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Sample records for temperature mechanical properties

  1. High temperature mechanical properties of iron aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris, D. G.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been given to the iron aluminide family of intermetallics over the past years since they offer considerable potential as engineering materials for intermediate to high temperature applications, particularly in cases where extreme oxidation or corrosion resistance is required. Despite efforts at alloy development, however, high temperature strength remains low and creep resistance poor. Reasons for the poor high-temperature strength of iron aluminides will be discussed, based on the ordered crystal structure, the dislocation structure found in the material, and the mechanisms of dislocation pinning operating. Alternative ways of improving high temperature strength by microstructural modification and the inclusion of second phase particles will also be considered.

    Durante los últimos años se ha prestado mucha atención a la familia de intermetálicos Fe-Al, puesto que estos constituyen un considerable potencial como materiales de ingeniería en aplicaciones a temperaturas intermedias o altas, sobre todo en casos donde se necesita alta resistencia a la oxidación o corrosión. A pesar del considerable esfuerzo desarrollado para obtener aleaciones con mejores propiedades, su resistencia mecánica a alta temperatura no es muy elevada. Se discutirán los aspectos que contribuyen a la baja resistencia mecánica a temperatura elevada en función de la estructura de dislocaciones y los mecanismos de anclaje que operan en este intermetálico. Se considerarán, también, maneras alternativas para mejorar la resistencia a temperatura elevada mediante la modificación de la microestructura y la incorporación de partículas de segunda fase.

  2. Temperature dependence of poly(lactic acid) mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Guo, Huilong; Li, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of polymers are not only determined by their structures, but also related to the temperature field in which they are located. The yield behaviors, Young's modulus and structures of injection-molded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) samples after annealing at different temperatures...

  3. Influence of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of cast steels

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    G. Golański

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of tempering temperature on structure and mechanical properties of bainite hardened cast steel: G21CrMoV4 – 6 (L21HMF and G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF. Investigated cast steels were taken out from internal frames of steam turbines serviced for long time at elevated temperatures. Tempering of the investigated cast steel was carried out within the temperature range of 690 ÷ 730 C (G21CrMoV4 – 6 and 700 ÷ 740 C (G17CrMoV5 – 10. After tempering the cast steels were characterized by a structure of tempered lower bainite with numerous precipitations of carbides. Performed research of mechanical properties has shown that high temperatures of tempering of bainitic structure do not cause decrease of mechanical properties beneath the required minimum.oo It has also been proved that high-temperature tempering (>720 oC ensures high impact energy at the 20% decrease of mechanical properties.

  4. Influence of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of cast steels

    OpenAIRE

    G. Golański

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results of research on the influence of tempering temperature on structure and mechanical properties of bainite hardened cast steel: G21CrMoV4 – 6 (L21HMF) and G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF). Investigated cast steels were taken out from internal frames of steam turbines serviced for long time at elevated temperatures. Tempering of the investigated cast steel was carried out within the temperature range of 690 ÷ 730 C (G21CrMoV4 – 6) and 700 ÷ 740 C (G17CrMoV5 – 10). After temperin...

  5. Characterization of High Temperature Mechanical Properties Using Laser Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hurley; Stephen Reese; Farhad Farzbod; Rory Kennedy

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical properties are controlled to a large degree by defect structures such as dislocations and grain boundaries. These microstructural features involve a perturbation of the perfect crystal lattice (i.e. strain fields). Viewed in this context, high frequency strain waves (i.e. ultrasound) provide a natural choice to study microstructure mediated mechanical properties. In this presentation we use laser ultrasound to probe mechanical properties of materials. This approach utilizes lasers to excite and detect ultrasonic waves, and as a consequence has unique advantages over other methods—it is noncontacting, requires no couplant or invasive sample preparation (other than that used in metallurgical analysis), and has the demonstrated capability to probe microstructure on a micron scale. Laser techniques are highly reproducible enabling sophisticated, microstructurally informed data analysis. Since light is being used for generation and detection of the ultrasonic wave, the specimen being examined is not mechanically coupled to the transducer. As a result, laser ultrasound can be carried out remotely, an especially attractive characteristic for in situ measurements in severe environments. Several examples involving laser ultrasound to measure mechanical properties in high temperature environments will be presented. Emphasis will be place on understanding the role of grain microstructure.

  6. Low Temperature Mechanical Properties of Boron - Single-Crystal Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovich, Robert Emilio

    We have investigated, using mechanical resonator techniques, the importance of electronic states in the scattering of audio-frequency sound waves at low temperatures. Such states are known to exist in the energy-split ground state of holes bound to acceptor impurities in semiconductors. Accordingly, we studied the mechanical response of double-paddle resonators fabricated from single-crystal silicon wafers, doped to boron concentrations of 5.6 times 10^{13}/cc, 1.4 times 10^{15}/cc, 1.1 times 10^{16 }/cc, and 5.7 times 10 ^{16}/cc. The three highest dopant oscillators show a low -strain mechanical response that is dominated by scattering from such electronic hole states. All three oscillators show a dissipation maximum at 70-100mK, whose peak value increases with doping level. The normalized period change of all oscillators exhibits crystal softening below 10K, with this period change increasing with the doping level. The acoustic scattering from the holes is very strong. The oscillator made from our highest dopant sample, with about 1ppm boron impurities, has a peak dissipation of 2 times 10^{-5} at 65mK, and a period change of 3 times 10^{-3} below 1K. The dissipation data suggests that for these three oscillators, the hole level-splittings originate in the elastic strains from oxygen impurities. The response of the lowest doping oscillator shows very low dissipation and small normalized period shifts. We obtain a dissipation at 22mK of 3 times 10^{-8}. Such oscillators, then, would be very sensitive platforms for the study of small-dissipation processes at low temperatures. In addition, we observe in all our oscillators a high-strain nonlinear response which is more pronounced below about 0.3K. This nonlinearity was studied in the frequency shift of the resonance curve peak with amplitude. These "pulled" resonance curves are well described by classical nonlinear equations. Using these equations, we have mapped out the temperature dependence of this nonlinearity

  7. ZM-21 magnesium alloy corrosion properties and cryogenic to elevated temperature mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana, J. W.; Nelson, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bare ZM-21 magnesium alloy flat tensile specimens were determined for test temperatures of +400 F, +300 F, +200 F, +80 F, 0 F, -100 F, -200 F, and -320 F. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths of the material increased with decreasing temperature with a corresponding reduction in elongation values. Stress corrosion tests performed under: (1) MSFC atmospheric conditions; (2) 95% relative humidity; and (3) submerged in 100 ppm chloride solution for 8 weeks indicated that the alloy is not susceptible to stress corrosion. The corrosion tests indicated that the material is susceptible to attack by crevice corrosion in high humidity and chemical type attack by chloride solution. Atmospheric conditions at MSFC did not produce any adverse effects on the material, probably due to the rapid formation of a protective oxide coating. In both the mechanical properties and the stress corrosion evaluations the test specimens which were cut transverse to the rolling direction had superior properties when compared to the longitudinal properties.

  8. Aligning laboratory and field compaction practices for asphalt - the influence of compaction temperature on mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; de Bondt, A.H.; Doree, Andries G.

    2015-01-01

    The approach used to identify a compaction temperature in the laboratory, based on binder viscosity, provides a single compaction temperature whereas, on-site, a roller operates within a temperature window. The effect on the density and mechanical properties of rolling during a temperature window

  9. Effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of polymer mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marciano Laredo dos Reis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental program to investigate the effect of temperature on the performance of epoxy and unsaturated polyester polymer mortars (PM. PM is a composite material in which polymeric materials are used to bond the aggregates in a fashion similar to that used in the preparation of Portland cement concrete. For this purpose, prismatic and cylindrical specimens were prepared for flexural and compressive tests, respectively, at different temperatures. Measurements of the temperature-dependent elastic modulus and the compressive and flexural strength were conducted using a thermostatic chamber attached to a universal test machine for a range of temperatures varying from room temperature to 90 ºC. The flexural and compressive strength decreases as temperature increases, especially after matrix HDT. Epoxy polymer mortars are more sensitive to temperature variation than unsaturated polyester ones.

  10. High-temperature mechanical properties of aluminium alloys reinforced with boron carbide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoro, J. [Dept. Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: javier.onoro@upm.es; Salvador, M.D. [Dept. Ingenieria Mecanica y de Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Cambronero, L.E.G. [Dept. Ingenieria de Materiales, ETSI Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced metal-matrix composites based on aluminium alloys (6061 and 7015) at high temperatures were studied. Boron carbide particles were used as reinforcement. All composites were produced by hot extrusion. The tensile properties and fracture analysis of these materials were investigated at room temperature and at high temperature to determine their ultimate strength and strain to failure. The fracture surface was analysed by scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Barrel Temperature Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An existing mould was used for the production of tension and deflection test specimen. Then a plunger type of injection machine was used to mould test specimens at various barrel temperatures ranging from 1600C to 2800C, keeping all other process variables constant. The tensile and deflection test carried out on the ...

  12. Low temperature mechanical properties of metallic glasses - Connection with structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bengus, VZ; Tabachnikova, ED; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    Available data on plasticity and strength of metallic glasses below the room temperature (down to 0.5 K) are considered and explained on the basis of the polycluster model of amorphous solids especially with taking into consideration possible atomic structure of clusters and defects of intercluster

  13. Mechanical properties and fracture behavior of single-layer phosphorene at finite temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Ding, Zhiwei; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorene, a new two-dimensional (2D) material beyond graphene, has attracted great attention in recent years due to its superior physical and electrical properties. However, compared to graphene and other 2D materials, phosphorene has a relatively low Young’s modulus and fracture strength, which may limit its applications due to possible structure failures. For the mechanical reliability of future phosphorene-based nanodevices, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene. Previous studies on the mechanical properties of phosphorene were based on first principles calculations at 0 K. In this work, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to explore the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. It is found that temperature has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of phosphorene. The fracture strength and strain reduce by more than 65% when the temperature increases from 0 K to 450 K. Moreover, the fracture strength and strain in the zigzag direction is more sensitive to the temperature rise than that in the armchair direction. More interestingly, the failure crack propagates preferably along the groove in the puckered structure when uniaxial tension is applied in the armchair direction. In contrast, when the uniaxial tension is applied in the zigzag direction, multiple cracks are observed with rough fracture surfaces. Our present work provides useful information about the mechanical properties and failure behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures.

  14. Rheological Properties with Temperature Response Characteristics and a Mechanism of Solid-Free Polymer Drilling Fluid at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of drilling fluid have important effects during drilling in natural gas hydrate at low temperatures. The present study was performed using theoretical analysis. Experiments and micro-analyses were carried out to determine the rheological properties with temperature response characteristics and the mechanism involved in solid-free polymer drilling fluid (SFPDF at low temperatures when drilling in permafrost with natural gas hydrates (NGH. The curves of shear stress with the shear rates of three kinds of polymer drilling fluids, Semen Lepidii natural vegetable gum, polyacrylamide, and xanthan gum, were drawn. Then, statistical and related analyses of test data were performed using Matlab ver. 8.0. Through regression analysis, the Herschel–Bulkley model was used to characterize the rheological characteristics of SFPDF. On this basis, the laws regarding the rheological properties of the three kinds of SFPDF under changing temperatures were analyzed and rheological properties with temperature response state equations were established. Next, the findings of previous studies on rheological properties with temperature response characteristics of the SFPDF were reviewed. Finally, the rheological properties with temperature response mechanisms were assessed using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectrum analysis.

  15. A Comprehensive Study on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymers at Various Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    A Comprehensive Study on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymers at Various Temperatures*† Selen Bayar, Ph.D...thermal properties of nanoclay reinforced polymer resins are investigated at various temperatures. The effect of nanoclay reinforcement was elicited by...The results indicate that the addition of nanoclay to PP leads to a stronger and stiffer nanocomposite. It was also found that the strength and

  16. Two-phase chromium-niobium alloys exhibiting improved mechanical properties at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chain T.; Takeyama, Masao

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses chromium-niobium alloys which exhibit improved mechanical properties at high temperatures in the range of 1250.degree. C. and improved room temperature ductility. The alloys contain a Cr.sub.2 Nb-rich intermetallic phase and a Cr-rich phase with an overall niobium concentration in the range of from about 5 to about 18 at. %. The high temperature strength is substantially greater than that of state of the art nickel-based superalloys for enhanced high temperature service. Further improvements in the properties of the compositions are obtained by alloying with rhenium and aluminum; and additional rare-earth and other elements.

  17. Mechanical properties of biaxially strained poly(L-lactide) tubes: Strain rate and temperature dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2017-01-01

    their Tg for improvement of their strength, in a two-step process (sequential straining). Mechanical properties and crystal morphology were investigated as a function of processing strain rate and temperature. DSC revealed that a low processing strain rate allows molecular chain relaxation in the direction...... of strain and the crystallization is suppressed. Faster strain rates on the other hand suppress chain relaxation, and results in crystalline tubes. The mechanical properties are influenced by both processing strain rate and temperature. Low strain rates allow chain relaxation resulting in the lowest...... strength and stiffness, whereas a larger stiffness and strength is achieved by increasing strain rate and temperature. Isotropic mechanical properties are only observed at high processing strain rates....

  18. Mechanical Properties of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklonis, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties (stress-strain relationships) of polymers are reviewed, taking into account both time and temperature factors. Topics include modulus-temperature behavior of polymers, time dependence, time-temperature correspondence, and mechanical models. (JN)

  19. Low temperature mechanical properties of 316L type stainless steel after hydrostatic extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarkowski, P., E-mail: paczar@gmail.com [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, Warsaw 02-507 (Poland); Krawczynska, A.T.; Slesinski, R.; Brynk, T.; Budniak, J.; Lewandowska, M.; Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, Warsaw 02-507 (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    316L-type stainless steel is commonly used in fusion devices. Its mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures, for rolled or forged products possessing a grain size of tens of micrometers have been widely reported. In this paper we present the properties of this steel after multi-pass hydrostatic extrusion (HE), which brought about significant grain refinement to the nanometer scale. Such grain refinement of 316L-type stainless steel would be expected to improve the yield and ultimate tensile strength and may also result in a better resistance to irradiation. The microstructure of the HE processed samples was determined by electron microscopy and the mechanical properties evaluated by its microhardness under a load of 200 g and by tensile tests at room temperature and after immersion in liquid nitrogen. The observed improvements of the mechanical properties are discussed in terms of the microstructural changes arising from the hydrostatic extrusion.

  20. Temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of magnetorheological elastomers under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Benxiang, E-mail: jubenxiang@qq.com [National Instrument Functional Materials Engineering Technology Research Center, Chongqing 400707 (China); Tang, Rui; Zhang, Dengyou; Yang, Bailian [National Instrument Functional Materials Engineering Technology Research Center, Chongqing 400707 (China); Yu, Miao; Liao, Changrong [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Both anisotropic and isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) samples were fabricated by using as-prepared polyurethane (PU) matrix and carbonyl iron particles. Temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of MRE were investigated and analyzed. Due to the unique structural features of as-prepared matrix, temperature has a greater impact on the properties of as-prepared MRE, especially isotropic MRE. With increasing of temperature and magnetic field, MR effect of isotropic MRE can reach up to as high as 4176.5% at temperature of 80 °C, and the mechanism of the temperature-dependent in presence of magnetic field was discussed. These results indicated that MRE is a kind of temperature-dependent material, and can be cycled between MRE and MR plastomer (MRP) by varying temperature. - Highlights: • Both anisotropic and isotropic MRE were fabricated by using as-prepared matrix. • Temperature-dependent properties of MRE under magnetic field were investigated. • As-prepared MRE can transform MRE to MRP by adjusting temperature.

  1. Effect of Firing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Fired Masonry Bricks Produced from Ipetumodu Clay

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    Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of varied firing temperature on the mechanical properties of fired masonry bricks samples produced from Ipetumodu clay was investigated. The clay sample was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM for the evaluation of the morphology of the sample using secondary electron imaging; and the phases/compositions of the samples using energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis, X-ray diffractometer (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The brick samples of standard dimensions were prepared from the clay slurry. The prepared samples were sun dried for 72 hours and then fired at varied temperature (held for an hour and then allowed to cool to room temperature in the furnace. The mechanical properties (compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture, density and hardness of the samples were then investigated. It was observed that the mechanical properties of the fired brick samples varied with varying firing temperature due to phase changes/chemical reaction between the phases in the clay sample. It was concluded that the optimum mechanical property for brick samples within the temperature range considered is obtained at 950oC.

  2. Effect of austenitizing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb–Ti microalloyed steel

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Guiqin; Jin Duo; Zhu Miaoyong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of austenitizing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb–Ti microalloyed steel was investigated. Steels were subjected to different austenitizing treatments (temperatures ranging from 850 °C to 1250 °C for 5-120 min) and rolled after being austenitized at different temperatures (i.e. 1020 °C, 1070 °C and 1150 °C). The results showed that austenite grain coarsening temperature was around 1000 °C. The mean grain size of the rolled steels initially ...

  3. Influence of Cryogenic Temperatures on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Dieringa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have been used in the automotive industry and 3C (computer, communication, and consumer electronics for many years. Their room temperature properties combined with their low density offer a wide range of applications, especially when processed by High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC. The use of magnesium alloys at higher temperatures is well-studied; special creep resistant alloys containing the rare earth elements silver or yttrium are needed. However, when it comes to very low temperatures, only a few studies have been performed to determine the property-microstructure relationship. The possible fields of application at low temperatures are aerospace and satellite parts and tanks for liquefied gases. This review shall not only examine mechanical properties at low temperatures, but also the permanent effects of cyclic or long-lasting cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties. It was found that cryogenic treatment is able to influence the precipitate concentration and grain orientation in some magnesium alloys. Reduction in the number of brittle phases is improving ductility in some cases. It is well-known that high speed tool steels, in particular, can be influenced by cryogenic treatment. Whether this is possible with magnesium alloys and what the mechanisms are shall be reviewed.

  4. International round robin test for mechanical properties of REBCO superconductive tapes at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osamura, K.; Shin, H.S.; Weiss, K.; Nyilas, A.; Nijhuis, Arend; Yamamoto, K.; Machiya, S.; Nishijima, G.

    2014-01-01

    An international round robin test was promoted to establish a test method for room temperature mechanical properties of commercial REBCO superconductive tapes. Seven laboratories practiced a tensile test under the direction of guideline REBCO13 for four different kinds of REBCO tape. From the stress

  5. Theoretical Models in the Study of Temperature Effect on Steel Mechanical Properties

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    D. Gorbănescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The governing laws adopted by two high qualified scientific organizations (D.T.U. and Eurocode for the variation of steel mechanical properties at high temperatures are presented. There are no significant differences between them, but generally, the items advanced by Eurocode 3, part 1.2, are dopted in the most works that approach the thermical-mechanical analysis of steel structures.

  6. Nondestructive Methods to Characterize Rock Mechanical Properties at Low-Temperature: Applications for Asteroid Capture Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Kara A.

    Recent government initiatives and commercial activities have targeted asteroids for in situ material characterization, manipulation, and possible resource extraction. Most of these activities and missions have proposed significant robotic components, given the risks and costs associated with manned missions. To successfully execute these robotic activities, detailed mechanical characteristics of the target space bodies must be known prior to contact, in order to appropriately plan and direct the autonomous robotic protocols. Unfortunately, current estimates of asteroid mechanical properties are based on limited direct information, and significant uncertainty remains specifically concerning internal structures, strengths, and elastic properties of asteroids. One proposed method to elucidate this information is through in situ, nondestructive testing of asteroid material immediately after contact, but prior to any manipulation or resource extraction activities. While numerous nondestructive rock characterization techniques have been widely deployed for terrestrial applications, these methods must be adapted to account for unique properties of asteroid material and environmental conditions of space. For example, asteroid surface temperatures may range from -100°C to 30°C due to diurnal cycling, and these low temperatures are especially noteworthy due to their deleterious influence on non-destructive testing. As a result, this thesis investigates the effect of low temperature on the mechanical characteristics and nondestructive technique responses of rock material. Initially, a novel method to produce low temperature rock samples was developed. Dry ice and methanol cooling baths of specific formulations were used to decrease rock to temperatures ranging from -60°C to 0°C. At these temperatures, shale, chalk, and limestone rock samples were exposed to several nondestructive and conventional mechanical tests, including Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, point

  7. Effects of substrate temperature on bonding structure and mechanical properties of amorphous carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, S.; Laugier, M.T.; Rahman, I.Z

    2004-01-30

    Diamond-like carbon thin films were prepared at different substrate temperatures by RF magnetron sputtering of a graphite target. The chemical bonding of the carbon structure was characterised by Raman spectroscopy. Raman measurements showed that sp{sup 3} bonded carbon fraction increases from 50 to 80 deg. C temperatures and an increase in the substrate temperature after 80 deg. C results in an increase in the sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon atoms in DLC thin films. Mechanical properties, namely hardness and Young's modulus were determined by CSM{sup TM} nanohardness tester. The hardness (H) and Young's modulus (E) were found in the range of 11-22 and 110-160 GPa, respectively, at different substrate temperatures and increased with increase of substrate temperature up to 125 deg. C and decreased thereafter. These results indicate that substrate temperature has a strong influence on the bonding properties of the deposited films and the changes in bonding ratio (sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2}) were correlated with changes in the mechanical properties.

  8. The stress corrosion resistance and the cryogenic temperature mechanical properties of annealed Nitronic 60 bar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Ambient and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties and the ambient temperature stress corrosion properties of annealed, straightened, and centerless ground Nitronic 60 stainless steel alloy bar material are presented. The mechanical properties of longitudinal specimens were evaluated at test temperatures from ambient to liquid hydrogen. The tensile test data indicated increasing strength with decreasing temperature to -196 C. Below liquid nitrogen temperature the smooth tensile and notched tensile strengths decreased slightly while the elongation and reduction of area decreased drastically. The Charpy V-notched impact energy decreased steadily with decreasing test temperature. Stress corrosion tests were performed on longitudinal tensile specimens and transverse C-ring specimens exposed to: alternate immersion in a 3.5% NaCl bath; humidity cabinet; and a 5% salt spray atmosphere. The longitudinal tensile specimens experienced no corrosive attack. Approximately 3/4 of the transverse C-rings exposed to alternate immersion and to salt spray experienced a pitting attack on the top and bottom ends. Additional stress corrosion tests were performed on transverse tensile specimens. No failures occurred in the 90% stressed specimens exposed for 90 days in the alternate immersion and salt spray environments

  9. Effect of layer thickness on the high temperature mechanical properties of Al/SiC nanolaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotfian, S. [IMDEA Materials Institute, c/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Mayer, C.; Chawla, N. [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Llorca, J. [IMDEA Materials Institute, c/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Madrid, E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Misra, A.; Baldwin, J.K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Molina-Aldareguía, J.M., E-mail: jon.molina@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, c/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-11-28

    Composite laminates on the nanoscale have shown superior hardness and toughness, but little is known about their high temperature behavior. The mechanical properties (elastic modulus and hardness) were measured as a function of temperature by means of nanoindentation in Al/SiC nanolaminates, a model metal–ceramic nanolaminate fabricated by physical vapor deposition. The influence of the Al and SiC volume fraction and layer thicknesses was determined between room temperature and 150 °C and, the deformation modes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, using a focused ion beam to prepare cross-sections through selected indents. It was found that ambient temperature deformation was controlled by the plastic flow of the Al layers, constrained by the SiC, and the elastic bending of the SiC layers. The reduction in hardness with temperature showed evidence of the development of interface-mediated deformation mechanisms, which led to a clear influence of layer thickness on the hardness. - Highlights: • The mechanical behavior of Al/SiC nanolaminates was measured between 28 °C and 150 °C. • Room temperature hardness was controlled by the volume fraction of the constituents. • The hardness of all the nanolaminates decreased rapidly with temperature. • Reduction of hardness with temperature increased as the interface density increased.

  10. Mechanical properties of long carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (LFT) at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) possess high specific modulus and strength, superior damage tolerance and fracture toughness and have found increasing use in transportation, military, and aerospace applications. However, one of the impediments to utilizing these materials is the lack of performance data in harsh conditions, especially at elevated temperature. In order to quantify the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites, carbon fiber PAA composite plates containing 20% and 30% carbon fiber were produced using extrusion/compression molding process and tested at three representative temperatures, room temperature (RT 26°C), middle temperature (MID 60°C) and glass transition temperature (Tg 80°C). A heating chamber was designed and fabricated for the testing at elevated temperature. As temperature increases, flexural modulus, flexural strength, tensile modulus and tensile strength decrease. The highest reduction observed in stiffness (modulus) values of 30% CF/PAA at Tg in the 00 orientation is 75%. The reduction values were larger for the transverse (perpendicular to flow direction) samples than the longitudinal (flow direction) samples. The property reduction in 30% CF/PAA is larger than 20% CF/PAA. Furthermore, an innovative method was developed to calculate the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced composites by burning off the neat resin and sample in a tube furnace. This method was proved to be accurate (within 1.5 wt. % deviation) by using burning off data obtained from CF/Epoxy and CF/Vinyl Ester samples. 20% and 30% carbon/PAA samples were burned off and carbon fiber content was obtained using this method. The results of the present study will be helpful in determining the end-user applications of these composite materials. Keywords: Long Carbon Fibers, Elevated Temperature, Mechanical Properties, Burn off Test.

  11. Nanoindentation Investigation of Temperature Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Nafion® 117

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Re Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Operating temperature can be a limiting factor in reliable applications of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cells. Nanoindentation tests were performed on perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA membranes (Nafion® 117 in order to study the influence of the temperature condition on their mechanical properties. The hardness and reduced modulus of Nafion® 117 were measured within a certain temperature range, from 10 to 70 °C. The results indicate that both hardness and elastic modulus show non-monotonic transition with the increase of the test temperature, with reaching peak values of 0.143 and 0.833 GPa at 45 °C. It also found that the membranes have a shape memory effect and a temperature dependent shape recovery ratio.

