan, L.-M.


    We experimentally demonstrate room-temperature storage of quantum entanglement using two nuclear spins weakly coupled to the electronic spin carried by a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. We realize universal quantum gate control over the three-qubit spin system and produce entangled states in the decoherence-free subspace of the two nuclear spins. By injecting arbitrary collective noise, we demonstrate that the decoherence-free entangled state has coherence time longer than that of other entangled states by an order of magnitude in our experiment.

  4. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E


    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  5. Solid state laser (United States)

    Rines, Glen A. (Inventor); Moulton, Peter F. (Inventor); Harrison, James (Inventor)


    A wavelength-tunable, injection-seeded, dispersion-compensated, dispersively-pumped solid state laser includes a lasing medium; a highly reflective mirror; an output coupler; at least one isosceles Brewster prism oriented to the minimum deviation angle between the medium and the mirror for directing light of different wavelengths along different paths; means for varying the angle of the highly reflective mirror relative to the light from at least one Brewster angle for selecting a predetermined laser operating wavelength; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the lasing medium; a laser injection seeding port disposed between the dispersion compensation apparatus and one of the mirror and coupler and including a reflective surface at an acute non-Brewster angle to the laser beam for introducing a seed input; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the laser medium including opposite chirality optical elements; the lasing medium including a pump surface disposed at an acute angle to the laser beam to define a discrete path for the pumping laser beam separate from the pumped laser beam.

  6. Development of a solid-state sodium Doppler lidar using an all-fiber-coupled injection seeding unit for simultaneous temperature and wind measurements in the mesopause region. (United States)

    Xia, Yuan; Du, LiFang; Cheng, XueWu; Li, FaQuan; Wang, JiHong; Wang, ZeLong; Yang, Yong; Lin, Xin; Xun, YuChang; Gong, ShunSheng; Yang, GuoTao


    A solid-state sodium (Na) Doppler lidar developed at YanQing Station, Beijing, China (40°N, 116°E) aiming to simultaneous wind and temperature measurement of mesopause region was reported. The 589 nm pulse laser was produced by two injection seeded 1064 nm and 1319 nm Nd:YAG pulse lasers using the sum-frequency generation (SFG) technique. A fiber amplifier is implemented to boost the seed power at 1064 nm, enabling a robust, all-fiber-coupled design for seeding laser unit, absolute laser frequency locking, and cyclic three-frequency switching necessary for simultaneous temperature and wind measurements. The all-fiber-coupled injection seeding configuration together with the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers make the Na Doppler lidar more compact and greatly reduce the system maintenance, which is conducive to transportable and unattended operation. A preliminary observational result obtained with this solid-state sodium Doppler lidar was also reported in this paper.

  7. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.


    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  8. Composite electrolytes of polyethylene oxides/garnets interfacially wetted by ionic liquid for room-temperature solid-state lithium battery (United States)

    Huo, Hanyu; Zhao, Ning; Sun, Jiyang; Du, Fuming; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin


    Paramount attention has been paid on solid polymer electrolytes due to their potential in enhancement of energy density as well as improvement of safety. Herein, the composite electrolytes consisting of Li-salt-free polyethylene oxides and 200 nm-sized Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 particles interfacially wetted by [BMIM]TF2N of 1.8 μL cm-2 have been prepared. Such wetted ionic liquid remains the solid state of membrane electrolytes and decreases the interface impedance between the electrodes and the electrolytes. There is no release of the liquid phase from the PEO matrix when the pressure of 5.0 × 104 Pa being applied for 24 h. The interfacially wetted membrane electrolytes show the conductivity of 2.2 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 20 °C, which is one order of magnitude greater than that of the membranes without the wetted ionic liquids. The conduction mechanism is related to a large number of lithium ions releasing from Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 particles and the improved conductive paths along the ion-liquid-wetted interfaces between the polymer matrix and ceramic grains. When the membranes being used in the solid-state LiFePO4/Li and LiFe0.15Mn0.85PO4/Li cells at 25 °C, the excellent rate capability and superior cycle stability has been shown. The results provide a new prospect for solid polymer electrolytes used for room-temperature solid-state lithium batteries.

  9. High-efficiency removal of phytic acid in soy meal using two-stage temperature-induced Aspergillus oryzae solid-state fermentation. (United States)

    Chen, Liyan; Vadlani, Praveen V; Madl, Ronald L


    Phytic acid of soy meal (SM) could influence protein and important mineral digestion of monogastric animals. Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC 9362) solid-state fermentation was applied to degrade phytic acid in SM. Two-stage temperature fermentation protocol was investigated to increase the degradation rate. The first stage was to maximize phytase production and the second stage was to realize the maximum enzymatic degradation. In the first stage, a combination of 41% moisture, a temperature of 37 °C and inoculum size of 1.7 mL in 5 g substrate (dry matter basis) favored maximum phytase production, yielding phytase activity of 58.7 U, optimized via central composite design. By the end of second-stage fermentation, 57% phytic acid was degraded from SM fermented at 50 °C, compared with 39% of that fermented at 37 °C. The nutritional profile of fermented SM was also studied. Oligosaccharides were totally removed after fermentation and 67% of total non-reducing polysaccharides were decreased. Protein content increased by 9.5%. Two-stage temperature protocol achieved better phytic acid degradation during A. oryzae solid state fermentation. The fermented SM has lower antinutritional factors (phytic acid, oligosaccharides and non-reducing polysaccharides) and higher nutritional value for animal feed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Handbook of solid state batteries & capacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munshi, M. Z. A


    ... is witnessing a metamorphosis in the area of solid state power sources. The genesis of solid state battery research commenced with the discovery of highly conductive silver solid state and copper solid state electrolytes in the sixties and seventies, and their subsequent use in solid state batteries. These discoveries were major breakthroughs for those ti...

  11. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  12. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  13. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Solid-State Laser Engineering is written from an industrial perspective and discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction and practical problems of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations, with a phenomenological treatment using modelsbeing preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has been updated and revised to include important developments, concepts and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first edition.

  14. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. High temperature degradation mechanism of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu for solid-state lighting (United States)

    Oishi, Masatsugu; Shiomi, Shohei; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ueki, Tomoyuki; Kai, Yoichiro; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.; Takatori, Aiko; Kojima, Kazunobu


    Thermal properties of a red phosphor CaAlSiN3:Eu (CASN) at elevated temperatures were evaluated. A heat treatment at 800 °C degraded the photoluminescence property of CASN and caused irreversible changes in both the excitation and emission intensities. The heat treatment in air simultaneously decreased the N elements and increased the O elements. Consequently, the Eu2+ luminescence center was oxidized and CASN lost its photoluminescence property. Although the crystal structure of CASN host was stable even after the heat treatments, the local structure change around the Eu2+ ions is the origin of the thermal degradation of CASN. We found that the heat treatment in N2 atmosphere suppresses the thermal degradation. This is due to the suppression of N evolutions and the incorporation of O elements, which sustains the optically active Eu2+ state.

  16. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J


    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  17. Development of a solid-state sodium Doppler lidar using an all-fiber-coupled injection seeding unit for simultaneous temperature and wind measurements in the mesopause region (United States)

    Yang, Guotao; Xia, Yuan; Cheng, Xuewu; Du, Lifang; Wang, Jihong; Xun, Yuchang


    We present a solid-state sodium (Na) Doppler lidar developed at YanQing Station, Beijing, China (40°N, 116°E) to achieve simultaneous wind and temperature measurements of mesopause region. The 589nm pulse laser is produced by two injection seeded 1064nm and 1319nm Nd:YAG pulse lasers using the sum-frequency generation (SFG) technique. An all-fiber-coupled seeding laser unit was designed to enable absolute laser frequency locking and cycling the measurements among three different operating frequencies. Experimental observations were carried out using this Na lidar system and the preliminary results were described and compared with the temperature of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) and the horizontal wind of the meteor Radar, demonstrating the reliability and good performance of this lidar system. The all-fiber-coupled injection seeding configuration together with the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers make the Na Doppler lidar more compact and greatly reduce the system maintenance, which is conducive to transportable and unattended operation.

  18. Highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on hexylimidazolium iodide ionic polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ low-temperature polymerization (United States)

    Wang, Guiqiang; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Juan; Hou, Shuo; Zhang, Wei


    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are fabricated using a novel ionic polymer electrolyte containing hexylimidazolium iodide (HII) ionic polymer prepared by in situ polymerization of N,N‧-bis(imidazolyl) hexane and 1,6-diiodohexane without an initiator at low temperature (40 °C). The as-prepared HII ionic polymer has a similar structure to alkylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid, and the imidazolium cations are contained in the polymer main chain; so, it can act simultaneously as the redox mediator in the electrolyte. By incorporating an appropriate amount of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (DMII) in HII ionic polymer (DMII/HII ionic polymer = 0.7:1, weight ratio), the conductivity of the ionic polymer electrolyte is greatly improved due to the formation of Grotthuss bond exchange. In addition, in situ synthesis of ionic polymer electrolyte guarantees a good pore-filling of the electrolyte in the TiO2 photoanode. As a result, the solid-state DSC based on the ionic polymer electrolyte containing HII ionic polymer and DMII without iodine achieves a conversion efficiency of 6.55% under the illumination of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5), which also exhibits a good at-rest stability at room temperature.

  19. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))


    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  20. Solid-state stability of spray-dried insulin powder for inhalation: chemical kinetics and structural relaxation modeling of Exubera above and below the glass transition temperature. (United States)

    Sadrzadeh, Negar; Miller, Danforth P; Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Harper, Nancy J; Stevenson, Cynthia L; Bennett, David B


    The effect of temperature on the chemical stability of an amorphous spray-dried insulin powder formulation (Exubera) was evaluated in the solid state at constant moisture content. The chemical stability of the powder was assessed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and high-performance-size exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC). The major degradants in spray-dried insulin produced during heat stressing were identified as A21-desamidoinsulin (A21) and high molecular weight protein (HMWP). As expected, the rates of formation of A21 and HMWP were observed to increase with temperature. A stretched-time kinetic model (degradation rate is proportional to the square root of time) was applied to the degradant profiles above and below the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and apparent reaction rate constants were determined. Below T(g), isothermal enthalpy of relaxation measurements were used to assess the effect of temperature on molecular mobility. The formation of A21 and HMWP was found to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence above and below the T(g). Comparison of reaction rate constants to those estimated from structural relaxation experiments suggests that the reaction pathways to form A21 and HMWP below the T(g) may be coupled with the molecular motions involved in structural relaxation.

  1. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien


    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  2. Synthesis of LiNixMn2-xO4 by low-temperature solid-state reaction and its microstructure (United States)

    Purwaningsih, D.; Roto, R.; Sutrisno, H.


    This study aims to synthesis the Ni-doped LiNixMn2-xO4 (x = 0; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 08; 0.1) by low temperature solid-state reaction. The microstructure of the product was evaluated based on the mole ratio of Ni/Mn of the precursors. The structural analysis of LiNixMn2-xO4 was analyzed by x-ray diffraction equipped with the Direct Method of win PLOTR package program and Diamond. It was found that doping with Ni could change the size, crystallinity and microstructure of LiNixMn2-xO4. The LiNixMn2-xO4 solids have a cubic structure with a space group of Fd3m. The increase in the doping content does not affect the structure. The particle size of the products is about 150-500 nm. The crystallinity of the solids tends to increase with the increase in Ni content. However, the increase of Ni content in the product causes the lattice parameters of the unit cell to decrease.

  3. Solid state physics at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M; Wichert, T


    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid state physics and in materials science for decades. Besides their classical applications as tracers for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed gamma gamma angular correlation, beta -NMR, and emission channeling make use of nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted alpha or beta particles) to gain microscopic information on structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as clean ion beams at ISOL facilities like ISOLDE/CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive to the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. This overview will browse through ongoing solid state physics experiments with radioactive ion beams at ISOLDE. A wide variety of problems is under study, involving bulk properties, surfaces and interfaces in many different systems like semiconductors, superconduc...

  4. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H


    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  5. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich


    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  6. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor


    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  7. Solid-State Laser Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Written from an industrial perspective, Solid-State Laser Engineering discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. Since its first edition almost 30 years ago this book has become the standard in the field of solid-state lasers for scientists,engineers and graduate students. This new edition has been extensively revised and updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials and nonlinear crystals. Completely new sections have been added dealing with frequency control, the theory of mode-locking, femto second lasers, high efficiency harmonic generation, passive and acousto-optic Q-switching, semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM) and peridically poled nonlinear crystals.

  8. Enhanced photoluminescence of SrWO4:Eu3+ red phosphor synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid state metathesis reaction method at room temperature (United States)

    Peter, Anthuvan John; Banu, I. B. Shameem


    Optically efficient europium activated alkaline earth metal tungstate nano phosphor (SrWO4) with different doping concentrations have been synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid state metathesis reaction at room temperature for the first time. The XRD and Raman spectra results indicated that the prepared powders exhibit a scheelite-type tetragonal structure. FTIR spectra exhibited a high absorption band situated at around 854 cm-1, which was ascribed to the W-O antisymmetric stretching vibrations into the [WO4]2- tetrahedron groups. Analysis of the emission spectra with different Eu3+ concentrations revealed that the optimum dopant concentration for SrWO4: x Eu3+ phosphor is about 8 mol% of Eu3+.The red emission intensity of the SSM prepared SrWO4: 0.08Eu3+ phosphors are 2 times greater than that of the commercial Y2O2S: Eu3+ red phosphor prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. All the results indicate that the phosphor is a promising red phosphor pumped by NUV InGaN chip for fabricating WLED.

  9. Solid state radiative heat pump (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.


    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature ( K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  10. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY


    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  11. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip


    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  12. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu


    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-x Y x O3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  13. On-chip, high-sensitivity temperature sensors based on dye-doped solid-state polymer microring lasers (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Cong; Chen, Qiushu; Mei, Ting; Oki, Yuji; Nishimura, Naoya; Guo, L. Jay; Fan, Xudong


    We developed a chip-scale temperature sensor with a high sensitivity of 228.6 pm/°C based on a rhodamine 6G (R6G)-doped SU-8 whispering gallery mode microring laser. The optical mode was largely distributed in a polymer core layer with a 30 μm height that provided detection sensitivity, and the chemically robust fused-silica microring resonator host platform guaranteed its versatility for investigating different functional polymer materials with different refractive indices. As a proof of concept, a dye-doped hyperbranched polymer (TZ-001) microring laser-based temperature sensor was simultaneously developed on the same host wafer and characterized using a free-space optics measurement setup. Compared to TZ-001, the SU-8 polymer microring laser had a lower lasing threshold and a better photostability. The R6G-doped SU-8 polymer microring laser demonstrated greater adaptability as a high-performance temperature-sensing element. In addition to the sensitivity, the temperature resolutions for the laser-based sensors were also estimated to be 0.13 °C and 0.35 °C, respectively. The rapid and simple implementation of micrometer-sized temperature sensors that operate in the range of 31 - 43 °C enables their potential application in thermometry.

  14. Solid State and Materials Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    It gives us immense pleasure to present this Special Issue of the Proceedings of the Indian. Academy of Sciences (Chemical Sciences) to mark the Silver Jubilee of the Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit (SSCU), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. This Unit was created by Professor C N R Rao, FRS, at the Institute ...

  15. Strain improvement studies on Microbacterium foliorum GA2 for production of α-amylase in solid state fermentation: Biochemical characteristics and wash performance analysis at low temperatures. (United States)

    Roohi; Kuddus, Mohammed


    Microbacterium foliorum GA2, an alkali-tolerant bacterium, was randomly mutated using UV radiation and sodium azide to obtain a mutant with a higher cold-active extracellular amylolytic activity. A mutant, designated as MFSD20, was selected owing to its higher amylase activity at 20°C. Under optimized conditions, amylase production was achieved best with raw banana peels (5000 units) in solid-state fermentation (SSF). The enzyme was purified by salt precipitation and chromatographic methods and afterwards characterized biochemically. The purified enzyme showed maximal activity at temperatures between 15-25°C and at pH 8.0. Interestingly, this mutant biocatalyst (MFSD20) displays higher catalytic activity under conditions of low temperature (4°C) and high pH (10.0), in the presence of SDS (0.1 and 1%), and exhibited 85% and 50% requirement of divalent metallic ions Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , respectively. This mutant enzyme extract in combination with "Wheel detergent" was highly effective in the removal of tomato sauce and chocolate stains from white cotton fabric was demonstrated by ~50% additional reflectance compared with detergent alone, in a wash performance analysis at 20 ± 2°C. The features shown by mutant M. foliorum GA2 make it a promising candidate for industrial applications involving starch degradation at low temperatures.

  16. LiMn2O4–y Br y Nanoparticles Synthesized by a Room Temperature Solid-State Coordination Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yudai


    Full Text Available Abstract LiMn2O4–y Br y nanoparticles were synthesized successfully for the first time by a room temperature solid-state coordination method. X-ray diffractometry patterns indicated that the LiMn2O4–y Br y powders were well-crystallized pure spinel phase. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the LiMn2O4–y Br y powders consisted of small and uniform nanosized particles. Synthesis conditions such as the calcination temperature and the content of Br−were investigated to optimize the ideal condition for preparing LiMn2O4–y Br y with the best electrochemical performances. The optimized synthesis condition was found in this work; the calcination temperature is 800 °C and the content of Br−is 0.05. The initial discharge capacity of LiMn2O3.95Br0.05obtained from the optimized synthesis condition was 134 mAh/g, which is far higher than that of pure LiMn2O4, indicating introduction of Br−in LiMn2O4is quite effective in improving the initial discharge capacity.

  17. High-temperature hot spots on Io as seen by the Galileo solid state imaging (SSI) experiment (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Simonelli, D.P.; Senske, D.R.; Klaasen, K.P.; Keszthelyi, L.; Johnson, T.V.; Geissler, P.E.; Carr, M.H.; Belton, M.J.S.


    High-temperature hot spots on Io have been imaged at ???50 km spatial resolution by Galileo's CCD imaging system (SSI). Images were acquired during eclipses (Io in Jupiter's shadow) via the SSI clear filter (???0.4-1.0 ??m), detecting emissions from both small intense hot spots and diffuse extended glows associated with Io's atmosphere and plumes. A total of 13 hot spots have been detected over ???70% of Io's surface. Each hot spot falls precisely on a low-albedo feature corresponding to a caldera floor and/or lava flow. The hot-spot temperatures must exceed ???700 K for detection by SSI. Observations at wavelengths longer than those available to SSI require that most of these hot spots actually have significantly higher temperatures (???1000 K or higher) and cover small areas. The high-temperature hot spots probably mark the locations of active silicate volcanism, supporting suggestions that the eruption and near-surface movement of silicate magma drives the heat flow and volcanic activity of Io. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. The high-temperature modification of ScRuSi - Structure, 29Si and 45Sc solid state NMR spectroscopy (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Haverkamp, Sandra; Benndorf, Christopher; Eckert, Hellmut; Heying, Birgit; Pöttgen, Rainer


    A polycrystalline sample of the TiNiSi type low-temperature (LT) modification of ScRuSi was synthesized by arc-melting. Longer annealing in a sealed silica tube (6 weeks at 1270 K) followed by quenching led to the high-temperature (HT) phase. HT-ScRuSi adopts the ZrNiAl structure type: P 6 bar 2 m , a = 688.27(9), c = 336.72(5) pm, wR2 = 0.0861, 260 F2 values, 14 variables. The striking structural building units are regular, tricapped trigonal prisms Si1@Ru3Sc6 and Si2@Ru6Sc3. Both polymorphs have been characterized by 29Si and 45Sc MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The local scandium environments in the two polymorphs are easily distinguished by their electric field gradient tensor values, in agreement with theoretically calculated values.

  19. Hexahedral modular bioreactor for solid state bioprocesses


    Cunha, Daniele Colembergue da; Souza, Jeferson Avila; Rocha, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; Costa,Jorge Alberto Vieira


    The design of a modular bioreactor for solid state fermentation is a promising development because it keeps the homogeneity of the bed at optimal levels. This study determines the optimum geometry of elementary modules of hexahedral bioreactors subjected to constant volume. The bioreactors have a square section and do not need an external cooling system, because the optimization limits the temperature of the bed to 35 C. The geometric optimization followed the Constructal principle o...

  20. Mechanisms of high-temperature, solid-state flow in minerals and ceramics and their bearing on the creep behavior of the mantle (United States)

    Kirby, S.H.; Raleigh, C.B.


    The problem of applying laboratory silicate-flow data to the mantle, where conditions can be vastly different, is approached through a critical review of high-temperature flow mechanisms in ceramics and their relation to empirical flow laws. The intimate association of solid-state diffusion and high-temperature creep in pure metals is found to apply to ceramics as well. It is shown that in ceramics of moderate grain size, compared on the basis of self-diffusivity and elastic modulus, normalized creep rates compare remarkably well. This comparison is paralleled by the near universal occurrence of similar creep-induced structures, and it is thought that the derived empirical flow laws can be associated with dislocation creep. Creep data in fine-grained ceramics, on the other hand, are found to compare poorly with theories involving the stress-directed diffusion of point defects and have not been successfully correlated by self-diffusion rates. We conclude that these fine-grained materials creep primarily by a quasi-viscous grain-boundary sliding mechanism which is unlikely to predominate in the earth's deep interior. Creep predictions for the mantle reveal that under most conditions the empirical dislocation creep behavior predominates over the mechanisms involving the stress-directed diffusion of point defects. The probable role of polymorphic transformations in the transition zone is also discussed. ?? 1973.

  1. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf


    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  2. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  3. Solid-state membrane module (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT


    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  4. Development of low temperature solid state detectors for ultra-cold neutrons within superfluid sup 4 He

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C A; Green, K; Grinten, M G D; Iaydjiev, P S; Ivanov, S N; Pendlebury, J M; Shiers, D B; Tucker, M A H; Yoshiki, H; Geltenbort, P


    As part of an R and D programme for the development of a next-generation experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment, in which ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) are produced and stored in superfluid sup 4 He (superthermal source), we have developed cryogenic detectors of UCN that can operate in situ within the superfluid. Surface barrier detectors and PIN diode detectors have been tested and proven to work well at temperatures as low as 80 mK. When combined with a layer of sup 6 LiF which converts neutrons to charged particles, these detectors form a reliable UCN detection system which has been tested in liquid helium down to 430 mK. The detectors have operated within superfluid helium for periods of up to 30 days with no signs of degradation. The development of this detection system has enabled us to measure the flux of UCN from a superthermal UCN source with no intervening transmission windows which can attenuate the flux. The addition of thin films of magnetically aligned iron also enables these detec...

  5. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf


    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  6. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.


    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  7. AN-107 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau


    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AN-107 sample using sodium hydroxide and de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AN-107 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions.

  8. Dopant distribution and influence of sonication temperature on the pure red light emission of mixed oxide phosphor for solid state lighting. (United States)

    Som, S; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Vinod; Gohain, Mukut; Pandey, Anurag; Duvenhage, M M; Terblans, J J; Bezuindenhoud, B C B; Swart, H C


    In this study, europium doped yttrium gadolinium (Y1.4Gd0.5Eu0.1O3) mixed oxide phosphors were synthesized by a sonochemical method at different growth temperatures (50°C, 100°C, 150°C and 200°C) for pure red light emission applications. The compositional identification, presence of dopants and the distribution of doping materials in the crystal lattice was studied by TOF-SIMS. The formation and growth mechanisms in the sonochemical synthesis of Y1.4Gd0.5Eu0.1O3 nanophosphors are discussed in detail. Different spectral and Judd-Ofelt parameters were estimated from photoluminescence data. Optical gain and efficiency parameters were calculated with the variation of synthesis environment and an efficient synthesis method to make good red emitting phosphors for solid-state lighting and display applications were proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Novel Solid State Ultracapacitor (United States)

    Cortes-Pena, A. Y.; Rolin, T. D.; Hill, C. W.


    Novel dielectric materials were researched to develop an internal barrier layer capacitor that is fully solid state. These materials included reduced nanoparticles of barium titanate that were coated with various atomic layer deposited oxides. The nanoparticle powders were then densified into pellets and characterized using a dielectric test fixture over a frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz. Densification and sintering were evaluated using scanning electron microscopic techniques. Ultimately, the samples showing the most promising electrical characteristics of permittivity, dissipation factor and equivalent series resistance were chosen to manufacture devices for subsequent testing.

  10. Solid-state quantum metamaterials (United States)

    Wilson, Richard; Everitt, Mark; Saveliev, Sergey; Zagoskin, Alexandre


    Quantum metamaterials provide a promising potential test bed for probing the quantum-classical transition. We propose a scalable and feasible architecture for a solid-state quantum metamaterial. This consists of an ensemble of superconducting flux qubits inductively coupled to a superconducting transmission line. We make use of fully quantum mechanical models which account for decoherence, input and readout to study the behaviour of prototypical 1D and 2D quantum metamaterials. In addition to demonstrating some of the novel phenomena that arise in these systems, such as ``quantum birefringence,'' we will also discuss potential applications.

  11. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A


    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  12. Contamination and solid state welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bernice E.


    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  13. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf


    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  14. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, Steven


    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  15. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusid, O.; Gofer, Y.; Gizbar, H.; Vestfrid, Y.; Levi, E.; Aurbach, D. [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Riech, I. [Ortal Magnesium Diecasting Ltd, Kibbutz Neve Ur 10875 (Israel)


    The development of all solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery systems is reported, with components that are environmentally friendly and relatively simple in their structure and preparation. As anodes, magnesium alloys containing Zn and Al are used, and the cathode is the chevrel phase, Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}, which can insert two magnesium atoms per unit (Mg{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}, 122 mA h g{sup -1}). The solid electrolyte is a gel comprising polyvinylidene difluoride, Mg(AlCl{sub 2}EtBt){sub 2} complex salt, and tetraglyme as a plasticizer. These batteries are found to function well in a temperature range of 0-80 C with a voltage range of 1.3-0.8V. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Use of deuterium labeling by high-temperature solid-state hydrogen-exchange reaction for mass spectrometric analysis of bradykinin biotransformation. (United States)

    Kopylov, Arthur T; Myasoedov, Nikolay F; Dadayan, Alexander K; Zgoda, Victor G; Medvedev, Alexei E; Zolotarev, Yurii A


    Studies of molecular biodegradation by mass spectrometry often require synthetic compounds labeled with stable isotopes as internal standards. However, labeling is very expensive especially when a large number of compounds are needed for analysis of biotransformation. Here we describe an approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis using bradykinin (BK) and its in vitro degradation metabolites as an example. Its novelty lies in the use of deuterated peptides which are obtained by a high-temperature solid-state exchange (HSCIE) reaction. Deuterated and native BK were analyzed by positive electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) using an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. High-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) experiments were performed on [M+H](+) and [M+2H](2+) ions in targeted-MS(2) mode with adjusted normalized HCD value. After the HSCIE reaction, each amino acid residue of the deuterated peptide contained deuterium atoms and the average degree of substitution was 5.5 atoms per the peptide molecule. The deuterated peptide demonstrated the same chromatographic mobility as the unlabeled counterpart, and lack of racemization during substitution with deuterium. Deuterium-labeled and unlabeled BKs were incubated with human plasma and their corresponding fragments BK(1-5) and BK(1-7), well known as the major metabolites, were detected. Quantitative assays demonstrated applicability of the heavy peptide for both sequencing and quantification of generated fragments. Applicability of the HSCIE deuterated peptide for analysis of routes of its degradation has been shown in in vitro experiments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam


    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  18. Modeling solid-state precipitation

    CERN Document Server

    Nebylov, AlexanderKozeschnik, Ernst


    Over recent decades, modeling and simulation of solid-state precipitation has attracted increased attention in academia and industry due to their important contributions in designing properties of advanced structural materials and in increasing productivity and decreasing costs for expensive alloying. In particular, precipitation of second phases is an important means for controlling the mechanical-technological properties of structural materials. However, profound physical modeling of precipitation is not a trivial task. This book introduces you to the classical methods of precipitation modeling and to recently-developed advanced, computationally-efficient techniques. If you're a research professional, academic, or student, you'll learn: nucleation theory, precipitate growth, calculation of interfacial energies. advanced techniques for technologically relevant multicomponent systems and complex thermo-mechanical treatments. numerical approaches using evolution equations and discrete particle size distribu...

  19. Exciton dynamics in solid-state green fluorescent protein (United States)

    Dietrich, Christof P.; Siegert, Marie; Betzold, Simon; Ohmer, Jürgen; Fischer, Utz; Höfling, Sven


    We study the decay characteristics of Frenkel excitons in solid-state enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) dried from solution. We further monitor the changes of the radiative exciton decay over time by crossing the phase transition from the solved to the solid state. Complex interactions between protonated and deprotonated states in solid-state eGFP can be identified from temperature-dependent and time-resolved fluorescence experiments that further allow the determination of activation energies for each identified process.

