WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperature profiler mounted

  1. Microwave Temperature Profiler Mounted in a Standard Airborne Research Canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J.; Denning, Richard F.; Fox, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Many atmospheric research aircraft use a standard canister design to mount instruments, as this significantly facilitates their electrical and mechanical integration and thereby reduces cost. Based on more than 30 years of airborne science experience with the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), the MTP has been repackaged with state-of-the-art electronics and other design improvements to fly in one of these standard canisters. All of the controlling electronics are integrated on a single 4 5-in. (.10 13- cm) multi-layer PCB (printed circuit board) with surface-mount hardware. Improved circuit design, including a self-calibrating RTD (resistive temperature detector) multiplexer, was implemented in order to reduce the size and mass of the electronics while providing increased capability. A new microcontroller-based temperature controller board was designed, providing better control with fewer components. Five such boards are used to provide local control of the temperature in various areas of the instrument, improving radiometric performance. The new stepper motor has an embedded controller eliminating the need for a separate controller board. The reference target is heated to avoid possible emissivity (and hence calibration) changes due to moisture contamination in humid environments, as well as avoiding issues with ambient targets during ascent and descent. The radiometer is a double-sideband heterodyne receiver tuned sequentially to individual oxygen emission lines near 60 GHz, with the line selection and intermediate frequency bandwidths chosen to accommodate the altitude range of the aircraft and mission.

  2. Surface-mount sapphire interferometric temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizheng; Wang, Anbo

    2006-08-01

    A fiber-optic high-temperature sensor is demonstrated by bonding a 45°-polished single-crystal sapphire fiber on the surface of a sapphire wafer, whose optical thickness is temperature dependent and measured by white-light interferometry. A novel adhesive-free coupling between the silica and sapphire fibers is achieved by fusion splicing, and its performance is characterized. The sensor's interference signal is investigated for its dependence on angular alignment between the fiber and the wafer. A prototype sensor is tested to 1170 °C with a resolution of 0.4 °C, demonstrating excellent potential for high-temperature measurement.

  3. Infrared optical element mounting techniques for wide temperature ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggin, Bortolino; Tarabini, Marco; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2010-01-20

    We describe the optimization of a mounting system for the infrared (IR) optics of a spaceborne interferometer working in the temperature range between -120 degrees C and +150 degrees C. The concept is based on an aluminum alloy frame with designed mechanical compliance, which allows for compensation of the different coefficient of thermal expansion between the optics and the holder; at the same time, the system provides for the high stiffness required to reach natural frequencies above 200 Hz, which are mandatory in most space missions. Thermal adapters with properly chosen thermomechanical characteristics are interposed between the metallic structure and the lens, so as to reduce the interface stresses on the mechanically weak IR material, due to both the thermoelastic and acceleration loads. With the proposed mount, the competitive requirements of stiffness and stress-free mounting can be matched in wide temperature ranges. The case study of the interferometer of a miniaturized Fourier transform IR spectrometer is presented.

  4. Approximation of Engine Casing Temperature Constraints for Casing Mounted Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jonathan L.; Culley, Dennis E.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of propulsion engine systems is sensitive to weight and volume considerations. This can severely constrain the configuration and complexity of the control system hardware. Distributed Engine Control technology is a response to these concerns by providing more flexibility in designing the control system, and by extension, more functionality leading to higher performing engine systems. Consequently, there can be a weight benefit to mounting modular electronic hardware on the engine core casing in a high temperature environment. This paper attempts to quantify the in-flight temperature constraints for engine casing mounted electronics. In addition, an attempt is made at studying heat soak back effects. The Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) software is leveraged with real flight data as the inputs to the simulation. A two-dimensional (2-D) heat transfer model is integrated with the engine simulation to approximate the temperature along the length of the engine casing. This modification to the existing C-MAPSS40k software will provide tools and methodologies to develop a better understanding of the requirements for the embedded electronics hardware in future engine systems. Results of the simulations are presented and their implications on temperature constraints for engine casing mounted electronics is discussed.

  5. Continuous monitoring of fumarole temperatures at Mount Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Paolo; Rizzo, Andrea L.; Diliberto, Iole S.; Favara, Rocco

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present the first data of temperature continuously recorded in two fumarole fields (designated VOR and HOR) located in the summit area of Mount Etna volcano (Italy). The time series embraces two distinct periods: (1) October 2007 to November 2009, during which an effusive eruption occurred from May 2008 to July 2009, and (2) November 2011 to June 2012, characterized by the occurrence of strong paroxysms (fire fountains and lava flow). The analysis of the temperature signal in both the time and frequency domains, and its comparison with meteorological observations allowed us to separate the exogenous influences from the effects of variations in the activity state of the volcano. The acquired data were weakly affected by seasonal cycles of the air temperature and strongly affected by the rainfall. Optimization of site conditions (i.e., sensor depth and soil permeability) markedly reduced meteorological disturbances. The distance from the main degassing and/or eruptive fractures was crucial to maximizing the probability of the technical survival of the monitoring apparatus, which was seriously affected by the emission of acidic gases, tephra fallout, and lava flows. Apart from the exogenous influences, the most appreciable variation was observed at VOR, where a huge increase in fumarole temperature was detected immediately after the onset of the 2008-2009 eruption. Such an anomalous increase was attributed to the rapid ascent of magma feeding the eruptive fracture. Another abrupt increase in temperature was recorded at HOR in March and April 2012. During this period the frequency of paroxysm occurrence increased markedly, and this led us to hypothesize that the thermal anomaly was due to the intrusion of a new batch of magma in the conduits of the southeast crater. Medium- to long-term monitoring (weeks to months) of fumarole temperatures revealed variations that were attributed to pressurization/depressurization phases of the shallow volcanic system

  6. Soil and air temperatures for different habitats in Mount Rainier National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Mark. Klopsch

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports air and soil temperature data from 10 sites in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State for 2- to 5-year periods. Data provided are monthly summaries for day and night mean air temperatures, mean minimum and maximum air temperatures, absolute minimum and maximum air temperatures, range of air temperatures, mean soil temperature, and absolute...

  7. High Temperature Ultrasonic Probe and Pulse-Echo Probe Mounting Fixture for Testing and Blind Alignment on Steam Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Takano, Nobuyuki (Inventor); Ostlund, Patrick N. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A high temperature ultrasonic probe and a mounting fixture for attaching and aligning the probe to a steam pipe using blind alignment. The high temperature ultrasonic probe includes a piezoelectric transducer having a high temperature. The probe provides both transmitting and receiving functionality. The mounting fixture allows the high temperature ultrasonic probe to be accurately aligned to the bottom external surface of the steam pipe so that the presence of liquid water in the steam pipe can be monitored. The mounting fixture with a mounted high temperature ultrasonic probe are used to conduct health monitoring of steam pipes and to track the height of condensed water through the wall in real-time.

  8. Determination of the High Frequency Inductance Profile of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2008-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the high frequency inductance profile plays an important role in many designs of sensorless controllers for Surface inductance. A special algorithm is used to decouple the cross-coupling effects between the d-axis and the q-axis, which allows Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM......) synchronous motors. This paper presents an AC+DC measurement method for determination of the d-axis and q-axis high frequency inductance profiles of SMPM synchronous motors. This method uses DC currents to set a desired magnetic working point on the motor laminations, and then superimpose balanced small AC...... signals to measure the incremental a separate determination of the d, q inductance profiles as functions of the d, q currents. Experimental results on a commercial SMPM motor using the proposed method are presented in this paper....

  9. Deformation of Mount Etna substrate as imaged by offshore seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Andrea; Mazzarini, Francesco; Bisson, Marina; Bonazzi, Claudia; Isola, Ilaria

    2010-05-01

    Despite the clear evidence of active flank dynamics that is affecting the eastern side of Mount Etna, the contribution of tectonic processes has not been yet understood. So far, the various models proposed to explain the observed flank deformation have been based on onshore structural data, coming from the volcanic edifice. The Ionian offshore of Mount Etna has been only recently investigated using multichannel seismic profiles, and offers the opportunity to image the structural features of the substrate of the unstable flank of the volcano. This contribution aims at describing the deformation located offshore Mount Etna using multichannel seismic profiles recently acquired during three seismic surveys (Argnani and Bonazzi, 2005; Pareschi et al., 2006; Argnani et al., 2009). These surveys total over 800 km of high resolution seismic profiles, with record length ranging between 3 and 6 seconds and spatial coverage varying from 16 to 48 folds. The flank deformation of Mount Etna appears to be laterally confined by two tectonic guidelines, trending roughly E-W, located to the north and south of the deforming flank; the northern guideline, in particular, takes the surface expression of a sharp fault (Pernicana Fault). Though often assumed that these boundary structures continue offshore as linear features, connected to a frontal thrust ramp (i.e., Borgia et al., 1992), the occurrence of this simple offshore structural system has not been imaged. In fact, seismic data show a remarkable degree of structural complexity offshore Mount Etna. The Pernicana Fault, for instance, is not continuing offshore as a sharp feature; rather, the deformation is expressed as ENE-WSW folds located very close to the coastline. It is possible that these tectonic structures might have affected the offshore of Mount Etna before the Pernicana Fault system was developed, less than 15 ka ago. The southern guideline of the collapsing eastern flank of the volcano is poorly expressed onshore, and

  10. Measurement error of surface-mounted fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liu; Zude, Zhou; Erlong, Zhang; Jun, Zhang; Yuegang, Tan; Mingyao, Liu

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are extensively used to measure surface temperatures. However, the temperature gradient effect of a surface-mounted FBG sensor is often overlooked. A surface-type temperature standard setup was prepared in this study to investigate the measurement errors of FBG temperature sensors. Experimental results show that the measurement error of a bare fiber sensor has an obvious linear relationship with surface temperature, with the largest error achieved at 8.1 °C. Sensors packaged with heat conduction grease generate smaller measurement errors than do bare FBG sensors and commercial thermal resistors. Thus, high-quality packaged methods and proper modes of fixation can effectively improve the accuracy of FBG sensors in measuring surface temperatures.

  11. Practical thermometry and thermalization at sub-1 K temperatures using commercial surface-mount components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko

    2014-11-01

    Thermometry and heat sinking are important aspects of cryogenic engineering. We have carried out experiments to determine the usefulness of commercial surface-mount resistors, resistor arrays and capacitors as temperature sensors and electrically isolated heat conductors. Our investigations were motivated by the need for easy thermal diagnostics and management of heat dissipation in experimental setups operating at sub-kelvin temperatures in dilution refrigerators. In this work we also present a simple and robust resistance-to-voltage converter circuit with low excitation power.

  12. Temperature profiles of coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H.; Gundogdu, I.B. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2008-07-01

    Excess of produced coals should be kept in the stockyards of the collieries. The longer the duration time for these coals, the greater possibility for spontaneous combustion to take place. Spontaneously burnt coals result in economical and environmental problems. Therefore, taking the necessary precautions before an outburst of the spontaneous combustion phenomenon is too important in terms of its severe results. In this study, a stockpile having industrial dimensions was formed in coal stockyard. The effective parameters on the stockpiles of coal such as temperature and humidity of the weather, time, and atmospheric pressure values were measured. The interior temperature variations of these stockpiles caused by the atmospheric conditions were also measured. The interior temperature distribution maps of the stockpile together with maximum and minimum temperature values were expressed visually and numerically by the assistance of obtained data.

  13. Raman Lidar Temperature Profiler Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft wake vortices is especially hazardous during the landing and taking-off phases of flight. It is essential to obtain an accurate atmospheric temperature...

  14. Parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunke, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Imre, K.; Riedel, K. [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The JET Ohmic, L-Mode and H-Mode electron temperature profiles obtained from the LIDAR Thomson Scattering Diagnostic are parameterized in terms of the normalized flux parameter and a set of the engineering parameters like plasma current, toroidal field, line averages electron density... It is shown that the electron temperature profiles fit a log-additive model well. It is intended to use the same model to predict the profile shape for D-T discharges in JET and in ITER. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Temperature profiles and current measurements from the Nathaniel B. Palmer during the 1997 Dovetail cruise in the Southern Ocean (NODC Accession 9900243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection includes temperature profiles from CTD casts and current measurements from hull-mounted ADCP system aboard the research vessel Nathaniel B....

  16. Mechanical design and qualification of IR filter mounts and filter wheel of INSAT-3D sounder for low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, A. P.; Rami, J. B.; Hait, A. K.; Dewan, C. P.; Subrahmanyam, D.; Kirankumar, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    Next generation Indian Meteorological Satellite will carry Sounder instrument having subsystem of filter wheel measuring Ø260mm and carrying 18 filters arranged in three concentric rings. These filters made from Germanium, are used to separate spectral channels in IR band. Filter wheel is required to be cooled to 214K and rotated at 600 rpm. This Paper discusses the challenges faced in mechanical design of the filter wheel, mainly filter mount design to protect brittle germanium filters from failure under stresses due to very low temperature, compactness of the wheel and casings for improved thermal efficiency, survival under vibration loads and material selection to keep it lighter in weight. Properties of Titanium, Kovar, Invar and Aluminium materials are considered for design. The mount has been designed to accommodate both thermal and dynamic loadings without introducing significant aberrations into the optics or incurring permanent alignment shifts. Detailed finite element analysis of mounts was carried out for stress verification. Results of the qualification tests are discussed for given temperature range of 100K and vibration loads of 12g in Sine and 11.8grms in Random at mount level. Results of the filter wheel qualification as mounted in Electro Optics Module (EOM) are also presented.

  17. Hull-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Data (SADCP) collected aboard the NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER during cruise NF-10-01 and NF-10-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upper ocean current velocity measurements collected with NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER's Teledyne RD Instruments 150 kHz hull-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler...

  18. Velocity Data collected from moored Hull-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers positioned in Vieques Sound and Virgin Passage in the US Caribbean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Velocity data were collected from Hull-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers moored across Virgin Passage between Culebra, Puerto Rico and St. Thomas, USVI, and...

  19. TCSP ER-2 MICROWAVE TEMPERATURE PROFILER (MTP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) dataset was collected by the ER-2 Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), which is a passive microwave radiometer...

  20. Institutional profile: translational pharmacogenomics at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stuart A; Owusu Obeng, Aniwaa; Botton, Mariana R; Yang, Yao; Scott, Erick R; Ellis, Stephen B; Wallsten, Richard; Kaszemacher, Tom; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Rong; Nicoletti, Paola; Naik, Hetanshi; Kenny, Eimear E; Vega, Aida; Waite, Eva; Diaz, George A; Dudley, Joel; Halperin, Jonathan L; Edelmann, Lisa; Kasarskis, Andrew; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Peter, Inga; Bottinger, Erwin P; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Sklar, Pamela; Cho, Judy H; Desnick, Robert J; Schadt, Eric E

    2017-10-01

    For almost 50 years, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has continually invested in genetics and genomics, facilitating a healthy ecosystem that provides widespread support for the ongoing programs in translational pharmacogenomics. These programs can be broadly cataloged into discovery, education, clinical implementation and testing, which are collaboratively accomplished by multiple departments, institutes, laboratories, companies and colleagues. Focus areas have included drug response association studies and allele discovery, multiethnic pharmacogenomics, personalized genotyping and survey-based education programs, pre-emptive clinical testing implementation and novel assay development. This overview summarizes the current state of translational pharmacogenomics at Mount Sinai, including a future outlook on the forthcoming expansions in overall support, research and clinical programs, genomic technology infrastructure and the participating faculty.

  1. Streamflow loss quantification for groundwater flow modeling using a wading-rod-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler in a headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflügl, Christian; Hoehn, Philipp; Hofmann, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Irrespective of the availability of various field measurement and modeling approaches, the quantification of interactions between surface water and groundwater systems remains associated with high uncertainty. Such uncertainties on stream-aquifer interaction have a high potential to misinterpret the local water budget and water quality significantly. Due to typically considerable temporal variation of stream discharge rates, it is desirable for the measurement of streamflow to reduce the measuring duration while reducing uncertainty. Streamflow measurements, according to the velocity-area method, have been performed along reaches of a losing-disconnected, subalpine headwater stream using a 2-dimensional, wading-rod-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The method was chosen, with stream morphology not allowing for boat-mounted setups, to reduce uncertainty compared to conventional, single-point streamflow measurements of similar measurement duration. Reach-averaged stream loss rates were subsequently quantified between 12 cross sections. They enabled the delineation of strongly infiltrating stream reaches and their differentiation from insignificantly infiltrating reaches. Furthermore, a total of 10 near-stream observation wells were constructed and/or equipped with pressure and temperature loggers. The time series of near-stream groundwater temperature data were cross-correlated with stream temperature time series to yield supportive qualitative information on the delineation of infiltrating reaches. Subsequently, as a reference parameterization, the hydraulic conductivity and specific yield of a numerical, steady-state model of groundwater flow, in the unconfined glaciofluvial aquifer adjacent to the stream, were inversely determined incorporating the inferred stream loss rates. Applying synthetic sets of infiltration rates, resembling increasing levels of uncertainty associated with single-point streamflow measurements of comparable duration, the

  2. Temperature Profiles and Hydrologic Implications from the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gillespie

    2005-03-01

    In this investigation, 145 previously recorded temperature logs from 63 boreholes on or near the NTS were examined. Thirteen of these temperature logs were determined to be suitable for the determination of heat flow values. Additionally, 36 new temperature profiles were obtained in the field, either to validate existing temperature profiles, or to provide additional temperature profiles for heat flow determination. Of these, 23 boreholes were found to have temperature profiles suitable for the determination of additional heat flow values from one or more intervals within the boreholes. Comparison of the previously existing and relogged temperature profiles, in general, displayed excellent correlations, and demonstrated the usefulness and reliability of existing temperature profiles from the NTS. Heat flow values for intervals contained within the 36 boreholes from which values could be determined ranged from a low of 8.0 mW m-2 to a high of 181.6 mW m-2. Vertical variations in heat flow values, within individual boreholes, were readily explained by the advection of heat by groundwater flow. Horizontal consistencies and variations in heat flow values between various boreholes were dependent upon the geologic setting of the borehole, and the effect of vertical fluid movement. Temperature profiles are extremely easy and inexpensive to obtain. Considerable hydrologic information can be determined from the examination of a single temperature profile; however, if sufficient spatially distributed heat flow values are obtained, a heat transport model of the NTS could be used to reduce the uncertainty of nonisothermal hydrologic models.

  3. Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) develops and maintains a global ocean temperature and salinity resource with data that are both up-to-date...

  4. Interpreting Repeated Temperature-Depth Profiles for Groundwater Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, Victor F.; Kurylyk, Barret L.; van Daal, Jonathan; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Carey, Sean K.

    2017-10-01

    Temperature can be used to trace groundwater flows due to thermal disturbances of subsurface advection. Prior hydrogeological studies that have used temperature-depth profiles to estimate vertical groundwater fluxes have either ignored the influence of climate change by employing steady-state analytical solutions or applied transient techniques to study temperature-depth profiles recorded at only a single point in time. Transient analyses of a single profile are predicated on the accurate determination of an unknown profile at some time in the past to form the initial condition. In this study, we use both analytical solutions and a numerical model to demonstrate that boreholes with temperature-depth profiles recorded at multiple times can be analyzed to either overcome the uncertainty associated with estimating unknown initial conditions or to form an additional check for the profile fitting. We further illustrate that the common approach of assuming a linear initial temperature-depth profile can result in significant errors for groundwater flux estimates. Profiles obtained from a borehole in the Veluwe area, Netherlands in both 1978 and 2016 are analyzed for an illustrative example. Since many temperature-depth profiles were collected in the late 1970s and 1980s, these previously profiled boreholes represent a significant and underexploited opportunity to obtain repeat measurements that can be used for similar analyses at other sites around the world.

  5. Effect of temperature on the permeability of lava dome rocks from the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, H. Elizabeth; Sammonds, Peter R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Chadderton, Amy

    2016-04-01

    As magma ascends to shallow levels in the volcanic conduit, volatile exsolution can produce a dramatic increase in the crystal content of the magma. During extrusion, low porosity, highly crystalline magmas are subjected to thermal stresses which generate permeable microfracture networks. How these networks evolve and respond to changing temperature has significant implications for gas escape and hence volcano explosivity. Here, we report the first laboratory experimental study on the effect of temperature on the permeability of lava dome rocks under environmental conditions designed to simulate the shallow volcanic conduit and lava dome. Samples were collected for this study from the 2004-2008 lava dome eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington State, USA). We show that the evolution of microfracture networks, and their permeability, depends strongly on temperature changes. Our results show that permeability decreases by nearly four orders of magnitude as temperature increases from room temperature to 800 °C. Above 800 °C, the rock samples become effectively impermeable. Repeated cycles of heating leads to sample compaction and a reduction in fracture density and therefore a decrease in permeability. We argue that changes in eruption regimes from effusive to explosive activity can be explained by strongly decreasing permeability caused by repeated heating of magma, conduit walls and volcanic plugs or domes. Conversely, magma becomes more permeable as it cools, which will reduce explosivity.

  6. A Torque Error Compensation Algorithm for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Respect to Magnet Temperature Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seok Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a torque error compensation algorithm for a surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM through real time permanent magnet (PM flux linkage estimation at various temperature conditions from medium to rated speed. As known, the PM flux linkage in SPMSMs varies with the thermal conditions. Since a maximum torque per ampere look up table, a control method used for copper loss minimization, is developed based on estimated PM flux linkage, variation of PM flux linkage results in undesired torque development of SPMSM drives. In this paper, PM flux linkage is estimated through a stator flux linkage observer and the torque error is compensated in real time using the estimated PM flux linkage. In this paper, the proposed torque error compensation algorithm is verified in simulation and experiment.

  7. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.

  8. Retrieval of humidity and temperature profiles over the oceans from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles of atmosphere from INSAT 3D-observed radiances has been accomplished. As the first step, a fast forward radiative transfer model using an Artificial neural network has been developed and it was proven to be highly effective, giving a correlationcoefficient of 0.97.

  9. Influence of absorbed pump profile on the temperature distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of absorbed pump profile on the temperature distribution within a diode side-pumped laser rod ... Department of Physics, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran; Institute of Optics and Laser, Malek-ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr, Postal Code: 83145/115, Iran; Department of ...

  10. Temperature profiles of Agaricus bisporus in composting stages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas using different activator materials were prepared for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A locally available casing material known as peat of Bolu district and its different combinations with perlite were used. Temperature profiles of all mixtures during composting were measured at every composting stages ...

  11. An optical fiber expendable seawater temperature/depth profile sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Shizhe; Zhang, Keke; Yan, Xingkui; Yang, Xianglong; Bai, Xuejiao; Liu, Shixuan

    2017-10-01

    Marine expendable temperature/depth profiler (XBT) is a disposable measuring instrument which can obtain temperature/depth profile data quickly in large area waters and mainly used for marine surveys, scientific research, military application. The temperature measuring device is a thermistor in the conventional XBT probe (CXBT)and the depth data is only a calculated value by speed and time depth calculation formula which is not an accurate measurement result. Firstly, an optical fiber expendable temperature/depth sensor based on the FBG-LPG cascaded structure is proposed to solve the problems of the CXBT, namely the use of LPG and FBG were used to detect the water temperature and depth, respectively. Secondly, the fiber end reflective mirror is used to simplify optical cascade structure and optimize the system performance. Finally, the optical path is designed and optimized using the reflective optical fiber end mirror. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of temperature and depth sensing based on FBG-LPG cascade structure is about 0.0030C and 0.1%F.S. respectively, which can meet the requirements of the sea water temperature/depth observation. The reflectivity of reflection mirror is in the range from 48.8% to 72.5%, the resonant peak of FBG and LPG are reasonable and the whole spectrum are suitable for demodulation. Through research on the optical fiber XBT (FXBT), the direct measurement of deep-sea temperature/depth profile data can be obtained simultaneously, quickly and accurately. The FXBT is a new all-optical seawater temperature/depth sensor, which has important academic value and broad application prospect and is expected to replace the CXBT in the future.

  12. Error analysis for mesospheric temperature profiling by absorptive occultation sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rieder

    Full Text Available An error analysis for mesospheric profiles retrieved from absorptive occultation data has been performed, starting with realistic error assumptions as would apply to intensity data collected by available high-precision UV photodiode sensors. Propagation of statistical errors was investigated through the complete retrieval chain from measured intensity profiles to atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature profiles. We assumed unbiased errors as the occultation method is essentially self-calibrating and straight-line propagation of occulted signals as we focus on heights of 50–100 km, where refractive bending of the sensed radiation is negligible. Throughout the analysis the errors were characterized at each retrieval step by their mean profile, their covariance matrix and their probability density function (pdf. This furnishes, compared to a variance-only estimation, a much improved insight into the error propagation mechanism. We applied the procedure to a baseline analysis of the performance of a recently proposed solar UV occultation sensor (SMAS – Sun Monitor and Atmospheric Sounder and provide, using a reasonable exponential atmospheric model as background, results on error standard deviations and error correlation functions of density, pressure, and temperature profiles. Two different sensor photodiode assumptions are discussed, respectively, diamond diodes (DD with 0.03% and silicon diodes (SD with 0.1% (unattenuated intensity measurement noise at 10 Hz sampling rate. A factor-of-2 margin was applied to these noise values in order to roughly account for unmodeled cross section uncertainties. Within the entire height domain (50–100 km we find temperature to be retrieved to better than 0.3 K (DD / 1 K (SD accuracy, respectively, at 2 km height resolution. The results indicate that absorptive occultations acquired by a SMAS-type sensor could provide mesospheric profiles of fundamental variables such as temperature with

  13. Temperature boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Emran, Mohammad S.; Horn, Susanne; Shishkina, Olga

    2017-11-01

    Classical boundary-layer theory for steady flows cannot adequately describe the boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. We have developed a thermal boundary layer equation which takes into account fluctuations in terms of an eddy thermal diffusivity. Based on Prandtl's mixing length ideas, we relate the eddy thermal diffusivity to the stream function. With this proposed relation, we can solve the thermal boundary layer equation and obtain a closed-form expression for the dimensionless mean temperature profile in terms of two independent parameters: θ(ξ) =1/b∫0b ξ [ 1 +3a3/b3(η - arctan(η)) ] - c dη , where ξ is the similarity variable and the parameters a, b, and c are related by the condition θ(∞) = 1 . With a proper choice of the parameters, our predictions of the temperature profile are in excellent agreement with the results of our direct numerical simulations for a wide range of Prandtl numbers (Pr), from Pr=0.01 to Pr=2547.9. OS, ME and SH acknowledge the financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grants Sh405/4-2 (Heisenberg fellowship), Sh405/3-2 and Ho 5890/1-1, respectively.

  14. Pressure and temperature data from bottom-mounted pressure recorders to assist in the definition of net circulation through the Florida Keys, 2001-2003 (NODC Accession 0000826)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and pressure data were collected using pressure gauge in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Florida Bay from 11 September 2001 to 23 April 2003....

  15. Estimating Surface Temperature of a Calibration Apparatus for Contact Surface Thermometers from Its Internal Temperature Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, I.; Nakano, T.; Tamba, J.

    2017-10-01

    A calibration apparatus for contact surface thermometers was developed. Temperature of the upper surface of a copper cube of the calibration apparatus was used as reference surface temperature, which was estimated at around 50 {°}C, 100 {°}C, and 150 {°}C by not only two conventional industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs) but also five small-sized platinum resistance thermometers (SSPRTs) calibrated based on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). These thermometers were inserted horizontally into the copper cube and aligned along the center axis of the copper cube. In the case of a no-load state without anything on the upper surface, the temperature profile inside the copper cube linearly decreased from the lower part to the upper surface, which suggests that the heat conduction inside the copper cube can be regarded as a one-dimensional steady state. On the other hand, in the case of a transient state just after the contact surface thermometer was applied to the upper surface, the temperature profile became a round shape. We obtained good agreement between the curvature of the temperature profiles and the results estimated by using an error function used for a one-dimensional transient heat conduction problem. The temperature difference between the estimated temperature by linear extrapolation using two IPRTs and that by extrapolation using the error function was within 0.2 {°}C in the transient state at around 150 {°}C. Over 10 min after the contact surface thermometer was applied, the temperature profile showed a linear shape again, which indicated that linear extrapolation using two IPRTs was well for the estimation of the reference surface temperature because the heat conduction state inside the copper cube came back to the one-dimensional steady state. Difference between the surface temperature and temperature detected by the contact surface thermometer was also observed after the contact surface thermometer touched on the

  16. Distribution of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) along an altitudinal profile of Mount Vud'yavrchorr (the Khibiny Mountains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, V. D.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Sidorchuk, E. A.

    2015-11-01

    The species composition and distribution of oribatid mites by altitudinal zones of the northeastern slope of Vud'yavrchorr Mount in the Khibiny Mountains were studied. Fifty-two species of oribatids from 30 genera and 20 families were found; 21 species were found in the Khibiny region for the first time. The maximum number of species (33) were found in the mountainous taiga zone under herbaceous-dwarf-shrub spruce forest. Maximum values of population density (more than 190000 per m2) were recorded in the forest-tundra zone under crooked birch forest. Minimum values of population density and species diversity of oribatids were found in tundra ecotopes, especially in the area of lichen tundra. However, maximum values of the indices of oribatid diversity and evenness of oribatid taxocene were recorded under dwarf- birch tundra. The analysis of relationships between the representatives of different morphoecotypes of oribatid mites in the studied altitudinal zones demonstrated that the relative portion of carabodoid species regularly increases with the altitude.

  17. A model for quantification of temperature profiles via germination times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipper, Christian Bressen; Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Current methodology to quantify temperature characteristics in germination of seeds is predominantly based on analysis of the time to reach a given germination fraction, that is, the quantiles in the distribution of the germination time of a seed. In practice interpolation between observed...... germination fractions at given monitoring times is used to obtain the time to reach a given germination fraction. As a consequence the obtained value will be highly dependent on the actual monitoring scheme used in the experiment. In this paper a link between currently used quantile models for the germination...... time and a specific type of accelerated failure time models is provided. As a consequence the observed number of germinated seeds at given monitoring times may be analysed directly by a grouped time-to-event model from which characteristics of the temperature profile may be identified and estimated...

  18. Heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in electroslag welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debroy, T.; Szekely, J.; Eagar, T. W.

    1980-12-01

    A formulation is presented to calculate, in three dimensions, the important process parameters such as the voltage profiles, heat generation patterns and temperature profiles in the slag and metal phases for an electroslag welding system. It is shown that the current is significantly larger for the electroslag welding process than that of the electroslag refining process operating with equivalent slag, electrode and other geometrical variables. Calculations show that the heat generation patterns are highly sensitive to the geometrical location of the electrode in the slag and that a relatively minor error in the alignment of the electrode can cause a major asymmetry in the heat generation pattern. The temperature fields in the slag and the metal phases are calculated in three dimensions and the roles played by various factors on the heat balance are assessed. The computation accounts for the transport of heat from the slag to the metal phase by the liquid metal drops, the energy loss due to electrolysis and the energy required for the heating of the cold slag charge. Using the computed values of the weld rate the possible decrease in the heat input due to a) the decrease of the plate gap and b) the use of multiple electrodes is calculated. The values of heat input obtained from independent experiments are compared with model predictions. Possible effects of imposing an external magnetic field during the welding are examined.

  19. Three-Dimensional Thermal Boundary Layer Corrections for Circular Heat Flux Gauges Mounted in a Flat Plate with a Surface Temperature Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, M.; Haddad, G. F.; Chen, R.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed in an effort to determine thermal boundary layer correction factors for circular convective heat flux gauges (such as Schmidt-Boelter and plug type)mounted flush in a flat plate subjected to a stepwise surface temperature discontinuity. Turbulent flow solutions with temperature-dependent properties are obtained for a free stream Reynolds number of 1E6, and freestream Mach numbers of 2 and 4. The effect of gauge diameter and the plate surface temperature have been investigated. The 3-D CFD results for the heat flux correction factors are compared to quasi-21) results deduced from constant property integral solutions and also 2-D CFD analysis with both constant and variable properties. The role of three-dimensionality and of property variations on the heat flux correction factors has been demonstrated.

  20. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an intraductal infusion is not common practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ice Thickness, Snow Depth, and Surface Temperature in the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge from a Vessel-mounted Sea Ice Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissling, B.; Ackley, S. F.

    2016-02-01

    A new Sea Ice Measurement System was constructed combining an Electromagnetic Induction Meter (Geonics EM-31), a KU-CRESIS Snow Radar, a Wengler Lidar Altimeter and a FLIR Infrared Camera. These were in-line mounted on a frame that was suspended over the side of the Sikuliaq during the ONR SeaState cruise to the Chukchi Sea ice edge in Oct 2015. The EMI measured total snow and ice thickness when corrected for height above the surface by the Lidar Altimeter. Ice Thickness was derived by subtracting radar snow depth from EMI total snow and ice thickness. A Riegl Lidar mounted separately on an upper deck provided a surface elevation swath containing the sea ice measurement system's line profile. These sea ice parameters, over 10km to 20km track lengths at 5m horizontal resolution, provide ground truth validation for airborne measurements which use only lidar surface elevation and radar snow depth to derive sea ice thickness. Algorithms to relate ice thickness only to surface elevation will be tested for possible application to future IceSAT-2 satellite data for the Arctic autumn period.

  2. Experimental analysis of temperature profiles in ceramic brickwork elements subjected to high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciá, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses heat transfer through a brick element in order to know the thermal behavior of onedimensional brickwork masonry samples exposed to high temperatures. The object of the tests is to build time-temperature curves according to different thermal steps in transient to experimentally determine the temperature profiles in the interior of a wall. Through this study, it is possible to demonstrate absolute moisture of a factory item from 300 °C (variation of temperatures in the interior of the element, avoid the associated phenomenon of evaporation of water during the thermal process as well as to obtain profiles of temperatures that help calculate the cross section of a factory element subjected to high temperatures.En este artículo se analiza la transferencia de calor a través de un elemento de fábrica de ladrillo con el fin de conocer el comportamiento térmico de secciones de fábrica unidimensionales expuestas a altas temperaturas. El objeto de los ensayos es construir curvas tiempo-temperatura en función de diversos escalones térmicos en régimen transitorio para determinar experimentalmente los perfiles de temperatura en el interior de un muro. A través de este estudio es posible evidenciar el contenido de humedad absoluta de un elemento de fábrica a partir de los 300 ºC (variación de las temperaturas en el interior del elemento, evitar el fenómeno asociado de la evaporación del agua durante el proceso térmico así como obtener perfiles de temperaturas que ayuden a calcular la sección eficaz de un elemento de fábrica sometido a altas temperaturas.

  3. Temperature sensitivity and enzymatic mechanisms of soil organic matter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Еvgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Khomyakov, Nikita; Myachina, Olga; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-02-29

    Short-term acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition by increasing temperature conflicts with the thermal adaptation observed in long-term studies. Here we used the altitudinal gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to demonstrate the mechanisms of thermal adaptation of extra- and intracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose, chitin and phytate and oxidize monomers ((14)C-glucose) in warm- and cold-climate soils. We revealed that no response of decomposition rate to temperature occurs because of a cancelling effect consisting in an increase in half-saturation constants (Km), which counteracts the increase in maximal reaction rates (Vmax with temperature). We used the parameters of enzyme kinetics to predict thresholds of substrate concentration (Scrit) below which decomposition rates will be insensitive to global warming. Increasing values of Scrit, and hence stronger canceling effects with increasing altitude on Mt. Kilimanjaro, explained the thermal adaptation of polymer decomposition. The reduction of the temperature sensitivity of Vmax along the altitudinal gradient contributed to thermal adaptation of both polymer and monomer degradation. Extrapolating the altitudinal gradient to the large-scale latitudinal gradient, these results show that the soils of cold climates with stronger and more frequent temperature variation are less sensitive to global warming than soils adapted to high temperatures.

  4. Interactive Matching between the Temperature Profile and Secondary Reactions of Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu; Han, Zhennan; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    degrees C and a shale char bed operating at different temperatures. At low temperatures (550 degrees C), severe cracking occurred, converting both heavy and light oil to carbon and gas. The desirably matched reactor temperature profile for high oil yield is discussed via analysis of the tendency......This article investigates the effect of the reactor temperature profile on the distribution and characteristics of the products from fixed-bed pyrolysis of oil shale. Experiments were performed in a one-stage fixed-bed reactor and in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor. In the one-stage reactor......, the shale oil yield reached 7.40 wt % with a reactor temperature profile from 900 to 550 degrees C and decreased to 2.23 wt % with the reverse temperature profile. The effect of the temperature profile was investigated further in the two-stage fixed-bed reactor combining a pyrolysis stage operating at 550...

  5. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Product MYD07_L2 consists of 30 gridded parameters related to atmospheric stability, atmospheric temperature...

  6. Optical measurement system for non-contact temperature profile

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available colours or shades depending upon the temperature range and mean temperature selected. The bright regions in the thermal image indicate high temperatures and the dark regions indicate low temperatures. In this study we make use of laser heating of High...

  7. A Model for the Prediction of Tobacco Temperature and Oxygen Profiles in Warehouse Aging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model on the temperature and oxygen profiles for the tobacco warehouse aging process was formulated and solved by numeric analysis. The model parameters were obtained using the non-linear regression method by fitting several years measured temperatures to the model. The R square value between measured and calculated tobacco temperatures in warehouse aging process are all over 0.95. The proposed model can be used to predict the tobacco hogshead temperature profile at different time and positions with ambient temperature, tobacco moisture contents and pH. At the same time, the model also predicts the oxygen profile in the hogshead. The effects of the ambient temperature, pH, void fraction, the reaction active energy, oxygen diffusivity, and the oxygen consumption rate constant on the temperature profile were studied.

  8. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait; M.A. van Walderveen (M.); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  9. Optimal temperature profiles for minimum residual stress in the cure process of polymer composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gopal, AK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing of polymer composites using a curing process requires the specification of the temperature as a function of time, i.e., the temperature profile. It is of utmost importance that the selected profile satisfies a number of criteria which...

  10. Vaginitis test - wet mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet prep - vaginitis; Vaginosis - wet mount; Trichomoniasis - wet mount; Vaginal candida - wet mount ... a rash, painful intercourse, or odor after intercourse. Trichomoniasis , a sexually transmitted disease. Vaginal yeast infection .