  12. The effect of irradiation, annealing temperature, and artificial aging on the oxidation, mechanical properties, and fracture mechanisms of UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetto, Yannick; Wesslen, Bengt; Maurer, Frans; Lidgren, Lars

    2003-12-01

    UHMWPE crosslinked using Gamma radiation is believed to have improved wear properties, and this has been extensively studied during the past 10 years. Mechanical properties, oxidation, and wear properties of UHMWPE materials subjected to various thermal treatments have been investigated immediately after irradiation as well as after several years of aging. Nevertheless, the relationship between all these parameters is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the thermal treatments that could be applied to irradiated UHMWPE [lower (gamma 60) or higher (gamma 150) than 140 degrees C, the melting temperature of the polymer] and the mechanical properties, the oxidation and the fracture behavior of the material. The effect of artificial aging on these properties was also investigated. This study concludes that immediately after the annealing, the mechanical properties (UTS and epsilon) of the irradiated and annealed material are improved compared with those of nonirradiated material. Although nonirradiated material has higher fracture toughness than irradiated and annealed materials, the materials break according to the same mechanism of fracture. After aging, no changes could be observed in any of the measured properties for nonirradiated material. On the other hand, important changes could be seen in both irradiated and annealed material after aging. Both UTS and epsilon decreased, much more so in the case of gamma 60. Furthermore, the aging induced a subsurface peak of oxidation in both irradiated and annealed materials, twice as intense for gamma 60 than for gamma 150. The mechanism of fracture of these materials changed drastically after aging, probably due to the presence of the oxidation peak, which seems to occur at a location where cracks initiate easily compared with the nonoxidized bulk of the material. In the case of gamma 60, it seems clear that a correlation between mechanical property, oxidation, and

  13. Temperature and time dependence of the electro-mechanical properties of flexible active fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Atitallah, H.; Ounaies, Z.; Muliana, A.

    2016-04-01

    Active fiber composites (AFCs) are comprised of piezoelectric fibers embedded in a polymeric matrix. AFCs use interdigitated electrodes, which produce electric field lines parallel to the fiber direction, thus taking advantage of the larger d 33 piezoelectric coefficient. The polymer volume content of the AFCs is generally more than 50%; since polymers tend to have behaviors affected by their viscoelastic characteristics especially at elevated temperatures, it is necessary to understand the thermo-electro-mechanical behavior of AFCs at different loading rates. In this study, mechanical, electrical and electromechanical properties of AFCs were measured at different isothermal temperatures, namely 25 °C, 50 °C and 75 °C and at different loading rates. The measurements of all the properties of AFCs were done along the fiber direction. It was found that at higher temperatures, the modulus and tensile strength decreased for all strain rates and the strain at failure increased. The remnant polarization increased with decrease in frequency and increase in temperature; however, the coercive field decreased with temperature and was not affected by the frequency. Due to the viscoelastic behavior of the epoxy, the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 increased at higher temperature and lower frequency. It was also noted that this coefficient is dependent on the magnitude of the electric field.

  14. RELATION BETWEEN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE OF PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN FOR GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper has been to characterize the relation between the pyrolysis temperature of phenol-formaldehyde resin, the development of a porous structure, and the mechanical properties for the application of semipermeable membranes for gas separation. No previous study has dealt with this problem in its entirety. Phenol-formaldehyde resin showed an increasing trend toward micropore porosity in the temperature range from 500 till 1000°C, together with closure of mesopores and macropores. Samples cured and pyrolyzed at 1000°C pronounced hysteresis of desorption branch. The ultimate bending strength was measured using a four-point arrangement that is more suitable for measuring of brittle materials. The chevron notch technique was used for determination the fracture toughness. The results for mechanical properties indicated that phenol-formaldehyde resin pyrolyzates behaved similarly to ceramic materials. The data obtained for the material can be used for calculating the technical design of gas separation membranes.

  15. Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Behavior of Unitized Composite Airframe Structures at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 18-08-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) September 2014 – September 2016 TITLE ... MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF UNITIZED COMPOSITE AIRFRAME STRUCTURES AT ELEVATED...TEMPERATURE THESIS Mohamed Noomen, Lieutenant, TNAF AFIT-ENY-MS-16-S-66 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE

  16. Mechanical Properties Distribution within Polypropylene Injection Molded Samples: Effect of Mold Temperature under Uneven Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Liparoti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the polymer parts produced by injection molding is strongly affected by the processing conditions. Uncontrolled deviations from the proper process parameters could significantly affect both internal structure and final material properties. In this work, to mimic an uneven temperature field, a strong asymmetric heating is applied during the production of injection-molded polypropylene samples. The morphology of the samples is characterized by optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM, whereas the distribution of mechanical modulus at different scales is obtained by Indentation and HarmoniX AFM tests. Results clearly show that the temperature differences between the two mold surfaces significantly affect the morphology distributions of the molded parts. This is due to both the uneven temperature field evolutions and to the asymmetric flow field. The final mechanical property distributions are determined by competition between the local molecular stretch and the local structuring achieved during solidification. The cooling rate changes affect internal structures in terms of relaxation/reorganization levels and give rise to an asymmetric distribution of mechanical properties.

  17. Mechanical properties of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites depending on temperature, porosity and redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    %. For all samples a linear relation between Young's modulus and porosity was found. The temperature dependency of the mechanical properties of both as-sintered and reduced composites was investigated by IET up to 1200 degrees C. In the as-sintered state, first an increase and peak of stiffness coinciding...... increased above ca. 600 degrees C and was found to be very dependent on microstructure. Damage caused by redox cycling degraded the elastic properties of the composites. Degradation started linearly from 0.5 to 0.6% redox strain leading to macroscopic sample failures at about 2.5% dL/L-o. A simple continuum...

  18. Improved Mechanical Properties of Various Fabric-Reinforced Geocomposite at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sneha; Phan Thanh, Nhan; Petríková, Iva; Marvalová, Bohadana

    2015-07-01

    This article signifies the improved performance of the various types of fabric reinforcement of geopolymer as a function of physical, thermal, mechanical, and heat-resistant properties at elevated temperatures. Geopolymer mixed with designed Si:Al ratios of 15.6 were synthesized using three different types of fabric reinforcement such as carbon, E-glass, and basalt fibers. Heat testing was conducted on 3-mm-thick panels with 15 × 90 mm surface exposure region. The strength of carbon-based geocomposite increased toward a higher temperature. The basalt-reinforced geocomposite strength decreased due to the catastrophic failure in matrix region. The poor bridging effect and dissolution of fabric was observed in the E-glass-reinforced geocomposite. At an elevated temperature, fiber bridging was observed in carbon fabric-reinforced geopolymer matrix. Among all the fabrics, carbon proved to be suitable candidate for the high-temperature applications in thermal barrier coatings and fire-resistant panels.

  19. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Unsaturated Polyester/Vinyl Ester Blends Cured at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhyananta, H.; Puspadewa, F. D.; Wicaksono, S. T.; Widyastuti; Wibisono, A. T.; Kurniawan, B. A.; Ismail, H.; Salsac, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin containing aromatic ring was blended with vinyl ester (VE) at wide range composition (10, 20, 30, 40,and 80 wt.%) using mechanical blending method. The blends were cured at room temperature using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) (4 wt.%) as catalyst initiator without the presence of catalystaccelerator. The effect of vinyl ester composition on theenhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of unsaturated polyester/vinyl ester blends was investigated. The polymer blends were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)spectroscopy, tensile testing, hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). IR spectra showed UP and VE peaks. The curing copolymerization reactionoccurred at vinyl (C=C) bonds. The addition of vinyl esters enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The UP/VE blends showed homogeneous morphology, transparent and copolymer thermoset blend.

  20. Effects of cryomilling on the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of oxide dispersion strengthened steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Jin-Han; Kim, Jeoung-Han; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2015-04-01

    The effects of cryomilling on the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steel were examined. Cryomilling was newly tried on this ODS steel to control oxides, grains, and dislocation microstructures. Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti (wt.%) alloy powder and 0.3 wt.%Y2O3 powder were mixed and were mechanically alloyed (MA) through ball milling at each of room temperature (RT) and -150 °C and then hot isostatic pressing (HIP), hot rolling, and annealing processes were implemented to manufacture two types of ODS ferritic steel, K1 (RT) and K4 (-150 °C). Oxide particles were shown to be finer and more uniformly distributed in K4 (5-10 nm size distribution) than in K1 (average size 30 nm). The two alloys were subjected to high temperature compression (RT ∼ 900 °C) tests. K4 represented higher yield strength under all temperature conditions. However, K4 showed rapid strength decreases at high temperatures exceeding 700 °C and showed similar levels of strengths to K1 at 900 °C. This is considered attributable to the fact that although cryomilling increased the number density of oxide particles, it simultaneously reduced grain sizes too much, so that grain boundary weakening at high temperatures could not be sufficiently prevented.

  1. Effects of cryomilling on the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of oxide dispersion strengthened steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Jin-Han [Dept. of Advanced Mat. Eng., Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeoung-Han [Dept. of Advanced Mat. Eng., Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ahn, E-mail: keeahn@andong.ac.kr [Dept. of Advanced Mat. Eng., Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The effects of cryomilling on the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steel were examined. Cryomilling was newly tried on this ODS steel to control oxides, grains, and dislocation microstructures. Fe–14Cr–3W–0.4Ti (wt.%) alloy powder and 0.3 wt.%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder were mixed and were mechanically alloyed (MA) through ball milling at each of room temperature (RT) and −150 °C and then hot isostatic pressing (HIP), hot rolling, and annealing processes were implemented to manufacture two types of ODS ferritic steel, K1 (RT) and K4 (−150 °C). Oxide particles were shown to be finer and more uniformly distributed in K4 (5–10 nm size distribution) than in K1 (average size 30 nm). The two alloys were subjected to high temperature compression (RT ∼ 900 °C) tests. K4 represented higher yield strength under all temperature conditions. However, K4 showed rapid strength decreases at high temperatures exceeding 700 °C and showed similar levels of strengths to K1 at 900 °C. This is considered attributable to the fact that although cryomilling increased the number density of oxide particles, it simultaneously reduced grain sizes too much, so that grain boundary weakening at high temperatures could not be sufficiently prevented.

  2. Effect of tempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.W.; Han, L.Z.; Luo, X.M.; Liu, Q.D.; Gu, J.F., E-mail: gujf@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-08-15

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel were investigated after tempering at different temperatures ranging from 580 to 700 °C for 5 h. With increasing tempering temperature, the impact toughness, which is qualified by Charpy V-notch total absorbed energy, initially increases from 142 to 252 J, and then decreases to 47 J, with a maximum value at 650 °C, while the ultimate tensile strength varies in exactly the opposite direction. Comparing the microstructure and fracture surfaces of different specimens, the variations in toughness and strength with the tempering temperature were generally attributed to the softening of the bainitic ferrite, the agminated Fe{sub 3}C carbides that resulted from decomposition of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents, the precipitation of Mo{sub 2}C carbides, and the newly formed M/A constituents at the grain boundaries. Finally, the correlation between the impact toughness and the volume fraction of the M/A constituents was established, and the fracture mechanisms for the different tempering conditions are explained. - Highlights: • The dependence of the deterioration of impact toughness on tempering temperature has been analysed. • The instrumented Charpy V-notch impact test has been employed to study the fracture mechanism. • The influence of M/A constituents on different fracture mechanisms based on the hinge model has been demonstrated. • A correlation between the mechanical properties and the amount of M/A constituents has been established.

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Novel Rapidly Solidified, High-Temperature Al-Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Mathaudhu, Suveen; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2016-02-12

    Rapid solidification (RS) processing, as a production method, offers a variety of unique properties based on far-from-equilibrium microstructures obtained through rapid cooling rates. In this study, we seek to investigate the microstructures and properties of a novel Al-alloy specifically designed for high temperature mechanical stability. Synthesis of, AlFe11.4Si1.8V1.6Mn0.9 (wt. %), was performed by two approaches: rotating cup atomization (“shot”) and melt spinning (“flake”). These methods were chosen because of their ability to produce alloys with tailored microstructures due to their inherent differences in cooling rate. The as-solidified precursor materials were microstructurally characterized with electron microscopy. The results show that the higher cooling rate flake material exhibited the formation of nanocrystalline regions as well additional phase morphologies not seen in the shot material. Secondary dendritic branching in the flake material was on the order of 0.1-0.25µm whereas branching in the shot material was 0.5-1.0µm. Consolidated and extruded material from both precursor materials was mechanically evaluated at both ambient and high (300°C) temperature. The consolidated RS flake material is shown to exhibit higher strengths than the shot material. The ultimate tensile strength of the melt spun flake was reported as 544.2MPa at room temperature and 298.0MPa at 300°C. These results forecast the ability to design alloys and processing approaches with unique non-equilibrium microstructures with robust mechanical properties at elevated temperatures.

  4. Effect of austenitizing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb–Ti microalloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Guiqin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of austenitizing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb–Ti microalloyed steel was investigated. Steels were subjected to different austenitizing treatments (temperatures ranging from 850 °C to 1250 °C for 5-120 min and rolled after being austenitized at different temperatures (i.e. 1020 °C, 1070 °C and 1150 °C. The results showed that austenite grain coarsening temperature was around 1000 °C. The mean grain size of the rolled steels initially increased and then decreased, but the ferrite content decreased with increasing austenitizing temperature. The precipitates in the prior austenite and rolled steel were both complex Nb–Ti carbonitrides. As the austenitizing temperature increased from 1020 °C to 1150 °C, most precipitates were dissolved and re-precipitated as dispersive particles with mean size decreasing from 30 nm to 10 nm. Meanwhile, the 80 nm to 100 nm rectangular Ti-rich carbonitrides were not dissolved and varied during the subsequent cooling process.The Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased but the elongation and reduction in area (in percent decreased with the elevated austenitizing temperature.

  5. A comprehensive investigation into the effect of temperature variation on the mechanical properties of sustainable concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mir Abdulkader

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the production energy and resources consumption are the key principle for engineering sustainability. In the case of concrete structures, this concept can be achieved by the use of materials in the most efficient way considering in the mix design the optimal mechanical and durability properties. The substitution of ordinary Portland cement for other supplementary cementitious materials is assessing the possibility of enhancing the sustainability and decreasing the environmental impact of concrete. Mass concrete is rich in cementitious materials which results in high temperature within the concrete, hence several hazards such as cracking or temperature differences between the interior and the surface of concrete could be prevented. An experimental study evaluated on several one cubic meter sized concrete elements in which during the primary phase of hydration, the temperature variation is recorded in several location offsets with respect to time. Thermal variations results are analyzed in accordance with the cement type, CO2 emission production of cement, compressive strength, water tightness, drying shrinkage and rapid chloride migration coefficient. The results indicate that slag cement CEM III/B 32.5, that incorporates highest amount of slag, ensured improved mechanical, thermal and durability properties in comparison with ordinary Portland cement CEM I 32.5.

  6. Measurement of mechanical properties of metallic glass at elevated temperature using sonic resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Zhang, Haifeng; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are fully amorphous multi-component alloys with homogeneous and isotropic structure down to the atomic scale. Some attractive attributes of bulk metallic glasses include high strength and hardness as well as excellent corrosion and wear resistance. However, there are few reports and limited understanding of their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. We used a nondestructive sonic resonance method to measure the Young's modulus and Shear modulus of a bulk metallic glass, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, at elevated temperatures. The measurement system was designed using a laser displacement sensor to detect the sonic vibration produced by a speaker on the specimen in high-temperature furnace. The OMICRON Bode-100 Vector Network Analyzer was used to sweep the frequency and its output was connected to the speaker which vibrated the material in its flexural mode and torsional modes. A Polytec OFV-505 laser vibrometer sensor was used to capture the vibration of the material at various frequencies. The flexural and torsional mode frequency shift due to the temperature variation was used to determine the Young's modulus and Shear modulus. The temperature range of measurement was from 50°C to 350°C. The Young's modulus was found to reduce from 100GPa to 94GPa for the 300°C temperature span. Similarly, the Shear modulus decreased from 38.5GPa at 50°C to 36GPa at 350°C.

  7. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Nicolay, P. [CTR Carinthian Tech Research AG, Villach 9524 (Austria)

    2015-02-14

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel rapidly solidified, high-temperature Al-alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, N.R., E-mail: Nicole.Overman@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Mathaudhu, S.N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); University of California, Riverside, 3401 Watkins Dr., Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Choi, J.P.; Roosendaal, T.J.; Pitman, S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Rapid solidification (RS) processing, as a production method, offers a variety of unique properties based on far-from-equilibrium microstructures obtained through rapid cooling rates. In this study, we seek to investigate the microstructures and properties of a novel Al-alloy specifically designed for high temperature mechanical stability. Synthesis of, AlFe{sub 11.4}Si{sub 1.8}V{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.9} (wt.%), was performed by two approaches: rotating cup atomization (“shot”) and melt spinning (“flake”). These methods were chosen because of their ability to produce alloys with tailored microstructures due to their inherent differences in cooling rate. The as-solidified precursor materials were microstructurally characterized with electron microscopy. The results show that the higher cooling rate flake material exhibited the formation of nanocrystalline regions as well additional phase morphologies not seen in the shot material. Secondary dendritic branching in the flake material was on the order of 0.1–0.25 μm whereas branching in the shot material was 0.5–1.0 μm. Consolidated and extruded material from both precursor materials was mechanically evaluated at both ambient and high (300 °C) temperature. The consolidated RS flake material is shown to exhibit higher strengths than the shot material. The ultimate tensile strength of the melt spun flake was reported as 544.2 MPa at room temperature and 298.0 MPa at 300 °C. These results forecast the ability to design alloys and processing approaches with unique non-equilibrium microstructures with robust mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. - Highlights: • A novel alloy, AlFe{sub 11.4}Si{sub 1.8}V{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.9} was fabricated by rapid solidification. • Room temperature yield strength exceeded 500 MPa. • Elevated temperature (300 °C) yield strength exceeded 275 MPa. • Forging, after extrusion of the alloy resulted in microstructural coarsening. • Decreased strength and ductility was

  9. Effect of aging temperature on phase decomposition and mechanical properties in cast duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mburu, Sarah; Kolli, R. Prakash; Perea, Daniel E.; Schwarm, Samuel C.; Eaton, Arielle; Liu, Jia; Patel, Shiv; Bartrand, Jonah; Ankem, Sreeramamurthy

    2017-04-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties in unaged and thermally aged (at 280 oC, 320 oC, 360 oC, and 400 oC to 4300 h) CF–3 and CF–8 cast duplex stainless steels (CDSS) are investigated. The unaged CF–8 steel has Cr-rich M23C6 carbides located at the δ–ferrite/γ– austenite heterophase interfaces that were not observed in the CF–3 steel and this corresponds to a difference in mechanical properties. Both unaged steels exhibit incipient spinodal decomposition into Fe-rich α–domains and Cr-rich α’–domains. During aging, spinodal decomposition progresses and the mean wavelength (MW) and mean amplitude (MA) of the compositional fluctuations increase as a function of aging temperature. Additionally, G–phase precipitates form between the spinodal decomposition domains in CF–3 at 360 oC and 400 oC and in CF–8 at 400 oC. The microstructural evolution is correlated to changes in mechanical properties.

  10. (Nano-)mechanical properties of intermetallic phases in the Fe-Mo system at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeders, Sebastian; Korte-Kerzel, Sandra [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Topologically close packed (TCP) intermetallic phases which precipitate in nickel-base superalloys are suspected to cause a deterioration of the mechanical properties of the γ - γ* matrix. Although the existing intermetallics, namely Laves-, R-, sigma- and mue-phases are well understood in terms of their structure, their mechanical properties have still not been investigated in detail due to their size and pronounced brittleness. In order to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of these phases, but exclude the effect of complex phase composition in the first instance, the Fe-Mo system was chosen as a model system, where all phases are available as binary alloys. Using nanomechanical testing methods like nanoindentation and micropillar-compression, the experimental challenges of high brittleness and anisotropy encountered in conventional testing can be disregarded and plastic deformation can be achieved due to the confining pressure in nanoindentation and the reduction in specimen size in microcompression. This work aims to examine the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, yield and flow stress of intermetallic Fe-Mo phases over a range of temperatures. To this end, tests were performed in vacuum. Based on this type of study it is envisaged to form a better understanding of the way hard TCP precipitates influence the performance of superalloys.

  11. Effect of tempering temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of high boron white cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different tempering temperatures on the microstructure and mechanical properties of air-quenched high boron white cast iron was studied. The results indicate that the high boron white cast iron comprises dendritic matrix and inter-dendritic M2B boride; and the matrix comprises martensite and pearlite. After quenching in the air, the matrix is changed into lath martensite; but only 1-μm-size second phase exists in the matrix. After tempering, another second phase of several tens of nanometers is found in the matrix, and the size and quantity increase with an increase in tempering temperature. The two kinds of second precipitation phase with different sizes in the matrix have the same chemical formula, but their forming stages are different. The precipitation phase with larger size forms during the austenitizing process, while the precipitation phase with smaller size forms during the tempering process. When tempered at different temperatures after quenching, the hardness decreases with an increase in the tempering temperature, but it increases a little at 450 ℃ due to the precipitation strengthening effect of the second phase, and it decreases greatly due to the martensite decomposition above 450 ℃. The impact toughness increases a little when tempered below 300 ℃, but it then decreases continuously owing to the increase in size and quantity of the secondary precipitate above 300 ℃. Considered comprehensively, the optimum tempering temperature is suggested at 300 ℃ to obtain a good combination of hardness and toughness.

  12. Low temperature preparation of α-tricalcium phosphate and its mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP was successfully prepared by the thermal transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP precursor. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was used for preparation of ACP precursor and played an important role in designing its special structure. The phase composition and microstructures of the obtained α-TCP at different annealing temperature were analysed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, and confirmed that α-TCP can be prepared at 650°C for 3 h using ACP as precursor, which is much lower than the phase transition temperature of α-TCP. Mechanical properties were tested 24 h after mixing the obtained α-TCP with 30 wt.% of deionised water. The compressive strength and the flexural strength were 26.4MPa and 12.0MPa, respectively. The flexural strength was higher than that of α-TCP prepared by other methods.

  13. An In-Depth Study on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymers at Various Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    Unclassified Distribution A Approved An In-Depth Study on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymers at Various...Warren, Michigan 48397-5000 Abstract In this study, the mechanical properties of nanoclay reinforced polymeric resins are investigated at various...temperatures. In recent years there has been heightened interest to develop nanoclay reinforced composites due to their superior performance

  14. High temperature surface Brillouin scattering study of mechanical properties of boron-doped epitaxial polysilicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mathe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of the mechanical properties of a boron-doped epitaxial polysilicon layer deposited on a Si (100 substrate specimen has been carried out by surface Brillouin scattering at high temperatures. This type of specimen is widely used in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS. By accumulating spectra with the Rayleigh mode and the Lamb continuum the isotropic elastic constants C44 and C11 were obtained, from which the values of the bulk, shear and Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratio for the layer were determined over a range of temperatures from 20 °C to 110 °C. By contrast, an examination of the literature on polycrystalline silicon shows that other methods each provide a limited range of the above properties and thus additional experiments and techniques were needed. The SBS method is applicable to other polycrystalline materials such as silicon carbide, silicon nitride, silicon germanium and amorphous diamond that have also been used for MEMS applications.

  15. Uniaxial Dynamic Mechanical Properties Of Tunnel Lining Concrete Under Moderate-Low Strain Rate After High Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. X. Xiong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of tunnel lining concrete under different moderate-low strain rates after high temperatures, uniaxial compression tests in association with ultrasonic tests were performed...

  16. Effects of Curing Temperature and Pressure on the Chemical, Physical, and Mechanical Properties of Portland Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xueyu

    This dissertation mainly focuses on studying the fundamental hydration kinetics and mechanisms of Portland cement as well as the effects of curing temperature and pressure on its various properties. An innovative test apparatus has been developed in this study to cure and test cement paste specimens under in-situ conditions, such as down-hole in oil wells with high temperature and high pressure. Two series of tests were performed using cement pastes prepared with four different classes of oilwell cement (namely Class A, C, G, and H cements). Specimens in groups of four were cured at temperatures ranging from ambient to 60 °C and pressures ranging from 0.69 to 51.7 MPa for a period of 48 or 72 hours. The density and w/c ratio of the specimens at the time of casting as well as at the end of the curing period were recorded. Total chemical shrinkage of the cement paste was measured continuously during the entire hydration period while tensile strength was obtained at the end of the curing period using both water pressure and splitting tension test methods. Due to capacity limitations of the test equipment, in-situ tensile strength was obtained for only one test series with a highest curing pressure of 13.1 MPa. Specimens from the other test series were depressurized before the tensile strength tests. Chemical shrinkage test is an important method of measuring cement hydration kinetics in that the normalized total chemical shrinkage is approximately equal to the degree of cement hydration. By studying the correlations between the chemical shrinkage and the non-evaporable water content of cement during hydration, a multi-linear model is first proposed to estimate the normalization factors for different types of cement under different curing conditions. Based on the hydration kinetics data obtained from chemical shrinkage test results, a new approach of modeling the effect of curing temperature and pressure on cement hydration kinetics is proposed. It is found that when

  17. The effect of helium, radiation damage and irradiation temperature on the mechanical properties of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pokrovsky, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    In this work different RF beryllium grades were irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor to a dose of {approx}5-10 dpa at irradiation temperatures 350, 420, 500, 800degC. Irradiation at temperatures of 350-400degC is shown to result in Be hardening due to the accumulation of radiation defect complexes. Hardening is accompanied with a sharp drop in plasticity at T{sub test} {<=} 300degC. A strong anisotropy in plasticity has been found at a mechanical testing temperature of 400degC and this parameter may be preferable when the samples are cut crosswise to the pressing direction. High-temperature irradiation (T{sub irr} = 780degC) gives rise to large helium pores over the grain boundaries and smaller pores in the grain body. Fracture is brittle and intercrystallite at T{sub test} {>=} 600degC. Helium embrittlement is accompanied as well with a drop in the Be strength properties. (author)

  18. Influence of γ-irradiation and temperature on the mechanical properties of EPDM cable insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarac, T.; Quiévy, N.; Gusarov, A.; Konstantinović, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    The mechanical properties of EPDM polymers, degraded as a result of extensive thermal and radiochemical aging treatment, are studied. The focus is given to dose rate effects in polymer insulation materials extracted from industrial cables in use in Belgian nuclear power plants. All studied mechanical characteristics such as the ultimate tensile stress, the Young's modulus, and the total elongation (or elongation at break) are found to be strongly affected by the irradiation dose. The ultimate tensile stress and Young's modulus are clearly exhibiting the dose rate effect, which originated from oxidation mediated interplay of polymer cross-linking and chain scission processes. The change of crossover between these two processes is found to be gradual, without critical dose rate or temperature values. On the contrary, the total elongation is observed not to be sensitive neither to irradiation temperature nor to the dose rate. Both cross-linking and chain scission seem to affect the total elongation in a similar way by reducing the average polymers chain length. This idea is confirmed by the model which shows that all total elongation data as a function of irradiation time can be reproduced by varying a single parameter, the pre-exponential factor of the irradiation rate constant.