  20. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  1. Experimental aspects of solid-state voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooster, T.T.; Longmire, M.L.; Zhang, H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [and others


    This paper describes the properties of poly(ether) polymer electrolytes as solvent media for solid-state voltammetry. Experimental requirements for microelectrode voltammetry and results for the dependency of diffusive transport of electroactive solutes on polymer solvent molecular weight, structure, and temperature (and related phase state) are described for eight poly(ether)s: linear poly(ethylene oxides) MW = 400, 1000, 2000, and 600 000 (Me{sub 2}PEG-400, Me{sub 2}PEG-1000, Me{sub 2}PEG-2000, PEO-600 000), linear poly(propylene oxide) MW = 4000 (PPO-4000), the comb polymer poly(bis[(methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]phosphazine) (MEEP), the block copolymer poly(ether)-poly(urethane urea)(PEUU), and the cross-linked poly(ether) network PEO. 28 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.


    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  3. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K


    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  4. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D


    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  5. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C


    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  6. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  7. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude


    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  8. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys


    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  9. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ


    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  10. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  11. Equation of state for inert gas solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The equation of state is a fundamental relation to analyse the thermophysical properties of different class of solids and it plays a key role in basic and applied condensed matter physics research. A lot of work has been done in the field of ionic solids, minerals and metals but a very little work is done in the field of inert gas ...

  12. Fungal mats in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.


    Since over 2000 years man has cultivated fungi on grains, beans or other (by)products from agriculture or agro-industries, in order to produce tastier and healthier foods. Nowadays, cultivation on solid substrates (solid-state fermentation, SSF) is also used to produce industrial enzymes, drugs and

  13. Nanorod Array Solid State Neutron Detectors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR project, Synkera proposes to develop and commercialize solid-state neutron detectors of a unique architecture that will enable sensor modules...

  14. Current status of solid-state lithium batteries employing solid redox polymerization cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, S.J.; Doeff, M.M.; De Jonghe, L.C.


    The rapidly growing demand for secondary batteries having high specific energy and power has naturally led to increased efforts in lithium battery technology. Still, the increased safety risks associated with high energy density systems has tempered the enthusiasm of proponents of such systems for use in the consumer marketplace. The inherent advantages of all-solid-state batteries in regards to safety and reliability are strong factors in advocating their introduction to the marketplace. However, the low ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes relative to non-aqueous liquid electrolytes implies low power densities for solid-state systems operating at ambient temperatures. Recent advances in polymer electrolytes have led to the introduction of solid electrolytes having conductivities in the range of 10{sup {minus}4} (ohm cm){sup {minus}1} at room temperature; this is still two orders of magnitude lower than liquid electrolytes. Although these improved ambient conductivities put solid-state batteries in the realm of practical devices, it is clear that solid-state batteries using such polymeric separators will be thin-film devices. Fortunately, thin-film fabrication techniques are well established in the plastics and paper industry, and present the possibility of continuous web-form manufacturing. This style of battery manufacture should make solid polymer batteries very cost- competitive with conventional secondary cells. In addition, the greater geometric flexibility of thin-film solid-state cells should provide benefits in terms of the end-use form factor in device design. This work discusses the status of solid redox polymerization cathodes. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Strategies for Lowering Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Tarancón


    Full Text Available Lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs to the intermediate range (500–700 ºC has become one of the main SOFC research goals. High operating temperatures put numerous requirements on materials selection and on secondary units, limiting the commercial development of SOFCs. The present review first focuses on the main effects of reducing the operating temperature in terms of materials stability, thermo-mechanical mismatch, thermal management and efficiency. After a brief survey of the state-of-the-art materials for SOFCs, attention is focused on emerging oxide-ionic conductors with high conductivity in the intermediate range of temperatures with an introductory section on materials technology for reducing the electrolyte thickness. Finally, recent advances in cathode materials based on layered mixed ionic-electronic conductors are highlighted because the decreasing temperature converts the cathode into the major source of electrical losses for the whole SOFC system. It is concluded that the introduction of alternative materials that would enable solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate range of temperatures would have a major impact on the commercialization of fuel cell technology.

  16. Solid-State Fermentation: An Overview


    Bhargav, Samir; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Ali, Mohd.; Javed, Saleem


    Solid-state fermentation (ssf) is defined as the growth of microbes without free flowing aqueous phase. The ssf is alternative to submerged fermentation for production of value added products like antibiotics, single cell protein, PUFA’s, enzymes, organic acids, biopesticides, biofuel and aroma production. However, the advantages of ssf in various processes are found to be greater than in submerged fermentation. This paper reviews the advantages of solid-state fermentation over submerged in p...

  17. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Boqin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C60 is analyzed.

  18. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles


    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  19. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip


    Written by the 2011 Gaede Award Winner Filling a gap in the literature for a brief course in solid sate physics, this is a clear and concise introduction that not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also discusses such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. This textbook assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems with solutions as well as further supplementary material available for free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website. From the Contents:Chemical Bonding in So

  20. Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo


    Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices introduces readers to theories and concepts such as semi-classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of electron transport, methods for calculations of band structures in solids with applications in calculation of optical constants, and other advanced concepts.  The information presented here will equip readers with the necessary tools to carry out cutting edge research in modern solid state nanodevices. This book also: Covers sophisticated models of charge transport including the drift-diffusion model, Boltzmann transport model and various quantum transport models Discusses the essential elements of quantum mechanics necessary for an understanding of nanostructured solid state devices Presents band structure calculation methods based on time-independent perturbation theory Discusses theory of optical transitions and optical devices employing quantum-confined structures such as quantum wells,wires and dots Elucidates quantum mechanics of electrons in a magneti...

  1. Low-temperature solid-state preparation of ternary CdS/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CuS nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H{sub 2}-production activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Feiyue; Yin, Hui; Xiang, Quanjun, E-mail:


    Highlights: • CdS/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CuS composite were synthesized by low-temperature solid-state method. • CdS/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CuS show enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution activity. • The enhanced photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity is due to the heterojunction. • Heterojunction between the components promote charge separation/transfer property. - Abstract: Low-temperature solid-state method were gradually demonstrated as a high efficiency, energy saving and environmental protection strategy to fabricate composite semiconductor materials. CdS-based multiple composite photocatalytic materials have attracted increasing concern owning to the heterostructure constituents with tunable band gaps. In this study, the ternary CdS/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CuS composite photocatalysts were prepared by a facile and novel low-temperature solid-state strategy. The optimal ternary CdS/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CuS composite exhibits a high visible-light photocatalytic H{sub 2}-production rate of 57.56 μmol h{sup −1} with the corresponding apparent quantum efficiency reaches 16.5% at 420 nm with Na{sub 2}S/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} mixed aqueous solution as sacrificial agent. The ternary CdS/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CuS composites show the enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H{sub 2}-evolution activity comparing with the binary CdS-based composites or simplex CdS. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the heterojunctions and the synergistic effect of CuS and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} in promotion of the charge separation and charge mobility. This work shows that the low-temperature solid-state method is efficient and environmentally benign for the preparation of CdS-based multiple composite photocatalytic materials with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H{sub 2}-production activity.

  2. Silicon Carbide and Magnetorresistive Technologies for Solid State Power Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigós A.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make an introduction, review and preliminary investigation tasks of the application of Silicon Carbide (SiC power semiconductors and magnetoresistive (MR current sensors for Solid State Power Controllers (SSPCs and controlled switches, especially for high temperature environment and/or high voltage applications.

  3. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  4. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)


    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  5. Low temperature pulsed laser deposition of garnet Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 films as all solid-state lithium battery electrolytes (United States)

    Saccoccio, Mattia; Yu, Jing; Lu, Ziheng; Kwok, Stephen C. T.; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Kan Kan; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Ciucci, Francesco


    With its stability against Li and good ionic conductivity, Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) has emerged as a promising electrolyte material for lithium-based solid-state batteries (SSBs). Thin layers of solid electrolyte are needed to enable the practical use of SSBs. We report the first deposition of Li-conductive crystalline Ta-doped LLZO thin films on MgO (100) substrates via pulsed laser deposition. Further, we investigate the impact of laser fluence, deposition temperature (in the 50 °C-700 °C range), and post-deposition annealing on the structural, compositional, and transport properties of the film. We analyze the structure of the deposited films via grazing incident X-ray diffraction, their morphology via scanning electron microscopy, and the composition via depth profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Li ionic conductivity is investigated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Contrary to previous reports for LLZO films, the crystalline Ta-doped films presents a pure cubic LLZO structure for deposition temperatures as low as 50 °C, with resulting conductivities not significantly influenced by the temperature deposition. Instead, the laser fluence has a major effect on the growth rate of the thin films.

  6. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freericks, J.K.


    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t{prime}-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t{prime}-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies.

  7. Electromagnetic properties of low-temperature-sintered Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41} ferrites prepared by solid state reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaohui E-mail:; Li Longtu; Su Shuiyuan; Yue Zhenxing


    Hexagonal ferrites Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41} (X=0-2.0) were prepared by a solid state reaction method. The influences of Zn content (X) on the Z-type phase formation temperature and specific saturation magnetization were investigated. With a small amount of sintering aids, highly dense hexaferrite ceramics with fine-grained microstructure were obtained after sintering at a relatively low temperature below 900 deg. C. The hexaferrite ceramics show excellent high-frequency properties such as high initial permeability up to 10, high cut-off frequency over 1.1 GHz and good DC resistivity more than 10{sup 9} {omega} cm.

  8. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J


    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  9. Driver circuit for solid state light sources (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven


    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  10. Advances in tunable solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.


    Continuing problems in solid-state lasers including low efficiency and lack of frequency diversity have limited their applicability in past years. Through recent materials technological developments, both of these problems are starting to be solved. Many new tunable lasers operating at wavelengths ranging from 650 nm to have been demonstrated in the laboratory, and applications now are being considered for space and terrestrial remote sensors. Comparable progress also has been made towards more efficient solid-state lasers, for example, new neodymium (Nd) lasers having 6% overall efficiency. These advances in solid-state lasers depend on the interplay between the fields of materials science and lasers. To develop this association between the two disciplines, an Optical Society of America (OSA) topical meeting on Tunable Solid State lasers was held in Zigzag, Oreg. As well as covering research and development of tunable lasers based on ion-doped dielectric solids, this meeting discussed crystal growth and laser applications. Also included were rare earth laser sources operating at new wavelengths, an expansion in the agenda from the first meeting, held last year in May in Arlington, Va.

  11. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R


    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  12. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B


    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  13. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J


    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  14. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  15. Compression selective solid-state chemistry (United States)

    Hu, Anguang

    Compression selective solid-state chemistry refers to mechanically induced selective reactions of solids under thermomechanical extreme conditions. Advanced quantum solid-state chemistry simulations, based on density functional theory with localized basis functions, were performed to provide a remarkable insight into bonding pathways of high-pressure chemical reactions in all agreement with experiments. These pathways clearly demonstrate reaction mechanisms in unprecedented structural details, showing not only the chemical identity of reactive intermediates but also how atoms move along the reaction coordinate associated with a specific vibrational mode, directed by induced chemical stress occurred during bond breaking and forming. It indicates that chemical bonds in solids can break and form precisely under compression as we wish. This can be realized through strongly coupling of mechanical work to an initiation vibrational mode when all other modes can be suppressed under compression, resulting in ultrafast reactions to take place isothermally in a few femtoseconds. Thermodynamically, such reactions correspond to an entropy minimum process on an isotherm where the compression can force thermal expansion coefficient equal to zero. Combining a significantly brief reaction process with specific mode selectivity, both statistical laws and quantum uncertainty principle can be bypassed to precisely break chemical bonds, establishing fundamental principles of compression selective solid-state chemistry. Naturally this leads to understand the ''alchemy'' to purify, grow, and perfect certain materials such as emerging novel disruptive energetics.

  16. Solid state fermentation of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A by using a novel solid state fermentation reactor system. (United States)

    Ano, Takashi; Jin, Guang Yuan; Mizumoto, Shinji; Rahman, Mohammad Shahedur; Okuno, Kasumasa; Shoda, Makoto


    A new solid state fermentation reactor (SSFR) for solid substrate was used for the production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS. Solid state fermentation (SSF) is the technique of cultivation of microorganisms on solid and moist substrates in the absence of free water. SSF has shown much promise in the development of several bioprocesses and products because of their several advantages like absence of free water that allows simplified downstream processing and low cost. SSFR allows agitation of the SSF culture with improved temperature control and air supply. Interestingly, when okara, the widely available waste product from the tofu industries, was used as the solid substrate for the SSFR, no iturin A production was observed. However, without agitation, production of iturin A was observed in the SSFR but the production level remained low. The low production of iturin A was found to be due to the heat generation and excess temperature rise inside the reactor system during the fermentation process. Maintaining the temperature within a range of 25-30°C, production of iturin A was significantly improved in the SSFR. This was comparable to the laboratory scale production, and signifies the potential application of the SSFR for SSF.

  17. Solid-State Threshold Accelerometer Chip. (United States)


    APR edtiil may be used until exhausted SEC :141v CLASSCTCAATION Of TH’S OAGE * All other editions art obsolete. Im SOLID STATE THRESHOLD contact metallization was found to cause difficulty in switch reset due to the low restoring force available with the microminiature

  18. Developments in Solid-State NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Developments in Solid-State NMR. K V Ramanathan. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1040-1052. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  19. Electrochemical investigations related to solid state magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Investigations leading to the understanding and development of solid state magnesium batteries are considered important, as Mg is free from hazards and is also highly stable and abundant. A gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of about 100 mm thickness is investigated for electrochemical reversibility of the Mg/Mg2+ couple and ...

  20. Solid-State Neutron Detector Device (United States)

    Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor); Starikov, David (Inventor); Pillai, Rajeev (Inventor)


    The structure and methods of fabricating a high efficiency compact solid state neutron detector based on III-Nitride semiconductor structures deposited on a substrate. The operation of the device is based on absorption of neutrons, which results in generation of free carriers.

  1. Solid-state NMR for bacterial biofilms (United States)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Cegelski, Lynette


    Bacteria associate with surfaces and one another by elaborating an extracellular matrix to encapsulate cells, creating communities termed biofilms. Biofilms are beneficial in some ecological niches, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of serious and chronic infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative measurements are needed to define the composition and architecture of bacterial biofilms to help drive the development of strategies to interfere with biofilm assembly. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely suited to the examination of insoluble and complex macromolecular and whole-cell systems. This article highlights three examples that implement solid-state NMR to deliver insights into bacterial biofilm composition and changes in cell-wall composition as cells transition to the biofilm lifestyle. Most recently, solid-state NMR measurements provided a total accounting of the protein and polysaccharide components in the extracellular matrix of an Escherichia coli biofilm and transformed our qualitative descriptions of matrix composition into chemical parameters that permit quantitative comparisons among samples. We present additional data for whole biofilm samples (cells plus the extracellular matrix) that complement matrix-only analyses. The study of bacterial biofilms by solid-state NMR is an exciting avenue ripe with many opportunities and we close the article by articulating some outstanding questions and future directions in this area.

  2. Electrochemical investigations related to solid state magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Electrochemical investigations related to solid state magnesium batteries. G Girish Kumar N Munichandraiah. Volume 112 Issue 3 June 2000 pp 378-378. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.


    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  4. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for the synthesis of orthovanadates, M3V2O8 (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba). The structural, vibrational, thermal, optical and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning ...

  5. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.


    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  6. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent


    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  7. Safety of solid-state Li metal battery: Solid polymer versus liquid electrolyte (United States)

    Perea, Alexis; Dontigny, Martin; Zaghib, Karim


    In this article we present the difference in thermal stability of Li/LiFePO4| half cells with liquid and solid polymer electrolytes. After two initial cycles, the cells were charged to two different state of charge (SOC) of 50 and 100%. The thermal stability of the half cells is assessed with an accelerating rate calorimeter, and the thermal runaway parameters are discussed for each experiment: dependence of self-heating rate on temperature, temperature of a first-detected exothermic reaction, and maximum cell temperature. The dependence of those parameters with respect to the SOC is also presented.

  8. Self-healing liquid/solid state battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Paul J.; Chung, Brice H.V.; Phadke, Satyajit R.; Ning, Xiaohui; Sadoway, Donald R.


    A battery system that exchanges energy with an external device is provided. The battery system includes a positive electrode having a first metal or alloy, a negative electrode having a second metal or alloy, and an electrolyte including a salt of the second metal or alloy. The positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the electrolyte are in a liquid phase at an operating temperature during at least one portion of operation. The positive electrode is entirely in a liquid phase in one charged state and includes a solid phase in another charged state. The solid phase of the positive electrode includes a solid intermetallic formed by the first and the second metals or alloys. Methods of storing electrical energy from an external circuit using such a battery system are also provided.

  9. Heterogeneous Ferroelectric Solid Solutions Phases and Domain States

    CERN Document Server

    Topolov, Vitaly


    The book deals with perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions for modern materials science and applications, solving problems of complicated heterophase/domain structures near the morphotropic phase boundary and applications to various systems with morphotropic phases. In this book domain state–interface diagrams are presented for the interpretation of heterophase states in perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions. It allows to describe the stress relief in the presence of polydomain phases, the behavior of unit-cell parameters of coexisting phases and the effect of external electric fields. The novelty of the book consists in (i) the first systematization of data about heterophase states and their evolution in ferroelectric solid solutions (ii) the general interpretation of heterophase and domain structures at changing temperature, composition or electric field (iii) the complete analysis of interconnection domain structures, unit-cell parameters changes, heterophase structures and stress relief.

  10. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter


    . This relates to interrelation between NOx/ O2 on cathodes but also to sulfur and carbon exposure at the anode. Past and recent activities on SOFC anodes and cathodes will be presented as well as perspectives and gaps discussed for these systems. Especially interaction between sulfur interactions with solids...... and surface are complex and recent and past research activities in these areas will be presented.......Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature...

  11. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans


    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  12. Solid state NMR of biopolymers and synthetic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinski, Lynn W. [Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY (United States)


    Solid state NMR has been invaluable in evaluating the structure, phase separation, and dynamics of polymers. Because polymers are generally used in the solid state, solid state NMR is especially powerful because it provides information about the materials in their native state. This review gives a general overview of solid state NMR, concentrating on solid state {sup 13} C and {sup 2} H NMR. It then focuses on two examples: the biopolymer spider silka and the engineering material polyurethane. It illustrates how solid state NMR can provide new information about synthetic and bio-polymers. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A


    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  14. Observation of immobile regions in natural rubber at ambient temperature by solid-state C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, F.H.; Rasmussen, T.; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg


    Employing C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy, the existence of immobile regions in natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) corresponding to a few percent of the monomer units has been detected at ambient temperature. For synthetic rubbers no immobile regions have been detected at all. Applying different ...... physical and chemical treatments to natural rubber it is shown that mastication, gamma-irradiation, and increasing the temperature, slightly above the ambient, reduce the amount of immobile regions. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......Employing C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy, the existence of immobile regions in natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) corresponding to a few percent of the monomer units has been detected at ambient temperature. For synthetic rubbers no immobile regions have been detected at all. Applying different...

  15. Solid-state characterization of tacrine hydrochloride. (United States)

    Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura; Bruni, Giovanna; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica; Bettinetti, Giampiero


    The present study deals with the physicochemical characterization of solid forms of tacrine monohydrochloride (TCR), a centrally active reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for treating the symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, obtained by recrystallization of hot saturated solutions from different solvents. Recrystallization of the commercially available hydrate, TCR·H₂O, from water, hydroalcoholic solutions with ethanol, n-propanol, methanol and isopropanol (1:1, v/v) and isopropanol/water (8:2, v/v) afforded a new dihydrate phase TCR·2H₂O form I. The TCR samples obtained by desolvation of TCR·H₂O and TCR·2H₂O show temperature and melting enthalpy values very similar, thus confirming the existence of a unique anhydrous crystalline phase. Exposure of anhydrous TCR powder samples under different atmospheric conditions at room temperature, resulted in rehydration to TCR·H₂O at 32% relative humidity (RH), whereas at 100% RH a new solid form of TCR·2H₂O (TCR·2H₂O form II), i.e. a polymorph of the dihydrate isolated by recrystallization, was obtained. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DSC), and thermo optical analysis (TOA) with support from X-ray powder diffractometry (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), were used for the characterization of the isolated solid forms of TCR and monitoring the water uptake of anhydrous TCR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen


    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  17. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo


    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  18. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon


    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  19. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J


    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  20. Solid State Joining of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys (United States)

    Morton, Todd W.

    Solid state joining of titanium via friction stir welding and diffusion bonding have emerged as enablers of efficient monolithic structural designs by the eliminations fasteners for the aerospace industry. As design complexity and service demands increase, the need for joints of dissimilar alloys has emerged. Complex thermomechanical conditions in friction stir weld joints and high temperature deformation behavior differences between alloys used in dissimilar joints gives rise to a highly variable flow pattern within a stir zone. Experiments performed welding Ti-6Al-4V to beta21S show that mechanical intermixing of the two alloys is the primary mechanism for the generation of the localized chemistry and microstructure, the magnitude of which can be directly related to pin rotation and travel speed weld parameters. Mechanical mixing of the two alloys is heavily influenced by strain rate softening phenomena, and can be used to manipulate weld nugget structure by switching which alloy is subjected to the advancing side of the pin. Turbulent mixing of a weld nugget and a significant reduction in defects and weld forces are observed when the beta21S is put on the advancing side of the weld where higher strain rates are present. Chemical diffusion driven by the heat of weld parameters is characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and is shown to be a secondary process responsible for generating short-range chemical gradients that lead to a gradient of alpha particle structures. Diffusion calculations are inconsistent with an assumption of steady-state diffusion and show that material interfaces in the weld nugget evolve through the break-down of turbulent interface features generated by material flows. A high degree of recrystallization is seen throughout the welds, with unique, hybrid chemistry grains that are generated at material interfaces in the weld nugget that help to unify the crystal structure of dissimilar alloys. The degree of

  1. Solid-state power converter repeatability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dal Gobbo, Anthony; Aguglia, Davide


    This paper presents a method for evaluating power converter repeatability. The focus is on solid-state switch mode power converter for which the most problematic non-repeatability sources are the jitter of the drivers and of the switches leading to output voltage pulses bad repeatability. Both driver and switch turn-on and turn-off delay dispersion have been measured. These measurements confirm that the delay is Gaussian distributed and that the repeatability prediction method is valid.

  2. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, D.H.


    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams.

  3. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering


    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  4. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA


    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard


    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  6. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.


    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  7. Glass transition-related changes in molecular mobility below glass transition temperature of freeze-dried formulations, as measured by dielectric spectroscopy and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. (United States)

    Yoshioka, Sumie; Aso, Yukio


    The purpose of this study was to explore why changes in the molecular mobility associated with glass transition, the timescale of which is on the order of 100 s, can be detected by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times that reflect molecular motions on the order of 10 kHz and 1 MHz. The molecular motions in freeze-dried dextran 40k, dextran 1k, isomaltotriose (IMT), and alpha-glucose comprising a common unit but with different glass transition temperatures, were investigated by dielectric spectroscopy (DES) in the frequency range of 0.01 Hz to 100 kHz and in the temperature range of -20 degrees to 200 degrees C, in order to compare with the molecular motions reflected in nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times. The alpha-relaxation process for freeze-dried alpha-glucose was visualized by DES, whereas those for freeze-dried dextran 40k, dextran 1k, and IMT were too slow to be visualized by DES. The latter freeze-dried cakes exhibited quasi-dc polarization because of proton-hopping-like motion rather than alpha-relaxation process. The correlation time (tau(c)) for the backbone carbon of dextran 40k and IMT, calculated from the measured value of spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame, was found to be close to the relaxation time of proton-hopping-like motion determined by DES (tau(DES)) at temperatures around glass transition temperature. The timescales of molecular motions reflected in the tau(c) and tau(DES) were significantly smaller than that of motions leading to molecular rearrangement (molecular rearrangement motions), which correspond to alpha-relaxation. However, the shapes of temperature dependence for the tau(c) and tau(DES) were similar to that of the calorimetrically determined relaxation time of molecular rearrangement motions. Results suggest that the molecular motions reflected in the tau(c) and tau(DES) are linked to molecular rearrangement motions, such that enhancement of molecular rearrangement motions enhances

  8. Optimization of temperature, moisture content and inoculum size in solid state fermentation to enhance mannanase production by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 using RSM. (United States)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Samat, Noraini; Mohtar, Wan; Yusoff, Wan


    Optimization of three parameters, temperature (25-35 degrees C), moisture content (40% (w/v)-60% (w/v) and inoculum sizes (5% (w/v)-15% (w/v) were investigated and optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for optimal mannanase production by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1. A second order polynomial equation was fitted and the optimum condition was established. The result showed that the moisture content was a critical factor in terms of its effect on mannanase. The optimum condition for mannanase production was predicted at 42.86% (w/v) initial moisture (31 C) temperature and 5.5% (w/v) inoculum size. The predicted optimal parameter were tested in the laboratory and the mannanase activity 45.12 IU mL-1 were recorded to be closed to the predicted value (44.80 IU mL-1). Under the optimized SSF condition (31 degrees C, 42.86% moisture content (w/v) and 5.5% inoculum size (w/v)), the maximum mannanase production was to prevail about 45.12 IU mL-1 compare to before optimized (30 degrees C, 50% moisture content (w/v) and 10% inoculum size (w/v)) was only 34.42 IU mL-1.

  9. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati


    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  10. Temperature-jump apparatus with Raman detection based on a solid-state tunable (1.80-2.05 microm) kHz optical parametric oscillator laser. (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Gurusamy; Hu, Ying; Spiro, Thomas G


    The operating characteristics of a pulsed (10 ns) tunable near-infrared (NIR) laser source are described for temperature-jump (T-jump) applications. A Q-switched Nd:YLF laser (approximately 10 ns pulses) with a 1 kHz repetition rate is used to pump a potassium titanyl arsenate (KTA) crystal-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing approximately 1 mJ NIR pulses that are tunable (1.80-2.05 microm) across the 1.9 microm vibrational overtone band of water. This T-jump source has been coupled to a deep ultraviolet (UV) probe laser for Raman studies of protein dynamics. T-jumps of up to 30 degrees C, as measured via the O-H stretching Raman band of water, are readily achieved. Application to cytochrome c unfolding is demonstrated.

  11. Extruded Self-Lubricating Solid For High-Temperature Use (United States)

    Sliney, H. E.; Waters, W. J.; Soltis, R. F.; Bemis, K.


    "EX-212" denotes high-density extruded form of composite solid material self-lubricating over wide range of temperatures. Properties equal or exceed those of powder-metallurgy version of this material. Developed for use in advanced engines at high temperatures at which ordinary lubricants destroyed.

  12. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for High Temperature Wear Applications (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Edmonds, Brian J (Inventor)


    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite useful over a wide temperature range is described herein. The composite includes metal bonded chromium oxide dispersed in a metal binder having a substantial amount of nickel. The composite contains a fluoride of at least one Group I, Group II, or rare earth metal, and optionally a low temperature lubricant metal.

  13. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N


    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  14. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Clary, Maurice C.; Anderson, James L.; Anger, Clifford D.; Carr, Michael H.; Chapman, Clark R.; Davies, Merton E.; Greeley, Ronald; Anderson, Donald


    The Galileo Orbiter's Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment uses a 1.5-m focal length TV camera with 800 x 800 pixel, virtual-phase CCD detector in order to obtain images of Jupiter and its satellites which possess a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolutions, geometric fidelity, and spectral range that are unmatched by earlier imaging data. After describing the performance of this equipment on the basis of ground calibrations, attention is given to the SSI experiment's Jupiter system observation objectives; these encompass atmospheric science, satellite surfaces, ring structure, and 'darkside' experiments.

  15. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M


    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  16. Programmable solid state atom sources for nanofabrication (United States)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; Del Corro, Pablo G.; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian A.; Lally, Richard W.; Bishop, David J.