  11. Evaluation of infrared thermography body temperature and collar-mounted accelerometer and acoustic technology for predicting time of ovulation of cows in a pasture-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, S; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Clark, C E F; Celi, P

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the specificity of infrared thermography (IRT) in detecting cows about to ovulate could be improved using different body parts that are less likely to be contaminated by fecal matter. In addition, the combined activity and rumination data captured by accelerometers were evaluated to provide a more accurate indication of ovulation than the activity and rumination data alone. Thermal images of 30 cows were captured for different body areas (eye, ear, muzzle, and vulva) twice daily after AM and PM milking sessions during the entire experimental period. Milk progesterone data and insemination records were used to determine the date of ovulation. Cows were fitted with SCR heat and rumination long-distance tags (SCR HR LD) for 1 month. Activity- and rumination-based estrus alerts were initially identified using default threshold values set by the manufacturer; however, a range of thresholds was also created and tested for both activity and rumination to determine the potential for higher levels of accuracy of ovulation detection. Visual assessment of mounting indicators resulted in 75% sensitivity (Se), 100% specificity (Sp), and 100% positive predictive value (PPV). Overall, IRT showed poor performance for detecting cows about to ovulate. Vulval temperature resulted in the greatest (80%) Sp but the poorest (21%) Se compared with the IRT temperatures of other body areas. The SCR HR LD tags default threshold value resulted in 78% Se, 57% Sp, and 70% PPV. Lowering the activity threshold from the default value improved the sensitivity but created a large number of false positives, which resulted in a decrease in specificity. Lowering the activity threshold to 20 resulted in a detection performance of 80% Se, 94% Sp, and 67% PPV, whereas the rumination levels achieved 35% Se, 69% Sp, and 14% PPV. The area under the curve for the activity level, rumination level, and the combined measures of activity and rumination levels

  12. Temperature changes associated with die profile in axisymmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The die land zone shows increasing temperature rise with increasing friction coefficient, while increasing friction coefficient has no overall effect on the dead metal zone temperature rise. Increasing die land length leads to increasing contact area between the extrudate and the die resulting in increasing frictional power.

  13. SMEX02 Soil Moisture and Temperature Profiles, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains rainfall, soil moisture, and soil temperature data collected for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters measured are soil...

  14. A Mathematical Technique for Estimating True Temperature Profiles of Data Obtained from Long Time Constant Thermocouples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical modeling technique is described for estimating true temperature profiles of data obtained from long time constant thermocouples, which were used in fuel fire tests designed to determine...

  15. NODC Standard Product: Global ocean temperature and salinity profiles (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of CD-ROMs contains global ocean temperature and salinity profiles derived from NODC archive data files. It includes oceanographic station (bottle) data,...

  16. Temperature profile data collected from 03 May 1962 to 15 September 1990 (NODC Accession 0000049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts in a world wide distribution from 03 May 1962 to 15 September 1990. Data were collected and submitted by...

  17. Soil Moisture Profiles and Temperature Data from SoilSCAPE Sites, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains in-situ soil moisture profile and soil temperature data collected at 20-minute intervals at SoilSCAPE (Soil moisture Sensing Controller and...

  18. MGS RS: ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE PROFILES V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains over 21000 temperature-pressure profiles (TPS files) of the neutral atmosphere derived from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation data....

  19. Strong anisotropy in the low temperature Compton profiles of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the experimental side, measurements of profiles of momentum distribution are car- ried out using both X-rays .... wave, hybrid (i.e PW–TB and TB–PW) and the tight-binding parts of ρ(p). It may be noted that the ... contributions from the plane wave, hybrid and the tight-binding parts, the contributions per atom arising from ...

  20. Simulation of nitrogen concentration depth profiles in low temperature nitrided stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, which simulates nitrogen concentration-depth profiles as obtained with low temperature gaseous nitriding of stainless steel. The evolution of the calculated nitrogen concentration-depth profiles is compared with experimental nitriding kinetics. It is shown...

  1. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy G. Garn; Dave H. Meikrantz; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2008-09-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50° C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a

  2. Influence of cookies composition on temperature profiles and qualitative parameters during baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Kožul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During baking of bakery products temperature of baking, temperature profiles, moisture content, volume and colour changes are strongly coupled. The objective of this paper was to study the influence of the cookies composition on temperature profiles and quality parameters (width and thickness, colour formation and textural properties: hardness, fracturability and work of breaking force during baking process. Composition of cookies differs due to flour type and initial moisture content. Cookies were baked at 205 °C and temperature was measured in the centre of samples which were 7 mm thick with a 60 mm diameter. The results of temperature profiles of the cookies during baking have shown the same trend for all of the 18 samples. Samples with the higher initial water content have lower values of total colour difference and also significantly affect textural properties.

  3. Influence of absorbed pump profile on the temperature distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... any complex optics yields good absorption efficiency. [6–8]. As we know, only part of the pump power is converted into output laser energy, while most of the energy is eventually turned into heat consumption. [9–17]. The temperature distribution in the laser rod is determined by the non-uniform distribution ...

  4. Strong anisotropy in the low temperature Compton profiles of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in the orthorhombic phase of -Ga metal at low temperature are calculated in the band model for the three ... Department of Physics, Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti 761 010, India; Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India ...

  5. Zircon from Mount St. Helens Reveals Residence Times of Tens to Hundreds of Thousands of Years at Low Magmatic Temperatures Prior to Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborne, L. L.; Miller, C. F.; Clynne, M. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Pallister, J. S.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Mazdab, F. K.

    2007-12-01

    U-series and U-Pb geochronology of zircons from four samples that span the 300,000 year eruptive history of Mount St. Helens, combined with zircon trace element geochemistry and application of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer, provide critical constraints on the time-temperature-compositional history of the sub-volcanic magmatic system. Preliminary results indicate that prior to and throughout its eruptive history, one or more relatively cool, crystal-rich reservoirs have been accumulating beneath the volcano. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb ages of the oldest sample, a dacite erupted ~300 ka, reveal that zircons grew between ~320 and 520 ka, suggesting magmatic activity may have begun 200 ka before eruption. 238U-230Th age spectra in the three youngest samples indicate multiple ages of growth for each sample. The oldest of these three young samples (eruption constrained to ~35-50 ka) contains zircons ranging from ~50 to ~200 ka, with the main concentration of ages ~100 ka. Zircons from a 35 ka dacite range from ~65 to ~230 ka in age, with a dominant episode of growth ~130 ka. Dacite from the current eruption, sampled from the dome in 2005, contains zircons from ~40 to ~170 ka in age, with distinct populations at ~130 and ~170 ka. Taken together, these ages of tens to hundreds of thousands of years prior to eruption and the distinct episodes of growth suggest repeated injection and accumulation of one or more crystal-rich reservoirs beneath the volcanic edifice, a scenario that is further supported by Ti-in-zircon geothermometry (Watson et al. 2006). Ti concentrations indicate zircons grew at temperatures from ~840 to ~640 C, with 90% of analyzed spots recording temperatures between ~770 and ~670 C (T's carry uncertainties of tens of degrees, mostly from uncertainty in a(TiO2)). These temperatures are significantly lower than the eruption temperatures of their host magmas, which range from ~950-800 C. The rounded, resorbed surface morphology of many of the grains attests to the

  6. A Method for the Estimation of the Atmospheric Temperature Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Some of these statistics are available in publications of the Bureau of Meteorology . McRae(ref.3) presents tables of mean and standard deviation in...Variability of Temperature and Geopotential, Australia. Surface to 100 mb". Bureau of Meteorology , Department of the Interior, 1977 4 Maher, J.V. and...34Upper Air Statistics, Australia - Lee, D.M. Surface to 5 mb, 1957 to 1975". Bureau of Meteorology , Department of the Interior, undated 5 Maher, J.V

  7. The Mathematical Representation of Wind Speed and Temperature Profiles in the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, C.A.

    1970-01-01

    Analytical expressions which specify non-dimensionalized wind speed and potential temperature gradients as functions of stability are integrated. The integrated equations are tested against Swinhank's wind and temperature profiles measured at Kerang, Australia. It is found that a representation s...

  8. Equilibrium Temperature Profiles within Fission Product Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We studied waste form strategies for advanced fuel cycle schemes. Several options were considered for three waste streams with the following fission products: cesium and strontium, transition metals, and lanthanides. These three waste streams may be combined or disposed separately. The decay of several isotopes will generate heat that must be accommodated by the waste form, and this heat will affect the waste loadings. To help make an informed decision on the best option, we present computational data on the equilibrium temperature of glass waste forms containing a combination of these three streams.

  9. Temperature Profiles During Quenches in LHC Superconducting Dipole Magnets Protected by Quench Heaters

    CERN Document Server

    Maroussov, V; Siemko, A

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of the magnet protection by quench heaters was studied using a novel method which derives the temperature profile in a superconducting magnet during a quench from measured voltage signals. In several Large Hadron Collider single aperture dipole models, temperature profiles and temperature gradients in the magnet coil have been evaluated in the case of protection by different sets of quench heaters and different powering and protection parameters. The influence of the insulation thickness between the quench heaters and the coil has also been considered. The results show clear correlation between the positions of quench heaters, magnet protection parameters and temperature profiles. This study allowed a better understanding of the quench process mechanisms and the efficiency assessment of the different protection schemes.

  10. The temperature profile of an apple supply chain: A case study of the Ceres district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Du Toit Valentine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a logistical gap in the first section of the apple supply chain that affects the temperature profiles of apples further downstream in the supply chain.Objectives: This article’s main objective is to confirm whether the logistics processes, in terms of the temperature profile of apples for the first 48 hours post-harvest, have an influence on the yield and/or quality of the fruit.Method: Observations were made and informal interviews were conducted on three different farms to ascertain their perspective of the first section of the supply chain. Temperature trials were conducted to analyse the temperature profile of two apple varieties, namely Golden Delicious and Granny Smith on three different farms. These trials were conducted by placing an iButton® device on the inside and outside of an apple to measure the temperature readings every minute for the first 48 hours after picking.Results: The research identified that it is not only at what time the apples are being harvested, but also at what time the apples are placed under cooling conditions to remove the field heat to obtain the recommended temperature profile within 48 hours. In addition, it was determined that effective and efficient picking at the right time (especially between 07:00 and 09:00 and the transportation of the apples directly, or as soon as possible after the apples came out of the orchard to the centralised cold storage facility, are key in ensuring the quality of the fruit and the temperature profile necessary for export.Conclusion: This article identifies the need to improve operational procedures along the cold chain. From this research, it is clear that there are problem areas that affect the temperature profile of apples. 

  11. QBO effects manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sitnov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ozonesonde records up to 1998 the responses on the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind (QBO effects were isolated in the region from the ground to altitudes as high as 35km at 22 stations located in Europe (7, North America (7, Japan (4, Hawaii (1, Australia (2, and Antarctic (1. The vertical structures of the QBO effects of ozone are represented as an alternation of layers of well-developed quasi-biennial signals, whose phases gradually change with height and thin transitional layers of ill-developed signals, whose phases change abruptly with height. The amplitudes of the effects depend on height and reach the maxima of 3–6nbar in the lower stratosphere. At the majority of sites the effects are found to be approximately in phase between 20 and 23km. Two types of the vertical structures of the temperature QBO effects are found. At most of the sites located equatorward of about 50° the stratospheric temperature anomalies are characterized by downward propagation, whereas at sites situated poleward of about 50° they look as column-like structures. Near the tropopause the effects frequently reveal dipole-like structure, when the stratospheric and tropospheric anomalies are of opposite signs. The amplitudes of the effects are in the range of 0.5–1°C. The vertical structures of the QBO effects of horizontal wind components reveal a diversity of patterns. The amplitudes of the QBO effects of the meridional and zonal winds are comparable and lie in the range of 0.5–2m s–1. As a rule, the maxima of the effects are noticed slightly below the tropopause, as well as in the middle stratosphere. In general, a statistical assurance of the obtained QBO effects is rather poor. However, a considerable part of them reveal similarity, which can be hardly explained by chance. Furthermore, the results agree with possible physical mechanisms of off-equatorial influence of the QBO, as well

  12. Operational profiling of temperature using ground-based microwave radiometry at Payerne: prospects and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhnert, U.; Maier, O.

    2012-05-01

    The motivation of this study is to verify theoretical expectations placed on ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR) techniques and to confirm whether they are suitable for supporting key missions of national weather services, such as timely and accurate weather advisories and warnings. We evaluate reliability and accuracy of atmospheric temperature profiles retrieved continuously by the microwave profiler system HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler) operated at the aerological station of Payerne (MeteoSwiss) in the time period August 2006-December 2009. Assessment is performed by comparing temperatures from the radiometer against temperature measurements from a radiosonde accounting for a total of 2107 quality-controlled all-season cases. In the evaluated time period, the MWR delivered reliable temperature profiles in 86% of all-weather conditions on a temporal resolution of 12-13 min. Random differences between MWR and radiosonde are down to 0.5 K in the lower boundary layer and increase to 1.7 K at 4 km height. The differences observed between MWR and radiosonde in the lower boundary layer are similar to the differences observed between the radiosonde and another in-situ sensor located on a close-by 30 m tower. Temperature retrievals from above 4 km contain less than 5% of the total information content of the measurements, which makes clear that this technique is mainly suited for continuous observations in the boundary layer. Systematic temperature differences are also observed throughout the retrieved profile and can account for up to ±0.5 K. These errors are due to offsets in the measurements of the microwave radiances that have been corrected for in data post-processing and lead to nearly bias-free overall temperature retrievals. Different reasons for the radiance offsets are discussed, but cannot be unambiguously determined retrospectively. Monitoring and, if necessary, corrections for radiance offsets as well as a real-time rigorous automated data

  13. Operational profiling of temperature using ground-based microwave radiometry at Payerne: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Löhnert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of this study is to verify theoretical expectations placed on ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR techniques and to confirm whether they are suitable for supporting key missions of national weather services, such as timely and accurate weather advisories and warnings. We evaluate reliability and accuracy of atmospheric temperature profiles retrieved continuously by the microwave profiler system HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler operated at the aerological station of Payerne (MeteoSwiss in the time period August 2006–December 2009. Assessment is performed by comparing temperatures from the radiometer against temperature measurements from a radiosonde accounting for a total of 2107 quality-controlled all-season cases.

    In the evaluated time period, the MWR delivered reliable temperature profiles in 86% of all-weather conditions on a temporal resolution of 12–13 min. Random differences between MWR and radiosonde are down to 0.5 K in the lower boundary layer and increase to 1.7 K at 4 km height. The differences observed between MWR and radiosonde in the lower boundary layer are similar to the differences observed between the radiosonde and another in-situ sensor located on a close-by 30 m tower. Temperature retrievals from above 4 km contain less than 5% of the total information content of the measurements, which makes clear that this technique is mainly suited for continuous observations in the boundary layer. Systematic temperature differences are also observed throughout the retrieved profile and can account for up to ±0.5 K. These errors are due to offsets in the measurements of the microwave radiances that have been corrected for in data post-processing and lead to nearly bias-free overall temperature retrievals. Different reasons for the radiance offsets are discussed, but cannot be unambiguously determined retrospectively. Monitoring and, if necessary, corrections for radiance offsets as well as a real

  14. QBO effects manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sitnov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ozonesonde records up to 1998 the responses on the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, manifesting in ozone, temperature, and wind (QBO effects were isolated in the region from the ground to altitudes as high as 35km at 22 stations located in Europe (7, North America (7, Japan (4, Hawaii (1, Australia (2, and Antarctic (1.

    The vertical structures of the QBO effects of ozone are represented as an alternation of layers of well-developed quasi-biennial signals, whose phases gradually change with height and thin transitional layers of ill-developed signals, whose phases change abruptly with height. The amplitudes of the effects depend on height and reach the maxima of 3–6nbar in the lower stratosphere. At the majority of sites the effects are found to be approximately in phase between 20 and 23km.

    Two types of the vertical structures of the temperature QBO effects are found. At most of the sites located equatorward of about 50° the stratospheric temperature anomalies are characterized by downward propagation, whereas at sites situated poleward of about 50° they look as column-like structures. Near the tropopause the effects frequently reveal dipole-like structure, when the stratospheric and tropospheric anomalies are of opposite signs. The amplitudes of the effects are in the range of 0.5–1°C.

    The vertical structures of the QBO effects of horizontal wind components reveal a diversity of patterns. The amplitudes of the QBO effects of the meridional and zonal winds are comparable and lie in the range of 0.5–2m s–1. As a rule, the maxima of the effects are noticed slightly below the tropopause, as well as in the middle stratosphere.

    In general, a statistical assurance of the obtained QBO effects is rather poor. However, a considerable part of them reveal similarity

  15. Hot pressing and lithification of gouge during the Mount St. Helens 2004-2008 eruption: insights from high temperature deformation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Amy G.; Russell, James K.; Heap, Michael J.

    2017-04-01

    We present results from an experimental program designed to investigate the timescales, conditions and mechanisms responsible for the densification and lithification of volcanic gouge at Mount St. Helens (MSH). From 2004-2008, MSH produced a series of lava domes/spines that were mantled by thick layers of gouge resulting from fracturing and cataclasis at the conduit-wall rock interface. The gouge comprises fine crystal-rich rock powder containing little to no glass. The erupted gouge carapace is texturally diverse, and varies from loose granular material to moderately indurated coherent rock to fine-grained cataclasite within tens of centimeters. The spatial association of these materials suggests that the originally unconsolidated conduit-fault gouge is densified and lithified during ascent to the surface. At present the conditions, timescales and mechanisms for lithification of the glass-poor materials are unknown. Here, we present results from a series of high-temperature (T) uniaxial deformation experiments performed on natural gouge collected from MSH (spine 5). The experiments are intended to (1) establish the feasibility of experimentally densifying/lithifying natural gouge materials at laboratory conditions approximating those within the MSH conduit, and to (2) constrain the effects of T, load and time on the extents, rates and mechanisms of densification. Our experimental conditions include T up to 800°C (Tspines 4, 5 and 7 at MSH, tying the results from the lab to the natural system. Initial results show an increase in the amount and rate of densification with increasing experimental T, with an increase in sample shortening (axial strain) between experiments completed at 650 and 850°C. This change in axial strain-time curves with increasing T suggests the inclusion of a second densification process, aside from mechanical compaction, at elevated T. It is our hypothesis that solid-state sintering, a process wherein crystalline particles are fused together

  16. Development of a Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for continuous temperature profiling upto lower stratospheric altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar Sarma, T. V.; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2012-07-01

    The Gadanki (13.46°N, 79.17°E) MST radar is a high power VHF pulsed coherent Doppler radar established for remote probing of atmospheric phenomena in the Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere regions. Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) was developed using this radar to obtain height profiles of atmospheric temperature up to lower stratospheric altitudes. RASS uses the effect of temperature on the speed of sound in air as a means to sense the atmospheric temperature. It is the combination of a Doppler radar and acoustic exciters. The radar was augmented with acoustic exciters that were designed and constructed for this purpose. The Doppler radar profiles the speed of refractive index perturbations induced by the acoustic source. RASS has been demonstrated to be a reliable ground-based remote profiling technique to obtain altitude profiles of atmospheric virtual temperature, Tv over the past two decades. This work describes the design of the system and its application to the observation of height profiles of atmospheric virtual temperature up to and beyond tropical tropopause altitudes. Observations were made during 2007, 2008 and 2009 over periods extending up to 72 hours. These observations demonstrate temperature profiling capability up to about 18 km in altitude, though on an occasion height coverage upto 22.8km was obtained briefly; lowest height covered is from about 1.5km onwards. During the period of the RASS observations simultaneous data from radiosonde was used to validate the temperature measurements. Simultaneous satellite-based measurement of outgoing long wave radiation (OLR) and precipitation from ground-based instruments was used to study the atmospheric phenomena of gravity waves and atmospheric stability during a convection event.

  17. Temperature-profile methods for estimating percolation rates in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, Jim; Tyler, Scott W.; Kwicklis, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Percolation rates are estimated using vertical temperature profiles from sequentially deeper vadose environments, progressing from sediments beneath stream channels, to expansive basin-fill materials, and finally to deep fractured bedrock underlying mountainous terrain. Beneath stream channels, vertical temperature profiles vary over time in response to downward heat transport, which is generally controlled by conductive heat transport during dry periods, or by advective transport during channel infiltration. During periods of stream-channel infiltration, two relatively simple approaches are possible: a heat-pulse technique, or a heat and liquid-water transport simulation code. Focused percolation rates beneath stream channels are examined for perennial, seasonal, and ephemeral channels in central New Mexico, with estimated percolation rates ranging from 100 to 2100 mm d−1 Deep within basin-fill and underlying mountainous terrain, vertical temperature gradients are dominated by the local geothermal gradient, which creates a profile with decreasing temperatures toward the surface. If simplifying assumptions are employed regarding stratigraphy and vapor fluxes, an analytical solution to the heat transport problem can be used to generate temperature profiles at specified percolation rates for comparison to the observed geothermal gradient. Comparisons to an observed temperature profile in the basin-fill sediments beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, yielded water fluxes near zero, with absolute values <10 mm yr−1 For the deep vadose environment beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the complexities of stratigraphy and vapor movement are incorporated into a more elaborate heat and water transport model to compare simulated and observed temperature profiles for a pair of deep boreholes. Best matches resulted in a percolation rate near zero for one borehole and 11 mm yr−1 for the second borehole.

  18. Measurement of the temperature profile of an exothermic autocatalytic reaction front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Rakotomalala, N; Talon, L; Salin, D

    2009-11-01

    Autocatalytic reactions may propagate as solitary waves, namely, at a constant front velocity and with a stationary concentration profile, resulting from a balance between molecular diffusion and chemical reaction. When the reaction is exothermic, a thermal wave is linked to the chemical front. As the thermal diffusivity is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than the molecular one, the temperature profile spreads over length scales (mm) two orders of magnitude larger than the concentration one. Using an infrared camera, we measure the temperature profiles for a chlorite-tetrathionate autocatalytic reaction. The profiles are compared quantitatively to lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) numerical simulations. Our analysis also accounts for the lack of observation of the thermal wave for the iodate arsenous acid reaction.

  19. The effects of nonuniform illumination and temperature profiles on silicon solar cells under concentrated sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R. W.; Odonnel, D. T.; Backus, C. E.

    The independent effects of either nonuniform illumination or nonuniform temperature distribution on the performance of silicon solar cells under concentrated sunlight are examined. Results from both a theoretical model and experimental observations show that the electrical performance of the concentrator solar cell under nonuniform temperature is dependent on both the magnitude and the location of the nonuniform temperature profile. The model results, however, failed to predict the degree of bending of the open circuit voltage curve which was observed experimentally. For nonuniform illumination, experimental and theoretical results show that both the efficiency and the open circuit voltage are decreased compared with the uniform illumination case. The nonillumination profiles included step changes of illuminated to nonilluminated parts of the cell as well as continuously varying profiles across the geometry of the cell. It is found that the efficiency and the overall voltage of the cell can be increased by illuminating the cell closer to the busbar.

  20. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  1. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Rowland, Jessica A; Briscoe, Natalie J; Lentini, Pia E; Handasyde, Kathrine A; Lumsden, Linda F; Robert, Kylie A

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  2. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jessica A.; Briscoe, Natalie J.; Lentini, Pia E.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Lumsden, Linda F.; Robert, Kylie A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  3. Synoptic monthly gridded Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) water temperature and salinity from January 1990 to December 2009 (NCEI Accession 0138647)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The synoptic gridded Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (SG-GTSPP) provides world ocean 3D gridded temperature and salinity data in monthly increment...

  4. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanikova, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Division of Fusion Plasma Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Peterka, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); MFF Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Bohm, P., E-mail: bohm@ipp.cas.cz; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Urban, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Sos, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  5. A Model for Analyzing Temperature Profiles in Pipe Walls and Fluids Using Mathematical Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E. Emetere

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature profiling in both fluid and pipe walls had not been explained theoretically. The equations of energy balance and heat conductivity were queried by introducing known parameters to solveheat transfer using virtual mathematical experimentation. This was achieved by remodelingPoiseuille's equation. Distribution of temperature profiles between pipe wall, fluid flow, and surrounding air was investigated and validated upon comparison with experimental results. A new dimensionless parameter (unified number (U was introduced with the aim of solving known errors of the Reynolds and Nusselts number.

  6. Inversely-designed printed microwave ablation antenna for controlled temperature profile synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shashwat; Sarris, Costas D.

    2017-02-01

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is based on localized heating of biological tissues, enabled by an electric field. Antennas for ablation are commonly designed in a forward approach to generate a temperature profile specific to the design. The concept of an inversely-designed MWA antenna, consisting of printed dipoles, is presented herein. This design can be configured to synthesize a desired target temperature profile by controlling and optimizing its current distribution, as demonstrated by simulations. This concept provides the functionality of a phased array on the tip of an interstitial device.

  7. 40 CFR 86.129-94 - Road load power, test weight, inertia weight class determination, and fuel temperature profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be mounted 30 to 33 feet (9 to 10 meters) above the average ground height within a radius of 500... foot (150 meter) radius. An object is considered to be an obstruction if the included lateral angle... driving; (x) Track surface temperatures throughout the period of driving cycle (Tsur); (xi) Percent cloud...

  8. Optical measurement of static temperature and hydroxyl radical profiles in a hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Profiles of static temperature and hydroxyl radical concentration were measured in a two-dimensional supersonic combustor test section 22.8 cm downstream of hydrogen injection. A high-pressure gas generator supplied vitiated air to the test section at Mach 2.44, atmospheric pressure, and a total temperature of about 2240 K. Room-temperature hydrogen was injected through a 0.40-cm step slot at Mach 1 and matched pressure. The measurements utilized a noninterfering spectral line absorption technique in which narrow ultraviolet emission lines of the hydroxyl electronic transition are absorbed by the broader absorption lines in the combustion gas. Comparison of the measured temperature profiles with theoretical calculations showed good agreement.

  9. Dynamic temperature and humidity environmental profiles: impact for future emergency and disaster preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, William J; Louie, Richard F; Tang, Chloe S; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Kost, Gerald J

    2014-02-01

    During disasters and complex emergencies, environmental conditions can adversely affect the performance of point-of-care (POC) testing. Knowledge of these conditions can help device developers and operators understand the significance of temperature and humidity limits necessary for use of POC devices. First responders will benefit from improved performance for on-site decision making. To create dynamic temperature and humidity profiles that can be used to assess the environmental robustness of POC devices, reagents, and other resources (eg, drugs), and thereby, to improve preparedness. Surface temperature and humidity data from the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina USA) was obtained, median hourly temperature and humidity were calculated, and then mathematically stretched profiles were created to include extreme highs and lows. Profiles were created for: (1) Banda Aceh, Indonesia at the time of the 2004 Tsunami; (2) New Orleans, Louisiana USA just before and after Hurricane Katrina made landfall in 2005; (3) Springfield, Massachusetts USA for an ambulance call during the month of January 2009; (4) Port-au-Prince, Haiti following the 2010 earthquake; (5) Sendai, Japan for the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami with comparison to the colder month of January 2011; (6) New York, New York USA after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in 2012; and (7) a 24-hour rescue from Hawaii USA to the Marshall Islands. Profiles were validated by randomly selecting 10 days and determining if (1) temperature and humidity points fell inside and (2) daily variations were encompassed. Mean kinetic temperatures (MKT) were also assessed for each profile. Profiles accurately modeled conditions during emergency and disaster events and enclosed 100% of maximum and minimum temperature and humidity points. Daily variations also were represented well with 88.6% (62/70) of temperature readings and 71.1% (54/70) of relative humidity readings falling within diurnal patterns. Days

  10. High resolution humidity, temperature and aerosol profiling with MeteoSwiss Raman lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinoev, Todor; Arshinov, Yuri; Bobrovnikov, Sergei; Serikov, Ilya; Calpini, Bertrand; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc B.; Simeonov, Valentin

    2010-05-01

    Meteorological services rely, in part, on numerical weather prediction (NWP). Twice a day radiosonde observations of water vapor provide the required data for assimilation but this time resolution is insufficient to resolve certain meteorological phenomena. High time resolution temperature profiles from microwave radiometers are available as well but have rather low vertical resolution. The Raman LIDARs are able to provide temperature and humidity profiles with high time and range resolution, suitable for NWP model assimilation and validation. They are as well indispensible tools for continuous aerosol profiling for high resolution atmospheric boundary layer studies. To improve the database available for direct meteorological applications the Swiss meteo-service (MeteoSwiss), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) initiated a project to design and build an automated Raman lidar for day and night vertical profiling of tropospheric water vapor with the possibility to further upgrade it with an aerosol and temperature channels. The project was initiated in 2004 and RALMO (Raman Lidar for meteorological observations) was inaugurated in August 2008 at MeteoSwiss aerological station at Payerne. RALMO is currently operational and continuously profiles water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter ratio and aerosol extinction. The instrument is a fully automated, self-contained, eye-safe Raman lidar operated at 355 nm. Narrow field-of-view multi-telescope receiver and narrow band detection allow day and night-time vertical profiling of the atmospheric humidity. The rotational-vibrational Raman lidar responses from water vapor and nitrogen are spectrally separated by a high-throughput fiber coupled diffraction grating polychromator. The elastic backscatter and pure-rotational Raman lidar responses (PRR) from oxygen and nitrogen are spectrally isolated by a double grating polychromator and are used to

  11. Control of nanoparticle agglomeration through variation of the time-temperature profile in chemical vapor synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenadic, Ruzica; Winterer, Markus

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the time-temperature history on the characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, degree of agglomeration, or crystallinity is investigated for chemical vapor synthesis (CVS). A simple reaction-coagulation-sintering model is used to describe the CVS process, and the results of the model are compared to experimental data. Nanocrystalline titania is used as model material. Titania nanoparticles are generated from titanium-tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in a hot-wall reactor. Pure anatase particles and mixtures of anatase, rutile (up to 11 vol.%), and brookite (up to 29 vol.%) with primary particle sizes from 1.7 nm to 10.5 nm and agglomerate particle sizes from 24.3 nm to 55.6 nm are formed depending on the particle time-temperature history. An inductively heated furnace with variable inductor geometry is used as a novel system to control the time-temperature profile in the reactor externally covering a large wall temperature range from 873 K to 2023 K. An appropriate choice of inductor geometry, i.e. time-temperature profile, can significantly reduce the degree of agglomeration. Other particle characteristics such as crystallinity are also substantially influenced by the time-temperature profile.

  12. Control of nanoparticle agglomeration through variation of the time-temperature profile in chemical vapor synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djenadic, Ruzica; Winterer, Markus, E-mail: markus.winterer@uni-due.de [Universität Duisburg-Essen, Nanoparticle Process Technology, Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The influence of the time-temperature history on the characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, degree of agglomeration, or crystallinity is investigated for chemical vapor synthesis (CVS). A simple reaction-coagulation-sintering model is used to describe the CVS process, and the results of the model are compared to experimental data. Nanocrystalline titania is used as model material. Titania nanoparticles are generated from titanium-tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in a hot-wall reactor. Pure anatase particles and mixtures of anatase, rutile (up to 11 vol.%), and brookite (up to 29 vol.%) with primary particle sizes from 1.7 nm to 10.5 nm and agglomerate particle sizes from 24.3 nm to 55.6 nm are formed depending on the particle time-temperature history. An inductively heated furnace with variable inductor geometry is used as a novel system to control the time-temperature profile in the reactor externally covering a large wall temperature range from 873 K to 2023 K. An appropriate choice of inductor geometry, i.e. time-temperature profile, can significantly reduce the degree of agglomeration. Other particle characteristics such as crystallinity are also substantially influenced by the time-temperature profile.

  13. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  14. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in α-Ga ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P PANDA and N C MOHAPATRA*. Department of Physics, Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti 761 010, India. £Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India. Email: ncmphy123@hotmail.com. MS received 18 January 2003; accepted 21 June 2003. Abstract. Room temperature Compton profiles of ...

  15. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles of air at different temperatures and pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Z.; Witschas, B.; van der Water, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering profiles for air have been recorded for the temperature range from 255 to 340 K and the pressure range from 640 to 3300 mbar, covering the conditions relevant for the Earth's atmosphere and for planned atmospheric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) missions. The

  16. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  17. Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk production of Holstein cows in desert climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H. T.

    1992-06-01

    The environmental profile of central Arizona is quantitatively described using meteorological data between 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours per day less than 21° C, between 21 and 27° C, and more than 27° C, the environmental profile of central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32° C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.

  18. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Product MOD07_L2 consists of 30 gridded parameters related to atmospheric stability, atmospheric temperature...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Product MYD07_L2 consists of 30 gridded parameters related to atmospheric stability, atmospheric temperature...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 Daily global Total Ozone Burden, Atmospheric Stability, Temperature and Moisture Profiles at 20 vertical levels for temperature and 15 levels for moisture,...

  1. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V005 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 Daily global Total Ozone Burden, Atmospheric Stability, Temperature and Moisture Profiles at 20 vertical levels for temperature and 15 levels for moisture,...

  2. Temperature-dependent electronic decay profiles in CZT: probe of bulk and surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessick, Royal; Maupin, Hugh; Tepper, Gary C.; Szeles, Csaba

    2003-01-01

    The electronic performance of CZT-based gamma radiation spectrometers is governed by a synergism of bulk and surface properties. Compensation is used to increase the bulk resistivity of Cd1-xZnxTe (x~0.1), but the same electronic states that are introduced to increase the material resistivity can also trap charge and reduce the carrier lifetime. Electrical and mechanical surface defects introduced during or subsequent to crystal harvesting are also known to interfere with device performance. Using a contactless, pulsed laser microwave cavity perturbation technique, electronic decay profiles were studied in high pressure Bridgman CZT as a function of temperature. The electronic decay profile was found to depend very strongly on temperature and was modeled using a function consisting of two exponential terms with temperature-dependent amplitudes and time constants. The model was used to relate the observed temperature dependent decay kinetics in CZT to specific trap energies. It was found that, at low temperatures, the electronic decay process is dominated by a deep trap with an energy of approximately 0.69 +/- 0.1 eV from the band edge. As the temperature is increased, the charge trapping becomes dominated by a second trap with an energy of approximately 0.60 +/- 0.1 eV from the band edge. Surface damage introduces additional charge traps that significantly alter the decay kinetics particularly at low temperatures.

  3. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  4. Intercomparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Schranz, Franziska; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Haefele, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    In this work the stratospheric performance of a relatively new microwave temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) has been evaluated. With this goal in mind, almost 3 years of temperature measurements (January 2014-September 2016) from the TEMPERA radiometer were intercompared with simultaneous measurements from other techniques: radiosondes, MLS satellite and Rayleigh lidar. This intercomparison campaign was carried out at the aerological station of MeteoSwiss at Payerne (Switzerland). In addition, the temperature profiles from TEMPERA were used to validate the temperature outputs from the SD-WACCM model. The results showed in general a very good agreement between TEMPERA and the different instruments and the model, with a high correlation (higher than 0.9) in the temperature evolution at different altitudes between TEMPERA and the different data sets. An annual pattern was observed in the stratospheric temperature with generally higher temperatures in summer than in winter and with a higher variability during winter. A clear change in the tendency of the temperature deviations was detected in summer 2015, which was due to the repair of an attenuator in the TEMPERA spectrometer. The mean and the standard deviations of the temperature differences between TEMPERA and the different measurements were calculated for two periods (before and after the repair) in order to quantify the accuracy and precision of this radiometer over the campaign period. The results showed absolute biases and standard deviations lower than 2 K for most of the altitudes. In addition, comparisons proved the good performance of TEMPERA in measuring the temperature in the stratosphere.

  5. Revisiting internal gravity waves analysis using GPS RO density profiles: comparison with temperature profiles and application for wave field stability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pisoft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We revise selected findings regarding the utilization of Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO density profiles for the analysis of internal gravity waves (IGW, introduced by Sacha et al. (2014. Using various GPS RO datasets, we show that the differences in the IGW spectra between the dry-temperature and dry-density profiles that were described in the previous study as a general issue are in fact present in one specific data version only. The differences between perturbations in the temperature and density GPS RO profiles do not have any physical origin, and there is not the information loss of IGW activity that was suggested in Sacha et al. (2014. We investigate the previously discussed question of the temperature perturbations character when utilizing GPS RO dry-temperature profiles, derived by integration of the hydrostatic balance. Using radiosonde profiles as a proxy for GPS RO, we provide strong evidence that the differences in IGW perturbations between the real and retrieved temperature profiles (which are based on the assumption of hydrostatic balance include a significant nonhydrostatic component that is present sporadically and might be either positive or negative. The detected differences in related spectra of IGW temperature perturbations are found to be mostly about ±10 %. The paper also presents a detailed study on the utilization of GPS RO density profiles for the characterization of the wave field stability. We have analyzed selected stability parameters derived from the density profiles together with a study of the vertical rotation of the wind direction. Regarding the Northern Hemisphere the results point to the western border of the Aleutian high, where potential IGW breaking is detected. These findings are also supported by an analysis of temperature and wind velocity profiles. Our results confirm advantages of the utilization of the density profiles for IGW analysis.

  6. Validation of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature trends has become recognized as an important indicator of climate change, because different climate forcing mechanisms exhibit distinct vertical warming and cooling patterns. For example, the cooling of the stratosphere is an indicator for climate change as it provides evidence of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing just like surface warming. Despite its importance, our understanding of the observed stratospheric temperature trend and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances remains limited. One of the main reason is because stratospheric long-term datasets are sparse and obtained trends differ from one another. Different techniques allow to measure stratospheric temperature profiles as radiosonde, lidar or satellite. The main advantage of microwave radiometers against these other instruments is a high temporal resolution with a reasonable good spatial resolution. Moreover, the measurement at a fixed location allows to observe local atmospheric dynamics over a long time period, which is crucial for climate research. This study presents an evaluation of the stratospheric temperature profiles from a newly ground-based microwave temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) which has been built and designed at the University of Bern. The measurements from TEMPERA are compared with the ones from other different techniques such as in-situ (radiosondes), active remote sensing (lidar) and passive remote sensing on board of Aura satellite (MLS) measurements. In addition a statistical analysis of the stratospheric temperature obtained from TEMPERA measurements during four years of data has been performed. This analysis evidenced the capability of TEMPERA radiometer to monitor the temperature in the stratosphere for a long-term. The detection of some singular sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) during the analyzed period shows the necessity of these

  7. Temperature Profile in Fuel and Tie-Tubes for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishal Patel

    2015-02-01

    A finite element method to calculate temperature profiles in heterogeneous geometries of tie-tube moderated LEU nuclear thermal propulsion systems and HEU designs with tie-tubes is developed and implemented in MATLAB. This new method is compared to previous methods to demonstrate shortcomings in those methods. Typical methods to analyze peak fuel centerline temperature in hexagonal geometries rely on spatial homogenization to derive an analytical expression. These methods are not applicable to cores with tie-tube elements because conduction to tie-tubes cannot be accurately modeled with the homogenized models. The fuel centerline temperature directly impacts safety and performance so it must be predicted carefully. The temperature profile in tie-tubes is also important when high temperatures are expected in the fuel because conduction to the tie-tubes may cause melting in tie-tubes, which may set maximum allowable performance. Estimations of maximum tie-tube temperature can be found from equivalent tube methods, however this method tends to be approximate and overly conservative. A finite element model of heat conduction on a unit cell can model spatial dependence and non-linear conductivity for fuel and tie-tube systems allowing for higher design fidelity of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  8. Transcriptional profile of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 at low temperature: physiology of phytopathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvizu-Gómez, Jackeline Lizzeta; Hernández-Morales, Alejandro; Aguilar, Juan Ramiro Pacheco; Álvarez-Morales, Ariel

    2013-04-12

    Low temperatures play key roles in the development of most plant diseases, mainly because of their influence on the expression of various virulence factors in phytopathogenic bacteria. Thus far, studies regarding this environmental parameter have focused on specific themes and little is known about phytopathogenic bacteria physiology under these conditions. To obtain a global view regarding phytopathogenic bacteria strategies in response to physiologically relevant temperature changes, we used DNA microarray technology to compare the gene expression profile of the model bacterial pathogen P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 grown at 18°C and 28°C. A total of 236 differentially regulated genes were identified, of which 133 were up-regulated and 103 were down-regulated at 18°C compared to 28°C. The majority of these genes are involved in pathogenicity and virulence processes. In general, the results of this study suggest that the expression profile obtained may be related to the fact that low temperatures induce oxidative stress in bacterial cells, which in turn influences the expression of iron metabolism genes. The expression also appears to be correlated with the profile expression obtained in genes related to motility, biofilm production, and the type III secretion system. From the data obtained in this study, we can begin to understand the strategies used by this phytopathogen during low temperature growth, which can occur in host interactions and disease development.