  19. Mechanical, Corrosion and Biological Properties of Room-Temperature Sputtered Aluminum Nitride Films with Dissimilar Nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besleaga, Cristina; Dumitru, Viorel; Trinca, Liliana Marinela; Popa, Adrian-Claudiu; Negrila, Constantin-Catalin; Kołodziejczyk, Łukasz; Luculescu, Catalin-Romeo; Ionescu, Gabriela-Cristina; Ripeanu, Razvan-George; Vladescu, Alina; Stan, George E

    2017-11-17

    Aluminum Nitride (AlN) has been long time being regarded as highly interesting material for developing sensing applications (including biosensors and implantable sensors). AlN, due to its appealing electronic properties, is envisaged lately to serve as a multi-functional biosensing platform. Although generally exploited for its intrinsic piezoelectricity, its surface morphology and mechanical performance (elastic modulus, hardness, wear, scratch and tensile resistance to delamination, adherence to the substrate), corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility are also essential features for high performance sustainable biosensor devices. However, information about AlN suitability for such applications is rather scarce or at best scattered and incomplete. Here, we aim to deliver a comprehensive evaluation of the morpho-structural, compositional, mechanical, electrochemical and biological properties of reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtered AlN nanostructured thin films with various degrees of c -axis texturing, deposited at a low temperature (~50 °C) on Si (100) substrates. The inter-conditionality elicited between the base pressure level attained in the reactor chamber and crystalline quality of AlN films is highlighted. The potential suitability of nanostructured AlN (in form of thin films) for the realization of various type of sensors (with emphasis on bio-sensors) is thoroughly probed, thus unveiling its advantages and limitations, as well as suggesting paths to safely exploit the remarkable prospects of this type of materials.

  20. Mechanical, Corrosion and Biological Properties of Room-Temperature Sputtered Aluminum Nitride Films with Dissimilar Nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Besleaga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum Nitride (AlN has been long time being regarded as highly interesting material for developing sensing applications (including biosensors and implantable sensors. AlN, due to its appealing electronic properties, is envisaged lately to serve as a multi-functional biosensing platform. Although generally exploited for its intrinsic piezoelectricity, its surface morphology and mechanical performance (elastic modulus, hardness, wear, scratch and tensile resistance to delamination, adherence to the substrate, corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility are also essential features for high performance sustainable biosensor devices. However, information about AlN suitability for such applications is rather scarce or at best scattered and incomplete. Here, we aim to deliver a comprehensive evaluation of the morpho-structural, compositional, mechanical, electrochemical and biological properties of reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtered AlN nanostructured thin films with various degrees of c-axis texturing, deposited at a low temperature (~50 °C on Si (100 substrates. The inter-conditionality elicited between the base pressure level attained in the reactor chamber and crystalline quality of AlN films is highlighted. The potential suitability of nanostructured AlN (in form of thin films for the realization of various type of sensors (with emphasis on bio-sensors is thoroughly probed, thus unveiling its advantages and limitations, as well as suggesting paths to safely exploit the remarkable prospects of this type of materials.

  1. The effect of storage temperature on mechanical properties of gutta-percha and resilon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Khedmat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the mechanical properties of Resilon and gutta-percha cones after storing at three different temperatures.One-hundred standardized size 40/02 gutta-percha cones and 100 Resilon cones were randomly divided into four groups. The first group of the materials were tested immediately after receipt as the control group. The other three were stored in their packages at -12°C, 4± 1°C and 22± 2°C for three months. Then, obturating cones were loaded by a tensile force at the rate of 5mm/min. Physical integrity of gutta-percha and Resilon cones were also evaluated according to ISO6877. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, post hoc and t-test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant.The elasticity modulus of gutta-percha reduced significantly after three months storage at -12°C, while storage at 4±1°C and 22± 2°C had no effect on its modulus of elasticity. In addition, the tensile strength of gutta-percha did not change after three months of storing. The modulus of elasticity of Resilon reduced significantly in all storage conditions; however, its tensile strength did not change. The storage conditions did not have a significant effect on the elongation rate of gutta-percha and Resilon. Eighty percent of gutta-percha cones lost their physical integrity after storage in 4 °±1C and 22±2°C. However, storage conditions had no impact on the physical integrity of Resilon cones.Storing gutta-percha at -12°C can benefit its properties, while keeping Resilon at both refrigerated and room conditions can preserve its mechanical properties.

  2. Mechanical properties of composites as functions of the syringe storage temperature and energy dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Fernanda Oliveira; Farias, Natália Coelho de; Medeiros, Luciano Marcelo de Mello; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; Di Hipólito, Vinicius; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of different classifications of composites indicated for posterior application as functions of the storage condition and of the energy dose. Specimens (8 x 2 x 2 mm) were obtained according to the factors: I) Composites (3M ESPE): Filtek P60, Filtek Z350XT, and Filtek Silorane; II) Syringe storage conditions: room temperature, aged, oven, refrigerator, and freezer; and III) Energy dose: 24 J/cm(2) and 48 J/cm(2). After photoactivation, the specimens were stored at 37 ºC for 24 h. After storage, a three-point bending test was carried out in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Flexural strength (S) and flexural modulus (E) were calculated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Different storage conditions significantly affected the silorane composite for S; conversely, no effects were noted in terms of E. The accelerated aging protocol significantly increased the S of Filtek P60 and Filtek Silorane, whereas storage in the oven significantly decreased the S for all of the composites tested. Filtek P60 was the only composite not affected by the lower storage temperatures tested for S, whereas for the silorane this parameter was impacted at the same conditions. The factor "dose" was not statistically significant. The syringe storage at different temperature conditions proved to influence mostly the flexural strength, a clinically important characteristic considering the posterior indication of the materials tested. The silorane composite should not be stored at lower temperatures.

  3. Mechanical properties of composites as functions of the syringe storage temperature and energy dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Oliveira CHAVES

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the mechanical properties of different classifications of composites indicated for posterior application as functions of the storage condition and of the energy dose. Material and Methods: Specimens (8x2x2 mm were obtained according to the factors: I Composites (3M ESPE: Filtek P60, Filtek Z350XT, and Filtek Silorane; II Syringe storage conditions: room temperature, aged, oven, refrigerator, and freezer; and III Energy dose: 24 J/cm2 and 48 J/cm2. After photoactivation, the specimens were stored at 37ºC for 24 h. After storage, a three-point bending test was carried out in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Flexural strength (S and flexural modulus (E were calculated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: Different storage conditions significantly affected the silorane composite for S; conversely, no effects were noted in terms of E. The accelerated aging protocol significantly increased the S of Filtek P60 and Filtek Silorane, whereas storage in the oven significantly decreased the S for all of the composites tested. Filtek P60 was the only composite not affected by the lower storage temperatures tested for S, whereas for the silorane this parameter was impacted at the same conditions. The factor "dose" was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The syringe storage at different temperature conditions proved to influence mostly the flexural strength, a clinically important characteristic considering the posterior indication of the materials tested. The silorane composite should not be stored at lower temperatures.

  4. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Miličević

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures.

  5. Effect of Tempering Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Cast L35HM Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapała R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A possibility to control the strength, hardness and ductility of the L35HM low-alloy structural cast steel by the applied tempering temperature is discussed in the paper. Tests were carried out on samples taken from the two randomly selected industrial melts. Heat treatment of the cast samples included quenching at 900 °C, cooling in an aqueous solution of polymer, and tempering at 600 and 650 °C. The obtained results showed that the difference in the tempering temperature equal to 50 °C can cause the difference of 121 MPa in the values of UTS and of 153 MPa in the values of 0.2%YS. For both melts tempered at 600 °C, the average values of UTS and 0.2%YS were equal to 995 MPa and 933 MPa, respectively. The values of EL and RA did not show any significant differences. Attention was drawn to large differences in strength and hardness observed between the melts tempered at 600 and 650 °C. Despite differences in the mechanical properties of the examined cast steel, the obtained results were superior to those specified by the standard.

  6. Change in the microstructure and mechanical properties of drawn pearlitic steel with low-temperature aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakami, D.; Ushioda, K.; Manabe, T.; Noguchi, K.; Takai, K.; Hata, Y.; Hata, S.; Nakashima, H.

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement is a serious problem in high-strength steels. Drawn pearlitic steel shows excellent resistance to hydrogen embrittlement despite its high strength, and aging treatment at a low temperature can simultaneously improve its strength and hydrogen-embrittlement resistance. To clarify the mechanism for this we have used thermal desorption analysis (TDA) and the newly developed precession electron diffraction analysis method in the transmission electron microscope. After aging at 100 °C for 10 min, the amount of hydrogen seen amount on the TDA curve reduced at around 100 °C. In contrast, when aging was performed at 300 °C, the hydrogen amount further reduced at around 100 °C and the unevenly deformed lamellar ferrite zone was locally recovered. For the samples that were aged at the low temperature, we confirmed that their yield strength and relaxation stress ratios increased simultaneously with improvement in the hydrogen-embrittlement property. We infer that segregation of carbon or formation of very fine carbide in dislocations during aging is the cause of these behaviors.

  7. The mechanical properties and the deformation microstructures of the C15 Laves phase Cr2Nb at high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazantzis, A. V.; Aindow, M.; Jones, I. P.; Triantafyllidis, G. K.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Compression tests between 1250 and 1550 degrees C and 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-3) s(-1) and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to investigate the high temperature mechanical properties and the deformation mechanisms of the C15 Cr2Nb Laves phase. The stress-peaks in the compression curves

  8. Effect of normalizing temperature on microstructural stability and mechanical properties of creep strength enhanced ferritic P91 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, C.; Giri, A.; Mahapatra, M.M.

    2016-03-07

    Mechanical properties of creep enhanced ferritic (CSEF) steels is affected by various parameters, the solutionizing temperature is one of them. The present work demonstrates the effect of solutionizing temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of CSEF P91 steel. Optical metallography (OM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were carried out to study the microstructure of P91 steel in different heat treatment conditions. In order to determine the precipitates present in microstructure; X-ray analysis was performed. Moreover, the influence of solutionizing temperature on the mechanical properties (strength, hardness and impact toughness) has also been studied. - Highlights: • SEM-EDS analysis of P91 steel precipitates present at grain boundary and grain interior were carried out. • For constant tempering time effect of normalizing temperature on precipitate size, particle-to particle distance, and grain size were carried out. • Effect of normalizing temperature on tensile strength, yield strength, hardness, % elongation and % reduction of area of P91 steel were studied. • For constant tempering time effect of normalizing temperature on room temperature impact toughness of P91 steel were studied. Fracture surface after impact testing were also characterized by using SEM. • Fracture surface after room temperature tensile testing were also characterized by using SEM to study the effect of normalizing temperature on fracture surface.

  9. Transport mechanisms and interface properties of W/ p-InP Schottky diode at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Silpa, D.; Sreehith, P.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.; Janardhanam, V.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the electrical properties and current transport mechanisms of W/ p-InP Schottky diode using current-voltage ( I- V), capacitance-voltage-frequency ( C- V- f) and conductance-frequency ( G- f) techniques at room temperature. The W/ p-InP Schottky diode exhibits a good rectifying behavior. Measurements show that the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and ideality factor of the W/ p-InP Schottky diode are 0.84 eV ( I- V)/0.98 eV ( C- V) and 1.24, respectively. Also, the SBH and series resistance R s of the diode are extracted by Cheung's functions and the values are in good agreement with each other. Ohmic and space charge-limited conduction mechanisms are found to govern the current flow in the W/ p-InP Schottky diode at low and high forward bias conditions, respectively. Experimental results reveal that the Poole-Frenkel mechanism is found to be dominant in the reverse bias region of W/ p-InP Schottky diode. Further, the interface state density N ss and their relaxation times τ of the W/ p-InP Schottky diode are estimated from the forward bias C- f and G- f characteristics and the values are in the range from 1.95 × 1013 eV-1 cm-2 and 3.38 × 10-5 s at (0.81- E V ) eV to 1.78 × 1013 eV-1 cm-2 and 2.78 × 10-6 s at (0.30- E V ) eV, respectively. Both the N ss and τ show an exponential rise with bias from the top of the valance band toward the mid gap.

  10. Evaluation of elevated temperature influence on mechanical properties of a commercial unrefined bagasse fiber-polypropylene composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Dastoorian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 80oC, on mechanical characteristics of a commercial bagasse fiber/polypropylene composite. The test results were used to determine the temperature dependencies of the mechanical properties of the studied composite material at temperatures up to 80°C in order to develop temperature adjustment factors for the use in structural applications. The results have shown that as temperature increases, the material become more ductile due to increased plastic deformation gets lower stiffness and fails at higher strains. The resulted adjustment factors were different for each loading mode and the results also have indicated that the influence of elevated temperatures on values of modulus was higher than that on strengths.

  11. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO CHOPPED-FIBER AUTOMOTIVE STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles-Wrenn, M.B.

    2003-10-06

    The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide the experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines necessary to assure long-term structural integrity of automotive composite components. The initial focus of the ORNL Durability Project was on composite materials consisting of polyurethane reinforced with E-glass. Current focus of the project is on composite materials reinforced with carbon fibers. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the individual specimen test date. Basic mechanical property testing and results for two chopped-fiber composite materials, one reinforced with glass- and the other with carbon fiber are provided. Both materials use the same polyurethane matrix. Preforms for both materials were produced using the P4 process. Behavioral trends, effects of temperature and environment, and corresponding design knockdown factors are established for both materials. Effects of prior short-time loads and of prior thermal cycling are discussed.

  12. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Zoltán Halász

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state, which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5–10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures.

  13. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND pH OF MODIFICATION PROCESS ON THE PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED CASSAVA STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Wicaksono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of cassava starch for excipient in the manufacturing of the tablet has some problems, especially on physical-mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the differentness of temperature and pH in the process of modification on the physical-mechanical properties of modified cassava starch. Modifications were performed by suspending cassava starch into a solution of 3 % (w/v PVP K30. The effect of the difference of temperature was observed at temperatures of 25; 45 and 65 0C, while the effect of the difference of pH was observed at pH of 4.0; 7.0 and 12.0. The results showed that the temperature and pH did not affect the physical-mechanical properties of the modified cassava starch. Modification of cassava starch at pH and temperature of 7.0 and 45 0C was produced modified cassava starch with the most excellent solubility, while the best swelling power were formed by the modification process at pH and temperature of 7.0 and 25 0C. Overall, the most excellent compression properties of modified cassava starch resulted from the modification process at pH 12.

  14. Influence of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Jute/Biopolymer Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Laursen, Louise Løcke; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    properties of two biomass-based polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and cellulose acetate (CA), as a function of ambient temperature in the range from 5 to 80C. Tests were done for neat polymers and for jute fiber/biopolymer composites. Micromechanical models were applied to back-calculate the reinforcement...... efficiency of the jute fibers. The elastic modulus of neat PLA is constant until a temperature of about 45C, after which it is decreased rapidly. For neat CA, the elastic modulus is almost constant in the whole temperature range. The maximum stress of the neat biopolymers is consistently reduced...

  15. Rheological and Mechanical Property Measurements of PMDI Foam at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemer, Martin Bernard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Thermal and Fluid Sciences; Brooks, Carlton F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Thermal and Fluid Sciences; Shelden, Bion [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Thermal and Fluid Sciences; Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Thermal and Fluid Sciences; Barringer, David Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Thermal and Fluid Sciences

    2014-10-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the viscosity of liquefied 20 lb/ft3 poly methylene diisocyanate (PMDI) foam and the stress required to puncture solid PMDI foam at elevated temperatures. For the rheological measurements the foam was a priori liquefied in a pressure vessel such that the volatiles were not lost in the liquefaction process. The viscosity of the liquefied PMDI foam was found to be Newtonian with a power law dependence on temperature log10(μ/Pa s) = 20.6 – 9.5 log10(T/°C) for temperatures below 170 °C. Above 170 °C, the viscosity was in the range of 0.3 Pa s which is close to the lower measurement limit (≈ 0.1 Pa s) of the pressurized rheometer. The mechanical pressure required to break through 20lb/ft3 foam was 500-800 psi at temperatures from room temperature up to 180 °C. The mechanical pressure required to break through 10 lb/ft3 was 170-300 psi at temperatures from room temperature up to 180 °C. We have not been able to cause gas to break through the 20 lb/ft3 PMDI foam at gas pressures up to 100 psi.

  16. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymeric Nanocomposites. Part 1. Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    epoxy based nanoclay reinforced specimens Finally, epoxy ( EPON 828 ) specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay reinforcement were subjected to...stress-strain curves of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with various nanoclay reinforcement percentages The average mechanical properties calculated from...the test results are also shown in Table 3. Table 3. Average material properties of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay

  17. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of insulation materials for HTS power devices at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyung Seop; Diaz, Mark Angelo [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In superconducting power devices including power cables in which high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes are utilized, a reliable electrical insulation should be achieved for its maximum performance. For an efficient design of HTS superconducting devices, a comparative evaluation of the mechanical and thermal propperties for various insulation materials at cryogenic temperatures is required. Especially, in the process of the property evaluation of the sheet-shaped insulation materials, anisotropy according to the machining direction should be considered because the mechanical and thermal properties are significantly influenced by the sample orientation. In this study, the cryogenic thermal and mechanical properties of various insulation material sheets such as PPLP, Cryoflex, Teflon, and Kapton were determined considering sample orientation. All samples tested at cryogenic temperature showed significantly higher tensile strength as compared with that of room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength at both temperature conditions significantly depended upon the sample orientation. The thermal properties of the insulation materials exhibited a slight difference among samples depending on the orientation: for the PPLP and Cryoflex, the CD orientation showed larger thermal contraction up to 77 K as compared to the MD one. MD samples in PPLP and Cryoflex showed a lower CTE and thermal contraction which made it more promising as an insulation material due to its comparable CTE with HTS CC tapes.

  18. Effect of vulcanization temperature on curing characteristic, physical and mechanical properties of natural rubber/palygorskite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. C.; Yusoff, N. A. Md; Othman, N.; Mohamad Aini, N. A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to determine the optimum vulcanization temperature on curing characteristic, mechanical and physical properties of natural rubber/palygorskite composites. Three variations of vulcanization temperature (140, 150 and 160°C) were conducted on the samples. Cation-exchanged method used to treat the palygorskite. Rheological measurements and mechanical testing (tear, tensile and fatique life) were conducted on the composites sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the dispersion of palygorskite in NR matrix. It was found that the scorch and cure time of NR/Palygorskite decrease with increasing of vulcanization temperature. The tensile strength and fatigue life was optimum at 140°C and slightly decreased with the increasing of vulcanization temperature. The SEM micrograph revealed the strength and weakness in the system. It can be concluded that the optimum properties of NR/Palygorskite composites were at 140°C of vulcanization temperature and most of the mechanical and physical properties were slightly decreased with the increasing of vulcanization temperature.

  19. Temperature Effects on Mechanical Properties of Woven Thermoplastic Composites for Secondary Aircraft Structure Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of 8-H satin woven glass fabric/polyethylene sulfide (GF/PPS was investigated in this paper. Static-tensile tests were both conducted on notched and unnotched specimens at typical temperatures (ambient, 95°C and 125°C based on the glass transition temperatures (Tg of the neat resin and composite, their strength and moduli were obtained and compared. The damage patterns of failed specimens of notched and unnotched were examined with the aid of high-definition camera and stereomicroscope. The results of stress-strain relationships showed that the slight nonlinearity of the curves were observed for these two specimens, which was associated with the plastic deformation of localized resin. The damage patterns of notched and unnotched specimens at different temperatures proved that damage and plastic deformation were two simultaneous mechanisms and it was prominent in the notched. It was the overstress accommodation mechanism that led to a relative high strength rentention for the notched and a reduction of the hole sensitivity. The results obtained in this paper indicated that GF/PPS can be used as secondary aircraft structures at elevated temperatures higher than its Tg.

  20. Influence of oxidation on the high-temperature mechanical properties of zirconia/nickel cermets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Rodriguez, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, Facultad de Fisica, 41012 Seville (Spain)]. E-mail: amr@us.es; Bravo-Leon, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, Facultad de Fisica, 41012 Seville (Spain); Richter, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Ruehle, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Dominguez-Rodriguez, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, Facultad de Fisica, 41012 Seville (Spain); Jimenez-Melendo, M. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, Facultad de Fisica, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    influence of an oxidizing atmosphere on the high-temperature plasticity of zirconia/nickel cermets has been studied by conducting creep tests in air. The resulting microstructure has been characterized by scanning, conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy. Despite the large microstructural changes, the composites do not exhibit mechanical degradation.

  1. The stress corrosion resistance and the cryogenic temperature mechanical properties of hot rolled Nitronic 32 bar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The ambient and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties and the ambient temperature stress corrosion properties of hot rolled and centerless ground Nitronic 32 stainless steel bar material are presented. The mechanical properties of longitudinal specimens were evaluated at test temperatures from ambient to liquid hydrogen. The tensile test data indicated increasing smooth tensile strength with decreasing temperature to liquid hydrogen temperature. However, below -200 F (-129.0 C) the notched tensile strength decreased slightly and below -320 F (-196.0 C) the decrease was significant. The elongation and reduction of area decreased drastically at temperatures below -200 F (-129.0 C). The Charpy V-notched impact energy decreased steadily with decreasing test temperature. Stress corrosion tests were performed on longitudinal tensile specimens stressed to 0, 75, and 90 percent of the 0.2 percent yield strength and on transverse 'C'-ring specimens stressed to 75 and 90 percent of the yield strength and exposed to: alternate immersion in a 3.5 percent NaCl bath, humidity cabinet environment, and a 5 percent salt spray atmosphere. The longitudinal tensile specimens experienced no corrosive attack; however, the 'C'-rings exposed to the alternate immersion and to the salt spray experienced some shallow etching and pitting, respectively. Small cracks appeared in two of the 'C'-rings after one month exposure to the salt spray.

  2. Enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electric properties of graphene aerogels via supercritical ethanol drying and high-temperature thermal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yehong; Zhou, Shanbao; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Guangdong; Li, Yongxia; Zhang, Xinghong; Han, Wenbo

    2017-05-03

    Graphene aerogels with high surface areas, ultra-low densities and thermal conductivities have been prepared to exploit their wide applications from pollution adsorption to energy storage, supercapacitor, and thermal insulation. However, the low mechanical properties, poor thermal stability and electric conductivity restrict these aerogels' applications. In this paper, we prepared mechanically strong graphene aerogels with large BET surface areas, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stability and electric conductivities via hydrothermal reduction and supercritical ethanol drying. Annealing at 1500 °C resulted in slightly increased thermal conductivity and further improvement in mechanical properties, oxidation temperature and electric conductivity of the graphene aerogel. The large BET surface areas, together with strong mechanical properties, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stability and electrical conductivities made these graphene aerogels feasible candidates for use in a number of fields covering from batteries to sensors, electrodes, lightweight conductor and insulation materials.

  3. Evaluation of Aluminum Alloy 2050-T84 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.; Shenoy, Ravi N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2050 is being considered for the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks to reduce the mass of future heavy-lift launch vehicles. The alloy is available in section thicknesses greater than that of the incumbent aluminum alloy, 2195, which will enable designs with greater structural efficiency. While ambient temperature design allowable properties are available for alloy 2050, cryogenic properties are not available. To determine its suitability for use in cryogenic propellant tanks, tensile, compression and fracture tests were conducted on 4 inch thick 2050-T84 plate at ambient temperature and at -320degF. Various metallurgical analyses were also performed in order to provide an understanding of the compositional homogeneity and microstructure of 2050.

  4. Effects of carburization time and temperature on the mechanical properties of carburized mild steel, using activated carbon as carburizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatai Olufemi Aramide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of controlling parameters in carburization, there has been relatively little work on process variables during the surface hardening process. This work focuses on the effects of the carburizing temperature and time on the mechanical properties of mild steel carburized with activated carbon, at 850, 900 and 950 ºC, soaked at the carburizing temperature for 15 and 30 minutes, quenched in oil, tempered at 550 ºC and held for 60 minutes. Prior carburization process, standard test samples were prepared from the as received specimen for tensile and impact tests. After carburization process, the test samples were subjected to the standard test and from the data obtained, ultimate tensile strength, engineering strain, impact strength, Youngs' moduli were calculated. The case and core hardness of the carburized tempered samples were measured. It was observed that the mechanical properties of mild steels were found to be strongly influenced by the process of carburization, carburizing temperature and soaking time at carburizing temperature. It was concluded that the optimum combination of mechanical properties is achieved at the carburizing temperature of 900 ºC followed by oil quenching and tempering at 550 ºC.

  5. Mechanical properties of Inconel 718 and Nickel 201 alloys after thermal histories simulating brazing and high temperature service

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to evaluate two nickel base alloys (Nickel-201 and Inconel-718) in three heat treated conditions. These conditions were: (1) annealed; (2) after thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle; and (3) after a thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle plus one operational lifetime of high temperature service. For the Nickel-201, two different braze cycle temperatures were evaluated. A braze cycle utilizing a lower braze temperature resulted in less grain growth for Nickel-201 than the standard braze cycle used for joining Nickel-201 to Inconel-718. It was determined, however, that Nickel-201, was marginal for temperatures investigated due to large grain growth. After the thermal exposures described above, the mechanical properties of Nickel-201 were degraded, whereas similar exposure on Inconel-718 actually strengthened the material compared with the annealed condition. The investigation included tensile tests at both room temperature and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and metallographic examination.