    In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques.In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A document containing further information about device characterization

  17. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert


    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  18. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)


    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  19. Vapor-solid-solid grown Ge nanowires at integrated circuit compatible temperature by molecular beam epitaxy (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongyunshen; Song, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhenpu; Sun, Hao; Han, Yi; Li, Yaoyao; Zhang, Liyao; Xue, Zhongying; Di, Zengfeng; Wang, Shumin


    We demonstrate Au-assisted vapor-solid-solid (VSS) growth of Ge nanowires (NWs) by molecular beam epitaxy at the substrate temperature of ˜180 °C, which is compatible with the temperature window for Si-based integrated circuit. Low temperature grown Ge NWs hold a smaller size, similar uniformity, and better fit with Au tips in diameter, in contrast to Ge NWs grown at around or above the eutectic temperature of Au-Ge alloy in the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Six ⟨110⟩ growth orientations were observed on Ge (110) by the VSS growth at ˜180 °C, differing from only one vertical growth direction of Ge NWs by the VLS growth at a high temperature. The evolution of NWs dimension and morphology from the VLS growth to the VSS growth is qualitatively explained by analyzing the mechanism of the two growth modes.

  20. Ageing of starch based systems as observed with FT-IR and solid state NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Smits, A.L.M.; Ruhnau, F.C.; Soest, J.J.G. van


    The retrogradation and physical ageing of model starch systems with respect to their glass transition temperatures Tg have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy and solid state NMR spectroscopy. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) spectra demonstrate the

  1. Ageing of Starch Based Systems as observed with FT-IR and Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.L.M.; Ruhnau, F.C.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Soest, van J.J.G.


    The retrogradation and physical ageing of model starch systems with respect to their glass transition temperatures Tg have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid state NMR spectroscopy. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) spectra demonstrate the

  2. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan


    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its...... in the temperature region of 176-186 °C while the reason for partial melting of ionic plastic crystals is not clear yet. Variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction tests confirm the related solid-solid phase transitions and demonstrate that [Gdm-H][NfO] exhibits short-range disorder and long-range positional...... order in the plastic crystalline phases. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements show that its ionic conductivity reaches 2.1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 185 °C. The proton conduction in the plastic crystalline phases of [Gdm-H][NfO] is assumed to happen via the vehicle mechanism. In the molten state, the proton...

  3. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G


    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  4. Mechanochemically assisted room temperature solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    water (Panda et al 2003). Recently, we communicated a preliminary report on the formation of calcium hydroxy- apatite through a SSM route and realized that microwave medium can further accelerate to produce the products in short duration (Parhi et al 2004). Later, we extended this method to strontium and barium ...

  5. Thermal degradation kinetics and solid state, temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Phenothiazine derivatives belong to a big group of aromatic compounds. These derivatives are substituted in ... Elemental analysis for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur were done using Vario EL III CHNS ... The aim of the kinetic study of thermal analysis data is to find out the most probable kinetic model which best ...

  6. Solid-State Form Characterization of Riparin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana Afonso de Moura


    Full Text Available Riparin I is an alkamide with potential anxiolytic activity in preclinical studies. The characterization and understanding of solid-state properties play an importance role in drug development. For this work, the solid state of five riparin I batches (RIP-1, RIP-2, RIP-3, RIP-4, and RIP-5, obtained by the same synthesis process, were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, DSC-photovisual, Thermogravimetry (TG, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, Pyrolysis (Pyr-GC/MS, X-ray Powder Diffraction (PXRD, and Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR techniques. Batches of riparin I with different crystal habits resulting in crystallization impurities were observed, which can be attributed to the presence of triethylamine. The main differences were observed by DSC, PXRD, and ssNMR analysis. DSC curves of RIP-2 and RIP-3 presented endothermic peaks at different temperatures of fusion, which can be attributed to the mixture of different crystalline forms. PXRD and ssNMR results confirmed crystallinity differences. The results offer evidence of the importance of controlling the reproducibility of the synthesis in order to obtain the adequate morphology for therapeutic efficacy and avoiding future problems in quality control of riparin I products.

  7. Explosively produced megagauss fields and recent solid state applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Hults, W.L.; King, J.C.; Mueller, F.M.; Rickel, D.G.; Smith, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brooks, J.S.; Goettee, J.D. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    Large magnetic fields may be generated by compression of an initial magnetic flux generated over a large area at relatively low magnetic field into a region of smaller area. Following a discussion of flux compression principles, the authors discuss megagauss field systems in use at Los Alamos where chemical explosives are used to compress the flux. Their use in some solid state experiments will be discussed briefly, including a planned set of experiments on YBCO to be done jointly with a Russian team, whose aim is to determine the low temperature, critical magnetic field of YBCO.

  8. Exploring Magnetic Elastocaloric Materials for Solid-State Cooling (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhao, Dewei; Li, Yang


    In the past decade, there has been an increased surge in the research on elastocaloric materials for solid-state refrigerators. The strong coupling between structure and magnetism inspires the discovery of new multi-field driven elastocaloric alloys. This work is devoted to magnetic shape memory alloys suitable for mechanical cooling applications. Some novel characteristics in magnetostructural transition materials other than conventional shape memory alloys are overviewed. From the physical and engineering points of view, we have put forward general strategies to maximize elastocaloric temperature change to increase performance reversibility and to improve mechanical properties. The barocaloric effect as a sister-cooling alternative is also discussed.

  9. Exploring Magnetic Elastocaloric Materials for Solid-State Cooling (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhao, Dewei; Li, Yang


    In the past decade, there has been an increased surge in the research on elastocaloric materials for solid-state refrigerators. The strong coupling between structure and magnetism inspires the discovery of new multi-field driven elastocaloric alloys. This work is devoted to magnetic shape memory alloys suitable for mechanical cooling applications. Some novel characteristics in magnetostructural transition materials other than conventional shape memory alloys are overviewed. From the physical and engineering points of view, we have put forward general strategies to maximize elastocaloric temperature change to increase performance reversibility and to improve mechanical properties. The barocaloric effect as a sister-cooling alternative is also discussed.

  10. An overview of Engineering Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prabhakar, A; Krishnaiah, K; Janaun, J; Bono, A


    Solid substrate cultivation (SSC) or solid state fermentation (SSF) is envisioned as a prominent bio conversion technique to transform natural raw materials into a wide variety of chemical as well as bio-chemical products...

  11. Wakefield simulation of solid state plasma (United States)

    Hakimi, Sahel; Nguyen, Tam; Farinella, Deano; Lau, Calvin; Wang, Hsuan-Yu; Taborek, Peter; Tajima, Toshiki


    Although it is known that the accelerating gradient of wakefield increases when laser frequency increases (i.e. critical density), there was no adequate technology to make intense X-ray laser until recently. With the advent of the invention of Thin Film Compression, we now see the intense X-ray laser technology that fits this need. We have modified the EPOCH PIC code to include the lattice effect of nanomaterials in our simulations. The present results indicate the accelerating gradient 0.3TeV/cm at the plasma density of 1023cm-3 which agree well with the wakefield theory. This shows the concept of the solid state plasma wakefield in nanomaterials is validated by computation. This result is also consistent with previous findings, in which the lattice effect was neglected.

  12. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott


    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  13. Solid State Li-ion Batteries (United States)


    like FeS2 (8, 9), FeS (10), nano-Si (11- 13), Li4Ti5O12 (14-17), graphite (18, 19), Li4.4GexSi1-x (20), α- Fe2O3 (21) and Sn-based glasses like SnO...Br2O3 (22) or SnS-P2S5 (23). FeS2, FeS, L4Ti5O12, α- Fe2O3 , and Sn-based glasses all have average operating voltages that are too high to make them useful...Solid State Ionics, 158, 269 (2003). 19. Y. Seino, K. Takada, B.-C. Kim, L. Zhang, N. Ohta, H. Wada, M. Osada and T. Sasaki, “ Synthesis of

  14. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David


    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  15. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications (United States)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L.; Swinehart, P.


    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, we are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive to the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. The performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented.

  16. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L. (Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., Watertown, MA (United States)); Swinehart, P. (Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., Westerville, OH (United States))


    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, the authors are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive t the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. the performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented. in this paper.

  17. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio


    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  18. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph


    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  19. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark


    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belimenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently, one of the priorities of energy conservation is a cost savings for heating in commercial and residential buildings by the stored thermal energy during the night and its return in the daytime. Economic effect is achieved due to the difference in tariffs for the cost of electricity in the daytime and at night. One of the most common types of devices that allow accumulating and giving the resulting heat are solid heat accumulators. The main purpose of the work: 1 software development for the calculation of the temperature field of a flat solid heat accumulator, working due to the heat energy accumulation in the volume of thermal storage material without phase transition; 2 determination the temperature distribution in its volumes at convective heat transfer. Methodology. To achieve the study objectives a heat transfer theory and Laplace integral transform were used. On its base the problems of determining the temperature fields in the channels of heat accumulators, having different cross-sectional shapes were solved. Findings. Authors have developed the method of calculation and obtained solutions for the determination of temperature fields in channels of the solid heat accumulator in conditions of convective heat transfer. Temperature fields over length and thickness of channels were investigated. Experimental studies on physical models and industrial equipment were conducted. Originality. For the first time the technique of calculating the temperature field in the channels of different cross-section for the solid heat accumulator in the charging and discharging modes was proposed. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental research. Practical value. The proposed technique is used in the design of solid heat accumulators of different power as well as full-scale production of them was organized.

  1. Solid-state semiconducting polymer lasers (United States)

    Hide, Fumitomo

    A comprehensive review of the recent emergence of semiconducting pi-conjugated polymers as solid-state laser materials is presented. With the notable exception of semiconducting polymer laser diodes, high performance photonic and electronic devices have been fabricated from semiconducting polymers, with their performance parameters approaching or even surpassing those of their inorganic counterparts in some cases. As the first step in exploring the feasibility of 'plastic' laser diodes, optically pumped stimulated emission, gain, and lasing have recently been observed in over a dozen different semiconducting polymers representing a variety of molecular structures with emission wavelengths spanning the visible spectrum. Resonant structures for providing the feedback required for lasing or gain narrowing in submicron thick films, neat and undiluted, of photoluminescent thin solid films of conjugated polymers include: planar waveguides, microcavities, distributed feedback (DFB) structures, and high-Q microresonators. Lasing and gain narrowing have been compared using two of these structures: waveguides and microcavities. In both cases, the gain narrowing or lasing threshold is at 0.05-0.1 muJ per 10 ns pulse focused to ˜1.5 mm. Single-mode microcavity lasers are obtained when a microcavity resonance occurs at the wavelength where the gain of the polymer is maximum. High efficiency Stokes-shifted photoluminescence (PL) and high gain are features that make undiluted semiconducting polymers uniquely attractive as solid-state laser materials. These features also make the same polymers attractive as active components in InGaN/semiconducting polymer hybrid LEDs, where the blue emission from the InGaN LED provides the blue component, and simultaneously, serves as the short wavelength pump source for exciting the PL of the polymer film(s). White, green, green-yellow, and yellow emitting InGaN/polymer hybrid LED prototypes have been demonstrated simply by dip-coating pre

  2. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid (United States)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.


    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  3. Surface modification of solid state gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, L


    mechanism of the room temperature CO response of SnO sub 2 decorated with small Pt particles was refined. In this case Pt was applied by common impregnation techniques. The conductivity was shown to be controlled by the surface state of the Pt. The CO response at room temperature was found to be specific to the presence of Pt(ll) species. The mechanism was assigned to CO chemisorption onto Pt(ll), resulting in charge transfer, measured as conductivity increase. The samples were characterized by XPS, TPD, SEM, mass spectrometry and electrical measurements. Comparison of the results presented for Pt decorated BaSn sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 7 Sb sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 3 O sub 3 and BaFeO sub 3 demonstrated the phenomenon to be general providing that Pt particles act as surface traps, controlling the conductivity. The phenomenon of electrical conductivity being controlled by the chemical state of a surface grafted reactive centre, resulting in a room temperature gas response, is demonstrated. The reactive centres can ...

  4. Shape memory epoxy foams by solid-state foaming (United States)

    Squeo, E. A.; Quadrini, F.


    Epoxy foams were produced by means of solid-state foaming and their shape memory properties were evaluated together with other physical properties. Solid-state foaming consists of pressing thermosetting resin powders to produce solid tablets, heating the tablets at high temperature to generate both the formation of pores inside the resin and the resin polymerization. A nanoclay was added to the resin powder before pressing it up to a maximum content of 5 wt%. Unfilled and composite foams were characterized by density measurements and thermal analyses. Subsequently, foam samples underwent up to two thermo-mechanical cycles: each cycle consisted of the storage of a compressed shape and the subsequent thermal recovery. Compression tests were used to measure the effect of the thermo-mechanical cycles on the foam's mechanical performances and compressive toughness was extracted from the tests. It was observed that all the foams exhibited good shape memory properties also after cycling: nanoclay filler allows the foams to completely recover the initial shape and to increase the compressive and the specific compressive toughness.

  5. Solid state lighting devices and methods with rotary cooling structures (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.


    Solid state lighting devices and methods for heat dissipation with rotary cooling structures are described. An example solid state lighting device includes a solid state light source, a rotating heat transfer structure in thermal contact with the solid state light source, and a mounting assembly having a stationary portion. The mounting assembly may be rotatably coupled to the heat transfer structure such that at least a portion of the mounting assembly remains stationary while the heat transfer structure is rotating. Examples of methods for dissipating heat from electrical devices, such as solid state lighting sources are also described. Heat dissipation methods may include providing electrical power to a solid state light source mounted to and in thermal contact with a heat transfer structure, and rotating the heat transfer structure through a surrounding medium.

  6. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  7. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids


    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B. K.


    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  8. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Cássia Teixeira da Silva


    Full Text Available This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC and submerged (SmC cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases.

  9. Solid-state physics for electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moliton, André


    ...) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3. Important properties of linear operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3. Bonds in solids: a free electron as the zero order approximation for a weak...

  10. DFT calculations of quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties: Some examples in solid-state inorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Cuny, Jerome; Messaoudi, Sabri; Alonzo, Veronique; Furet, Eric; Halet, Jean-François; Le Fur, Eric; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Pickard, Chris J; Gautier, Regis; Le Polles, Laurent


    This article presents results of first-principles calculations of quadrupolar parameters measured by solid-state nuclear magnetic measurement (NMR) spectroscopy. Different computational methods based on density functional theory were used to calculate the quadrupolar parameters. Through a series of illustrations from different areas of solid state inorganic chemistry, it is shown how quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties can be tackled by a theoretical approach and can yield structural information. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James


    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  12. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M


    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  13. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E


    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  14. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, E A


    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(beta-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 sub 1 2 sub 1 2 sub 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Brown


    Meadow River Enterprises, Inc. (MRE) and the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University (NYSCC) received a DOE cooperative agreement award in September 1999 to develop an energy-efficient Solid-State Ceramic Lamp (SSCL). The program spanned a nominal two(2) year period ending in February of 2002. The federal contribution to the program totaled $1.6 million supporting approximately 78% of the program costs. The SSCL is a rugged electroluminescent lamp designed for outdoor applications. MRE has filed a provisional patent for this ''second generation'' technology and currently produces and markets blue-green phosphor SSCL devices. White phosphor SSCL devices are also available in prototype quantities. In addition to reducing energy consumption, the ceramic EL lamp offers several economic and societal advantages including lower lifecycle costs and reduced ''light pollution''. Significant further performance improvements are possible but will require a dramatic change in device physical construction related to the use of micro-powder materials and processes. The subject ''second-generation'' program spans a 27 month period and combines the materials and processing expertise of NYSCC, the manufacturing expertise of Meadow River Enterprises, and the phosphor development expertise of OSRAM Sylvania to develop an improved SSCL system. The development plan also includes important contributions by Marshall University (a part of the West Virginia University system). All primary development objectives have been achieved with the exception of improved phosphor powders. The performance characteristics of the first generation SSCL devices were carefully analyzed in year 1 and a second generation lamp was defined and optimized in year 2. The provisional patent was ''perfected'' through a comprehensive patent application filed in November 2002. Lamp efficiency was improved more than 2:1.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick


    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  17. Solid-State NMR Study of New Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle


    Full Text Available We report the analysis of comb-like polymers by solid-state NMR. The polymers were previously evaluated as solid-polymer-electrolytes (SPE for lithium-polymer-metal batteries that have suitable ionic conductivity at 60 °C. We propose to develop a correlation between 13C solid-state NMR measurements and phase segregation. 13C solid-state NMR is a perfect tool for differentiating polymer phases with fast or slow motions. 7Li was used to monitor the motion of lithium ions in the polymer, and activation energies were calculated.

  18. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D


    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick


    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  20. Hans Bethe's Contributions to Solid-State Physics (United States)

    Mermin, N. David; Ashcroft, Neil W.

    Hans Bethe's doctoral research was primarily in solid-state physics. During the late 1920's and early 1930's he played a major role in developing the new quantum theory of solids. Though nuclear physics became his main interest in the mid 1930's, he continued to write papers in solid-state physics into the late 1940's, and remained interested in the subject all his life.

  1. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient......, with the formation of Frenkel pairs playing a large role. The charge and discharge performance of all-solid-state batteries with LiBH4- LiI as an electrolyte is reported for the first time. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) was used for the positive electrode and lithium metal for the negative electrode...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary...

  2. Low temperature ozone oxidation of solid waste surrogates (United States)

    Nabity, James A.; Lee, Jeffrey M.


    Solid waste management presents a significant challenge to human spaceflight and especially, long-term missions beyond Earth orbit. A six-month mission will generate over 300 kg of solid wastes per crewmember that must be dealt with to eliminate the need for storage and prevent it from becoming a biological hazard to the crew. There are several methods for the treatment of wastes that include oxidation via ozone, incineration, microbial oxidation or pyrolysis and physical methods such as microwave drying and compaction. In recent years, a low temperature oxidation process using ozonated water has been developed for the chemical conversion of organic wastes to CO2 and H2O. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the rate and effectiveness with which ozone oxidized several different waste materials. Increasing the surface area by chopping or shredding the solids into small pieces more than doubled the rate of oxidation. A greater flow of ozone and agitation of the ozonated water system also increased processing rates. Of the materials investigated, plastics have proven the most difficult to oxidize. The processing of plastics above the glass transition temperatures caused the plastics to clump together which reduced the exposed surface area, while processing at lower temperatures reduced surface reaction kinetics.

  3. Pulsed pump: Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 6. Pulsed ... Pulse pump; thermal effects; thermal lensing; phase shift; diode-pumped solid state laser; super-Gaussian pump profile. Abstract. Solid state laser (SSL) powers can be realistically scaled when pumped by a real, efficient and multimode pulse.

  4. Ab initio thermochemistry of solid-state materials. (United States)

    Stoffel, Ralf Peter; Wessel, Claudia; Lumey, Marck-Willem; Dronskowski, Richard


    In this contribution we introduce an electronic-structure-theory-based approach to a quantum-chemical thermochemistry of solids. We first deal with local and collective atomic displacements and explain how to calculate these. The fundamental importance of the phonons, their dispersion relations, their experimental determination as well as their calculation is elucidated, followed by the systematic construction of the thermodynamic potentials on this basis. Subsequently, we provide an introduction for practical computation as well as a critical analysis of the level of accuracy obtainable. We then show how different solid-state chemistry problems can be solved using this approach. Among these are the calculation of activation energies in perovskite-like oxides, but we also consider the use of theoretical vibrational frequencies for determining crystal structures. The pressure and temperature polymorphism of elemental tin which has often been classically described is also treated, and we energetically classify the metastable oxynitrides of tantalum. We also demonstrate, using the case of high-temperature superconductors, that such calculations may be used for an independent evaluation of thermochemical data of unsatisfactory accuracy. Finally, we show the present limits and the future challenges of the theory.

  5. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco


    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

  6. Solid-Fluid Phase Equilibria for Natural Gas Processing at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Longman


    Precipitation and deposition of solid components create potential risks of blocking gas passages in processes such as in LNG plants. To avoid such risks, experimental data and modelling of solid-fluid equilibrium should be used to optimize the design and operations. The objective of this work was to get a better understanding of the fundamentals of solid-fluid phase equilibrium. The specific focus of this work was to study solid-fluid phase behavior in systems of solid Co2, heavy hydrocarbons(HHC) and hydrate in equilibria with natural gas at low temperatures.Experimental methods for measuring solid-fluid equilibrium data in natural gas systems at low temperatures were extensively reviewed, and important and practical issues for designing experimental systems were summarized. The frost points in the Co2-methane systems (Co2 mole fraction 0.108 to 0.542) were measured in this work. Meanwhile, in another experimental setup, the water content in the gas phase was measured in the hydratemethane and hydrate-natural gas systems down to temperature 238.15 K. These data, together with data from other researchers, were used to verify the thermodynamic models. It is expensive and time-consuming to get experimental data at low temperatures, thus it is important to verify and use thermodynamic models to predict the solid-fluid phase behaviors. In the systems of solid Co2 and HHC in equilibrium with natural gas systems, the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) Equation of State (EOS) and simplified Perturbed-Chain Statistic Associating Fluid Theory (sPC-SAFT) EOS were used to calculate the fugacities in fluid phases. For solid phase, one fugacity model based on sublimation pressures and one model based on subcooled liquid were used. For correlating and predicting the hydrate behaviors, the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA)EOS was used to model fluid phases and the hydrate-forming conditions were modelled by the solid solution theory of van der Waals and Platteeuw. Examples of applications of

  7. optimisation of solid optimisation of solid state fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Ebewele3. 1,2,3 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, PMB 1154, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA. ... the chosen independent variables and to optimise the production of citric acid using RSM. The model was .... value of the independent variable at the center point and ΔXi is the step ...

  8. Color perception under illumination by quadrichromatic solid-state lamp (United States)

    Stanikunas, Rytis; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas; Svegzda, Algimantas; Viliunas, Vilius; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Novickovas, Algirdas; Kurilcik, Genadij; Zukauskas, Arturas; Gaska, Remis; Shur, Michael S.


    Lighting based on sources of light composed of colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offers versatile control of color and a possibility of trade-off between efficiency and color rendering. However, psychophysical issues related to such polychromatic solid-state sources have to be addressed. In this work, studies of the perception of standard colors under illumination with a quadrichromatic red-amber-green-blue (RAGB) solid-state source were carried out. An RAGB lamp containing primary LEDs with the emission peaks at 638 nm, 594 nm, 523 nm, and 441 nm and optimized for the highest value of the general color rendering index (86 points) was investigated and compared to a tungsten lamp. 40 standard Munsell samples of value 6, chroma /6, and hue incremented by 2.5 were used in the investigation. Changes in the saturation and hue of the Munsell samples illuminated by the RAGB lamp versus tungsten lamp (both with the correlated temperature of 2600 K) were obtained by colorimetric calculation comparisons and by psychophysical experiments on subjective matching of the samples. Subjective differences in hue and subjective color discrimination differences under the tungsten and RAGB lamps were found in the wavelength range of 440-500 nm and 560-580 nm. We attribute these differences to non-optimal peak wavelengths of the primary LEDs and to the narrow-band components of the RAGB spectrum.

  9. Solid state interconversion between anhydrous norfloxacin and its hydrates. (United States)

    Chongcharoen, Wanchai; Byrn, Stephen R; Sutanthavibul, Narueporn


    This work is focused on characterizing and evaluating the solid state interconversion of norfloxacin (NF) hydrates. Four stoichiometric NF hydrates, dihydrate, hemipentahydrate, trihydrate, pentahydrate and a disordered NF state, were generated by various methods and characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and Karl Fisher titrimetry. XRPD patterns of all NF hydrates exhibited crystalline structures. NF hydrate conversion was studied with respect to mild elevated temperature and various degrees of moisture levels. NF hydrates transformed to anhydrous NF Form A after gentle heating at 60 degrees C for 48 h except dihydrate and trihydrate where mixture in XRPD patterns between anhydrous NF Form A and former structures existed. Desiccation of NF hydrates at 0% RH for 7 days resulted in only partial removal of water molecules from the hydrated structures. The hydrated transitional phase and the disordered NF state were obtained from the incomplete dehydration of NF hydrates after thermal treatment and pentahydrate NF after desiccation, respectively. Anhydrous NF Form A and NF hydrates transformed to pentahydrate NF when exposed to high moisture environment except dihydrate. In conclusion, surrounding moisture levels, temperatures and the duration of exposure strongly influenced the interconversion pathways and stoichiometry of anhydrous NF and its hydrates. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Low-temperature (75 °C) solid-state reaction enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI{sub 2} films for efficient CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Huifeng [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Yangqiao, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Suzhou Institute of SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences), 238 North Changchun Road, Taicang 215499, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Jing, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    Highlights: • Efficient perovskite solar cells were prepared with solid-state reaction at 75 °C. • Ln-PbI{sub 2} is superior to c-PbI{sub 2} when applied in low-temperature solid-state reaction. • A higher champion PCE was obtained at 75 °C (13.8%) than that of 140 °C (11.8%). • Non-radiative defects increase significantly when annealed at high temperature. - Abstract: Organohalide perovskite films are usually prepared with the solid-state reaction at a high temperature ≥100 °C, which causes the increase of non-radiative defects and decomposition of perovskite films. Here, we demonstrate it’s feasible to prepare high-quality perovskite films with the solid-state reaction method even at a temperature of 75 °C, when enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI{sub 2} (ln-PbI{sub 2}) films. The replacement of compact PbI{sub 2} (c-PbI{sub 2}) by ln-PbI{sub 2}, results in a significant improvement of crystallinity of perovskite films, besides the elimination of remnant PbI{sub 2}. As a result, ln-PbI{sub 2} based perovskite solar cells display much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and better stability. Moreover, annealing duration was found to be critical for high PCE and was optimized as 60 min. Finally, with the optimal process, the champion device displayed a PCE of 13.8% and the average PCE reached 10.1% with a satisfactory deviation. Furthermore, we found annealing at high temperature (140 °C) led to a lower PCE compared with that annealed at 75 °C, because non-radiative defects increased significantly during high-temperature annealing. This work may open up a promising avenue for preparing high-quality perovskite films with the low-temperature solid-state reaction method, which is desirable for real application.

  11. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute


    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  12. Comparative performances of Indian small solid-state and conventional anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.; Anand, R.C. (Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India). Dept. of Microbiology)


    Biogas production from a solid-state digester (SSD) and conventional KVIC plants was compared. The biogas production from the SSD was 84% of that from conventional plants when the maximum and minimum ambient temperatures were 40.2 and 24.9[sup o]C. The relative performance dropped to 60% with a further rise in temperature. Similarly, there was a drastic decrease in gas production as the temperature fell below 15[sup o]C. There was no gas production in the winter months. The solid-state digester could perform well even in winter if the direct effect of temperature on the digester could be avoided by modifying the design by developing an underground anaerobic digestion system equipped with a feeding device for solid waste. (author)

  13. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul


    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  14. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.


    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  15. Lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells. (United States)

    Wachsman, Eric D; Lee, Kang Taek


    Fuel cells are uniquely capable of overcoming combustion efficiency limitations (e.g., the Carnot cycle). However, the linking of fuel cells (an energy conversion device) and hydrogen (an energy carrier) has emphasized investment in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells as part of a larger hydrogen economy and thus relegated fuel cells to a future technology. In contrast, solid oxide fuel cells are capable of operating on conventional fuels (as well as hydrogen) today. The main issue for solid oxide fuel cells is high operating temperature (about 800°C) and the resulting materials and cost limitations and operating complexities (e.g., thermal cycling). Recent solid oxide fuel cells results have demonstrated extremely high power densities of about 2 watts per square centimeter at 650°C along with flexible fueling, thus enabling higher efficiency within the current fuel infrastructure. Newly developed, high-conductivity electrolytes and nanostructured electrode designs provide a path for further performance improvement at much lower temperatures, down to ~350°C, thus providing opportunity to transform the way we convert and store energy.

  16. Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain

    . On the other hand, low-temperature operation poses serious challenges to the electrode performance. Effective catalysts, redox stable electrodes with improved microstructures are the prime requisite for the development of efficient SOFC anodes. The performance of Nb-doped SrT iO3 (STN) ceramic anodes......An important issue that has limited the potential of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) for portable applications is its high operating temperatures (800-1000 ºC). Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 400-600 ºC enable a wider material selection, reduced degradation and increased lifetime...... at 400ºC. The potential of using WO3 ceramic as an alternative anode materials has been explored. The relatively high electrode polarization resistance obtained, 11 Ohm cm2 at 600 ºC, proved the inadequate catalytic activity of this system for hydrogen oxidation. At the end of this thesis...

  17. Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Sharma, Ana L. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA); Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin


    Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

  18. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  19. Effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on survival and development rate of larval Arkansas River Shiner (United States)

    Mueller, Julia S.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas A.