  9. Integrated modeling of temperature profiles in L-mode tokamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Tangri, V. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Voitsekhovitch, I. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Simulations of doublet III-D, the joint European tokamak, and the tokamak fusion test reactor L-mode tokamak plasmas are carried out using the PTRANSP predictive integrated modeling code. The simulation and experimental temperature profiles are compared. The time evolved temperature profiles are computed utilizing the Multi-Mode anomalous transport model version 7.1 (MMM7.1) which includes transport associated with drift-resistive-inertial ballooning modes (the DRIBM model [T. Rafiq et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 082511 (2010)]). The tokamak discharges considered involved a broad range of conditions including scans over gyroradius, ITER like current ramp-up, with and without neon impurity injection, collisionality, and low and high plasma current. The comparison of simulation and experimental temperature profiles for the discharges considered is shown for the radial range from the magnetic axis to the last closed flux surface. The regions where various modes in the Multi-Mode model contribute to transport are illustrated. In the simulations carried out using the MMM7.1 model it is found that: The drift-resistive-inertial ballooning modes contribute to the anomalous transport primarily near the edge of the plasma; transport associated with the ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes contribute in the core region but decrease in the region of the plasma boundary; and neoclassical ion thermal transport contributes mainly near the center of the discharge.

  10. SIMULATION TOOL OF VELOCITY AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES IN THE ACCELERATED COOLING PROCESS OF HEAVY PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Adel dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to develop and apply mathematical models for determining the velocity and temperature profiles of heavy plates processed by accelerated cooling at Usiminas’ Plate Mill in Ipatinga. The development was based on the mathematical/numerical representation of physical phenomena occurring in the processing line. Production data from 3334 plates processed in the Plate Mill were used for validating the models. A user-friendly simulation tool was developed within the Visual Basic framework, taking into account all steel grades produced, the configuration parameters of the production line and these models. With the aid of this tool the thermal profile through the plate thickness for any steel grade and dimensions can be generated, which allows the tuning of online process control models. The simulation tool has been very useful for the development of new steel grades, since the process variables can be related to the thermal profile, which affects the mechanical properties of the steels.

  11. An extended Kalman-Bucy filter for atmospheric temperature profile retrieval with a passive microwave sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledsham, W. H.; Staelin, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    An extended Kalman-Bucy filter has been implemented for atmospheric temperature profile retrievals from observations made using the Scanned Microwave Spectrometer (SCAMS) instrument carried on the Nimbus 6 satellite. This filter has the advantage that it requires neither stationary statistics in the underlying processes nor linear production of the observed variables from the variables to be estimated. This extended Kalman-Bucy filter has yielded significant performance improvement relative to multiple regression retrieval methods. A multi-spot extended Kalman-Bucy filter has also been developed in which the temperature profiles at a number of scan angles in a scanning instrument are retrieved simultaneously. These multi-spot retrievals are shown to outperform the single-spot Kalman retrievals.

  12. Monitoring of temperature profiles and surface morphologies during laser sintering of alumina ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing of alumina by laser is a delicate process and small changes of processing parameters might cause less controlled and understood consequences. The real-time monitoring of temperature profiles, spectrum profiles and surface morphologies were evaluated in off-axial set-up for controlling the laser sintering of alumina ceramics. The real-time spectrometer and pyrometer were used for rapid monitoring of the thermal stability during the laser sintering process. An active illumination imaging system successfully recorded the high temperature melt pool and surrounding area simultaneously. The captured images also showed how the defects form and progress during the laser sintering process. All of these real-time monitoring methods have shown a great potential for on-line quality control during laser sintering of ceramics.

  13. Modelling coronal electron density and temperature profiles based on solar magnetic field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Antunes Vieira, L. E.; Dal Lago, A.; Palacios, J.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Stekel, T.

    2017-10-01

    The density and temperature profiles in the solar corona are complex to describe, the observational diagnostics is not easy. Here we present a physics-based model to reconstruct the evolution of the electron density and temperature in the solar corona based on the configuration of the magnetic field imprinted on the solar surface. The structure of the coronal magnetic field is estimated from Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) based on magnetic field from both observational synoptic charts and a magnetic flux transport model. We use an emission model based on the ionization equilibrium and coronal abundances from CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The preliminary results are discussed in details.

  14. A novel model for predicting the temperature profile in gas lift wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mahdiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common methods for calculating the production oil rate in a gas lift well is nodal analysis. This manner is an accurate one, but unfortunately it is very time consuming and slow. In some modern studies in petroleum engineering such as close loop control of the wells this slowness makes it impossible to have an online optimization. In fact, before the end of the optimization the input parameters have changed. Thus having a faster model is necessary specially in some of the new studies. One of the sources of slowness of the nodal analysis is the temperature profile estimation of the wells. There are two general approaches for temperature profile estimation, some like heat balance are accurate but slow. Others, similar to linear profile assumption are fast but inaccurate and usually are not used commonly. Here, as a new approach, a combination model of heat balance and linear temperature profile estimation has represented which makes the nodal analysis three times faster and it is as accurate as heat balance calculations. To create this, two points (gas injection point and end of tubing are selected, then using heat balance equations the temperature of those two points are calculated. In normal nodal analysis the temperature of each wanted point in the well is estimated by heat balance and it is the source of slowness but here just two points are calculated using those complex equations. It seems that between these points assuming a linear temperature profile is reasonable because the parameters of the well and production such as physical tubing, and casing shape and properties and gas oil ratio are constants. But of course, it still has some deviation from the complete method of heat balance which using regression and assigning a coefficient to the model even this much of the deviation could be overcame. Finally, the model was tested in various wells and it was compared with the normal nodal analysis with complete heat balance

  15. Assessment of NOAA NUCAPS upper air temperature profiles using COSMIC GPS radio occultation and ARM radiosondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, M. L.; Borg, L.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D.; Revercomb, H.; Gambacorta, A.

    2017-09-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently began operational processing to derive vertical temperature profiles from two new sensors, Cross-Track Infrared Sounder and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder, which were developed for the next generation of U.S. weather satellites. The NOAA-Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) has been developed by NOAA to routinely process data from future Joint Polar Satellite System operational satellites and the preparatory Suomi-NPP satellite. This paper assesses the NUCAPS vertical temperature profile product from the upper troposphere into the middle stratosphere using radiosonde and GPS radio occultation (RO) data. Radiosonde data from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program are=] compared to both the NUCAPS and GPS RO temperature products to evaluate bias and RMS errors. At all three fixed ARM sites for time periods investigated the NUCAPS temperature in the 100-40 hPa range is found to have an average bias to the radiosondes of less than 0.45 K and an RMS error of less than 1 K when temperature averaging kernels are applied. At a 95% confidence level, the radiosondes and RO were found to agree within 0.4 K at the North Slope of Alaska site and within 0.83 K at Southern Great Plains and Tropical Western Pacific. The GPS RO-derived dry temperatures, obtained from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission, are used as a common reference for the intercomparison of NUCAPS temperature products to similar products produced by NASA from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and by European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites from MetOp-B Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). For seasonal and zonal scales, the NUCAPS agreement with AIRS and IASI is less than 0.5 K after application of averaging kernels.

  16. Wound temperature profiles of coaxial mini-incision versus sleeveless microincision phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Avner; Abulafia, Adi; Michaeli, Adi; Ofir, Shay; Assia, Ehud I

    2017-04-01

    Temperature profiles at the corneal wound of coaxial mini-incision (2.4 mm) cataract surgery and sleeveless microincision (1.1 mm) cataract surgery were compared. Prospective, controlled, paired-eye clinical trial conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Twenty patients with mild-to-moderate bilateral nuclear sclerotic cataract. Twenty patients underwent bilateral cataract surgery within a 1-month period. One eye was operated on by conventional coaxial mini-incision (2.4 mm) phacoemulsification. The second eye underwent microincision surgery by using a naked phacoemulsification tip and a specialized 19-gauge anterior chamber maintainer as the sole fluid source (three-port microincision cataract surgery technique). Patients had moderate bilateral cataracts with no other anterior segment pathology. Temperature at the corneal wound was constantly recorded by using infrared thermal imaging. Temperatures at the corneal wound. Mean temperatures at the corneal surgical wound were not significantly different between the coaxial and sleeveless groups (31.1 °C ± 2.3 vs. 31.0 °C ± 2. 0; P = 0.89). There was also no difference in maximum temperatures reached during phaco-emulsification. Temperatures did not rise above 40 °C during any surgery, and there were no corneal burns. Final visual acuity and intraoperative and postoperative complication rates were similar between the two groups. The temperature profile at the surgical wound using a microincisional sleeveless phacoemulsification technique is comparable with that of the conventional coaxial mini-incision method. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. On the meaning of peak temperatures profiles in inverted metamorphic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat-Oualid, Sylvia; Yamato, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Inverted metamorphic sequences (IMS) exhibit an upwards continuous increase of peak temperatures and are common features of main thrust systems on Earth. They constitute evidence of the strong relationship existing between thermal field evolution and tectonic processes. Heat advection and shear heating are known to allow the formation of such metamorphic signatures while heat diffusion also plays an important role on temperatures distribution on both sides of the thrust. Furthermore, other advective processes such as erosion or accretion can also be responsible for local inversion of peak temperatures. However, despite of the crucial importance of all these processes for interpretating inverted peak temperatures signatures, their respective influences were never quantified and compared. In order to address this issue, we here propose an innovative coupled approach: (i) We perform 2-D numerical models of various thrust systems by taking into account different kinematic settings (convergence, erosion, accretion), thermal properties, mechanical strength and heat sources. (ii) We quantify the relative contributions of each thermal process (i.e., diffusion, advection, shear heating) to the thermal budget evolution by using dimensionless numbers. Erosion and accretion are compared apart. (iii) We analytically examine peak temperatures recorded in our numerical experiments, along profiles perpendicular to the thrust zone. Each peak temperatures profile presenting an inversion is then characterised by a function of approximation involving six meaningful parameters: the location μFF and width σFF of the peak temperature inversion, the characteristic peak temperature Tcte and gradient GLB beneath the inversion zone, the inversion related contrasts of peak temperature ∆T and gradient ∆G. This multi-approach allows in fine to quantitatively interpret any IMS in terms of involved processes. Its application to intra-continental thrust systems demonstrates that shear

  18. The effect of axial fuel rod power profile on fuel temperature and cladding strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyu-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most limiting design criteria for nuclear reactor normal operating conditions (ANS Condition I are known to be rod internal pressure and cladding oxidation, while those for nuclear reactor transient operating conditions (ANS Conditon II to be fuel centerline temperature and transient cladding total tensile strain. However, the design margins against fuel temperature and transient cladding tensile strain become smaller since power uprating is being or will be utilized for the most of nuclear power reactors to enhance the economics of nuclear power. In order to secure sufficient design margins against fuel temperature and cladding total tensile strain even for power uprating, the current axial rod power profiles used in the reactor transient analysis were optimized to reduce over-conservatism, considering that 118% overpower of a steady-state peak rod average power was not exceeded during the reactor transients. The comparison of the current axial rod power profiles and the optimized ones indicates that the latter reduces the fuel centerline temperature and cladding total tensile strain by 26°C and 0.02%, respectively.

  19. STUDY OF TEMPERATURE PROFILE ON VARIOUS LAND USE AND LAND COVER FOR EMERGING HEAT ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainu Franco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyderabad city, the fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration in India is emerging into a megacity with the population set to cross the 10 million mark by 2015. The city is currently in the midst of unprecedented urbanization as it has grown into a cyber-capital, and is now known as the tricity of Cyberabad- Hyderabad and Secunderabad. Commanding a massive area of 1905 km2, the city suffers from a host of problems including heavy population growth, over-use of basic amenities and resources, sprawl, depletion of ground water and climatic changes attributed to enhanced greenhouse gases. This study evaluates the growth of the urban built up areas within the city using remote sensing and GIS, apart from analyzing the temperature profile across various land use and land cover. Landsat 5 TM data of 1989, 1999 and 2009 were used to understand the temperature changes over different land use and land cover. The study shows a 67% loss in water bodies while the urban built up areas have grown by 270%. The temperature profile also shows a dip in temperature while encountering water bodies, gardens and parks.

  20. Groundwater flow estimation using temperature-depth profiles in a complex environment and a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Dylan J; Kurylyk, Barret L; Cartwright, Ian; Bonham, Mariah; Post, Vincent E A; Banks, Eddie W; Simmons, Craig T

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining reliable estimates of vertical groundwater flows remains a challenge but is of critical importance to the management of groundwater resources. When large scale land clearing or groundwater extraction occurs, methods based on water table fluctuations or water chemistry are unreliable. As an alternative, a number of methods based on temperature-depth (T-z) profiles are available to provide vertical groundwater flow estimates from which recharge rates may be calculated. However, methods that invoke steady state assumptions have been shown to be inappropriate for sites that have experienced land surface warming. Analytical solutions that account for surface warming are available, but they typically include unrealistic or restrictive assumptions (e.g. no flow initial conditions or linear surface warming). Here, we use a new analytical solution and associated computer program (FAST) that provides flexible initial and boundary conditions to estimate fluxes using T-z profiles from the Willunga Super Science Site, a complex, but densely instrumented groundwater catchment in South Australia. T-z profiles from seven wells (ranging from high elevation to near sea level) were utilised, in addition to mean annual air temperatures at nearby weather stations to estimate boundary conditions, and thermal properties were estimated from down borehole geophysics. Temperature based flux estimates were 5 to 23mmy-1, which are similar to those estimated using chloride mass balance. This study illustrates that T-z profiles can be studied to estimate recharge in environments where more commonly applied methods fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intercomparison of Ozone and Temperature Profiles During OZITOS+ 2014 Campaign in Río Gallegos, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Jacobo; Wolfram, Elian; Orte, Facundo; D'Elia, Raúl; Quiroga, Jonathan; Quel, Eduardo; Zamorano, Felix; Pérez, Raúl; Villa, Israel; Oyama, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-06-01

    In the framework of SAVER-Net project, the OZone profIle aT Río GallegOS (OZITOS+) campaign was held in the city of Río Gallegos, Argentina (51.5 S; 69.1 W). This experiment was conducted on October 14 -18, 2014 and its main goal was to compare the ozone and temperature profiles using three different measurement techniques such as Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), ozonesonde and Millimeter Wave Radiometer (MWR). Also other ground-based and satellite-based instruments were included in the experiment but in this work we only present preliminary results from ground-based instruments deployed in the site. The DIAL instrument is part of Network Data for Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) network, and the usual protocols of quality assurance imposed for the network involve regular validation/comparisons experiments. The lidar ozone profiles measured with the lidar are compared with ozone profiles obtained with independent techniques, usually with higher or same resolution as lidar. The experiment are made collocated spatial and temporally. For that reason the Chilean team joined to Japanese and Argentine team at Río Gallegos to develop the experiment. On October 2014, the Río Gallegos Observatory station was inside the polar vortex during first two weeks and after that polar vortex have moved far away from Río Gallegos during the 3rd week of October, when the intercomparison campaign was held. In this paper we are present a preliminary results of the campaign, computing the ozone and temperature profiles from DIAL with ozonesondes and MWR.

  2. Photovoltaic mounting/demounting unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic arrangement comprising a photovoltaic assembly comprising a support structure defining a mounting surface onto which a photovoltaic module is detachably mounted; and a mounting/demounting unit comprising at least one mounting/demounting apparatus...... which when the mounting/demounting unit is moved along the mounting surface, causes the photovoltaic module to be mounted or demounted to the support structure; wherein the photovoltaic module comprises a carrier foil and wherein a total thickness of the photo voltaic module is below 500 muiotaeta....... The present invention further relates to an associated method for mounting/demounting photovoltaic modules....

  3. Effect of temperature on growth and fatty acids profile of the biodiesel producing microalga Scenedesmus acutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sheekh, M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study examined the effect of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C on biomass, esterified fatty acids content and fatty acid productivity of Scenedesmus acutus. Objectives. This work aimed to study the effect of variation in temperature on lipid productivity and fatty acid profiles of S. acutus as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Method. The alga was grown under different temperatures and its biomass, as well as fatty acid content and composition, were determined. Results. The maximum growth rate of S. acutus was achieved at 30 °C , but there was no significant difference in biomass productivity at 25 and 30 °C (0.41 and 0.42 g·l-1·d-1, respectively. The highest fatty acid content (104.1 mg·g-1 CDW was recorded at low temperature (15 °C and decreased with increasing temperature. As a result of high biomass production, fatty acids productivity showed the highest values (41.27 and 42.10 mg·l-1·d-1 at 25 and 30 °C, respectively. The proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids increased from 13.72 to 23.79% and from 11.13 to 33.10% of total fatty acids when the incubation temperature was raised from 15 to 40 °C, respectively. The increase of temperature from 15 to 40 °C decreased the poly-unsaturated fatty acids from 75.15% to 43.10% of total fatty acids, respectively. Conclusions. The present study concluded that incubation temperature was a critical parameter for quantitative and qualitative fatty acid compositions of S. acutus. In addition, the type and proportion of individual fatty acids, which interfere with biodiesel quality, can be modified using different incubation temperatures in order to meet the biodiesel international standards.

  4. Texture Profile Analysis of Sliced Cheese in relation to Chemical Composition and Storage Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanrong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative relationships among chemical composition, storage temperature, and texture of cheese were not fully understood. In this study, the effects of composition and temperature on textural properties of eight common varieties of sliced cheese were examined. The textural properties of sliced cheeses, including firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness, and resilience, were measured by texture profile analysis after storage at 4 and 25°C for 4 h. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to describe the quantitative relationships of textural properties (dependent variables to chemical composition and storage temperature (independent variables of sliced cheeses. Results showed that protein, fat, moisture, and sodium chloride contents as well as storage temperature significantly affected the texture of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. In particular, fat in the dry matter and moisture in the nonfat substances were negatively correlated with firmness of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. As storage temperature rose from 4 to 25°C, the average values of firmness, chewiness, and resilience substantially declined by 42%, 45%, and 17%, respectively (P<0.05. This study provided reference data for adjusting chemical composition and storage temperature of common cheese products to obtain favorable texture for Chinese consumers, which thereby facilitated the localization of cheese industry in Chinese market.

  5. Inkjet printed paper based frequency selective surfaces and skin mounted RFID tags: The interrelation between silver nanoparticle ink, paper substrate and low temperature sintering technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaguera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Turki, B.M.; Abbel, R.; Barbosa, S.; Tate, D.J.; Oyeka, D.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional frequency selective surfaces (FSS) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags on commercial paper substrates using silver nanoparticle inks sintered using low temperature thermal, plasma and photonic techniques is reported. Printed and sintered FSS devices

  6. Profiling floats and gliders/AUVs powered by ocean temperature differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Development, implementation and testing of a profiling float powered by ocean temperature differentials are described. The current generation profiling floats are all powered by primary battery and therefore have limited lifetime. After a few hundreds dives, the floats have to be disposed in the ocean. To maintain a float array of 3000 units in support of the international Argo program, several hundreds of new floats have to be deployed every year, implying a significant cost for deployment. The limited power from the primary battery also restricts a relatively long (i.e., 10 days) sampling interval and new sensors (e.g., biogeochemical, acoustic and optical) to be attached. Harvesting the ocean thermal energy associated with the vertical temperature differentials has the potential to power profiling floats with fast sampling (e.g., 1 day or 6 hours) while still maintaining a multi-year mission as well as more sensors. The concept of a thermally powered glider will be presented. The design of a thermal recharging station that can be used to dock and charge AUVs will also be discussed.

  7. Comparison of Temperature Measurements in the Middle Atmosphere by Satellite with Profiles Obtained by Meteorological Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Feofilov, Artem; Bedrick, M.; Rose, R. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Measurements using the inflatable falling sphere technique have occasionally been used to obtain temperature results from density data and thereby provide comparison with temperature profiles obtained by satellite sounders in the mesosphere and stratosphere. To insure density measurements within narrow time frames and close in space, the inflatable falling sphere is launched within seconds of the nearly overhead satellite pass. Sphere measurements can be used to validate remotely measured temperatures but also have the advantage of measuring small-scale atmospheric features. Even so, with the dearth of remaining falling spheres available (the manufacture of these systems has been discontinued), it may be time to consider whether the remote measurements are mature enough to stand alone. Three field studies are considered, one in 2003 from Northern Sweden, and two in 2010 from the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll in the South Pacific and from Barking Sands, Hawaii. All three sites are used to compare temperature retrievals between satellite and in situ falling spheres. The major satellite instruments employed are SABER, MLS, and AIRS. The comparisons indicate that remotely measured temperatures mimic the sphere temperature measurements quite well. The data also confirm that satellite retrievals, while not always at the exact location required for detailed studies in space and time, compare sufficiently well to be highly useful. Although the falling sphere will provide a measurement at a specific location and time, satellites only pass a given location daily or less frequently. This report reveals that averaged satellite measurements can provide temperatures and densities comparable to those obtained from the falling sphere, thereby providing a reliable measure of global temperature

  8. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  9. Robust/optimal temperature profile control of a high-speed aerospace vehicle using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vivek; Padhi, Radhakant; Balakrishnan, S N

    2007-07-01

    An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. A 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. "Snapshot" solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the "proper orthogonal decomposition" (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. A low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. An ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with a single-network-adaptive-critic (SNAC) controller for this approximate nonlinear model. Actual control in the original domain is calculated with the same POD basis functions through a reverse mapping. Further contribution of this paper includes development of an online robust neurocontroller to account for unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties inherent in such a complex dynamic system. A neural network (NN) weight update rule that guarantees boundedness of the weights and relaxes the need for persistence of excitation (PE) condition is presented. Simulation studies show that in a fairly extensive but compact domain, any desired temperature profile can be achieved starting from any initial temperature profile. Therefore, the ADP and NN-based controllers appear to have the potential to become controller synthesis tools for nonlinear distributed parameter systems.

  10. Asymptotic solutions of glass temperature profiles during steady optical fibre drawing

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.

    2013-03-12

    In this paper we derive realistic simplified models for the high-speed drawing of glass optical fibres via the downdraw method that capture the fluid dynamics and heat transport in the fibre via conduction, convection and radiative heating. We exploit the small aspect ratio of the fibre and the relative orders of magnitude of the dimensionless parameters that characterize the heat transfer to reduce the problem to one- or two-dimensional systems via asymptotic analysis. The resulting equations may be readily solved numerically and in many cases admit exact analytic solutions. The systematic asymptotic breakdown presented is used to elucidate the relative importance of furnace temperature profile, convection, surface radiation and conduction in each portion of the furnace and the role of each in controlling the glass temperature. The models derived predict many of the qualitative features observed in real industrial processes, such as the glass temperature profile within the furnace and the sharp transition in fibre thickness. The models thus offer a desirable route to quick scenario testing, providing valuable practical information about the dependencies of the solution on the parameters and the dominant heat-transport mechanism. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  11. Iterative noise removal from temperature and density profiles in the TJ-II Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, G., E-mail: gonzalo.farias@ucv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.es [Departamento de Informática y Automática, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J., E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, M., E-mail: msantos@ucm.es [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I., E-mail: ignacio.pastor@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fingerhuth, S., E-mail: sebastian.fingerhuth@ucv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Ascencio, J., E-mail: j_ascencio21@hotmail.com [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2014-05-15

    TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic provides temperature and density profiles of plasma. The CCD camera acquires images that are corrupted with some kind of noise called stray-light. This noise degrades both image contrast and measurement accuracy, which could produce unreliable profiles of the diagnostic. So far, several approaches have been applied in order to decrease the noise in the TJ-II Thomson scattering images. Since the presence of the noise is not global but located in some particular regions of the image, advanced processing techniques are needed. However such methods require of manual fine-tuning of parameters to reach a good performance. In this contribution, an iterative image processing approach is applied in order to reduce the stray light effects in the images of the TJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic. The proposed solution describes how the noise can be iteratively reduced in the images when a key parameter is automatically adjusted during the iterative process.

  12. Line profile analysis and low temperature AC susceptibility of Cu-Zn ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Ashok. R.; Jayanna, H. S.; Prasanna, G. D.

    2012-06-01

    The Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) samples were prepared using double sintering ceramic method by adding Zn2+ at different concentration. The X-ray line profile analysis were carried out to confirm the spinel phase formation as well as to know the (%) strain in the crystal. The real and imaginary part of a.c. susceptibility measured from77K to room temperature. The high temperature peak corresponds to magnetic blocking of individual particles, while the low temperature peak is attributed to surface spin-glass freezing. To prove the dynamics of the spin (dis)order in both regimes of freezing and blocking, the frequency dependent ac susceptibility is investigated under a biasing dc field. The frequency shift in the "frozen" low-temperature ac susceptibility peak is fitted to a dynamic scaling law which indicates a spin-glass phase. Exchange bias is turned on at low temperature which signifies the existence of a strong core-shell interaction.

  13. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using bottle from the Zarnitsa in the Barents Sea (NODC Accession 0002235)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data from the SCIENTIFIC ICHTIOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF LENINGRAD (RUSSIA), digitized from "Bulletin of the Institute of Ichthyology,...

  14. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using bottle from the LITKE in the Arctic in 1948 (NODC Accession 0001088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other profile data digitized at NODC on 05/02/03, received by Igor Smolyar from Matishov, G., A. Zuyev, V. Golubev, N. Adrov, S. Timofeev,...

  15. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using bottle from the UGLOMER in the Arctic in 1961 (NODC Accession 0001128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the UGLOMER in the Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and White Sea. Data were...

  16. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and other measurements collected using bottle in the Arctic in 1934 (NODC Accession 0001244)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts in the Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea, and Arctic Ocean. Data were...

  17. Temperature profile data from XBT casts by SEAS program participating vessels, November 2001 - January 2002 (NODC Accession 0000661)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the OLEANDER and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 22 November 2001 to 23 January 2002....

  18. NODC Standard Product: Experimental Compact Disk NODC-01 Pacific Ocean Temperature-Salinity Profiles (1900-1988) (NODC Accession 0086259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) created a compact disk containing over 1.3 million temperature-depth and salinity-depth profiles taken in the Pacific...

  19. Real-time measurements of temperature, pressure and moisture profiles in High-Performance Concrete exposed to high temperatures during neutron radiography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropovs, N., E-mail: nikolajs.toropovs@rtu.lv [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Lo Monte, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Wyrzykowski, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Weber, B. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sahmenko, G. [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Vontobel, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Felicetti, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Lura, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    High-Performance Concrete (HPC) is particularly prone to explosive spalling when exposed to high temperature. Although the exact causes that lead to spalling are still being debated, moisture transport during heating plays an important role in all proposed mechanisms. In this study, slabs made of high-performance, low water-to-binder ratio mortars with addition of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and polypropylene fibers (PP) were heated from one side on a temperature-controlled plate up to 550 °C. A combination of measurements was performed simultaneously on the same sample: moisture profiles via neutron radiography, temperature profiles with embedded thermocouples and pore pressure evolution with embedded pressure sensors. Spalling occurred in the sample with SAP, where sharp profiles of moisture and temperature were observed. No spalling occurred when PP-fibers were introduced in addition to SAP. The experimental procedure described here is essential for developing and verifying numerical models and studying measures against fire spalling risk in HPC.

  20. Supersonic nozzle profiling for supersonic aerospace testing in a view of high-temperature of properties of real gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Kulikov, Yu M.; Panov, V. A.; Sargsyan, M. A.; Son, E. E.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the modified method for the supersonic nozzle profiling with respect to non-monotonic dependence of adiabatic index on temperature, as well as the results of nozzle profile calculation for two sets of input parameters, based on independently determined specific heat curve for molecular nitrogen N2 and products of its thermal decomposition in the temperature range of T = 260-100000 K and atmospheric pressure.

  1. Force-free collisionless current sheet models with non-uniform temperature and density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Allanson, O.

    2017-09-01

    We present a class of one-dimensional, strictly neutral, Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium distribution functions for force-free current sheets, with magnetic fields defined in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions, extending the results of Abraham-Shrauner [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102117 (2013)] to allow for non-uniform density and temperature profiles. To achieve this, we use an approach previously applied to the force-free Harris sheet by Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)]. In one limit of the parameters, we recover the model of Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)], while another limit gives a linear force-free field. We discuss conditions on the parameters such that the distribution functions are always positive and give expressions for the pressure, density, temperature, and bulk-flow velocities of the equilibrium, discussing the differences from previous models. We also present some illustrative plots of the distribution function in velocity space.

  2. Impact of dual temperature profile in dilute acid hydrolysis of spruce for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bösch Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two-step dilute acid hydrolysis (DAH of softwood is costly in energy demands and capital costs. However, it has the advantage that hydrolysis and subsequent removal of hemicellulose-derived sugars can be carried out under conditions of low severity, resulting in a reduction in the level of sugar degradation products during the more severe subsequent steps of cellulose hydrolysis. In this paper, we discuss a single-step DAH method that incorporates a temperature profile at two levels. This profile should simulate the two-step process while removing its major disadvantage, that is, the washing step between the runs, which leads to increased energy demand. Results The experiments were conducted in a reactor with a controlled temperature profile. The total dry matter content of the hydrolysate was up to 21.1% w/w, corresponding to a content of 15.5% w/w of water insoluble solids. The highest measured glucose yield, (18.3 g glucose per 100 g dry raw material, was obtained after DAH cycles of 3 min at 209°C and 6 min at 211°C with 1% H2SO4, which resulted in a total of 26.3 g solubilized C6 sugars per 100 g dry raw material. To estimate the remaining sugar potential, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH of the solid fraction was also performed. EH of the solid residue increased the total level of solubilized C6 sugars to a maximum of 35.5 g per 100 g dry raw material when DAH was performed as described above (3 min at 210°C and 2 min at 211°C with 1% H2SO4. Conclusion The dual-temperature DAH method did not yield decisively better results than the single-temperature, one-step DAH. When we compared the results with those of earlier studies, the hydrolysis performance was better than with the one-step DAH but not as well as that of the two-step, single-temperature DAH. Additional enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in lower levels of solubilized sugars compared with other studies on one-step DAH and two-step DAH followed by enzymatic

  3. Preliminary study of the offshore wind and temperature profiles at the North of the Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando, E-mail: sbientz@msn.com [CREST, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University (United Kingdom); Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan (Mexico); Watson, Simon [CREST, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University (United Kingdom); Infield, David [Institute of Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom); Ricalde-Cab, Lifter [Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first study that reports the properties of the vertical wind resources for the offshore conditions of the North coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. {yields} A significant and detailed analysis of the thermal patterns has revealed a complex structure of the atmospheric boundary layer close to the shore. {yields} The structure of the diurnal wind patterns was assessed to produce an important reference for the wind resource availability in the study region. {yields} It was identified that the sea breeze blows in directions almost parallel to the shoreline of the North of the Yucatan Peninsula during the majority of the 24 h cycle. {yields} The analysis of the offshore data revealed a persistent non-uniform surface boundary layer developed as result of the advection of a warn air over a cold sea. - Abstract: The stability conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer, the intensity of the wind speeds and consequently the energy potential available in offshore conditions are highly influenced by the distance from the coastline and the differences between the air and sea temperatures. This paper presents a preliminary research undertook to study the offshore wind and temperature vertical profiles at the North-West of the Yucatan Peninsula coast. Ten minute averages were recorded over approximately 2 years from sensors installed at two different heights on a communication tower located at 6.65 km from the coastline. The results have shown that the offshore wind is thermally driven by differential heating of land and sea producing breeze patterns which veer to blow parallel to the coast under the action of the Coriolis force. To investigate further, a dataset of hourly sea surface temperatures derived from GEOS Satellite thermal maps was combined with the onsite measured data to study its effect on the vertical temperature profile. The results suggested largely unstable conditions and the potentially development of a shallow Stable Internal

  4. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles of air at different temperatures and pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ziyu; Witschas, Benjamin; van de Water, Willem; Ubachs, Wim

    2013-07-01

    Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering profiles for air have been recorded for the temperature range from 255 to 340 K and the pressure range from 640 to 3300 mbar, covering the conditions relevant for the Earth's atmosphere and for planned atmospheric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) missions. The measurements performed at a wavelength of λ=366.8 nm detect spontaneous RB scattering at a 90° scattering angle from a sensitive intracavity setup, delivering scattering profiles at a 1% rms noise level or better. The experimental results have been compared to a kinetic line-shape model, the acclaimed Tenti S6 model, considered to be most appropriate for such conditions, under the assumption that air can be treated as an effective single-component gas with temperature-scaled values for the relevant macroscopic transport coefficients. The elusive transport coefficient, the bulk viscosity η(b), is effectively derived by a comparing the measurements to the model, yielding an increased trend from 1.0 to 2.5×10(-5) kg·m(-1)·s(-1) for the temperature interval. The calculated (Tenti S6) line shapes are consistent with experimental data at the level of 2%, meeting the requirements for the future RB-scattering LIDAR missions in the Earth's atmosphere. However, the systematic 2% deviation may imply that the model has a limit to describe the finest details of RB scattering in air. Finally, it is demonstrated that the RB scattering data in combination with the Tenti S6 model can be used to retrieve the actual gas temperatures.

  5. Validation of Surface Skin Temperature and Moisture Profiles Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man Li C.; Schubert, Siegfried; Lin, Ching I.

    1999-01-01

    New validation techniques and metrics using satellite data have been developed to evaluate the quality of model-based estimates of surface skin temperature (Tg) and moisture profiles (q). The satellite data consist of clear sky outgoing long-wave radiation (CLR), broadband radiances from 8 to 12 mu (RadWn), brightness temperature centered around 10.8 mu (Tbb), and total precipitable water (TPW) from microwave radiometry. We show that CLR can be used to diagnose Tg. Furthermore, by using a combination of CLR and RadWn from CERES-TRMM measurements and TPW from SSM/I, we are able to identify errors in the moisture profile. Finally, three-hourly Tbb from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project can be used to evaluate the amplitude and diurnal variation of Tg. For purpose of illustration, Tg and q are evaluated from runs with an early version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-2). It is found that, in general, Tg is too cold in the winter hemisphere and q is too wet in the upper atmosphere. In order to address these deficiencies, several improvements have been implemented into GEOS-2, including a Land-Surface-Model, a Moist Turbulence Scheme, and the assimilation of new TOVS retrievals. Preliminary results indicate positive impacts from each of these implementations.

  6. Stream bed temperature profiles as indicators of percolation characteristics beneath arroyos in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.; Thomas, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Stream bed temperature profiles were monitored continuously during water year 1990 and 1991 (WY90 and 91) in two New Mexico arroyos, similar in their meteorological features and dissimilar in their hydrological features. Stream bed temperature profiles between depths of 30 and 300 cm were examined to determine whether temporal changes in temperature profiles represent accurate indicators of the timing, depth and duration of percolation in each stream bed. These results were compared with stream flow, air temperature, and precipitation records for WY90 and 91, to evaluate the effect of changing surface conditions on temperature profiles. Temperature profiles indicate a persistently high thermal gradient with depth beneath Grantline Arroyo, except during a semi-annual thermal reversal in spring and autumn. This typifies the thermal response of dry sediments with low thermal conductivities. High thermal gradients were disrupted only during infrequent stream flows, followed by rapid re-establishment of high gradients. The stream bed temperature at 300 cm was unresponsive to individual precipitation or stream flow during WY90 and 91. This thermal pattern provides strong evidence that most seepage into Grantline Arroyo failed to percolate at a sufficient rate to reach 300 cm before being returned to the atmosphere. A distinctly different thermal pattern was recorded beneath Tijeras Arroyo. Low thermal gradients between 30 and 300 cm and large diurnal variations in temperature, suggest that stream flow created continuous, advection-dominated heat transport for over 300 days, annually. Beneath Tijeras Arroyo, low thermal gradients were interrupted only briefly during periodic, dry summer conditions. Comparisons of stream flow records for WY90 and 91 with stream bed temperature profiles indicate that independent analysis of thermal patterns provides accurate estimates of the timing, depth and duration of percolation beneath both arroyos. Stream flow loss estimates indicate

  7. O2 density and temperature profiles retrieving from direct solar Lyman-alpha radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guineva, V.; Witt, G.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.; Werner, R.; Hedin, J.; Neichev, S.; Kirov, B.; Bankov, L.; Gramatikov, P.; Tashev, V.; Popov, M.; Hauglund, K.; Hansen, G.; Ilstad, J.; Wold, H.

    2009-12-01

    The resonance transition 2P-2S of the atomic hydrogen (Lyman-alpha emission) is the strongest and most conspicuous feature in the solar EUV spectrum. The Lyman-alpha radiation transfer depends on the resonance scattering from the hydrogen atoms in the atmosphere and on the O2 absorption. Since the Lyman-alpha extinction in the atmosphere is a measure for the column density of the oxygen molecules, the atmospheric O2 density and temperature profiles can be calculated thereof. A detector of solar Lyman-alpha radiation was manufactured in the Stara Zagora Department of the Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory (STIL). Its basic part is an ionization camera, filled in with NO. A 60 V power supply is applied to the chamber. The produced photoelectric current from the sensor is fed to a two-channel amplifier, providing analog signal. The characteristics of the Lyman-alpha detector were studied. It passed successfully all tests and the results showed that the so-designed instrument could be used in rocket experiments to measure the Lymanalpha flux. From the measurements of the detector, the Lyman-alpha vertical profile can be obtained. Programs are created to compute the O2 density, atmospheric power and temperature profiles based on Lymanalpha data. The detector design appertained to ASLAF project (Attenuation of the Solar Lyman-Alpha Flux), a scientific cooperation between STIL—Bul.Acad.Sci., Stara Zagora Department and the Atmospheric Physics Group at the Department of Meteorology (MISU), Stockholm University, Sweden. The joint project was part of the rocket experiment HotPay I, in the ALOMAR eARI Project, EU’s 6th Framework Programme, Andøya Rocket Range, Andenes, Norway. The project is partly financed by the Bulgarian Ministry of Science and Education.

  8. Temperature influences the expression profiling of immune response genes in rainbow trout following DNA vaccination and VHS virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Gautier, Laurent; Rasmussen, Jesper Skou

    -PCR. The expression profiles appeared similar for the two genes in terms of temperature dependency with a faster induction and shorter duration at the higher temperature. In order to analyze the temperature effect on the relative expression profiles across a larger set of immune genes time points displaying similar...... an early unspecific antiviral response as well as a long-lasting specific protection. However, temperature appears to influence immune response with respect to the nature and duration of the protective mechanisms. In this study, groups of fish were temperature acclimated, vaccinated and challenged at three...... different temperatures (5, 10 and 15ºC). Tissue and organ samples were collected at numerous time points post vaccination (pv) and post viral challenge (pch). Then, gene expression levels of a two immune genes (Vig-1 and Mx3) involved in unspecific antiviral response mechanisms were determined by Q...