  6. Elevated-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Lead-Free Sn-0.7Cu-xSiC Nanocomposite Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Mahmudi, R.

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical properties of Sn-0.7 wt.%Cu lead-free solder alloy reinforced with 0 vol.%, 1 vol.%, 2 vol.%, and 3 vol.% 100-nm SiC particles have been assessed using the shear punch testing technique in the temperature range from 25°C to 125°C. The composite materials were fabricated by the powder metallurgy route by blending, compacting, sintering, and finally extrusion. The 2 vol.% SiC-containing composite showed superior mechanical properties. In all conditions, the shear strength was adversely affected by increasing test temperature, and the 2 vol.% SiC-containing composite showed superior mechanical properties. Depending on the test temperature, the shear yield stress and ultimate shear strength increased, respectively, by 3 MPa to 4 MPa and 4 MPa to 5.5 MPa, in the composite materials. The strength enhancement was mostly attributed to the Orowan particle strengthening mechanism due to the SiC nanoparticles, and to a lesser extent to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the particles and matrix in the composite solder. A modified shear lag model was used to predict the total strengthening achieved by particle addition, based on the contribution of each of the above mechanisms.

  7. Elevated-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Lead-Free Sn-0.7Cu- xSiC Nanocomposite Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Mahmudi, R.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical properties of Sn-0.7 wt.%Cu lead-free solder alloy reinforced with 0 vol.%, 1 vol.%, 2 vol.%, and 3 vol.% 100-nm SiC particles have been assessed using the shear punch testing technique in the temperature range from 25°C to 125°C. The composite materials were fabricated by the powder metallurgy route by blending, compacting, sintering, and finally extrusion. The 2 vol.% SiC-containing composite showed superior mechanical properties. In all conditions, the shear strength was adversely affected by increasing test temperature, and the 2 vol.% SiC-containing composite showed superior mechanical properties. Depending on the test temperature, the shear yield stress and ultimate shear strength increased, respectively, by 3 MPa to 4 MPa and 4 MPa to 5.5 MPa, in the composite materials. The strength enhancement was mostly attributed to the Orowan particle strengthening mechanism due to the SiC nanoparticles, and to a lesser extent to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the particles and matrix in the composite solder. A modified shear lag model was used to predict the total strengthening achieved by particle addition, based on the contribution of each of the above mechanisms.

  8. Effect of Long Term Service at Elevated Temperatures on Mechanical Properties of Manaurite XM Reformer Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Łabanowski J.; Jurkowski M.; Landowski M.

    2016-01-01

    Microstructure transformations occur in the Manaurite XM cast steel tubes during long-term operation in the reformer furnace were revealed and described. The relationship between mechanical properties, an increase of internal diameter of the tube and microstructure degradation is discussed. Static tensile test was performed on two types of samples with different shapes. It has been shown differences in the results of tests and an explanation of this phenomenon.

  9. The Processing and Mechanical Properties of High Temperature/ High Performance Composites. Processing/Property Correlations. Book 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    such as a2+P Ti-24A1-llNb alloy and 7-TiA1, require temperatures in the range 950-1000 C or above. The Ni-base superalloy, Nimonic 80A, can be processed... Nimonic 80A, can be processed in an intermediate range of temperature. 33 Table V. Matrix Properties used for Processibilitv Study Parameter, symbol...Substrates 0.71 68 67±14 (No. 7059) Coors 96% A120 3 0.64 305 339± 38 CFRE 0.13-0.20 115 1280 (Fiberite HYE 3071AC) See Fig. 5 SSee Table 2 7HMH31(Seqmnr

  10. High temperature mechanical properties of a zirconium-modified, precipitation- strengthened nickel, 30 percent copper alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A precipitation-strengthened Monel-type alloy has been developed through minor alloying additions of zirconium to a base Ni-30Cu alloy. The results of this exploratory study indicate that thermomechanical processing of a solution-treated Ni-30Cu-0.2Zr alloy produced a dispersion of precipitates. The precipitates have been tentatively identified as a Ni5Zr compound. A comparison of the mechanical properties, as determined by testing in air, of the zirconium-modified alloy to those of a Ni-30Cu alloy reveals that the precipitation-strengthened alloy has improved tensile properties to 1200 K and improved stress-rupture properties to 1100 K. The oxidation characteristics of the modified alloy appeared to be equivalent to those of the base Ni-30Cu alloy.

  11. An evaluation of mechanical and high-temperature corrosion properties of Ni-Cr alloy with composition of alloying elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sujin; Kim, Dongjin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Helium is used as a coolant in a VHTR owing to its high thermal conductivity, inertness, and low neutron absorption. However, helium inevitably includes impurities that create an imbalance in the surface reactivity at the interface of the coolant and the exposed materials. As the Alloy 617 has been exposed to high temperatures at 950 .deg. C in the impure helium environment of a VHTR, degradation of material is accelerated and mechanical properties decreased. An alloy superior to alloy 617 should be developed. In this study, the mechanical and high-temperature corrosion properties for Ni-Cr alloys fabricated in laboratory were evaluated as a function of the grain boundary strengthening and alloying element composition. The mechanical property and corrosion property for Ni-Cr alloys fabricated in a laboratory were evaluated as a function of the main element composition. The ductility was increased and decreased by increasing the amount of Mo and Cr, respectively. Surface oxide was detached during the corrosion test, because there was not aluminum element in the alloy. Aluminum seems to act as an anti-corrosive role in Ni-based alloy. In conclusion, the addition of Al into the alloy is required to improvement of high temperature corrosion resistance.

  12. Mechanical properties of S-65C grade beryllium at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile property measurements and fractographic analysis of S-65C beryllium are reviewed. Tests were performed on specimens oriented in the longitudinal and transverse directions with respect to the direction of vacuum hot-pressing. Specimens were tested in air at RT, 100degC, 200degC, 300degC, 415degC and 500degC at an initial strain rate of 1.1 x 10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Ductility of the material was strongly affected by the test temperature, exhibiting a peak ductility at 300degC. The material displayed a yield point phenomenon which was most pronounced at this same temperature. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the resulting fracture surfaces and observations are reported. (author)

  13. Mechanical properties and porosity of dental glass-ceramics hot-pressed at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Castiglia Gonzaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate biaxial-flexural-strength (σf, Vickers hardness (HV, fracture toughness (K Ic, Young's modulus (E, Poisson's ratio (ν and porosity (P of two commercial glass-ceramics, Empress (E1 and Empress 2 (E2, as a function of the hot-pressing temperature. Ten disks were hot-pressed at 1065, 1070, 1075 and 1080 °C for E1; and at 910, 915, 920 and 925 °C for E2. The porosity was measured by an image analyzer software and s f was determined using the piston-on-three-balls method. K Ic and HV were determined by an indentation method. Elastic constants were determined by the pulse-echo method. For E1 samples treated at different temperatures, there were no statistical differences among the values of all evaluated properties. For E2 samples treated at different temperatures, there were no statistical differences among the values of σf, E, and ν, however HV and K Ic were significantly higher for 910 and 915 °C, respectively. Regarding P, the mean value obtained for E2 for 925 °C was significantly higher compared to other temperatures.

  14. Studies on mechanical high-temperature properties of materials with sprayed coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarenko, G.S.; Ljasenko, B.A.; Zygylev, O.V.

    1983-03-01

    The results of studies on the tensile strength, creep behaviour and durability in the temperature range from 1 700 to 2 400 K of surface-coated molybdenum samples for experimental times <=10h. are reported here. Monolayer coatings based on molybdenum disilicide and bilayer coatings consisting of a ground coating of molybdenum disilicide and a cover layer of glass and high-melting oxides are used as protective coatings. The ground coating is formed by a thermodiffusion process and the cover coating formed with the aid of a plasma spaying technique. A suggestion is made for optimizing the properties of the combination basic material/coating by taking as criterium the heat resistance and standard parameters for the properties of the basic material and the coating, together with their adhesion resistance.

  15. A comparison between ultra-high-strength and conventional high-strength fastener steels : Mechanical properties at elevated temperature and microstructural mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohlund, C.E.I.C.; Lukovic, M.; Weidow, J; Thuvander, M; Offerman, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison is made between the mechanical properties of the ultra-high-strength steel KNDS4 of fastener grade 14.9 and of conventional, high-strength steels 34Cr4 of fastener grade 12.9 and 33B2 of grade 10.9. The results show that the ratio of the yield strength at elevated temperatures to the

  16. Influence of injection temperatures and fiberglass compositions on mechanical properties of polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keey, Tony Tiew Chun; Azuddin, M.

    2017-06-01

    Injection molding process appears to be one of the most suitable mass and cost efficiency manufacturing processes for polymeric parts nowadays due to its high efficiency of large scale production. When down-scaling the products and components, the limits of conventional injection molding process are reached. These constraints had initiated the development of conventional injection molding process into a new era of micro injection molding technology. In this study, fiberglass reinforced polypropylenes (PP) with various glass fiber percentage materials were used. The study start with fabrication of micro tensile specimens at three different injection temperature, 260°C, 270°C and 280°C for different percentage by weight of fiberglass reinforced PP. Then evaluate the effects of various injection temperatures on the tensile properties of micro tensile specimens. Different percentage by weight of fiberglass reinforced PP were tested as well and it was found that 20% fiberglass reinforced PP possessed the greatest percentage increase of tensile strength with increasing temperatures.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Discontinuous Precipitated Al-Zn Alloys after Drawing at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Jehyun [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Zeon; Ahn, Jee Hyuk [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sung Hwan [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Ho [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang sik [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In order to study the effect of microstructural change on the tensile properties of discontinuous precipitated Al-Zn binary alloy, four different Al-Zn alloys(25, 30, 35, 45 wt%Zn) were aged at 160 ℃ for different aging times(0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 360 min) after being solution treated at 400 ℃, and successively drawn at room and cryogenic temperatures(-197 ℃). Discontinuous precipitation was formed during aging in the Al matrix(which contained more than 30 wt%Zn) in Al alloys containing more than 30 wt%Zn. The tensile strength of continuous precipitated Al-35Zn alloy decreased with increasing drawing ratio, however, the tensile strength of discontinuous precipitated Al-35Zn alloy increased with further drawing. The strength and ductility combination, 350 MPa-36%was achieved by drawning discontinuous precipitated Al-Zn alloy at room temperature. The discontinuous precipitated Al-Zn alloy drawn at cryogenic temperature showed a higher value of tensile strength, over 500 MPa, although ductility decreased.

  18. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENTS ON MICROSTRUCTURES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE ODS STEELS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANGHOON NOH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of various heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of dual phase ODS steels were investigated to enhance the high strength at elevated temperature. Dual phase ODS steels have been designed by the control of ferrite and austenite formers, i.e., Cr, W and Ni, C in Fe-based alloys. The ODS steels were fabricated by mechanical alloying and a hot isostatic pressing process. Heat treatments, including hot rolling-tempering and normalizing-tempering with air- and furnace-cooling, were carefully carried out. It was revealed that the grain size and oxide distributions of the ODS steels can be changed by heat treatment, which significantly affected the strengths at elevated temperature. Therefore, the high temperature strength of dual phase ODS steel can be enhanced by a proper heat treatment process with a good combination of ferrite grains, nano-oxide particles, and grain boundary sliding.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Thixoforged In Situ Mg2Sip/AM60B Composite at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suqing Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behaviors of the thixoforged in situ Mg2Sip/AM60B composite at elevated temperatures were evaluated. The results indicated that the thixoforged composite exhibits higher UTS (ultimate tensile strength than that of the thixoforged AM60B at the cost of elongation. As the testing temperature rises from 25 to 300 °C, the UTS of both these two materials decreases while their elongations increases. The enhanced dislocation motion ability, the softened eutectic β phase at 120 °C, the activated non-basal slipping and the dynamic recovery and recrystallization mechanisms at 150 °C are responsible for the change in tensile properties with testing temperatures. The fracture mode transforms from the ductile into the brittle as the initial strain rate increases from 0.01 to 0.2 s−1 at 200 °C.

  20. Magnetic properties and interaction mechanisms of iron-based core-shell structures prepared by sputtering at low substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Villacorta, F; Prieto, C [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2008-02-27

    The magnetic properties of partially oxidized nanocrystalline iron thin films prepared by DC-magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperatures in the 175-300 K range are studied. The preparation method is presented as a simple method for fabricating granular structures. Films prepared at intermediate temperatures exhibit granular magnetic behaviour, in which nanocrystalline grains act as almost decoupled particles, surrounded by an oxide shell, forming exchange bias core-shell systems. The magnetic features of granular systems obtained by this new method are described and the mechanisms of interaction between metallic grains and their oxide shells are explained, as are their effects in the magnetization reversal process.

  1. The elevated temperature mechanical properties of silicon nitride/boron nitride fibrous monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice, Rodney Wayne

    nitride and the silicon nitride. A more refractory fibrous monolith was fabricated in an effort to extend the high temperature properties of SN/BN fibrous monoliths. Only 4 wt.% yttria was added to the silicon nitride to aid in densification. The presence of residual carbon following binder burnout was proposed to be responsible for the formation of melilite, a phase known to undergo severe oxidation between 900sp°C-1100sp°C. When residual carbon was removed prior to hot-pressing with a post-binder burnout heat treatment at 400sp°C in air this phase was not present. A room temperature strength of 553 MPa and a work of fracture of 6700 J/msp2 was observed. A strength of 293 MPa was measured at 1400sp°C.

  2. Effects of carbon content on high-temperature mechanical and thermal fatigue properties of high-boron austenitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature mechanical properties of high-boron austenitic steels (HBASs were studied at 850 °C using a dynamic thermal-mechanical simulation testing machine. In addition, the thermal fatigue properties of the alloys were investigated using the self-restraint Uddeholm thermal fatigue test, during which the alloy specimens were cycled between room temperature and 800°C. Stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the surface cracks and cross-sectional microstructure of the alloy specimens after the thermal fatigue tests. The effects of carbon content on the mechanical properties at room temperature and high-temperature as well as thermal fatigue properties of the HBASs were also studied. The experimental results show that increasing carbon content induces changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of the HBASs. The boride phase within the HBAS matrix exhibits a round and smooth morphology, and they are distributed in a discrete manner. The hardness of the alloys increases from 239 (0.19wt.% C to 302 (0.29wt.% C and 312 HV (0.37wt.% C; the tensile yield strength at 850 °C increases from 165.1 to 190.3 and 197.1 MPa; and the compressive yield strength increases from 166.1 to 167.9 and 184.4 MPa. The results of the thermal fatigue tests (performed for 300 cycles from room temperature to 800 °C indicate that the degree of thermal fatigue of the HBAS with 0.29wt.% C (rating of 2–3 is superior to those of the alloys with 0.19wt.% (rating of 4–5 and 0.37wt.% (rating of 3–4 carbon. The main cause of this difference is the ready precipitation of M23(C,B6-type borocarbides in the alloys with high carbon content during thermal fatigue testing. The precipitation and aggregation of borocarbide particles at the grain boundaries result in the deterioration of the thermal fatigue properties of the alloys.

  3. Polycrystalline methane hydrate: Synthesis from superheated ice, and low-temperature mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new and efficient technique to grow aggregates of pure methane hydrate in quantities suitable for physical and material properties testing. Test specimens were grown under static conditions by combining cold, pressurized CH4 gas with granulated H2O ice, and then warming the reactants to promote the reaction CH4(g) + 6H2O(s???1) ??? CH4??6H2O (methane hydrate). Hydrate formation evidently occurs at the nascent ice/liquid water interface on ice grain surfaces, and complete reaction was achieved by warming the system above the ice melting point and up to 290 K, at 25-30 MPa, for approximately 8 h. The resulting material is pure, cohesive, polycrystalline methane hydrate with controlled grain size and random orientation. Synthesis conditions placed the H2O ice well above its melting temperature while reaction progressed, yet samples and run records showed no evidence for bulk melting of the unreacted portions of ice grains. Control experiments using Ne, a non-hydrate-forming gas, showed that under otherwise identical conditions, the pressure reduction and latent heat associated with ice melting are easily detectable in our fabrication apparatus. These results suggest that under hydrate-forming conditions, H2O ice can persist metastably to temperatures well above its ordinary melting point while reacting to form hydrate. Direct observations of the hydrate growth process in a small, high-pressure optical cell verified these conclusions and revealed additional details of the hydrate growth process. Methane hydrate samples were then tested in constant-strain-rate deformation experiments at T = 140-200 K, Pc = 50-100 MPa, and ?? = 10-4 10-6 s-1. Measurements in both the brittle and ductile fields showed that methane hydrate has measurably different strength than H2O ice, and work hardens to an unusually high degree compared to other ices as well as to most metals and ceramics at high homologous temperatures. This work hardening may be related to a changing

  4. Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Diboride–Titanium Diboride Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramic Solid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthiselva N. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs such as diborides of zirconium, hafnium tantalum and their composites are considered to be the candidate materials for thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicles due to their exceptional combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. A composite of ZrB2-TiB2 is expected to have better properties. In this study, an attempt has been made to fabricate ZrB2-TiB2 ceramics using mechanically activated elemental powders followed by reactive spark plasma sintering (RSPS at 1400 °C. Microstructure and phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and electron microscopy to understand microstructure evolution. Fracture toughness and hardness were evaluated using indentation methods. Nanoindentation was used to measure elastic modulus. Compressive strength of the composites has been reported.

  5. Temperature dependence of the electrical, mechanical and electromechanical properties of high sensitivity novel piezoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algueró, M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the ε33 T dielectric permittivity and losses of piezoelectric Mn doped 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.35PbTiO3 ceramics has been measured up to 350oC at frequencies between 1 and 100 kHz by impedance spectroscopy. The temperature dependence of the low frequency Young´s modulus and mechanical losses of the ceramics has been measured in the same temperature range by dynamic mechanical analysis in three points bending configuration. Complex ε33 T, s11 E compliance and d31 piezoelectric coefficients have been obtained from radial piezoelectric resonances at temperatures up to 90oC (before depolarisation by an automatic iterative method. All the measurements reflect the occurrence of the ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transition, which is thougth to be responsible of the high electromechanical response of the PMN-PT system, and allow describing some of its characteristics for the investigated ceramics.

    Se ha medido por espectroscopía de impedancias la dependencia con la temperatura hasta 350oC de la permitividad y las pérdidas dieléctricas, ε33 T y tan δ, de cerámicas piezoeléctricas de 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.35PbTiO3 dopadas con Mn a frecuencias entre 1 y 100 kHz. Se ha medido por análisis mecánico dinámico en la configuración de flexión por tres puntos la dependencia con la temperatura en el mismo rango del módulo de Young y las pérdidas mecánicas de baja frecuencia de las cerámicas. Se han obtenido por un método automático iterativo los coeficientes del material ε33 T, módulo elástico s11 E y coeficiente piezoeléctrico d31 en forma compleja a partir de resonancias radiales piezoeléctricas a temperaturas entre ambiente y 90oC (antes de la despolarización. Todas las medidas reflejan la existencia de la transición de la fase ferroeléctrica con estructura romboédrica a la fase ferroeléctrica con estructura tetragonal, que se cree responsable de la alta respuesta

  6. Mechanical properties of three-component additive manufactured composites at elevated and cool temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumaevskii, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Eliseev, A. A.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    Elevated and cool temperature tensile tests on three-component composite materials made of carbon fibers, thermoplastic and thermosetting bonding agents have been carried out. The results of tests testify the increasing the composite strength at negative temperature -120°C and reducing it at elevated temperature +120°C. The low temperature fracture of samples resulted in formation of numerous small fragments by cracking and delamination in deformation. The high temperature tests produced numerous delaminated fibers.

  7. Effect of annealing temperature and time on microstructure and mechanical properties of high Cr ferritic casting steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Z. Y.; Fu, L. M.; Zhang, R. N.; Wang, Y. J.; Shan, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    A new-type of high Cr ferrite cast steel was designed and investigated. Effects of annealing temperature and time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the high Cr ferrite cast steel were studied. The results show that the microstructures of the as-cast and annealing steels are composed of ferrite and (Cr•Fe)23C6 carbide. The morphology of carbides is from long rod and the continuous network to crystal precipitation for the steels with increasing of annealing temperature and time. The impact toughness is slightly increased from 6 J/cm2 to 8 J/cm2 when the annealing temperature increases from 1180 ℃ to 1200 ℃. But the hardness is about HB 200 and no obvious differences between the as-cast and annealing steels. The most suitable annealing temperature and time are 1200 ℃ and 5 h, respectively. The wear resistance of the high Cr ferrite cast steel is increased and improved with annealing temperature and holding time at 260 ℃. The wear mechanism is changed from abrasion wear to abrasive and adhesive wear. The good wear-resistant of the high Cr ferrite cast steel is mainly attributed to the fine uniformly dispersed carbides.

  8. Effect of carburizing temperature and time on mechanical properties of AISI/SAE 1020 steel using carbonized palm kernel shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanike M. OLUWAFEMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varied carburizing temperatures and holding time on the mechanical properties of AISI/SAE1020 steel have been investigated. Standard test samples prepared from the steel sample were subjected to pack hardening process using carbonized palm kernel shell as a carburizer at 800°, 850°, 900° and 950°C and held for 60, 90 and 120 minutes, quenched in oil and temper at 500°C for 60 minutes. After pack hardening process, the test samples were subjected to tensile, impact and hardness tests. and from the data obtained Ultimate tensile strength (UTS and impact strength were calculated, the case and the core hardness of the carburized samples were taken and optical microscope was also used to observe the micro structural features of the case hardened, quenched and tempered samples. It was observed that at 800°, 850° and 900°C, the UTS and the micro hardness initially reduces to minimum and then increased as the carburizing temperature increased, but at 950°C, it was observed that the UTS increases with increase in holding time. It was concluded that the optimum combination of mechanical properties is achieved at the carburizing temperature of 950°C soaked for 120 minutes followed by oil quenching and tempered at 500°C for 60 minutes.

  9. Development of a new instrument for measurement of high temperature mechanical properties of resin-bonded sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of resin-bonded sand mixtures at high temperatures significantly affect the quality of casting. However, the existing instruments for high-temperature performances testing mainly focus on inorganic binder-bonded sands no matter the test items or the atmospheric protection, while the instrumentss specially designed for resin-bonded sand are not yet available. A new instrument for testing the high-temperature performance of resin sand was designed including the confirmation of the testing parameters, loading, measurement and control systems, and the design of the frame shape and heating furnace. This instrument can test the compressive strength, heat tolerance time and restraining load of phenol-formaldehyde resin coated sand, self-hardened furan resin sand, and trimethylamine (TEA-based resin bonded sand at high temperatures. The developed instrument has a high accuracy offering smaller than 0.3% deviation at a full scale in the measurement of the high temperature compressive strength and the restraining load over the range of 0–6.8 MPa and 0–2,000 N, respectively. The high temperature heat tolerance time range is 0–300 s and its measurement accuracy is ±1 s.

  10. Temperature dependency of mechanical properties for crystalline cellulose added to silicone elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takao; Sugino, Naoto; Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    A chemical cross-linked transparent film was got by a silicon compound to crystalline cellulose. Temperature dependency for the elasticity modulus of a provided film was measured. The shear elastic modulus was obtained the value of 2 x 106 [Pa] at room temperature. The sample decreases in 190 [deg. C] for the elasticity modulus at the room temperature as 60%, but approximately 10% recover when temperature rises up to 200 [deg. C] or more.

  11. Investigation of intercritical heat treatment temperature effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of dual phase (DP steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Davari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of intercritical heat treatment temperature on the tensile properties and work hardening behavior of ferritic-martensitic dual-phase steel have been investigated utilizing tensile test, microhardness measurement and microscopic observation. Plain carbon steel sheet with a thickness of 2 mm was heat treated at 760, 780, 800, 820 and 840 °C intercritical temperatures. The results showed that martensite volume fraction (Vm increases from 32 to 81%with increasing temperature from 760 to 840 °C. The mechanical properties of samples were examined by tensile and microhardness tests. The results revealed that yield strength was increased linearly with the increase in Vm, but the ultimate strength was increased up to 55% Vm and then decreased afterward. Analyzing the work hardening behavior in term of Hollomon equation showed that in samples with less than 55% Vm, the work hardening took place in one stage and the work hardening exponent increased with increasing Vm. More than one stage was observed in the work hardening behavior when Vm was increased. The results of microhardness test showed that microhardness of the martensite is decreased by increase in heat treatment temperature while the ferrite microhardness is nearly constant for all heat-treated samples.

  12. Microstructures and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of a Martensitic Heat-Resistant Stainless Steel 403Nb Processed by Thermo-Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liqing; Zeng, Zhouyu; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Fuxian; Liu, Xianghua

    2013-11-01

    Thermo-mechanical treatments (TMT) at different rolling deformation temperatures were utilized to process a martensitic heat-resistant stainless steel 403Nb containing 12 wt pct Cr and small additions of Nb and V. Microstructures and mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hardness, tensile, and creep tests. The results showed that high-temperature mechanical behavior after TMT can be greatly improved and microstructures with refined martensitic lath and finely dispersed nanosized MX carbides could be produced. The particle sizes of M23C6 and MX carbides in 403Nb steel after conventional normalizing and tempering (NT) treatments are about 50 to 160 and 10 to 20 nm, respectively, while those after TMT at 1123 K (850 °C) and subsequent tempering at 923 K (650 °C) for 2 hours reach about 25 to 85 and 5 to 10 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 260 MPa and 873 K (600 °C), the tensile creep rupture life of 403Nb steel after TMT at 1123 K (850 °C) is 455 hours, more than 3 times that after conventional NT processes. The mechanisms for improving mechanical properties at elevated temperature were analyzed in association with the existence of finely dispersed nanosized MX particles within martensitic lath. It is the nanosized MX particles having the higher stability at elevated temperature that assist both dislocation hardening and sub-grain hardening for longer duration by pinning the movement of dislocations and sub-grain boundary migration.