    Decreases in the abundance and diversity of stream fishes in the North American Great Plains have been attributed to habitat fragmentation, altered hydrological and temperature regimes, and elevated levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids, such as the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi, may be particularly vulnerable to these changing conditions because of their reproductive strategy. Our objectives were to assess the effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on the developmental and survival rates of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. Results suggest temperature had the greatest influence on the developmental rate of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. However, embryos exposed to the higher levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids reached developmental stages earlier than counterparts at equivalent temperatures. Although this rapid development may be beneficial in fragmented waters, our data suggest it may be associated with lower survival rates. Furthermore, those embryos incubating at high temperatures, or in high levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids resulted in less viable embryos and larvae than those incubating in all other temperature, total dissolved solid, and total suspended solid treatment groups. As the Great Plains ecoregion continues to change, these results may assist in understanding reasons for past extirpations and future extirpation threats as well as predict stream reaches capable of sustaining Arkansas River Shiners and other species with similar early life-history strategies.

  20. Quantitative analysis of solid-state diversity in trifluoromethylated phenylhydrazones. (United States)

    Dey, Dhananjay; Chopra, Deepak


    The cooperative roles of various structural motifs associated with the presence of different intermolecular interactions in the formation of molecular crystals are investigated in a series of trifluoromethylated phenylhydrazones. Out of the six compounds analysed, two exhibit three-dimensional structural similarities with geometrically equivalent building blocks, while a third exists as two polymorphic forms crystallized from ethanol solutions at low temperature (277 K) and room temperature (298 K), respectively. The compounds were characterized via single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques and differential scanning calorimetry. In the absence of any strong hydrogen bonding, the supramolecular constructs are primarily stabilized via molecular pairs with a high dispersion-energy contribution, due to the presence of molecular stacking along the molecular backbone along with C-H...π interactions in the solid state, in preference to an electrostatic contribution. The interaction energies for the most stabilizing molecular building blocks are in the range -29 to -43 kJ mol-1. In addition, weak N-H...F, C-H...F and N-H...C interactions and F...F, F...C, F...N and C...N contacts act as secondary motifs, providing additional stability to the crystal packing. The overall molecular arrangements are carefully analysed in terms of their nature and energetics, and the roles of different molecular pairs towards the crystal structure are delineated. A topological study using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules was used to characterize all the atomic interactions in the solid state. It established the presence of (3, -1) bond critical points and the closed-shell nature of all the interactions.

  1. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)


    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  2. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit? (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel


    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  3. All-solid state lithium carbon monofluoride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan


    A solid state lithium carbon monofluoride battery includes an anode comprising Li, a solid electrolyte, and a cathode including CF.sub.x and LPS. The cathode can also include a carbon compound. The solid electrolyte can include LPS. The LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. The cathode LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. A method of making a battery is also disclosed.

  4. Equation of state for inert gas solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    E-mail: k MS received 16 December 2006; revised 9 April ... Since the IGSs have closed electronic shells unlike other solids, their thermodynamic properties such as bonding, ..... [21] K Devlal, Ph.D. Thesis (G.B. Pant University, Pantnagar, India, 2005). [22] M S Anderson and C A Swenson, J. Phys.

  5. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, C.U. Del. Coyoacan (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico)


    Highlights: {yields} PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. {yields} During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. {yields} Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  6. All-solid-state thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using solid redox polymerization electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.


    Lithium batteries using solid redox polymerization electrodes maintain the advantages of all-solid-state thin-film systems while overcoming the limitations of using intercalation compounds as cathodes (i.e., insufficient rate capability and unsatisfactory cathode utilization). Laboratory Li/PEO/SRPE cells have already demonstrated much higher power capability, energy density, and cathode utilization than analogous Li/PEO/TiS{sub 2} cells. One of the Li/PEO/SRPE cells has achieved 350 cycles from 50{degree}C to 93{degree}C with a sustained energy density of 264 Wh/kg (241 Wh/1), power density of 160 W/kg (144 W/1), and 38% to 75% of cathode utilization at 90% voltage efficiency. At 100{degree}C, power densities of over 2400 W/kg and energy density of 200 W/kg have been achieved with up to 96% utilization of cathode capacity. At ambient temperatures, the cells can be discharged at a current density of 250 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, achieving a film capacity of 0.5 coulombs/cm{sup 2}. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Solid/liquid lubrication of ceramics at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hong, H. [Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH (United States)


    This study investigates the effect of solid and liquid lubrication on friction and wear performance of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and cast iron. The solid lubricant was a thin silver film ({approx}2 {mu}m thick) produced on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} by ion-beam-assisted deposition. A high-temperature polyol-ester-base synthetic oil served as the liquid lubricant. Friction and wear tests were performed with pin-on-disk and oscillating-slider wear test machines at temperatures up to 300{degrees}C. Without the silver films, the friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} test pairs were 0.05 to 0.14, and the average wear rates of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins were {approx}5 x 10{sup -8} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1}. The friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/cast iron test pairs ranged from 0.08 to 0.11, depending on test temperature. The average specific wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}3 x 10{sup -7} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}. However, simultaneous use of the solid-lubricant silver and synthetic oil on the sliding surfaces reduced friction coefficients to 0.02 to 0.08. Moreover, the wear of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins and silver-coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} disks was so low that it was difficult to assess by a surface profilometer. The wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}7 x 10{sup -9} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1} up to 250{degrees}C, but showed a tendency to increase slightly at much higher temperatures. In general, the test results demonstrated that the solid/liquid lubrication of ceramic and/or metallic components is both feasible and effective in controlling friction and wear.

  8. Silver flip chip interconnect technology and solid state bonding (United States)

    Sha, Chu-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, fluxless transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding and solid state bonding between thermal expansion mismatch materials have been developed using Ag-In binary systems, pure Au, Ag, and Cu-Ag composite. In contrast to the conventional soldering process, fluxless bonding technique eliminates any corrosion and contamination problems caused by flux. Without flux, it is possible to fabricate high quality joints in large bonding areas where the flux is difficult to clean entirely. High quality joints are crucial to bonding thermal expansion mismatch materials since shear stress develops in the bonded pair. Stress concentration at voids in joints could increases breakage probability. In addition, intermetallic compound (IMC) formation between solder and underbump metallurgy (UBM) is essential for interconnect joint formation in conventional soldering process. However, the interface between IMC and solder is shown to be the weak interface that tends to break first during thermal cycling and drop tests. In our solid state bonding technique, there is no IMC involved in the bonding between Au to Au, Ag and Cu, and Ag and Au. All the reliability issues related to IMC or IMC growth is not our concern. To sum up, ductile bonding media, such as Ag or Au, and proper metallic layered structure are utilized in this research to produce high quality joints. The research starts with developing a low temperature fluxless bonding process using electroplated Ag/In/Ag multilayer structures between Si chip and 304 stainless steel (304SS) substrate. Because the outer thin Ag layer effectively protects inner In layer from oxidation, In layer dissolves Ag layer and joints to Ag layer on the to-be-bonded Si chip when temperature reaches the reflow temperature of 166ºC. Joints consist of mainly Ag-rich Ag-In solid solution and Ag2In. Using this fluxless bonding technique, two 304SS substrates can be bonded together as well. From the high magnification SEM images taken at cross

  9. Lipolytic activity from Rhizopus arrhizus using solid state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lipases were produced from a Rhizopus arrhizus strain, using rice bran as solid substrate, by solid state fermentation. The activity of lipases was found to be optimum at 30 °C and pH 6.5. The effect of different solvents on hydrolytic activity was carried out and isooctane was selected as the solvent of choice.

  10. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conductivity depends on a number of factors such as presence of interstitial sites, ion size, temperature, crystal structure etc. We discuss the recent results from atomistic computer simulations on the dependence of conductivity in NASICONs as a function of composition, temperature, phase change and cation among others.

  11. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at higher temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)


    This report describes efforts in developing new solid polymer electrolytes that will enable operation of proton exchange membrane electrolyzers at higher temperatures than are currently possible. Several ionomers have been prepared from polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by employing various sulfonation procedures. By controlling the extent of sulfonation, a range of proton conductivities could be achieved, whose upper limit actually exceeded that of commercially available perfluoralkyl sulfonates. Thermoconductimetric analysis of samples at various degrees of sulfonation showed an inverse relationship between conductivity and maximum operating temperature. This was attributed to the dual effect of adding sulfonate groups to the polymer: more acid groups produce more protons for increased conductivity, but they also increase water uptake, which mechanically weakens the membrane. This situation was exacerbated by the limited acidity of the aromatic sulfonic acids (pK{sub A} {approx} 2-3). The possibility of using partial fluorination to raise the acid dissociation constant is discussed.

  12. Bioprospecting of yeasts for amylase production in solid state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioprospecting of yeasts for amylase production in solid state fermentation and evaluation of the catalytic properties of enzymatic extracts. APA de Oliveira, MA Silvestre, HF Alves-Prado, A Rodrigues, MF da Paz, GG Fonseca, RSR Leite ...

  13. Solid-state fermentation for the production of poly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sindhu, R; Pandey, A; Binod, P


    .... In the past few years, solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been reassessed as an alternative to submerged fermentation, and could be a possible strategy for the cost- effective production of PHAs...

  14. ASAS = NASA's Advanced Solid-state Array Spectroradiometer: 1988 -2000 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) data collection contains data collected by the ASAS sensor flown aboard NASA aircraft. A fundamental use of...

  15. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  16. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.


    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  17. Quantum non demolition measurement of a single nuclear spin in a room temperature solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Phillip; Beck, Johannes; Steiner, Matthias; Rathgen, Helmut; Rempp, Florian; Zarrabi, Navid; Dolde, Florian; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Hemmer, Philip [A and M University, Texas (United States)


    The measurement process and its interpretation are in the focus of quantum mechanics since its early days. Today's ability to isolate single quantum objects allows experimental demonstration of former ''gedankenexperiments'' like measurement induced quantum state collaps. Rapidly growing quantum technologies explore fundamental aspects of measurements in quantum computing, however for solid state systems such experiments require operation at very low temperatures. Here we show that projective quantum measurement can be performed on a single nuclear spin in diamond under ambient conditions. Using quantum non demolition (QND) readout we are able to detect quantum jumps and the quantum Zeno effect emphasising the addressability of fundamental questions of quantum mechanics in solids. Single shot measurements with fidelities exceeding 0.9 enable efficient state initialization, quantum error correction and entanglement pumping that is crucial for quantum information processing including measurement based schemes and distributed quantum networks.

  18. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan J. Jacobson


    the perovskite compositions that were being investigated at PNNL, in order to assess the relative importance of the intrinsic properties such as oxygen ion diffusion and surface exchange rates as predictors of performance in cell tests. We then used these measurements to select new materials for scaled up synthesis and performance evaluation in single cell tests. The results of the single cell tests than provided feedback to the materials synthesis and selection steps. In this summary, the following studies are reported: (1) Synthesis, characterization, and DC conductivity measurements of the P1 compositions La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-x} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3-x} were completed. A combinational approach for preparing a range P1 (La,Sr)FeO{sub 3} compositions as thin films was investigated. Synthesis and heat treatment of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are described. (2) Oxygen transport properties of K1 compositions La{sub x}Pr{sub 2-x}NiO{sub 4+d} (x =2.0, 1.9, 1.2, 1.0 and 0) measured by electrical conductivity relaxation are presented in this report. Area specific resistances determined by ac impedance measurements for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} on CGO are encouraging and suggest that further optimization of the electrode microstructure will enable the target to be reached. (3) The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) were determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The first complete cell measurements were performed on Ni/CGO/CGO/PBCO/CGO cells. (4) The oxygen exchange kinetics of highly epitaxial thin films of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (PBCO) has been determined by electrical conductivity

  19. Compensation of phonon-induced renormalization of vacuum Rabi splitting in large quantum dots: Towards temperature-stable strong coupling in the solid state with quantum dot-micropillars (United States)

    Hopfmann, C.; Musiał, A.; Strauß, M.; Barth, A. M.; Glässl, M.; Vagov, A.; Strauß, M.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Axt, V. M.; Reitzenstein, S.


    We study experimentally the influence of temperature on the emission characteristics of quantum dot-micropillars in the strong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED). In particular, we investigate its impact on the vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS) and we address the important question of the temperature stability of the coherent coupling regime in a semiconductor system, which is relevant in view of both fundamental study and future applications. To study the temperature dependence we investigate an unprecedentedly large number of strong coupling cases (89) in a wide temperature range from 10 up to 50 K, which constitutes a good basis for statistical analysis. The experiment indicates a statistically significant increase of the VRS with temperature in contrast to an expected decrease of the VRS due to the dephasing induced by acoustic phonons. From the theoretical point of view, the phonon-induced renormalization of the VRS is calculated using a real-time path-integral approach for strongly confined quantum dots (QDs), which allows for a numerical exact treatment of the coupling between the QD and a continuum of longitudinal acoustic phonons. The absence of the expected decrease of the VRS with temperature in our experimental data can be attributed to a unique optical property of laterally extended I n0.4G a0.6As QDs used in this study. Their electronic structure facilitates an effective temperature-driven increase of the oscillator strength of the excitonic state by up to 40% in the given temperature range. This leads to enhanced light-matter interaction and overcompensates the phonon-related decrease of the VRS. The observed persistence of strong coupling in the presence of phonon-induced decoherence demonstrates the appealing possibility to counteract detrimental phonon effects in the cQED regime via engineering the electronic structure of QDs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; H. Skip Mieney


    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.

  1. Novel solidsolid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojda Marta


    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  2. Demonstration Experiments for Solid-State Physics Using a Table-Top Mechanical Stirling Refrigerator (United States)

    Osorio, M. R.; Morales, A. Palacio; Rodrigo, J. G.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.


    Liquid-free cryogenic devices are acquiring importance in basic science and engineering. But they can also lead to improvements in teaching low temperature and solid-state physics to graduate students and specialists. Most of the devices are relatively expensive, but small-sized equipment is slowly becoming available. Here, we have designed…

  3. Numerical modeling of thermal performance: Natural convection and radiation of solid state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Zeijl, H.W. van; Werkhoven, R.J.; Zhang, G.Q.


    The increased electrical currents used to drive light emitting diode (LED) cause significant heat generation in the solid state lighting (SSL) system. As the temperature will directly affect the maximum light output, quality, reliability and the life time of the SSL system, thermal management is a

  4. An alternative preparation method for ion exchanged catalysts: Solid state redox reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, E.; Hagen, A.; Grunwaldt, J.-D.


    infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The evolution of hydrogen was detected at temperatures above 620 K. The source of hydrogen was the solid state redox reaction of the metal with protons of the support. The samples exhibit catalytic activity in ethane aromatization indicating that zinc...

  5. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.


    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  6. The LiBH4-LiI Solid Solution as an Electrolyte in an All-Solid-State Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Viskinde, Rasmus


    is compared with a cell with an identical electrode setup but a liquid electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in EC:DMC). All measurements were carried out at a temperature of 60°C. For the all-solid-state cells, 81% of the theoretical discharge capacity is reached for a discharge rate of 10 μA, but a capacity fade of 1......The charge and discharge performance of an all-solid-state lithium battery with the LiBH4-LiI solid solution as an electrolyte is reported. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) was used as the positive electrode and lithium metal as the negative electrode. The performance of the all-solid-state cell...... the change in the discharge capacity of the cells and changes in the cell impedance over 200 charge-discharge cycles. This is expectedly due to the possible formation of passivating areas in the cell and/or loss of contact area between the electrolyte and the electrodes....

  7. Solid State Research, 1977:2 (United States)


    subsequent experiments in which the bombarded samples were annealed, a 4000- A layer of Si02 was first pyrolytically deposited at 320°C. After the...protect the InP from decompo- sition and anomalous carrier-concentration changes at these temperatures, a pyrolytic phospho- silicate glass (PSG...first sprays both the spinning substrate and a nylon brush with a dilute solution of ammonium hydroxide and detergent in water, and then scrubs the

  8. Rheological Properties with Temperature Response Characteristics and a Mechanism of Solid-Free Polymer Drilling Fluid at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wang


    Full Text Available The rheological properties of drilling fluid have important effects during drilling in natural gas hydrate at low temperatures. The present study was performed using theoretical analysis. Experiments and micro-analyses were carried out to determine the rheological properties with temperature response characteristics and the mechanism involved in solid-free polymer drilling fluid (SFPDF at low temperatures when drilling in permafrost with natural gas hydrates (NGH. The curves of shear stress with the shear rates of three kinds of polymer drilling fluids, Semen Lepidii natural vegetable gum, polyacrylamide, and xanthan gum, were drawn. Then, statistical and related analyses of test data were performed using Matlab ver. 8.0. Through regression analysis, the Herschel–Bulkley model was used to characterize the rheological characteristics of SFPDF. On this basis, the laws regarding the rheological properties of the three kinds of SFPDF under changing temperatures were analyzed and rheological properties with temperature response state equations were established. Next, the findings of previous studies on rheological properties with temperature response characteristics of the SFPDF were reviewed. Finally, the rheological properties with temperature response mechanisms were assessed using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectrum analysis.

  9. Kinetic studies in solid state reactions by sample-controlled methods and advanced analysis procedures


    Pérez-Maqueda, Luis A.; Criado, J. M.; Sánchez-Jiménez, P.E.; Perejón, Antonio


    A comparative study of both conventional rising temperature and sample-controlled methods, like constant rate thermal analysis (CRTA), is carried out after analyzing a set of solid state reactions using both methods. It is shown that CRTA avoids the influence of heat and mass transfer phenomena for a wide range of sample sizes leading to reliable kinetic parameters. On the other hand, conventional rising temperature methods yield α–T plots dependent on experimental conditions, even when using...

  10. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials. (DLC)

  11. Single-frequency diode-pumped solid state lasers (United States)

    Bollig, Christoph


    The work discussed in this thesis covers two broad areas: Novel techniques for the single-frequency operation of miniature, diode-pumped solid-state lasers and the high- power (i.e. multi-watt) operation of diode-bar end-pumped lasers in the eyesafe 2 μm wavelength region. A monolithic Nd-doped phosphate glass laser is described, in which unidirectional, hence single-frequency operation is enforced by the acousto-optic effect in the laser medium. The loss difference for the two counter- propagating waves relies on an acousto-optic self- feedback mechanism which can yield high loss differences even for very small diffraction efficiencies. Reliable single-frequency output is maintained indefinitely with an applied radio-frequency power of 0.2 W. Single- frequency output powers up to 30 mW for 400 mW of pump power are demonstrated. A technique is developed which facilitates reliable single-frequency operation of actively Q-switched lasers at repetition rates beyond the inverse lifetime of the upper laser level. Stable single-frequency operation of a Q-switched laser requires the initial establishment of a stable prelase which is free from spiking. Relying on the natural decay of spiking limits repetition rates and hence average power. Using feedback suppression of spiking, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated which operates on a single frequency at repetition rates up to 25 kHz, with 88% of available cw power extracted. In the second part of this thesis, the high-power operation of diode-bar end-pumped solid-state lasers operating in the eyesafe 2 μm wavelength region is discussed. Efficient operation of a Tm:YAG laser end- pumped by a beam-shaped 20 W diode bar is demonstrated. At a mount temperature of 20oC an output beam of 4.1 W with M2 values of 1.2 and 1.4 in the orthogonal planes is obtained for 13.5 W of diode power incident on the rod. This laser is then used to intracavity-pump a Ho:YAG laser, which avoids the upconversion problems usually associated

  12. Fluorine-Doped Antiperovskite Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Li, Yutao; Zhou, Weidong; Xin, Sen; Li, Shuai; Zhu, Jinlong; Lü, Xujie; Cui, Zhiming; Jia, Quanxi; Zhou, Jianshi; Zhao, Yusheng; Goodenough, John B


    A fluorine-doped antiperovskite Li-ion conductor Li2 (OH)X (X=Cl, Br) is shown to be a promising candidate for a solid electrolyte in an all-solid-state Li-ion rechargeable battery. Substitution of F(-) for OH(-) transforms orthorhombic Li2 OHCl to a room-temperature cubic phase, which shows electrochemical stability to 9 V versus Li(+) /Li and two orders of magnitude higher Li-ion conductivity than that of orthorhombic Li2 OHCl. An all-solid-state Li/LiFePO4 with F-doped Li2 OHCl as the solid electrolyte showed good cyclability and a high coulombic efficiency over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Solid and liquid Equation of state for initially porous aluminum where specific heat is constant (United States)

    Forbes, Jerry W.; Lemar, E. R.; Brown, Mary


    A porous solid's initial state is off the thermodynamic surface of the non-porous solid to start with but when pressure is high enough to cause total pore collapse or crush up, then the final states are on the condensed matter thermodynamic surfaces. The Hugoniot for the fully compacted solid is above the Principle Hugoniot with pressure, temperature and internal energy increased at a given v. There are a number of ways to define this hotter Hugoniot, which can be referenced to other thermodynamic paths on this thermodynamic surface. The choice here was to use the Vinet isotherm to define a consistent thermodynamic surface for the solid and melt phase of 6061 aluminum where specific heat is constant for the P-v-T space of interest. Analytical equations are developed for PH and TH.

  14. Reaction diffusion and solid state chemical kinetics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dybkov, V I


    This monograph deals with a physico-chemical approach to the problem of the solid-state growth of chemical compound layers and reaction-diffusion in binary heterogeneous systems formed by two solids; as well as a solid with a liquid or a gas. It is explained why the number of compound layers growing at the interface between the original phases is usually much lower than the number of chemical compounds in the phase diagram of a given binary system. For example, of the eight intermetallic compounds which exist in the aluminium-zirconium binary system, only ZrAl3 was found to grow as a separate

  15. Solid state switch panel. [using hermetic sealing (United States)

    Beenfeldt, E.


    An intensive study of various forms of transducers was conducted with application towards hermetically sealing the transducer pick off and all electronics. The results indicated that the Hall effect devices and a LED/phototransistor combination were the most practical for this type of application. Therefore, hardware was developed utilizing a magnet/Hall effect transducer for single action switches and LED/phototransistor transducers for rotary multiposition or potentiometer applications. A number of switches were built and models were hermetically sealed to prove the feasibility of this type of fabrication. One of each type of switch was subjected to temperature cycling, vibration, and EMI tests.

  16. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter. (United States)

    Mao, Jingdong; Cao, Xiaoyan; Olk, Dan C; Chu, Wenying; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially a systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their applications to the study of NOM. We discuss some basics of how to acquire high-quality and quantitative solid-state 13 C NMR spectra, and address some common technical mistakes that lead to unreliable spectra of NOM. The identification of specific functional groups in NOM, primarily based on 13 C spectral-editing techniques, is described and the theoretical background of some recently-developed spectral-editing techniques is provided. Applications of solid-state NMR to investigating nitrogen (N) in NOM are described, focusing on limitations of the widely used 15 N CP/MAS experiment and the potential of improved advanced NMR techniques for characterizing N forms in NOM. Then techniques used for identifying proximities, heterogeneities and domains are reviewed, and some examples provided. In addition, NMR techniques for studying segmental dynamics in NOM are reviewed. We also briefly discuss applications of solid-state NMR to NOM from various sources, including soil organic matter, aquatic organic matter, organic matter in atmospheric particulate matter, carbonaceous meteoritic organic matter, and fossil fuels. Finally, examples of NMR-based structural models and an outlook are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature (United States)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena


    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  18. State of the art of solid state dosimetry; Estado da arte em dosimetria do estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Susana O., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Radioisotope Research Center, Osaka University (Japan); D' Errico, Francesco, E-mail: [Yale University, School of Medicine, CT (United States)


    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed.

  19. Solid State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Daniel [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States); Sibisan, Rodica [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States); Rasmussen, Mike [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States)


    The overall objective is to develop a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of ≥ 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥ 40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥ 30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of ≥ 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of ≤ $400/kW.

  20. Solid State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Daniel [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States); Sibisan, Rodica [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States); Rasmussen, Mike [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States)


    The overall objective is to develop a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of ≤$400/kW.

  1. All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH 4 Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs; de Jongh, P.E.; Blanchard, Didier


    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport

  2. Optically Controlled Solid State Opening Switches (United States)


    nearly constant on-state switch resistance 1041-113S/91/06000576S01.00 © 1991 IEU - 7- -7)" / PUNK et at.: &=DIDTVE PULSED POWER 5YSThI4 577 -1000 um’s(21...thick. The faces to ration that retains their intrinsic desirable characteristics be illuminated by the 1.06 jm were polished . By using a and avoids

  3. Solid State Quantum Computer in Silicon (United States)


    focused microprobe of 2 MeV alpha particles, produced by the 5U Pelletron accelerator at the University of Melbourne and the MP2 nuclear microprobe...Kotthaus and S. Ludwig, “ Electrostatically defined serial triple quantum dot charged with few electrons”, Physical Review B 76, 075306 (2007). M.Y...ESR line to induce Rabi oscillation of the spin state. In addition, the electrostatic potential on the ESR line is used to shift the Zeeman-split

  4. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review (United States)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.


    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  5. Solid-state physics for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, Andre


    Describing the fundamental physical properties of materials used in electronics, the thorough coverage of this book will facilitate an understanding of the technological processes used in the fabrication of electronic and photonic devices. The book opens with an introduction to the basic applied physics of simple electronic states and energy levels. Silicon and copper, the building blocks for many electronic devices, are used as examples. Next, more advanced theories are developed to better account for the electronic and optical behavior of ordered materials, such as diamond, and disordered ma

  6. Polyorganodisulfide electrodes for solid-state batteries and electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, S.J. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Liu Meilin (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Doeff, M.M. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Ma Yanping (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Lampert, C. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Jonghe, L.C. de (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States))


    The use of polyorganodisulfides in a variety of solid-state batteries and electrochromic devices is discussed. Cycling data is presented for solid-state batteries using sodium and sodium-lead alloy negative electrodes with polyethylene oxide electrolyte and polydimercaptothiadiazole positive electrodes. Rate capabilities are comparable to that for analogous lithium batteries, but cells show continual deterioration with extended cycling. The use of polyorganodisulfide electrodes as optically passive counter electrodes for electrochromic devices is also described. Solid-state devices consisting of molybdenum doped WO[sub 3], amorphous polyethylene oxide electrolyte (aPEO), and a polyorganodisulfide counter electrode colored rapidly from a pale yellow to a deep blue-green, upon application of 1.2 V dc. The photopic transmittance changed from 61 to 9%, and the solar transmittance from 45 to 5% during the coloration process. (orig.)

  7. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.


    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  8. Solid-state lighting—a benevolent technology (United States)

    Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo, Hong; Xi, J.-Q.


    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting.

  9. Kinetics of accelerated solid-state fermentation of organic-rich municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Viéitez, E R; Mosquera, J; Ghosh, S


    Biotransformation of landfill solid wastes is a slow process requiring decades for completion. Accelerated anaerobic fermentation in modulated landfill environments may alleviate or eliminate pollution of land, water and air. This research was undertaken to demonstrate the application of biphasic fermentation to a simulated laboratory-scale landfill to effect rapid biomethanation of biodegradable solids. The biphasic process consisted of solid-state, acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of MSW followed by biomethanation of acidic hydrolysates in a separate methane fermenter. Solid-state fermentation of the MSW with effluent recirculation resulted in rapid hydrolysis, acidification and denitrification, with soluble COD and VFA concentrations accumulating to inhibitory levels of 60,000 mg/l and 13,000 mg/l, respectively, at a pH of 4.5. The landfill gas methane concentration reached a maximum of 55 mol.%. By comparison, the methanogenic reactor produced high methane-content (70-85 mol.%) gases. The biphasic process effected carbohydrate, lipid, and protein conversion efficiencies of 90%, 49%, and 37%, respectively. Development of a Monod-type product-formation model was undertaken to predict methane formation and to determine kinetic parameters for the methanogenic processes in the simulated landfill and separate methane reactors. A first-order solids hydrolysis rate constant of 0.017 day-1 was evaluated to show that landfill solids hydrolysis was slower than the inhibited methanogenesis rate.

  10. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarobol, Pylin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Argibay, Nicolas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Blythe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diantonio, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  11. Solid-state fermentation systems-an overview. (United States)

    Krishna, Chundakkadu


    Starting with a brief history of solid-state fermentation (SSF), major aspects of SSF are reviewed, which include factors affecting SSF, biomass, fermentors, modeling, industrial microbial enzymes, organic acids, secondary metabolites, and bioremediation. Physico-chemical and environmental factors such as inoculum type, moisture and water activity, pH, temperature, substrate, particle size, aeration and agitation, nutritional factors, and oxygen and carbon dioxide affecting SSF are reviewed. The advantages of SSF over Submerged Fermentation (SmF) are indicated, and the different types of fermentors used in SSF described. The economic feasibilities of adopting SSF technology in the commercial production of industrial enzymes such as amylases, cellulases, xylanase, proteases, phytases, lipases, etc., organic acids such as citric acid and lactic acid, and secondary metabolites such as gibberellic acid, ergot alkaloids, and antibiotics such as penicillin, cyclosporin, cephamycin and tetracyclines are highlighted. The relevance of applying SSF technology in the production of mycotoxins, biofuels, and biocontrol agents is discussed, and the need for adopting SSF technology in bioremediation of toxic compounds, biological detoxication of agro-industrial residues, and biotransformation of agro-products and residues is emphasized.