  9. Remote sensing the vertical profile of cloud droplet effective radius, thermodynamic phase, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud-aerosol interaction is a key issue in the climate system, affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heat release. Information on the vertical distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to provide insight on how these particles are affecting cloud properties and their consequences to cloud lifetime, precipitation, water cycle, and general energy balance. Unfortunately, today's experimental methods still lack the observational tools that can characterize the true evolution of the cloud microphysical, spatial and temporal structure in the cloud droplet scale, and then link these characteristics to environmental factors and properties of the cloud condensation nuclei.

    Here we propose and demonstrate a new experimental approach (the cloud scanner instrument that provides the microphysical information missed in current experiments and remote sensing options. Cloud scanner measurements can be performed from aircraft, ground, or satellite by scanning the side of the clouds from the base to the top, providing us with the unique opportunity of obtaining snapshots of the cloud droplet microphysical and thermodynamic states as a function of height and brightness temperature in clouds at several development stages. The brightness temperature profile of the cloud side can be directly associated with the thermodynamic phase of the droplets to provide information on the glaciation temperature as a function of different ambient conditions, aerosol concentration, and type. An aircraft prototype of the cloud scanner was built and flew in a field campaign in Brazil.

    The CLAIM-3D (3-Dimensional Cloud Aerosol Interaction Mission satellite concept proposed here combines several techniques to simultaneously measure the vertical profile of cloud

  10. Evaluation of Temperature and Humidity Profiles of Unified Model and ECMWF Analyses Using GRUAN Radiosonde Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chan Noh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and water vapor profiles from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA and the United Kingdom Met Office (UKMO Unified Model (UM data assimilation systems and from reanalysis fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF were assessed using collocated radiosonde observations from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN for January–December 2012. The motivation was to examine the overall performance of data assimilation outputs. The difference statistics of the collocated model outputs versus the radiosonde observations indicated a good agreement for the temperature, amongst datasets, while less agreement was found for the relative humidity. A comparison of the UM outputs from the UKMO and KMA revealed that they are similar to each other. The introduction of the new version of UM into the KMA in May 2012 resulted in an improved analysis performance, particularly for the moisture field. On the other hand, ECMWF reanalysis data showed slightly reduced performance for relative humidity compared with the UM, with a significant humid bias in the upper troposphere. ECMWF reanalysis temperature fields showed nearly the same performance as the two UM analyses. The root mean square differences (RMSDs of the relative humidity for the three models were larger for more humid conditions, suggesting that humidity forecasts are less reliable under these conditions.

  11. Numerical determination of vertical water flux based on soil temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbagh, Alain; Cheviron, Bruno; Henine, Hocine; Guérin, Roger; Bechkit, Mohamed-Amine

    2017-07-01

    High sensitivity temperature sensors (0.001 K sensitivity Pt100 thermistors), positioned at intervals of a few centimetres along a vertical soil profile, allow temperature measurements to be made which are sensitive to water flux through the soil. The development of high data storage capabilities now makes it possible to carry out in situ temperature recordings over long periods of time. By directly applying numerical models of convective and conductive heat transfer to experimental data recorded as a function of depth and time, it is possible to calculate Darcy's velocity from the convection transfer term, thus allowing water infiltration/exfiltration through the soil to be determined as a function of time between fixed depths. In the present study we consider temperature data recorded at the Boissy-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne, France) experimental station between April 16th, 2009 and March 8th, 2010, at six different depths and 10-min time intervals. We make use of two numerical finite element models to solve the conduction/convection heat transfer equation and compare their merits. These two models allow us to calculate the corresponding convective flux rate every day using a group of three sensors. The comparison of the two series of calculated values centred at 24 cm shows reliable results for periods longer than 8 days. These results are transformed in infiltration/exfiltration value after determining the soil volumetric heat capacity. The comparison with the rainfall and evaporation data for periods of ten days shows a close accordance with the behaviour of the system governed by rainfall evaporation rate during winter and spring.

  12. Remote Sensing the Vertical Profile of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius, Thermodynamic Phase, and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J. V.; Marshak, A.; Remer, L. A.; Rosenfeld, D.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Fernandez-Borda, R.; Koren, I.; Correia, A. L.; Zubko, V.; Artaxo, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud-aerosol interaction is a key issue in the climate system, affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heat release. Information on the vertical distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to provide insight on how these particles are affecting cloud properties and their consequences to cloud lifetime, precipitation, water cycle, and general energy balance. Unfortunately, today's experimental methods still lack the observational tools that can characterize the true evolution of the cloud microphysical, spatial and temporal structure in the cloud droplet scale, and then link these characteristics to environmental factors and properties of the cloud condensation nuclei. Here we propose and demonstrate a new experimental approach (the cloud scanner instrument) that provides the microphysical information missed in current experiments and remote sensing options. Cloud scanner measurements can be performed from aircraft, ground, or satellite by scanning the side of the clouds from the base to the top, providing us with the unique opportunity of obtaining snapshots of the cloud droplet microphysical and thermodynamic states as a function of height and brightness temperature in clouds at several development stages. The brightness temperature profile of the cloud side can be directly associated with the thermodynamic phase of the droplets to provide information on the glaciation temperature as a function of different ambient conditions, aerosol concentration, and type. An aircraft prototype of the cloud scanner was built and flew in a field campaign in Brazil.

  13. Effects of time-temperature profiles on glow curves of germanium-doped optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S. E.; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.; Mohd Noor, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Germanium (Ge) doped silica optical fibres have demonstrated the great potential to be developed as a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeter that can be used in various applications in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology, UV dosimetry system and food irradiation industry. Different time-temperature profile (TTP) parameters of the TL reader have been employed by many researchers in various of TL studies. Nevertheless, none of those studies adequately addressed the effects of the reader's preheat temperature and heating rate on the kinetic parameters of the TL glow curve specifically, the Ge-doped silica optical fibres. This research addresses the issue of TTP parameters with special attention to the determination of the kinetic parameters of the glow curve. The glow curve responses were explored and the kinetic parameters were analyzed by the WinGCF software, to show the effect of the preheat temperature and heating rate of the reader on Ge-doped fibre irradiated with 18 Gy of 6 MV photons radiation. The effect of TTP parameters was discussed and compared against the commercial fibre and tailored made fibre of 6 mol% Ge-doped of flat and cylindrical shape. The deconvolution of glow peaks and the kinetic parameters were obtained by the WinGCF software. This enables to fit accurately (1.5%temperature was used to read commercial fibre (50 °C) and cylindrical fibre (80 °C and 160 °C). It is found that the glow peaks of cylindrical fibre exhibit the highest peak integral as compared to flat and commercial fibres. This study revealed the possible relationship between the reader's TTP parameters and the kinetic parameters of TL glow curves for the commercial and tailored made Ge-doped silica optical fibres.

  14. Thermal conductivity and internal temperature profiles of Li-ion secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Frank; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vie, Preben J. S.; Burheim, Odne S.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we report the thermal conductivity for commercial battery components. Materials were obtained from several electrode- and separator manufacturers, and some were extracted from commercial batteries. We measured with and without electrolyte solvent and at different compaction pressures. The experimentally obtained values are used in a thermal model and corresponding internal temperature profiles are shown. The thermal conductivity of dry separator materials was found to range from 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.18 ± 0.02 WK-1m-1 . Dry electrode (active) materials ranged from 0.13 ± 0.02 to 0.61 ± 0.02 WK-1m-1 . Adding the electrolyte solvent increased the thermal conductivity of electrode (active) materials by at least a factor of 2.

  15. Dominance of pollutant aerosols over an urban region and its impact on boundary layer temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh

    2017-01-01

    Collocated measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and black carbon at different wavelengths over Kolkata, an urban region in eastern India, have been used to calculate aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA). The wavelength dependence of SSA and AOD has been presented to discriminate the aerosol types over this highly populated metropolitan area. The spectral pattern shows that SSA decreases with wavelength for most of the time in a year and corresponding Ångström coefficient is greater than unity. These optical properties indicate the dominance of fine-mode pollutant particles over the city. The temperature lapse rate profile within the surface boundary layer has been found to be significantly influenced by the heating effect of fine-mode pollutants, and consequently, the growth of the convective processes in the lower troposphere is notably affected. In addition, a back trajectory analysis has also been presented to indicate that transported air masses can have significant impact on spectral pattern of SSA.

  16. Path Profiles of Cn2 Derived from Radiometer Temperature Measurements and Geometrical Ray Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence has significant impairments on the operation of Free-Space Optical (FSO) communication systems, in particular temporal and spatial intensity fluctuations at the receiving aperture resulting in power surges and fades, changes in angle of arrival, spatial coherence degradation, etc. The refractive index structure parameter Cn2 is a statistical measure of the strength of turbulence in the atmosphere and is highly dependent upon vertical height. Therefore to understand atmospheric turbulence effects on vertical FSO communication links such as space-to-ground links, it is necessary to specify Cn2 profiles along the atmospheric propagation path. To avoid the limitations on the applicability of classical approaches, propagation simulation through geometrical ray tracing is applied. This is achieved by considering the atmosphere along the optical propagation path as a spatial distribution of spherical bubbles with varying relative refractive index deviations representing turbulent eddies. The relative deviations of the refractive index are statistically determined from altitude-dependent and time-varying temperature fluctuations, as measured by a microwave profiling radiometer. For each representative atmosphere ray paths are analyzed using geometrical optics, which is particularly advantageous in situations of strong turbulence where there is severe wavefront distortion and discontinuity. The refractive index structure parameter is then determined as a function of height and time.

  17. Simulated sensitivity of the tropical cyclone eyewall replacement cycle to the ambient temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xulin; He, Jie; Ge, Xuyang

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the impacts of the environmental temperature profile on the tropical cyclone eyewall replacement cycle are examined using idealized numerical simulations. It is found that the environmental thermal condition can greatly affect the formation and structure of a secondary eyewall and the intensity change during the eyewall replacement cycle. Simulation with a warmer thermal profile produces a larger moat and a prolonged eyewall replacement cycle. It is revealed that the enhanced static stability greatly suppresses convection, and thus causes slow secondary eyewall formation. The possible processes influencing the decay of inner eyewall convection are investigated. It is revealed that the demise of the inner eyewall is related to a choking effect associated with outer eyewall convection, the radial distribution of moist entropy fluxes within the moat region, the enhanced static stability in the inner-core region, and the interaction between the inner and outer eyewalls due to the barotropic instability. This study motivates further research into how environmental conditions influence tropical cyclone dynamics and thermodynamics.

  18. Gene expression profile indicates involvement of NO in Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junting; Wang, Weidong; Li, Dongqin; Shu, Zaifa; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-10-18

    temperature and NO are identified in this study. The transcriptomic gene expression profiles present a valuable genomic tool to improve studying the molecular mechanisms underlying low-temperature tolerance in pollen tube.

  19. Retrieval of Temperature and Ozone Profiles in the Upper Troposphere / Lower Stratosphere as measured by GLORIA during ESSenCe11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Joerg

    2012-07-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging in the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is a new remote sensing instrument combining a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with a highly flexible gimbal mount. Measurements are made with uniquely high spatial and spectral resolution by a 2-D detector array. The gimbal frame allows to turn the instrument's line of sight horizontally by 45° forward and backward, so that air masses can be observed from different directions. We developed the JUTIL toolkit (Juelich tomographic inversion library) and the JURASSIC2 forward model to calculate atmospheric profiles from measurement data. JUTIL provides general methods to solve large scale inverse problems, JURASSIC2 is a fast radiative transport model based on the Emissivity Growth Approximation (EGA). The selection of appropriate spectral windows is a non trivial task as each spectral sample can contain thousands of separate spectral lines for each of the contributing trace gases. We present a method to select good spectral windows based on the Shannon Information content. Our method provides a fast selection algorithm which uses genetic optimization on whole ensembles of spectral windows. During December 2011 the instrument flew for the first time on the Russian Geophysica M-55 research plane over Kiruna (Sweden). At that time, there was a very strong and cold polar vortex with several filamentary structures at its boundary and within the operation radius of the aircraft. Preliminary fields of temperature and ozone abundance obtained during the ESSenCe campaign will be presented and compared to 3-D model calculations.

  20. Global distribution of temperature and salinity profiles from profiling floats as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) project, from 1994-11-07 to 2002-01-19 (NCEI Accession 0000936)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature-Salinity profile and pressure data were collected by using profiling floats in a world-wide distribution from 07 November 1994 to 19 January 2002. Data...

  1. Field measurements of temperature profile for floatovoltaic dryer in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, F. A.; Ya'acob, M. E.; Iskandar, A. Noor

    2017-09-01

    Most of the equator region in a tropical climate zone experiences hot and humid weather but sometimes heavy rain and thunderstorms which occur stochastically in monsoon season. Sunlight which is the energy source can be harvested approximately 8 hours (on average basis) daily throughout the year which leads to the promotion of Solar PV technologies. This works projects the field performance for a new Floatovoltaic Dryer prototype with flexible PV roofing structures covering the top of the dryer system. The field measurements are collected on the lake of Engineering Faculty, UPM supported with 4-parameter weather station. Temperature profile with RH measurements inside the Floatovoltaic Dryer compartments as compared to direct-sun drying mechanism are the main contributions of this work and it projects more than 12 W of convection heat energy could be harvested by using the clean system. The field measurements imply various points of thermocouple and humidity sensor throughout the experiment. Temperature and humidity will be the main elements recorded to analyze the differences under monocrystalline PV panel as compared to natural drying.

  2. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Brad; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. This paper will describe the bias correction technique and results from forecasts evaluated by validation against a Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product from CIRA and against Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses.

  3. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.

  4. Atmospheric temperature profiles derived through the inversion of a system of first order differential equations. [radiance data from satellite sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, J. A.; Englar, T. S.

    1976-01-01

    Generation of vertical temperatures profiles from remotely sensed atmospheric radiance data is described as an analogous communications system. The radiative transport characteristics of the atmosphere encodes the continuous temperature profile into an 'n' element vector where 'n' is the number of channels in the satellite instrument. The temperature profile is a message transmitted from station A to station B and the link is the satellite instrument. At station B the decoder reproduces a continuous function which is the best estimate of the message encoded at station A. It is shown that the decoder must operate in a tuned mode where the parameters used in the encoder precisely determine the decoder parameters, and that the characteristics of the total message block must be given by a set of decoder constraints

  5. Model-based estimation of optimal temperature profile during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Arundo donax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutturi, Sarma; Lidén, Gunnar

    2014-05-01

    A kinetic model fitted to enzymatic hydrolysis of Arundo donax was coupled to a fermentation kinetic model derived from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments at different temperatures for the determination of optimal temperature profile (between 36 and 45°C) using iterative dynamic programming (IDP). A sensitivity analysis of enzyme kinetic model not only facilitated model reduction in terms of number of parameters, but also enabled artifacts from parameter estimations to be identified. In separate fermentation experiments conducted at 35, 40, 45, and 50°C using ∼40 g/L background glucose in fiber-free liquid fraction of Arundo it was found that growth was possible at 40°C, but the fermentation capacity was completely lost after 12 h at 50°C. The final ethanol concentration obtained after 120 h in isothermal SSF experiments at 36, 39, 42, and 45°C were 10.6, 13.7, 14.2, and 12.5 g/L, respectively. The predicted optimal temperature profile in SSF determined by iterative dynamic programming was (i) gradual decrease from 40 to 37.5°C until 16 h, (ii) a linear increase upto 45°C until 80 h, and (iii) gradual decrease by 1°C until 120 h. Experimental results were in good agreement with the model predictions. The ethanol concentration after 72 h obtained in the optimal case was 13.6 g/L in comparison to 9.1, 12.2, 12.6, and 11.6 g/L for ISO-SSF at 36, 39, 42, and 45°C, respectively. Moreover this value was 95.8% of the final value achieved at the end of 120 h, indicating that the process times could be significantly shortened by using non-isothermal SSF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rebuilding Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Steve P.; Ramsey, David W.; Messerich, James A.; Thompson, Ren A.

    2006-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, Washington exploded in a spectacular and devastating eruption that shocked the world. The eruption, one of the most powerful in the history of the United States, removed 2.7 cubic kilometers of rock from the volcano's edifice, the bulk of which had been constructed by nearly 4,000 years of lava-dome-building eruptions. In seconds, the mountain's summit elevation was lowered from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters, leaving a north-facing, horseshoe-shaped crater over 2 kilometers wide. Following the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens remained active. A large lava dome began episodically extruding in the center of the volcano's empty crater. This dome-building eruption lasted until 1986 and added about 80 million cubic meters of rock to the volcano. During the two decades following the May 18, 1980 eruption, Crater Glacier formed tongues of ice around the east and west sides of the lava dome in the deeply shaded niche between the lava dome and the south crater wall. Long the most active volcano in the Cascade Range with a complex 300,000-year history, Mount St. Helens erupted again in the fall of 2004 as a new period of dome building began within the 1980 crater. Between October 2004 and February 2006, about 80 million cubic meters of dacite lava erupted immediately south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava separated the glacier into two parts, first squeezing the east arm of the glacier against the east crater wall and then causing equally spectacular crevassing and broad uplift of the glacier's west arm. Vertical aerial photographs document dome growth and glacier deformation. These photographs enabled photogrammetric construction of a series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) showing changes from October 4, 2004 to February 9, 2006. From the DEMs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications were used to estimate extruded volumes and growth rates of the new lava dome. The DEMs were also used to quantify dome

  7. An objective algorithm for reconstructing the three-dimensional ocean temperature field based on Argo profiles and SST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaojie; Ding, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang; Ma, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    While global oceanic surface information with large-scale, real-time, high-resolution data is collected by satellite remote sensing instrumentation, three-dimensional (3D) observations are usually obtained from in situ measurements, but with minimal coverage and spatial resolution. To meet the needs of 3D ocean investigations, we have developed a new algorithm to reconstruct the 3D ocean temperature field based on the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) profiles and sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Argo temperature profiles are first optimally fitted to generate a series of temperature functions of depth, with the vertical temperature structure represented continuously. By calculating the derivatives of the fitted functions, the calculation of the vertical temperature gradient of the Argo profiles at an arbitrary depth is accomplished. A gridded 3D temperature gradient field is then found by applying inverse distance weighting interpolation in the horizontal direction. Combined with the processed SST, the 3D temperature field reconstruction is realized below the surface using the gridded temperature gradient. Finally, to confirm the effectiveness of the algorithm, an experiment in the Pacific Ocean south of Japan is conducted, for which a 3D temperature field is generated. Compared with other similar gridded products, the reconstructed 3D temperature field derived by the proposed algorithm achieves satisfactory accuracy, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 obtained, including a higher spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°), resulting in the capture of smaller-scale characteristics. Finally, both the accuracy and the superiority of the algorithm are validated.

  8. Effects of Preheating and Storage Temperatures on Aroma Profile and Physical Properties of Citrus-Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Zhao, Chengying; Tian, Guifang; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shaojie; Bao, Yuming; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang; Zheng, Jinkai

    2017-09-06

    Citrus oils are used as good carrier oil for emulsion fabrication due to their special flavor and various health-promoting functions. In this study, the effects of preheating temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C) and storage temperature (4, 25, and 37 °C) on aroma profiles and physical properties of three citrus-oil (i.e., mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot oils) emulsions were systematically investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated the significant impact of temperature on aroma profile and physical properties. The abundance of d-limonene was found to be the main factor determining the aroma of the three citrus-oil emulsions at different preheating and storage temperatures, while β-linalool and linalyl acetate were important for the aroma of bergamot oil emulsion. Preheating temperature showed a profound impact on the aroma of citrus-oil emulsions, and the aroma of different citrus oil emulsions showed different sensitivity to preheating temperature. Storage temperature was also able to alter the properties of citrus oil emulsions. The higher was the storage temperature, the more alteration of aroma and more instability of the emulsions there was, which could be attributed to the alteration of the oil components and the properties of emulsions. Among all three emulsions, bergamot-oil emulsion was the most stable and exhibited the most potent ability to preserve the aroma against high temperature. Our results would facilitate the application of citrus-oil emulsions in functional foods and beverages.

  9. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by drifting buoy and XBT in the Worldwide Oceans from 18 October 1999 to 28 February 2000 (NODC Accession 0000115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using moored buoy, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 18 October 1999 to 28 February 2000....

  10. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1977-1998 (NODC Accession 0002294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1977-1998. Profile data received at NODC...

  11. Global Near Real-Time Temperature and Salinity Profile Data from the GTSPP project from 9/1/1999 - 11/30/1999 (NODC Accession 0000059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using moored buoy, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 01 September 1999 to 30 November 1999....

  12. Investigations of physical processes affecting leaf temperature profiles and primary production in the red mangrove ecosystem. Modification 8 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.C.

    Profiles of carbon dioxide, air temperature, and vapor density were measured in a red mangrove canopy in south Florida. Results indicated that the microclimate model will predict profiles of air temperature within 2/sup 0/C, humidity within 1 g m/sup -3/, and CO/sub 2/ levels within 1 ppM through the vegetation canopy. Simulations of mangrove response to thermal additions indicate that in the subtropical climate photosynthesis is increased in winter and decreased in summer by thermal additions, but in tropical climates photosynthesis is decreased throughout the year. Studies on seedlings of South Florida mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa, indicated that short-term effects of higher root temperatures cause less water stress than cooler root temperature. (HLW)

  13. Oxylipin profile and antioxidant status of potato tubers during extended storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Rojas-Beltran, Jorge; Frettinger, Patrick; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2008-12-01

    Potato tubers (cv. Bintje) (Solanum tuberosum L.) were stored under extreme conditions at 20 degrees C for 350 days without sprout inhibitors in order to assess whether aging- and/or senescence-related processes occurred. Under these extreme storage conditions, multiple sprouting followed by the formation of daughter tubers occurs. At the same time, an increase in respiration intensity, as evidenced by cytochrome c oxidase activity (E.C. 1.9.3.1), is observed, leading to a potential increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. As polyunsaturated fatty acids are priority targets of oxidative attacks, the damage to lipids was assessed by oxylipin profiling in both free and esterified forms. Oxylipin profiling showed a predominance of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins and of 9-hydroxy and 9-hydroperoxy fatty acids in both free and esterified forms. No significant accumulation of individual oxylipin was observed 350 days after harvest. To further understand the absence of lipid breakdown products accumulation, the main enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were assessed. Antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (E.C. 1.15.1.1), catalase (E.C. 1.11.1.6.), ascorbate peroxidase (E.C. 1.11.1.11)] were enhanced during the advanced phase of aging. The main non-enzymatic antioxidant compound, ascorbate, decreased markedly in the early stages of storage, followed by a slower decline. Total radical scavenging activity was also maintained at the end of the storage period. Our results indicate that the enhanced aging process occurring during storage at room temperature does not seem to be associated with the changes classically encountered during leaf senescence or seed aging and that the observed degenerative processes do not surpass the protective potential of the tubers.

  14. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE MEAN TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, AND ENTROPY PROFILES IN 80 SPT-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; Vikhlinin, A.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, E. D.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2014-09-24

    We present the results of an X-ray analysis of 80 galaxy clusters selected in the 2500 deg(2) South Pole Telescope survey and observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We divide the full sample into subsamples of ~20 clusters based on redshift and central density, performing a joint X-ray spectral fit to all clusters in a subsample simultaneously, assuming self-similarity of the temperature profile. This approach allows us to constrain the shape of the temperature profile over 0 < r < 1.5R (500), which would be impossible on a per-cluster basis, since the observations of individual clusters have, on average, 2000 X-ray counts. The results presented here represent the first constraints on the evolution of the average temperature profile from z = 0 to z = 1.2. We find that high-z (0.6 < z < 1.2) clusters are slightly (~30%) cooler both in the inner (r < 0.1R (500)) and outer (r > R (500)) regions than their low-z (0.3 < z < 0.6) counterparts. Combining the average temperature profile with measured gas density profiles from our earlier work, we infer the average pressure and entropy profiles for each subsample. Confirming earlier results from this data set, we find an absence of strong cool cores at high z, manifested in this analysis as a significantly lower observed pressure in the central 0.1R (500) of the high-z cool-core subset of clusters compared to the low-z cool-core subset. Overall, our observed pressure profiles agree well with earlier lower-redshift measurements, suggesting minimal redshift evolution in the pressure profile outside of the core. We find no measurable redshift evolution in the entropy profile at r lsim 0.7R (500)—this may reflect a long-standing balance between cooling and feedback over long timescales and large physical scales. We observe a slight flattening of the entropy profile at r gsim R (500) in our high-z subsample. This flattening is consistent with a temperature bias due to the enhanced (~3×) rate at which group-mass (~2

  15. Clamp-mount device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A clamp-mount device is disclosed for mounting equipment to an associated I-beam and the like structural member of the type having oppositely extending flanges wherein the device comprises a base and a pair of oppositely facing clamping members carried diagonally on the base clamping flanges therebetween and having flange receiving openings facing one another. Lock means are carried diagonally by the base opposite the clamping members locking the flanges in the clamping members. A resilient hub is carried centrally of the base engaging and biasing a back side of the flanges maintaining tightly clamped and facilitating use on vertical as well as horizontal members. The base turns about the hub to receive the flanges within the clamping members. Equipment may be secured to the base by any suitable means such as bolts in openings. Slidable gate latches secure the hinged locks in an upright locking position. The resilient hub includes a recess opening formed in the base and a rubber-like pad carried in this opening being depressably and rotatably carried therein.

  16. Assessing the potential of passive microwave radiometers for continuous temperature profile retrieval using a three year data set from Payerne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhnert, U.; Maier, O.

    2011-12-01

    The motivation of this study is to verify theoretical expectations placed on ground-based radiometer techniques and to confirm whether they are suitable for supporting key missions of national weather services, such as timely and accurate weather advisories and warnings. We evaluate reliability and accuracy of atmospheric temperature profiles retrieved continuously by a HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler) system operated at the aerological station of Payerne (MeteoSwiss) in the time period August 2006-December 2009. Assessment is performed by comparing temperatures from the radiometer against temperature measurements from a radiosonde accounting for a total of 2088 quality-controlled all-season cases. In the evaluated time period, HATPRO delivered reliable temperature profiles in 88% of all-weather conditions with a temporal resolution of 15 min. Random differences between HATPRO and radiosonde are down to 0.5 K in the lower boundary layer and rise up to 1.7 K at 4 km height. The differences observed between HATPRO and radiosonde in the lower boundary layer are similar to the differences observed between the radiosonde and another in-situ sensor located on a close-by 30 m tower. Temperature retrievals from above 4 km contain less than 5% of the total information content of the measurements, which makes clear that this technique is mainly suited for continuous observations in the boundary layer. Systematic temperature differences are also observed throughout the retrieved profile and can account for up to ±0.5 K. These errors are due to offsets in the measurements of the microwave radiances that have been corrected for in data post-processing and lead to nearly bias-free overall temperature retrievals. Different reasons for the radiance offsets are discussed, but cannot be unambiguously determined retrospectively. Monitoring and, if necessary, corrections for radiance offsets as well as a real-time rigorous automated data quality control are mandatory for

  17. Characterization of Temperature Profiles in Skin and Transdermal Delivery System When Exposed to Temperature Gradients In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Murawsky, Michael; LaCount, Terri; Hao, Jinsong; Kasting, Gerald B; Newman, Bryan; Ghosh, Priyanka; Raney, Sam G; Li, S Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Performance of a transdermal delivery system (TDS) can be affected by exposure to elevated temperature, which can lead to unintended safety issues. This study investigated TDS and skin temperatures and their relationship in vivo, characterized the effective thermal resistance of skin, and identified the in vitro diffusion cell conditions that would correlate with in vivo observations. Experiments were performed in humans and in Franz diffusion cells with human cadaver skin to record skin and TDS temperatures at room temperature and with exposure to a heat flux. Skin temperatures were regulated with two methods: a heating lamp in vivo and in vitro, or thermostatic control of the receiver chamber in vitro. In vivo basal skin temperatures beneath TDS at different anatomical sites were not statistically different. The maximum tolerable skin surface temperature was approximately 42-43°C in vivo. The temperature difference between skin surface and TDS surface increased with increasing temperature, or with increasing TDS thermal resistance in vivo and in vitro. Based on the effective thermal resistance of skin in vivo and in vitro, the heating lamp method is an adequate in vitro method. However, the in vitro-in vivo correlation of temperature could be affected by the thermal boundary layer in the receiver chamber.

  18. Magnon, phonon, and electron temperature profiles and the spin Seebeck effect in magnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreier, M.; Kamra, A.; Weiler, M.; Xiao, J.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the phonon, electron, and magnon temperature profiles in yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers by diffusive theory with appropriate boundary conditions, in particular taking into account interfacial thermal resistances. Our calculations show that in thin film hybrids, the interface

  19. A new retrieval algorithm for tropospheric temperature, humidity and pressure profiling based on GNSS radio occultation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Gottfried; Li, Ying; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Schwärz, Marc; Schwarz, Jakob; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    2017-04-01

    The GNSS radio occultation (RO) technique is an important remote sensing technique for obtaining thermodynamic profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure in the Earth's troposphere. However, due to refraction effects of both dry ambient air and water vapor in the troposphere, retrieval of accurate thermodynamic profiles at these lower altitudes is challenging and requires suitable background information in addition to the RO refractivity information. Here we introduce a new moist air retrieval algorithm aiming to improve the quality and robustness of retrieving temperature, humidity and pressure profiles in moist air tropospheric conditions. The new algorithm consists of four steps: (1) use of prescribed specific humidity and its uncertainty to retrieve temperature and its associated uncertainty; (2) use of prescribed temperature and its uncertainty to retrieve specific humidity and its associated uncertainty; (3) use of the previous results to estimate final temperature and specific humidity profiles through optimal estimation; (4) determination of air pressure and density profiles from the results obtained before. The new algorithm does not require elaborated matrix inversions which are otherwise widely used in 1D-Var retrieval algorithms, and it allows a transparent uncertainty propagation, whereby the uncertainties of prescribed variables are dynamically estimated accounting for their spatial and temporal variations. Estimated random uncertainties are calculated by constructing error covariance matrices from co-located ECMWF short-range forecast and corresponding analysis profiles. Systematic uncertainties are estimated by empirical modeling. The influence of regarding or disregarding vertical error correlations is quantified. The new scheme is implemented with static input uncertainty profiles in WEGC's current OPSv5.6 processing system and with full scope in WEGC's next-generation system, the Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS). Results from

  20. Direct measurements of the effect of biomass burning over the Amazon on the atmospheric temperature profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Remer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols suspended in the atmosphere interact with solar radiation and clouds, thus change the radiation energy fluxes in the atmospheric column. In this paper we measure changes in the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of the smoke loading and the cloudiness, over the Amazon basin, during the dry seasons (August and September of 2005–2008. We show that as the aerosol optical depth (AOD increases from 0.02 to a value of ~0.6, there is a decrease of ~4°C at 1000 hPa, and an increase of ~1.5°C at 850 hPa. The warming of the aerosol layer at 850 hPa is likely due to aerosol absorption when the particles are exposed to direct illumination by the sun. The large values of cooling in the lower layers could be explained by a combination of aerosol extinction of the solar flux in the layers aloft together with an aerosol-induced increase of cloud cover which shade the lower atmosphere. We estimate that the increase in cloud fraction due to aerosol contributes about half of the observed cooling in the lower layers.

  1. Estimates of boundary layer parameters using measured wind and temperature profile near the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Z.; Rajkovic, B.

    2009-09-01

    In almost every application related to planetary boundary layer, PBL, two parameters are of the most relevance, "friction" velocity and PBL height. The first is connected to near surface processes, while the second one appears in the problems related to the whole BL or its substantial portions. One of the most famous parametrizations of the of the PBL height is h ~u*o- f. This paper looks into this formulation for different stability classes and mean daily variation of wind and these parameters, using the approach made by Holstlag (1984), to estimate diabatic wind profile where zo is independent of stability, but depends on wind direction. The second procedure used here is the one suggested by Kramm (1989), where zo is a function of stability and u*o depends on zo and L, the Monin-Obukhov length scale, and all of them, u_*o, zo and L, are simultaneously calculated through the least square method. From these parameters two methods for wind extrapolations with height are analyzed, Beljaars and Holstlag (1990), and Grining amd Batchvarova (2007). The wind data came form the Caubauw wind mast 1987, while the second set is wind and temperature gradient from the Panonian region, synoptic weather station 13168 near the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. Finally we analyze the difference between extrapolated and measured wind speed at Caubauw mast for different values of friction velocity, roughness length and Obukhov length.

  2. Temperature Profile and Imaging Analysis of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M.; Purtonen, T.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.; Nyrhilä, O.

    Powder bed fusion is a laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technology which is used to manufacture parts layer-wise from powdered metallic materials. The technology has advanced vastly in the recent years and current systems can be used to manufacture functional parts for e.g. aerospace industry. The performance and accuracy of the systems have improved also, but certain difficulties in the powder fusion process are reducing the final quality of the parts. One of these is commonly known as the balling phenomenon. The aim of this study was to define some of the process characteristics in powder bed fusion by performing comparative studies with two different test setups. This was done by comparing measured temperature profiles and on-line photography of the process. The material used during the research was EOS PH1 stainless steel. Both of the test systems were equipped with 200 W single mode fiber lasers. The main result of the research was that some of the process instabilities are resulting from the energy input during the process.

  3. Influence of the topography of the surface of the Earth on vertical sounding of the temperature profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pfister

    Full Text Available Atmospheric temperature and humidity fields as well as information on other meteorological parameters are nowadays retrieved from radiance measurements recorded by operational meteorological satellites. Up to now, the inversion procedures used only take into account crude information on the topography of the Earth's surface. However, the applied radiative transfer codes have to consider the Earth's surface as the lower boundary of the atmospheric model and, therefore, need a more precise mean elevation and a classification of the roughness of the Earth's surface. The influence of the topography of the Earth surface on retrieved temperature profiles is studied by using a physico-statistical inversion method. An objective analysis is made of the more precise mean elevation and derivation of roughness parameters using a new high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM with a resolution of 500 m×500 m. By means of a geomorphological process and a newly developed topography rejection test, areas with a high surface roughness are localized and singled out. The influence of topography on the retrieved temperature profiles is illustrated by case studies. Changes are found predominantly in areas with a high variation of topography. Using the new high-resolution DEM and the topography rejection test, the geographical position of the calculated temperature profiles tends to be shifted towards areas with a small vertical variation of topography. The mean elevation determined by the new elevation model better characterizes the area observed. Hence, the temperature profiles can be calculated down to lower atmospheric levels. Furthermore, a guess profile better describing the atmospheric situation is selected by the more precise elevation. In addition, the temperature profiles obtained near the coast are improved considerably by the more precise determination of the surface property `sea' and `land,' respectively. Integration of an

  4. Influence of the topography of the surface of the Earth on vertical sounding of the temperature profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pfister

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric temperature and humidity fields as well as information on other meteorological parameters are nowadays retrieved from radiance measurements recorded by operational meteorological satellites. Up to now, the inversion procedures used only take into account crude information on the topography of the Earth's surface. However, the applied radiative transfer codes have to consider the Earth's surface as the lower boundary of the atmospheric model and, therefore, need a more precise mean elevation and a classification of the roughness of the Earth's surface. The influence of the topography of the Earth surface on retrieved temperature profiles is studied by using a physico-statistical inversion method. An objective analysis is made of the more precise mean elevation and derivation of roughness parameters using a new high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM with a resolution of 500 m×500 m. By means of a geomorphological process and a newly developed topography rejection test, areas with a high surface roughness are localized and singled out. The influence of topography on the retrieved temperature profiles is illustrated by case studies. Changes are found predominantly in areas with a high variation of topography. Using the new high-resolution DEM and the topography rejection test, the geographical position of the calculated temperature profiles tends to be shifted towards areas with a small vertical variation of topography. The mean elevation determined by the new elevation model better characterizes the area observed. Hence, the temperature profiles can be calculated down to lower atmospheric levels. Furthermore, a guess profile better describing the atmospheric situation is selected by the more precise elevation. In addition, the temperature profiles obtained near the coast are improved considerably by the more precise determination of the surface property `sea' and `land,' respectively. Integration of an independent physical

  5. Self-Assembled TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with U-Shaped Profile by Controlling Anodization Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotube arrays with uniform diameter from top to bottom were fabricated. The synthesizing approach is based on the investigation of the influence of electrolyte temperature on the tube diameter. We found that the inner diameter of the tubes increased with the electrolyte temperature. Accordingly, we improved the tube profile from the general V shape to U shape by raising the electrolyte temperature gradually. This is a simple and fast approach to fabricate uniform TiO2 nanotubes in diameter. The improved TiO2 nanotube arrays may show better properties and have broad potential applications.

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0161327)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  11. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  12. Metabolomic profiling of beer reveals effect of temperature on non-volatile small molecules during short-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Lewis, Matthew R; Salazar, Lauren; Bouckaert, Peter; Prenni, Jessica E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of temperature on non-volatile compounds in beer has not been well characterised during storage. Here, a metabolomics approach was applied to characterise the effect of storage temperature on non-volatile metabolite variation after 16weeks of storage, using fresh beer as a control. The metabolite profile of room temperature stored (RT) and cold temperature stored (CT) beer differed significantly from fresh, with the most substantial variation observed between RT and fresh beer. Metabolites that changed during storage included prenylated flavonoids, purines, and peptides, and all showed reduced quantitative variation under the CT storage conditions. Corresponding sensory panel observations indicated significant beer oxidation after 12 and 16weeks of storage, with higher values reported for RT samples. These data support that temperature affected beer oxidation during short-term storage, and reveal 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA) as a candidate non-volatile metabolite marker for beer oxidation and staling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conditioning of the membrane fatty acid profile of Escherichia coli during periodic temperature cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Tina; Vodovnik, Masa; Marinsek-Logar, Romana; Stopar, David

    2009-10-01

    The membrane fatty acid composition of Escherichia coli becomes conditioned during periodic temperature cycling between 37 and 8 degrees C. After several cycles of temperature change, the bacteria become locked into a low-temperature physiology. Even after a prolonged incubation at high temperature the membrane fatty acid composition of conditioned cells was similar to that of cold-stressed cells.