  13. Effect of carburizing temperature and time on mechanical properties of AISI/SAE 1020 steel using carbonized palm kernel shell

    OpenAIRE

    Olanike M. OLUWAFEMI; Samuel R. OKE; Iyiola O. OTUNNIYI; Fatai O. ARAMIDE

    2015-01-01

    The effects of varied carburizing temperatures and holding time on the mechanical properties of AISI/SAE1020 steel have been investigated. Standard test samples prepared from the steel sample were subjected to pack hardening process using carbonized palm kernel shell as a carburizer at 800°, 850°, 900° and 950°C and held for 60, 90 and 120 minutes, quenched in oil and temper at 500°C for 60 minutes. After pack hardening process, the test samples were subjected to tensile, im...

  14. Material Properties at Low Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Duthil, P

    2014-07-17

    From ambient down to cryogenic temperatures, the behaviour of materials changes greatly. Mechanisms leading to variations in electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties in pure metals, alloys, and insulators are briefly introduced from a general engineering standpoint. Data sets are provided for materials commonly used in cryogenic systems for design purposes.

  15. Effects of Operating Temperatures and Accelerated Environmental Ageing on the Mechanical Properties of a Glass-Vinylester Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasztorny, M.; Nycz, D. B.; Romanowski, R. K.; Gotowicki, P.; Kiczko, A.; Rudnik, D.

    2017-07-01

    Experimental identification of the mechanical properties of a selected glass-vinylester structural composite is developed, performed, and analysed taking into account accelerated environmental ageing and three operating temperatures (-20, 20, and 55°C) corresponding to the operating temperature range for composite footbridges in the Central Europe. The main constituents of the composite fabricated using infusion technology are a bidirectional balanced stitched E-glass fabric and a flame retardant, vinylester resin. After homogenization, the composite reinforced with one fabric forms a single lamina and is modeled as a linear elastic-brittle orthotropic material. Full sets of material constants were identified for the initial and aged composites at the selected operating temperatures. The accelerated environmental ageing of the composite was performed on 4-layer symmetric laminate platelets protected with a 300-mm-thick gelcoat layer, using an ageing chamber and a relevant ageing programme. A comparative analysis was carried out in order to determine the effects of operating temperature and accelerated environmental ageing on the material constants of the GFRP composite. It is found that the composite tested can be modeled as a linear elastic-brittle orthotropic material to the level of 20% of its strength in each strength test. The impact of the accelerated environmental ageing and operating temperature in the range from -20 to 55°C on the elastic/strength/ultimate strain constants of the selected E-glass/vinylester composite can be significant and different for individual constants.

  16. Effects of holding pressure and process temperatures on the mechanical properties of moulded metallic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Esteves, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    on the moulded metallic parts. Stainless steel 316L is used in the investigation to produce the specimen by metal injection moulding (MIM) and multiple analyses were carried out on samples produced with different combinations of holding pressure, mould temperature and melt temperature. Finally, the parts were...

  17. The Effect of Injection Molding Temperature on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of PP/PET Blends and Microfibrillar Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kuzmanović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Within this research the effect of injection molding temperature on polypropylene (PP/poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET blends and microfibrillar composites was investigated. Injection molding blends (IMBs and microfibrillar composites (MFCs of PP/PET have been prepared in a weight ratio 70/30. The samples were processed at three different injection molding temperatures (Tim (210, 230, 280 °C and subjected to extensive characterization. The observations from the fracture surfaces of MFCs showed that PET fibers can be achieved by three step processing. The results indicated that Tim has a big influence on morphology of IMBs and MFCs. With increasing the Tim, distinctive variations in particle and fiber diameters were noticed. The differences in mechanical performances were obtained by flexural and impact tests. Establishing relationships between the processing parameters, properties, and morphology of composites is of key importance for the valorization of MFC polymers.

  18. Effects of drying temperature and relative humidity on the mechanical properties of amaranth flour films plasticized with glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tapia-Blácido

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are made of biopolymers. In the casting technique, biofilms are obtained by the drying of a polymer suspension in the final stage of processing. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the effect of this drying process on the mechanical properties of films produced with amaranth flour. Variables considered include glycerol content (30, 35 and 40%, g/g dry flour and air-drying conditions (air temperatures of 30, 40 and 50ºC and relative humidities of 40, 55 and 70%. As amaranth flour films constitute a complex mixture of amylopectin and amylose as well as native protein and lipid, certain unexpected results were obtained. The toughest films were obtained at the lowest temperature and the lowest relative humidity (30ºC, 40%.

  19. Effect of Austenitising Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Bainitic Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Jiemin; Ji, Honghong; Wang, Tiansheng

    2017-07-28

    Nanostructured bainite was obtained in high-carbon Si-Al-rich steel by low-temperature (220-260 °C) isothermal transformation after austenitisation at different temperatures (900 °C, 1000 °C, and 1150 °C). Improved strength-ductility-toughness balance was achieved in the nanostructured bainitic steel austenitised at low temperatures (900 °C and 1000 °C). Increasing the austenitising temperature not only coarsened prior austenite grains and bainite packets, but also increased the size and fraction of blocky retained austenite. High austenitising temperature (1150 °C) remarkably decreased ductility and impact toughness, but had a small effect on strength and hardness.

  20. The effects of artificial surface temperature on mechanical properties and player kinematics during landing and acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Charalambous

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: These findings highlight different demands placed on players due to the surface temperature and suggest a need for coaches, practitioners, and sports governing bodies to be aware of these differences.

  1. Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Relation of an Aluminized Polymer Bonded Explosive at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs are widely used as energetic fillings in various warheads, which maybe are utilized under extreme environments, such as low or high temperatures. In this paper, the dynamic response of an aluminized polymer bonded explosive was tested at a range of temperatures from −55°C to −2°C and a fixed loading strain rate (~700 s−1 with the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB. The PBX tested is aluminized, which contains 76 wt% RDX, 20 wt% aluminum powder, and 4 wt% polymer binder, respectively. The results show that the effect of temperature on the strength of the PBX is obvious at the tested strain rates. Based on the experimental results and prophase studies, a constitutive model was obtained, in which the effect of temperature and strain rate were considered. The modeling curves fit well with the experimental results, not only at low temperature under 0°C, but also at room temperature (20°C. The model may be used to predict the dynamic performances of the PBXs in various environments.

  2. Kiln time and temperature affect shrinkage, warp, and mechanical properties of southern pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.W. Price; P. Koch

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty No.2 Dense southern pine 2 by 6's, 95 inches long, were kiln-dried in 4-foot-wide loads with a 3,000-pound top load restraint. The kiln-drying regimes consisted of dry-bulb temperatures of 180°, 240°, and 270°F with wet-bulb temperature of 160°F and kiln times of 120 hours at 180°F; 36 and 120 hours at 240°F; and 9, 36, and 120 hours at 270...

  3. Modified ferritic iron alloys with improved high-temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    An alloy modification program was conducted in which the compositions of two existing Fe-Cr-Al alloys (Armco 18SR and GE-1541) were changed to achieve either improved high-temperature strength or improved fabricability. Only modifications of Armco 18SR were successful in achieving increased strength without loss of fabricability or oxidation resistance. The best modified alloy, designated NASA-18T, had twice the rupture strength of Armco 18SR at 800 and 1000 C. The NASA-18T alloy also had better oxidation resistance than Armco 18SR and comparable fabricability. The nominal composition of NASA-18T is Fe-18Cr-2Al-1Si-1.25Ta. All attempted modifications of the GE-1541 alloy were unsuccessful in terms of achieving better fabricability without sacrificing high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance.

  4. An Integrated Time-Temperature Approach for Predicting Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Corey James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a steel tempering model that is useful to the commercial heat treater. Most of the tempering models reported address isothermal conditions which are not typical of most heating methods used to perform the tempering heat treatment. In this work, a non-isothermal tempering model was developed based on the tempering response of four steel alloys. This tempering model employs the quantity resulting from the numerical integration of the time-temperature prof...

  5. Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Behavior of Unitized Composite Airframe Structures at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    would like to thank my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ for this opportunity and for sustaining me throughout the past year and a half. I would also like...showing the proportional limit. The bilinear nature of the stress- strain curve is evident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17...change in the stress-strain curve for PMR-15 neat resin with increasing temperature can be seen in Figure 8. It is evident that the ultimate tensile

  6. Mechanical Properties and Interfacial Structure of Ti/Al Clad Plates Generated by Differential Temperature Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zichen; Xiao, Hong; Li, Na; Yu, Chao; Ren, Zhongkai

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a Ti/Al clad plate was prepared by differential temperature rolling, where only the titanium layer is heated. The effects of the rolling reduction and Ti layer heating temperature on the shear strength and interface of Ti/Al clad plates were investigated. The results indicate that when the titanium layer was heated to 800° and the rolling reduction was 50%, the shear strength of the titanium/aluminum clad plates interface reached 107.5 MPa, which is close to the shear strength of aluminum matrix, and the fracture surface presented ductile fracture characteristics. During the heating process, an oxide layer was produced on the surface of the titanium plates. However, the oxide layer was completely broken with a large rolling reduction, and then, aluminum metal extruded into the cracks and made contact with fresh titanium metal. Under the action of high pressure and high temperature, Ti and Al atoms mutually diffuse so that the Ti/Al clad plates achieved a strong metallurgical bond.

  7. Temperature dependent mechanical property of PZT film: an investigation by nanoindentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    Full Text Available Load-depth curves of an unpoled Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT film composite as a function of temperature were measured by nanoindentation technique. Its reduce modulus and hardness were calculated by the typical Oliver-Pharr method. Then the true modulus and hardness of the PZT film were assessed by decoupling the influence of substrate using methods proposed by Zhou et al. and Korsunsky et al., respectively. Results show that the indentation depth and modulus increase, but the hardness decreases at elevated temperature. The increasing of indentation depth and the decreasing of hardness are thought to be caused by the decreasing of the critical stress needed to excite dislocation initiation at high temperature. The increasing of true modulus is attributed to the reducing of recoverable indentation depth induced by back-switched domains. The influence of residual stress on the indentation behavior of PZT film composite was also investigated by measuring its load-depth curves with pre-load strains.

  8. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hot-Dip Galvanizing DP600 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-yan, Sun; Zhi-li, Liu; Yang, Xu; Jian-qiang, Shi; Lian-xuan, Wang

    Hot-dip galvanizing dual phase steel DP600 steel grade with low Si was produced by steel plant and experiments by simulating galvanizing thermal history. The microstructure was observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of different annealing temperatures on the microstructure and mechanical properties of dual-phase steel was also discussed. The experimental results show that the dual-phase steel possesses excellent strength and elongation that match EN10346 600MPa standards. The microstructure is ferrite and martensite. TEM micrograph shows that white ferrite with black martensite islands inlay with a diameter of around 1um and the content of 14 18%. The volume will expand and phase changing take the form of shear transformation when ferrite converted to martensite. So there are high density dislocations in ferrite crystalline grain near martensite. The martensite content growing will be obvious along with annealing temperature going up. But the tendency will be weak when temperature high.

  9. Measurement of the time-temperature dependent dynamic mechanical properties of boron/aluminum composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicarlo, J. A.; Maisel, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    A relatively simple flexural vibration test is developed for accurate measurement of the low-strain dynamic modulus and damping capacity of B/Al composite bar specimens from -200 C to over 500 C. The specimens are prepared from 8-ply unidirectional panels containing 50 volume percent fibers composed of 203-micron commercial boron-on-tungsten fibers. The basic test technique consists of the forced flexural vibration of the composite bar specimens at their two lowest free-free symmetrical resonant modes in a high-vacuum cryostat furnace. Specimen damping is determined from oscilloscope photographs of the free decay obtained after simultaneously removing the resonant drive signal and grounding the vibration-drive electrode. The availability of time-temperature dynamic data coupled with the predictive accuracy of composite theory suggests a future potential for using such data in examining environmental effects on composite macrostructure and microstructure.

  10. Room-Temperature Indentation Creep and the Mechanical Properties of Rapidly Solidified Sn-Sb-Pb-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mustafa; El-Bediwi, A.; Lashin, A. R.; El-Zarka, A. H.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the room-temperature indentation creep and the mechanical properties of Sn-Sb-Pb-Cu alloys. Rapid solidification from melt using the melt-spinning technique is applied to prepare all the alloys. The experimental results show that the magnitude of the creep displacement increases with the increase in both time and applied load, and the stress exponent increases with the increase in the copper content in the alloys which happens primarily due to the existence of the intermetallic compounds SbSn and Cu6Sn5. The calculated values of the stress exponent are in the range of 2.82 to 5.16, which are in good agreement with the values reported for the Sn-Sb-Pb-Cu alloys. We have also studied and analyzed the structure, elastic modulus, and internal friction of the Sn-Sb-Pb-Cu alloys.

  11. Mechanical properties of SiC composites neutron irradiated under light water reactor relevant temperature and dose conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai

    2017-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are being actively investigated for use in accident-tolerant core structures of light water reactors (LWRs). Owing to the limited number of irradiation studies previously conducted at LWR-coolant temperature, this study examined SiC/SiC composites following neutron irradiation at 230-340 °C to 2.0 and 11.8 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The investigated materials were chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composites with three different reinforcement fibers. The fiber materials were monolayer pyrolytic carbon (PyC) -coated Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S (HNS), Tyranno™ SA3 (SA3), and SCS-Ultra™ (SCS) SiC fibers. The irradiation resistance of these composites was investigated based on flexural behavior, dynamic Young's modulus, swelling, and microstructures. There was no notable mechanical properties degradation of the irradiated HNS and SA3 SiC/SiC composites except for reduction of the Young's moduli by up to 18%. The microstructural stability of these composites supported the absence of degradation. In addition, no progressive swelling from 2.0 to 11.8 dpa was confirmed for these composites. On the other hand, the SCS composite showed significant mechanical degradation associated with cracking within the fiber. This study determined that SiC/SiC composites with HNS or SA3 SiC/SiC fibers, a PyC interphase, and a CVI SiC matrix retain their properties beyond the lifetime dose for LWR fuel cladding at the relevant temperature.

  12. Effects of Electromagnetic Stirring on the Microstructure and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of a Hyper-eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Ni Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Youngsoo; Choi, Byounghee; Kang, Byungkeun; Hong, Chun Pyo

    2015-02-01

    A liquid treatment method by electromagnetic stirring was applied to a hyper-eutectic Al-15wt pctSi-4wt pctCu-3wt pctNi alloy for the piston manufacturing with diecasting process in order to improve high-temperature mechanical properties of the piston heads. The mechanical properties, such as hardness, high-temperature tensile stress, thermal expansion, and high-temperature relative wear resistance, were estimated using the specimens taken from the liquid-treated diecast products, and the results were compared with those of a conventional metal-mold-cast piston.

  13. The Processing and Mechanical Properties of High Temperature/High Performance Composites. Book 2. Constituent Properties and Macroscopic Performance: CMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    increase in stress above nmc and may eventually attain a saturation spacing, Is. The details of crack evolution are governed by the distribution of...sijdeij)-SdT (A8) Assuming that strain and temperature are the independent variables, both the free energy and entropy are expressed as functions of...the Helmholtz free energy and the entropy (from A9 and A10) is given by aF aF aF dF = +-d --e + -de -^-d+ E -ij aT (A12) and is as as dS = - de + eij

  14. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded 5083 aluminum alloy at cryogenic temperatures : Study on low temperature materials used in WE-NET 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, H.; Ishige, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Materials Technology Dept.; Hayashi, M.; Oyama, K.; Fujii, H.; Tanaka, J. [Cryogenic Materials Working Group Task 10 (Japan). WE-NET Program

    2002-07-01

    Using hydrogen conversion, the objective of the World Energy Network (WE-NET) program in Japan is the introduction of an international clean energy network, where liquid hydrogen promises to be the most effective carrier and storage medium. The widespread usage of 5083 aluminum alloy in liquid natural gas tankers makes it one of the candidate materials, since it is exposed to cryogenic temperature down to the 111 Kelvin mark. The fracture toughness of the weld metals prepared by conventional large current metal inert-gas (LC-MIG) arc welding was clarified. It was shown to decrease dramatically at temperatures below 77 Kelvin including 20 Kelvin of liquid hydrogen. The microstructure of the weld metals must be refined to achieve an improvement in their fracture toughness. The existence of numerous reports on fine microstructure in welding part of an aluminum alloy with friction stir welding (FSW) makes it a candidate as a possible solution for their usage. In this paper, the authors discussed and reported on the microstructural characteristics and different mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures of the FSW and the LC-MIG welding. 2 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  15. First principles calculations of thermodynamic and mechanical properties of high temperature bcc Ta-W and Mo-Ta alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda-Jindo, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)], E-mail: kmjindo@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Vu Van Hung; Hoa, N.T. [Department of Physics, Hanoi National Pedagogic University, km8 Hanoi-Sontay Highway, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Turchi, P.E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, L-353 LLNL, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2008-03-06

    The thermodynamic quantities of high temperature metals and alloys are studied using the statistical moment method, going beyond the quasi-harmonic approximations. Including the power moments of the atomic displacements up to the fourth order, the Helmholtz free energies and the related thermodynamic quantities are derived explicitly in closed analytic forms. The configurational entropy term is taken into account by using the tetrahedron cluster approximation of the cluster variation method (CVM). The energetics of the binary (Ta-W and Mo-Ta) alloys are treated within the framework of the first-principles TB-LMTO (tight-binding linear muffin tin orbital) method coupled to CPA (coherent potential approximation) and GPM (generalized perturbation method). The equilibrium phase diagrams are calculated for the refractory Ta-W and Mo-Ta bcc alloys. In addition, the mechanical properties, i.e., temperature dependence of the elastic moduli C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} and those of the ideal tensile and shear strengths of the bcc Ta-W and Ta-Mo alloys have been also studied.

  16. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO CONTINUOUS CARBON-FIBER AUTOMOTIVE STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles-Wrenn, M.B.

    2003-10-06

    The Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites Project was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop experimentally based, durability-driven design guidelines to assure the long-term (15-year) structural integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. The project addressed characterization and modeling the durability of a progression of carbon-reinforced thermoset materials, each of which has the same urethane matrix. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the individual specimen test data. Basic mechanical property testing and results for a reference [{+-}45{sup o}]{sub 3S} crossply composite and a quasi-isotropic, [0/90{sup o}/{+-}45{sup o}]{sub S} version of the reference crossply are provided. The matrix and individual {+-}45{sup o} stitch-bonded mats are the same in both cases. Although the composite utilized aerospace-grade carbon-fiber reinforcement, it was made by a rapid-molding process suitable for high-volume automotive use. Behavioral trends, effects of temperature and environment, and corresponding design knockdown factors are established for both materials. The reference crossply is highly anisotropic with two dominant fiber orientations--0/90{sup o} and {+-}45{sup o}. Therefore properties were developed for both orientations.

  17. Load Rate and Temperature Dependent Mechanical Properties of the Cortical Neuron and Its Pericellular Layer Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marc; Dokukin, Maxim; Kalaparthi, Vivekanand; Spedden, Elise; Sokolov, Igor; Staii, Cristian

    2016-02-02

    When studying the mechanical properties of cells by an indentation technique, it is important to take into account the nontrivial pericellular interface (or pericellular "brush") which includes a pericellular coating and corrugation of the pericellular membrane (microvilli and microridges). Here we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the mechanics of cortical neurons taking into account the presence of the above pericellular brush surrounding cell soma. We perform a systematic study of the mechanical properties of both the brush layer and the underlying neuron soma and demonstrate that the brush layer is likely responsible for the low elastic modulus (properties of the brain.

  18. Development of high temperature mechanical rig for characterizing the viscoplastic properties of alloys used in solid oxide cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Greco, Fabio; Kwok, Kawai

    2017-01-01

    temperature and in controlled atmosphere. The methodology uses a mechanical loading rig designed to apply variable as well as constant loads on samples within a gas-tight high temperature furnace. In addition, a unique remotely installed length measuring setup involving laser micrometer is used to monitor...

  19. Mechanical properties and fracture features of low-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 at subzero temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polekhina, N. A.; Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Tyumentsev, A. N.; Kravchenko, D. A.; Chernov, V. M.; Leontyeva-Smirnova, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    The short-term strength and plastic properties of ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181, as well as the features of its plastic deformation and fracture in the temperature range from 20 to -196°C are investigated by an active tensile deformation method. A significant increase in the temperature dependence of the steel yield strength in the interval of the ductile-to-brittle transition is observed. No qualitative changes in the fracture pattern of the samples are revealed in the region of this interval. The fractograms taken after deformation at several temperatures differ only in the relative fractions of the ductile and brittle components.

  20. Non-linear effects of initial melt temperatures on microstructures and mechanical properties during quenching process of liquid Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yun-Fei [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Liu, Rang-Su, E-mail: liurangsu@sina.com [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Tian, Ze-An; Liang, Yong-Chao [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Zhang, Hai-Tao [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha 410003 (China); Hou, Zhao-Yang [Department of Applied Physics, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064 (China); Liu, Hai-Rong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Ai-long [College of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Zhou, Li-Li [Department of Information Engineering, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Peng, Ping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xie, Zhong [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2015-05-15

    A MD simulation of liquid Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloys has been performed for understanding the effects of initial melt temperatures on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during quenching process. By using several microstructural analyzing methods, it is found that the icosahedral and defective icosahedral clusters play a key role in the microstructure transition. All the final solidification structures obtained at different initial melt temperatures are of amorphous structures, and their structural and mechanical properties are non-linearly related to the initial melt temperatures, and fluctuated in a certain range. Especially, there exists a best initial melt temperature, from which the glass configuration possesses the highest packing density, the optimal elastic constants, and the smaller extent of structural softening under deforming.

  1. Mechanical properties of ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the mechanical properties of ceramics and aims to provide both a solid background for undergraduate students, as well as serving as a text to bring practicing engineers up to date with the latest developments in this topic so they can use and apply these to their actual engineering work.  Generally, ceramics are made by moistening a mixture of clays, casting it into desired shapes and then firing it to a high temperature, a process known as 'vitrification'. The relatively late development of metallurgy was contingent on the availability of ceramics and the know-how to mold them into the appropriate forms. Because of the characteristics of ceramics, they offer great advantages over metals in specific applications in which hardness, wear resistance and chemical stability at high temperatures are essential. Clearly, modern ceramics manufacturing has come a long way from the early clay-processing fabrication method, and the last two decades have seen the development of sophisticated technique...

  2. Thermal stability and elevated temperature mechanical properties of electroslag remelted Fe-16wt.%Al-(0.14-0.5)wt.%C intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baligidad, R.G. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India); Prakash, U. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India); Radha Krishna, A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India)

    1997-07-01

    Addition of carbon in the range of 0.14-0.5 wt.% to the Fe{sub 3}Al-based intermetallic Fe-16wt.%Al (Fe-28at.%Al) alloy results in the formation of a thermally stable dispersion of Fe{sub 3}AlC carbide phase. The volume fraction of these precipitates increases with increase in carbon content. Processing of these alloys through a combination of air induction melting and electroslag remelting leads to enhanced elevated temperature mechanical properties compared to those reported for the low (<0.01 wt.%) carbon alloys with similar Al contents. Enhancement of up to 30% in elevated temperature yield strength was observed at the test temperatures (600, 700 and 800 C) used. The improvement in mechanical properties may be attributed to the presence of strengthening Fe{sub 3}AlC phase as well as the interstitial carbon present in the alloy matrix. The addition of carbon also leads to improved room temperature mechanical properties in contrast with other alloying additions (such as Mo, Ti and Si) used for enhancing elevated temperature properties of Fe{sub 3}Al-based intermetallic alloys. It is suggested that carbon may be an important alloying addition to these alloys. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Aging Time and Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-39Nb-6Zr Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Jun; Lim, Ka Ram; Lee, Yong Tae; Kim, Seung Eon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Geun [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Hee [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study is to optimize the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-39Nb-6Zr (TNZ40) for bio-implant applications. TNZ40 was designed to have a low elastic modulus (⁓40GPa) and good biocompatibility. However, the alloy shows relatively low strength compared to other titanium alloys for bio-implant. In the present study, we tried to obtain the proper combination of elastic modulus and strength by tailoring the direct aging conditions after severe plastic deformation. The mechanical properties are closely linked to characteristics including the distribution and volume fraction of precipitates.

  4. Enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electric properties of graphene aerogels via supercritical ethanol drying and high-temperature thermal reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Yehong Cheng; Shanbao Zhou; Ping Hu; Guangdong Zhao; Yongxia Li; Xinghong Zhang; Wenbo Han

    2017-01-01

    Graphene aerogels with high surface areas, ultra-low densities and thermal conductivities have been prepared to exploit their wide applications from pollution adsorption to energy storage, supercapacitor, and thermal insulation. However, the low mechanical properties, poor thermal stability and electric conductivity restrict these aerogels? applications. In this paper, we prepared mechanically strong graphene aerogels with large BET surface areas, low thermal conductivities, high thermal stab...

  5. Mechanical strength and thermophysical properties of PM212: A high temperature self-lubricating powder metallurgy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Phillip M.; Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Martineau, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A powder metallurgy composite, PM212, composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and solid lubricants is shown to be self-lubricating to a maximum application temperature of 900 C. The high temperature compressive strength, tensile strength, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity data needed to design PM212 sliding contact bearings and seals are reported for sintered and isostatically pressed (HIPed) versions of PM212. Other properties presented are room temperature density, hardness, and elastic modulus. In general, both versions appear to have adequate strength to be considered as sliding contact bearing materials, but the HIPed version, which is fully dense, is much stronger than the sintered version which contains about 20 percent pore volume. The sintered material is less costly to make, but the HIPed version is better where high compressive strength is important.

  6. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  7. Synergistic effect of temperature and point defect on the mechanical properties of single layer and bi-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debroy, Sanghamitra; Pavan Kumar, V.; Vijaya Sekhar, K.; Acharyya, Swati Ghosh; Acharyya, Amit

    2017-10-01

    The present study reports a comprehensive molecular dynamics simulation of the effect of a) temperature (300-1073 K at intervals of every 100 K) and b) point defect on the mechanical behaviour of single (armchair and zigzag direction) and bilayer layer graphene (AA and AB stacking). Adaptive intermolecular reactive bond order (AIREBO) potential function was used to describe the many-body short-range interatomic interactions for the single layer graphene sheet. Moreover, Lennard Jones model was considered for bilayer graphene to incorporate the van der Waals interactions among the interlayers of graphene. The effect of temperature on the strain energy of single layer and bilayer graphene was studied in order to understand the difference in mechanical behaviour of the two systems. The strength of the pristine single layer graphene was found to be higher as compared to bilayer AA stacked graphene at all temperatures. It was observed at 1073 K and in the presence of vacancy defect the strength for single layer armchair sheet falls by 30% and for bilayer armchair sheet by 33% as compared to the pristine sheets at 300 K. The AB stacked graphene sheet was found to have a two-step rupture process. The strength of pristine AB sheet was found to decrease by 22% on increase of temperature from 300 K to 1073 K.