  12. Diffusion, Surface Kinetics, and Detection in Solid-State Nanopores (United States)

    Hoogerheide, David; Garaj, Slaven; Golovchenko, Jene


    Solid-state nanopores are promising sensors for single biomolecules. Most sensing applications rely on electronic detection of changes in the ionic transport through or across the nanopore in the 0.1--10 kHz frequency band. Our recent studies of the electronic noise properties of silicon nitride nanopores highlight both the suitability of nanopores for physical measurements and their limits of detection (PRL 102, 256804 (2009)). We explore the dependence of excess white noise, which is dominant at detection frequencies, on electrolyte concentration, temperature, and pH. We detect two distinct processes: number fluctuations and surface charge fluctuations. Number fluctuations arise from carrier diffusion through the nanopore and represent a fundamental limit of voltage-driven detection techniques. This sort of noise is minimized at high electrolyte concentrations in low viscosity solutions. In addition, the interaction of ions in the solution with the surface produces fluctuations in the surface charge, and hence the conductance. This noise varies strongly with pH. Both are masked by 1/f noise at low frequencies. The usefulness of these noise sources for measuring physical constants such as diffusivity and reaction kinetics will be discussed.

  13. Formability of aluminium sheets manufactured by solid state recycling (United States)

    Kore, A. S.; Nayak, K. C.; Date, P. P.


    Conventional recycling practices for non-ferrous metallic scrap involves melting followed by purification. This practice is suitable for recycling when the large volume of scrap is available. Though such recycling reduces consumption of diminishing metallic resources, high energy requirement and material loss during melting and purification limit its applicability. In the present work, manufacturing of solid state recycled aluminium sheet by hot rolling is explored and its formability characterized. Aluminium chips were divided into smaller particles (1~2mm) by crushing. After stress relief annealing, chips were cold compacted into square slabs (75*75mm section) of different thicknesses. Another similar set of slabs was made by hot compaction. The compacted slabs were hot rolled over a number of passes at 400°C. Each slab was reduced to approximately 90% thickness to get the sheet thickness in the range of 0.6 to 1.5 mm. Microstructure revealed good interface bonding between the chip particles. Mechanical properties of the sheet from room temperature up to 200°C and at different strain rates were characterized by a number of tensile tests. Circular blanks from sheet were drawn into cylindrical cups and strain distribution was observed along different directions of rolling using circle grid analysis.

  14. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant


    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  15. What would Edison do with solid state lighting? (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will


    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  16. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris


    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  17. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus


    Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and the esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (parahydroxybenzoates or parabens) used for anti-microbial preservation are investigated. The formation of a crystalline 1/1 molecular compound between trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate is demonstrated...... by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  18. High power RF solid state power amplifier system (United States)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)


    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  19. Probing hydrogen in ZnO nanorods using solid-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li Q.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Windisch, Charles F.; Yao, Chunhua; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhou, Xiao Dong


    We have developed a low-temperature reflux method to synthesize large quantities of well-dispersed free-standing ZnO nanorods using a simple and mild aqueous solution route. In this approach, different surfactants were used to control nanostructure morphologies. Bound proton states in these ZnO nanorods were characterized for the first time by high resolution solid-state 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. In contrast to commercially available ZnO nano- or micro-particles, our uniform ZnO nanorods show a surprisingly sharp 1H NMR resonance. The feature is maintained upon heating to 500 oC, which suggests that an unusually stable proton species exists, most likely associated with lattice defects within the ZnO framework. Work here has demonstrated a new approach for probing a small amount of proton species associated with defects in nano-crystalline solids using high resolution solid-state 1H MAS NMR.

  20. Solid state synthesis, crystal growth and optical properties of urea and p-chloronitrobenzene solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, R.N., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advanced Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Kant, Shiva; Reddi, R.S.B. [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advanced Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Gupta, P.K. [Laser Materials Development & Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)


    Urea is an attractive material for frequency conversion of high power lasers to UV (for wavelength down to 190 nm), but its usage is hindered due to its hygroscopic nature, though there is no alternative organic NLO crystal which could be transparent up to 190 nm. The hygroscopic character of urea has been modified by making the solid solution (UCNB) of urea (U) and p-chloronitrobenzene (CNB). The formation of the solid solution of CNB in U is explained on the basis of phase diagram, powder XRD, FTIR, elemental analysis and single crystal XRD studies. The solubility of U, CNB and UCNB in ethanol solution is evaluated at different temperatures. Transparent single crystals of UCNB are grown from its saturated solution in ethanol. Optical properties e.g., second harmonic generation (SHG), refractive index and the band gap for UCNB crystal were measured and their values were compared with the parent compounds. Besides modification in hygroscopic nature, UCNB has also shown the higher SHG signal and mechanical hardness in comparison to urea crystal. - Highlights: • The hygroscopic character of urea was modified by making the solid solution • Solid solution formation is support by elemental, powder- and single crystal XRD • Crystal of solid solution has higher SHG signal and mechanical stability. • Refractive index and band gap of solid solution crystal have determined.

  1. Rheology of StelliteTM 21 Alloy in Semi-Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołek K.


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the rheological properties of StelliteTM 21 alloy in the semi-solid state, as the results could be used for identifying the appropriate temperature range for thixoforming of this alloy, and a secondary objective of the experimental work was the development of mathematical model of the alloy’s apparent viscosity. Such viscosity models are necessary for numerical simulations of the thixoforming processes. The StelliteTM 21 alloy exhibits high hardness and thus shaping in the semi-solid state is promising route of production of parts from this alloy. Within the confines of experimental work the measurement methods of the rheological properties at high temperatures was developed. They are based on the use of specially designed viscometer equipped with high temperature furnace.

  2. The hydrogen bond in the solid state. (United States)

    Steiner, Thomas


    The hydrogen bond is the most important of all directional intermolecular interactions. It is operative in determining molecular conformation, molecular aggregation, and the function of a vast number of chemical systems ranging from inorganic to biological. Research into hydrogen bonds experienced a stagnant period in the 1980s, but re-opened around 1990, and has been in rapid development since then. In terms of modern concepts, the hydrogen bond is understood as a very broad phenomenon, and it is accepted that there are open borders to other effects. There are dozens of different types of X-H.A hydrogen bonds that occur commonly in the condensed phases, and in addition there are innumerable less common ones. Dissociation energies span more than two orders of magnitude (about 0.2-40 kcal mol(-1)). Within this range, the nature of the interaction is not constant, but its electrostatic, covalent, and dispersion contributions vary in their relative weights. The hydrogen bond has broad transition regions that merge continuously with the covalent bond, the van der Waals interaction, the ionic interaction, and also the cation-pi interaction. All hydrogen bonds can be considered as incipient proton transfer reactions, and for strong hydrogen bonds, this reaction can be in a very advanced state. In this review, a coherent survey is given on all these matters.

  3. Controls for Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis


    provide a low-energy standby state when lower light levels are acceptable.

  4. Study of Solid Particle Behavior in High Temperature Gas Flows (United States)

    Majid, A.; Bauder, U.; Stindl, T.; Fertig, M.; Herdrich, G.; Röser, H.-P.


    The Euler-Lagrangian approach is used for the simulation of solid particles in hypersonic entry flows. For flow field simulation, the program SINA (Sequential Iterative Non-equilibrium Algorithm) developed at the Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme is used. The model for the effect of the carrier gas on a particle includes drag force and particle heating only. Other parameters like lift Magnus force or damping torque are not taken into account so far. The reverse effect of the particle phase on the gaseous phase is currently neglected. Parametric analysis is done regarding the impact of variation in the physical input conditions like position, velocity, size and material of the particle. Convective heat fluxes onto the surface of the particle and its radiative cooling are discussed. The variation of particle temperature under different conditions is presented. The influence of various input conditions on the trajectory is explained. A semi empirical model for the particle wall interaction is also discussed and the influence of the wall on the particle trajectory with different particle conditions is presented. The heat fluxes onto the wall due to impingement of particles are also computed and compared with the heat fluxes from the gas.

  5. Solid-state fermentation for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus cereus 1173900 using proteinaceous tannery solid waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. Ravindran; A. Ganesh Kumar; P. S. Aruna Bhavani; Ganesan Sekaran


    Animal fleshing, the major proteinaceous solid waste generated from leather industry, was used as substrate for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus cereus 1173900 in solid-state fermentation (SSF...

  6. Solid-state reaction synthesis of boron carbonitride nanotubes (United States)

    Mo, Libin; Chen, Yongjun; Luo, Lijie


    In this study, a simple route for synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B-C-N) nanotubes was demonstrated, by heating ball-milled mixture powders of amorphous boron and activated charcoal with a small amount of iron oxide (Fe2O3) at 1000-1200°C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen (N2) and hydrogen (H2). The reduction of Fe2O3 by H2 at 650°C produced Fe nanoparticles, playing the role of a catalyst during the nanotube growth. The nanotubes synthesized at 1100°C exhibit two morphologies. One is a bamboo-like structure with thick compartments. The other is a quasi-cylindrical structure with thin or disappearing compartments. The average diameter of the nanotubes is about 80 nm. It is found that the reaction temperature has a great influence on the morphology, diameter and yield of the B-C-N nanotubes. Higher temperature (1200°C) is favorable for the formation of quasi-cylindrical nanotubes with larger diameters, while lower temperature (1000°C) enhances the formation of bamboo-like nanotubes with smaller diameters; the yield of nanotubes decreases with the rise of reaction temperature. The nanotubes grow via a combination mechanism of solid-liquid-solid (SLS) and vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) models.

  7. Transient deformational properties of high temperature alloys used in solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund


    Stresses and probability of failure during operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is affected by the deformational properties of the different components of the SOFC stack. Though the overall stress relaxes with time during steady state operation, large stresses would normally appear through...... transients in operation including temporary shut downs. These stresses are highly affected by the transient creep behavior of metallic components in the SOFC stack. This study investigates whether a variation of the so-called Chaboche's unified power law together with isotropic hardening can represent...... to describe the high temperature inelastic deformational behaviors of Crofer 22 APU used for metallic interconnects in SOFC stacks....

  8. Photoinduced blinking in a solid-state quantum system (United States)

    Berhane, Amanuel M.; Bradac, Carlo; Aharonovich, Igor


    Solid-state single-photon emitters (SPEs) are one of the prime components of many quantum nanophotonics devices. In this work, we report on an unusual, photoinduced blinking phenomenon of SPEs in gallium nitride. This is shown to be due to the modification in the transition kinetics of the emitter, via the introduction of additional laser-activated states. We investigate and characterize the blinking effect on the brightness of the source and the statistics of the emitted photons. Combining second-order correlation and fluorescence trajectory measurements, we determine the photodynamics of the trap states and characterize power-dependent decay rates and characteristic "off"-time blinking. Our work sheds light into understanding solid-state quantum system dynamics and, specifically, power-induced blinking phenomena in SPEs.

  9. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  10. Solid-State Video Camera for the Accelerator Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R


    Solid-State video cameras employing CMOS technology have been developed and tested for several years in the SLAC accelerator; notably the PEPII (BaBar) injection lines. They have proven much more robust than their CCD counterparts in radiation areas. Repair is simple, inexpensive, and generates very little radioactive waste.

  11. Study of Optical, Solid State and Structural Properties of Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of Nickel sulphide (NiS) were successfully grown by using the solution growth technique which is cost effective and efficient. Nickel chloride (NiCl2), Sodium sulphate (Na2S2O3) and Ammonia NH3 were used. The optical and solid state properties were obtained from the characterisation done at University of ...

  12. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry


    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  13. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.


    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  14. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.


    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  15. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan


    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  16. 59 Solid State Synthesis, Characterisation and Biological Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 21, 2014 ... synthesized complexes are non-electrolytes. Keywords: Hydrogen bond network, Mechanochemistry, Coordination ploymers. INTRODUCTION. Solid-state reactivity of molecular crystals has an old history but it was initially restricted to photochemical reactions and acid–base reactions. (Kaupp, 1996).

  17. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  18. Diode pumped solid-state laser oscillators for spectroscopic applications (United States)

    Byer, R. L.; Basu, S.; Fan, T. Y.; Kozlovsky, W. J.; Nabors, C. D.; Nilsson, A.; Huber, G.


    The rapid improvement in diode laser pump sources has led to the recent progress in diode laser pumped solid state lasers. To date, electrical efficiencies of greater than 10 percent were demonstrated. As diode laser costs decrease with increased production volume, diode laser and diode laser array pumped solid state lasers will replace the traditional flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser sources. The use of laser diode array pumping of slab geometry lasers will allow efficient, high peak and average power solid state laser sources to be developed. Perhaps the greatest impact of diode laser pumped solid state lasers will be in spectroscopic applications of miniature, monolithic devices. Single-stripe diode-pumped operation of a continuous-wave 946 nm Nd:YAG laser with less than 10 m/w threshold was demonstrated. A slope efficiency of 16 percent near threshold was shown with a projected slope efficiency well above a threshold of 34 percent based on results under Rhodamine 6G dye-laser pumping. Nonlinear crystals for second-harmonic generation of this source were evaluated. The KNbO3 and periodically poled LiNbO3 appear to be the most promising.

  19. Promises and challenges in solid-state lighting (United States)

    Schubert, Fred


    Lighting technologies based on semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer unprecedented promises that include three major benefits: (i) Gigantic energy savings enabled by efficient conversion of electrical energy to optical energy; (ii) Substantial positive contributions to sustainability through reduced emissions of global-warming gases, acid-rain gases, and toxic substances such as mercury; and (iii) The creation of new paradigms in lighting driven by the unique controllability of solid-state lighting sources. Due to the powerful nature of these benefits, the transition from conventional lighting sources to solid-state lighting is virtually assured. This presentation will illustrate the new world of lighting and illustrate the pervasive changes to be expected in lighting, displays, communications, and biotechnology. The presentation will also address the formidable challenges that must be addressed to continue the further advancement of solid-state lighting technology. These challenges offer opportunities for research and innovation. Specific challenges include light management, carrier transport, and optical design. We will present some innovative approaches in order to solve known technical challenges faced by solid-state lighting. These approaches include the demonstration and use of new optical thin-film materials with a continuously tunable refractive index. These approaches also include the use of polarization-matched structures that reduce the polarization fields in GaInN LEDs and the hotly debated efficiency droop, that is, the decreasing LED efficiency at high currents.

  20. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.


    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  1. TL and TSC Solid State Detectors in Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P.; Sabini, M.G.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Cuttone, G.; Guasti, A.; Lo Nigro, S.; Mazzocchi, S.; Pirollo, S.; Raffaele, L.; Sciortino, S.


    The necessity to develop methods and techniques for a better determination of absorbed dose in the radiotherapy field stimulates new clinical applications of solid state detectors. In this work we have studied the possibility to use of TLD-100 and synthetic CVD diamond detectors as dosimeters for high-energy proton beams.

  2. Pulse Design in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palani, Ravi Shankar

    The work presented in this dissertation is centred on the theory of experimental methods in solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which deals with interaction of electromagnetic radiation with nuclei in a magnetic field and possessing a fundamental quantum mechanical property...

  3. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk


    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  4. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.


    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  5. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; Van Driel, W.; Zhnag, G.


    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  6. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  7. Solid-state Nanopore for Detecting Individual Biopolymers (United States)

    Li, Jiali; Golovchenko, Jene A.


    Solid-state nanopores have been fabricated and used to characterize single DNA and protein molecules. Here we describe the details on how these nanopores were fabricated and characterized, the nanopore sensing system setup, and the protocols of using these nanopores to characterize DNA and protein molecules. PMID:19488695

  8. Solid state fermentation of maize ( Zea mays ) cob by Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The low digestibility and low protein content of maize cob are major limitations to its use as animal feed in Ghana. The possibility of enhancing the feed potential of maize cob through solid state fermentation by. Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was investigated. At the end of spawn run, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose ...

  9. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  10. Biodegradation of agro-industrial orange waste under solid state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the possibility of the re-use of agro-industrial orange peel and pulp wastes under solid state fermentation and natural environmental condition as a source of enzymes production [α & β amylase, cellulase, pectinase(s), lipase(s), esterase(s) and peroxidase(s)] the physiological enzymes of lysis and total protein.

  11. Characterization and analysis of medical solid waste in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the study of quantum and characterization of medica solid wastes generated by healthcare facilities in Osun State. The work involved administration of a questionnaire and detailed studies conducted on facilities selected on the basis of a combination of purposive and random sampling methods.

  12. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.


    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  13. Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 1. Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and modelling of some basic issues. S Raju E ... are enumerated. A simple and general modelling methodology for understanding the kinetics of non-isothermal transformations is outlined.

  14. The elastic solid solution model for minerals at high pressures and temperatures (United States)

    Myhill, R.


    Non-ideality in mineral solid solutions affects their elastic and thermodynamic properties, their thermobaric stability, and the equilibrium phase relations in multiphase assemblages. At a given composition and state of order, non-ideality in minerals is typically modelled via excesses in Gibbs free energy which are either constant or linear with respect to pressure and temperature. This approach has been extremely successful when modelling near-ideal solutions. However, when the lattice parameters of the solution endmembers differ significantly, extrapolations of thermodynamic properties to high pressures using these models may result in significant errors. In this paper, I investigate the effect of parameterising solution models in terms of the Helmholtz free energy, treating volume (or lattice parameters) rather than pressure as an independent variable. This approach has been previously applied to models of order-disorder, but the implications for the thermodynamics and elasticity of solid solutions have not been fully explored. Solid solution models based on the Helmholtz free energy are intuitive at a microscopic level, as they automatically include the energetic contribution from elastic deformation of the endmember lattices. A chemical contribution must also be included in such models, which arises from atomic exchange within the solution. Derivations are provided for the thermodynamic properties of n-endmember solutions. Examples of the use of the elastic model are presented for the alkali halides, pyroxene, garnet, and bridgmanite solid solutions. Elastic theory provides insights into the microscopic origins of non-ideality in a range of solutions, and can make accurate predictions of excess enthalpies, entropies, and volumes as a function of volume and temperature. In solutions where experimental data are sparse or contradictory, the Helmholtz free energy approach can be used to assess the magnitude of excess properties and their variation as a function

  15. Influence of nano boehmite on solid state reaction of alumina and magnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargar, H.R., E-mail: [Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Bayati, M.R. [Schools of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box: 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partner' s Way, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Rezaie, H.R. [Schools of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box: 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestani-Fard, F., E-mail: [Schools of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box: 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Molaei, Roya [Schools of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box: 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zanganeh, Saeid [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, 371 Fairfield Way, U-2157 Storrs, CT 06269-2157 (United States); Kajbafvala, Amir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partner' s Way, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)


    Research highlights: {yields} In this research, we introduced nano boehmite as a novel additive in synthesis of magnesia-alumina spinel via solid state reactions. Using this additive, formation temperature decreases to below 700 {sup o}C which is comparable to that of the chemical routs and has not been already reported by other researchers for solid state methods. Moreover, it was revealed that addition of nano boehmite results in formation of a covering spinel layer on the magnesia and alumina particles. This layer suppresses formation of the calcium hexa aluminate phase at high temperatures. - Abstract: Effect of nano boehmite on formation of alumina-magnesia spinel via solid state reaction is reported. Various amounts of nano boehmite were added to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MgO mixtures and the mixtures were heated at different temperatures ranging from 800 to1500 {sup o}C for 2 h. Phase structure and chemical composition of the samples were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also employed to study microstructure of the fabricated samples. It was revealed that the formation temperature of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel decreased significantly in the presence of nano boehmite. The initial spinel layer formed on magnesia particles was believed to play a mineralizing effect, and, therefore, accelerate the solid state reaction between magnesia and alumina. Nano boehmite also discouraged formation of hybonite (CA6) phase. The results are explained with emphasis on the importance of low temperature spinel formation in refractory materials.

  16. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders


    We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye...... propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...

  17. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.


    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials. (JRD)

  18. Simulation of Solid-State Weld Microstructures in Ti-17 via Thermal and Thermo- Mechanical Exposures (United States)

    Orsborn, Jonathan

    Solid-state welding processes are very important to the advancement of aviation technology; since they enable the joining of dissimilar metals without the additional weight and bulk of fastening systems, the processes can create for stronger and lighter parts to increase payload and efficiency. However, since the processes are not equilibrium, not much is understood about what happens to the materials during the process. During a solid-state weld, the materials being welded are exposed to rapid heating rates, high maximum temperatures, large and varying amounts of deformation, short hold times at temperature, and fast cooling rates. Due to the dynamic nature of the process it is very hard to measure the strains and temperatures experienced by the materials. This work attempted to simulate the microstructures observed in solid-state welds of Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Cr-4Mo, or Ti-17. If the microstructures could be replicated in a controlled and repeatable fashion, then perhaps the conditions of the welding process could be indirectly determined. The simulations were performed by rapidly heating Ti-17 specimens, holding them for a very short time, and rapidly cooling. Some of the samples were also subjected to deformation while at high temperatures. The microstructures resulting from the thermal and thermo-mechanical exposures were then compared with microstructures from an actual solid-state weld of Ti-17. It was determined that the presence of untransformed secondary alpha indicates the temperature did not exceed the beta transus of the alloy (˜900 °C), the presence of untransformed primary alpha indicates that the temperature did not exceed ˜1100 °C, homogenized beta grains indicate that the temperature did exceed 1100°C, and the presence of ghost alpha is indicative that the temperature likely exceeded ˜950 °C. These numbers are rough estimates, as time at temperature and heating rate both factor into the process, and shorter times at higher temperatures can

  19. Optical metrology for LEDs and solid state lighting (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshi


    The performance of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), including efficiency, flux level, lifetime, and the variation of color, is advancing at a remarkable pace. LEDs are increasingly used for many applications including automotive, aviation, display, transportation and special lighting applications. White LEDs are expected for general lighting applications (solid state lighting) in the near future. Thus, accurate measurements of LEDs and appropriate standards are increasingly important. This paper reviews photometric, radiometric, and colorimetric quantities used for LEDs, and discusses the current state of optical measurements of LEDs and standardization efforts in International Commission on Illumination (CIE). The paper also touches on the issue of color quality (e.g., Color Rendering Index) of light expected from solid state lighting, and the need for a new metric. The calibration facilities and services for LEDs established at NIST are also discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh; Jim Powers


    This report summarizes the work performed for April 2003--September 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid oxide Fuel Cell Program''. During this reporting period, the conceptual system design activity was completed. The system design, including strategies for startup, normal operation and shutdown, was defined. Sealant and stack materials for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack were identified which are capable of meeting the thermal cycling and degradation requirements. A cell module was tested which achieved a stable performance of 0.238 W/cm{sup 2} at 95% fuel utilization. The external fuel processor design was completed and fabrication begun. Several other advances were made on various aspects of the SOFC system, which are detailed in this report.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  2. Solid lubricant materials for high temperatures: A review (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.


    Solid lubricants that can be used above 300 C in air are discussed, including coatings and self-lubricating composite bearing materials. The lubricants considered are representative dichalcogenides, graphite, graphite fluoride, polyimides, soft oxides, oxidatively stable fluorides, and hard coating materials. A few general design considerations revelant to solid lubrication are interspersed.

  3. NiTi shape memory via solid-state nudge-elastic band (United States)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.


    We determine atomic mechanisms of the shape memory effect in NiTi from a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (SSNEB) method. We consider transformation between the austenite B2 and the ground-state base-centered orthorhombic (BCO) structures. In these pathways we obtain the R-phase and discuss its structure. We confirm that BCO is the ground state, and determine the pathways to BCO martensite, which dictate transition barriers. While ideal B2 is unstable, we find a B2-like NiTi high-temperature solid phase with significant local displacement disorder, which is B2 on average. This B2-like phase appears to be entropically stabilized. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Materials Science and Engineering. Ames Laboratory is operated for the U.S. DOE by Iowa State University under contract DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  4. Degradation in Solid Oxide Cells During High Temperature Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar Sohal


    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells. One goal of that project is to address the technical and degradation issues associated with solid oxide electrolysis cells. This report covers a variety of these degradation issues, which were discussed during a workshop on “Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Strategies for its Mitigation,” held in Phoenix, AZ on October 27, 2008. Three major degradation issues related to solid oxide electrolysis cells discussed at the workshop are: • Delamination of O2-electrode and bond layer on steam/O2-electrode side • Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites (triple-phase boundary) • Loss of electrical/ionic conductivity of electrolyte. This list is not all inclusive, but the workshop summary can be useful in providing a direction for future research related to the degradation of solid oxide electrolysis cells.

  5. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G


    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  6. An overview of Engineering Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar, A.


    Full Text Available Solid substrate cultivation (SSC or solid state fermentation (SSF is envisioned as a prominent bio conversion technique to transform natural raw materials into a wide variety of chemical as well as bio-chemical products. This process involves the fermentation of solid substrate medium with microorganism in the absence of free flowing water. Recent developments and concerted focus on SSF enabled it to evolve as a potential bio- technology as an alternative to thetraditional chemical synthesis. SSF is being successfully exploited for food production, fuels, enzymes, antibiotics, animal feeds and also for dye degradation. This paper discusses the various micro and macro level engineering problems associated with SSF and some possible solutions for its full commercial realization.

  7. Getter Incorporation into Cast Stone and Solid State Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Du, Yingge [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pearce, Carolyn I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is collecting relevant available data on waste forms for use as a supplemental immobilization technology, to provide the additional capacity needed to treat low-activity waste (LAW) in Hanford Site tanks and complete the tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost-effective manner. One candidate supplemental waste form, fabricated using a low-temperature process, is a cementitious grout called Cast Stone. Cast Stone has been under investigation for this application at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since initial screening tests in FY13. This report is the culmination of work to lower the diffusivities of Tc and I from Cast Stone using getters. Getters are compounds added to a system designed to selectively sequester a species of interest to provide increased stability to the species. The work contained within this report is related to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment. However, this work contains valuable information which may be used in performance assessment maintenance past FY17, and in future waste form development. This report on performance characterization of Tc and I getters in Cast Stone fabricated with simulated LAW covers several areas of interest and major findings to WRPS: investigating performance of potassium metal sulfide (KMS-2-SS) and tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) as Tc getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; investigating performance of silver exchanged zeolite (Ag-Z) and argentite (Arg) as I getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; utilizing sequential addition of Tc and I getters to overcome any deleterious interactions between the getters in solution; determining, for the first time, Tc distribution within the cured Cast Stone and its evolution during leaching; and performing solid state characterization of getters and Cast Stone samples to support leach test findings and develop a

  8. Nitride metal - semiconductor superlattices for solid state thermionic energy conversion (United States)

    Wortman, Robert David

    With the current energy crisis, efficiency of thermal systems is becoming ever more important. Furthermore, as the cost of energy goes up, methods to increase efficiencies of these systems become more and more cost-effective. Waste heat from engines and power plants is a readily available source of energy that, for the most part, is not being used. Using this waste heat therefore represents the easiest method for energy recovery and generation and can result in a higher overall system efficiency. The research is focused on the direct conversion of waste heat (and in some niche applications, non-waste heat) into electricity. The method for conversion, however, differs from that of standard thermoelectric generators. Thermoelectrics tend to be homogenous materials, typically semiconductors. In contrast, the non-homogenous solid state thermionic emission device uses a layered structure of metals and semiconductors with nanometer-scale layer thicknesses. By using this structure, thermal conductivity is greatly reduced as compared to the constituent materials by means of interface scattering. In addition, if ballistic transport across the semiconductor layer can be realized, the energy in the electrons is preserved, resulting in an increased Seebeck Coecient. By these methods, the figure of merit of our devices (ZT) has been shown in theory to be much higher than currently reported devices at the temperature of interest (900 K). To this end, superlattices of ZrN/ScN and HfN/ScN have been grown via reactive D.C. magnetron sputtering. Characterization of the grown lms has been carried out using X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM. In addition, the initial development of testing structures has been carried out. The creation of these structures using photolithography as well as wet and dry etching techniques is in the preliminary stages.