  14. Comparison of VLT/X-shooter OH and O2 rotational temperatures with consideration of TIMED/SABER emission and temperature profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rotational temperatures Trot derived from lines of the same OH band are an important method to study the dynamics and long-term trends in the mesopause region near 87 km. To measure realistic temperatures, the rotational level populations have to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE. However, this might not be fulfilled, especially at high emission altitudes. In order to quantify possible non-LTE contributions to the OH Trot as a function of the upper vibrational level v′, we studied a sample of 343 echelle spectra taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data allowed us to analyse 25 OH bands in each spectrum. Moreover, we could measure lines of O2b(0-1, which peaks at about 94 to 95 km, and O2a(0-0 with an emission peak at about 90 km. The latter altitude is reached in the second half of the night after a rise of several km because of the decay of a daytime population of excited O2. Since the radiative lifetimes for the upper levels of the two O2 bands are relatively long, the derived Trot are not significantly affected by non-LTE contributions. These bands are well suited for a comparison with OH if the differences in the emission profiles are corrected. For different sample averages, we made these corrections by using OH emission, O2a(0-0 emission, and CO2-based temperature profile data from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. The procedure relies on differences of profile-weighted SABER temperatures. For an O2a(0-0-based reference profile at 90 km, we found a good agreement of the O2 with the SABER-related temperatures, whereas the OH temperatures, especially for the high and even v′, showed significant excesses with a maximum of more than 10 K for v′ = 8. The exact value depends on the selected lines and molecular parameters. We could also find a nocturnal trend towards higher non-LTE effects, particularly for high v′. The amplitude

  15. Quality of temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, V.; Pankajakshan, T.; Rajkumar, M.; Prasannakumar, S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Ravichandran, M.; Rao, R.R.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    on Argo-SPB could not identify any significant systematic bias/error, except for a single profile (cycle No 48) of float-4900675 In the case of Argo-N, significant error is found in most of the salinity profiles from the float-2900268....

  16. Comparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with lidar, radiosonde and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The importance of the knowledge of the temperature structure in the atmosphere has been widely recognized. Temperature is a key parameter for dynamical, chemical and radiative processes in the atmosphere. The cooling of the stratosphere is an indicator for climate change as it provides evidence of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing just like surface warming ( [1] and references therein). However, our understanding of the observed stratospheric temperature trend and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances remains limited. Stratospheric long-term datasets are sparse and obtained trends differ from one another [1]. Therefore it is important that in the future such datasets are generated. Different techniques allow to measure stratospheric temperature profiles as radiosonde, lidar or satellite. The main advantage of microwave radiometers against these other instruments is a high temporal resolution with a reasonable good spatial resolution. Moreover, the measurement at a fixed location allows to observe local atmospheric dynamics over a long time period, which is crucial for climate research. TEMPERA (TEMPERature RAdiometer) is a newly developed ground-based microwave radiometer designed, built and operated at the University of Bern. The instrument and the retrieval of temperature profiles has been described in detail in [2]. TEMPERA is measuring a pressure broadened oxygen line at 53.1 GHz in order to determine stratospheric temperature profiles. The retrieved profiles of TEMPERA cover an altitude range of approximately 20 to 45 km with a vertical resolution in the order of 15 km. The lower limit is given by the instrumental baseline and the bandwidth of the measured spectrum. The upper limit is given by the fact that above 50 km the oxygen lines are splitted by the Zeeman effect in the terrestrial magnetic field. In this study we present a comparison of stratospheric

  17. Methods for the Evaluation of Quench Temperature Profiles and their Application for LHC Superconducting Short Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfilippo, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the thermal effects on quench performance for several Large Hadron Collider single aperture short dipole models. The analysis is based on the temperature profile in a superconducting magnet evaluated after a quench. Peak temperatures and temperature gradients in the magnet coil are estimated for different thicknesses of insulation layer between the quench heaters and the coil and different powering and protection parameters. The results show clear correlation between the thermo-mechanical response of the magnet and quench performance. They also display that the optimisation of the position of quench heaters can reduce the decrease of training performance caused by the coexistence of a mechanical weak region and of a local temperature rise.

  18. Numerical simulation of transient temperature profiles for canned apple puree in semi-rigid aluminum based packaging during pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiekhani, Soraya; Zamindar, Nafiseh; Hojatoleslami, Mohammad; Toghraie, Davood

    2016-06-01

    Pasteurization of canned apple puree was simulated for a 3-D geometry in a semi-rigid aluminum based container which was heated from all sides at 378 K. The computational fluid dynamics code Ansys Fluent 14.0 was used and the governing equations for energy, momentum, and continuity were computed using a finite volume method. The food model was assumed to have temperature-dependent properties. To validate the simulation, the apple puree was pasteurized in a water cascading retort. The effect of the mesh structures was studied for the temperature profiles during thermal processing. The experimental temperature in the slowest heating zone in the container was compared with the temperature predicted by the model and the difference was not significant. The study also investigated the impact of head space (water-vapor) on heat transfer.

  19. The Use of Temperature Profiles Through Unsaturated Soils to Estimate Short-term Rates of Natural Groundwater Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dripps, W. R.; Anderson, M. P.; Hunt, R. J.

    2001-05-01

    It has long been recognized that infiltration influences the vertical subsurface temperature profile. Many researchers have used changes in the temperature profile to quantify the rate of groundwater flow in saturated systems, e.g. in wetlands and streambeds. Others have considered coupled heat and flow transport through the unsaturated zone, but we are aware of only two groups (Taniguchi and Sharma, 1993; Tabbagh et al., 1999) who have previously used temperature profiles through the unsaturated zone to estimate rates of areally extensive groundwater recharge. Both groups looked at seasonal changes in soil temperature to estimate annual recharge rates, but no attempt was made to analyze individual recharge events. We collected hourly soil temperature measurements through the unsaturated zone at depths of 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 3 meters at a site in the Trout Lake basin of northern Wisconsin for the past two years. VS2DH (Healy and Ronan, 1996), a two-dimensional, numerical, coupled heat and water flow model for variably saturated media, was used to simulate the thermocouple data and estimate rates of recharge for individual recharge events. Field studies including Guelph permeameter tests, slug tests, grain size analyses, bulk density estimates, and lab measurements of soil moisture characteristic curves were used to estimate the necessary hydraulic and thermal parameters for the model. The field data were supplemented by values reported in the literature, and further refined during model calibration. Recharge rates computed using temperature data were compared with estimates based on water level fluctuations and estimates obtained using simple water balance modeling.

  20. An innovative rotational Raman lidar to measure the temperature profile from the surface to 30 km altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauchecorne Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of innovative rotational Raman lidar with daylight measurement capability is proposed to measure the vertical profile of temperature from the ground to the middle stratosphere. The optical filtering is made using a Fabry-Pérot Interferometer with line spacing equal to the line spacing of the Raman spectrum. The detection is made using a linear PMT array operated in photon counting mode. We plan to build a prototype and to test it at the Haute-Provence Observatory lidar facility. to achieve a time resolution permitting the observation of small-scale atmospheric processes playing a role in the troposphere-stratosphere interaction as gravity waves. If successful, this project will open the possibility to consider a Raman space lidar for the global observation of atmospheric temperature profiles.

  1. Performance of a high-work low aspect ration turbine tested with a realistic inlet radial temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabe, R. G.; Whitney, W. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for a 0.767 scale model of the first stage of a two-stage turbine designed for a high by-pass ratio engine. The turbine was tested with both uniform inlet conditions and with an inlet radial temperature profile simulating engine conditions. The inlet temperature profile was essentially mixed-out in the rotor. There was also substantial underturning of the exit flow at the mean diameter. Both of these effects were attributed to strong secondary flows in the rotor blading. There were no significant differences in the stage performance with either inlet condition when differences in tip clearance were considered. Performance was very close to design intent in both cases.

  2. Performance of a high-work low aspect ratio turbine tested with a realistic inlet radial temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabe, R. G.; Whitney, W. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for a 0.767 scale model of the first stage of a two-stage turbine designed for a high by-pass ratio engine. The turbine was tested with both uniform inlet conditions and with an inlet radial temperature profile simulating engine conditions. The inlet temperature profile was essentially mixed-out in the rotor. There was also substantial underturning of the exit flow at the mean diameter. Both of these effects were attributed to strong secondary flows in the rotor blading. There were no significant differences in the stage performance with either inlet condition when differences in tip clearance were considered. Performance was very close to design intent in both cases. Previously announced in STAR as N84-24589

  3. Novel optimal temperature profile for acidification process of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in yoghurt fermentation using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguim-Kana, E B; Oloke, J K; Lateef, A; Zebaze-Kana, M G

    2007-07-01

    The acidification behavior of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus for yoghurt production was investigated along temperature profiles within the optimal window of 38-44 degrees C. For the optimal acidification temperature profile search, an optimization engine module built on a modular artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) was used. Fourteen batches of yoghurt fermentations were evaluated using different temperature profiles in order to train and validate the ANN sub-module. The ANN captured the nonlinear relationship between temperature profiles and acidification patterns on training data after 150 epochs. This served as an evaluation function for the GA. The acidification slope of the temperature profile was the performance index. The GA sub-module iteratively evolved better temperature profiles across generations using GA operations. The stopping criterion was met after 11 generations. The optimal profile showed an acidification slope of 0.06117 compared to an initial value of 0.0127 and at a set point sequence of 43, 38, 44, 43, and 39 degrees C. Laboratory evaluation of three replicates of the GA suggested optimum profile of 43, 38, 44, 43, and 39 degrees C gave an average slope of 0.04132. The optimization engine used (to be published elsewhere) could effectively search for optimal profiles of different physico-chemical parameters of fermentation processes.

  4. Biologically relevant physical measurements in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land: soil temperature profiles and ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienow, J. A.; Meyer, M. A.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    As part of the ongoing comprehensive study of the cryptoendolithic microbial community in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land, thermal properties of the soil and the ultraviolet radiation regime were measured. Although soil temperature profiles have been measured in the ice-free valleys (e.g., Cameron et al. 1970; Cameron 1972), these are the first such data from higher elevations. This is apparently the first time the ultraviolet radiation regime has been measured in the Antarctic.

  5. Tractable flux-driven temperature, density, and rotation profile evolution with the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrin, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Casson, F. J.; Angioni, C.; Bonanomi, N.; Camenen, Y.; Garbet, X.; Garzotti, L.; Görler, T.; Gürcan, O.; Koechl, F.; Imbeaux, F.; Linder, O.; van de Plassche, K.; Strand, P.; Szepesi, G.; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    Quasilinear turbulent transport models are a successful tool for prediction of core tokamak plasma profiles in many regimes. Their success hinges on the reproduction of local nonlinear gyrokinetic fluxes. We focus on significant progress in the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014036), which employs an approximated solution of the mode structures to significantly speed up computation time compared to full linear gyrokinetic solvers. Optimisation of the dispersion relation solution algorithm within integrated modelling applications leads to flux calculations × {10}6-7 faster than local nonlinear simulations. This allows tractable simulation of flux-driven dynamic profile evolution including all transport channels: ion and electron heat, main particles, impurities, and momentum. Furthermore, QuaLiKiz now includes the impact of rotation and temperature anisotropy induced poloidal asymmetry on heavy impurity transport, important for W-transport applications. Application within the JETTO integrated modelling code results in 1 s of JET plasma simulation within 10 h using 10 CPUs. Simultaneous predictions of core density, temperature, and toroidal rotation profiles for both JET hybrid and baseline experiments are presented, covering both ion and electron turbulence scales. The simulations are successfully compared to measured profiles, with agreement mostly in the 5%–25% range according to standard figures of merit. QuaLiKiz is now open source and available at www.qualikiz.com.

  6. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-07-13

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  7. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. O. Reges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1; 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2. Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  8. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  9. Global gene expression profiling related to temperature-sensitive growth abnormalities in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ryusuke; Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Sakaguchi, Kouhei; Ohno, Ryoko; Yoshida, Kentaro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids. We compared gene and small RNA expression profiles in crown tissues to characterize the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity. No up-regulation of defense-related genes was observed under the normal temperature, and down-regulation of wheat APETALA1-like MADS-box genes, considered to act as flowering promoters, was found in the grass-clump dwarf lines. Some microRNAs, including miR156, were up-regulated, whereas the levels of transcripts of the miR156 target genes SPLs, known to inhibit tiller and branch number, were reduced in crown tissues of the grass-clump dwarf lines at the normal temperature. Unusual expression of the miR156/SPLs module could explain the grass-clump dwarf phenotype. Dramatic alteration of gene expression profiles, including miRNA levels, in crown tissues is associated with the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in type II necrosis/grass-clump dwarf wheat hybrids.

  10. SXI prototype mirror mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  11. SXI prototype mirror mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  12. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VIANCO, PAUL T.

    1999-09-23

    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  13. A lower-melting-point solder alloy for surface mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M. T.; Degani, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Gesick, W. R.

    1996-05-01

    Significant manufacturing cost reductions can be realized with lower-temperature surface mount processing by increasing yields and using less expensive components and boards. A lower-melting-point solder alloy (nominal composition Sn-41.75Pb-8Bi0.5Ag) has been developed that enables significant reductions in peak reflow temperatures during surface-mount assembly. The solder alloy is compatible with standard Pb-Sn surface finishes, melts within the temperature range of ≈166-172°C,andhas promising mechanical properties.

  14. PECULIARITIES OF ASSIGNMENT OF ROLLING BEARING MOUNTING AND PARAMETERS OF GEOMETRIC ACCURACY OF MOUNTING SURFACES OF SHAFTS AND FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamenko Yu. І.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The standards and methods concerning assignment of rolling bearing fit with shafts and frames via example of bearing 6-208 are analyzed. We set certain differences of recommendations according to GOST 3325-85, "Rolling bearings. Tolerance zones and technical requirements to mounting surfaces of shafts and frames. Attachment" and by reference of rolling bearing manufacturers. The following factors should be taken into consideration when assigning the mounting with the tension the internal ring of the bearing with shaft and mounting with a gap in the outer ring with a housing bore. The methods of achieving accuracy of mounting surfaces of shafts and frames via form tolerance assignment: roundness tolerance, profile of longitudinal cut, cross section, cylindricity and others. It is possible to limit the bearing rings in different ways, for example appointing the cylindrical mounting surfaces and bead end surfaces the appropriate tolerances, namely: coaxiality tolerance or full radial beat of mounting surfaces, and also perpendicularity tolerance, butt beats and full butt beats of mounting end surfaces. We suggest to expand methods of achieving the accuracy of shafts and frames depending on seriation of production and production operations metrology support.

  15. A new simulator for the calculation of the in situ temperature profile during well stimulation fracturing treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphius, H.; Davies, D.R.; Roodhart, L.P

    1993-05-01

    Many essential parameters in hydraulic fracturing operations, such as the viscosity of the fracturing fluid and the effectiveness of certain breakers, are stongly dependent on temperature. A finite-difference computer program has been developed that accurately computes temperature profiles in a propagating fracture, and is based on a rigorous description of the heat transfer processes involved. The heat influx from the fracture wall is computed numerically via a special coordinate transformation of the energy balance equations of the rock. The temperature of the frac fluid and the adjacent rock face are allowed to be different, and local time derivatives in the energy balance are fully accounted for. The code and underlying model are valid for the full range of conditions encountered in the field, such as high leakoff rates of the fracturing fluid (high permeability rock) and low heat conductivity of the rock (certain carbonates). It was found that fractures are often significantly cooler than previously reported results. Consequently, the proppant carrying capacity of the frac fluid will be better and it is possible to carry out successful treatments (good proppant placement and reduced impairment) more cost-effectively. The size of prepad stages for cooling can often be reduced. Further, the temperature recovery profile after proppant placement can aid in design of resin coated proppant systems. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Enhanced performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices through temperature profiling techniques applied to close-spaced sublimation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaonan Li; Sheldon, P.; Moutinho, H.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a methodology developed and applied to the close-spaced sublimation technique for thin-film CdTe deposition. The developed temperature profiles consisted of three discrete temperature segments, which the authors called the nucleation, plugging, and annealing temperatures. They have demonstrated that these temperature profiles can be used to grow large-grain material, plug pinholes, and improve CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance by about 15%. The improved material and device properties have been obtained while maintaining deposition temperatures compatible with commercially available substrates. This temperature profiling technique can be easily applied to a manufacturing environment by adjusting the temperature as a function of substrate position instead of time.

  17. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  18. Fast Picometer Mirror Mount Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a 6DOF controllable mirror mount with high dynamic range and fast tip/tilt capability for space based applications. It will enable the...

  19. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph

    2017-07-11

    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  20. Non-stationary temporal characterization of the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost in south-eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Anctil

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare time and frequency fluctuations of air and soil temperatures (2-, 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cm below the soil surface using the continuous wavelet transform, with a particular emphasis on the daily cycle. The analysis of wavelet power spectra and cross power spectra provided detailed non-stationary accounts with respect to frequencies (or periods and to time of the structure of the data and also of the relationships that exist between time series. For this particular application to the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost, both the air temperature and the 2-cm depth soil temperature time series exhibited a dominant power peak at 1-d periodicity, prominent from spring to autumn. This feature was gradually damped as it propagated deeper into the soil and was weak for the 20-cm depth. Influence of the incoming solar radiation was also revealed in the wavelet power spectra analysis by a weaker intensity of the 1-d peak. The principal divergence between air and soil temperatures, besides damping, occurred in winter from the latent heat release associated to the freezing of the soil water and the insulation effect of snowpack that cease the dependence of the soil temperature to the air temperature. Attenuation and phase-shifting of the 1-d periodicity could be quantified through scale-averaged power spectra and time-lag estimations. Air temperature variance was only partly transferred to the 2-cm soil temperature time series and much less so to the 20-cm soil depth.

  1. OH-equivalent temperatures derived from ACE-FTS and SABER temperature profiles – a comparison with OH*(3-1 temperatures from Maynooth (53.2° N, 6.4° W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Mulligan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OH-equivalent temperatures were derived from all of the temperature profiles retrieved in 2004 and 2005 by the ACE-FTS instrument in a 5 degree band of latitude centred on a ground-based observing station at Maynooth. A globally averaged OH volume emission rate (VER profile obtained from WINDII data was employed as a weighting function to compute the equivalent temperatures. The annual cycle of temperature thus produced was compared with the annual cycle of temperatures recorded at the ground-based station more than a decade earlier from the OH*(3-1 Meinel band. Both data sets showed excellent agreement in the absolute value of the temperature minimum (~162 K and in its time of occurrence in the annual cycle at summer solstice. Away from mid-summer, however, the temperatures diverged and reach a maximum disagreement of more than 20 K in mid-winter. Comparison of the Maynooth ground-based data with the corresponding results from two nearby stations in the same time-period indicated that the Maynooth data are consistent with other ground stations. The temperature difference between the satellite and ground-based datasets in winter was reduced to 14–15 K by lowering the peak altitude of the weighting function to 84 km. An unrealistically low peak altitude would be required, however, to bring temperatures derived from the satellite into agreement with the ground-based data. OH equivalent temperatures derived from the SABER instrument using the same weighting function produced results that agreed well with ACE-FTS. When the OH 1.6 μm VER profile measured by SABER was used as the weighting function, the OH equivalent temperatures increased in winter as expected but the summer temperatures were reduced resulting in an approximately constant offset of 8.6±0.8 K between ground and satellite values with the ground values higher. Variability in both the altitude and width of the OH layer within a discernable seasonal variation were responsible for the

  2. Glass-Transition Temperature Profile Measured in a Wood Cell Wall Using Scanning Thermal Expansion Microscope (SThEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniow, J. S.; Maigret, J.-E.; Jensen, C.; Trannoy, N.; Chirtoc, M.; Beaugrand, J.

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to assess the in situ spatial distribution of glass-transition temperatures ( T g) of the main lignocellulosic biopolymers of plant cell walls. Studies are conducted using scanning thermal expansion microscopy to analyze the cross-section of the cell wall of poplar. The surface topography is mapped over a range of probe-tip temperatures to capture the change of thermal expansion on the sample surface versus temperature. For different temperature values chosen between 20 °C and 250 °C, several quantitative mappings were made to show the spatial variation of the thermal expansion. As the glass transition affects the thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus considerably, the same data line of each topography image was extracted to identify specific thermal events in their topographic evolution as a function of temperature. In particular, it is shown that the thermal expansion of the contact surface is not uniform across the cell wall and a profile of the glass-transition temperature could thus be evidenced and quantified corresponding to the mobility of lignocellulosic polymers having a role in the organization of the cell wall structures.

  3. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Microwave measurements of temperature profiles, integrated water vapour, and liquid water path at Thule Air Base, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Giandomenico; Di Iorio, Tatiana; di Sarra, Alcide; Iaccarino, Antonio; Meloni, Daniela; Mevi, Gabriele; Muscari, Giovanni; Cacciani, Marco

    2017-04-01

    A RPG Humidity And Temperature PROfiler (HATPRO-G2 ) radiometer was installed at Thule Air Base (76.5° N, 68.8° W), Greenland, in June 2016 in the framework of the Study of the water VApour in the polar AtmosPhere (SVAAP) project. The Danish Meteorological Institute started measurements of atmospheric properties at Thule Air Base in early '90s. The Thule High Arctic Atmospheric Observatory (THAAO) has grown in size and observing capabilities during the last three decades through the international effort of United States (NCAR and University of Alaska Fairbanks) and Italian (ENEA, INGV, University of Roma and Firenze) institutions (http://www.thuleatmos-it.it). Within this context, the intensive field campaign of the SVAAP project was aimed at the investigation of the surface radiation budget and took place from 5 to 28 July, 2016. After the summer campaign the HATPRO has continued to operate in order to monitor the annual variability of the temperature profile and integrated water vapour as well as the presence and characteristics of liquid clouds in the Artic environment. The combined use of the HATPRO together with other automatic instruments, such as a new microwave spectrometer (the water Vapour Emission Spectrometer for Polar Atmosphere VESPA-22), upward- and downward-looking pyranometers and pyrgeometers, a zenith-looking pyrometer operating in the 9.6-11.5 µm spectral range, an all sky camera, and a meteorological station, allows to investigate the clouds' physical and optical properties, as well as their impact on the surface radiation budget. This study will present and discuss the first few months of HATPRO observations; the effectiveness of the statistical retrieval used to derive the physical parameters from the HATPRO brightness temperatures will also be investigated through the comparison of the temperature and humidity profiles, and integrated water vapour, with data from radiosondes launched during the summer campaign and in winter time.

  5. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1992 to 31 December 1992 (NODC Accession 0000388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  6. Temperature profile data from moored buoy, profiling floats, TAO buoy, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 12 June 2000 to 29 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000404)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from multiple ships from June 12, 2000 to December 29, 2000. Data were submitted by Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS)...

  7. Temperature profile data from moored buoy, profiling floats, TAO buoy, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 14 April 2000 to 20 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000406)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from multiple ships from April 14, 2000 to February 20, 2001. Data were submitted by Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS)...

  8. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1990 to 31 December 1990 (NODC Accession 0000386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  9. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1994 to 31 December 1994 (NODC Accession 0000390)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  10. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 1991 (NODC Accession 0000387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  11. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1993 to 31 December 1993 (NODC Accession 0000389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  12. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1999 to 31 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  13. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1995 to 31 December 1995 (NODC Accession 0000391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  14. Temperature profile and other data from moored buoy, profiling floats, TAO buoy, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 June 2000 to 29 November 2000 (NODC Accession 0000403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected from multiple ships from June 1, 2000 to November 29, 2000. Data were submitted by Marine Environmental Data...

  15. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1997 to 31 December 1997 (NODC Accession 0000393)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  16. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1998 to 31 December 1998 (NODC Accession 0000394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 1998. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  17. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1996 to 31 December 1996 (NODC Accession 0000392)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  18. Temperature profile data from moored buoy, profiling floats, TAO buoy, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 21 October 2000 to 31 January 2001 (NODC Accession 0000405)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from multiple ships from October 21, 2000 to January 31, 2001. Data were submitted by Marine Environmental Data Service...

  19. Modeling of temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope using computational fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mølgaard Mortensen, Peter [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Willum Hansen, Thomas [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Birkedal Wagner, Jakob, E-mail: jakob.wagner@cen.dtu.dk [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Degn Jensen, Anker, E-mail: aj@kt.dtu.dk [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-05-15

    The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature was affected by the conductivity of the gas, the emissivity of the sample grid, and the conductivity of the grid. Ideally the grid should be polished and made from a material with good conductivity, e.g. copper. With hydrogen gas, which has the highest conductivity of the gases studied, the temperature difference over the TEM grid is less than 5 °C, at what must be considered typical conditions, and it is concluded that the conditions on the sample grid in the ETEM can be considered as isothermal during general use. - Highlights: • Computational fluid dynamics used for mapping flow and temperature in ETEM setup. • Temperature gradient across TEM grid in furnace based heating holder very small in ETEM. • Conduction from TEM grid and gas in addition to radiation from TEM grid most important. • Pressure drop in ETEM limited to the pressure limiting apertures.

  20. Gene expression profile of Campylobacter jejuni in response to growth temperature variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzi, Alain

    2003-03-01

    The foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the primary causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In the present study a whole genome microarray of C. jejuni was constructed and validated. These DNA microarrays were used to measure changes in transcription levels over time, as C. jejuni cells responded to a temperature increase from 37 to 42 degrees C. Approximately 20% of the C. jejuni genes were significantly up- or downregulated over a 50-min period after the temperature increase. The global change in C. jejuni transcriptome was found to be essentially transient, with only a small subset of genes still differentially expressed after 50 min. A substantial number of genes with a downregulated coexpression pattern were found to encode for ribosomal proteins. This suggests a short growth arrest upon temperature stress, allowing the bacteria to reshuffle their energy toward survival and adaptation to the new growth temperature. Genes encoding chaperones, chaperonins, and heat shock proteins displayed the most dramatic and rapid upregulation immediately after the temperature change. Interestingly, genes encoding proteins involved in membrane structure modification were differentially expressed, either up- or downregulated, suggesting a different protein membrane makeup at the two different growth temperatures. Overall, these data provide new insights into the primary response of C. jejuni to surmount a sudden temperature upshift, allowing the bacterium to survive and adapt its transcriptome to a new steady state.

  1. The South African Defence Force and Horse Mounted Infantry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Defence Force (SADF) made effective use of the horse mounted soldier in the Namibian Independence War or 'Border War', 1966 to 1989, in Namibia (South West African) and Angola, in a conflict usually depicted as a series of high profile mechanised infantry operations. Nevertheless, the legacy of the ...

  2. In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of Temperature Profile in Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliar, Mikhail [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-03-31

    A gasifier’s temperature is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of temperature sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an extreme gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time temperature distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face temperature of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental temperature distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The temperature in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and temperature. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time temperature monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of temperature sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested

  3. The electromagnetic force field, fluid flow field and temperature profiles in levitated metal droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical representation was developed for the electromagnetic force field, the flow field, the temperature field (and for transport controlled kinetics), in a levitation melted metal droplet. The technique of mutual inductances was employed for the calculation of the electromagnetic force field, while the turbulent Navier - Stokes equations and the turbulent convective transport equations were used to represent the fluid flow field, the temperature field and the concentration field. The governing differential equations, written in spherical coordinates, were solved numerically. The computed results were in good agreement with measurements, regarding the lifting force, and the average temperature of the specimen and carburization rates, which were transport controlled.

  4. Dynamic Analysis of the Temperature and the Concentration Profiles of an Industrial Rotary Kiln Used in Clinker Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIULIA C.Q. RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cement is one of the most used building materials in the world. The process of cement production involves numerous and complex reactions that occur under different temperatures. Thus, there is great interest in the optimization of cement manufacturing. Clinker production is one of the main steps of cement production and it occurs inside the kiln. In this paper, the dry process of clinker production is analysed in a rotary kiln that operates in counter flow. The main phenomena involved in clinker production is as follows: free residual water evaporation of raw material, decomposition of magnesium carbonate, decarbonation, formation of C3A and C4AF, formation of dicalcium silicate, and formation of tricalcium silicate. The main objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model that realistically describes the temperature profile and the concentration of clinker components in a real rotary kiln. In addition, the influence of different speeds of inlet gas and solids in the system was analysed. The mathematical model is composed of partial differential equations. The model was implemented in Mathcad (available at CCA/UFES and solved using industrial input data. The proposal model is satisfactory to describe the temperature and concentration profiles of a real rotary kiln.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of the Temperature and the Concentration Profiles of an Industrial Rotary Kiln Used in Clinker Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Diulia C Q; Soares, Atílio P; Costa, Esly F; Costa, Andréa O S

    2017-01-01

    Cement is one of the most used building materials in the world. The process of cement production involves numerous and complex reactions that occur under different temperatures. Thus, there is great interest in the optimization of cement manufacturing. Clinker production is one of the main steps of cement production and it occurs inside the kiln. In this paper, the dry process of clinker production is analysed in a rotary kiln that operates in counter flow. The main phenomena involved in clinker production is as follows: free residual water evaporation of raw material, decomposition of magnesium carbonate, decarbonation, formation of C3A and C4AF, formation of dicalcium silicate, and formation of tricalcium silicate. The main objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model that realistically describes the temperature profile and the concentration of clinker components in a real rotary kiln. In addition, the influence of different speeds of inlet gas and solids in the system was analysed. The mathematical model is composed of partial differential equations. The model was implemented in Mathcad (available at CCA/UFES) and solved using industrial input data. The proposal model is satisfactory to describe the temperature and concentration profiles of a real rotary kiln.

  6. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  7. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  8. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2018-01-30

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  9. Sensory profiling of Dalmatian dry-cured ham under different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Janječić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of the Dalmatian ham processing conditions on weight loss and sensory characteristics, 20 hams were processed following different temperature conditions during salting and ripening. For that purpose, hams were evaluated using quantitative descriptive analysis. The weight loss was higher and all sensory traits except presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine crystals were higher rated for hams processed at higher temperatures. The most significant (P<0.0001 influence of temperature was established on subcutaneous fat color, muscle color and presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine, whereas no influence was established on appearance, marbling, flavor and melting. This concludes that there is overall significant effect of higher temperature on sensory characteristics most likely due to the more intense proteolysis and lipolysis.

  10. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This...

  11. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This site is in...

  12. Modeling of temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope using computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2015-01-01

    The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder ...... difference over the TEM grid is less than 5. °C, at what must be considered typical conditions, and it is concluded that the conditions on the sample grid in the ETEM can be considered as isothermal during general use....... gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature...

  13. Potential profile near singularity point in kinetic Tonks-Langmuir discharges as a function of the ion sources temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N.

    2011-05-01

    A plasma-sheath transition analysis requires a reliable mathematical expression for the plasma potential profile Φ(x) near the sheath edge xs in the limit ɛ ≡λD/ℓ =0 (where λD is the Debye length and ℓ is a proper characteristic length of the discharge). Such expressions have been explicitly calculated for the fluid model and the singular (cold ion source) kinetic model, where exact analytic solutions for plasma equation (ɛ =0) are known, but not for the regular (warm ion source) kinetic model, where no analytic solution of the plasma equation has ever been obtained. For the latter case, Riemann [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 24, 493 (1991)] only predicted a general formula assuming relatively high ion-source temperatures, i.e., much higher than the plasma-sheath potential drop. Riemann's formula, however, according to him, never was confirmed in explicit solutions of particular models (e.g., that of Bissell and Johnson [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] and Scheuer and Emmert [Phys. Fluids 31, 3645 (1988)]) since "the accuracy of the classical solutions is not sufficient to analyze the sheath vicinity" [Riemann, in Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, APS Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 54 (APS, 2009)]. Therefore, for many years, there has been a need for explicit calculation that might confirm the Riemann's general formula regarding the potential profile at the sheath edge in the cases of regular very warm ion sources. Fortunately, now we are able to achieve a very high accuracy of results [see, e.g., Kos et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 093503 (2009)]. We perform this task by using both the analytic and the numerical method with explicit Maxwellian and "water-bag" ion source velocity distributions. We find the potential profile near the plasma-sheath edge in the whole range of ion source temperatures of general interest to plasma physics, from zero to "practical infinity." While within limits of "very low" and "relatively high" ion source temperatures

  14. A simplified approach for predicting temperature profile in steel members with locally damaged fire protection

    OpenAIRE

    Dwaikat, M.M.S.; Kodur, V.K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Steel structures in building are to be provided with external insulation to delay temperature rise and associated strength degradation when exposed to fire. However, due to delicateness and fragility of some insulation systems, damage might occur in these insulation systems during their service life, and such damage can lead to rapid rise in steel temperature and result in lower fire resistance of structural members. Currently, there are no simple calculation methods for quantifying the effec...

  15. Temperature profile and wind speed data collected from buoy casts in the Gulf of Mexico from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER for 1977-07-26 (NCEI Accession 7800034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and wind speed data were collected using buoy casts in the Gulf of Mexico from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 26 July 1977 to 26 July 1977. Data were...

  16. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from NAUKA and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 12 January 1968 to 17 June 1990 (NODC Accession 0000230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a World-wide distribution from the SKIF, MARLIN, NAUKA, and other platforms from 12 January 1968 to 17...

  17. Temperature, salinity, biological and nutrient profiles collected by CTD in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1/28/1905 - 4/12/1994 (NODC Accession 0000125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using CTD from the HELGA and other platforms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 28...

  18. Profiles of temperature, salinity, and other measurements from CTD, XBT, and bottle samplers received from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center (NODC Accession 0054093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profiles of temperature, salinity, and other measurements received from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center, Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department as a...

  19. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from HARKNESS in the Indian Ocean from 15 December 1986 to 14 January 1987 (NODC Accession 8700087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the HARKNESS in the Indian Ocean and TOGA Area - India Ocean. Data were collected...

  20. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, and ammonia profiles collected by bottle in the Black Sea from 5/5/1955 - 4/16/1989 (NODC Accession 0000131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the FIOLENT and other platforms in the Black Sea. Data were collected from 05 May 1955...

  1. Temperature profile data from EBT casts in the Indian Ocean from 13 February 1986 to 01 January 1989 (NODC Accession 0000210)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using EBT casts in the Indian Ocean from the MYS OSTROVSKOGO, IGNAT PAVLYUCHENKOV, ZVEZDA AZOVA, and KARA-DAG from February...

  2. Temperature profile, nutrients, pressure, and biological data from bottle and other instruments in the Indian Ocean from 01 May 1992 to 01 February 1993 (NODC Accession 0000197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, pressure, nutrients, and biological data were collected using bottle, mooring, and CTD casts from the R/V TYRO in the Indian Ocean from 01 May...

  3. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and other measurements collected using bottle and high resolution CTD from the POLARSTERN in the Antarctic and South Atlantic in 1992 (NODC Accession 0000463)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using plankton net, bottle, and CTD casts from the POLARSTERN in the Southern Oceans. Data were...

  4. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1900 - 1940 (NODC Accession 0002118)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other measurements were collected using bottle casts from the SOTRA in the Barents Sea and other locations from 16 May 1900 to 20 October...

  5. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from the TEMP in the Arctic from 1947 to 1949 (NODC Accession 0001122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data digitized at NODC on 05/02/03, received by Igor Smolyar from the personal library of Dr. Aleksey Zuyev, Murmansk Branch of the...

  6. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1970 through 1975 (NODC Accession 0002125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1970...

  7. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1976 through 1982 (NODC Accession 0002126)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1976...

  8. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1965 - 1969 (NODC Accession 0002124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1965...

  9. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle casts in Barents, Kara and other Seas from 03 January 1961 to 30 June 1963 (NODC Accession 0002122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using bottle casts from the AISBERG and POLYARNIK in the Kara, Barents, White, Laptev, and Norwegian Sea. Data were...

  10. Temperature profile and oxygen data from bottle casts in the Barents Sea from 04 January 1899 to 04 December 1992 (NODC Accession 0000379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — temperature profile and oxygen data were collected from multiple ships from January 4, 1899 to December 4, 1992. These data were collected using bottle in the...

  11. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle casts in Barents, Kara and other Seas from 01 January 1963 to 26 December 1964 (NODC Accession 0002123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using bottle casts from the AISBERG and other platforms in the Kara, Barents, White, Laptev, and Norwegian Sea....

  12. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1943 - 1950 (NODC Accession 0002119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other measurements were collected using bottle casts in the Barents Sea and other locations from 02 June 1943 to 16 June 1950. Data were...

  13. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from AKHILL and other platforms in the Atlantic Ocean from 02 August 1984 to 11 December 1990 (NODC Accession 0000323)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in the Atlantic Ocean from the AKHILL, ARTEMIDA, AYAKS, and other platforms from 02 August 1984 to 11...

  14. Temperature profile data from BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (XBT) from the CATALUNA and other platforms in BAY OF BISCAY and other areas: 19840914 to 19850923 (NODC Accession 8600110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the CATALUNA and ALCALA GALIANO in the Bay of Biscay and other areas. Data were collected from 14...

  15. Temperature profile data from XBT casts by participating vessels in NOAA's Volunteer Observing Ships program, December 2000 - September 2001 (NODC Accession 0000589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SKOGAFOSS and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 27 December 27, 2000 to 19 September...

  16. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-06-01 to 1997-08-10 (NODC Accession 9700224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from XBT casts from several research vessels in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from June 1, 1996 to August...

  17. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using bottle from the ELTANIN in the South Pacific in 1969 (NODC Accession 0001458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the ELTANIN in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 30 September 1969 to 10 November...

  18. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and plankton measurements collected using bottle from the Parizeau in the North Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 0002242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, oxygen and other profile data received at NODC on 09/09/04 by Sydney Levitus from the Institute of Ocean Sciences (Sidney, B.C.), digitized...

  19. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from R/V ENDEAVOR using CTD casts from 14 September 1981 to 01 October 1981 (NODC Accession 8600220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using CTD casts from the R/V ENDEAVOR. Data were collected from 14 September 1981 to 01 October 1981 by Woods...

  20. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients measurements collected using bottle from the Iselin Columbus in the Indian Ocean (Somalia Coast) (NODC Accession 0002225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN in the Indian Ocean. Data were collected from 26 February 1979 to...

  1. Water temperature and salinity profiles from CTD and XBT casts aboard multiple platforms from 1986-01-09 to 2011-01-29 (NCEI Accession 0103557)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This water temperature and salinity profile data set is a product from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) used to compare...

  2. Temperature profile and oxygen data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 11 May 1979 to 08 June 1979 (NODC Accession 0000356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and oyxgen data were collected from the YAKOV GAKKEL from May 11, 1979 to June 8, 1979. These data were collected using bottle casts in North...

  3. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, and oxygen measurements collected from BLUE FIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1988 to 1993 (NODC Accession 0002230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the BLUE FIN in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 26 September 1988 to 18...

  4. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected from various platforms in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans from 1961-1964 (NODC Accession 0001903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ARGUS in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from...

  5. Temperature profile and oxygen data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 31 October 1977 to 16 October 1989 (NODC Accession 0000357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and oxygen data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from October 31, 1977 to October 16, 1989. Data were submitted by...

  6. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from AELITA and other platforms in a World wide distribution from 30 January 1970 to 26 July 1990 (NODC Accession 0000227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a world wide distribution from AELITA, ESTAFETA OKTYABRYA, MARLIN, ORHEVI, POLYAKOV, and ZVEZDA AZOVA from...

  7. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from NAUKA and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 18 June 1970 to 05 May 1989 (NODC Accession 0000229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a World-wide distribution from the NAUKA, AELITA, LESNOYE, and other platforms from 18 June 1970 to 05 May...

  8. Temperature profile data from MBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 23 December 1964 to 19 December 1991 (NODC Accession 0000216)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts from multiple platforms in a world-wide distribution from December 23, 1964 to December 19, 1991. Additonal...