  8. Mechanical properties of transription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Stuart; Levine, Herbert

    Over the last several decades it has been increasingly recognized that both stochastic and mechanical processes play a central role in transcription. Though many aspects have been explained a number of fundamental properties are undeveloped. Recent results have pointed to mechanical feedback as the source of transcriptional bursting and DNA supercoiling but a reconciliation of this perspective with preexisting views of transcriptional is lacking. In this work we present a simple model of transcription where RNA elongation, RNA polymerase rotation and DNA supercoiling are coupled. The mechanical properties of each object form a foundational framework for understanding the physical nature of transcription. The resulting model can explain several important aspects of chromatin structure and generates a number of predictions for the mechanical properties of transcription.

  9. Effect of Layer and Film Thickness and Temperature on the Mechanical Property of Micro- and Nano-Layered PC/PMMA Films Subjected to Thermal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Mohti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilayered polymer films with biomimicking, layered structures have unique microstructures and many potential applications. However, a major limitation of polymer films is the deterioration of mechanical properties in working environments. To facilitate the design and development of multilayered polymer films, the impact of thermal aging on the mechanical behavior of micro- and nano-layered polymer films has been investigated experimentally. The composition of the polymer films that have been studied is 50 vol% polycarbonate (PC and 50 vol% poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. The current study focuses on the effect of film and layer thickness and temperature on the mechanical properties of the materials subjected to thermal aging. To study the effect of film and layer thickness, films with the same thickness, but various layer thicknesses, and films with the same layer thickness, but various film thicknesses, were thermally aged at 100 °C in a constant temperature oven for up to six weeks. The results show that as the layer thickness decreases to 31 nm, the film has a higher stiffness and strength, and the trend of the mechanical properties is relatively stable over aging. The ductility of all of the films decreases with aging time. To study the effect of temperature, the films with 4,096 layers (31 nm thick for each layer were aged at 100 °C, 115 °C and 125 °C for up to four weeks. While the 100 °C aging results in a slight increase of the stiffness and strength of the films, the higher aging temperature caused a decrease of the stiffness and strength of the films. The ductility decreases with the aging time for all of the temperatures. The films become more brittle for higher aging temperatures.

  10. Quantum-mechanical study of tensorial elastic and high-temperature thermodynamic properties of grain boundary states in superalloy-phase Ni3Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friák, Martin; Všianská, Monika; Holec, David; Šob, Mojmír

    2017-07-01

    Grain boundaries (GBs), the most important defects in solids and their properties are crucial for many materials properties including (in-)stability. Quantum-mechanical methods can reliably compute properties of GBs and we use them to analyze (tensorial) anisotropic elastic properties of interface states associated with GBs in one of the most important intermetallic compounds for industrial applications, Ni3Al. Selecting the Σ5(210) GBs as a case study because of its significant extra volume, we address the mechanical stability of the GB interface states by checking elasticity-based Born stability criteria. One critically important elastic constant, C 55, is found nearly three times smaller at the GB compared with the bulk, contributing thus to the reduction of the mechanical stability of Ni3Al polycrystals. Next, comparing properties of Σ5(210) GB state which is fully relaxed with those of a Σ5(210) GB state when the supercell dimensions are kept equal to those in the bulk we conclude that lateral relaxations have only marginal impact on the studied properties. Having the complete elastic tensor of Σ5(210) GB states we combine Green’s-function based homogenization techniques and an approximative approach to the Debye model to compare thermodynamic properties of a perfect Ni3Al bulk and the Σ5(210) GB states. In particular, significant reduction of the melting temperature (to 79-81% of the bulk value) is predicted for nanometer-size grains.

  11. Sintering Temperature and Deposition Orientation Effects on Mechanical, PhysicalProperties and Geometric Distortion of Cu–Ni Single and Multi Material Indirect Sintering Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EkoSutarto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of multi material mechanical parts is constantly undertaken to increase functional aspectsas well as life cycle.One example is the use of bimaterial which is widely used as a temperature contactor. This paper presents mechanical, physical properties and geometric distortion of Cu-Ni indirect sintering products used to develop Cu-Ni bimaterial products. The experiment was executed with the following method: firstly, Cu and/or Ni powders were deposited into cast iron powder as the supporting powder. Secondly, it was heated in a furnace with varying temperatures of 870C, 900C and 930C with a holding time of four hours. Lastly, deposition orientation was varied to observe the effect on the occurence of shrinkage.To initiate the multi materials sintering process, single material sintering was performed to observe the physical and mechanical properties. Based onprevious work, multi material sintering of Cu and Ni powders was conducted. The experiment results showed that the geometric distortion of the sintering products was influenced by deposition orientation. The Cu and Ni products shrinkage were 49% and 35.33%, respectively. Although the melting temperature of Cu and Ni is close, the binding mechanism of the sintered product did not occur. The significant difference of shrinkage levelswas the main factor for the binding mechanism failure between Cu and Ni materials.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of high temperature creep resisting superalloy René 77 modified CoAl2O4

    OpenAIRE

    M. Poręba; J. Sieniawski; Zielinska, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Nickel based superalloys are widely used for turbine and stator blades of compressor in aero-engines. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of the inoculant’s content (cobalt aluminate) in the surface layer of the ceramic mould on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high temperature creep resisting superalloy René 77.Design/methodology/approach: Experimentally investigated castings have been made of commercially produced nickel superalloy René 77. Stepp...

  13. Empirical potential influence and effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of pristine and defective hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Siby; Ajith, K. M.; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2017-06-01

    The major objective of this work is to present results of a classical molecular dynamics study to investigate the effect of changing the cut-off distance in the empirical potential on the stress-strain relation and also the temperature dependent Young’s modulus of pristine and defective hexagonal boron nitride. As the temperature increases, the computed Young’s modulus shows a significant decrease along both the armchair and zigzag directions. The computed Young’s modulus shows a trend in keeping with the structural anisotropy of h-BN. The variation of Young’s modulus with system size is elucidated. The observed mechanical strength of h-BN is significantly affected by the vacancy and Stone-Wales type defects. The computed room temperature Young’s modulus of pristine h-BN is 755 GPa and 769 GPa respectively along the armchair and zigzag directions. The decrease of Young’s modulus with increase in temperature has been analyzed and the results show that the system with zigzag edge shows a higher value of Young’s modulus in comparison to that with armchair edge. As the temperature increases, the computed stiffness decreases and the system with zigzag edge possesses a higher value of stiffness as compared to the armchair counterpart and this behaviour is consistent with the variation of Young’s modulus. The defect analysis shows that presence of vacancy type defects leads to a higher Young’s modulus, in the studied range with different percentage of defect concentration, in comparison with Stone-Wales defect. The variations in the peak position of the computed radial distribution function reveals the changes in the structural features of systems with zigzag and armchair edges in the presence of applied stress.

  14. Characteristics of the mechanical milling on the room temperature ferromagnetism and sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolokang, A.S., E-mail: Sylvester.Bolokang@transnet.net [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X 17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Transnet Engineering, Product Development, Private Bag X 528, Silverton 0127 (South Africa); Cummings, F.R. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X 17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Electron Microscope Unit, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X 17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Dhonge, B.P. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Abdallah, H.M.I.; Moyo, T. [School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa); Arendse, C.J.; Muller, T.F.G. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X 17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Motaung, D.E., E-mail: dmotaung@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Anatase TiO{sub 2} NPs were milled at different times. • A correlation between defect, magnetization and gas sensing is demonstrated. • Magnetization improved with an increase of a defect-related originating from V{sub O}. • Surface area, pore size and volume improve with milling time. • Milled TiO{sub 2} exhibited enhanced gas-sensing properties to humidity. - Abstract: We report on the correlation between defect-related emissions, the magnetization and sensing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by milling method. Surface morphology analyses showed that the size of the TiO{sub 2} NPs decreases with milling time. Raman and XRD studies demonstrated that the structural properties of the TiO{sub 2} transform to orthorhombic structure upon milling. Magnetization improved with an increase of a defect-related band originating from oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}), which can be ascribed to a decrease in the size of the NPs due to the milling time. Moreover, the longer-milled TiO{sub 2} exhibited enhanced gas-sensing properties to humidity in terms of sensor response, with about 12 s response time at room temperature. A combination of photoluminescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and sensing analyses demonstrated that a direct relation exists between the magnetization, sensing and the relative occupancy of the V{sub O} present on the surface of TiO{sub 2} NPs.

  15. Influence of mold temperature associated with glass fiber on the mechanical and thermal properties of a (PA6/GF/MMT) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Renato Adriano, E-mail: eng.damiani@hotmail.com [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais; Duarte, Glaucea Warmeling; Riella, Humberto Gracher, E-mail: gwduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: huberto.riella@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Silva, Luciano Luiz; Mello, Josiane Maria Muneron de; Fiori, Marcio Antonio; Batiston, Eduardo Roberto, E-mail: marciofiori@gmail.com, E-mail: lucianols@unochapeco.edu.br, E-mail: josimello@unochapeco.edu.br, E-mail: erbatiston@unochapeco.edu.br [Universidade Comunitaria da Regiao de Chapeco (UNOCHAPECO), Chapeco, SC (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    This work describes the second of a series of studies of the effects of injection molding conditions on the mechanical and thermal properties of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber/Montmorillonite (PA6/GF/MMT) composites and was motivated by the lack of information about how the processing variables influence on the properties of three-phase composites containing fiber glass. By this time, the effects of the injection molding temperature associated with the fiber glass percentage on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite are investigated. Some samples were processed, following a statistical experimental factorial planning, varying the mold temperature and the fiber glass percentage and maintaining 5 wt % of the MMT. The samples were submitted to tensile and flexural tests, XRD, SEM and DSC. The studies showed that an increase in the mold temperature and the fiber percentage improves the maximum tensile and flexural stresses. The increased mold temperature slows the cooling rate, which, over time, decreases the degree of crystallinity. However, there is an increase in the intercalation of the polymeric chains and the nanoclay lamellae, and the structure forms with fewer defects. (author)

  16. Effect of compaction load and sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of the Al-SiC nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, AKM Asif; Lim, Mei Jing; Nuruzzaman, Dewan Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    The development of metal matrix composites (MMCs) has set the stage for a new revolution in materials. In this research, Al matrix composites reinforced with SiC nanoparticles were fabricated by a powder metallurgy process and the effects of compaction load and sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of the Al-SiC nano-composite was investigated. The samples were prepared with two different compaction loads, 100 kN and 200 kN, and two different sintering temperatures, 550 °C and 600 °C. Subsequently, their mechanical testing was carried out. The density and hardness of the samples were investigated. The microstructure of the nano-composite was examined by optical microscope. The results showed that the higher compaction load and higher sintering temperature significantly increased the density and hardness of the nano-composite materials.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly decreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly degreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  19. Dissipative properties of materials with microplastic mechanism of damping under conditions of separate and joint action of static stresses and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpak, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Static stress and temperature are studied experimentally for their separate and joint effect on dissipative properties of VT3-1 and Ehp 718 alloys whose dissipation energy is conditioned by microplastic strains. The results of the study are presented. It is shown that for the materials studied in contrast to the materials with other basic damping mechanisms joint effect of static stresses and temperature is close to a simple summation of the separate effect of these factors without any changes in the character of energy dissipation dependence.

  20. Influence of temperature histories during reactor startup periods on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Shigeki; Kitsunai, Yuji; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Chatani, Kazuhiro; Koshiishi, Masato; Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses influence of two different temperature profiles during startup periods in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor and a boiling water reactor upon microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons to about 1 dpa and 3 dpa. One of the temperature profiles was that the specimens experienced neutron irradiation in both reactors, under which the irradiation temperature transiently increased to 290 °C from room temperature with increasing reactor power during reactor startup periods. Another was that the specimens were pre-heated to about 150 °C prior to the irradiation to suppress the transient temperature increase. Tensile tests at 290 °C and Vickers hardness tests at room temperature were carried out, and their microstructures were observed by FEG-TEM. Difference of the temperature profiles was observed obviously in interstitial cluster formation, in particular, growth of Frank loops. Although influence of neutron irradiation involving transient temperature increase to 290 °C from room temperature on the yield strength and the Vickers hardness is buried in the trend curves of existing data, the influence was also found certainly in increment of in yield strength, existence of modest yield drop, and loss of strain hardening capacity and ductility. As a result, Frank loops, which were observed in austenitic stainless steel irradiated at doses of 1 dpa or more, seemed to have important implications regarding the interpretation of not irradiation hardening, but deformation of the austenitic stainless steel.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Both grain size and phase constitution of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are dependent on individual layer thickness. • The hardness of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers varies with individual layer thickness and annealing temperature. • 40 nm Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer exhibits excellent hardness at elevated temperature. - Abstract: Nano-structured Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni{sub 3}Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  2. Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Low-Cost Light-Weight Proppant Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K. Y.; Wang, H. J.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, Y. Q.; Li, G. M.; Tian, Y. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the low-cost light-weight proppant ceramics were prepared with the solid wastes of coal gangue as the raw materials, and the effect of sintering temperature on the apparent porosity, bulk density, bending strength, microstructure and phase composition were investigated. The results showed that the ceramics, sintered at 1350°C, has the best performance with the bending strength of 85MPa, bulk density of 2.7 g/cm3 and apparent porosity of 18%. These properties of ceramics were very close to that of the bauxite-sintered, and thus the gangue were very probably selected for the preparation of proppants that involved in the exploitation of coalbed methane.

  3. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Properties and Carrier Transport Mechanisms of TMAH-Treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Puneetha, Peddathimula; Reddy, V. Rajagopal; Lee, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Park, Chinho

    2016-11-01

    The temperature-dependent electrical properties and carrier transport mechanisms of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes have been investigated by current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements. The experimental results reveal that the barrier height ( I- V) increases whereas the ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature. The TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode showed nonideal behaviors which indicate the presence of a nonuniform distribution of interface states ( N SS) and effect of series resistance ( R S). The obtained R S and N SS were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Furthermore, it was found that different transport mechanisms dominated in the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode. At 150 K to 250 K, Poole-Frenkel emission (PFE) was found to be responsible for the reverse leakage, while Schottky emission (SE) was the dominant mechanism at high electric fields in the temperature range from 300 K to 400 K. Feasible energy band diagrams and possible carrier transport mechanisms for the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode are discussed based on PFE and SE.

  4. Crystal growth, structural, low temperature thermoluminescence and mechanical properties of cubic fluoroperovskite single crystal (LiBaF3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, D. Joseph; Ramasamy, P.; Ramaseshan, R.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Sunghwan; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Cheon, Jong-Kyu

    2017-10-01

    Polycrystalline compounds of LiBaF3 were synthesized using conventional solid state reaction route and the phase purity was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction technique. Using vertical Bridgman technique single crystal was grown from melt. Rocking curve measurements have been carried out to study the structural perfection of the grown crystal. The single peak of diffraction curve clearly reveals that the grown crystal was free from the structural grain boundaries. The low temperature thermoluminescence of the X-ray irradiated sample has been analyzed and found four distinguishable peaks having maximum temperatures at 18, 115, 133 and 216 K. Activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) for the individual peaks have been studied using Peak shape method and the computerized curve fitting method combining with the Tmax- TStop procedure. Nanoindentation technique was employed to study the mechanical behaviour of the crystal. The indentation modulus and Vickers hardness of the grown crystal have values of 135.15 GPa and 680.81 respectively, under the maximum indentation load of 10 mN.

  5. Micro-Mechanical Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tom

    Temperature is the most frequently measured physical quantity in the world. The field of thermometry is therefore constantly evolving towards better temperature sensors and better temperature measurements. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to improve an existing type of micro-mechanical temperature...... sensor or to develop a new one. Two types of micro-mechanical temperature sensors have been studied: Bilayer cantilevers and string-like beam resonators. Both sensor types utilize thermally generated stress. Bilayer cantilevers are frequently used as temperature sensors at the micro-scale, and the goal....... The reduced sensitivity was due to initial bending of the cantilevers and poor adhesion between the two cantilever materials. No further attempts were made to improve the sensitivity of bilayer cantilevers. The concept of using string-like resonators as temperature sensors has, for the first time, been...

  6. Mechanical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Jerrold E. Winandy; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of small pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear...

  7. Experimental study on quasi-static tensile mechanical properties of TC11 titanium alloy at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin NIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the tensile properties of typical aerospace material TC11 titanium alloy, the stress-strain relationship is studied using the quasi-static tensile test at different strain rates, and the tensile fracture morphology is analyzed with SEM. The experimental results show that TC11 titanium alloy has certain strain rate sensitivity, and both tensile strength and yield strength are affected by strain rate. During quasi-static tension test, TC11 titanium alloy specimen has the phenomenon of neck shrinkage. The section of the specimen is cuppy, and there is smooth shear lip zone and grey fiber area in the sample fracture. The fracture of the samples belongs to ductile fracture, but its toughness is poor. The tensile fracture morphology of TC11 titanium alloy is mainly the dimple with different sizes, but with the increase of strain rate, the size and the depth of dimple at the tensile fracture are smaller, and the fracture surface produces a small number of tearing edges and quasi-cleavage plane, and the fracture mechanism of the specimen is mainly ductile fracture and quasi-cleavage fracture. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of TC11 titanium alloy is related to strain rate under quasi-static tensile condition.

  8. Influence of low-temperature environmental exposure on the mechanical properties and structural stability of dental zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazzawi, Tariq F; Lemons, Jack; Liu, Perng-Ru; Essig, Milton E; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Janowski, Gregg M

    2012-07-01

    The effect of dental fabrication procedures of zirconia monolithic restorations and changes in properties during low-temperature exposure in the oral environment is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of procedures for fabrication of dental restorations by low-temperature simulation and relative changes of flexural strength, nanoindentation hardness, Young's modulus, surface roughness, and structural stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia. A total of 64 zirconia specimens were prepared to simulate dental practice. The specimens were divided into the control group and the accelerated aging group. The simulated group followed the same procedure as the control group except for the aging treatment. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure surface roughness. The degree of tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation was determined using X-ray diffraction. Nanoindentation hardness and modulus measurements were carried out on the surface of the zirconia specimens using a nanoindenter XP/G200 system. The yttria levels for nonaged and aged specimens were measured using energy dispersive spectroscopy. Flexural strength was determined using the piston-on-three-ball test. The t-test was used to determine statistical significance. Means and standard deviations were calculated using all observations for each condition and evaluated using a group t-test (p roughness (from 12.23 nm to 21.56 nm for Ra and 15.06 nm to 27.45 nm for RMS) and monoclinic phase fractions (from 2% to 21%), with a concomitant decrease in hardness (from 16.56 GPa to 15.14 GPa) and modulus (from 275.68 GPa to 256.56 GPa). Yttria content (from 4.43% to 4.46%) and flexural strength (from 586 MPa to 578 MPa) were not significantly altered, supporting longer term in vivo function without biomechanical fracture. The LTD treatment induced the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation with surface roughening in zirconia prepared using dental procedures. © 2012 by the

  9. Mechanical Properties of Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Stuart A; Levine, Herbert

    2017-06-30

    The mechanical properties of transcription have recently been shown to play a central role in gene expression. However, a full physical characterization of this central biological process is lacking. In this Letter, we introduce a simple description of the basic physical elements of transcription where RNA elongation, RNA polymerase rotation, and DNA supercoiling are coupled. The resulting framework describes the relative amount of RNA polymerase rotation and DNA supercoiling that occurs during RNA elongation. Asymptotic behavior is derived and can be used to experimentally extract unknown mechanical parameters of transcription. Mechanical limits to transcription are incorporated through the addition of a DNA supercoiling-dependent RNA polymerase velocity. This addition can lead to transcriptional stalling and resulting implications for gene expression, chromatin structure and genome organization are discussed.

  10. Effects of Sb2O3 on the Mechanical Properties of the Borosilicate Foam Glasses Sintered at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties and microstructure of a new kind of borosilicate foam glasses with different Sb2O3 doping content are comprehensively investigated. The experimental results show that appropriate addition of Sb2O3 has positive impact on the bulk porosity and compressive strength of the foam glass. It is more suitable in this work to introduce 0.9 wt.% Sb2O3 into the Na2O-K2O-B2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 basic foam glass component and sinter at 775°C. And the obtained foam glasses present much more uniform microstructure, large pore size, and smooth cell walls, which bring them with better performance including a lower bulk density, low water absorption, and an appreciable compressive strength. The microstructure analysis indicates that, with the increase of the content of Sb2O3 additives, the cell size tends to increase at first and then decreases. Larger amounts of Sb2O3 do not change the crystalline phase of foam glass but increase its vitrification. It is meaningful to prepare the foam glass at a relatively low temperature for reducing the heat energy consumption.

  11. The temperature-dependent physical state of polar lipids and their miscibility impact the topography and mechanical properties of bilayer models of the milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Appala Venkata Ramana; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Lopez, Christelle

    2016-09-01

    The polar lipid assembly and biophysical properties of the biological membrane enveloping the milk fat globules (the MFGM) are yet poorly known, especially in connection with the temperature history that milk can experience after its secretion. However, bioactive mechanisms depend on biological structure, which itself highly depend on temperature. The objectives of this study were to investigate polar lipid packing in hydrated bilayers, models of the MFGM, and to follow at intermolecular level temperature-induced changes in the range 60-6°C, using the combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and force spectroscopy. MFGM polar lipids, especially sphingomyelin, contain long chain saturated fatty acids with high phase transition temperatures. On cooling, the liquid disordered ld to solid ordered so (gel) phase transition of MFGM polar lipids started at about 40°C, leading to phase separation and formation of so phase domains protruding by about 1nm from the ld phase. Indentation measurements using AFM revealed that the resistance of the so phase domains to rupture was significantly higher than that of the ld phase and that it increased for both the domain and fluid phases with decreasing temperature. However, packing and stability of the bilayers were adversely affected by fast cooling to 6°C or by cooling-rewarming cycle. This study showed that MFGM polar lipid bilayers are dynamic systems. Heterogeneity in the structure and mechanical properties of the membrane was induced by temperature-dependent so/ld phase immiscibility of the lipid components. This could have consequences on the MFGM technological and biological functions (e.g. immunity and milk lipid digestion). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  13. Correlations of norbornenyl crosslinked polyimide resin structures with resin thermo-oxidative stability, resin glass transition temperature and composite initial mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.

    1988-01-01

    PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare 70 different polyimide oligomeric resins and 30 different unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide composites. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on resin thermo-oxidative stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. A linear correlation of decreasing 316 C resin weight loss/surface area versus (1) decreasing aliphatic content, or (2) increasing benzylic/aliphatic content stoichiometry ratio over a wide range of resin compositions was observed. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was also observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial composite mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength). However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining a clear correlation. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at 25, 288, and 316 C. Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the correlation study was (1) the PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins containing a wide variety of monomer modifications, (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins formulated exhibited satisfactory processing flow, and (3) that PMR resins exhibited predictable rates of 316 C weight loss/surface area based on their benzylic/aliphatic stoichiometery ratio.

  14. Temperature dependent effects of elevated CO2 on shell composition and mechanical properties of Hydroides elegans: insights from a multiple stressor experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera B S Chan

    Full Text Available The majority of marine benthic invertebrates protect themselves from predators by producing calcareous tubes or shells that have remarkable mechanical strength. An elevation of CO2 or a decrease in pH in the environment can reduce intracellular pH at the site of calcification and thus interfere with animal's ability to accrete CaCO3. In nature, decreased pH in combination with stressors associated with climate change may result in the animal producing severely damaged and mechanically weak tubes. This study investigated how the interaction of environmental drivers affects production of calcareous tubes by the serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans. In a factorial manipulative experiment, we analyzed the effects of pH (8.1 and 7.8, salinity (34 and 27‰, and temperature (23°C and 29°C on the biomineral composition, ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the tubes. At an elevated temperature of 29°C, the tube calcite/aragonite ratio and Mg/Ca ratio were both increased, the Sr/Ca ratio was decreased, and the amorphous CaCO3 content was reduced. Notably, at elevated temperature with decreased pH and reduced salinity, the constructed tubes had a more compact ultrastructure with enhanced hardness and elasticity compared to decreased pH at ambient temperature. Thus, elevated temperature rescued the decreased pH-induced tube impairments. This indicates that tubeworms are likely to thrive in early subtropical summer climate. In the context of climate change, tubeworms could be resilient to the projected near-future decreased pH or salinity as long as surface seawater temperature rise at least by 4°C.

  15. Temperature dependent effects of elevated CO2 on shell composition and mechanical properties of Hydroides elegans: insights from a multiple stressor experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vera B S; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Lu, Xing Wen; Zhang, Tong; Shih, Kaimin

    2013-01-01

    The majority of marine benthic invertebrates protect themselves from predators by producing calcareous tubes or shells that have remarkable mechanical strength. An elevation of CO2 or a decrease in pH in the environment can reduce intracellular pH at the site of calcification and thus interfere with animal's ability to accrete CaCO3. In nature, decreased pH in combination with stressors associated with climate change may result in the animal producing severely damaged and mechanically weak tubes. This study investigated how the interaction of environmental drivers affects production of calcareous tubes by the serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans. In a factorial manipulative experiment, we analyzed the effects of pH (8.1 and 7.8), salinity (34 and 27‰), and temperature (23°C and 29°C) on the biomineral composition, ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the tubes. At an elevated temperature of 29°C, the tube calcite/aragonite ratio and Mg/Ca ratio were both increased, the Sr/Ca ratio was decreased, and the amorphous CaCO3 content was reduced. Notably, at elevated temperature with decreased pH and reduced salinity, the constructed tubes had a more compact ultrastructure with enhanced hardness and elasticity compared to decreased pH at ambient temperature. Thus, elevated temperature rescued the decreased pH-induced tube impairments. This indicates that tubeworms are likely to thrive in early subtropical summer climate. In the context of climate change, tubeworms could be resilient to the projected near-future decreased pH or salinity as long as surface seawater temperature rise at least by 4°C.