  9. Size Dependence of a Temperature-Induced Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Copper(I) Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivest, Jessy B; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jain, Prashant K; Toney, Michael F; Alivisatos, A Paul


    Determination of the phase diagrams for the nanocrystalline forms of materials is crucial for our understanding of nanostructures and the design of functional materials using nanoscale building blocks. The ability to study such transformations in nanomaterials with controlled shape offers further insight into transition mechanisms and the influence of particular facets. Here we present an investigation of the size-dependent, temperature-induced solid-solid phase transition in copper sulfide nanorods from low- to high-chalcocite. We find the transition temperature to be substantially reduced, with the high chalcocite phase appearing in the smallest nanocrystals at temperatures so low that they are typical of photovoltaic operation. Size dependence in phase trans- formations suggests the possibility of accessing morphologies that are not found in bulk solids at ambient conditions. These other- wise-inaccessible crystal phases could enable higher-performing materials in a range of applications, including sensing, switching, lighting, and photovoltaics.

  10. Dissipative entanglement of solid-state spins in diamond (United States)

    Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Yang, Sen; Wrachtrup, Jörg


    Generating robust entanglement among solid-state spins is key for applications in quantum information processing and precision sensing. Here we show a dissipative approach to generate such entanglement among the hyperfine coupled electron nuclear spins using the rapid optical decay of electronic excited states. The combined dark state interference effects of the optical and microwave driving fields in the presence of spontaneous emission from the short-lived excited state leads to a dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that the dissipative entanglement is generated for any initial state conditions of the spins and is resilient to external field fluctuations. We analyze the scheme for both continuous and pulsed driving fields in the presence of realistic noise sources.

  11. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra


    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  12. Microstructural optimization of solid-state sintered silicon carbide (United States)

    Vargas-Gonzalez, Lionel R.

    Silicon carbide armor, manufactured through solid-state sintering, liquid-phase sintering, and hot-pressing, is being used by the United States Armed Forces for personal and vehicle protection. There is a lack of consensus, however, on which process results in the best-performing ballistic armor. Previous studies have shown that hot-pressed ceramics processed with secondary oxide and/or rare earth oxides, which exhibit high fracture toughness, perform well in handling and under ballistic impact. This high toughness is due to the intergranular nature of the fracture, creating a tortuous path for cracks and facilitating crack deflection and bridging. However, it has also been shown that higher-hardness sintered SiC materials might perform similarly or better to hot-pressed armor, in spite of the large fracture toughness deficit, if the microstructure (density, grain size, purity) of these materials are improved. In this work, the development of theoretically-dense, clean grain boundary, high hardness solid-state sintered silicon carbide (SiC) armor was pursued. Boron carbide and graphite (added as phenolic resin to ensure the carbon is finely dispersed throughout the microstructure) were used as the sintering aids. SiC batches between 0.25--4.00 wt.% carbon were mixed and spray dried. Cylindrical pellets were pressed at 13.7 MPa, cold-isostatically pressed (CIP) at 344 MPa, sintered under varying sintering soaking temperatures and heating rates, and varying post hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) parameters. Carbon additive amounts between 2.0--2.5 wt.% (based on the resin source), a 0.36 wt.% B4C addition, and a 2050°C sintering soak yielded parts with high sintering densities (˜95.5--96.5%) and a fine, equiaxed microstructure (d50 = 2.525 mum). A slow ramp rate (10°C/min) prevented any occurrence of abnormal grain growth. Post-HIPing at 1900°C removed the remaining closed porosity to yield a theoretically-dense part (3.175 g/cm3, according to rule of mixtures). These

  13. Concept for a solid-state multi-parameter sensor system for cell-culture monitoring


    Baecker, M.; Beging, S.; Biselli, M.; Poghossian, A.; Wang, J.; Zang, W.; Wagner, Patrick; Schoening, M. J.


    In this study. a concept for a silicon-based modular solid-state sensor system for inline multi-parameter monitoring of cell-culture fermentation processes is presented. The envisaged multi-parameter sensor system consists of two identical sensor modules and is intended for continuous quantification of up to five (bio-)chemical and physical parameters, namely, glucose and glutamine concentration, pH value, electrolyte conductivity and temperature by applying different transducer principles an...

  14. Direct determination of bulk etching rate for LR-115-II solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thickness of the removed layer of the LR-115-II solid state nuclear track detector during etching is measured directly with a rather precise instrument. Dependence of bulk etching rate on temperature of the etching solution is investigated. It has been found that the bulk etching rate is 3.2 m/h at 60°C in 2.5 N NaOH of ...

  15. Zero temperature quark matter equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, F.


    An equation of state is computed for a plasma of one flavor quarks interacting through some phenomenological potential, in the Hartree approximation, at zero temperature. Assuming that the confining potential is scalar and color-independent, it is shown that the quarks undergo a first-order mass phase transition. In addition, due to the way screening is introduced, all the thermodynamic quantities computed are independent of the actual shape of the interquark potential. This equation of state is then generalized to a potential with scalar and vector components, Fock corrections are discussed and the case of a several quark flavor plasma is studied. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Room temperature triplet state spectroscopy of organic semiconductors. (United States)

    Reineke, Sebastian; Baldo, Marc A


    Organic light-emitting devices and solar cells are devices that create, manipulate, and convert excited states in organic semiconductors. It is crucial to characterize these excited states, or excitons, to optimize device performance in applications like displays and solar energy harvesting. This is complicated if the excited state is a triplet because the electronic transition is 'dark' with a vanishing oscillator strength. As a consequence, triplet state spectroscopy must usually be performed at cryogenic temperatures to reduce competition from non-radiative rates. Here, we control non-radiative rates by engineering a solid-state host matrix containing the target molecule, allowing the observation of phosphorescence at room temperature and alleviating constraints of cryogenic experiments. We test these techniques on a wide range of materials with functionalities spanning multi-exciton generation (singlet exciton fission), organic light emitting device host materials, and thermally activated delayed fluorescence type emitters. Control of non-radiative modes in the matrix surrounding a target molecule may also have broader applications in light-emitting and photovoltaic devices.

  17. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering


    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  18. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa


    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  19. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael


    significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...... lighting is that the high efficiency can be obtained at high light lumen levels in a single element emitter and thus less light sources are required to achieve a desired light level. Furthermore, the high directionality of the generated light from laser diodes increases the energy savings in many...... applications. Within the coming years, it is expected that the efficiency of blue laser diodes will approach the efficiency of infrared diode lasers. This will enable high efficiency white light generation with very high lumen per watt values. SSL today is mainly based on phosphor converted blue light emitting...

  20. Solid-State Explosive Reaction for Nanoporous Bulk Thermoelectric Materials. (United States)

    Zhao, Kunpeng; Duan, Haozhi; Raghavendra, Nunna; Qiu, Pengfei; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong


    High-performance thermoelectric materials require ultralow lattice thermal conductivity typically through either shortening the phonon mean free path or reducing the specific heat. Beyond these two approaches, a new unique, simple, yet ultrafast solid-state explosive reaction is proposed to fabricate nanoporous bulk thermoelectric materials with well-controlled pore sizes and distributions to suppress thermal conductivity. By investigating a wide variety of functional materials, general criteria for solid-state explosive reactions are built upon both thermodynamics and kinetics, and then successfully used to tailor material's microstructures and porosity. A drastic decrease in lattice thermal conductivity down below the minimum value of the fully densified materials and enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit are achieved in porous bulk materials. This work demonstrates that controlling materials' porosity is a very effective strategy and is easy to be combined with other approaches for optimizing thermoelectric performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. SDS-assisted protein transport through solid-state nanopores. (United States)

    Restrepo-Pérez, Laura; John, Shalini; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Joo, Chirlmin; Dekker, Cees


    Using nanopores for single-molecule sequencing of proteins - similar to nanopore-based sequencing of DNA - faces multiple challenges, including unfolding of the complex tertiary structure of the proteins and enforcing their unidirectional translocation through nanopores. Here, we combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-molecule experiments to investigate the utility of SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) to unfold proteins for solid-state nanopore translocation, while simultaneously endowing them with a stronger electrical charge. Our simulations and experiments prove that SDS-treated proteins show a considerable loss of the protein structure during the nanopore translocation. Moreover, SDS-treated proteins translocate through the nanopore in the direction prescribed by the electrophoretic force due to the negative charge impaired by SDS. In summary, our results suggest that SDS causes protein unfolding while facilitating protein translocation in the direction of the electrophoretic force; both characteristics being advantageous for future protein sequencing applications using solid-state nanopores.

  2. Repetitively Pulsed High Power RF Solid-State System (United States)

    Bowman, Chris; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth E.; Prager, James; Quinley, Morgan


    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing a low-cost, fully solid-state architecture for the generation of the RF frequencies and power levels necessary for plasma heating and diagnostic systems at validation platform experiments within the fusion science community. In Year 1 of this program, EHT has developed a solid-state RF system that combines an inductive adder, nonlinear transmission line (NLTL), and antenna into a single system that can be deployed at fusion science experiments. EHT has designed and optimized a lumped-element NLTL that will be suitable RF generation near the lower-hybrid frequency at the High Beta Tokamak (HBT) located at Columbia University. In Year 2, EHT will test this system at the Helicity Injected Torus at the University of Washington and HBT at Columbia. EHT will present results from Year 1 testing and optimization of the NLTL-based RF system. With support of DOE SBIR.

  3. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind shear measuring systems (United States)

    Huffaker, R. Milton


    Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) was established in 1984 to engage in the development of coherent laser radar systems and subsystems with applications in atmospheric remote sensing, and in target tracking, ranging and imaging. CTI focuses its capabilities in three major areas: (1) theoretical performance and design of coherent laser radar system; (2) development of coherent laser radar systems for government agencies such as DoD and NASA; and (3) development of coherent laser radar systems for commercial markets. The topics addressed are: (1) 1.06 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system; (2) wind measurement using 1.06 micron system; and flashlamp-pumped 2.09 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system.

  4. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P


    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  5. Solid State Modulators for the International Linear Collider (ILC)

    CERN Document Server

    Kempkes, Michael; Casey, Jeffrey; Gaudreau, Marcel; Roth, Ian


    Diversified Technologies, Inc. is developing two solid state modulator designs for the ILC under SBIR funding from the DOE. The first design consists of a 150 kV hard switch. The key development in this design is the energy storage system, which must provide 25 kJ per pulse, at very tight voltage regulation over the 1.5 millisecond pulse. DTI's design uses a quasi-resonant bouncer (with a small auxiliary power supply and switch) to maintain the voltage flattop, eliminating the need for massive capacitor banks. The second design uses a solid state Marx bank, with ~10 kV stages, to drive the ILC klystron. In this design, staggered turn-on of the Marx stages provides voltage regulation without the need for large capacitor banks. This paper will discuss design tradeoffs, power supply and control considerations, and energy storage requirements and alternatives for both designs.

  6. Implementation Of Solid State Relays For Power System Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Verma


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper provides the implementation of solid state relays for enhancement of power system protection. Relays are an essential part of the power systems and are responsible for the control of any overload voltage or current and protection of the devices from these parameters. The main function of the relay is to constantly monitor the parameter to be controlled and if it exceeds the percentage range set by the controller then it sends a signal to the circuit breaker to break the connection and isolate the faulty part. Solid state relays are preferred over mechanical relays and in this paper relay functioning is done with the help of opto-coupler. Controlling of opto- coupler is done with the help of microcontroller. Circuit operates through Zero Voltage Switching leading to reduction in harmonics. The implementation of relay circuit offers minimal delay time which enables better time response for protection.

  7. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  8. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail:; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)


    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  9. Raman Cooling of Solids through Photonic Density of States Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yin-Chung


    The laser cooling of vibrational states of solids has been achieved through photoluminescence in rare-earth elements, optical forces in optomechanics, and the Brillouin scattering light-sound interaction. The net cooling of solids through spontaneous Raman scattering, and laser refrigeration of indirect band gap semiconductors, both remain unsolved challenges. Here, we analytically show that photonic density of states (DoS) engineering can address the two fundamental requirements for achieving spontaneous Raman cooling: suppressing the dominance of Stokes (heating) transitions, and the enhancement of anti-Stokes (cooling) efficiency beyond the natural optical absorption of the material. We develop a general model for the DoS modification to spontaneous Raman scattering probabilities, and elucidate the necessary and minimum condition required for achieving net Raman cooling. With a suitably engineered DoS, we establish the enticing possibility of refrigeration of intrinsic silicon by annihilating phonons from ...

  10. Rigorous Definition of Oxidation States of Ions in Solids (United States)

    Jiang, Lai; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Rappe, Andrew M.


    We present justification and a rigorous procedure for electron partitioning among atoms in extended systems. The method is based on wave-function topology and the modern theory of polarization, rather than charge density partitioning or wave-function projection, and, as such, reformulates the concept of oxidation state without assuming real-space charge transfer between atoms. This formulation provides rigorous electrostatics of finite-extent solids, including films and nanowires.

  11. High Power Solid State Retrofit Lamp Thermal Characterization and Modeling


    Jakovenko, J.; Formanek, J.; Janicek, V.; Husak, M.; R. Werkhoven


    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D thermal lamp model for further thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS and CoventorWare software tools to compere different simulation approaches. Simulated thermal distribution ...

  12. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik


    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  13. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server


    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  14. Oxide based functional materials through solid state and electrochemical synthesis


    Todorova, Vanya


    The presented dissertation combines synthesis and characterization techniques of solid state chemistry and electrochemistry. The work is organized into two main parts. The first part deals with the synthesis, structural characterization and investigation of the physical properties of new ternary and quaternary transition metal oxides with layered structures. Several compounds of delafossite structure ABO2 with silver on A position and different trivalent cation capable of adopting an octa...

  15. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.


    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations ...... are found to be boat–chair, chair and boat–boat; in all the boat–chair cases, the phosphorus atoms appear connected by a bridging carbon atom....

  16. Photodynamics and Physics behind Tunable Solid-State Lasers (United States)


    Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers Departments of Physics and Electrical Enginnering City College of New York 138th St. at Convent Avenue, New York...fiber optic communications along with basic scienuiic research. In this article, we will introduce a new tunable solid- state laser system : Chromium...a well de- fined wavelength of 694.3nm. Four different hosts are necessary to cover the 700-UOOnm range. The Cr>~: MgjSiO, system extends the range

  17. The solid-state synthesis of tritium labelled heterocyclic bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F. (AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Molekulyarnoj Genetiki)


    The results of a study of the solid-state catalytic hydrogenation and the synthesis of tritium labelled native heterocyclic bases are presented. The effect of different palladium catalysts and reaction conditions on yield and molar radioactivity of final compounds was investigated. For some compounds, data on the intramolecular distribution of tritium were obtained by using the isotope exchange reaction and tritium NMR. Tritium labelled purine and pyrimidine bases (25-180 Ci/mmol.) were synthesized. (Author).

  18. Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    alumina (Al2O3) content were prepared using a solid-state reaction technique. It was found that AZO grains became finer in size and more irregular in shape than undoped ZnO as the Al2O3 content increased. Addition of Al2O3 dopant caused the formation of phase transformation stacking faults in ZnO grains. The second ...

  19. Imitating Broadband Diurnal Light Variations Using Solid State Light Sources (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian; Melton, Andrew; Li, Nola; Nicol, David; Park, Eun Hyun; Tosini, Gianluca

    Many studies have documented the success of light therapy in treating disorders of the human internal clock (circadian rhythm). Recent biological research has shown the importance of developing light sources that are tunable in the blue region of the spectrum for treatment to be safe and effective. A novel tunable broadband solid-state light source is presented here that mimics the diurnal variation in sunlight by modulating the intensity of blue light emission.

  20. Dissolved Solids in Streams of the Conterminous United States (United States)

    Anning, D. W.; Flynn, M.


    Studies have shown that excessive dissolved-solids concentrations in water can have adverse effects on the environment and on agricultural, municipal, and industrial water users. Such effects motivated the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program to develop a SPAtially-Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model to improve the understanding of dissolved solids in streams of the United States. Using the SPARROW model, annual dissolved-solids loads from 2,560 water-quality monitoring stations were statistically related to several spatial datasets serving as surrogates for dissolved-solids sources and transport processes. Sources investigated in the model included geologic materials, road de-icers, urban lands, cultivated lands, and pasture lands. Factors affecting transport from these sources to streams in the model included climate, soil, vegetation, terrain, population, irrigation, and artificial-drainage characteristics. The SPARROW model was used to predict long-term mean annual conditions for dissolved-solids sources, loads, yields, and concentrations in about 66,000 stream reaches and corresponding incremental catchments nationwide. The estimated total amount of dissolved solids delivered to the Nation's streams is 272 million metric tons (Mt) annually, of which 194 million Mt (71%) are from geologic sources, 38 million Mt (14%) are from road de-icers, 18 million Mt (7%) are from pasture lands, 14 million Mt (5 %) are from urban lands, and 8 million Mt (3%) are from cultivated lands. The median incremental-catchment yield delivered to local streams is 26 metric tons per year per square kilometer [(Mt/yr)/km2]. Ten percent of the incremental catchments yield less than 4 (Mt/yr)/km2, and 10 percent yield more than 90 (Mt/yr)/km2. In 13% of the reaches, predicted flow-weighted concentrations exceed 500 mg/L—the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary non-enforceable drinking-water standard.

  1. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.


    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  2. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P


    In the second half of the last century solid state physics and materials science experienced a great advance and established itself as an important and independent new field. This book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The book is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. For his scientific accomplishments, in 1992 the author received the Max-Planck Research Price and in 2001 the Cryogenics Price. He studied physics and mathematics at the University of Marburg, as well at the Technic...

  3. Solid-state flat panel imager with avalanche amorphous selenium (United States)

    Scheuermann, James R.; Howansky, Adrian; Goldan, Amir H.; Tousignant, Olivier; Levéille, Sébastien; Tanioka, K.; Zhao, Wei


    Active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI) have become the dominant detector technology for digital radiography and fluoroscopy. For low dose imaging, electronic noise from the amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT) array degrades imaging performance. We have fabricated the first prototype solid-state AMFPI using a uniform layer of avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor to amplify the signal to eliminate the effect of electronic noise. We have previously developed a large area solid-state avalanche a-Se sensor structure referred to as High Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP) capable of achieving gains of 75. In this work we successfully deposited this HARP structure onto a 24 x 30 cm2 TFT array with a pixel pitch of 85 μm. An electric field (ESe) up to 105 Vμm-1 was applied across the a-Se layer without breakdown. Using the HARP layer as a direct detector, an X-ray avalanche gain of 15 +/- 3 was achieved at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. In indirect mode with a 150 μm thick structured CsI scintillator, an optical gain of 76 +/- 5 was measured at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. Image quality at low dose increases with the avalanche gain until the electronic noise is overcome at a constant exposure level of 0.76 mR. We demonstrate the success of a solid-state HARP X-ray imager as well as the largest active area HARP sensor to date.

  4. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps (United States)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.


    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  5. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.


    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  6. Optimization of Laccase Production using White Rot Fungi and Agriculture Wastes in Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Risdianto


    Full Text Available Laccase has been produced in a solid state fermentation (SSF using white rot fungi and various lignocellulosic based substrates. White rot fungi used were Marasmius sp, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete crysosporium. The solid substrates employed in this research were collected from agriculture waste which were empty fruit bunches (EFB, rice straw, corn cob, and rice husk. The objective of this research was to determine the most promising fungus, the best solid substrate and the optimal conditions for the production of laccase. The results showed that Marasmius sp. on all solid substrates displayed higher laccase activity than that of any other strain of white rot fungi. Marasmius sp. and solid substrate of rice straw demonstrated the highest laccase activity of 1116.11 U/L on day 10. Three significant factors, i.e. pH, temperature and yeast extract concentration were studied by response surface method on laccase production using Marasmius sp and rice straw. The optimized conditions were pH, temperature and yeast extract concentration of 4.9, 31ºC and 0.36 g/L respectively. The fermentation of Marasmius sp. in SSF on agricultural waste shows a great potential for the production of laccase.

  7. Solid state transformation of non-equilibrium Ni-Sn powder with a eutectic composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruangdaj Tongsri


    Full Text Available Solid state transformation of supersaturated solid solution to anomalous Ni-Sn eutectic has been studied. The metastableNi-Sn solid solution was prepared via mechanical alloying of a mixed Ni+Sn powder containing 32.5 wt-% Sn powder.The milling conditions included ball to powder ratio (BPR of 5:1 and milling speed of 300 rpm. Milling times were varied as5, 15, and 25 hours. Milling the mixed powder for longer than 15 hours resulted in formation of supersaturated Ni-Sn solidsolution. Differential thermal analysis of the supersaturated Ni-Sn solid solution revealed two reactions, namely peritectoidand peritectic reactions, occurring at 945 and 1,141°C, respectively. Heating of the supersaturated Ni-Sn solid solution todifferent temperatures such as 800, 850, 900, 950, 1,100, and 1,140°C with holding time of 10 minutes resulted in developmentof anomalous eutectic with Ni3Sn phase matrix embedded with Ni solution particles. Sintering and coarsening of the eutecticwas depending on heating temperatures.

  8. Modeling steel deformation in the semi-solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Hojny, Marcin


    This book addresses selected aspects of steel-deformation modelling, both at very high temperatures and under the conditions in which the liquid and the solid phases coexist. Steel-deformation modelling with its simultaneous solidification is particularly difficult due to its specificity and complexity. With regard to industrial applications and the development of new, integrated continuous casting and rolling processes, the issues related to modelling are becoming increasingly important. Since the numerous industrial tests that are necessary when traditional methods are used to design the process of continuous casting immediately followed by rolling are expensive, new modelling concepts have been sought. Comprehensive tests were applied to solve problems related to the deformation of steel with a semi-solid core. Physical tests using specialist laboratory instruments (Gleeble 3800thermo-mechanical simulator, NANOTOM 180 N computer tomography, Zwick Z250 testing equipment, 3D blue-light scanning systems), and...

  9. Cryogenic solid state NMR studies of fibrils of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid-{beta} peptide: perspectives for DNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Amo, Juan-Miguel [CIC Energigune (Spain); Schneider, Dennis [Bruker BioSpin (Germany); Loquet, Antoine; Lange, Adam [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie (Germany); Reif, Bernd, E-mail: [Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt, Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU) (Germany)


    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization solid-state NMR holds the potential to enable a dramatic increase in sensitivity by exploiting the large magnetic moment of the electron. However, applications to biological solids are hampered in uniformly isotopically enriched biomacromolecules due to line broadening which yields a limited spectral resolution at cryogenic temperatures. We show here that high magnetic fields allow to overcome the broadening of resonance lines often experienced at liquid nitrogen temperatures. For a fibril sample of the Alzheimer's disease {beta}-amyloid peptide, we find similar line widths at low temperature and at room temperature. The presented results open new perspectives for structural investigations in the solid-state.

  10. Pharmaceutical polymorphism. An investigation using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, S C


    evaluated through the course of this Ph.D. and solid-state NMR spectral editing techniques have been developed and applied to identify these phenomena. Recrystallisation studies have produced two samples that appear to exist in an intermediate state between the rigid and mobile structural limits. Temperature variation causes interesting changes in the relaxation characteristics and natural abundance sup 1 sup 5 N and sup 1 sup 3 C CP/MAS spectra. Residual dipolar coupling effects vary in their manifestation within the sup 1 sup 3 C CP/MAS spectra of the polymorphic systems studied and comparison with the literature yields important information regarding molecular conformation. Nitrogen-15 enrichment and operation at higher magnetic field have been applied to reduce these second order effects. Finally, some distance has been travelled along the path towards decoupling sup 1 sup 4 N. Future development of this technique holds potential for resolution enhancement in the solid state spectra of most naturally occu...

  11. State estimation for solid apogee motor burning of geostationary satellite (United States)

    Ono, S.; Tomomura, K.; Toyoda, T.


    The results of the state/orbit sequential estimation for a GEO satellite, based on an analysis of real Doppler data for the short-time boost phase of the solid apogee boost motor (ABM), are presented. The estimation was performed for three Japanese satellites. Two stochastic Kalman filters were used for the estimation. It was found that, for a satellite equipped with an offset antenna, the real Doppler data oscillate with a spin period. The estimated state at ABM burnout had good agreement with the drift orbit and attitude determined independently by the ordinary batch method.

  12. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (United States)


    ...) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1) The... plan shall consider the following aspects of solid waste management: (i) Resource conservation; (ii...

  13. The effect of gas double-dynamic on mass distribution in solid-state fermentation. (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Li, Hong-Qiang


    The mass distribution regularity in substrate of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has rarely been reported due to the heterogeneity of solid medium and the lack of suitable instrument and method, which limited the comprehensive analysis and enhancement of the SSF performance. In this work, the distributions of water, biomass, and fermentation product in different medium depths of SSF were determined using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the developed models. Based on the mass distribution regularity, the effects of gas double-dynamic on heat transfer, microbial growth and metabolism, and product distribution gradient were systematically investigated. Results indicated that the maximum temperature of substrate and the maximum carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) were 39.5°C and 2.48mg/(hg) under static aeration solid-state fermentation (SASSF) and 33.9°C and 5.38mg/(hg) under gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSSF), respectively, with the environmental temperature for fermentation of 30±1°C. The fermentation production (cellulase activity) ratios of the upper, middle, and lower levels were 1:0.90:0.78 at seventh day under SASSF and 1:0.95:0.89 at fifth day under GDSSF. Therefore, combined with NIRS analysis, gas double-dynamic could effectively strengthen the solid-state fermentation performance due to the enhancement of heat transfer, the stimulation of microbial metabolism and the increase of the homogeneity of fermentation products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Negating interfacial impedance in garnet-based solid-state Li metal batteries (United States)

    Han, Xiaogang; Gong, Yunhui; Fu, Kun (Kelvin); He, Xingfeng; Hitz, Gregory T.; Dai, Jiaqi; Pearse, Alex; Liu, Boyang; Wang, Howard; Rubloff, Gary; Mo, Yifei; Thangadurai, Venkataraman; Wachsman, Eric D.; Hu, Liangbing


    Garnet-type solid-state electrolytes have attracted extensive attention due to their high ionic conductivity, approaching 1 mS cm-1, excellent environmental stability, and wide electrochemical stability window, from lithium metal to ~6 V. However, to date, there has been little success in the development of high-performance solid-state batteries using these exceptional materials, the major challenge being the high solid-solid interfacial impedance between the garnet electrolyte and electrode materials. In this work, we effectively address the large interfacial impedance between a lithium metal anode and the garnet electrolyte using ultrathin aluminium oxide (Al2O3) by atomic layer deposition. Li7La2.75Ca0.25Zr1.75Nb0.25O12 (LLCZN) is the garnet composition of choice in this work due to its reduced sintering temperature and increased lithium ion conductivity. A significant decrease of interfacial impedance, from 1,710 Ω cm2 to 1 Ω cm2, was observed at room temperature, effectively negating the lithium metal/garnet interfacial impedance. Experimental and computational results reveal that the oxide coating enables wetting of metallic lithium in contact with the garnet electrolyte surface and the lithiated-alumina interface allows effective lithium ion transport between the lithium metal anode and garnet electrolyte. We also demonstrate a working cell with a lithium metal anode, garnet electrolyte and a high-voltage cathode by applying the newly developed interface chemistry.

  15. Solid State KA-Band, Solid State W-Band and TWT Amplifiers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I of the proposal describes plans to develop a state of the art transmitter for the W-Band and KA -Band Cloud Radar system. Our focus will be concentrated in...

  16. Solid-state Chemical Reaction Synthesis and Characterization of Lanthanum Tartrate Nanocrystallites Under Ultrasonication Spectra (United States)

    Li, Dao-hua; He, Shao-fen; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Cheng-yan; Yang, Cheng


    Under near room temperature, by using sodium tartrate, lanthanum trichloride, lanthanum acetate, and lanthanum nitrate as reactants, we synthesize the lanthanum tartrate nanocrystals in one step under the condition that the infrared lamp is irradiated and the polyethylene glycol 400 is used as the surfactant, where the synthesis method of nanoparticles by solid phase chemical reaction is used. Deionized water after washing with ethanol washes. Tartaric acid lanthanum crystalline powder is gotten, respectively. Analyze solid products phase using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction; characterize the functional groups structure with infrared spectra, and analyzethe change of functional groups in drugs before and after reaction; observe the size, shape, and size distribution of particlesby transmission electron microscopy(TEM). Testing 3 types of tartaric acid crystal powder of lanthanum are nano-crystallization, solid products are granular and relatively uniform in size, with an average particle diameter of about 40 nm, and the yield rate is approximately 92.3%. Furthermore, during the synthesis, the solid-state reaction conditions including raw materials, matching proportion of reactants, additions of inert substance, addition of trace solvents, surfactants and porphyrization time, etc, all have some influence on the morphology, particle size and size distribution of the final products. During the synthesis of the lanthanum tartrate nanocrystallites, the solid state reaction conditions such as changing reactant, matching proportion of reactant, adding inert substance, joining a little solvent or surface active solvent and grinding at different times may influence morphology, particle size and the size distribution of final products.