  9. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using bottle from the POLYARNIK (UGPR) in the Arctic in 1960 (NODC Accession 0001126)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the POLYARNIK in the Barents Sea. Data were collected from 15 November 1960 to 06...

  10. Temperature profile and current meter data from mooring and CTD in the Atlantic Ocean from 11 March 1989 to 18 June 1989 (NODC Accession 0000215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and current meter data were collected using mooring and CTD casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey in the Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected...

  11. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE in the Southern Oceans from 02 January 1990 to 05 February 1990 (NODC Accession 0000887)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 02 January 1990 to 05...

  12. Oceanographic profile Biomass, temperature salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from Alpha Helix in the Pacific Ocean from 1976 (NODC Accession 0002070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the ALPHA HELIX in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 06...

  13. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity data using Nansen bottles and MBT aboard the HMS Hydra on 23 August 1972, off the island of New Britain (NODC Accession 0118531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity data from 5 Nansen bottle casts and 5 Mechanical Bathythermograph (MBT) casts taken by the UK Navy hydrographic survey...

  14. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to October...

  15. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from a World-Wide distribution from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 1979-06-03 to 1988-05-27 (NODC Accession 8800182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 03 June 1979 to 27 May 1988. Data...

  16. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 04 September 2002 to 18 November 2002 (NODC Accession 0000831)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from LYKES COMMANDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 04 September 2002 to 18 November...

  17. Temperature profile and wave data from CTD casts in the East/South China Sea from 10 January 1977 to 12 December 1986 (NODC Accession 9400045)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and wave data were collected using CTD casts and other instruments in the East / South China Sea. Data were collected from 10 January 1977 to 12...

  18. Temperature profile data from XBT casts by participating vessels in NOAA's Volunteer Observing Ships Program, July - November 2001 (NODC Accession 0000633)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected by from XBT casts from the OLEANDER and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 12 July 2001 to 27 November 2001....

  19. Temperature profile data from the DONGHAE ILHO and DONUZLAV in a world-wide distribution survey from 01 January 1968 to 11 June 1983 (NODC Accession 0000243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the DONGHAE ILHO and DONUZLAV from January 1, 1968 to June 11, 1993. Additional funding for digitizing historic data was...

  20. Temperature profile data collected from multiple ships using bottle casts in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean from 04 November 1956 to 02 January 1994 (NODC Accession 0002701)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from multiple ships in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean from 04 November 1956 to 02 January 1994. Data...

  1. Temperature profile and oxygen data collected from multiple ships using CTD casts in a world wide distribution from 04 September 1979 to 15 April 1998 (NODC Accession 0002716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and oxygen data were collected using CTD casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 04 September 1979 to 15 April 1998. Data...

  2. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990 (NODC Accession 0002717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990

  3. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN and other platforms from 1972-08-17 to 1979-08-05 (NODC Accession 8300083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN and other platforms. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries...

  4. Temperature and salinity profiles to provide supporting data between MiniBat tows off the Oregon coast, June 2003 (NODC Accession 0002113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from the NEW HORIZON from 24 June 2003 to 30 June 2003. Data were submitted by...

  5. Temperature profile data collected from BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 09 November 1982 to 15 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8600192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the OCEANUS in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 09 November 1982 to 15...

  6. Temperature profile data from bottle casts in the Southern Oceans from 26 June 1985 to 18 October 1989 (NODC Accession 0000302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the MIKHAIL SOMOV and KADEMIK FEDOROV (aka AKADEMIK FYODOROV) from June 26, 1985 to October 18, 1989. These data were...

  7. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MOBILE BAY in the NW Atlantic Ocean from 05 March 1987 to 31 March 1987 (NODC Accession 8700170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MOBILE BAY in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Data were...

  8. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from DOWNES in the NW Pacific (limit-180W) from 09 September 1986 to 29 September 1986 (NODC Accession 8700044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from the DOWNES in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 09 September 1986...

  9. Temperature profile, pressure, and chemical data from XBT, bottle, CTD casts in the Arctic Ocean from 06 May 2003 to 06 May 2004 (NODC Accession 0002203)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, pressure, and chemical data were collected using XBT, bottle, and CTD casts in the Arctic Ocean from May 6, 2003 to May 5, 2004. Data were...

  10. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 20 February 2003 to 24 April 200 (NODC Accession 0001019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from LYKES RAIDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 20 February 2003 to 24 April 2003....

  11. LIMS/Nimbus-7 Level 2 Vertical Profiles of O3, NO2, H2O, HNO3, Geopotential Height, and Temperature V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) version 6 Level-2 data product consists of daily, geolocated, vertical profiles of temperature, geopotential...

  12. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from cooperating vessels in support of the NOAA volunteer observing program, 2000-08 to 2001-07 (NODC Accession 0000528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN and other vessels from a world-wide distribution from 6 August 2000 to 21 July 2001....

  13. Temperature profile data from XBT casts by participating vessels in NOAA's Volunteer Observing Ships Program, August - December 2001 (NODC Accession 0000635)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the ENTERPRISE and other vessels from a world-wide distribution from 01 August 2001 to 03 December 2001. Data...

  14. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 01 March 2002 to 29 March 2003 (NODC Accession 0000976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from LYKES COMMANDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 01 March 2002 to 29 March 2003....

  15. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients measurements collected using bottle and MBT from the A.I. VOEIKOV in the Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 0002214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle and MBT casts from the A.I. VOEIKOV in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected...

  16. Temperature profile data collected using XBT casts from multiple platforms in a world wide distribution from 01 March 2002 to 26 August 2002 (NODC Accession 0000777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from MELBOURNE STAR and other platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 01 March 2002...

  17. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from the SNP-1 in the Coastal South Pacific and South Pacific in 1976 (NODC Accession 0001483)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the SNP-1 in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 24...

  18. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1976-04-20 (NODC Accession 7601066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 20 April 1976. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  19. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-08-17 (NODC Accession 7700691)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 17 August 1977. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  20. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-06-14 (NODC Accession 7700521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 14 June 1977. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  1. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1976-10-19 (NODC Accession 7700137)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 19 October 1976. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as...

  2. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1976-03-25 (NODC Accession 7600884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 25 March 1976. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  3. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team 5 during operations along the northeast US coast, May 2005 - March 2006 (NODC Accession 0002673)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and the Northeast US coast from the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 5 from 03 May...

  4. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 02 April 2003 to 21 May 2003 (NODC Accession 0001042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from SEA-LAND DEFENDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 02 April 2003 to 21 May 2003....

  5. Temperature profile data collected using XBT casts from multiple platforms in a world wide distribution from 07 November 2001 to 24 July 2002 (NODC Accession 0000762)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from OLEANDER, TAI HE, SEA-LAND ENTERPRISE, and other platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were...

  6. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from a World-Wide distribution from the ALASKA and other platforms from 02 February 1943 to 10 October 1964 (NODC Accession 9200027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from MBT casts from a a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected from the ALASKA and other platforms from 02 February...

  7. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, and silicate profiles collected during 40 cruises in the Sea of Azov from 7/30/1992 - 8/17/1999 (NODC Accession 0000130)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, silicate, oxygen, and phosphate data were collected using bottle casts from the OSIPENKO, LUETJENS, and ARSHINCEVO in the Sea of Azov. Data were...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1996 to 20 November 1996 (NODC Accession 0000874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1996 to 20 November...

  9. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from HARKNESS in the Indian Ocean from 01 March 1987 to 10 March 1987 (NODC Accession 8700159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from the HARKNESS in the Indian Ocean and TOGA Area - Indian Ocean. Data were collected from...

  10. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from COCHRANE in the South China Sea and other seas from 09 January 1987 to 22 February 1987 (NODC Accession 8700095)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from the COCHRANE in the South China and other seas. Data were collected from 09 January...

  11. Temperature profiles collected by XBT in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans from 3/20/1996 to 4/27/2000 (NODC Accession 0000176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the GODAFOSS and other platforms in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 20...

  12. Chemical and temperature profile data from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 9700022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and temperature profile data were collected from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean. Data were submitted by the Japan...

  13. Temperature profile data from XBT casts by participating vessel in NOAA's Volunteer Observing Ships Program, June - August 2001 (NODC Accession 0000574)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the OLEANDER and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 14 June 2001 to 20 August 2001. Data...

  14. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, and nutrients measurements collected using bottle, CTD from various platforms in the North West Pacific from 1995-2005 (NODC Accession 0010565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and Chemical Oceanographic Time Series (Line-P) containing profiles for Nutrients, temperature, salinity near Ocean Station PAPA (50 deg N;145 deg W)....

  15. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using bottle from the GEORGIY SEDOV in the Arctic from 1937 to 1940 (NODC Accession 0001123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data digitized at NODC on 05/02/03, received by Igor Smolyar from "Timofeev, B.T. 1951. Results of deep-sea observations. In:...

  16. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1994 to 21 November 1994 (NODC Accession 0000873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1994 to 21 November...

  17. Temperature profile and nutrients data from bottle casts in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 19 April 1971 to 30 March 1994 (NODC Accession 0000225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ORION and EASTWARD in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 19...

  18. Numerical study on transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of a regenerator in a pulse tube cooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Dietrich, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of the regenerator in a Stirling-type pulse tube cooler as observed in experiments was analysed in a numerical study. The asymmetry was reproduced using a one-dimensional model of the cooler where the regenerator was modelled using two identical...... parallel regenerator channels. The asymmetry was caused by a circulating flow that was superimposed on the oscillating flow. The primary mechanism driving the circulating flow was due to the wave form of the pressure difference between the ends of the regenerator and the dependence of the instantaneous...

  19. Measurement & Minimization of Mount Induced Strain on Double Crystal Monochromator Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J.; Alcock, S. G.

    2013-03-01

    Opto-mechanical mounts can cause significant distortions to monochromator crystals and mirrors if not designed or implemented carefully. A slope measuring profiler, the Diamond-NOM [1], was used to measure the change in tangential slope as a function of crystal clamping configuration and load. A three point mount was found to exhibit the lowest surface distortion (Diamond Light Source.

  20. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  1. A study of the effects of vertical resolution and measurement errors on an iteratively inverted temperature profile. [satellite observation of atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M.-D.

    1975-01-01

    A direct inversion method for inverting the temperature profile from satellite-measured radiation is discussed. The nth power of the weighting function in the integral radiative-transfer equation is used as the weight in the averaging process. The vertical resolution of the inverted temperature profile and the response of the inverted temperature profile to the measurement errors are examined in terms of n. It is found that for smaller values of n, the vertical resolution and the effect of measurement errors are reduced. When n = 0, both the vertical resolution and error effect are minimum. The temperature profile is adjusted by a constant; any structure different from the initial shape cannot be resolved. This is equivalent to the case where the entire atmosphere is treated as one layer with a fixed shape of temperature profile. When n approaches infinity, both the vertical resolution and error effect are maximum. This is equivalent to the case where the entire atmosphere is divided into m (the number of spectral channels) layers. Within each layer, the temperatures are adjusted by a constant, and any structure different from the initial shape cannot be resolved. Also, the shape of the final solution is closer to the initial profile if the value of n is smaller.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1229-85 - Dynamometer load determination and fuel temperature profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) above the average ground height within a radius of 500 feet (150 meters). The sensor height shall not... (e.g. vegetation, buildings, etc.) within a 500 foot (150 meter) radius. An object is considered to... temperatures throughout the period of driving (Tamb); (ix) Wind speed throughout the period of driving; (x...

  3. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  4. A simplified approach for predicting temperature profile in steel members with locally damaged fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwaikat, M.M.S.; Kodur, V.K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Steel structures in building are to be provided with external insulation to delay temperature rise and associated strength degradation when exposed to fire. However, due to delicateness and fragility of some insulation systems, damage might occur in these insulation systems during their service

  5. Modelling of Temperature Profiles and Transport Scaling in Auxiliary Heated Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callen, J.D.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    -mode) scaling with input power, . The constant heat pinch or excess temperature gradient model leads to the offset linear law for the total stored energy W with Pin, W = τinc Pin + W(0), which describes JET auxiliary heating data quite well. It also provides definitions for the incremental energy confinement...

  6. Effect of Temperature on Oxygen Profiles and Denitrification Rates in Freshwater Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, de Jeroen J.M.; Overbeek, Ciska C.; Juncher Jørgensen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vegetated ditches and wetlands are important sites for nutrient removal in agricultural catchments. About half of the influx of inorganic nitrogen can be removed from these ecosystems by denitrification. Previous studies have shown that denitrification in aquatic ecosystems is strongly temperature

  7. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in α-Ga ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Room temperature Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in -Ga metal are calculated in band model. For this purpose, the ... N C Mohapatra2. Department of Physics, Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti 761 010, India; Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India ...

  8. Design, Operation and Performance of an Expendable Temperature and Velocity Profiler (XTVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    is very expensive in terms of capital equipment (support equipment, the profiler, spares, etc.), highly trained personnel ( engineers , technicians...room, engine room, etc. before the cruise begins. All installations, rigging and - testing are more easily done alongside the dock. 46 APL-UW 8110...in the area would be J- (2x2 _z2)/(x2 2)5/2 (8 2_22 2 5/2 S 4t 6pxz/(x 2+Z2 ) 5/ 2Jz = 4W (39 ) where p is the dipole strength in ampere meters

  9. Study on Movable gel Profiling/Flooding System Optimization at Boundary Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Xie, Gang; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Peijun; Wei, Junjie; Gu, Yi; Lei, Xiaoyang; Guo, Suzhen; Lei, Shi

    2017-12-01

    65-75°C is the boundary temperature of phenol-formaldehyde resin and organic chrome crosslink with HPAM to generate movable gel. Generally speaking, when the reservoir temperature is below 65-75°C, the crosslinking agent is Organic chrome. Phenol-formaldehyde resin is used when the temperature is above 65-75°C. In this paper the gelation properties of phenol-formaldehyde resin and organic chrome were compared at 70°C. The experiment results showed that the crosslinking time of phenol-formaldehyde resin gel was longer and more conducive to field injection. In addition the phenol-formaldehyde resin gel had greater viscosity, adhesion and shearing resistance compared with the organic chrome gel. So the phenol-formaldehyde resin was chosen for further optimization. The crosslinking time was shortened and the gel viscosity increased with the increase of the polymer concentration. As the polymer crosslinker proportion increased The crosslinking time was shortened and the gel viscosity increased first and then decreased. Reinforcer NC and stabilizer WG were added to improve the temperature and salt tolerance of the gel. The gel formula suitable for the boundary temperature was obtained. The optimum polymer concentration is 1200mg/L, the polymer crosslinker proportion is 1:1.1, the best reinforcer concentration is 400mg/L and the concentration of the stabilizer is 150mg/L. The crosslinking time is 31h, the gel viscosity is above 2100mPa·s. The gel did not shrink and no water separation was observed at 70°C for 150 days. The viscosity retention rate was more than 70%.

  10. Analysis of temperature profile and electric field in natural rubber glove due to microwave heating: effects of waveguide position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keangin, P.; Narumitbowonkul, U.; Rattanadecho, P.

    2018-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is the key raw material used in the manufacture of other products such as rubber band, tire and shoes. Recently, the NR is used in natural rubber glove ( NRG) manufacturing in the industrial and medical fields. This research aims to investigate the electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transfer in NRG due to heating with microwave energy within the microwave oven at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Three-dimensional model of NRG and microwave oven are considered in this work. The comparative effects of waveguide position on the electric field and temperature profile in NRG when subjected to microwave energy are discussed. The finite element method (FEM) is used to solve the transient Maxwell’s equation coupled with the transient heat transfer equation. The simulation results with computer programs are validated with experimental results. The placement of waveguides in three cases are left hand side of microwave oven, right hand side of microwave oven and left and right hand sides of microwave oven are investigated. The findings revealed that the placing the waveguide on the right side of the microwave oven gives the highest electric field and temperature profile. The values obtained provide an indication toward understanding the study of heat transfer in NRG during microwave heating in the industry.

  11. Spatially Resolved Spectra from a new X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurements of Ion and Electron Temperature Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitter, M; Stratton, B; Roquemore, A; Mastrovito, D; Lee, S; Bak, J; Moon, M; Nam, U; Smith, G; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Fraenkel, B

    2004-08-10

    A new type of high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is being developed to measure ion and electron temperature profiles in tokamak plasmas. The instrument is particularly valuable for diagnosing plasmas with purely Ohmic heating and rf heating, since it does not require the injection of a neutral beam - although it can also be used for the diagnosis of neutral-beam heated plasmas. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal and a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector. It records spectra of helium-like argon (or krypton) from multiple sightlines through the plasma and projects a de-magnified image of a large plasma cross-section onto the detector. The spatial resolution in the plasma is solely determined by the height of the crystal, its radius of curvature, and the Bragg angle. This new X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer may also be of interest for the diagnosis of ion temperature profiles in future large tokamaks, such as KSTAR and ITER, where the application of the presently used charge-exchange spectroscopy will be difficult, if the neutral beams do not penetrate to the plasma center. The paper presents the results from proof-of-principle experiments performed with a prototype instrument at Alcator C-Mod.

  12. Influence of Plasma Jet Temperature Profiles in Arc Discharge Methods of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raniszewski, Grzegorz; Wiak, Slawomir; Pietrzak, Lukasz; Szymanski, Lukasz; Kolacinski, Zbigniew

    2017-02-23

    One of the most common methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesis is application of an electric-arc plasma. However, the final product in the form of cathode deposit is composed of carbon nanotubes and a variety of carbon impurities. An assay of carbon nanotubes produced in arc discharge systems available on the market shows that commercial cathode deposits contain about 10% CNTs. Given that the quality of the final product depends on carbon-plasma jet parameters, it is possible to increase the yield of the synthesis by plasma jet control. Most of the carbon nanotubes are multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). It was observed that the addition of catalysts significantly changes the plasma composition, effective ionization potential, the arc channel conductance, and in effect temperature of the arc and carbon elements flux. This paper focuses on the influence of metal components on plasma-jet forming containing carbon nanotubes cathode deposit. The plasma jet temperature control system is presented.

  13. Influence of Plasma Jet Temperature Profiles in Arc Discharge Methods of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Raniszewski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs synthesis is application of an electric-arc plasma. However, the final product in the form of cathode deposit is composed of carbon nanotubes and a variety of carbon impurities. An assay of carbon nanotubes produced in arc discharge systems available on the market shows that commercial cathode deposits contain about 10% CNTs. Given that the quality of the final product depends on carbon–plasma jet parameters, it is possible to increase the yield of the synthesis by plasma jet control. Most of the carbon nanotubes are multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. It was observed that the addition of catalysts significantly changes the plasma composition, effective ionization potential, the arc channel conductance, and in effect temperature of the arc and carbon elements flux. This paper focuses on the influence of metal components on plasma-jet forming containing carbon nanotubes cathode deposit. The plasma jet temperature control system is presented.

  14. Temperature profiles of an ablation controlled arc in PTFE: II. Simulation of side-on radiances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidenbach, H [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, Greifswald 17489 (Germany); Uhrlandt, D [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, Greifswald 17489 (Germany); Franke, St [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, Greifswald 17489 (Germany); Seeger, M [ABB Schweiz AG, Corporate Research, Im Segelhof 1, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2007-12-07

    The temperature determination by spectroscopic measurements in high-current high-pressure arcs in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nozzle under the assumption of an optically thin plasma has been investigated. Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium the radial temperature distributions as well as the plasma pressures have been determined by fitting a model to measured spectral radiances considering line and continuum absorption. It is shown that absorption has to be included in the error estimate of the experimental results. The different effects, which cause deviations from the optically thin case, have been analysed numerically and by using a simplified analytical model. The theoretically estimated pressures sensitively depend on the Stark broadening. In the studied plasmas the calculated large electron densities indicate a marked reduction of the Stark widths by nonideality effects. The applicability of the experimental method has been proved for suitably chosen lines.

  15. Environmental Profiles of Stirling-Cooled and Cascade-Cooled Ultra-Low Temperature Freezers

    OpenAIRE

    Yongrak Kwon; David M. Berchowitz

    2012-01-01

    The environmental footprint of ultra-low temperature (ULT) freezers as used in bio-repositories, universities and other research organizations is investigated. These freezers, employing the cascade refrigeration system, use between 10 and 20 times the energy of an average household refrigerator/freezer. In addition, they often require high greenhouse gas potential (GWP) refrigerants. A new technology employing the Stirling cycle machine promises to reduce energy consumption of ULT freezers by...

  16. High time resolution reconstruction of electron temperature profiles with a neural network in C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Gabriel; Magee, Richard; Trask, Erik; Korepanov, Sergey; Clary, Ryan; Tri Alpha Energy Team

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important parameters governing fast ion dynamics in a plasma is the electron temperature, as the fast ion-electron collision rate goes as νei Te3 / 2 . Unfortunately, the electron temperature is difficult to directly measure-methods relying on high-powered laser pulses or fragile probes lead to limited time resolution or measurements restricted to the edge. In order to rectify the lack of time resolution on the Thomson scattering data in the core, a type of learning algorithm, specifically a neural network, was implemented. This network uses 3 hidden layers to correlate information from nearly 250 signals, including magnetics, interferometers, and several arrays of bolometers, with Thomson scattering data over the entire C-2U database, totalling nearly 20,000 samples. The network uses the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with Bayesian regularization to learn from the large number of samples and inputs how to accurately reconstruct the entire electron temperature time history at a resolution of 500 kHz, a huge improvement over the 2 time points per shot provided by Thomson scattering. These results can be used in many different types of analysis and plasma characterization-in this work, we use the network to quantify electron heating.

  17. Prediction of Air Flow and Temperature Profiles Inside Convective Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Vintilă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar tray drying is an effective alternative for post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables. Product quality and uniformity of the desired final moisture content are affected by the uneven air flow and temperature distribution inside the drying chamber. The purpose of this study is to numerically evaluate the operation parameters of a new indirect solar dryer having an appropriate design based on thermal uniformity inside the drying chamber, low construction costs and easy accessibility to resources needed for manufacture. The research was focused on both the investigation of different operation conditions and analysis of the influence of the damper position, which is incorporated into the chimney, on the internal cabinet temperature and air flow distribution. Numerical simulation was carried out with Comsol Multiphysics CFD commercial code using a reduced 2D domain model by neglecting any end effects from the side walls. The analysis of the coupled thermal-fluid model provided the velocity field, pressure distribution and temperature distribution in the solar collector and in the drying chamber when the damper was totally closed, half open and fully open and for different operation conditions. The predicted results were compared with measurements taken in-situ. With progressing computing power, it is conceivable that CFD will continue to provide explanations for more fluid flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena, leading to better equipment design and process control for the food industry.

  18. Detailed photochemical simulation of Nitryl Chloride chemistry: impacts of temperature and emission profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoul, Tara; Kramer, Louisa; Pope, Francis; Sommariva, Roberto; Bloss, William

    2017-04-01

    A detailed photochemical box model utilizing the near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism was extended to simulate heterogenous ClNO2 formation including condensed-phase reactions. The model has been validated against ClNO2 observations in an urban and rural environment and is employed to: (1) Evaluate the impact of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) chemistry on the formation of HOx, and abundance of NOx, O3, and VOCs in a range of typical urban background environments; (2) Assess the influence of temperature variations upon the production and impact of ClNO2 chemistry as this is of particular importance in future climate with potentially different global temperatures; and (3) Assess the impacts of potential changes in emission patterns to evaluate the interaction of this chemistry with changing source terms i.e. human behaviour. The simulations demonstrate that the formation of ClNO2 enhances the production of OH, HO2, CH3O2, HNO3, HCHO and O3, and decreases the NO, NO2, and H2O2 levels under typical mid-latitude continental boundary layer conditions. Moreover, the model shows that the production of ClNO2 and its impact on air quality is highly sensitive to atmospheric temperature in all seasons.

  19. Control of Wall Mounting Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pedersen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for designing controllers for trajectory tracking with actuator constraints. In particular, we consider a joystick-controlled wall mounting robot called WallMo. In contrast to previous works, a model-free approach is taken to the control problem, where the path...

  20. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  1. Mounting power cables on SOLEIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The power couplers are mounted on the SOLEIL cryomodule in a clean room. The cryomodule will allow superconducting technology to be used at SOLEIL, the French national synchrotron facility. This work is carried out as part of a collaboration between CERN and CEA Saclay, the French National Atomic Energy Commission.

  2. Design, analysis, and testing of a CCD array mounting structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, John A.; O'Neill, Mark B.

    1991-12-01

    A method has been developed for mounting charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays in an optical telescope so as to minimize thermal defocusing errors. The mounting arrangement was developed for a six-inch aperture, visible band, off-axis reimaging telescope attached to an experimental satellite. The mounting arrangement consists of two pieces: a fiberglass frame which holds the actively cooled CCD package and provides thermal isolation from the telescope body; and a titanium flexure, which acts to minimize structural distortions caused by the difference in thermal expansion properties of the CCD array and the telescope body. This paper describes the design, analysis, and testing of this CCD array mounting arrangement. A detailed finite-element model of the CCD array and the mount was developed and used to predict thermally-induced defocus and gravity sag deformations, as well as natural frequencies. Experimental tests to verify the computer model results were performed using holographic interferometry. Vibration tests were also performed to verify the natural frequencies as well as structural integrity during launch. A comparison of the computer model predictions and the holographic interferometric measurements of thermally-induced defocussing indicates agreement to within 15 to 20%. Both the experimental and computer results indicate that the mounting structure provides focus stability over the operational temperature range of the telescope with sufficient structural integrity to survive the anticipated spacecraft launch loads.

  3. Identification, classification, and expression profiles of heat shock transcription factors in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Huang, Ying; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-15

    In vascular plants, heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate heat stress response by regulating the expression of heat shock proteins. This study systematically and comprehensively analyzed the Hsf family in tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. A total of 16 CsHsfs were identified from the transcriptome database of tea plant and analyzed for their phylogenetic relationships, motifs, and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of the phylogenetic comparison of tea plant with Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Theobroma cacao, and Oryza sativa, the CsHsfs were classified into three classes, namely, A (56.25%), B (37.50%), and C (6.25%). Heat mapping showed that the expression profiles of CsHsf genes under non-stress conditions varied among four tea plant cultivars, namely, 'Yunnanshilixiang', 'Chawansanhao', 'Ruchengmaoyecha', and 'Anjibaicha'. Six CsHsf genes (CsHsfA1a, CsHsfA1b, CsHsfA6, CsHsfB1, CsHsfB2b, and CsHsfC1) were selected from classes A, B, and C to analyze the expression profiles of CsHsf genes through quantitative real-time PCR in 'Yingshuang', 'Anjibaicha', and 'Yunnanshilixiang' under high (38 °C) or low (4 °C) temperature stress. Temperature stress positively or negatively regulated all of the selected CsHsf genes, and the expression levels evidently varied even among CsHsf genes belonging to the same class. This study provided a relatively detailed summary of Hsfs in tea plant and may serve as a reference for further studies on the mechanism of temperature stress regulation by CsHsfs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % (p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  5. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % ( p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences ( p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  6. Sensitivity of Landsat 8 Surface Temperature Estimates to Atmospheric Profile Data: A Study Using MODTRAN in Dryland Irrigated Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2017-09-26

    The land surface temperature (LST) represents a critical element in efforts to characterize global surface energy and water fluxes, as well as being an essential climate variable in its own right. Current satellite platforms provide a range of spatial and temporal resolution radiance data from which LST can be determined. One of the most complete records of data comes via the Landsat series of satellites, which provide a continuous sequence that extends back to 1982. However, for much of this time, Landsat thermal data were provided through a single broadband thermal channel, making surface temperature retrieval challenging. To fully exploit the valuable time-series of thermal information that is available from these satellites requires efforts to better describe and understand the accuracy of temperature retrievals. Here, we contribute to these efforts by examining the impact of atmospheric correction on the estimation of LST, using atmospheric profiles derived from a range of in-situ, reanalysis, and satellite data. Radiance data from the thermal infrared (TIR) sensor onboard Landsat 8 was converted to LST by using the MODTRAN version 5.2 radiative transfer model, allowing the production of an LST time series based upon 28 Landsat overpasses. LST retrievals were then evaluated against in-situ thermal measurements collected over an arid zone farmland comprising both bare soil and vegetated surface types. Atmospheric profiles derived from AIRS, MOD07, ECMWF, NCEP, and balloon-based radiosonde data were used to drive the MODTRAN simulations. In addition to examining the direct impact of using various profile data on LST retrievals, randomly distributed errors were introduced into a range of forcing variables to better understand retrieval uncertainty. Results indicated differences in LST of up to 1 K for perturbations in emissivity and profile measurements, with the analysis also highlighting the challenges in modeling aerosol optical depth (AOD) over arid lands and

  7. Validation of MIPAS IMK-IAA Temperature, Water Vapor, and Ozone Profiles with MOHAVE-2009 Campaign Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Gabrielle; Kiefer, M.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kellmann, S.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Leblanc, T.; Fetzer, E.; Froidevaux, L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    MIPAS observations of temperature, water vapor, and ozone in October 2009 as derived with the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK) and CSIC, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) and retrieved from version 4.67 level-1b data have been compared to co-located field campaign observations obtained during the MOHAVE-2009 campaign at the Table Mountain Facility near Pasadena, California in October 2009. The MIPAS measurements were validated regarding any potential biases of the profiles, and with respect to their precision estimates. The MOHAVE-2009 measurement campaign provided measurements of atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor/relative humidity, and ozone from the ground to the mesosphere by a suite of instruments including radiosondes, ozonesondes, frost point hygrometers, lidars, microwave radiometers and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. For MIPAS temperatures (version V4O_T_204), no significant bias was detected in the middle stratosphere; between 22 km and the tropopause MIPAS temperatures were found to be biased low by up to 2 K, while below the tropopause, they were found to be too high by the same amount. These findings confirm earlier comparisons of MIPAS temperatures to ECMWF data which revealed similar differences. Above 12 km up to 45 km, MIPAS water vapor (version V4O_H2O_203) is well within 10% of the data of all correlative instruments. The well-known dry bias of MIPAS water vapor above 50 km due to neglect of non-LTE effects in the current retrievals has been confirmed. Some instruments indicate that MIPAS water vapor might be biased high by 20 to 40% around 10 km (or 5 km below the tropopause), but a consistent picture from all comparisons could not be derived. MIPAS ozone (version V4O_O3_202) has a high bias of up to +0.9 ppmv around 37 km which is due to a non-identified continuum like radiance contribution. No further

  8. Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA temperature, water vapor, and ozone profiles with MOHAVE-2009 campaign measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS observations of temperature, water vapor, and ozone in October 2009 as derived with the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK and CSIC, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA and retrieved from version 4.67 level-1b data have been compared to co-located field campaign observations obtained during the MOHAVE-2009 campaign at the Table Mountain Facility near Pasadena, California in October 2009. The MIPAS measurements were validated regarding any potential biases of the profiles, and with respect to their precision estimates. The MOHAVE-2009 measurement campaign provided measurements of atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor/relative humidity, and ozone from the ground to the mesosphere by a suite of instruments including radiosondes, ozonesondes, frost point hygrometers, lidars, microwave radiometers and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectrometers. For MIPAS temperatures (version V4O_T_204, no significant bias was detected in the middle stratosphere; between 22 km and the tropopause MIPAS temperatures were found to be biased low by up to 2 K, while below the tropopause, they were found to be too high by the same amount. These findings confirm earlier comparisons of MIPAS temperatures to ECMWF data which revealed similar differences. Above 12 km up to 45 km, MIPAS water vapor (version V4O_H2O_203 is well within 10% of the data of all correlative instruments. The well-known dry bias of MIPAS water vapor above 50 km due to neglect of non-LTE effects in the current retrievals has been confirmed. Some instruments indicate that MIPAS water vapor might be biased high by 20 to 40% around 10 km (or 5 km below the tropopause, but a consistent picture from all comparisons could not be derived. MIPAS ozone (version V4O_O3_202 has a high bias of up to +0.9 ppmv around 37 km which is due to a non-identified continuum like radiance contribution

  9. Observations of Equatorial Kelvin Wave Modes in FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS RO Temperature Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potula Sree Brahmanandam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C GPS radio occultation (RO derived temperature components for the period September 2006 to February 2008. Results show the presence of slow Kelvin waves (wave period > 10 days with higher zonal wavenumbers (either one or two in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. The vertical wavelengths of these waves are found to be in the range of 5 - 12 km. The predominant Kelvin waves observed in the temperature fluctuations are in the altitude range between 15 and 28 km and centered on the tropical tropopause. The downward phase progression of these waves suggests that the derived waves are propagating upward, with the source region located at lower altitudes possibly due to tropical convective heating. The zonal winds retrieved using radiosonde observations over Singapore (1¢XN, 104¢XE during this period show a periodicity of ~24 - 26 months in the stratosphere, and quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO characteristics with eastward zonal winds from March 2006 to May 2007 and westward winds from June 2007 to July 2008 respectively. Our results further show that the Kelvin wave characteristics are enhanced during the westward phase of QBO and diminish during the eastward phase, in line with the previous reported results. Furthermore, an examination of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR data shows that deep convection activity is developed episodically over the Indonesian archipelago during the observation period, thereby indicating that the Kelvin wave events observed in temperature fluctuations are either driven by convective activity (convectively coupled waves or by a broad spectrum of convective variability (free waves over the Indonesian region.

  10. Effects of thermal conduction and convection on temperature profile in a water calorimeter for proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargioni, E.; Manfredotti, C. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Laitano, R.F.; Guerra, A.S. [Ist. Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA, Roma (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    In water calorimetry, in addition to the temperature increase due to beam energy deposition in water, unwanted thermal effects occur during and after calorimeter irradiation. This should be accounted for by applying proper corrections to the experimental results. In order to determine such corrections heat flow calculations were performed using the `finite element` method. This method applies even to complex 3D geometries with not necessarily symmetric conditions. Some preliminary results of these calculations are presented together with a description of the analytical method for the evaluation of the correction factors that should be applied to the experimental results to account for the above thermal effects. (orig.)

  11. Modes of variability of the vertical temperature profile of the middle atmosphere at mid-latitude: Similarities with solar forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain; Kerzenmacher, Tobias; Angot, Guillaume

    2012-02-01

    A long and continuous temperature data set from ground to mesopause was obtained in merging lidar and radiosonde data at mid-latitude over south of France (44°N). The analyses using Empirical Orthogonal Functions has been applied on vertical temperature profiles to investigate the variability differently than it has been done in previous investigations. This study reveals as the first mode in winter, a strong anti-correlation between upper stratosphere and mesosphere that is most probably link with planetary waves propagation and associated stratospheric warmings. While in summer the variability is located in the mesosphere and associated with mesospheric inversions that are probably generated by gravity waves breaking. This study shows that even if the daily temperature variability appears to be complex, a large part (30%) can be modeled, each season, using the first EOF. These vertical patterns exhibit some similarities with solar-atmospheric responses, suggesting a potential feedback of the dynamic. This is already observed for winter response, but during summer the contribution of gravity waves on the mesospheric solar response suggests future investigations to explore the role of this potential mechanism in solar-atmospheric connections.

  12. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  13. Seasonal Variations in Titan's Stratosphere Observed with Cassini/CIRS: Temperature, Trace Molecular Gas and Aerosol Mixing Ratio Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatier, S.; Bezard, B.; Anderson, C. M.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N.

    2012-01-01

    Titan's northern spring equinox occurred in August 2009. General Circulation Models (e.g. Lebonnois et al., 2012) predict strong modifications of the global circulation in this period, with formation of two circulation cells instead of the pole-to-pole cell that occurred during northern winter. This winter single cell, which had its descending branch at the north pole, was at the origin of the enrichment of molecular abundances and high stratopause temperatures observed by Cassini/CIRS at high northern latitudes (e.g. Achterberg et al., 2011, Coustenis et al., 2010, Teanby et al., 2008, Vinatier et al., 2010). The predicted dynamical seasonal variations after the equinox have strong impact on the spatial distributions of trace gas, temperature and aerosol abundances. We will present here an analysis of CIRS limb-geometry datasets acquired in 2010 and 2011 that we used to monitor the seasonal evolution of the vertical profiles of temperature, molecular (C2H2, C2H6, HCN, ..) and aerosol abundances.

  14. Model for temperature profile estimation in the refractory of a metallurgical ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, T. P.; Saxén, H.

    1998-06-01

    Modeling of the transient thermal state of metallurgical ladels is motivated by the need for estimating the drop in temperature of the liquid metal in the ladle. On-line estimation of the state is required, since the same ladle is used in a number of casting cycles with rapid changes in boundary conditions for the temperature field, and the conditions in the current as well as previous cycles affect the thermal state. Although a large number of methods for the numerical solution of conduction-diffusion partial differential equations have been developed, there are still advantages to keeping thermal field computations at a relatively simple level, in contrast to the situation in the design process of ladles, where two-dimensional modeling may be required. Extensive computations under nonverifiable boundary and initial parameter values are not especially suited for real-time simulation of industrial processes. This article presents a novel approach to the solution of the one-dimensional transient heat conduction problem applied to ladle linings, relying on classical analytical techniques in combination with numerical methods. The performance of the model was validated by a comparison of predictions to thermocouple measurements from the refractory of a steelmaking ladle during a campaign of 26 casting cycles. Reasonable agreement between the measured and simulated variables could be established, which demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  15. Transcriptional Profiling of Hydrogen Production Metabolism of Rhodobacter capsulatus under Temperature Stress by Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzez Gürgan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen is a clean and renewable form of hydrogen, which can be produced by photosynthetic bacteria in outdoor large-scale photobioreactors using sunlight. In this study, the transcriptional response of Rhodobacter capsulatus to cold (4 °C and heat (42 °C stress was studied using microarrays. Bacteria were grown in 30/2 acetate/glutamate medium at 30 °C for 48 h under continuous illumination. Then, cold and heat stresses were applied for two and six hours. Growth and hydrogen production were impaired under both stress conditions. Microarray chips for R. capsulatus were custom designed by Affymetrix (GeneChip®. TR_RCH2a520699F. The numbers of significantly changed genes were 328 and 293 out of 3685 genes under cold and heat stress, respectively. Our results indicate that temperature stress greatly affects the hydrogen production metabolisms of R. capsulatus. Specifically, the expression of genes that participate in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and the electron transport system were induced by cold stress, while decreased by heat stress. Heat stress also resulted in down regulation of genes related to cell envelope, transporter and binding proteins. Transcriptome analysis and physiological results were consistent with each other. The results presented here may aid clarification of the genetic mechanisms for hydrogen production in purple non-sulfur (PNS bacteria under temperature stress.