  16. Influence of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of intercritical annealing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an 0.23%C low alloy steel was undertaken in this work. The as-received steel was normalised and afterwards annealed in the (α+γ) region at 730OC, 750OC, 770OC and 790OC followed by quenching in hot water at ...

  17. Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties of Granite and Its Effects on Borehole Stability in High Temperature and Three-Dimensional Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao-lin, Liu; Hai-yan, Zhu; Chuan-liang, Yan; Zhi-jun, Li; Zhi-qiao, Wang

    2014-01-01

    When exploiting the deep resources, the surrounding rock readily undergoes the hole shrinkage, borehole collapse, and loss of circulation under high temperature and high pressure. A series of experiments were conducted to discuss the compressional wave velocity, triaxial strength, and permeability of granite cored from 3500 meters borehole under high temperature and three-dimensional stress. In light of the coupling of temperature, fluid, and stress, we get the thermo-fluid-solid model and governing equation. ANSYS-APDL was also used to stimulate the temperature influence on elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability. In light of the results, we establish a temperature-fluid-stress model to illustrate the granite's stability. The compressional wave velocity and elastic modulus, decrease as the temperature rises, while poisson ratio and permeability of granite increase. The threshold pressure and temperature are 15 MPa and 200°C, respectively. The temperature affects the fracture pressure more than the collapse pressure, but both parameters rise with the increase of temperature. The coupling of thermo-fluid-solid, greatly impacting the borehole stability, proves to be a good method to analyze similar problems of other formations. PMID:24778592

  18. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymeric Nanocomposites. Part 2. Modeling and Theoretical Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-22

    temperature m = calculated average experimental Lamé constant at each temperature Matrix 2: E EPON 828 epoxy m ν = 2.8177 GPa (average experimental...nanocomposites Figures 6 and 7 show the comparison of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio obtained from experiments and Mori-Tanaka calculations for EPON 828

  19. Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Fracture Surface Morphologies of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Toughened Epoxy at Liquid Nitrogen (Ln2) Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Magee, D.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and fracture surface morphologies were evaluated for a commercial epoxy resin toughened with two types of core-shell rubber (CSR) toughening agents (Kane Ace(Registered TradeMark) MX130 and MX960). The impact resistance (R) was evaluated by the resulting breaking energy measured in Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The resulting fracture surface morphologies were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fractographic observations of the CSR toughened epoxy tested at ambient temperature, showed a fracture as characterized by slender dendrite textures with large voids. The increasing number of dendrites and decreasing size of scale-like texture with more CSR particles corresponded with increased R. As the temperature decreased to Liquid Nitrogen (LN 2), the fracture surfaces showed a fracture characterized by a rough, torn texture containing many river markings and deep furrows.

  20. Molecular Dynamic Simulations of Glass Transition Temperature and Mechanical Properties in the Amorphous Region of Oil-Immersed Transformer Insulation Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Yuan; Yang, Tao; Liao, Rui-Jin

    2012-07-01

    The glass transition temperature (Tg) in the amorphous region of an insulation paper is one of the most important characteristics for thermal stability. Molecular dynamic simulations have been performed on three micro-structural models, namely, amorphous pure cellulose, amorphous cellulose with water and amorphous cellulose with oil, to study the microscopic mechanism of the glass transition process for oil-immersed transformer insulation paper. Using the method of specific volume versus temperature curve, the Tg of amorphous pure cellulose, cellulose with water, and cellulose with oil was determined as 448, 418 and 440 K, respectively. The current study may provide some information for thermal aging. The simulation results show that during the glass transition process, both the chain motion and mechanical properties of cellulose changes significantly. Relative to the oil molecules, water molecules immersed in the amorphous region of insulation paper can disrupt hydrogen bonds between cellulose chains. This phenomenon results in a significant reduction in the glass transition temperature and affects the thermal stability of the insulation paper.

  1. Effects of annealing temperatures on the morphological, mechanical, surface chemical bonding, and solar selectivity properties of sputtered TiAlSiN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Mahbubur, E-mail: M.Rahman@Murdoch.edu.au [Surface Analysis and Materials Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150 (Australia); Jiang, Zhong-Tao, E-mail: Z.Jiang@Murdoch.edu.au [Surface Analysis and Materials Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150 (Australia); Zhou, Zhi-feng [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xie, Zonghan [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Yin, Chun Yang [School of Science and Engineering, Teesside University, Borough Road, Middlesbrough, TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Kabir, Humayun [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Haque, Md. Mahbubul [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Amri, Amun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru (Indonesia); Mondinos, Nicholas; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor [Surface Analysis and Materials Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150 (Australia)

    2016-06-25

    Quaternary sputtered TiAlSiN coatings were investigated for their high temperature structural stability, surface morphology, mechanical behaviors, surface chemical bonding states, solar absorptance and thermal emittance for possible solar selective surface applications. The TiAlSiN films were synthesized, via unbalanced magnetron sputtered technology, on AISI M2 steel substrate and annealed at 500 °C - 800 °C temperature range. SEM micrographs show nanocomposite-like structure with amorphous grain boundaries. Nanoindentation analyses indicate a decrease of hardness, plastic deformation and constant yield strength for the coatings. XPS analysis show mixed Ti, Al and Si nitride and oxide as main coating components but at 800 °C the top layer of the coatings is clearly composed of only Ti and Al oxides. Synchrotron radiation XRD (SR-XRD) results indicate various Ti, Al and Si nitride and oxide phases, for the above annealing temperature range with a phase change occurring with the Fe component of the substrate. UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy studies determined a high solar selectivity, s of 24.6 for the sample annealed at 600 °C. Overall results show good structural and morphological stability of these coatings at temperatures up to 800 °C with a very good solar selectivity for real world applications. - Highlights: • TiAlSiN sputtered coatings were characterized for solar selective applications. • In situ synchrotron radiation XRD were studies show the occurrence of multiple stable phases. • A high selectivity of 24.63 has been achieved for the coatings annealed at 700 °C. • Existence of XRD phases were also confirmed by XPS measurements. • At high temperature annealing the mechanical properties of films were governed by the utmost surfaces of the films.

  2. First-principles investigation of the structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Al2Cu phase under various pressure and temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinzhong; Zhao, Yuhong; Hou, Hua; Han, Peide

    2017-12-01

    The crystal structure, phase stability, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the Al2Cu (θ), Al2Cu (θ‧) and Al2Cu (Ω) phases are studied by the first-principles method. The predicted lattice constants are consistent with the available literature data. θ, θ‧ and Ω phases are thermodynamically stable, and do not undergo any phase transition under pressure. The values of B for Ω are larger than that for θ and θ‧ phases, while the values of G for θ are smaller than that for Ω and θ‧ phases. The studies also reveal that pressure can improve the elastic anisotropy of the θ, θ‧ and Ω phases. The Debye temperature, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for the phases are determined by the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Under identical conditions, the values of ΘD from high to low is in the following order: θ‧>Ω>θ. The heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for θ, θ‧ and Ω phases decrease with pressure when the temperature is kept constant. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient α is more sensitive to any changes in pressure than any temperature change in the temperature range, 300-800 K.

  3. Effects of substrate temperature on the structure and mechanical properties of (TiVCrZrHf)N coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shih-Chang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, Zue-Chin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 411, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Du-Cheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yi-Chen; Sung, Huan-Shin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 411, Taiwan (China); Deng, Min-Jen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Optometry, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli County 356, Taiwan (China); Shieu, Fuh-Sheng, E-mail: fsshieu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15

    The present paper reports the influence of growth conditions on the characteristics of (TiVCrZrHf)N films prepared by rf reactive magnetron sputtering at various substrate temperatures. The nitrogen content is observed to decrease with increasing substrate temperature. The X-ray diffraction results indicate that all (TiVCrZrHf)N films are simple face centered cubic (FCC) structures. Initially, there is an obvious decrease followed by an increase in grain size with the increase in substrate temperature. The lower part of the microstructure has an amorphous structure. A nano grain structure (size {approx}1 nm) with a random orientation is also observed above the amorphous structure. The fully dense columnar structure with an fcc crystal phase then starts to develop. Extreme hardness of around 48 GPa is obtained in the present alloy design.

  4. High Temperature Mechanical Properties, Fractography and Synchrotron Studies of ATF clad materials from the UCSB-NSUF Irradiations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Tobias J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprouster, David [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ecker, Lynne [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-02-23

    A variety of tensile samples of Ferritic and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS or nanostructured ferritic) steels were placed the ATR reactor over 2 years achieving doses of roughly 4-6 dpa at temperatures of roughly 290°C. Samples were shipped to Wing 9 in the CMR facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory and imaged then tested in tension. This report summarizes the room temperature tensile tests, the elevated temperature tensile tests (300°C) and fractography and reduction of area calculations on those samples. Additionally small samples were cut from the undeformed grip section of these tensile samples and sent to the NSLS synchrotron for high energy X-ray analysis, initial results will be described here.

  5. Thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures at low temperatures. Links between the binder characteristics and the mix properties; Comportement thermomecanique des enrobes bitumeux a basses temperatures: relations entre les proprietes du liant et de l'enrobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olard, F.

    2003-10-01

    This thesis has been realized within the framework of a partnership between the Ecole Nationale des TPE, APPIA and EUROVIA. The company Total has also been associated to this project. The study deals with the thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous materials at low temperatures. The aim is to establish the links between the characteristics of the binder and the properties of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, and to better understand the existing low-temperature parameters and criteria for binders (or to propose new ones), related to the in-situ behavior of bituminous mixtures. A large experimental campaign has been carried out so as to fulfill this goal. After a bibliographical study on the rheology and the thermo-mechanical properties of (pure or modified) binders, putties and mixes, the experimental campaign carried out both in the small strain domain and in the large strain domain, is presented. The low temperature behavior of binders has been evaluated with three common fundamental tests: i)the complex modulus determination, ii)the Bending Beam Rheometer and iii)the tensile strength at a constant strain rate and constant temperatures. A new three point bending test on pre-notched bitumen beams has also been developed at the ENTPE. The low-temperature fracture properties of bitumens were studied at constant temperatures and cross-head speeds considering the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) assumptions. The thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures has been studied by performing i)complex modulus tests, ii)measurements of the coefficient of thermal dilatation and contraction, iii)tensile tests at constant temperatures and strain rates, and iv)Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Tests. Apart from the determination of some pertinent links between binder and mix properties and discriminating characteristics with regard to the thermal cracking of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, the analysis has also consisted in modeling the behavior of

  6. High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from -50 to 80 deg C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    these impact events. 2 2. Experimental The Material Test Systems Servo -Hydraulic Tester ( MTS -SHT) shown schematically in Fig. 1 was used to...Proving Ground (MD): Army Research Laboratory (US); 1995 Oct. Report No.: ARL-TR-884. 8. Leadore MG. MTS servo -hydraulic tester (SHT) mechanical...Leadore MG, Gillich CJ. Material testing system ( MTS ) servo -hydraulic tester (SHT) mechanical response of energetic thermal plastic elastomer (ETPE) RDX

  7. The Mechanical Properties of Wood of Different Moisture Content Within -200 Degrees to +200 Degrees C Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Franz

    1941-01-01

    Systematic experiments were undertaken with special reference to the effect of gross specific weight (specific weight inclusive of pores) and the moisture content of wood. It was found that the modules of elasticity of wood at room temperature and frozen at -8 degrees is practically the same. The effect of moisture on the compression strength of frozen wood was explored as well as the flexural and impact strength of frozen wood and frozen laminated wood.

  8. Experimental study on quasi-static tensile mechanical properties of TC11 titanium alloy at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Qiulin NIU; Ming CHEN; Ming, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    According to the tensile properties of typical aerospace material TC11 titanium alloy, the stress-strain relationship is studied using the quasi-static tensile test at different strain rates, and the tensile fracture morphology is analyzed with SEM. The experimental results show that TC11 titanium alloy has certain strain rate sensitivity, and both tensile strength and yield strength are affected by strain rate. During quasi-static tension test, TC11 titanium alloy specimen has the phenomenon...

  9. Structure and mechanical properties of a eutectic high-temperature Nb-Si alloy grown by directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, M. I.; Vnukov, V. I.; Korzhov, V. P.; Stroganova, T. S.; Zheltyakova, I. S.; Prokhorov, D. V.; Gnesin, I. B.; Kiiko, V. M.; Kolobov, Yu. R.; Golosov, E. V.; Nekrasov, A. N.

    2014-04-01

    The structure and the short-term high-temperature strength of Ni-18.7 at % Si (Nb-Nb3Si eutectic) alloys fabricated by vacuum electron-beam zone melting and induction melting in an argon atmosphere are studied. The structure of the samples prepared by vacuum electron-beam zone melting is characterized by the presence of primary Nb5Si3 intermetallic precipitates and the absence of its secondary precipitates. The structure of the samples prepared by induction melting in an argon atmosphere has two characteristic zones, namely, eutectic and eutectoid ones.

  10. The Processing and Mechanical Properties of High Temperature/High Performance Composites. Book 4. Constitutive Laws and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    direct deierminaimrw ol tho1 Pratesso- stead ’ solutions in shakedown analisi ~s. The direct method ",ar first propo(,ed trr Departrnert o! Merharica, ane...loading experiments for determining inter- facial toughness. J. Appi. Mech, in press. Liechti, K. M. and Hanson, E. C. (1988). Nonlinear effects in mixed...Rice, J. R., Suo Z., and Wang, J.-S. (1990). Mechanics and thermodynamics of brittle inter- facial failure in biwaterial systems. In "Metal-Ceramic

  11. Influence of temperature of the short-period heat treatment on mechanical properties of the NiTi alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Čapek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, known as nitinol, possesses unique properties such as superelasticity, pseudoplasticity, shape memory, while maintaining good corrosion resistance and sufficient biocompatibility. Therefore it is used for production of various devices including surgery implants. Heat treatment of nickel-rich NiTi alloys can result in precipitation of nickel-rich phases, which strongly influence tensile and fatigue behaviour of the material.In this work we have studied influence of short-period heat treatment on tensile behaviour and fatigue life of the NiTi (50.9 at. % Ni wire intended for fabrication of surgery stents.

  12. Mechanical properties and rapid low-temperature consolidation of nanocrystalline Cu-ZrO2 composites by pulsed current activated heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo-Ram; Yoon, Jin-kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae; Shon, In-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Metal-ceramic compositr can be obtained with an optimum combination of low density, high oxidation resistance, and high hardness of the ceramic and toughness of the metal. Therefore, metal matrix composites are recognized as candidates for aerospace, automotive, biomaterials, and defense applications. Despite its many attractive properties, the low fracture toughness of ZrO2 limits its wide application. One of the most obvious tactics to improve the mechanical properties has been to fabricate a nanostructured material and composite material. Nano-powders of Cu and ZrO2 were synthesized from 2CuO and Zr powders by high-energy ball milling. Nanocrystalline 2Cu-ZrO2 composite was consolidated within 5 minutes from mechanically synthesized powders of ZrO2 and 2Cu at low temperature, by a pulsed current activated sintering method. The relative density of the composite was 98.5%. The fracture toughness of 2Cu-ZrO2 composite in this study is higher than that of monolithic ZrO2, without great decrease of hardness.

  13. Analytical Modelling and Optimization of the Temperature-Dependent Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Fused Deposition Fabricated Parts Made of PC-ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM additive manufacturing has been intensively used for many industrial applications due to its attractive advantages over traditional manufacturing processes. The process parameters used in FDM have significant influence on the part quality and its properties. This process produces the plastic part through complex mechanisms and it involves complex relationships between the manufacturing conditions and the quality of the processed part. In the present study, the influence of multi-level manufacturing parameters on the temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of FDM processed parts was investigated using IV-optimality response surface methodology (RSM and multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MFNNs. The process parameters considered for optimization and investigation are slice thickness, raster to raster air gap, deposition angle, part print direction, bead width, and number of perimeters. Storage compliance and loss compliance were considered as response variables. The effect of each process parameter was investigated using developed regression models and multiple regression analysis. The surface characteristics are studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Furthermore, performance of optimum conditions was determined and validated by conducting confirmation experiment. The comparison between the experimental values and the predicted values by IV-Optimal RSM and MFNN was conducted for each experimental run and results indicate that the MFNN provides better predictions than IV-Optimal RSM.

  14. Analytical Modelling and Optimization of the Temperature-Dependent Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Fused Deposition Fabricated Parts Made of PC-ABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar Ahmed; Masood, Syed Hasan; Bhowmik, Jahar Lal

    2016-11-04

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing has been intensively used for many industrial applications due to its attractive advantages over traditional manufacturing processes. The process parameters used in FDM have significant influence on the part quality and its properties. This process produces the plastic part through complex mechanisms and it involves complex relationships between the manufacturing conditions and the quality of the processed part. In the present study, the influence of multi-level manufacturing parameters on the temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of FDM processed parts was investigated using IV-optimality response surface methodology (RSM) and multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MFNNs). The process parameters considered for optimization and investigation are slice thickness, raster to raster air gap, deposition angle, part print direction, bead width, and number of perimeters. Storage compliance and loss compliance were considered as response variables. The effect of each process parameter was investigated using developed regression models and multiple regression analysis. The surface characteristics are studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, performance of optimum conditions was determined and validated by conducting confirmation experiment. The comparison between the experimental values and the predicted values by IV-Optimal RSM and MFNN was conducted for each experimental run and results indicate that the MFNN provides better predictions than IV-Optimal RSM.

  15. The Mechanical Properties of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiliang; Shan, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Applications of nanowires into future generation nanodevices require a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of the nanowires. A great research effort has been made in the past two decades to understand the deformation physics and mechanical behaviors of nanowires, and to interpret the discrepancies between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions. This review focused on the characterization and understanding of the mechanical properties of nanowires, including elasticity, plasticity, anelasticity and strength. As the results from the previous literature in this area appear inconsistent, a critical evaluation of the characterization techniques and methodologies were presented. In particular, the size effects of nanowires on the mechanical properties and their deformation mechanisms were discussed. PMID:28435775

  16. Excellent resistive switching property and physical mechanism of amorphous TiO{sub 2} thin films fabricated by a low-temperature photochemical solution deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Lilan; Hu, Wei; Xie, Wei; Chen, Ruqi; Qin, Ni; Li, Baojun; Bao, Dinghua, E-mail: stsbdh@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • High-performance resistive switching Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt memory cells were obtained. • Amorphous TiO{sub 2} layer was prepared by low-temperature photochemical deposition. • Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt memory cells exhibited excellent resistive switching parameters. • UV irradiation led to the formation of enhanced metal-oxide bonds. • Resistive switching corresponded to the formation/rupture of conductive filaments. - Abstract: High-performance resistive switching Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt memory cells were fabricated. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} active layer was prepared by using a low-temperature photochemical solution deposition method—a simple preparation process combining first chemical solution deposition of the TiO{sub 2} film layer and subsequent ultraviolet (UV) irradiation treatment. The obtained Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt memory cells exhibited excellent resistive switching parameters, such as centralized distribution of set and reset voltages, stable current values at high and low resistance states, and long retention time. The conductive mechanisms of high resistance state and low resistance state were Schottky emission and Ohmic conduction, respectively. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy characterization of the TiO{sub 2} thin films indicated that the UV irradiation treatment can lead to decomposition of the residual organics and the formation of enhanced metal-oxide bonds in the thin films. On the basis of the analysis of current–voltage characteristics and the temperature dependence of resistance, we explained the resistive switching phenomenon for Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt devices by using the model of formation/rupture of conductive filaments. Our study also suggested that the simple photochemical solution deposition method can be used for preparing some other oxide thin films with good resistive switching properties at low processing temperature which is promising to be extended to

  17. Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers: Preparation, adsorption mechanism and properties as drug delivery system for sustained release of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang; Chen, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) based on Fe3O4-encapsulating carbon nanospheres were prepared by free radical polymerization, and applied to selective adsorption and controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from an aqueous solution. Characterization results show that the as-synthesized TMMIPs have an average diameter of about 150 nm with a typical core-shell structure, and the thickness of the coating layer is approximately 50 nm. TMMIPs also displayed obvious magnetic properties and thermo-sensitivity. The adsorption results show that the prepared TMMIPs exhibit good adsorption capacity (up to 96.53 mg/g at 25 °C) and recognition towards 5-FU. The studies on 5-FU loading and release in vitro suggest that the release rate increases with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, adsorption mechanisms were explored by using a computational analysis to simulate the imprinted site towards 5-FU. The interaction energy between the imprinted site and 5-FU is -112.24 kJ/mol, originating from a hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces and a hydrophobic interaction between functional groups located on 5-FU and a NIPAM monomer. The electrostatic potential charges and population analysis results suggest that the imprinted site of 5-FU can be introduced on the surface of TMMIPs, confirming their selective adsorption behavior for 5-FU. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Moisture and Temperature Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Graphite/Epoxy Laminates and Neat Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternstein, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of high performnce composites which are strongly dependent on the physical properties of the matrix resin were studied. Moisture adversely affect the properties of both neat epoxy resin and epoxy matrix composites. Inhomogeneous swelling as to the moisture degradation of mechanical properties, both in the neat resin and the composite. It is postulated that the postcuring process can change structure/moisture interactions and partially alleviate its adverse effects. The study is directed toward are understanding of the physical/mechanical/thermodynamic aspects of this problem.

  19. Quantitative temperature-depending mapping of mechanical properties of bitumen at the nanoscale using the AFM operated with PeakForce TappingTM mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Stadler, H.; Erina, N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bitumen, such as elasticity/Young's modulus, stickiness/adhesion, hardness and energy loss, and sample deformation were acquired quantitatively and simultaneously with the topology at the microscale, discriminating clearly two separate phases within the bitumen.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The subject of mechanical behavior has been in the front line of basic studies in engineering curricula for many years.  This textbook was written for engineering students with the aim of presenting, in a relatively simple manner, the basic concepts of mechanical behavior in solid materials. A second aim of the book is to guide students in their laboratory experiments by helping them to understand their observations in parallel with the lectures of their various courses; therefore the first chapter of the book is devoted to mechanical testing. Another aim of the book is to provide practicing engineers with basic help to bridge the gap of time that has passed from their graduation up to their actual involvement in engineering work. The book also serves as the basis for more advanced studies and seminars when pursuing courses on a graduate level. The content of this textbook and the topics discussed correspond to courses that are usually taught in universities and colleges all over the world, but with a differ...

  1. Tuning the mechanical properties of silica microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; D'Acunzi, M.; Kappl, M.; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.; Butt, H. -J; Graf, R.; Vollmer, D.

    2010-01-01

    Heat treatment is a standard method to increase the hardness of silica in various applications. Here, we tested the effect of high temperature annealing on the mechanical properties of silica microcapsules by force spectroscopy under point loads applied to the particle shell. The Young's modulus of

  2. Effect of ZrC particle size on microstructure and room temperature mechanical properties of ZrC{sub p}/W composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Taiquan, E-mail: z_t_q245@hit.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); China National R and D Center for Tungsten Technology, Xiamen 361009 (China); Wang Yujin, E-mail: Wangyuj@hit.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou Yu [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Song, Guiming [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-06-25

    Tungsten composite reinforced by 20 vol.% ZrC particles with three different mean particle size (1.25, 1.71 and 5.78 {mu}m) were prepared by hot-pressing at 2200 deg. C, 25 MPa for 1 h. The effect of ZrC particle size on microstructure and room temperature mechanical properties is investigated by examining the ZrC particle distribution, pore in the particle clusters, and composition of the ZrC/W interface and strength of the composites. The results show that a small amount of tiny pores existed in the ZrC particle clusters with a mean size of 1.25 {mu}m, and the larger pores was observed when the mean size was 5.78 {mu}m. (Zr,W)C solid solution was found at the ZrC/W interface, and W{sub 2}C phase formed when the ZrC particle size was less than about 1.71 {mu}m. The flexural strength of the ZrC{sub p}/W composite is deteriorated by the ZrC particle clusters and the defects within the ZrC particles. The highest strength of 1210 MPa was tested on the composite containing 1.71 {mu}m ZrC particles.

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological, and mechanical properties of polycrystalline zirconium oxynitride composite films deposited by plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ijaz A.; Kashif, Muhammad; Farid, Amjad; Rawat, Rajdeep S.; Ahmad, Riaz

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we reveal the post deposition annealing effect on the structural, morphological, and mechanical properties of polycrystalline zirconium oxynitride (P-ZrON) composite films deposited for 40 focus shots using a plasma focus device. The development of Zr(101), ZrN(111), ZrN(200), Zr3N4(320), ZrN0.28(002), and m-ZrO2(200) diffraction peaks confirms the deposition of P-ZrON composite films. The peak intensity, crystallite size, dislocation density, compressive stress, and texture coefficient of the Zr3N4(320) plane and the microstructural features such as the shape, size and distribution of nanoparticles as well as the film compactness are influenced by the annealing temperature. Elemental analysis confirms the presence of Zr, N, and O in the deposited films. The microhardness of the P-ZrON composite film annealed at 500 °C is found to be 11.87 GPa which is 7.8 times that of virgin zirconium.