  17. Environment-protected solid-state-based distributed charge qubit (United States)

    Tayebi, Amin; Hoatson, Tanya Nicole; Wang, Joie; Zelevinsky, Vladimir


    A solid-state-based charge qubit is presented. The system consists of a one-dimensional wire with a pair of qubits embedded at its center. It is shown that the system supports collective states localized in the left and right sides of the wire and therefore, as a whole, performs as a single qubit. The couplings between the ground and excited states of the two central qubits are inversely proportional making them fully asynchronized and allowing for coherent manipulation and gate operations. Initialization and measurement devices, such as leads and charge detectors, connected to the edges of the wire are modeled by a continuum of energy states. The coupling to the continuum is discussed using the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. At weak continuum coupling, all internal states uniformly acquire small decay widths. This changes dramatically as the coupling strength increases: the width distribution undergoes a sharp restructuring and is no longer uniformly divided among the eigenstates. Two broad resonances localized at the ends of the wire are formed. These superradiant states (analogous to Dicke states in quantum optics) effectively protect the remaining internal states from decaying into the continuum and hence increase the lifetime of the qubit. Environmental noise is introduced by considering random Gaussian fluctuations of electronic energies. The interplay between decoherence and superradiance is studied by solving the stochastic Liouville equation. In addition to increasing the lifetime, the emergence of the superradiant states increases the qubit coherence.

  18. Accessing the bottleneck in all-solid state batteries, lithium-ion transport over the solid-electrolyte-electrode interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Ganapathy, S.; van Eck, Ernst R H; Wang, H.; Basak, S.; Li, Z.; Wagemaker, M.


    Solid-state batteries potentially offer increased lithium-ion battery energy density and safety as required for large-scale production of electrical vehicles. One of the key challenges toward high-performance solid-state batteries is the large impedance posed by the electrode-electrolyte

  19. High temperature lithium cells with solid polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Singh, Mohit


    Electrochemical cells that use electrolytes made from new polymer compositions based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and other high-softening-temperature polymers are disclosed. These materials have a microphase domain structure that has an ionically-conductive phase and a phase with good mechanical strength and a high softening temperature. In one arrangement, the structural block has a softening temperature of about C. These materials can be made with either homopolymers or with block copolymers. Such electrochemical cells can operate safely at higher temperatures than have been possible before, especially in lithium cells. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes increases with increasing temperature.

  20. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation. (United States)

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael


    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  1. All solid-state sheet battery using lithium inorganic solid electrolyte, thio-LISICON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Taro [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama, 226-8502 (Japan); Research Center, Denki Kagaku Kogyo K.K., Asahi-machi, Machida, Tokyo, 194-8560 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takeshi [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama, 226-8502 (Japan); Materials Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1, Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo, 201-8511 (Japan); Sonoyama, Noriyuki; Yamada, Atsuo; Nagao, Miki; Kanno, Ryoji [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama, 226-8502 (Japan); Kondo, Shigeo [Department of Chemistry for Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan)


    All solid-state sheet lithium battery was developed using inorganic solid electrolyte, thio-LISICON (Li{sub 3.25}Ge{sub 0.25}P{sub 0.75}S{sub 4}), Li-Al anode, and Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} cathode materials, and the sheet manufacturing process was established. The new sheet-configuration was consisted of the cathode with the grid of current collector, electrolyte sheet with or without mechanical support, and aluminum/lithium composite sheet anode. A sheet battery with a dimension of 30 mm x 30 mm showed good charge-discharge characteristics without any capacity fading at a current of 0.1 mA. (author)

  2. Solid-state Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R.


    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed. PMID:23963203

  3. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications. (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R


    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  4. Solid state phase transition and vapor pressure studies in ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate binary system (United States)

    Chien, Wen-Ming

    The solid-state phase transitions in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO 3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) solid solutions and the equilibrium NH4NO3-KNO3 (AN-KN) phase diagram have been determined. The phase transitions and phase diagram were determined by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high temperature X-ray diffractometry. Samples of several different compositions were made for these analyses in a special "Dry Room" with very low humidity. In the X-ray diffraction experiments, the samples were heated on Pt-Rh strip and LaB6 or Si was added for internal calibration. Equilibrium phase diagram was also calculated by using the "FactSage" computer program. A single (AN III) phase region without any phase transitions between 293 to 373 K was observed for compositions between 5 to 25wt% KNO3 in NH4NO3 that is critical for air bag gas generators. The higher temperature KNO3 (KN I) phase has a wide stability range, from 100%KNO3 to 20%KNO3 solution. There is one eutectic, two eutectoids, and two peritectoids in this phase diagram. Two newly discovered solid-state phases were found in the mid-composition range of AN-KN solid solutions. Details of phase equilibria and lattice expansions during heating have been determined. Phase diagram calculations show a reasonable match of the phase boundaries. The total vapor pressures as well as the average molecular weights of pure ammonium nitrate and 16% KNO3 solid solution were measured at various temperatures by the torsion-Knudsen effusion method. The partial pressures of NH4NO3 (PNH4NO 3), NH3 (PNH3), and HNO3 (PHNO 3) have also been determined.

  5. Electrode Design for Low Temperature Direct-Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin (Inventor); Zhao, Fei (Inventor); Liu, Qiang (Inventor)


    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of C. or less.

  6. Secondary Metabolites Production by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-González, J.


    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites are useful high value products with an enormous range of biological activities. Moreover, the past two decades have been a phase of rapid discovery of new activities and development of major compounds for use in different industrial fields, mainly pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, agriculture and farming. Many of these metabolites could be produced advantageously in industry by solid–state fermentation (SSF. Two types of SSF can be distinguished, depending on the nature of the solid phase used: 1 Solid cultures of one support-substrate phase in which solid phase is constituted by a material that assumes, simultaneously, the functions of support and of nutrients source; and 2 Solid cultures of two substrate-support phases: solid phase is constituted by an inert support impregnated with a liquid medium. Besides good production performance, two phases systems have provided a convenient model for basic studies. Studies in our laboratory, as well as in others, have shown that physiology of idiophase (production phase in SSF share several similarities with the physiology in liquid medium, so similar strategies must be adapted for efficient production processes. However, our studies indicate the need to develop special strains for SSF since overproducing strains, generated for liquid fermentation, cannot be relied upon to perform well in SSF. On the other hand, there are important parameters, specific for SSF, that have to be optimized (pretreatment, initial moisture content, medium concentration and aeration. Respiration studies of secondary metabolites SSF, performed in our laboratory, have shown more subtle aspects of efficient production in SSF. This indicates that there are certain particularities of physiology in SSF that represent the point that needs a better understanding, and that promise to generate knowledge that will be the basis for efficient processes development and control strategies, as well as for

  7. Determination of moisture and low temperature volatiles in solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenke, D.R.; Hannifan, M.R.


    The reaction of calcium carbide with moisture in a closed reactor to form acetylene, when combined with gas chromatographic analysis of the products and measurement of pressure change during reaction, provides an accurate and rapid determination method for moisture and volatile content of solid fuels.

  8. Zirconia-based solid state chemical gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuiykov, S


    This paper presents an overview of chemical gas sensors, based on solid state technology, that are sensitive to environmental gases, such as O sub 2 , SO sub x , NO sub x , CO sub 2 and hydrocarbons. The paper is focussed on performance of electrochemical gas sensors that are based on zirconia as a solid electrolyte. The paper considers sensor structures and selection of electrode materials. Impact of interfaces on sensor performance is discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of electrochemical properties of zirconia and their effect on sensor performance. Impact of auxiliary materials on sensors performance characteristics, such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time and recovery time, is also discussed. Dual gas sensors that can be applied for simultaneous monitoring of the concentration of both oxygen and other gas phase components, are briefly considered

  9. Characterization of pitches by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Proud, G.P.; Poplett, I.J.F.; Bartle, K.D.; Wallace, S.; Matthews, R.S. (The British Petroleum Company plc, Sunbury-on-Thames (UK). BP Research Centre)


    Solid petroleum, ethylene-cracker, and coal tar pitches were characterized by {sup 13}C cross-polarization-magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP/MAS n.m.r.) and by dipolar dephasing. The relative numbers of carbon atoms were determined by peak synthesis of the dipolar dephased (DD) spectrum and of the difference spectrum between the CP/MAS and DD spectra. Spectra and derived structural information obtained in this way were in good agreement with high-resolution n.m.r. spectra of pitch in solution. Solid state n.m.r. is shown to be an attractive alternative to the recording of spectra of pitches in reactive solvents. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Monitoring Cocrystal Formation via In Situ Solid-State NMR. (United States)

    Mandala, Venkata S; Loewus, Sarel J; Mehta, Manish A


    A detailed understanding of the mechanism of organic cocrystal formation remains elusive. Techniques that interrogate a reacting system in situ are preferred, though experimentally challenging. We report here the results of a solid-state in situ NMR study of the spontaneous formation of a cocrystal between a pharmaceutical mimic (caffeine) and a coformer (malonic acid). Using (13)C magic angle spinning NMR, we show that the formation of the cocrystal may be tracked in real time. We find no direct evidence for a short-lived, chemical shift-resolved amorphous solid intermediate. However, changes in the line width and line center of the malonic acid methylene resonance, in the course of the reaction, provide subtle clues to the mode of mass transfer that underlies cocrystal formation.

  11. Freezing point depression of water in phospholipid membranes: a solid-state NMR study. (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kuk; Kwon, Byung Soo; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy


    Lipid-water interaction plays an important role in the properties of lipid bilayers, cryoprotectants, and membrane-associated peptides and proteins. The temperature at which water bound to lipid bilayers freezes is lower than that of free water. Here, we report a solid-state NMR investigation on the freezing point depression of water in phospholipid bilayers in the presence and absence of cholesterol. Deuterium NMR spectra at different temperatures ranging from -75 to + 10 degrees C were obtained from fully (2)H2O-hydrated POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), prepared with and without cholesterol, to determine the freezing temperature of water and the effect of cholesterol on the freezing temperature of water in POPC bilayers. Our 2H NMR experiments reveal the motional behavior of unfrozen water molecules in POPC bilayers even at temperatures significantly below 0 degrees C and show that the presence of cholesterol further lowered the freezing temperature of water in POPC bilayers. These results suggest that in the presence of cholesterol the fluidity and dynamics of lipid bilayers can be retained even at very low temperatures as exist in the liquid crystalline phase of the lipid. Therefore, bilayer samples prepared with a cryoprotectant like cholesterol should enable the performance of multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments to investigate the structure, dynamics, and topology of membrane proteins at a very low temperature with enhanced sample stability and possibly a better sensitivity. Phosphorus-31 NMR data suggest that lipid bilayers can be aligned at low temperatures, while 15N NMR experiments demonstrate that such aligned samples can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of is 15N chemical shift spectra of a 37-residue human antimicrobial peptide, LL-37.

  12. Transient state study of electric motor heating and phase change solid-liquid cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellettre, J.; Sartre, V.; Lallemand, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Villeurbanne, 69 (France); Biais, F. [AUXILEC, Chatou, 78 (France)


    This study reports on modelling of an autosynchronous electric motor stator, operating at transient state. The developed model, of the modal type, includes around 20 nodes. The simulations showed that hot spots are localized on the winding heads and led to the choice of a solid-liquid phase change cooling system. The comparison between simulation and experiment permitted the identification of unknown parameters. The model gives a good accuracy during steady-state and in the rising temperature phase. The modelling of the phase change cooling is realized by the addition of two nodes. The sensitivity analysis to PCM properties shows that the hot spot temperature decreases with increasing conductivities, inertia and latent heat of melting of the PCM and with decreasing melting temperature. Gallium (metal melting at 30{sup o}C) is the best PCM for the cooling of hot spots and P116 paraffin is the best non-metallic PCM. (author)

  13. Solid-state fermentation of industrial solid wastes from the fruits of milk thistle Silybum marianum for feed quality improvement. (United States)

    Li, Fang; Li, Feng; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Zou, Ye; Zheng, Daheng; Takase, Mohammed; Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing


    The industrial solid wastes generated during the production of silymarin from the fruits of milk thistle Silybum marianum was used as the substrate. Preparation and evaluation of the feeds produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of the industrial solid wastes was carried out. The protein content of the fermented feed (FF) from a combination of Aspergillus niger and Candida tropicalis was the highest among the examined strains. The optimal process parameters for protein enrichment with SSF using A. niger and C. tropicalis included incubation temperature of 30.8 °C, fermentation time of 87.0 h, and initial moisture content of 59.7 %. Under these conditions, the value additions of FF occurred. The fiber of FF was decreased by 25.07 %, while the digestibility of protein, protein content, and the ratio of total essential amino acids to total amino acids were increased by 79.85, 16.22, and 8.21 %, respectively. The analysis indicated that FF contained 1.44 mg/kg flavonoids and 0.5 mg/kg silybin, which significantly increased by 2.42 and 1.63 times, respectively than those in unfermented substrates. FF recorded reduced molecular weight of proteins from 20.1 to 44.3 kDa to below 14.3 kDa. The results of feeding trial of FF replacement with soybean meal in broilers diets for 8 weeks showed that FF significantly improved carcass characteristics including abdominal fat rate, serum biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and immune responses of broilers. A potential feed quality improvement was achieved through mixed strains SSF of industrial solid wastes of S. marianum fruits.

  14. Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Functionalized Tannic Acids from Natural Resources for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Shim, Jimin; Bae, Ki Yoon; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Chan


    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries are prepared by simple one-pot polymerization induced by ultraviolet (UV) light using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) as an ion-conducting monomeric unit and tannic acid (TA)-based crosslinking agent and plasticizer. The crosslinking agent and plasticizer based on natural resources are obtained from the reaction of TA with glycidyl methacrylate and glycidyl poly(ethylene glycol), respectively. Dimensionally stable free-standing SPE having a large ionic conductivity of 5.6×10(-4)  Scm(-1) at room temperature can be obtained by the polymerization of PEGMA into P(PEGMA) with a very small amount (0.1 wt %) of the crosslinking agent and 2.0 wt % of the plasticizer. The ionic conductivity value of SPE with a crosslinked structure is one order of magnitude larger than that of linear P(PEGMA) in the waxy state. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A New Phenomenon: Sub-Tg, Solid-State, Plasticity-Induced Bonding in Polymers. (United States)

    Padhye, Nikhil; Parks, David M; Trout, Bernhardt L; Slocum, Alexander H


    Polymer self-adhesion due to the interdiffusion of macromolecules has been an active area of research for several decades. Here, we report a new phenomenon of sub-T g , solid-state, plasticity-induced bonding; where amorphous polymeric films were bonded together in a period of time on the order of a second in the solid-state at ambient temperatures, up to 60 K below their glass transition temperature (T g ), by subjecting them to active plastic deformation. Despite the glassy regime, the bulk plastic deformation triggered the requisite molecular mobility of the polymer chains, causing interpenetration across the interfaces held in contact. Quantitative levels of adhesion and the morphologies of the fractured interfaces validated the sub-T g , plasticity-induced, molecular mobilization causing bonding. No-bonding outcomes (i) during the uniaxial compressive straining of films (a near-hydrostatic setting which strongly limits plastic flow) and (ii) between an 'elastic' and a 'plastic' film further established the explicit role of plastic deformation in this newly reported sub-T g solid-state bonding.

  16. Synthesis, Structure and Solid State Properties of Cyclohexanemethylamine Substituted Phenalenyl Based Molecular Conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Haddon


    Full Text Available We report the preparation, crystallization and solid state characterization of a cyclohexanemethylamine substituted spirobiphenalenyl radical; in the solid state the compound is iso-structural with its dehydro-analog (benzylamine-substitued compound, and the molecules packed in a one-dimensional fashion that we refer to as a π-step stack. Neighboring molecules in the stack interact via the overlap of one pair of active (spin bearing carbon atoms per phenalenyl unit. The magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates that in the solid state the radical remains paramagnetic and the fraction of Curie spins is 0.75 per molecule. We use the analytical form of the Bonner-Fisher model for the S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain of isotropically interacting spins with intrachain spin coupling constant J = 6.3 cm−1, to fit the experimentally observed paramagnetism [χp (T] in the temperature range 4–330 K. The measured room temperature conductivity (σRT = 2.4 × 10–3 S/cm is comparable with that of the iso-structural benzyl radical, even though the calculated band dispersions are smaller than that of the unsaturated analog.

  17. Solid state tautomerism in 2-((phenylimino)methyl)naphthalene-1-ol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedeltcheva, Daniela; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Mirolo, Laurent


    The solid state tautomerism of 2-((phenylimino)methyl)naphthalene-1-ol was studied using X-ray measurements and absorption spectroscopy. In the solid state, the keto tautomer predominates. The observed shift in the equilibrium from the enol (dilute solution) to the keto (solid state) forms is exp...

  18. Direct observation of large quantum interference effect in anthraquinone solid-state junctions. (United States)

    Rabache, Vincent; Chaste, Julien; Petit, Philippe; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Martin, Pascal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; McCreery, Richard L; Lafarge, Philippe


    Quantum interference in cross-conjugated molecules embedded in solid-state devices was investigated by direct current-voltage and differential conductance transport measurements of anthraquinone (AQ)-based large area planar junctions. A thin film of AQ was grafted covalently on the junction base electrode by diazonium electroreduction, while the counter electrode was directly evaporated on top of the molecular layer. Our technique provides direct evidence of a large quantum interference effect in multiple CMOS compatible planar junctions. The quantum interference is manifested by a pronounced dip in the differential conductance close to zero voltage bias. The experimental signature is well developed at low temperature (4 K), showing a large amplitude dip with a minimum >2 orders of magnitude lower than the conductance at higher bias and is still clearly evident at room temperature. A temperature analysis of the conductance curves revealed that electron-phonon coupling is the principal decoherence mechanism causing large conductance oscillations at low temperature.

  19. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh


    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  20. Air pressure pulsation solid state fermentation of feruloyl esterase by Aspergillus niger. (United States)

    Zeng, W; Chen, H Z


    Air pressure pulsation solid state fermentation (APP-SSF) was applied to produce feruloyl esterase (FAE) by Aspergillus niger. With the optimization of some variables by orthogonal design, the optimal condition obtained was 0.2 MPa (gauge pressure) of high pressure intensity, 30 min of low pressure duration and 20s of high pressure duration. Based on the optimized condition, the APP-SSF achieved the reasonable enzyme yield of 881 mU/g at 48 h, which was 58% more than that by static solid state fermentation (static SSF) at 72 h. By comparison of two fermentation methods in temperature, O(2) and CO(2) concentration, and respiration intensity, it was concluded that APP-SSF enhanced heat and mass transfer of fermentation system and strengthened the metabolism of microorganisms. The APP-SSF had a greatly positive effect on FAE production by A. niger, by enhancing mass and heat transfer and activating growth and metabolism.

  1. Magnesium Ethylenediamine Borohydride as Solid-State Electrolyte for Magnesium Batteries (United States)

    Roedern, Elsa; Kühnel, Ruben-Simon; Remhof, Arndt; Battaglia, Corsin


    Solid-state magnesium ion conductors with exceptionally high ionic conductivity at low temperatures, 5 × 10-8 Scm-1 at 30 °C and 6 × 10-5 Scm-1 at 70 °C, are prepared by mechanochemical reaction of magnesium borohydride and ethylenediamine. The coordination complexes are crystalline, support cycling in a potential window of 1.2 V, and allow magnesium plating/stripping. While the electrochemical stability, limited by the ethylenediamine ligand, must be improved to reach competitive energy densities, our results demonstrate that partially chelated Mg2+ complexes represent a promising platform for the development of an all-solid-state magnesium battery.

  2. Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Chenais, Sébastien; 10.1002/pi.3173


    Organic solid-state lasers are reviewed, with a special emphasis on works published during the last decade. Referring originally to dyes in solid-state polymeric matrices, organic lasers also include the rich family of organic semiconductors, paced by the rapid development of organic light emitting diodes. Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources are potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. In this review, we describe the basic photophysics of the materials used as gain media in organic lasers with a specific look at the distinctive feature of dyes and semiconductors. We also outline the laser architectures used in state-of-the-art organic lasers and the performances of these devices with regard to output power, lifetime, and beam quality. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments in terms of wavelength coverage, wavelength agility, efficiency and compactness, or towards integrated low-cost sources, with a special focus on the gr...

  3. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  4. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.


    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  5. Detecting DNA depurination with solid-state nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Marshall

    Full Text Available Among the different types of DNA damage that occur endogenously in the cell, depurination is especially prevalent. These lesions can initiate mutagenesis and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for the detection of depurination at the single-molecule scale using solid-state nanopores. We induce depurination in short duplex DNA using acidic conditions and observe that the presence of apurinic sites results in significantly slower dynamics during electrokinetic translocation. This procedure may be valuable as a diagnostic for in situ quantification of DNA depurination.

  6. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  7. Solid-State Recorders Enhance Scientific Data Collection (United States)


    Under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEAKR Engineering Inc., of Centennial, Colorado, crafted a solid-state recorder (SSR) to replace the tape recorder onboard a Spartan satellite carrying NASA's Inflatable Antenna Experiment. Work for that mission and others has helped SEAKR become the world leader in SSR technology for spacecraft. The company has delivered more than 100 systems, more than 85 of which have launched onboard NASA, military, and commercial spacecraft including imaging satellites that provide much of the high-resolution imagery for online mapping services like Google Earth.

  8. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas


    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule......, and how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong....

  9. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices. (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas


    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  10. Fungal Invertase Expression in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuitlahuac Aranda


    Full Text Available In this study invertase activity expression in Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated under different concentrations of two substrates using solid-state fermentation (SSF on polyurethane foam. Glucose was used as repressor and sucrose was the inducer. Invertase production increased when glucose was present in the medium (up to 100 g/L; however, higher concentration than this reduced the enzyme production. Induction-repression ratio obtained using any glucose concentration was at least 2.5 times higher than that under basal conditions (without inducer.

  11. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation Project (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Holbert, Eirik


    Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms. Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Deep Space Habitat(DSH) concept demonstrator. The latest generation of assemblies using the latest commercially available LED lights were designed for use in the Bigelow Aerospace Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) simulator and the University of Hawaii's Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (Hi-SEAS) habitat. Agreements with both these organizations will allow the government to receive feedback on the lights and lighting algorithms from long term human interaction.

  12. Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register. (United States)

    Wang, W-B; Zu, C; He, L; Zhang, W-G; Duan, L-M


    As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.

  13. Thermocouple temperature measurements in shock-compressed solids (United States)

    Bloomquist, D. D.; Sheffield, S. A.


    The emf produced by 5-μm-thick foil thermocouples when subjected to shock loading was studied over a stress range from 0.5 to 10 GPa. Thermocouples of either copper and constantan or chromel and alumel were embedded in the host materials, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Epon 828 epoxy, single-crystal Al2O3, or vitreous SiO2. The observed emf history rises to a plateau in a period that varied from less than 100 ns for Al2O3 to about 500 ns for PMMA. Temperatures inferred from the constant-voltage portion of the records using standard thermocouple tables (corrected for pressure) compare favorably with calculated temperatures for PMMA and epoxy below 2.0 and 4.5 GPa, respectively. Above these threshold stresses, the observed temperatures increase rapidly with compression, which may indicate an exothermic reaction. Inferred temperatures for the two types of thermocouples are in good agreement. The shape of the response history, and agreement with predicted temperatures for PMMA and epoxy, indicate that the thermocouple and host material come to thermal equilibrium during the transient portion of the response. In the elastic materials Al2O3 and SiO2, the observed temperatures are better correlated with temperatures predicted for shock compression of the thermocouple materials than those predicted for the host materials, indicating that thermal equilibration is not achieved in the available test time.

  14. Rational coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Xu, R. C.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, S. Z.; Xia, Y.; Xia, X. H.; Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.


    Large interfacial resistance between electrode and electrolyte limits the development of high-performance all-solid-state batteries. Herein we report a uniform coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 to form a MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The as-synthesized Li7P3S11 processes a high ionic of 2.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Due to homogeneous union and reduced interfacial resistance, the assembled all-solid-state batteries with the MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode exhibit higher reversible capacity of 547.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and better cycling stability than the counterpart based on untreated MoS2. Our study provides a new reference for design/fabrication of advanced electrode materials for high-performance all-solid-state batteries.

  15. C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner


    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

  16. RNA structure determination by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Marchanka, Alexander; Simon, Bernd; Althoff-Ospelt, Gerhard; Carlomagno, Teresa


    Knowledge of the RNA three-dimensional structure, either in isolation or as part of RNP complexes, is fundamental to understand the mechanism of numerous cellular processes. Because of its flexibility, RNA represents a challenge for crystallization, while the large size of cellular complexes brings solution-state NMR to its limits. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach on the basis of solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We develop a suite of experiments and RNA labeling schemes and demonstrate for the first time that ssNMR can yield a RNA structure at high-resolution. This methodology allows structural analysis of segmentally labelled RNA stretches in high-molecular weight cellular machines—independent of their ability to crystallize—and opens the way to mechanistic studies of currently difficult-to-access RNA-protein assemblies.

  17. Majorana Fermions in Particle Physics, Solid State and Quantum Information (United States)

    Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.

    This review is based on lectures given by M. J. Duff summarising the far reaching contributions of Ettore Majorana to fundamental physics, with special focus on Majorana fermions in all their guises. The theoretical discovery of the eponymous fcrmion in 1937 has since had profound implications for particlc physics, solid state and quantum computation. The breadth of these disciplines is testimony to Majorana's genius, which continues to permeate physics today. These lectures offer a whistle-stop tour through some limited subset of the key ideas. In addition to touching on these various applications, we will draw out some fascinating relations connecting the normed division algebras R, ℂ, H, O to spinors, trialities. K-theory and the classification of stable topological states of symmetry-protected gapped free-fermion systems.

  18. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  19. Genomic Pathogen Typing Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison H Squires

    Full Text Available In clinical settings, rapid and accurate characterization of pathogens is essential for effective treatment of patients; however, subtle genetic changes in pathogens which elude traditional phenotypic typing may confer dangerous pathogenic properties such as toxicity, antibiotic resistance, or virulence. Existing options for molecular typing techniques characterize the critical genomic changes that distinguish harmful and benign strains, yet the well-established approaches, in particular those that rely on electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid fragments on a gel, have room for only incremental future improvements in speed, cost, and complexity. Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single-molecule sensors that can electrophoretically characterize charged biopolymers, and which offer significant advantages in terms of sample and reagent requirements, readout speed, parallelization, and automation. We present here the first application of nanopores for single-molecule molecular typing using length based "fingerprints" of critical sites in bacterial genomes. This technique is highly adaptable for detection of different types of genetic variation; as we illustrate using prototypical examples including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus, the solid-state nanopore diagnostic platform may be used to detect large insertions or deletions, small insertions or deletions, and even single-nucleotide variations in bacterial DNA. We further show that Bayesian classification of test samples can provide highly confident pathogen typing results based on only a few tens of independent single-molecule events, making this method extremely sensitive and statistically robust.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...... and a C1 component which is a flash-based memory device. Methods comprise: writing the data page d at a physical storage page having physical storage page address P in the storage device in response to receiving a write request to store the data page d at a logical storage page having a logical storage...... page address L; caching a new mapping entry e(L,P) associating the logical storage page address L with the physical storage page address P; providing an update indication for the cached new mapping entry to indicate that the cached new mapping entry shall be inserted in the C1 component; and evicting...

  1. Solid State NMR Investigations of Zeolite - Intercalate Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyfe, Colin A.; Diaz, Anix; Brouwer, Darren H.; Lee, Joseph; Schneider, Celine M.; Scheffler, Franziska A.; Darton, Richard J.