  16. Temperature profile measurement of graphite material using a CO{sub 2} laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Payal; Sarma, Arun [Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Raisan, Gandhinagar-382007, Gujarat (India); Ghosh, Joydeep; Pandya, Shwetang; Pandya, Santosh; Choudhuri, Paritosh; Govindarajan, J [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428, Gujarat (India); Schrittwieser, C Ionita; Schrittwieser, Roman, E-mail: arun.sarma@spt.pdpu.ac.i [Institute for Ion Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-11-15

    Emissive probes have been used for the direct measurement of plasma potential in many plasma devices and different approaches have been introduced to measure plasma potential using emissive probes. But the biggest disadvantage of the emissive probe is its short lifespan due to its self-arrangement and different plasma environment. For example, filament emissive probes cannot be used in high-temperature plasma devices. A few initiatives have begun to measure the plasma potential by using a laser-heated emissive probe. In these cases, mostly graphite and LaB{sub 6} are being used as a probe tip to emit electrons by heating them with a laser light. However, very few studies aiming to understand the mechanism of the heating process of the graphite material have been performed. The heating dynamics of the graphite material heated by a CW CO{sub 2} laser with a maximum power of 30 W have been investigated in this study. The in situ temperature of the probe tip has been measured by using an infrared camera. Complete theoretical and simulation models have been developed to understand the experimentally measured data. Further, the experimental results are compared with ANSYS simulations.

  17. Environmental Profiles of Stirling-Cooled and Cascade-Cooled Ultra-Low Temperature Freezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrak Kwon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The environmental footprint of ultra-low temperature (ULT freezers as used in bio-repositories, universities and other research organizations is investigated. These freezers, employing the cascade refrigeration system, use between 10 and 20 times the energy of an average household refrigerator/freezer. In addition, they often require high greenhouse gas potential (GWP refrigerants. A new technology employing the Stirling cycle machine promises to reduce energy consumption of ULT freezers by 50% or more. The cascade and Stirling systems are compared for equivalent sized freezers in terms of embodied energy and equivalent CO2 production from cradle to gate and use, including total equivalent warming impact (TEWI estimations. End-of-life issues are discussed but not quantified. It is shown that Stirling technology is able to significantly reduce the environmental impact of ULT freezers.

  18. Modelling coronal electron density and temperature profiles of the Active Region NOAA 11855

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Antunes Vieira, L. E.; Dal Lago, A.; Palacios, J.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Stekel, T.

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic flux emergence can help understand the physical mechanism responsible for solar atmospheric phenomena. Emerging magnetic flux is frequently related to eruptive events, because when emerging they can reconnected with the ambient field and release magnetic energy. We will use a physic-based model to reconstruct the evolution of the solar emission based on the configuration of the photospheric magnetic field. The structure of the coronal magnetic field is estimated by employing force-free extrapolation NLFFF based on vector magnetic field products (SHARPS) observed by HMI instrument aboard SDO spacecraft from Sept. 29 (2013) to Oct. 07 (2013). The coronal plasma temperature and density are described and the emission is estimated using the CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The performance of the our model is compared to the integrated emission from the AIA instrument aboard SDO spacecraft in the specific wavelengths 171Å and 304Å.

  19. The effect of firing temperature profiles for the high efficiency of crystalline Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Taeyoung; Kim, Sungchul; Kyung, Dohyeon; Jung, Woowon; Kim, Sunyong; Lee, Yongwoo; Kim, Youngkuk; Jang, Kyungsoo; Jung, Sungwook; Shin, Myungchul [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea); Yi, Junsin [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    In the mass production of crystalline Si solar cell, metallization is a very important process because it strongly affects various properties of the solar cell, such as I{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, R{sub s}, R{sub sh}, and FF. However, it is not easy to optimize the firing process because it has to be changed with the diffusion process. In this research, we examined the influence of firing conditions on different R{sub sheet} emitters by varying the sheet resistance from 30 to 60 {omega}/sq. The peak temperature and ramp-up rate during the firing process were varied by changing belt speeds and were also varied by changing the temperature settings in different belt furnace zones. As the grid pattern of the front electrode has a significant influence on R{sub s} and FF, we optimized the front grid pattern for each R{sub sheet} emitter. With an increase in the R{sub sheet} of the emitters, V{sub oc} was slightly decreased, as the dopant concentration decreased in the emitter. However, I{sub sc} was increased to a higher degree, which was ascribed to the improvement of blue-response and the reduction of recombination in the front surface. For the same R{sub sheet} of emitters, BSF layers and ohmic contacts were established distinctly at the faster firing condition, which led to a V{sub oc} of around 622 mV and FF of 80.6% by Suns-V{sub oc} measurement. Using the result, we were able to obtain an optimized firing process window for improving V{sub oc} and FF with different R{sub sheet} emitters. These optimized conditions can be applied to the mass production of crystalline Si solar cells. (author)

  20. Modelling the evolution of composition-and stress-depth profiles in austenitic stainless steels during low-temperature nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Freja Nygaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    . In the present paper solid mechanics was combined with thermodynamics and diffusion kinetics to simulate the evolution of composition-depth and stress-depth profiles resulting from nitriding. The model takes into account a composition-dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite, short range...... that accompanies the dissolution of high nitrogen contents in expanded austenite. An intriguing phenomenon during low-temperature nitriding is that the residual stresses evoked by dissolution of nitrogen in the solid state, affect the thermodynamics and the diffusion kinetics of nitrogen dissolution...... ordering (trapping) of nitrogen atoms by chromium atoms, and the effect of composition-induced stress on surface concentration and diffusive flux. The effect of plasticity and concentration-dependence of the yield stress was also included....

  1. Wideband low-profile low-temperature co-fired ceramic patch antenna with a differential-fed structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel wideband patch antenna with a differential-fed structure is proposed in this study. For this antenna, an H-shaped patch is first adopted to build a compact design. Then, by introducing a via-wall-plate pair as the differential feeding scheme, favourable radiation patterns and enhanced operating bandwidth can be achieved in a low profile. Furthermore, a Marchand balun is incorporated into the overall design to facilitate the test and direct integration with existing single-end radio-frequency circuits. The proposed antenna, which is designed and fabricated, using low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology, could be used to develop a highly integrated system-in-package. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna with a low profile of 0.06λ(0 obtains an impedance bandwidth of 11.2%, a peak gain of 7.1 dBi, and a low cross-polarisation of better than −20 dB.

  2. Effects of temperature and glycerol and methanol-feeding profiles on the production of recombinant galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anasontzis, George E; Salazar Penã, Margarita; Spadiut, Oliver; Brumer, Harry; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of protein production from methanol-induced Pichia pastoris cultures is necessary to ensure high productivity rates and high yields of recombinant proteins. We investigated the effects of temperature and different linear or exponential methanol-feeding rates on the production of recombinant Fusarium graminearum galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) in a P. pastoris Mut(+) strain, under regulation of the AOX1 promoter. We found that low exponential methanol feeding led to 1.5-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to high exponential feeding rates. The duration of glycerol feeding did not affect the subsequent product yield, but longer glycerol feeding led to higher initial biomass concentration, which would reduce the oxygen demand and generate less heat during induction. A linear and a low exponential feeding profile led to productivities in the same range, but the latter was characterized by intense fluctuations in the titers of galactose oxidase and total protein. An exponential feeding profile that has been adapted to the apparent biomass concentration results in more stable cultures, but the concentration of recombinant protein is in the same range as when constant methanol feeding is employed. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Effects of temperature and glycerol and methanol-feeding profiles on the production of recombinant galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anasontzis, George E; Salazar Penã, Margarita; Spadiut, Oliver; Brumer, Harry; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of protein production from methanol-induced Pichia pastoris cultures is necessary to ensure high productivity rates and high yields of recombinant proteins. We investigated the effects of temperature and different linear or exponential methanol-feeding rates on the production of recombinant Fusarium graminearum galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) in a P. pastoris Mut+ strain, under regulation of the AOX1 promoter. We found that low exponential methanol feeding led to 1.5-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to high exponential feeding rates. The duration of glycerol feeding did not affect the subsequent product yield, but longer glycerol feeding led to higher initial biomass concentration, which would reduce the oxygen demand and generate less heat during induction. A linear and a low exponential feeding profile led to productivities in the same range, but the latter was characterized by intense fluctuations in the titers of galactose oxidase and total protein. An exponential feeding profile that has been adapted to the apparent biomass concentration results in more stable cultures, but the concentration of recombinant protein is in the same range as when constant methanol feeding is employed. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:728–735, 2014 PMID:24493559

  4. Tension pneumocephalus: Mount Fuji sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulastya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male was operated for a space occupying lesion in the brain. A noncontrast computed tomography scan done in the late postoperative period showed massive subdural air collection causing compression of bilateral frontal lobes with widening of interhemispheric fissure and the frontal lobes acquiring a peak like configuration - causing tension pneumocephalus-"Mount Fuji sign." Tension pneumocephalus occurs when air enters the extradural or intradural spaces in sufficient volume to exert a mass or pressure effect on the brain, leading to brain herniation. Tension pneumocephalus is a surgical emergency, which needs immediate intervention in the form of decompression of the cranial cavity by a burr hole or needle aspiration. The Mount Fuji sign differentiates tension pneumocephalus from pneumocephalus.

  5. MOUNT HENRY ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loenen, Richard E.; Conyac, Martin D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Henry Roadless Area, Lincoln County, Montana, was conducted. A small area located along the southwest boundary was determined to have a probable mineral-resource potential for low-grade deposits of stratabound copper and silver. There is little possibility for locatable mineral, coal, oil, gas, and geothermal resources in the remainder of the area. There are no mines, prospects, or records of mineral production within the roadless area.

  6. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  7. Transcriptomic analyses on muscle tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei provide the first profile insight into the response to low temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Huang

    Full Text Available The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is an important cultured crustacean species worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this species involved in the response to cold stress. In this study, four separate RNA-Seq libraries of L. vannamei were generated from 13°C stress and control temperature. Total 29,662 of Unigenes and overall of 19,619 annotated genes were obtained. Three comparisons were carried out among the four libraries, in which 72 of the top 20% of differentially-expressed genes were obtained, 15 GO and 5 KEGG temperature-sensitive pathways were fished out. Catalytic activity (GO: 0003824 and Metabolic pathways (ko01100 were the most annotated GO and KEGG pathways in response to cold stress, respectively. In addition, Calcium, MAPK cascade, Transcription factor and Serine/threonine-protein kinase signal pathway were picked out and clustered. Serine/threonine-protein kinase signal pathway might play more important roles in cold adaptation, while other three signal pathway were not widely transcribed. Our results had summarized the differentially-expressed genes and suggested the major important signaling pathways and related genes. These findings provide the first profile insight into the molecular basis of L. vannamei response to cold stress.

  8. Volatile Compounds Profile of Sous-Vide Cooked Pork Cheeks as Affected by Cooking Conditions (Vacuum Packaging, Temperature and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Sanchez del Pulgar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC profile of pork cheeks as affected by the cooking conditions was investigated. Pork cheeks were cooked under different combinations of temperature (60 °C or 80 °C, time (5 or 12 h and vacuum (vacuum or air-packaged. As a general rule, the VOCs originating from lipid degradation were positively affected by the cooking temperature and negatively by the cooking time, reaching the highest amounts in pork cheeks cooked at 80 °C during 5 h and the lowest in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h. On the contrary, VOCs originated from amino acids and Maillard reactions were positively affected by both factors. The proportion between lipid degradation and amino acids reactions was estimated by the hexanal/3-methylbutanal ratio, which reached its highest values in samples cooked at 60 °C during 5 h in the presence of air and the lowest values in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h, regardless of the vacuum status.

  9. Effect of wall-mounted obstacles on mixed convection heat transfer in an open channel with multiple discrete heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Araf Al; Anik, Rahagir Ridwan; Sarah, Anika

    2017-12-01

    In this study a numerical investigation on two dimensional laminar steady mixed convection has been carried out in an open channel with upper wall mounted with obstacles and the lower wall is provided with different types of protruding multiple discrete heaters. The upper wall is maintained at constant low temperature. All obstacles are isotherm and have the same temperature as the walls. The heaters are also connected with adiabatic segments and the heater surfaces are assumed to release heat at constant heat flux. At inlet, a uniform velocity profile has been induced. To avoid discontinuity, the temperature of the incoming stream is supposed to change linearly. The working fluid used in this study is air and Boussinesq approximation has been applied for fluid having constant properties. Finite element method has been used to solve the non-dimensionalised governing equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy along with the boundary conditions. Effect of various parameters such as Reynolds number (Re), Grashof number(Gr) and Richardson number (Ri) on temperature distribution, flow patterns and heat transfer rate has been studied. The results show that increasing the Reynolds number while keeping Ri=1 gives better cooling performance. It has been observed that the wall-mounted obstacles over the channel wall, increases the Nusselt number when compared to the simple channel.

  10. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  11. Natural blood feeding and temperature shift modulate the global transcriptional profile of Rickettsia rickettsii infecting its tick vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda B M Galletti

    Full Text Available Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF, the most lethal spotted fever rickettsiosis. When an infected starving tick begins blood feeding from a vertebrate host, R. rickettsii is exposed to a temperature elevation and to components in the blood meal. These two environmental stimuli have been previously associated with the reactivation of rickettsial virulence in ticks, but the factors responsible for this phenotype conversion have not been completely elucidated. Using customized oligonucleotide microarrays and high-throughput microfluidic qRT-PCR, we analyzed the effects of a 10°C temperature elevation and of a blood meal on the transcriptional profile of R. rickettsii infecting the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. This is the first study of the transcriptome of a bacterium in the genus Rickettsia infecting a natural tick vector. Although both stimuli significantly increased bacterial load, blood feeding had a greater effect, modulating five-fold more genes than the temperature upshift. Certain components of the Type IV Secretion System (T4SS were up-regulated by blood feeding. This suggests that this important bacterial transport system may be utilized to secrete effectors during the tick vector's blood meal. Blood feeding also up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes, which might correspond to an attempt by R. rickettsii to protect itself against the deleterious effects of free radicals produced by fed ticks. The modulated genes identified in this study, including those encoding hypothetical proteins, require further functional analysis and may have potential as future targets for vaccine development.

  12. The application of an instrument for non-destructive measurements of soil temperature and resistance profiles at a high Arctic field site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Lloyd

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An easily constructed and installed instrument for measuring colocated soil temperature and resistance profiles is described. Minimum disturbance to the soil structure is achieved. The system indicates the melting front of permafrost at a high Arctic field site and shows the effect and extent of summer rainfall events upon the soil water profile. The system is capable of long-term recording of soil moisture profiles at a frequency commensurate with eddy correlation measurements of the surface fluxes of water vapour and carbon dioxide; it thus provides the information necessary for understanding the processes involved in the soil-atmosphere exchange of water and carbon dioxide.

  13. Energy conservation in high-rise buildings: changes in air conditioning load induced by vertical temperature and humidity profile in Delhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. [Institute of Social Forestry and Eco-rehabilitation, ICFRE, Allahabad (India); Kumar, Sanjay [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, New Delhi (India); Kumar, N. [MIT, Civil Engineering Dept., Bihar (India)

    1998-12-31

    Temperature and humidity profiles in the upper atmosphere are different from those observed by ground level meteorological stations and used to design HVAC systems for high-rise buildings. There exist correlations among solar energy, atmospheric turbidity and pollutants in urban areas, affecting the temperature and humidity profiles with variation in height. In the present study, a theoretical model is developed considering these parameters, and the HVAC load is calculated. The results are compared with the HVAC load calculated from data obtained from the meteorological station, and the comparison showed that the results differ significantly (20%) for a hypothetical 200 m high office building. (Author)

  14. Water temperature, salinity, and density profiles collected by CTD from multiple cruises in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and the Gulf of Alaska from 2001-01 to 2001-10 (NCEI Accession 0001112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and density profiles were collected using CTD from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN, NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN, and SIR WILFRED LAURIER in the Northeast...

  15. MOUNT MORIAH ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert R.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey identified the northeastern part of the Mount Moriah Roadless Area in extreme east-central Nevada as an area of probable potential for the occurrence of small, isolated deposits containing lead and zinc. Many active quarries in a unique high-quality decorative building stone occur in the area and have substantiated mineral-resource potential. Further studies in the roadless area might include detailed mapping of exposed Prospect Mountain Quartzite building stone units and notation of their suitability for quarrying. More detailed geochemical studies in the area of probable base-metal resource potential might include additional stream-sediment sampling and sampling along fault zones.

  16. Long-term alteration of daily melatonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, cortisol, and temperature profiles in burn patients: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Géraldine; Brun, Jocelyne; Tissot, Sylvie; Claustrat, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin, which shows a robust nycthemeral rhythm, plays the role of an endogenous synchronizer, able to stabilize and reinforce circadian rhythms and maintain their mutual phase relationships. Additionally, melatonin is a potent antioxidant and displays immunological properties. Because free radical generation, immune dysfunction, and sleep and metabolic disorders are involved in the short- and long-term pathophysiology of the burn syndrome, we undertook the study of daily urine melatonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s, the main hepatic melatonin metabolite), and cortisol variations plus temperature profiles in burn patients using a non-invasive protocol. Eight patients (6 males, 2 females) were studied on three occasions after admission to the intensive care unit (early session: days 1 to 3; intermediate session: day 10; late session: days 20 to 30). Melatonin, aMT6s, and free cortisol levels were determined in urine samples collected at 4 h intervals over a continuous 24 h span. Core temperature was recorded daily. Controls consisted of healthy subjects in the same age range. Cosinor analysis of the data provided an evaluation of mesor, amplitude, and acrophase of circadian rhythms. Also, we calculated day (D), night (N), and 24 h hormone excretions, N/D ratio for melatonin and aMT6s, and D/N ratio for cortisol. These data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by multiple comparisons. Cosinor analysis did not detect a circadian rhythm in melatonin, aMT6s, or cortisol in any of the three sessions. D melatonin excretion displayed a major increase, resulting in a decreased N/D melatonin ratio, and the melatonin mesor (24 h mean) was increased in the early session, compared with controls. For aMT6s, only the early N/D ratio was decreased, and the mesor of the intermediate session increased. These results were not the consequence of hepatic and/or kidney alteration, as the patients' hepatic and renal parameters were in the normal range. The D and N

  17. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of axial velocity, velocity shear, and parallel ion temperature profiles during the route to plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Adriany, K.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental measurements of the axial plasma flow and the parallel ion temperature in a magnetized linear plasma device. We used laser induced fluorescence to measure Doppler resolved ion velocity distribution functions in argon plasma to obtain spatially resolved axial velocities and parallel ion temperatures. We also show changes in the parallel velocity profiles during the transition from resistive drift wave dominated plasma to a state of weak turbulence driven by multiple plasma instabilities.

  18. Sleep-wake profiles and circadian rhythms of core temperature and melatonin in young people with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; Gordon, Christopher; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-11-01

    While disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle are common in people with affective disorders, the characteristics of these disturbances differ greatly between individuals. This heterogeneity is likely to reflect multiple underlying pathophysiologies, with different perturbations in circadian systems contributing to the variation in sleep-wake cycle disturbances. Such disturbances may be particularly relevant in adolescents and young adults with affective disorders as circadian rhythms undergo considerable change during this key developmental period. This study aimed to identify profiles of sleep-wake disturbance in young people with affective disorders and investigate associations with biological circadian rhythms. Fifty young people with affective disorders and 19 control participants (aged 16-31 years) underwent actigraphy monitoring for approximately two weeks to derive sleep-wake cycle parameters, and completed an in-laboratory assessment including evening dim-light saliva collection for melatonin assay and overnight continuous core body temperature measurement. Cluster analysis based on sleep-wake cycle parameters identified three distinct patient groups, characterised by 'delayed sleep-wake', 'disrupted sleep', and 'long sleep' respectively. The 'delayed sleep-wake' group had both delayed melatonin onset and core temperature nadir; whereas the other two cluster groups did not differ from controls on these circadian markers. The three groups did not differ on clinical characteristics. These results provide evidence that only some types of sleep-wake disturbance in young people with affective disorders are associated with fundamental circadian perturbations. Consequently, interventions targeting endogenous circadian rhythms to promote a phase shift may be particularly relevant in youth with affective disorders presenting with delayed sleep-wake cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Minerva neural network based surrogate model for real time inference of ion temperature profiles at Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Andrea; Svensson, Jakob; Langenberg, Andreas; Pablant, Novimir; Wolf, Robert C.

    2017-10-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) can reduce the computation time required for the application of Bayesian inference on large amounts of data by several orders of magnitude, making real-time analysis possible and, at the same time, providing a reliable alternative to more conventional inversion routines. The large scale fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) requires tens of diagnostics for plasma parameter measurements and is using the Minerva Bayesian modelling framework as its main inference engine, which can handle joint inference in complex systems made of several physics models. Conventional inversion routines are applied to measured data to infer the posterior distribution of the free parameters of the models implemented in the framework. We have trained ANNs on a training set made of samples from the prior distribution of the free parameters and the corresponding data calculated with the forward model, so that the trained ANNs constitute a surrogate model of the physics model. The ANNs have been then applied to 2D images measured by an X-ray spectrometer, representing the spectral emission from plasma impurities measured along a fan of lines of sight covering a major fraction of the plasma cross-section, for the inference of ion temperature profiles and then compared with the conventional inversion routines, showing that they constitute a robust and reliable alternative for real time plasma parameter inference.

  20. A temperature profiler

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.; Desa, E.

    into the instrument enables setting up the desired time interval for data acquisition when moored at a particular place. Data acquired in either mode is stored in the memory of the sea-probe instrument. At the end of each cast, data is downloaded into the PC...

  1. Temperature profile and current meter data collected using drifting buoy and profiling buoy casts from the Atlantic Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 01 September 1972 to 01 April 1974 (NODC Accession 7400622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile east-west current component, north-south current component, and other data were collected using drifting buoy and profiling float casts from the...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-09-01 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0161171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-24 to 2014-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0161168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  4. Near-surface temperature profiles collected from an Arctic Wave Glider (AWG) near the Arctic ice-edge in the Beaufort Sea from July 29, 2011 to September 23, 2011 (NODC Accession 0088841)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in the attached files are near-surface temperature profiles collected by an Arctic Wave Glider (AWG) from July 29-Sept 23, 2011. Temperatures were collected...

  5. Advanced centering of mounted optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Christian; Winkelmann, Ralf; Klar, Rainer; Philippen, Peter; Garden, Ron; Pearlman, Sasha; Pearlman, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Camera objectives or laser focusing units consist of complex lens systems with multiple lenses. The optical performance of such complex lens systems is dependent on the correct positioning of lenses in the system. Deviations in location or angle within the system directly affect the achievable image quality. To optimize the achievable performance of lens systems, these errors can be corrected by machining the mount of the lens with respect to the optical axis. The Innolite GmbH and Opto Alignment Technology have developed a novel machine for such center turning operation. A confocal laser reflection measurement sensor determines the absolute position of the optical axis with reference to the spindle axis. As a strong advantage compared to autocollimator measurements the utilized Opto Alignment sensor is capable of performing centration and tilt measurements without changing objectives on any radius surface from 2 mm to infinity and lens diameters from 0.5 mm to 300 mm, including cylinder, aspheric, and parabolic surfaces. In addition, it performs significantly better on coated lenses. The optical axis is skewed and offset in reference to the spindle axis as determined by the measurement. Using the information about the mount and all reference surfaces, a machine program for an untrue turning process is calculated from this data in a fully automated manner. Since the optical axis is not collinear with the spindle axis, the diamond tool compensates for these linear and tilt deviations with small correction movements. This results in a simple machine setup where the control system works as an electronic alignment chuck. Remaining eccentricity of <1 μm and angular errors of < 10 sec are typical alignment results.

  6. Temperature and Humidity Profiles in the TqJoint Data Group of AIRS Version 6 Product for the Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Fang, Fan; Hearty, Thomas J.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission is entering its 13th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing long-wave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. Thus AIRS data have been widely used, among other things, for short-term climate research and observational component for model evaluation. One instance is the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which uses AIRS version 5 data in the climate model evaluation. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the AIRS mission. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. The ongoing Earth System Grid for next generation climate model research project, a collaborative effort of GES DISC and NASA JPL, will bring temperature and humidity profiles from AIRS version 6. The AIRS version 6 product adds a new "TqJoint" data group, which contains data for a common set of observations across water vapor and temperature at all atmospheric levels and is suitable for climate process studies. How different may the monthly temperature and humidity profiles in "TqJoint" group be from the "Standard" group where temperature and water vapor are not always valid at the same time? This study aims to answer the question by comprehensively comparing the temperature and humidity profiles from the "TqJoint" group and the "Standard" group. The comparison includes mean differences at different levels globally and over land and ocean. We are also working on examining the sampling differences between the "TqJoint" and "Standard" group using MERRA data.

  7. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  8. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  9. Cryogenic optical mounting for short-wave infrared spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J.; Wood, T.; Bhatti, I.; Cañas, A.; Reddick, P.; van Wyk, P.; Bharadia, S.; Storey, T.; Potterton, T.; Rits, W.; Meijer, H.

    2014-07-01

    In order to measure atmospheric concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane, water and carbon dioxide from spaceborne platforms, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) immersed grating spectrometers are employed. Due to the need to minimise detector dark current and internal black body radiation from the spectrometer's own structure, these instruments are operated at cryogenic temperatures. ESA's Sentinel 5-Precursor is a small satellite science mission; the platform comprises the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), which includes a SWIR module. Optical mounts have been developed for the SWIR module which meet the requirements to cope with the differences in thermal expansion between the optical elements and their structural mounts over cryogenic temperature ranges, be robust against the mechanical environment during launch, and maintain optical alignment stability with a tight volume constraint. Throughout the design of the SWIR spectrometer, flexures were deployed to control deformations due to thermal expansion, the design of interfaces between materials of differing coefficient of thermal expansion was carefully managed, and the geometry of adhesive pads was tightly controlled. Optical mounting concepts were evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA). A breadboard programme was undertaken to verify these concepts. FEA and breadboard results were correlated to provide confidence in the design. The breadboard programme consisted of thermal cycling and pull-testing of adhesive joints, as well as environmental and optical testing of representative subsystems. Analysis and breadboarding demonstrated that the optical mounting design will survive the mechanical and thermal environments, and verified the stability of the optical alignment requirements. Novel optical mounting structures have been designed, analysed, assembled, tested and integrated into the optical assemblies of the TROPOMI SWIR spectrometer, creating a compact and robust state of the art instrument

  10. Surface mount technology terms and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Zarrow, Phil

    1997-01-01

    In today's fast-paced world of technology, keeping up with new terms and concepts can be quite a challenge. Surface Mount Technology Terms and Concepts is an invaluable reference containing over 1000 terms and definitions used in the SMT field. Each term is followed by a paragraph or two explaining the meaning and how it fits into the surface mount industry. The easy lookup and concise explanations make it ideal for those starting out in the field as well as professionals already involved in surface mount design and assembly.Glossary of over 1000 surface mount technology terms

  11. NOAA/APT Satellite Data for Online and Real Time Monitoring of Tungurahua Volcanic Eruption and Temperature Profile in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, G.; Nader, R.; Koudelka, O.

    2010-12-01

    The Ecuadorian Space Agency (EXA) has built HERMES, an online and real time ground station (GS) available to participating schools/universities for free access to NOAA and other remote sensing satellites. The GS is being used by students and scientists in Austria, USA, Japan and Ecuador to access NOAA satellites and spacecrafts online using only a computer and an internet connection with immediate access to satellite imaging and science data for their educational and research projects. The accuracy of analysed data can be used in research areas like forecasting, monitoring and damage assessment caused by eruptions. The HERMES internet-to-orbit gateway transforms a laptop into a full space-qualified GS on-the-move. The purpose of this paper is to present results of Andean mountain area in Ecuador being affected by high temperatures over 30 degree Celsius located over 3000 m high. From May 15 - 20, 2010, we received images from NOAA-18 and NOAA-19 using HERMS GS and applied Surface Temperature (ST), a remote sensing tool to process these images in real-time. Moreover, measured results have been validated by the records from the local meteorological stations network. Additionally, the visual observations revealed that due to high temperature, those glaciers were in fact receding and exposing terrain, never seen before. This paper also highlights the possible causes of this rapid thermal change. The second event dealt by this paper happened on May 28th; we captured a large ash cloud emanating from Tungurahua volcano eruption in the Andean region along with a large ash cloud from the Pacaya volcano in Guatemala using far infrared images from NOAA-18 satellite with overlaid geo-reference coordinates. Both events were analysed with remote sensing tools and image enhancement schemes like 'thermal', 'hvct' and 'fire', available in weather decoding software using free APT data. The aftermath correlation results of volcanic eruption with high temperature profile in the same

  12. Simultaneous Measurements of CO2 Concentration and Temperature profiles using 1.6 μm DIAL in the Lower-Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.

    2016-12-01

    High-accurate vertical carbon dioxide (CO2) profiles are highly desirable in the inverse method to improve quantification and understanding of the global sink and source of CO2, and also global climate change. We have developed a ground based 1.6μm differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to achieve measurements of vertical CO2 profiles in the atmosphere. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature and pressure in the atmosphere, it is important to measure them simultaneously so that the better accuracy of the DIAL measurement is realized. The barometric formula can derive atmospheric pressure of each altitude using atmospheric pressure of ground level at the lidar site. Comparison of atmospheric pressure prlofiles calculated from this equation and those obtained from radiosonde observations at Tateno, Japan are consisted within 0.2 % below 3 km altitude. So, we have developed a 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL system for simultaneous measurements of the CO2 concentration and temperature profiles in the lower-atmosphere. Laser beams of three wavelengths around a CO2 absorption spectrum is transmitted alternately to the atmosphere. Moreover, the value of the retrieved CO2 concentration will be improved remarkably by processing the iteration assignment of CO2 concentration and temperature, which measured by these DIAL techniques. We have acheived vertical CO2 concentration and temperature profile from 0.5 to 2.0 km altitude by this DIAL system. In the next step, we will use this high accuracy CO2 concentration profile and back-trajectory analysis for the behavior analysis of the CO2 mass. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  13. Different effects of night versus day high temperature on rice quality and accumulation profiling of rice grain proteins during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Chen, Zhen; Hu, Meixia; Wang, Zhenmei; Hua, Hua; Yin, Changxi; Zeng, Hanlai

    2011-09-01

    High temperature has adverse effects on rice yield and quality. The different influences of night high temperature (NHT) and day high temperature (DHT) on rice quality and seed protein accumulation profiles during grain filling in indica rice '9311' were studied in this research. The treatment temperatures of the control, NHT, and DHT were 28°C/20°C, 27°C/35°C, and 35°C/27°C, respectively, and all the treatments were maintained for 20 days. The result of rice quality analysis indicated that compared with DHT, NHT exerted less effect on head rice rate and chalkiness, whereas greater effect on grain weight. Moreover, the dynamic accumulation change profiles of 61 protein spots, differentially accumulated and successfully identified under NHT and DHT conditions, were performed by proteomic approach. The results also showed that the different suppressed extent of accumulation amount of cyPPDKB might result in different grain chalkiness between NHT and DHT. Most identified isoforms of proteins, such as PPDK and pullulanase, displayed different accumulation change patterns between NHT and DHT. In addition, compared with DHT, NHT resulted in the unique accumulation patterns of stress and defense proteins. Taken together, the mechanisms of seed protein accumulation profiles induced by NHT and DHT during grain filling should be different in rice, and the potential molecular basis is discussed in this study.

  14. Implementasi Rangkaian Elektronika Menggunakan Teknologi Surface Mount

    OpenAIRE

    Suherman

    2009-01-01

    Salahsatu perkembangan perangkat elektronika adalah miniaturisasi, yakni pengurangan pada volume perangkat. Dan teknologi yang berperan penting dalam proses miniaturisasi adalah teknologi Surface Mount. Teknologi Surface Mount adalah teknologi komponen yang berusaha nengurangi ukuran komponen dan diletakkan secara langsung pada permukaan PCB. Teknologi ini menggantikan teknologi sebelumnya, yakni teknologi thru hole, dimana dalam pemasangannya dilakukan pelubangan pada PCB. Pemakaian kompo...

  15. Mount Athos: Between autonomy and statehood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Dragutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal status of the Mount Athos is characterized by many special features that make it internationally unique legal regime. The author analyzes peculiarities of Mount Athos territorial status, legal position of residents and visitors, as well as organization of Mount Athos authorities. The author concludes that the Mount Athos is characterized by a kind of para-sovereignty. Its autonomy involves not only the internal organization, autonomous governance and religious autonomy, but it also includes many elements of secular life of their visitors. Mount Athos has its own, separate legislative, administrative and judicial powers, while the Statute of the Mount Athos has greater legal force than all the other laws of the Greek state, because the state can not unilaterally change its provisions. Having in mind that the wide self-government is vested in church authorities and that the monks have very specific way of living, the author takes a position that the Mount Athos represent 'monastic state', but without statehood. The author also states that the Mount Athos will be faced with many challenges in the context of spreading of an assimilating, universal conception of human rights.

  16. Ex-Stream: A MATLAB program for calculating fluid flux through sediment-water interfaces based on steady and transient temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Travis E.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2011-10-01

    Temperature is a useful environmental tracer for quantifying movement and exchange of water and heat through and near sediment-water interfaces (SWI). Heat tracing involves analyzing temperature time series or profiles from temperature probes deployed in sediments. Ex-Stream is a MATLAB program that brings together two transient and two steady one-dimensional coupled heat and fluid flux analytical models. The program includes a graphical user interface, a detailed user manual, and postprocessing capabilities that enable users to extract fluid fluxes from time-series temperature observations. Program output is written to comma-separated values files, displayed within the MATLAB command window, and may be optionally plotted. The models that are integrated into Ex-Stream can be run collectively, allowing for direct comparison, or individually.

  17. Review on surface mounting components (wire wound chip resistors) development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Shigeo; Nakao, Masahiro; Shimizu, Akira

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the development review on surface mounting components (wire wound chip resistors) is presented. Temperature rise tests were conducted on wire wound chip resistors installing them on substrates made of alumina, glass epoxy resin, or polyimide to determine their temperature rise characteristics, and maximum load factors were determined taking substrate heat resisting temperature and solder melting temperature into consideration. Evaluation tests were conducted on the filters' resistance to environments (thermal shock, anti hydroscopicity, thermal stability, loaded life, shock, random vibration, radiation resistance, out gassing), and the subject filters functioned satisfactory with exception of difficulty of conducting the thermal stability test at 125 C which was lower than the temperature specified in the NASDA's (National Space Development Agency of Japan's) specification due to problems of heat resistance of the molding resin material.

  18. Development of Magnetorheological Engine Mount Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yunos Mohd Razali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ride comfort is an important factor in any road vehicle performance. Nonetheless, passenger ride comfort is sometimes affected by the vibrations resulting from the road irregularities. Vehicle ride comfort is also often compromised by engine vibration. Engine mount is one of the devices which act as vibration isolator from unwanted vibration from engine to the driver and passengers. This paper explains the development of the test rig used for laboratory testing of Magnetorheological (MR engine mount characterization. MR engine mount was developed to investigate the vibration isolation process. An engine mount test machine was designed to measure the displacement, relative velocity and damper force with respect to current supply to characterize the hysteresis behavior of the damper and as force tracking control of the MR engine mount.

  19. Analysis of components depth profile at the interface of Ti6242 alloy and TiNi coatings after high temperature oxidation in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdikas, A. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Kaunas University of Medicine (Lithuania); Riviere, J.P.; Pichon, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, University of Poitiers, Poitiers (France); Petraitiene, A.; Moskalioviene, T. [Physics Department, Kaunas University of Technology, 50 Studentu st., Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2010-11-15

    We have analyzed the interfacial elemental depth profile evolution after high temperature isothermal oxidation of NiTi coatings deposited by dynamic ion mixing on a Ti6242 alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo). NiTi coatings (thickness 0.4 {mu}m) were deposited at room temperature (RT) by ion beam sputtering. High temperature isothermal oxidation tests in 1 atm flowing synthetic air (80% N{sub 2}, 20% O{sub 2}) have been conducted at 500 C and 600 C during 100 hours. We have observed a non-monotonous depth distribution of nickel in GDOES depth profiles after oxidation of TiNi/Ti6242: nickel segregates to the surface of TiNi coating and to the interface between TiNi coating and Ti6242 alloy. We propose a kinetic model based on rate equations for analyzing the depth profile. This model includes microprocesses taking place during oxidation in air such as: adsorption of nitrogen and oxygen, diffusion of components through the film and interface, formation of chemical compounds. It is shown by modeling that non-monotonous depth profile of nickel occurs because nickel from TiNi coating is forming a nickel oxide compound when oxygen atoms reach the film/alloy interface. XRD analysis confirms the presence of nickel oxide in the TiNi/Ti6242 interface after oxidation at both temperatures 500 C and 600 C (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  1. Quantification of groundwater-stream water interactions based on temperature depth profiles under strong upwelling conditions in a sand-bed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, Jaime; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of groundwater-surface water interactions is not only required for budgets but also for an understanding of the complex relations between hyporheic exchange flows (HEF) and the associated chemical and biological processes that take place in hyporheic zones (HZ). Thus, there is a strong need to improve methods for flux estimation.The present study aims to quantify the vertical fluxes across the riverbed from data of temperature depth profiles recorded at the River Schlaube in East Brandenburg, Germany. In order to test the capabilities and limitations of existing methods, fluxes were calculated with an analytical (VFLUX, based on the amplitude attenuation and phase shift analysis) and a numerical (1DTempPro, parametrization based on observed values) approach for heat conduction. We conclude that the strong limitations of the flux estimates are caused by thermal and hydraulic heterogeneities of the sediment properties. Consequently, upscaling of fluxes must include other thermal techniques able to portray the spatial variability of thermal patterns, along with further developments of methods to link thermal depth profiles, thermal patterns of the surface of the streambed and all the other factors involved. Considering time and costs of temperature depth profiles of riverbeds, and the need for multiple devices to cover larger areas, it is additionally tested whether vertical fluxes can be infered from the uppermost temperature sensors of a data set. That would ease hyporheic investigations at larger scales.

  2. The misalignment angle in vessel-mounted ADCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Osinski

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of the misalignment angle and the consequences if it occurs is given. It is shown that because of gyrocompass errors, the misalignment angle error a has to be computed for each cruise. A simple method of calibrating the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP mounted on a vessel has been devised by fitting the cosinusoidal function. This is a post-processing method, suitable for calibrating previously collected data. Nevertheless, because of ADCP's constructional peculiarities, the procedure must be repeated for each cruise.

  3. Observations of The Dense Storfjord Plume Using A Ctd-mounted Adp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fer, I.; Skogseth, R.; Haugan, P. M.

    Observations were made of the outflow of the dense bottom water plume from Stor- fjord (110 km long and 190 m deep at maximum depth) in the Svalbard Archipelago, using a CTD mounted ADP at densely spaced hydrographic stations during May 28 - June 2, 2001. Due to heavy ice inside the fjord, measurements were made from about 70 km downstream of a 115 m deep sill (7645 N) and onward. The dense bottom water generated by strong winter cooling, enhanced ice formation, and the consequent brine rejection drains into and fills the depressions of the fjord and cascades following the bathymetry. Data acquired by ADP allow for examination of the velocity structure associated with the plume as close as 1 m to the bottom with 1 m resolution in the vertical. The plume water was observed to have salinities within 34.9 - 35.1 psu with temperatures close to the freezing point temperature. The plume has a thickness of 51 +/- 20 m, and a density difference of 0.14 +/- 0.03 kg m-3 from the ambient wa- ters. The velocity profiles yield the most well-defined two-layered structure near the sloping sides with a mean plume speed of 0.15 +/- 0.04 m s-1, relative to the ambient waters. Mean overall Richardson number, estimated using these profiles, are within the range of 2 to 4. The plume is less distinct with respect to the velocity profile when it reaches the plane, Storfjordrenna, after cascading about 50 m in vertical. The width of the plume increases from about 8 km to 25 km along its path of 105 km leading to an entrainment rate of 5x10-4, when the plume thickness and speed are assumed constant. The values compare well with those obtained from moorings in the same region in the past, as well as those obtained from laboratory experiments of turbulent gravity currents flowing down a slope.