    We will describe two topics in which structural information on complexes of zeolites is obtained from solid state NMR. In the first, recent work on the determination of the complete three-dimensional structures of the complexes of zeolites with organic sorbates will be briefly reported. The method has been optimized and the presentation of the results systematized. In the second topic, we will describe how solid state NMR can be used in the reverse sense to probe for the existence and structures of “nanocrystals” whose dimensions are too small to give proper Bragg scattering and which have been proposed to be the synthesis route for the formation of zeolite ZSM-5. In this study, the spectral parameters of “probe” template molecules are used as being diagnostic of whether the local environment of the framework has been formed. These are independent of the “crystal” dimensions and this general approach may be applicable to other similar “nano” systems.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura


    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura


    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  4. Solid state synthesis and structural characterization of zinc titanates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayed, Sarra, E-mail: [Laboratory of Composite Ceramic and Polymer Materials, Scientific Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia); Abdelkefi, Helmi; Khemakhem, Hamadi [Laboratory of Ferroelectric Materials, Scientific Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia); Matoussi, Adel [Laboratory of Composite Ceramic and Polymer Materials, Scientific Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia)


    Zinc titanate composite materials were synthesized via solid state sintering process using high-purity metal oxide powders (purity ∼99.99%). The titanium incorporation into ZnO matrix was investigated by X-ray diffraction which revealed the coexistence of spinel Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} and hexagonal ZnTiO{sub 3} with the ZnO wurtzite structures. No reflection peaks of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase were detected. The IR spectroscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural and chemical properties of the ZnO/TiO{sub 2} composites. The IR bands and vibrational modes of all crystalline phases were detected. The effect of TiO{sub 2} doping rates (x = 3, 5 and 7 wt%) on bands shifting, Raman intensity and structural quality was discussed. - Highlights: • Zinc titanates materials were synthesized via solid state sintering process. • XRD measurements reveal the formation of Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}, hexagonal ZnTiO{sub 3} and ZnO phases. • IR analysis provokes the presence of Ti−O stretching vibration bands. • Raman study provokes the appearance of new zinc titanates vibrational peaks. • The TiO{sub 2} effect into ZnO is sensed by the shift and intensity changes of peaks.

  5. Design and development of 1 KW solid state RF amplifier (United States)

    Ashok, Gayatri; Kadia, Bhavesh; Jain, Pragya; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group


    Since low power tube based RF amplifiers are complicated, occupy a large space and are bulky, the efforts are on to develop indigenously 1 KW solid state technology based RF Power amplifier. A power level of 1KW is chosen for the initial design because RF power Mosfets upto 250 watt are easily available and by clubbing 3-4 stages the power level of 1 KW can be made. Presently design and testing of 100-watt stage is in progress. The first 2 stages are designed to give 5 Watt RF power using bipolar transistors and are operated in CE, Class A to provide low noise level at the output of the system. The 3rd stage will be MOSFET based MRF 174, which is ideally suited for class A operation and is designed for 100 Watt RF power. The last stage will be MOSFET based ARF446 power MOSFET in TO-247 plastic package. This amplifier will be used in the classical push- pull configuration. This paper describes the design aspects as well as the test results of 100 watt amplifier on 50 Ohm dummy load along with the specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters of 1 KW Solid State RF power amplifier to be used as driver for 91.2 MHz, 1.5 MW stage for ICRH experiments on SST-1 tokamak .

  6. Diode-pumped all-solid-state lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons-Karavassilis, D


    This thesis describes research carried out by the within the Physics Department at Imperial College that was aimed at developing novel all-solid-state laser sources and investigating potential applications of this technology. A description of the development, characterisation and application of a microjoule energy level, diode-pumped all-solid-state Cr:LiSGAF femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier system is presented. The femtosecond oscillator was pumped by two commercially available laser diodes and produced an approx 80 MHz pulse train of variable pulse duration with approx 30 mW average output power and a tuning range of over approx 60 nm. This laser oscillator was used to seed a regenerative amplifier, resulting in adjustable repetition rate (single pulse to 20 kHz) approx 1 mu J picosecond pulses. These pulses were compressed to approx 150 fs using a double-pass twin-grating compressor. The amplifier's performance was investigated with respect to two different laser crystals and different pul...

  7. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A.; Kopitzke, R.W. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)


    If an electrolyzer could operate at higher temperatures, several benefits would accrue. The first is that the thermodynamic electrical energy requirement to drive the reaction would be reduced. Supplying the total enthalpy of reaction at any temperature involves a combination of electrical and thermal energy inputs. Because of the positive entropy associated with water decomposition, the thermal contribution increases as temperature rises, allowing the free energy requirement to decrease. Thus the open circuit voltage, V{sub oc}, for water splitting drops as temperature rises. At room temperature, V{sub oc} for water decomposition is 1.229 V. At 400{degrees}C, voltage requirement has dropped to 1.1 V; at 1000{degrees}C, it is only 0.92 V. Since electricity is a more expensive form of energy on a btu basis, the more energy taken from the thermal surroundings the better. Moreover, this thermal energy content could be solar-derived. While the cost of solar thermal energy varies in the range of $360-900/peak kilowatt, the installed cost of photovoltaic electricity is in the range of $4,000-5,000/peak kilowatt. Thus if one is compelled to erect an array of photovoltaic panels to generate the e.m.f. necessary to split water, substituting as much area with thermal collectors as possible represents a substantial cost savings.

  8. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Cells using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li+-ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZAl, which is a Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ with Li+-ion conductivity of ~10–4 S cm–1 at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 um depth holes in 700 x 700 um2 area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO2 / LLZAl / lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO2-LLZAl interface is formed by point to point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, the application of mechanically soft Li3BO3 with a low melting point at around 700 °C was also performed as a supporting

  9. Thermal properties of solids at room and cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, Guglielmo


    This book is a guide for materials scientists, physicists, chemists and engineers who wish to explore the field of low-temperature material properties. The focus is on heat capacity, thermal expansion and electrical and thermal conductivity. The authors report a wide range of experimental details and data, and have compiled useful tables of low-temperature data. Each chapter of the book starts by addressing the theoretical basis of the phenomena. This is a concise presentation, but it helps the reader to develop a deeper understanding of the experiments. The second part of the chapters is dedicated to describing the main experimental techniques to measure thermal properties at low and very low temperature ranges. The final part of each chapter provides a wealth of relevant experimental data in the form of tables and graphs.

  10. Moisture and drug solid-state monitoring during a continuous drying process using empirical and mass balance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Gildemyn, Delphine; Peeters, Elisabeth


    Classically, the end point detection during fluid bed drying has been performed using indirect parameters, such as the product temperature or the humidity of the outlet drying air. This paper aims at comparing those classic methods to both in-line moisture and solid-state determination by means o...

  11. Validation of a model for process development and scale-up of packed-bed solid-state bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, F.J.; Oostra, J.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.


    We have validated our previously described model for scale-up of packed-bed solid-state fermenters (Weber et al., 1999) with experiments in an adiabatic 15-dm3 packed-bed reactor, using the fungi Coniothyrium minitans and Aspergillus oryzae. Effects of temperature on respiration, growth, and

  12. Production and partial characterization of arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes by Penicillium brasilianum under solid-state fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Granouillet, P.; Olsson, Lisbeth


    The production of a battery of arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes by the fungus Penicillium brasilianum grown on brewer's spent grain (BSG) under solid-state fermentation was investigated. Initial moisture content, initial pH, temperature, and nitrogen source content were optimized to achieve maximum...

  13. Selected topics in high temperature chemistry defect chemistry of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesen, Ø


    The properties of materials at high temperature play a vital role in their processing and practical use. The real properties of materials at elevated temperatures are very often governed by defects in their structure. Lattice defects may consist of point defects like vacancies, interstitial atoms or substituted atoms. These classes are discussed in general and specifically for oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides. Defect aggregates, shear structures and adaptive structures are also described. Special attention is paid to hydrogen defects which seem to play an important role in several mater

  14. Electrochemical investigation of mixed metal oxide nanocomposite electrode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (United States)

    Abbas, Ghazanfar; Raza, Rizwan; Ashfaq Ahmad, M.; Ajmal Khan, M.; Jafar Hussain, M.; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Aziz, Hammad; Ahmad, Imran; Batool, Rida; Altaf, Faizah; Zhu, Bin


    Zinc-based nanostructured nickel (Ni) free metal oxide electrode material Zn0.60/Cu0.20Mn0.20 oxide (CMZO) was synthesized by solid state reaction and investigated for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) applications. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the synthesized electrode material were examined by XRD and SEM techniques respectively. The particle size of ZnO phase estimated by Scherer’s equation was 31.50 nm. The maximum electrical conductivity was found to be 12.567 S/cm and 5.846 S/cm in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively at 600∘C. The activation energy of the CMZO material was also calculated from the DC conductivity data using Arrhenius plots and it was found to be 0.060 and 0.075 eV in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively. The CMZO electrode-based fuel cell was tested using carbonated samarium doped ceria composite (NSDC) electrolyte. The three layers 13 mm in diameter and 1 mm thickness of the symmetric fuel cell were fabricated by dry pressing. The maximum power density of 728.86 mW/cm2 was measured at 550∘C.

  15. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies. (LSP)

  16. Multivariate data analysis as a fast tool in evaluation of solid state phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Miroshnyk, Inna; Karjalainen, Milja


    of information generated can be overwhelming and the need for more effective data analysis tools is well recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of multivariate data analysis, in particular principal component analysis (PCA), for fast analysis of solid state information. The data sets...... analyzed covered dehydration phenomena of a set of hydrates followed by variable temperature X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy and the crystallization of amorphous lactose monitored by Raman spectroscopy. Identification of different transitional states upon the dehydration enabled...... the molecular level interpretation of the structural changes related to the loss of water, as well as interpretation of the phenomena related to the crystallization. The critical temperatures or critical time points were identified easily using the principal component analysis. The variables (diffraction angles...

  17. Phosphors for solid-state lighting: New systems, deeper understanding (United States)

    Denault, Kristin Ashley

    We explore the structure-composition-property relationships in phosphor materials using a multitude of structural and optical characterization methods including high resolution synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction and total scattering, low-temperature heat capacity, temperature- and time-resolved photoluminescence, and density functional theory calculations. We describe the development of several new phosphor compositions and provide an in-depth description of the structural and optical properties. We show structural origins of improved thermal performance of photoluminescence and methods for determining structural rigidity in phosphor hosts that may lead to improved luminescent properties. New white light generation strategies are also explored. We begin by presenting the development of a green-yellow emitting oxyfluoride solid-solution phosphor Sr2Ba(AlO4F)1- x(SiO5)x:Ce3+. An examination of the host lattice, and the local structure around the Ce3+ activator ions points to how chemical substitutions play a crucial role in tuning the optical properties of the phosphor. The emission wavelength can be tuned from green to yellow by tuning the composition, x. Photoluminescent quantum yield is determined to be 70+/-5% for some of the examples in the series with excellent thermal properties. Phosphor-converted LED devices are fabricated using an InGaN LED and are shown to exhibit high color rendering white light. Next, we identify two new phosphor solid-solution systems, (Ba1- xSrx)9 Sc2Si6O24:Ce3+,Li+ and Ba9(Y1-ySc y)2Si6O24:Ce3+. The substitution of Sr for Ba in (Ba1-xSrx ) 9Sc2Si6O24:Ce 3+,Li + results in a decrease of the alkaline earth-oxygen bond distances at all three crystallographic sites, leading to changes in optical properties. The room temperature photoluminescent measurements show the structure has three excitation peaks corresponding to Ce3+ occupying the three independent alkaline earth sites. The emission of (Ba 1- xSrx) 9Sc2Si 6O24:Ce3

  18. Entanglement in valence-bond-solid states and quantum search (United States)

    Xu, Ying

    The present dissertation covers two independent subjects: (i) The quantum entanglement in Valence-Bond-Solid states, and (ii) quantum database search algorithms. Both subjects are presented in a self-contained and pedagogical way. (i) The first chapter is a through introduction to the subject of quantum entanglement in Valence-Bond-Solid (VBS) states defined on a lattice or graph. The VBS state was first introduced as the ground state of the celebrated Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) spin chain model in statistical mechanics. Then it became essential in condensed matter physics, quantum information and measurement-based quantum computation. Recent studies elucidated important entanglement properties of the VBS state. We start with the definition of a general AKLT model and the construction of VBS ground states. A subsystem is introduced and described by the density matrix. Exact spectrum properties of the density matrix are proved and discussed. Density matrices of 1-dimensional models are diagonalized and the entanglement entropies (the von Neumann entropy and Renyi entropy) are calculated. The entropies take saturated value and the density matrix is proportional to a projector in the large subsystem limit. (ii) The second chapter is a detailed introduction to the subject of quantum database search algorithms. The problem of searching a large database (a Hilbert space) for a target item is performed by the famous Grover algorithm which locates the target item with probability 1 and a quadratic speed up compared with the corresponding classical algorithm. If the database is partitioned into blocks and one is searching for the block containing the target item instead of the target item itself, then the problem is referred to as partial search. Partial search trades accuracy for speed and the most efficient version is the Grover-Radhakrishnan-Korepin (GRK) algorithm. The target block can be further partitioned into subblocks so that GRK can be performed in a

  19. Yeast community associated with the solid state fermentation of traditional Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor. (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan


    Yeasts are the most important group of microorganisms contributing to liquor quality in the solid-state fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor. There occurred a complex yeast community structure during this process, including stages of Daqu (the starter) making, stacking fermentation on the ground and liquor fermentation in the pits. In the Daqu making stage, few yeast strains accumulated. However, the stacking fermentation stage accumulated nine yeast species with different physio-biochemical characteristics. But only four species kept dominant until liquor fermentation, which were Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, implying their important functions in liquor making. The four species tended to inhabit in different locations of the stack and pits during stacking and liquor fermentation, due to the condition heterogeneity of the solid-state fermentation, including the different fermentation temperature profiles and oxygen density in different locations. Moreover, yeast population was much larger in the upper layer than that in the middle and bottom layers in liquor fermentation, which was in accordance with the profile of reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production. This was a systematical investigation of yeast community structure dynamics in the Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation process. It would be of help to understand the fermentative mechanism in solid-state fermentation for Maotai-flavor liquor. © 2013.

  20. Physicochemical properties and thermal stability of quercetin hydrates in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.S., E-mail: [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Carini, J.P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Honorato, S.B.; Ayala, A.P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60.455-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moreira, J.C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600, CEP 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bassani, V.L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin raw materials may present different degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of quercetin in the solid state depends on its degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin dehydrate is thermodynamically more stable than the other crystal forms. - Abstract: In the present work three samples of quercetin raw materials (QCTa, QCTb and QCTc), purchased from different Brazilian suppliers, were characterized employing scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, simultaneous thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and variable temperature-powder X-ray diffraction, in order to know their physicochemical properties, specially the thermal stability in solid state. The results demonstrated that the raw materials of quercetin analyzed present distinct crystalline structures, ascribed to the different degree of hydration of their crystal lattice. The thermal stability of these quercetin raw materials in the solid state was highly dependent on their degree of hydration, where QCTa (quercetin dihydrate) was thermodynamically more stable than the other two samples.

  1. All-solid-state lithium organic battery with composite polymer electrolyte and pillar[5]quinone cathode. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Meiling; Guo, Dongsheng; Shi, Jifu; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun


    The cathode capacity of common lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using inorganic electrodes and liquid electrolytes must be further improved. Alternatively, all-solid-state lithium batteries comprising the electrode of organic compounds can offer much higher capacity. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-solid-state lithium battery based on organic pillar[5]quinone (C35H20O10) cathode and composite polymer electrolyte (CPE). The poly(methacrylate) (PMA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LiClO4-3 wt % SiO2 CPE has an optimum ionic conductivity of 0.26 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. Furthermore, pillar[5]quinine cathode in all-solid-state battery rendered an average operation voltage of ∼2.6 V and a high initial capacity of 418 mAh g(-1) with a stable cyclability (94.7% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate) through the reversible redox reactions of enolate/quinonid carbonyl groups, showing favorable prospect for the device application with high capacity.

  2. Solid-state characterization of Felodipine-Soluplus amorphous solid dispersions. (United States)

    Lu, Jiannan; Cuellar, Kristina; Hammer, Nathan I; Jo, Seongbong; Gryczke, Andreas; Kolter, Karl; Langley, Nigel; Repka, Michael A


    The aim of the current study is to develop amorphous solid dispersion (SD) via hot melt extrusion technology to improve the solubility of a water-insoluble compound, felodipine (FEL). The solubility was dramatically increased by preparation of amorphous SDs via hot-melt extrusion with an amphiphilic polymer, Soluplus® (SOL). FEL was found to be miscible with SOL by calculating the solubility parameters. The solubility of FEL within SOL was determined to be in the range of 6.2-9.9% (w/w). Various techniques were applied to characterize the solid-state properties of the amorphous SDs. These included Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to detect the formation of hydrogen bonding between the drug and the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the morphology of the SDs. Among all the hot-melt extrudates, FEL was found to be molecularly dispersed within the polymer matrix for the extrudates containing 10% drug, while few small crystals were detected in the 30 and 50% extrudates. In conclusion, solubility of FEL was enhanced while a homogeneous SD was achieved for 10% drug loading.

  3. Dissolution properties, solid-state transformation and polymorphic crystallization: progesterone case study. (United States)

    Araya-Sibaja, Andrea Mariela; Paulino, Amarilis Scremin; Rauber, Gabriela Schneider; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Maduro; Cardoso, Simone Gonçalves; Monti, Gustavo Alberto; Heredia, Valeria; Bianco, Ismael; Beltrano, Dante; Cuffini, Silvia Lucia


    Progesterone is a natural steroid hormone and a poor soluble drug which presents two polymorphs (forms 1 and 2). Different methods to obtain form 2 were tested and a complete solid-state characterization of both polymorphs (forms 1 and 2) was conducted. X-ray powder diffraction, hot stage microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, dispersive Raman, (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy techniques and intrinsic dissolution rates (IDR) were applied to investigate physical-chemical and dissolution properties of these two polymorphs. Form 2 was obtained from diluted solutions and from melting after cooling at room temperature. Form 1 was obtained from concentrated solutions and, a mixture of both polymorphs was crystallized from intermediate solutions. The crystal habit was not a distinctive characteristic of each polymorph. The effect of mechanical stress was evaluated in the metastable polymorph (form 2). We observed that grinding form 2 produced seeds of form 1 that induced the transformation of form 2 into form 1 at high temperature. The polymorphic quantification from XRD patterns of ground samples were carried out by the Rietveld method. After grinding and at room temperature conditions (∼25 °C), it was observed the transformation of 17% of form 2 into form 1 in 10 days.

  4. Solid-state effects in d+d fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Czerski, K; Heide, P; Schiwietz, G


    The nuclear fusion reactions sup 2 H(d,p) sup 3 H and sup 2 H(d,n) sup 3 He have been measured at projectile energies between 5 and 60 keV using deuteron-implanted solid targets (C, Al, Zr and Ta). An exponential-like enhancement of the reaction cross-section compared to the bare nuclei fusion could be observed for energies below 20 keV. This effect may be interpreted as a result of the electron screening of the Coulomb barrier between reacting deuterons and described by a screening energy U sub e. The experimentally determined U sub e values show a clear target-material dependence and reach for heavier materials values being one order of magnitude larger than the value achieved in a gas target experiment and significantly larger than the theoretical predictions. Specific solid-state contributions to the enhancement of the fusion cross-sections arising from the channeling of projectiles in the crystal lattice and some other related effects will be discussed.

  5. Xylanase production by a local fungal isolate, Aspergillus niger USM AI 1 via solid state


    Ibrahim Che Omar; Pang Pei Kheng


    Isolate USM A1 I which was identified to be Aspergillus niger was selected as a potential producer of xylanase via a solid state fermentation system (SSF) using palm kernel cake (PKC) as substrate. The modification of the physical conditions of the SSF system indicated that the xylanase activity was 23.97 U/g PKC at the moisture ratio of 1:0.75 of PKC: moistening agent with the inoculum size of 1¥104 spores/ml and cultivated at the ambient temperature (28±3ºC). The supplementation of addition...

  6. Detection of CO2 in solution with a Pt-NiO solid-state sensor. (United States)

    Yue, Zhao; Niu, Wencheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guohua; Parak, Wolfgang J


    A metal insulator semiconductor field effect transistor (MISFET)-type sensor for the detection of CO(2) dissolved in aqueous solution is presented. This all-solid-state device is based on a Pt-NiO thin film as active sensing material on the top of a gate electrode. The fabrication of the sensor is described and its performance is characterized. In particular the transient characteristics and response curves at different biases V(RS) versus the amount of dissolved CO(2) are presented. The sensor shows a linear response to the logarithm of the concentration of dissolved CO(2) at room temperature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid state polymerization: its action on thermal and rheological properties of PET/PC reactive blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. Mendes


    Full Text Available The solid state polymerization (SSP of PET/PC reactive extrusion blends - with and without cobalt catalyst - at different polymer ratios was studied. Thermal and rheological evaluations were performed. DSC results showed changes in the PET's Tg, Tch, Tm and Xc.. The melt flow rate (MFR decreased for PET and the blends. The intrinsic viscosity increased. The variation in calorimetric and rheological properties might be attributed to the PET's chain extension reactions - esterification and transesterification. These reactions led to an increase in the PET's molar mass, consequently shifting the PET's Tg to lower temperature and PET's crystallization, besides reducing the blend miscibility and flowability.

  8. Polymorphs of Aspirin Solid-state IR-LD spectroscopic and quantitative determination in solid mixtures (United States)

    Koleva, Bojidarka B.


    Solid-state linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscopy, using an orientation technique as a suspension in nematic liquid crystal, has been carried out of Aspirin polymorphs (forms I and II). Reducing-difference procedure for polarized IR-spectra interpretation has been applied for structural analysis of both modifications and the data have been compared with known crystallographic ones. A vibration assignment of forms I and II has been included and on this basis, a quantitative determination by FT-IR spectra for form I in mixtures with second one has been presented, using intensity ratio of 1606 cm -1 peak (characteristic for both forms) to 599 cm -1 one (attributed to form I). The obtained reliability is 99.78%.

  9. ESR spectra of the olive phenolics oleuropein and keracyanin in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.R. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Anatomy Department; Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Physics Department; Hewitt, D.J. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Chemistry Department; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F. [Universita degli Studi, Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche


    Full text: Olives and extra virgin olive oil, are known to be very rich in antioxidants, most of which are phenolics, such as oleuropein, a derivative of catechol: the `catechol` ring is separated, and effectively isolated electrically from the other (6-sided) ring. The main anthocyanin in olives in keracyanin (cyanidin-3-0-rutinoside). Solid samples of these two phenolics, and of catechol, were examined by ESR using a Varian E-12 spectrometer (x-band: {approx}9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All three samples gave single unstructured lines of {approx} 10g. width with g-vales close to 2. The presence of these free radical signal shows the antioxidant action of these phenolics, even in the solid state. We believe this is first observation of free radicals in olive phenolics


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Veyo


    During the Westinghouse/USDOE Cooperative Agreement period of November 1, 1990 through November 30, 1997, the Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell has evolved from a 16 mm diameter, 50 cm length cell with a peak power of 1.27 watts/cm to the 22 mm diameter, 150 cm length dimensions of today's commercial prototype cell with a peak power of 1.40 watts/cm. Accompanying the increase in size and power density was the elimination of an expensive EVD step in the manufacturing process. Demonstrated performance of Westinghouse's tubular SOFC includes a lifetime cell test which ran for a period in excess of 69,000 hours, and a fully integrated 25 kWe-class system field test which operated for over 13,000 hours at 90% availability with less than 2% performance degradation over the entire period. Concluding the agreement period, a 100 kW SOFC system successfully passed its factory acceptance test in October 1997 and was delivered in November to its demonstration site in Westervoort, The Netherlands.

  11. Solid-state electrode materials with ionic-liquid properties for energy storage: the lithium solid-state ionic-liquid concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bideau, Jean; Ducros, Jean-Baptiste; Soudan, Patrick; Guyomard, Dominique [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, CNRS-Universite de Nantes (France)


    Herein, the novel concept of a solid-state electrode materials with ionic-liquid (IL) properties is presented. These composite materials are a mixture of electroactive matter, an electronic conductor, a solid-state ionic conductor and a polymeric binder. The approach of a solid-state ionic conductor combines the high safety of an IL with the nanoconfinement of such a liquid in a mesoporous silica framework, an ionogel, thus leading to a solid with liquid-like ionic properties. The same ionic conductor is also used as a solid-state separator to evaluate the properties of our solid-state electrode materials in all-solid-state batteries. Such a concept of a solid-state electrode material contributes to addressing the challenge of energy storage, which is one of the major challenges of the 21{sup st} century. The ionogel, along with its processability, allows a single-step preparation of the assembly of the solid-state electrode and solid-electrolyte separator and can be applied without specific adaptation to present, thick electrodes prepared by the widespread tape-casting technique. The filling of the electrode porosity by an ionogel is shown by elemental mapping using scanning electron microscopy, and is subsequently confirmed by electrochemical measurements. The ionogel approach is successfully applied without specific adaptation to two state-of-the-art, positive electroactive materials developed for future-generation lithium-ion batteries, namely LiFePO{sub 4} and LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Z; Manchiraju, K [Southwire Co.


    This project is to develop and demonstrate the concept feasibility of a highly energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis process, friction stir extrusion (FSE) technology. Specifically, the project seeks to explore and demonstrate the feasibility to recycle metals, produce nano-particle dispersion strengthened bulk materials and/or nano-composite materials from powders, chips or other recyclable feedstock metals or scraps through mechanical alloying and thermo-mechanical processing in a single-step. In this study, we focused on metal recycling, producing nano-engineered wires and evaluating their potential use in future generation long-distance electric power delivery infrastructure. More comprehensive R&D on the technology fundamentals and system scale-up toward early-stage applications in two targeted “showcase” fields of use: nano engineered bulk materials and Al recycling will be considered and planned as part of Project Continuation Plan.

  13. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui


    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D


    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  15. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David


    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  16. Learning through ferroelectric domain dynamics in solid-state synapses (United States)

    Boyn, Sören; Grollier, Julie; Lecerf, Gwendal; Xu, Bin; Locatelli, Nicolas; Fusil, Stéphane; Girod, Stéphanie; Carrétéro, Cécile; Garcia, Karin; Xavier, Stéphane; Tomas, Jean; Bellaiche, Laurent; Bibes, Manuel; Barthélémy, Agnès; Saïghi, Sylvain; Garcia, Vincent


    In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity. Here we report on synapses based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions and show that STDP can be harnessed from inhomogeneous polarization switching. Through combined scanning probe imaging, electrical transport and atomic-scale molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that conductance variations can be modelled by the nucleation-dominated reversal of domains. Based on this physical model, our simulations show that arrays of ferroelectric nanosynapses can autonomously learn to recognize patterns in a predictable way, opening the path towards unsupervised learning in spiking neural networks.

  17. Operating System Support for High-Performance Solid State Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias

    a form of application-SSD co-design? What are the impacts on operating system design? (v) What would it take to provide quality of service for applications requiring millions of I/O per second? The dissertation consists of six publications covering these issues. Two of the main contributions...... of the operating system in reducing the gap, and enabling new forms of communication and even co-design between applications and high-performance SSDs. More specifically, we studied the storage layers within the Linux kernel. We explore the following issues: (i) what are the limitations of the legacy block......The performance of Solid State Drives (SSD) has evolved from hundreds to millions of I/Os per second in the past three years. Such a radical evolution is transforming both the storage and the software industries. Indeed, software designed based on the assumption of slow IOs has become...

  18. All-Solid-State Four-Color Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, T.R.; Xie, P.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project is to develop a solid state laser that produces visible output wavelengths, including the commercially compelling blue wavelength. The basic architecture of the device consists of a single-mode optical fiber doped with Pr{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions. When the ions are simultaneously pumped with a near infrared laser (860 nm), complex energy transfer processes involving multiple excited ions leads to population of a high-lying energy level of Pr{sup 3+}. Results include the demonstration of the existence of a photon avalanche mechanism responsible for creation of the population inversion and demonstration of the highest optical-to-optical efficiency of any up-conversion laser reported to date. A US Patent was awarded for this invention in 1998.

  19. Solid state light source driver establishing buck or boost operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Fred


    A solid state light source driver circuit that operates in either a buck convertor or a boost convertor configuration is provided. The driver circuit includes a controller, a boost switch circuit and a buck switch circuit, each coupled to the controller, and a feedback circuit, coupled to the light source. The feedback circuit provides feedback to the controller, representing a DC output of the driver circuit. The controller controls the boost switch circuit and the buck switch circuit in response to the feedback signal, to regulate current to the light source. The controller places the driver circuit in its boost converter configuration when the DC output is less than a rectified AC voltage coupled to the driver circuit at an input node. The controller places the driver circuit in its buck converter configuration when the DC output is greater than the rectified AC voltage at the input node.

  20. All solid-state high power visible laser (United States)

    Grossman, William M.


    The overall objective of this Phase 2 effort was to develop and deliver to NASA a high repetition rate laser-diode-pumped solid-state pulsed laser system with output in the green portion of the spectrum. The laser is for use in data communications, and high efficiency, short pulses, and low timing jitter are important features. A short-pulse 1 micron laser oscillator, a new multi-pass amplifier to boost the infrared power, and a frequency doubler to take the amplified infrared pulsed laser light into the green. This produced 1.5 W of light in the visible at a pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz in the laboratory. The pulses have a full-width at half maximum of near 1 ns. The results of this program are being commercialized.