  4. Validation of mixing height determined from vertical profiles of wind and temperature from the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model in comparison with readiosoundings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, A.; Soerensen, J.H.; Nielsen, N.W. [Danish Meteorological Inst., DMI, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A sensitivity study is performed of vertical profiles from the numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (DMI-HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model). The study involves profiles of horizontal wind, temperature and humidity in the lower troposphere up to 2500 meter. Detailed comparisons of analysed as well as forecast profiles are made with measured data from several radio-sonde stations throughout Europe. Methods for estimating the Mixing Height (MH) based on a bulk Richardson number method, the Vogelezang and Holtslag method and parcel methods are also studied. The methods are inter-compared, and MH based on data from DMI-HIRLAM are compared with the corresponding MH based on radiosonde data. For convective conditions the MH estimates are also compared with subjective estimates of the MH. In this paper preliminary results mainly based on data from Jaegersborg (Copenhagen) are presented. Results based on data from 1994-95 show that the resemblance between measured profiles and the DMI-HIRLAM profiles is fairly good in general. Also the estimates of the MH based on DMI-HIRLAM data is in general of nearly the same quality as estimations based on observed data. However, especially in convective conditions there is a tendency by DMI-HIRLAM to underestimate the strength of the mixing and thereby relatively large errors in the estimates of the MH can occur. (au)

  5. Performance optimization of apodized FBG-based temperature sensors in single and quasi-distributed DWDM systems with new and different apodization profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Nazmi A. [Research Center, Smart Village, College of Engineering, Arab Academy for Science, Technology, and Maritime Transport, Cairo (Egypt); Ali, Taha A., E-mail: Taha25@gmail.com; Aly, Moustafa H. [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, College of Engineering, Arab Academy for Science, Technology, and Maritime Transport, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-12-15

    In this work, different FBG temperature sensors are designed and evaluated with various apodization profiles. Evaluation is done under a wide range of controlling design parameters like sensor length and refractive index modulation amplitude, targeting a remarkable temperature sensing performance. New judgment techniques are introduced such as apodization window roll-off rate, asymptotic sidelobe (SL) decay level, number of SLs, and average SL level (SLav). Evaluation techniques like reflectivity, Full width at Half Maximum (FWHM), and Sidelobe Suppression Ratio (SLSR) are also used. A “New” apodization function is proposed, which achieves better performance like asymptotic decay of 18.4 dB/nm, high SLSR of 60 dB, high channel isolation of 57.9 dB, and narrow FWHM less than 0.15 nm. For a single accurate temperature sensor measurement in extensive noisy environment, optimum results are obtained by the Nuttall apodization profile and the new apodization function, which have remarkable SLSR. For a quasi-distributed FBG temperature sensor the Barthann and the new apodization profiles obtain optimum results. Barthann achieves a high asymptotic decay of 40 dB/nm, a narrow FWHM (less than 25 GHZ), a very low SLav of −45.3 dB, high isolation of 44.6 dB, and a high SLSR of 35 dB. The new apodization function achieves narrow FWHM of 0.177 nm, very low SL of −60.1, very low SLav of −63.6 dB, and very high SLSR of −57.7 dB. A study is performed on including an unapodized sensor among apodized sensors in a quasi-distributed sensing system. Finally, an isolation examination is performed on all the discussed apodizations and a linear relation between temperature and the Bragg wavelength shift is observed experimentally and matched with the simulated results.

  6. Performance optimization of apodized FBG-based temperature sensors in single and quasi-distributed DWDM systems with new and different apodization profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi A. Mohammed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, different FBG temperature sensors are designed and evaluated with various apodization profiles. Evaluation is done under a wide range of controlling design parameters like sensor length and refractive index modulation amplitude, targeting a remarkable temperature sensing performance. New judgment techniques are introduced such as apodization window roll-off rate, asymptotic sidelobe (SL decay level, number of SLs, and average SL level (SLav. Evaluation techniques like reflectivity, Full width at Half Maximum (FWHM, and Sidelobe Suppression Ratio (SLSR are also used. A “New” apodization function is proposed, which achieves better performance like asymptotic decay of 18.4 dB/nm, high SLSR of 60 dB, high channel isolation of 57.9 dB, and narrow FWHM less than 0.15 nm. For a single accurate temperature sensor measurement in extensive noisy environment, optimum results are obtained by the Nuttall apodization profile and the new apodization function, which have remarkable SLSR. For a quasi-distributed FBG temperature sensor the Barthann and the new apodization profiles obtain optimum results. Barthann achieves a high asymptotic decay of 40 dB/nm, a narrow FWHM (less than 25 GHZ, a very low SLav of −45.3 dB, high isolation of 44.6 dB, and a high SLSR of 35 dB. The new apodization function achieves narrow FWHM of 0.177 nm, very low SL of −60.1, very low SLav of −63.6 dB, and very high SLSR of −57.7 dB. A study is performed on including an unapodized sensor among apodized sensors in a quasi-distributed sensing system. Finally, an isolation examination is performed on all the discussed apodizations and a linear relation between temperature and the Bragg wavelength shift is observed experimentally and matched with the simulated results.

  7. Flexible parameter-sparse global temperature time profiles that stabilise at 1.5 and 2.0 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntingford, Chris; Yang, Hui; Harper, Anna; Cox, Peter M.; Gedney, Nicola; Burke, Eleanor J.; Lowe, Jason A.; Hayman, Garry; Collins, William J.; Smith, Stephen M.; Comyn-Platt, Edward

    2017-07-01

    The meeting of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December 2015 committed parties at the convention to hold the rise in global average temperature to well below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels. It also committed the parties to pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5 °C. This leads to two key questions. First, what extent of emissions reduction will achieve either target? Second, what is the benefit of the reduced climate impacts from keeping warming at or below 1.5 °C? To provide answers, climate model simulations need to follow trajectories consistent with these global temperature limits. It is useful to operate models in an inverse mode to make model-specific estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration pathways consistent with the prescribed temperature profiles. Further inversion derives related emissions pathways for these concentrations. For this to happen, and to enable climate research centres to compare GHG concentrations and emissions estimates, common temperature trajectory scenarios are required. Here we define algebraic curves that asymptote to a stabilised limit, while also matching the magnitude and gradient of recent warming levels. The curves are deliberately parameter-sparse, needing the prescription of just two parameters plus the final temperature. Yet despite this simplicity, they can allow for temperature overshoot and for generational changes, for which more effort to decelerate warming change needs to be made by future generations. The curves capture temperature profiles from the existing Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP2.6) scenario projections by a range of different Earth system models (ESMs), which have warming amounts towards the lower levels of those that society is discussing.

  8. Flexible parameter-sparse global temperature time profiles that stabilise at 1.5 and 2.0  °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huntingford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC in December 2015 committed parties at the convention to hold the rise in global average temperature to well below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels. It also committed the parties to pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5 °C. This leads to two key questions. First, what extent of emissions reduction will achieve either target? Second, what is the benefit of the reduced climate impacts from keeping warming at or below 1.5 °C? To provide answers, climate model simulations need to follow trajectories consistent with these global temperature limits. It is useful to operate models in an inverse mode to make model-specific estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG concentration pathways consistent with the prescribed temperature profiles. Further inversion derives related emissions pathways for these concentrations. For this to happen, and to enable climate research centres to compare GHG concentrations and emissions estimates, common temperature trajectory scenarios are required. Here we define algebraic curves that asymptote to a stabilised limit, while also matching the magnitude and gradient of recent warming levels. The curves are deliberately parameter-sparse, needing the prescription of just two parameters plus the final temperature. Yet despite this simplicity, they can allow for temperature overshoot and for generational changes, for which more effort to decelerate warming change needs to be made by future generations. The curves capture temperature profiles from the existing Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP2.6 scenario projections by a range of different Earth system models (ESMs, which have warming amounts towards the lower levels of those that society is discussing.

  9. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil

    2006-01-01

    distribution generated by a radial diffuser is partly controlled by the momentum flow from the diffusers and partly from gravity forces where the thermal load and the temperature difference between room air and supply air deflect the radial wall jet down into the occupied zone. The ceiling diffuser......Experiments with air distribution in rooms generated by a radial ceiling-mounted diffuser and a diffuser generating flow with swirl are compared with the air distribution obtained by mixing ventilation from a wall-mounted diffuser, vertical ventilation and displacement ventilation. The air...... with swirling flow generates a flow pattern in the room which is rather uninfluenced by the thermal load. The flow is highly mixed above the occupied zone and the air movement penetrates the occupied zone close to the walls. All systems are tested in the same room with the same heat load consisting of two...

  10. Modeling of Wind Turbine Gearbox Mounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten K. Ebbesen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper three bushing models are evaluated to find a best practice in modeling the mounting of wind turbine gearboxes. Parameter identification on measurements has been used to determine the bushing parameters for dynamic simulation of a gearbox including main shaft. The stiffness of the main components of the gearbox has been calculated. The torsional stiffness of the main shaft, gearbox and the mounting of the gearbox are of same order of magnitude, and eigenfrequency analysis clearly reveals that the stiffness of the gearbox mounting is of importance when modeling full wind turbine drivetrains.

  11. CHANDRA observations of the NGC 1550 galaxy group: Implication for the temperature and entropy profiles of 1 keV galaxy groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, M.; Forman, W.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2003-01-01

    of three 1 keV groups ( including NGC 1550) and three 2 - 3 keV groups. The scaled entropy profiles of 1 keV groups show much larger scatter than those of hotter systems, which implies varied preheating levels. We also discuss the mass content of the NGC 1550 group and the abundance pro. le of heavy......We present a detailed Chandra study of the galaxy group NGC 1550. For its temperature (1.37 +/- 0.01 keV) and velocity dispersion (similar to300 km s(-1)), the NGC 1550 group is one of the most luminous known galaxy groups (L-bol = 1.65 x 10(43) ergs s(-1) within 200 kpc, or 0.2r(vir)). We find...... is remarkably similar to those of two other 1 keV groups with accurate temperature determination. The temperature begins to decline at 0.07r(vir) - 0.1r(vir), while in hot clusters the decline begins at or beyond 0.2rvir. Thus, there are at least some 1 keV groups that have temperature profiles significantly...

  12. The Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profile of Peripheral Blood Is Not Systematically Changed by Short-Time Storage at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicklas Heine Staunstrup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epigenetic epidemiology has proven an important research discipline in the delineation of diseases of complex etiology. The approach, in such studies, is often to use bio-banked clinical material, however, many such samples were collected for purposes other than epigenetic studies and, thus, potentially not processed and stored appropriately. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC includes more than 100,000 peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples shipped from maternity wards by ordinary mail in EDTA tubes. While this and other similar cohorts hold great promises for DNA methylation studies the potential systematic changes prompted by storage at ambient temperatures have never been assessed on a genome-wide level. Methods and Results: In this study, matched EDTA whole blood samples were stored up to three days at room temperature prior to DNA extraction and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (MeDIP-seq. We established that the quality of the MeDIP-seq libraries was high and comparable across samples; and that the methylation profiles did not change systematically during the short-time storage at room temperature. Conclusion: The global DNA methylation profile is stable in whole blood samples stored for up to three days at room temperature in EDTA tubes making genome-wide methylation studies on such material feasible.

  13. Classification problems of Mount Kenya soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuma, Evans; Csorba, Ádám; Wawire, Amos; Dobos, Endre; Michéli, Erika

    2017-04-01

    Soil sampling on the agricultural lands covering 1200 square kilometers in the Eastern part of Mount Kenya was carried out to assess the status of soil organic carbon (SOC) as a soil fertility indicator, and to create an up-to-date soil classification map. The geology of the area consists of volcanic rocks and recent superficial deposits. The volcanic rocks are related to the Pliocene time; mainly: lahars, phonolites, tuffs, basalt and ashes. A total of 28 open profiles and 49 augered profiles with 269 samples were collected. The samples were analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, particle size distribution, percent bases, cation exchange capacity and pH among other parameters. The objective of the study was to evaluate the variability of SOC in different Reference Soil Groups (RGS) and to compare the determined classification units with the KENSOTER database. Soil classification was performed based on the World Reference Base (WRB) for Soil Resources 2014. Based on the earlier surveys, geological and environmental setting, Nitisols were expected to be the dominant soils of the sampled area. However, this was not the case. The major differences to earlier survey data (KENSOTER database) are the presence of high activity clays (CEC value range 27.6 cmol/kg - 70 cmol/kg), high silt content (range 32.6 % - 52.4 %) and silt/clay ratio (range of 0.6 - 1.4) keeping these soils out of the Nitisols RSG. There was good accordance in the morphological features with the earlier survey but failed the silt/clay ratio criteria for Nitisols. This observation calls attention to set new classification criteria for Nitisols and other soils of warm, humid regions with variable rate of weathering to avoid difficulties in interpretation. To address the classification problem, this paper further discusses the taxonomic relationships between the studied soils. On the contrary most of the diagnostic elements (like the presence Umbric horizon, Vitric and Andic properties) and the some

  14. Remote measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles in clouds with rotational Raman lidar; Fernmessung atmosphaerischer Temperaturprofile in Wolken mit Rotations-Raman-Lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrendt, A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    2000-07-01

    The development of a lidar receiver for remote measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles with the rotational Raman method is described. By a new receiver concept, this instrument allowed for the first time remote temperature measurements without any perturbation by the presence of clouds up to a backscatter ratio of 45. In addition, high efficiency of the spectral separation of atmospheric backscatter signals leads to improved measurement resolution: the minimum integration time needed for a statistical uncertainty < {+-}1 K at, e.g., 10 km height and 960 m height resolution is only 5 minutes. The measurement range extends to over 45 km altitude. Results of field campaigns obtained with the instrument are presented and discussed. In winter 1997/98, the instrument was transferred with the GKSS Raman lidar to Esrange (67.9 N, 21.1 E) in northern Sweden, where pioneering remote measurements of local temperatures in orographically induced polar stratospheric clouds could be carried out. (orig.)

  15. iTRAQ-based proteome profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cryotolerant species Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii during low-temperature wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Estéfani; Querol, Amparo; Guillamón, José Manuel

    2016-09-02

    Temperature is one of the most important parameters to affect the duration and rate of alcoholic fermentation and final wine quality. Some species of the Saccharomyces genus have shown better adaptation at low temperature than Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was the case of cryotolerant yeasts Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. In an attempt to detect inter-specific metabolic differences, we characterized the proteomic landscape of these cryotolerant species grown at 12°C and 28°C, which we compared with the proteome of S. cerevisiae (poorly adapted at low temperature). Our results showed that the main differences among the proteomic profiling of the three Saccharomyces strains grown at 12°C and 28°C lay in translation, glycolysis and amino acid metabolism. Our data corroborate previous transcriptomic results, which suggest that S. kudriavzevii is better adapted to grow at low temperature as a result of enhanced more efficient translation. Fitter amino acid biosynthetic pathways can also be mechanisms that better explain biomass yield in cryotolerant strains. Yet even at low temperature, S. cerevisiae is the most fermentative competitive species. A higher concentration of glycolytic and alcoholic fermentation enzymes in the S. cerevisiae strain might explain such greater fermentation activity. Temperature is one of the main relevant environmental variables that microorganisms have to cope with and it is also a key factor in some industrial processes that involve microorganisms. However, we are still far from understanding the molecular and physiological mechanisms of adaptation at low temperatures. The results obtained in this study provided a global atlas of the proteome changes triggered by temperature in three different species of the genus Saccharomyces with different degree of cryotolerance. These results would facilitate a better understanding of mechanisms for how yeast could adapt at the low temperature of growth. Copyright © 2016

  16. Transcriptome profiling of litchi leaves in response to low temperature reveals candidate regulatory genes and key metabolic events during floral induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongna; Shen, Jiyuan; Wei, Yongzan; Chen, Houbin

    2017-05-10

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is an economically important evergreen fruit tree widely cultivated in subtropical areas. Low temperature is absolutely required for floral induction of litchi, but its molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Leaves of litchi played a key role during floral induction and could be the site of low temperature perception. Therefore, leaves were treated under different temperature (15 °C/25 °C), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) performed with leaf samples for the de novo assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses to investigate low temperature-induced gene expression changes. 83,107 RNA-Seq unigenes were de novo assembled with a mean length of 1221 bp and approximately 61% of these unigenes (50,345) were annotated against public protein databases. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) under low temperature treatment in comparison with the control group were the main focus of our study. Hierarchical clustering analysis arranged 2755 DEGs into eight groups with three significant expression clusters (p-value ≤ 0.05) during floral induction. With the increasing contents of sugars and starch, the expression of genes involved in metabolism of sugars increased dramatically after low temperature induction. One FT gene (Unigene0025396, LcFT1) which produces a protein called 'florigen' was also detected among DEGs of litchi. LcFT1 exhibited an apparent specific tissue and its expression was highly increased after low temperature induction, GUS staining results also showed GUS activity driven by LcFT1 gene promoter can be induced by low temperature, which indicated LcFT1 probably played a pivotal role in the floral induction of litchi under low temperature. Our study provides a global survey of transcriptomes to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying changes of leaves in response to low temperature induction in litchi. The analyses of transcriptome profiles and physiological indicators

  17. Effect of pressing and combination of three storage temperatures and times on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of canola expellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guadagnin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effects of combinations of three temperatures and storage times on chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and oxidative stability of canola expellers obtained from the cold-pressing extraction of oil. Canola seeds were single-crushed at moderate temperatures (60°C during 3 pressing sessions. Nine samples (100±1 g of each session were collected, inserted into sealed bags, stored at three temperatures (12, 24, 36°C over 3 periods of time (10, 20, 30 d. Then, samples (100±1 g of canola seeds collected before each pressing session and canola expellers collected before and after each storage time were analyzed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, peroxide number and Kreis test. Before storage, the fatty acid profile of canola seeds and expellers differed significantly, except for myristic (P=0.18, palmitic (P=0.57, oleic (P=0.07, and α-linolenic acids (P=0.45. Compared to canola seeds, expellers showed greater content of saturated, poly-unsaturated, and n-6 fatty acids (P<0.01, but a lower content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P<0.01. Peroxide values were definitely (P<0.01 greater for expellers and averaged 4.22 and 4.11 mEq/kg fat before and after storage, respectively. The Kreis test was negative for all samples. Under different temperatures and times of storage, canola expellers showed to maintain a good oxidative stability, as highlighted by low peroxide values (<10 mEq/kg fat and negative response for Kreis test. Canola expellers obtained by on-farm cold extraction, despite great oil residual (from 17 to 19% ether extracts on dry matter basis, can be stored at farm without significant chemical and nutritional changes.

  18. 1980 Mount Saint Helens, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake occurred at 15 32 UT, only seconds before the explosion that began the eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano. This eruption and blast blew off the top...

  19. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines: June 1991 Eruptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mount Pinatubo is an andesitic island arc volcano, located on the southern Luzon Island, Philippines. Prior to 1991 it had been dormant for more than 635 years. On...

  20. Surface temperature evolution and the location of maximum and average surface temperature of a lithium-ion pouch cell under variable load profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutam, Shovon; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Omar, Noshin

    2014-01-01

    This experimental work attempts to determine the surface temperature evolution of large (20 Ah-rated capacity) commercial Lithium-Ion pouch cells for the application of rechargeable energy storage of plug in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. The cathode of the cells is nickel...

  1. Metabolite profiling of Ricinus communis germination at different temperatures provides new insights into thermo-mediatedrequirements for successful seedling establishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Willems, L.A.J.; Mutimawurugo, M.C.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, De R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis seeds germinate to a high percentage and faster at 35¿C than at lower temperatures, butwith compromised seedling establishment. However, seedlings are able to cope with high temperaturesat later stages of seedling establishment if germination occurred at lower temperatures. Our

  2. Analysis of adjusting effects of mounting force on frequency conversion of mounted nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruifeng; Liu, Haitao; Liang, Yingchun; Lu, Lihua

    2014-01-10

    Motivated by the need to increase the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of nonlinear optics with large apertures, a novel mounting configuration with active adjusting function on the SHG efficiency is proposed and mechanically and optically studied. The adjusting effects of the mounting force on the distortion and stress are analyzed by the finite element methods (FEM), as well as the contribution of the distortion and stress to the change in phase mismatch, and the SHG efficiency are theoretically stated. Further on, the SHG efficiency is calculated as a function of the mounting force. The changing trends of the distortion, stress, and the SHG efficiency with the varying mounting force are obtained, and the optimal ones are figured out. Moreover, the mechanism of the occurrence of the optimal values is studied and the adjusting strategy is put forward. Numerical results show the robust adjustment of the mounting force, as well as the effectiveness of the mounting configuration, in increasing the SHG efficiency.

  3. Modelling the evolution of composition-and stress-depth profiles in austenitic stainless steels during low-temperature nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Freja Nygaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    . In the present paper solid mechanics was combined with thermodynamics and diffusion kinetics to simulate the evolution of composition-depth and stress-depth profiles resulting from nitriding. The model takes into account a composition-dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite, short range...

  4. An inertia-type hybrid mount combining a rubber mount and a piezostack actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Moon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been focused on developing a new hybrid mount for shipboard equipment used in naval surface ships and submarines. While the hybrid mount studied in our previous research was 100 kg-class series-type mount, the new hybrid mount has been designed as an inertia-type mount capable of supporting a static of 500 kg. The proposed mount consists of a commercial rubber resilient mount, a piezostack actuator and an inertial mass. The piezostack actuator connected with the inertial mass generates actively the control force. The performances of the proposed mount with a newly designed specific controller have been evaluated in accordance with US military specifications and compared with the passive mount. An isolation system consisting of four proposed mounts and auxiliary devices has been also tested. Through a series of experimental tests, it has been confirmed that the proposed mount provides better performance than the US Navy's standard passive mounts.

  5. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on the soil profile methane distribution and diffusion in rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Genxing; Zou, Jianwen; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the impacts of climate change on soil profile concentrations and diffusion effluxes of methane in a rice-wheat annual rotation ecosystem in Southeastern China. We initiated a field experiment with four treatments: ambient conditions (CKs), CO2 concentration elevated to ~500 μmol/mol (FACE), temperature elevated by ca. 2°C (T) and combined elevation of CO2 concentration and temperature (FACE+T). A multilevel sampling probe was designed to collect the soil gas at four different depths, namely, 7 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Methane concentrations were higher during the rice season and decreased with depth, while lower during the wheat season and increased with depth. Compared to CK, mean methane concentration was increased by 42%, 57% and 71% under the FACE, FACE+T and T treatments, respectively, at the 7 cm depth during the rice season (pCO2 concentration and temperature could significantly increase soil profile methane concentrations and their effluxes from a rice-wheat field annual rotation ecosystem (p<0.05). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George

    1997-08-01

    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  7. The mounting system of lenses in ASPIICS coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselý, Martin; Vít, Tomáš; Pleštil, Jan

    2016-11-01

    This article describes the mounting system of lenses in a coronagraph ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). ASPIICS is developed and produced in cooperation of twenty partners from seven countries. It is a part of the ESA's PROBA-3 mission, which includes a formation flight of a pair of satellites at orbit. Coronagraph itself consists of three objectives, where the last one is composed by one objective tube for each lens plus holder and Lyot stop. To achieve high accuracy of mounting of the individual lenses, it was necessary to achieve tight geometric and dimensional tolerances for manufacturing of the objectives barrels. In order to minimize the stress and to prevent the displacement of the lens from ideal position during a temperature change on orbit, an athermal solution was proposed. This is achieved by inserting a Teflon ring of a suitable thickness between the lens surface, objective barrel and the spring washer with a precisely defined contact force. It was necessary to find a suitable technological process of manufacturing, because of the specific behavior of PTFE during turning and complex design of other parts. All parameters of mounting system were repeatedly verified by a thermomechanical analysis in FEM software, based on tests of real parts.

  8. Expression profiles of Dax1, Dmrt1, and Sox9 during temperature sex determination in gonads of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Maldonado, L C; Landa Piedra, A; Moreno Mendoza, N; Marmolejo Valencia, A; Meza Martínez, A; Merchant Larios, H

    2002-10-15

    Sex determination is controlled either by genetic or environmental factors. In mammals Sry initiates determination but no homologue of this gene exists in non-mammalian species. Other genes of the mammalian sex-determining pathway have been identified in gonads of different vertebrates. Sox9, Dax1, and Dmrt1 are expressed at the onset of gonadal development in birds and reptiles. In the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, a species with temperature sex determination (TSD), Sox9 is expressed in undifferentiated gonads at male- (MPT) or female-promoting temperatures (FPT). At MPT, Sox9 remains expressed in male gonads, but at FPT it is downregulated coinciding with the onset of the ovarian morphologic differentiation and female sex determination. At MPT however, male sex is determined early than at FPT in still undifferentiated gonads suggesting that other genes maintain Sox9 expression in testis. Here we used RT-PCR to study the expression profiles of Dax1, Dmrt1, and Sox9 in gonads of embryos of L. olivacea incubated at MPT or at FPT. The profiles were correlated with sex determination during and after the temperature-sensitive period (TSP). Dax1 maintained similar levels at both temperatures during the TSP. The Dax1 expression level increased significantly in ovaries compared to testes at stage 27, once they were morphologically distinct. The expression levels of Dmrt1 were higher at MPT than at FPT at all stages, in contrast with Sox9 levels which were similar at both temperatures at stages 23-25. Together, current results suggest that, whereas Dax1 is not involved in TSD in L. olivacea, upregulation of Dmrt1 and downregulation of Sox9 may play a role in male and female sex determination, respectively.

  9. Multi-domain simulation of transient junction temperatures and resulting stress-strain behavior of power switches for long-term mission profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drofenik, U.; Kovacevic, I.; Kolar, J. W. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmidt, R. [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    For lifetime estimation of power converters in traction applications, one method is to calculate numerically the stress-strain hysteresis curves of the interfaces silicon-solder-DCB and/or DCB-solder-baseplate inside the power modules. This can only be achieved if the transient junction temperatures in these layers are known for a defined mission profile. Therefore, one has to couple circuit simulation with thermal simulation and stress-strain computation. The second challenge of this problem is to perform this transient simulation taking into account switching losses in the {mu}s-range for mission profiles over a couple of minutes. In this paper we employ a new multi-domain simulation software to achieve results with reasonable computational effort. (author)

  10. Oceanographic temperature and salinity profiles collected between 2001 and 2007 in the Barents Sea (NODC Accession 0046620)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and other measurements found in dataset CTD taken from the GS-440, DALNIYE ZELENTSY and other platforms in the Arctic and Coastal N Atlantic...

  11. Temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen profile data from MULTIPLE SHIPS in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: (NODC Accession 9400176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Basin as part of Mediterranean Ocean Circulation project. Data...

  12. Oceanographic profile temperature measurements collected using bottle from the LAG in the Arctic in 1945 (NODC Accession 0001091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and meteorology data received at NODC on 05/02/03 by Igor Smolyar and digitized from: "Hydrometeorology and hydrochemistry of Seas of the USSR. Volume I....

  13. Comparative transcriptome profiling of Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M.S. Hwang & H.G. Choi in response to temperature stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peipei; Mao, Yunxiang; Li, Guiyang; Cao, Min; Kong, Fanna; Wang, Li; Bi, Guiqi

    2015-06-17

    Pyropia yezoensis is a model organism often used to investigate the mechanisms underlying stress tolerance in intertidal zones. The digital gene expression (DGE) approach was used to characterize a genome-wide comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that influence the physiological, developmental or biochemical processes in samples subjected to 4 treatments: high-temperature stress (HT), chilling stress (CS), freezing stress (FS) and normal temperature (NT). Equal amounts of total RNAs collected from 8 samples (two biological replicates per treatment) were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. Compared with NT, a total of 2202, 1334 and 592 differentially expressed unigenes were detected in HT, CS and FS respectively. Clustering analysis suggested P. yezoensis acclimates to low and high-temperature stress condition using different mechanisms: In heat stress, the unigenes related to replication and repair of DNA and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum were active; however at low temperature stresses, unigenes related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism were active. Analysis of gene differential expression showed that four categories of DEGs functioning as temperature sensors were found, including heat shock proteins, H2A, histone deacetylase complex and transcription factors. Heat stress caused chloroplast genes down-regulated and unigenes encoding metacaspases up-regulated, which is an important regulator of PCD. Cold stress caused an increase in the expression of FAD to improve the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids. An up-regulated unigene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase was found in cold stress, indicating that the plant hormone ABA also played an important role in responding to temperature stress in P. yezoensis. The variation of amount of unigenes and different gene expression pattern under different temperature stresses indicated the complicated and diverse regulation mechanism in response to

  14. Investigation of heat transfer on surface mount packages for different chip materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdzan, N.; Aziz, M. H. B. A.; Ong, N. R.; Alcain, J. B.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    The allocation and design placement of devices consisting of thermal sensitive units and poor thermal design can affect the device performance and damage the device in the worst case scenario. This study investigates the effect of thermal performance on the surface mount package corresponding to difference chip material. COMSOL Multiphysics software was used to assess the thermal effect on the electronic package. All the simulations are conducted under an identical simulation environment. The heat is transferred from the chip through the mount package to the surroundings by conduction. Besides that, thermal conduction mechanism happens among the components and thermal convection occurs on the air-exposed surface. The temperature of surface mount package was analyzed. The simulation result indicates that the chip material of titanium beta 21s as chip material shows the highest temperature of 48.04°C. While, magnesium as chip material shows the lowest temperature about 43.61°C.

  15. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS CURTS using BT and XBT casts in the Japan Sea from 11 January 1989 to 17 January 1989 (NODC Accession 8900027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS CURTS in the Japan Sea. Data were collected from 11 January 1989 to 17...

  16. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the Coastal Waters of Florida from 1983-12-01 to 1984-03-22 (NCEI Accession 8400103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the Coastal Waters of Florida from 01 December 1983 to 22 March 1984....

  17. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1995-02-24 to 1996-06-23 (NODC Accession 9700060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from February 24,...

  18. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from the SEA-LAND ENTERPRISE and other vessels in the North/South Atlantic Oceans from 01 January 199 to 31 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts in the North/South Atlantic Oceans from the SEA-LAND ENTERPRISE and other vessels. Data were collected in support...

  19. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the AMERICAN ARGO and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-02-09 to 1980-03-21 (NODC Accession 8000165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the AMERICAN ARGO and other platforms from 09 Februay 1980 to 21 March 1980. Data were collected by...

  20. Temperature profile and pressure data from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN and NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 1997-08-05 to 1999-06-28 (NCEI Accession 9900141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and pressure data were collected using CTD casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN and NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA from...

  1. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the MARINE EVANGELINE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1979-01-30 to 1979-01-31 (NODC Accession 7900085)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the MARINE EVANGELINE from 30 January 1979 to 31 January 1979. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  2. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the HESPERIDES in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 February 1996 to 21 February 1996 (NODC Accession 0000871)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from HESPERIDES. Data were collected from 15 February...

  3. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the HESPERIDES in the South Atlantic Ocean from 11 February 1995 to 20 February 1995 (NODC Accession 0000870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from HESPERIDES. Data were collected from 11 February...

  4. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and VIRGINIA KEY in the Gulf of Mexico from 1978-06-12 to 1978-12-19 (NCEI Accession 7900250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and VIRGINIA KEY in the Gulf of Mexico from 12 June 1978 to 19 December...

  5. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the DELTA ARGENTINA as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1973-09-21 to 1973-10-17 (NODC Accession 7301174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the DELTA ARGENTINA from 21 September 1973 to 17 October 1973. Data were collected by Delata Steamship Co. as...

  6. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the DELTA ARGENTINA as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1972-11-14 to 1973-01-02 (NODC Accession 7300035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the DELTA ARGENTINA and other platforms from 14 November 1972 to 02 January 1973. Data were collected by the...

  7. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-03-01 to 1997-01-03 (NODC Accession 9700036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from March 1, 1996 to...

  8. Temperature profile, oxygen, phosphate and other data collected using bottle from multiple platforms in a World-wide distribution from 24 June 1934 to 24 August 1984 (NODC Accession 0002144)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using bottle casts from multiple platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 24 June 1934 to...

  9. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the KASHU MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-03 to 1977-03-10 (NCEI Accession 8100129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KASHU MARU in the Pacific Ocean from March 3, 1977 to March 10, 1977. Data were...

  10. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HIEI MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-10-09 to 1976-10-16 (NCEI Accession 8100178)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HIEI MARU in the Pacific Ocean from October 9, 1976 to October 16, 1976. Data were...

  11. Oceanographic water temperature profiles from XBTs aboard multiple platforms as part of the GTSPP and SOT SOOP in the Southern Ocean and adjoining seas from 2016-02-10 to 2016-12-03 (NCEI Accession 0157632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic water temperature profiles collected from XBTs aboard the platforms Maersk Jalan, Shengking, L'Astrolabe, and Siangtan in the South Pacific Ocean,...

  12. Temperature profile and plankton data collected using net and CTD casts from the OSHORO MARU and other platform in the Bering Sea from 02 September 1981 to 07 September 1987 (NODC Accession 0000865)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and plankton data were collected using net and CTD casts in the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and North Pacific Ocean from OSHORO MARU and HOKUSEI...

  13. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the DELTA ECUADOR and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1978-09-30 to 1978-10-05 (NODC Accession 7800858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the DELTA ECUADOR and other platforms from 30 September 1978 to 05 October 1978. Data were collected by the...

  14. Delayed XBT data collected by Royal Australian Navy and submitted to NODC for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), dates range from August 31 2009 - April 14 2010 (NODC Accession 0073675)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts in the Indian Ocean. Data were collected from 31 August 2009 to 14 April 2010 by the Royal Australian Navy. Data...

  15. Delayed CTD and XBT data assembled and submitted by the Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), dates range from 06/08/1979 - 05/25/2010 (NODC Accession 0065272)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles for the world oceans and submits these data to the Global Temperature and...

  16. Delayed XBT data collected by Defense Oceanographic Data Center (DODC) and submitted to NODC for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) from 2006-10-28 to 2008-12-08 (NODC Accession 0056138)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Data were collected from 28 October 2006 to 08 December 2008 by the Royal...

  17. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 22 February to 1975-05-27 (NODC Accession 7800703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from MOANA WAVE in the Pacific Ocean from February 22, 1975 to May 27, 1975. Data were...

  18. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1983-10-07 to 1984-02-15 (NCEI Accession 8400106)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from October 7, 1983 to...

  19. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-01-02 to 1985-03-19 (NCEI Accession 8500081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 2, 1985 to...

  20. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the KASHU MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-11-06 to 1976-11-22 (NCEI Accession 8100139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KASHU MARU in the Pacific Ocean from November 16, 1976 to November 22, 1976. Data...

  1. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AMERICA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-07-19 to 1977-07-27 (NCEI Accession 8100351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AMERICA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from July 19, 1977 to July 27, 1977. Data were...

  2. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the LEXA MAERSK and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1986-11-15 to 1988-01-04 (NCEI Accession 8800006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from LEXA MAERSK and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from November 15, 1986 to...

  3. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HAKUSAN MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-30 to 1977-01-09 (NCEI Accession 8100419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HAKUSAN MARU in the Pacific Ocean from December 30, 1976 to January 9, 1977. Data...

  4. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-14 to 1977-03-23 (NCEI Accession 8100332)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from March 14, 1977 to March 23, 1977. Data...

  5. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HAKONE MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-26 to 1977-04-04 (NCEI Accession 8100303)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HAKONE MARU in the Pacific Ocean March 26 1977 to April 4, 1977. Data were...

  6. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 1980-01-22 to 1980-02-03 (NCEI Accession 8900302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North Atlantic Ocean from 22 January 1980 to 03 February 1980....

  7. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC GLACIER using BT and XBT casts in the NW / SW Pacific Ocean from 25 October 1986 to 31 January 1987 (NODC Accession 8700140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts in the NW / SW Pacific Ocean from USCGC GLACIER. Data were collected from 25 October...

  8. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC GLACIER in the NW/SE Pacific Ocean and other seas from 31 January 1987 to 08 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8700183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC GLACIER in the Northwest/Southeast Pacific Ocean and other seas. Data...

  9. Temperature profile and water depth data from BT and XBT casts in the Atlantic Ocean from USCGC POLAR SEA from 14 December 1983 to 06 May 1984 (NODC Accession 8600108)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC POLAR SEA in the Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 14 December...

  10. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from 1990-06-22 to 1991-08-29 (NODC Accession 9100184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 22 June 1990 to...

  11. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Philippine Sea from 1971-10-06 to 1979-09-21 (NCEI Accession 8000151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in Philippine Sea from 06 October 1971 to 21 September...

  12. Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 08 April 1997 to 05 May 1997 (NODC Accession 0000897)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were...

  13. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North American Coastline-South from 1982-06-09 to 1985-09-06 (NCEI Accession 8600133)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North American Coastline - South from 09 June 1982 to 06 September...

  14. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HAKUSAN MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-04-08 to 1977-04-14 (NCEI Accession 8100423)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HAKUSAN MARU in the Pacific Ocean from April 8, 1977 to April 14, 1977. Data were...

  15. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HARUNA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-14 to 1977-03-21 (NODC Accession 8100370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HARUNA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from March 14, 1977 to March 21, 1977. Data were...

  16. Temperature profile data from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1981-10-22 to 1982-10-13 (NODC Accession 8400037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and other platforms from 22 October 1981 to 13 October 1982....

  17. Oceanographic Station, temperature profiles, and other data from XBT and bottle casts from the DOLPHIN as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) from 1973-02-12 to 1973-03-23 (NODC Accession 7300813)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station,temperature profiles, and other data were collected from XBT and bottle casts from the DOLPHIN from 12 February 1973 to 23 March 1973. Data...

  18. Oceanographic station, temperature profiles, meteorological, and other data from bottle and XBT from the DOLPHIN as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1974-01-09 to 1974-01-12 (NODC Accession 7400287)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station, temperature profiles, meteorological, and other data were collected from bottle and XBT casts from the DOLPHIN from 09 January 1974 to 12...

  19. Oceanographic Station Data and temperature profiles from XBT and bottle casts from the DOLPHIN as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) from 1976-08-28 to 1976-09-21 (NODC Accession 7700036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data and temperature profiles were collected from XBT and bottle casts from the DOLPHIN from 28 August 1976 to 21 September 1976. Data were...

  20. Oceanographic Station, temperature profiles, and other data from XBT and bottle casts from the DOLPHIN as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) from 1974-04-01 to 1974-05-09 (NODC Accession 7400626)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station, temperature profiles, and other data were collected from XBT and bottle casts from the DOLPHIN from 01 April 1974 to 09 May 1974. Data were...