  4. Die-cast of a hypo-eutectic AL-SI alloy: influence of injection temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties; Fundicao sob pressao das ligas de AL-SI: influencia da temperatura de injecao nas microestruturas e propriedades mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Silvano Leal dos; Santos, Sydney Ferreira, E-mail: silvano_lleal@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Die-casting is widely used for manufacturing light alloy components for automotive industry. Among others, hypo-eutectic Al-Si alloys are currently processed by die-casting. To obtain high quality die-cast components, a better understanding on the correlations between processing parameters, microstructures, and mechanical properties are of utmost importance. In this study, we investigate the effect of injection temperature of liquid metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloy EN AC 46000 (DIN designation). The injection temperatures were 579, 589, 643, and 709 deg C. As-cast components had their microstructures analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were examined by micro-hardness and tensile tests. It was observed that the ultimate tensile strength slightly increased with the increase of injection temperature. The same trend was observed for micro-hardness. The amount of porosity in the samples varies in a small amount for different injection temperatures. On the other hand, the microstructure of the alloys seems more refined for higher temperatures of injection. This refinement in microstructure might play a major role on the mechanical properties of the Al-Si die-cast alloy. (author)

  5. Enhanced room-temperature ferromagnetism on (In0.98-xCoxSn0.02)2O3 films: magnetic mechanism, optical and transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Luhang; An, Yukai; Zhang, Rukang; Zhang, Pan; Wu, Zhonghua; Yan, Hui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-11-08

    The effects of Co doping on the structural, optical, magnetic and transport properties of (In0.98-xCoxSn0.02)2O3 films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering were systematically investigated by theoretical and experimental techniques. The detailed structural analyses revealed that all the (In0.98-xCoxSn0.02)2O3 films possess the cubic bixbyite structure, with the substitutional Co at the In3+ sites of the In2O3 matrix, while some of the Co atoms form Co metal clusters. Obvious room-temperature (RT) ferromagnetic behavior was observed and the saturated magnetization (Ms) first increased, then decreased with increased Co concentration, while carrier concentration nc decreased monotonically, implying that the Co metal clusters are superparamagnetic and the observed RT ferromagnetism is not mediated by the charge carriers. The Mott variable range hopping (VRH) and hard band gap hopping transport behavior dominates the conduction mechanism of the films, confirming that the carriers are strongly localized. The UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate the decreased optical band gap Eg with Co doping, and further prove that the oxygen vacancies and Co impurity band form defect complexes of donor-acceptor pairs. The density functional theoretical calculations show that the codoped Sn can change the magnetic coupling between two Co ions from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic by the new hybridization between the Co 3d states with the Sn induced donor band. It can be concluded that the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) based oxygen vacancies as well as the Co-O-Co ferromagnetic superexchange interaction induced by Sn codoping may be responsible for the intrinsic ferromagnetic ordering in the (In0.98-xCoxSn0.02)2O3 films. These results may provide new insight for understanding the magnetic mechanism of In2O3 based DMS systems.

  6. Self-compacting concrete containing different powders at elevated temperatures - Mechanical properties and changes in the phase composition of the paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtiyari, S., E-mail: bakhtiyari@bhrc.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, A., E-mail: ali.allahverdi@iust.ac.ir [Cement Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rais-Ghasemi, M., E-mail: raissghasemi@bhrc.ac.ir [Dep. of Concrete Technology, Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarrabi, B.A., E-mail: zarrabi@chalmers.se [Fire Technology Dep., SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden (Sweden); Parhizkar, T., E-mail: parhizkar@bhrc.ac.ir [Dep. of Concrete Technology, Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-20

    Fire resistance of self-compacting concretes (SCC) containing limestone and quartz powders, with two different compressive strengths, were evaluated and compared with normal concretes (NC). The residual mechanical strengths of the mixes at different temperatures were measured. The changes in the phase composition of the cement pastes at high temperatures were examined with thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry methods. The SCC mixes showed a higher susceptibility to spalling at high temperatures but the NC mixes suffered much more from loss of the mechanical strengths. Both the powder types and the compressive strength notably influenced the fire behavior of the SCC. The quartz powder accelerated the hydration of the SCC cement paste at high temperatures, up to 500 {sup o}C. However, the quartz-contained SCC showed the highest risk of spalling among all the mixes. The results showed that the thermal analysis could be a useful device for evaluating the fire behavior of building materials.

  7. Studying the effect of Ruthenium on High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Superalloys and Determining the Universal Behavior of Ruthenium at Atomic Scale with respect to alloying elements, Stress and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriswaroop Dasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Any property of a material is a function of its microstructure and microstructure is a function of material composition. So, to maximize the desired properties of a material, one has to understand the evolution of microstructure which in turn is nothing but the reflection of the role of alloying elements. Research has not been done to understand the universal behavior of a certain base/alloying element. Let’s take the example of Cl- ion in HCl, we all know that in general, chloride ion can only be replaced by Fluoride or oxygen ion and that no other ion can replace it. But when you consider a metal like Ni, Co, Cr, Fe etc. there is no establishment that it behaves only in a certain way. Though I concord to the fact that discovery of universal behavior of Ni is lot complex than chloride ion, I think that future research should be focused in this direction also. Superalloys are the candidate materials required to improve thermal efficiency of a gas turbine by allowing higher turbine inlet gas temperatures. Gas turbines are the heart of local power systems, next generation jet engines and high performance space rockets. Recent research in superalloys showed that addition of some alloying elements in minor quantities can result in drastic change in properties. Such an alloying element is Ruthenium (Ru. Addition of Ruthenium to superalloys has shown improvement in mechanical properties by an order of magnitude. However reasons for such improvement are not known yet. Hence, there is a need to identify its role and discover the universal behavior of ruthenium to utilize it efficiently. In this proposal, we study materials with different compositions that are derived based on one ruthenium containing superalloy, and different thermomechanical history. Based on the evolution of microstructures and results of mechanical testing, we plan to determine the exact role of Ruthenium and prediction of its behavior with respect to other elements in the material

  8. Enhanced strength and temperature dependence of mechanical properties of Li at small length scales and its implications for Li metal anodes

    CERN Document Server

    and, Chen Xu; Aryanfar, Asghar; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Greer, Julia R

    2016-01-01

    Most next-generation Li-ion battery chemistries require a functioning lithium metal (Li) anode. However, its application in secondary batteries has been inhibited because of uncontrollable dendrite growth during cycling. Mechanical suppression of dendrite growth through solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) or through robust separators has shown the most potential for alleviating this problem. Studies of the mechanical behavior of Li at any length scale and temperature are virtually non-existent because of its extreme reactivity, which renders sample preparation, transfer, microstructure characterization and mechanical testing prohibitively challenging. We conduct nano-mechanical experiments in an in-situ Scanning Electron Microscope and show that micron-sized Li attains extremely high strengths of 105 MPa at room temperature and of 35MPa at 90$^\\circ$C. We demonstrate that single crystalline Li exhibits a power-law size-effect at the micron- and sub-micron length scales, with the strengthening exponent of -0.68 a...

  9. Degradation of mechanical properties of cast Cr-Mo-V and Cr-W-V steam turbine casings after long-term service at elevated temperatures: Pt. 1:; Tensile properties, brittle fracture strength and Charpy impact properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzmann, M.; Man, J.; Vlach, B. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie); Krumpos, J. (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Plzen (Czech Republic). Inst. of Technology and Reliability of Machine Structures)

    1994-01-01

    The effect of elevated service temperature on tensile properties, brittle fracture strength and on the Charpy V-notch transition curve of Cr-Mo-V and Cr-W-V cast steels is presented. A lowering of the yield stress and ultimate tensile stress (softening) was observed with both types of cast steels after long-term exposure at elevated temperatures. The brittle fracture strength of Cr-Mo-V steel established by testing both the smooth bars [sigma][sub BF] and notch specimens [sigma][sub BF][sup *] at low temperatures was not influenced during exposure at elevated temperatures. The fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) of this steel determined by impact Charpy test was also not affected by long-term exposure. Thus, it could be concluded that this type of cast steel was not embrittled during operation. On the contrary, a decrease in brittle fracture strength [sigma][sub BF][sup *] (250 MPa) and an increase in FATT (50[sup o]C) were observed in the Cr-W-V steel after 2 x 10[sup 5] h of service. (Author)

  10. Low-temperature localization in the transport properties of self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    play between electron–electron and Kondo-like scatterings lead to the localization in the temperature dependence of resistivity at low temperature. Keywords. Transport properties; scattering mechanisms; low temperature localization. 1. Introduction. The investigation on mixed-valent manganites with per- ovskite structure is ...

  11. High temperature oxidation of metals: vacancy injection and consequences on the mechanical properties; Consequences de l'oxydation haute temperature sur l'injection de defauts et le comportement mecanique des materiaux metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusin, S

    2004-11-15

    The aim of this work is to account for the effects of the high temperature oxidation of metals on their microstructure and their mechanical properties. 'Model' materials like pure nickel, pure iron and the Ni-20Cr alloy are studied. Nickel foils have been oxidised at 1000 C on one side only in laboratory air, the other side being protected from oxidation by a reducing atmosphere. After the oxidation treatment, the unoxidized face was carefully examined by using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Grain boundaries grooves were characterised and their depth were compared to the ones obtained on the same sample heat treated in the reducing atmosphere during the same time. They are found to be much deeper in the case of the single side oxidised samples. It is shown that this additional grooving is directly linked to the growth of the oxide scale on the opposite side and that it can be explained by the diffusion of the vacancies produced at the oxide scale - metal interface, across the entire sample through grain boundaries. Moreover, the comparison between single side oxidised samples and samples oxidised on both sides points out that voids in grain boundaries are only observed in this latter case proving the vacancies condensation in the metal when the two faces are oxidised. The role of the carbon content and the sample's geometry on this phenomenon is examined in detail. The diffusion of vacancies is coupled with the transport of oxygen so that a mechanism of oxygen transport by vacancies is suggested. The tensile tests realised at room temperature on nickel foils (bamboo microstructure) show that the oxide scale can constitute a barrier to the emergence of dislocations at the metal surface. Finally, the Ni-20Cr alloy is tested in tensile and creep tests between 25 and 825 C in oxidising or reducing atmospheres. (author)

  12. Room-Temperature and High-Temperature Tensile Mechanical Properties of TA15 Titanium Alloy and TiB Whisker-Reinforced TA15 Matrix Composites Fabricated by Vacuum Hot-Pressing Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yangju; Zhang, Wencong; Zeng, Li; Cui, Guorong; Chen, Wenzhen

    2017-04-18

    In this paper, the microstructure, the room-temperature and high-temperature tensile mechanical properties of monolithic TA15 alloy and TiB whisker-reinforced TA15 titanium matrix composites (TiBw/TA15) fabricated by vacuum hot-pressing sintering were investigated. The microstructure results showed that there were no obvious differences in the microstructure between monolithic TA15 alloy and TiBw/TA15 composites, except whether or not the grain boundaries contained TiBw. After sintering, the matrix microstructure presented a typical Widmanstätten structure and the size of primary β grain was consistent with the size of spherical TA15 titanium metallic powders. This result demonstrated that TiBw was not the only factor limiting grain coarsening of the primary β grain. Moreover, the grain coarsening of α colonies was obvious, and high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) were distributed within the primary β grain. In addition, TiBw played an important role in the microstructure evolution. In the composites, TiBw were randomly distributed in the matrix and surrounded by a large number of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs). Globularization of α phase occurred prior, near the TiBw region, because TiBw provided the nucleation site for the equiaxed α phase. The room-temperature and high-temperature tensile results showed that TiBw distributed at the primary β grain boundaries can strengthen the grain boundary, but reduce the connectivity of the matrix. Therefore, compared to the monolithic TA15 alloy fabricated by the same process, the tensile strength of the composites increased, and the tensile elongation decreased. Moreover, with the addition of TiBw, the fracture mechanism was changed to a mixture of brittle fracture and ductile failure (composites) from ductile failure (monolithic TA15 alloy). The fracture surfaces of TiBw/TA15 composites were the grain boundaries of the primary β grain where the majority of TiB whiskers distributed, i.e., the surfaces of the

  13. Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer concrete was introduced in the late 1950s and became well known in the 1970s for its use in repair, thin overlays and floors, and precast components. Because of its properties like high compressive strength, fast curing, high specific strength, and resistance to chemical attacks polymer concrete has found application in very specialized domains. Simultaneously these materials have been used in machine construction also where the vibration damping property of polymer concrete has been exploited. This review deals with the efforts of various researchers in selection of ingredients, processing parameters, curing conditions, and their effects on the mechanical properties of the resulting material.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Respiratory Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Gary C.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Reid, Michael B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2014-01-01

    Striated respiratory muscles are necessary for lung ventilation and to maintain the patency of the upper airway. The basic structural and functional properties of respiratory muscles are similar to those of other striated muscles (both skeletal and cardiac). The sarcomere is the fundamental organizational unit of striated muscles and sarcomeric proteins underlie the passive and active mechanical properties of muscle fibers. In this respect, the functional categorization of different fiber types provides a conceptual framework to understand the physiological properties of respiratory muscles. Within the sarcomere, the interaction between the thick and thin filaments at the level of cross-bridges provides the elementary unit of force generation and contraction. Key to an understanding of the unique functional differences across muscle fiber types are differences in cross-bridge recruitment and cycling that relate to the expression of different myosin heavy chain isoforms in the thick filament. The active mechanical properties of muscle fibers are characterized by the relationship between myoplasmic Ca2+ and cross-bridge recruitment, force generation and sarcomere length (also cross-bridge recruitment), external load and shortening velocity (cross-bridge cycling rate), and cross-bridge cycling rate and ATP consumption. Passive mechanical properties are also important reflecting viscoelastic elements within sarcomeres as well as the extracellular matrix. Conditions that affect respiratory muscle performance may have a range of underlying pathophysiological causes, but their manifestations will depend on their impact on these basic elemental structures. PMID:24265238

  15. Mechanical Properties of Picea sitchensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Lise; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Poulsson, Lise

    2000-01-01

    the requirements at the same level as Danish grown Norway spruce. The study shows that Sitka spruce and Norway spruce of the same origin exhibit highly comparable mechanical properties. Key words: annual ring width, bending strength, characteristic strength, dry density, EN 338, INSTA 142, modulus of elasticity...

  16. Mechanical properties of organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Hansen, Ole; Rubahn, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic elastic and inelastic mechanical Properties of individual, self-assembled, quasi-single-crystalline para-hexaphenylene nanofibers supported on substrates with different hydrophobicities are investigated as well as the interplay between the fibers and the underlying substrates. We find...

  17. Dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 under mechanical stress, electric field and temperature loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pytel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of uniaxial pressure (0÷1000 bars applied parallely to the ac electric field on dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 ceramics. There was revealed a significant effect of the external stress on these properties. The application of uniaxial pressure leads to the change of the peak intensity of the electric permittivity (ϵ, of the frequency dispersion as well as of the dielectric hysteresis. The peak intensity ϵ becomes diffused/sharpened and shifts to a higher/lower temperatures with increasing the pressure. It was concluded that the application of uniaxial pressure induces similar effects as increasing the Ti ion concentration in PZT system. We interpreted our results based on the domain switching processes under the action of combined electromechanical loading.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Flexographic Prints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Grigaliūnienė

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of paper and flexographic prints madewith different anilox rollers were investigated experimentally.Flexographic prints roughness, breaking force and folding resistancevalues were determined. The results showed that foldingresistance is bigger for machine direction prints than for crossmachine direction prints. Flexographic prints on cardboardsfolding resistance values are different for machine direction andcross machine direction. It was determined that roughness offlexographic prints increases with the amount of ink on aniloxroller. Results were explained by the ink water influence.

  19. Elastic properties and stress-temperature phase diagrams of high-temperature phases with low-temperature lattice instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C.; Van der Ven, Anton

    2014-12-01

    The crystal structures of many technologically important high-temperature phases are predicted to have lattice instabilities at low temperature, making their thermodynamic and mechanical properties inaccessible to standard first principles approaches that rely on the (quasi) harmonic approximation. Here, we use the recently developed anharmonic potential cluster expansion within Monte Carlo simulations to predict the effect of temperature and anisotropic stress on the elastic properties of ZrH2, a material that undergoes diffusionless transitions among cubic, tetragonal, and orthorhombic phases. Our analysis shows that the mechanical properties of high-temperature phases with low-temperature vibrational instabilities are very sensitive to temperature and stress state. These findings have important implications for materials characterization and multi-scale simulations and suggest opportunities for enhanced strain engineering of high-temperature phases exhibiting soft-mode instabilities.

  20. Characterization of mechanical properties of Inconel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Hyung; Kim, Hee Young; Sohn, Woong Hee; Ahn, Young Chul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 60 and Inconel 690 steam generator tube test-produced by Sammi Steel Co. Ltd. were analyzed to develop the Inconel steam generator tube for nuclear power plant. 2. The mechanical properties such as yield strength, tensile strength and elongation= satisfied the requirement of Combustion Engineering specification, but the yield strength is needed to be decreased. The effect of the carbon content on the mechanical properties in the range of 0.019-0.030 % were not observed. The effects of grain size on the yield strength and tensile strength were well agreed with Hall-Petch relationship. the creep rupture life of Inconel 690 were almost same in, and it is similar to the Inconel 690 first test-produced by Sammi Steel Co., Ltd. It was suggested that the master curve which could be predict the creep life with varying the temperature and stress from Larson-Miller parameter. The stress exponents were measured as 4 and the activation energy for creep were similar to the activation energy for self diffusion of self diffusion. It is analyzed that the creep deformation of Inconel 690 alloy were controlled by the dislocation climb. The solution temperature of carbides precipitates was measured in Inconel 600 and Inconel 690 and the optimum annealing temperature and time to obtain required grain size were suggested. The grain boundary carbides could be controlled by thermal treatment at 700 deg C. The serrations of stress were observed at temperature ranged 300-600 deg C in the stress strain curves. The strain rate sensitivities exhibited the negative value in the serrated region. The temperature range of Inconel 690 showing the serration in stress strain curve is higher than that of Inconel 600 about 50 deg C. (Author) 45 refs., 8 tabs., 33 figs.

  1. Mechanical properties of thermoelectric lanthanum telluride from quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guodong; Aydemir, Umut; Wood, Max; Goddard, William A., III; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    Lanthanum telluride (La3Te4) is an n-type high-performance thermoelectric material in the high temperature range, but its mechanical properties remain unknown. Since we want robust mechanical properties for their integration into industrial applications, we report here quantum mechanics (QM) simulations to determine the ideal strength and deformation mechanisms of La3Te4 under pure shear deformations. Among all plausible shear deformation paths, we find that shearing along the (0 0 1)/text{1} 0 0> slip system has the lowest ideal shear strength of 0.99 GPa, making it the most likely slip system to be activated under pressure. We find that the long range La-Te ionic interactions play the predominant role in resisting shear deformation. To enhance the mechanical strength, we suggest improving the long ionic La-Te bond stiffness to strengthen the ionic La-Te framework in La3Te4 by a defect-engineering strategy, such as partial substitution of La by Ce or Pr having isotypic crystal structures. This work provides the fundamental information to understand the intrinsic mechanics of La3Te4.

  2. Biological materials: (Part A): Temperature-responsive polymers and drug delivery, and, (Part B): Polymer modification of fish scale and their nano-mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xu

    This research has three parts. Two parts deal with novel nanoparticle assemblies for drug delivery, and are described in Part A, while the third part looks at properties of fish scales, an abundant and little-used waste resource, that can be modified to have value in medical and other areas. Part A describes fundamental research into the affects of block sequence of amphiphilic block copolymers prepared from on a new and versatile class of monomers, oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (OEGA) and the more hydrophobic di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA). Polymers from these monomers are biologically safe and give polymers with thermoresponsive properties that can be manipulated over a broader temperature range than the more researched N-isopropylacrylamide polymers. Using RAFT polymerization and different Chain Transfer Agents (CTAs) amphiphilic block copolymers were prepared to study the effect of block sequence (hydrophilic OEGA and more hydrophobic DEGMA) on their thermo-responsive properties. Pairing hydrophilic chain ends to a hydrophobic DEGMA block and hydrophobic chain ends to hydrophilic blocks ("mis-matched polarity") significantly affected thermoresponsive properties for linear and star diblock copolymers, but little affected symmetric triblock copolymers. Specifically matching polarity in diblock copolymers yielded nanoparticles with higher cloud points (CP), narrow temperature ranges for coil collapse above CP, and smaller hydrodynamic diameter than mis-matched polarity. Using this knowledge two linear OEGA/DEGMA diblock copolymers were prepared with thiol end groups and assembled into hybrid nanoparticles with a gold nanoparticle core (GNP-polymer hybrids). This design was made using the hypothesis that a hybrid polymer drug carrier with a high CP (50-60 °C) and a diblock structure could be designed with low levels of drug release below 37 °C (body temperature) allowing the drug carrier to reach a target (tumor) site with

  3. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Dhakal, Pashupati [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Matalevich, Joseph R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  4. Mechanical properties of plastics predetermined by empirical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, J. J.; Parker, J. A.

    1964-01-01

    To predetermine the mechanical properties of rigid plastics as a function of plasticizer content and composition, a set of equations has been empirically derived. These relate strain rate, yield stress, temperature, and weight fraction of the plasticizer.

  5. Synthesis, growth, optical, mechanical and electrical properties of L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ne laser source. Mechanical property of the crystal was determined by Vickers hardness tester. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric constant (r), dielectric loss (tan ) and a.c. conductivity (ac) were also measured.

  6. Effect of microstructure on the high temperature mechanical properties of (CeO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(GdO{sub 1.5}){sub 0.2} electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammes, N.M.; Zhang, Y. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1996-12-31

    CeO{sub 2}-based oxides have recently been shown to have great potential as electrolytes in medium temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications, primarily due to their high ionic conductivity. Steele et al., for example, have examined a cell of the type: O{sub 2}, La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}{vert_bar}Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}{vert_bar}Ni-ZrO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O at 715{degrees}C. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped CeO{sub 2} has been reported as having one of the highest oxygen ion conductivities of the ceria-based materials. An ionic conductivity of 8.3 x 10{sup -2} s/cm has been reported for (CeO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(GdO{sub 1.5}){sub 0.2} at 800{degrees}C, which is approximately four times that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped ZrO{sub 2}, at the same temperature. Although the electrical properties of the material have been examined in detail, very little work has considered the microstructural/property relationships, particularly in relation to the mechanical properties. It is well know that CeO{sub 2}-based materials are difficult to density and attempts have been performed to examine this. Preliminary studies have also been undertaken to examine the effect of sintering on the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper we examine the effect of microstructure on the high temperature mechanical properties of (CeO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(GdO{sub 1.5}){sub 0.2}.

  7. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, C. M.; Wu, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb/sub 3/Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take.

  8. Mechanical properties of the high-entropy alloy Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi in various structural states at temperatures of 0.5-300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnikova, E. D.; Laktionova, M. A.; Semerenko, Yu. A.; Shumilin, S. E.; Podolskiy, A. V.; Tikhonovsky, M. A.; Miskuf, J.; Csach, K.

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical properties and fracture characteristics of the high-entropy alloy Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi are studied in different structural states (cast and after two heat treatments) at temperatures of 0.5-300 K with quasistatic deformation by uniaxial compression and distension. Mechanical resonance spectroscopy is used to measure the temperature variations of the Young modulus in the different structural states. It is found that heat treatment of the samples leads to an increase (by roughly 25%) in the Young modulus, the nominal yield point τ0.2, and the deforming stress. The form of the deformation curves is analyzed. The temperature interval for the transition from smooth to discontinuous plastic flow is determined. For the cast state the differences in τ0.2 under tension and compression are determined, an anomalous temperature dependence of τ0.2 (for temperatures in the 0.5-4.2 K range) is discovered, and thermal activation analysis of the experimental data yields empirical estimates for the parameters of the interactions of dislocations with local barriers. After heat treatment the samples break up into two parts under compression, as opposed to the cast state, where the samples acquire a "barrel" shape during compression. It is found that fracture of the heat treated samples at temperatures of 300-4.2 K has a viscous character.

  9. Effect of the Temperature in the Mechanical Properties of Austenite, Ferrite and Sigma Phases of Duplex Stainless Steels Using Hardness, Microhardness and Nanoindentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Argandoña

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the hardness of the ferrite, austenite and sigma phases of a UNS S32760 superduplex stainless steel submitted to different thermal treatments, thus leading to different percentages of the mentioned phases. A comparative study has been performed in order to evaluate the resulting mechanical properties of these phases by using hardness, microhardness and nanoindentation techniques. In addition, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD have been also used to identify their presence and distribution. Finally, the experimental results have shown that the resulting hardness values were increased as a function of a longer heat treatment duration which it is associated to the formation of a higher percentage of the sigma phase. However, nanoindentation hardness measurements of this sigma phase showed lower values than expected, being a combination of two main factors, namely the complexity of the sigma phase structure as well as the surface finish (roughness.

  10. Relationships between Conversion, Temperature and Optical Properties during Composite Photopolymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Benjamin; Wilson, Nicholas D.; Sheldon M. Newman; Pfeifer, Carmem S.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Optical properties of composite restoratives, both cured and uncured, are of obvious importance in a procedure reliant on photoactivation, since they may affect light transmission and therefore, materials conversion upon which mechanical properties and ultimate clinical performance are dependent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate simultaneous, real-time conversion, temperature and optical properties development. The dimethacrylate resin (BisGMA / TEGDMA 70/30 mass %) was prep...

  11. Evolution of the structure and mechanical properties of a bulk-nitrided corrosion-resistant ferritic steel upon tempering in the temperature range of 400-700°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogachev, S. O.; Nikulin, S. A.; Khatkevich, V. M.

    2017-08-01

    Methods of the X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy were used to study changes in the structural phase state and mechanical properties of bulk-nitrided 08Kh17T steel (0.08 wt % C, 17 wt % Cr, 0.8 wt % Ti, 0.5 wt % Si, 0.8 wt % Mn, 0.025 wt % S, and 0.035 wt % P) upon tempering in the temperature range of 400-700°C. The changes in the mechanical properties of the nitrided steel upon tempering are associated with the predominance of either the solid-solution or precipitation strengthening, i.e., with the presence of martensite in the steel structure at low temperatures of tempering and the precipitation of particles of Cr2N nitrides of different dispersity upon increasing the tempering temperature. The greatest increase in the ultimate tensile strength and yield stress (1.8-2.5 times) at a satisfactory plasticity (no less than 10%) of the bulk-nitrided steel is achieved by tempering bulk-nitrided steel in a temperature range of 600-700°C.

  12. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, John Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.; Boyce, Brad Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  13. Basic mechanical properties of layered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with identifying attributes of layered steel materials (damask steel with the help of mechanical tests. Experimentally verify basic mechanical properties of layered steel and subsequently assessed it in comparison with the values obtained for the classic steel materials. In conclusion, there are listed the possibilities of using multilayer steel materials in technical practice, depending on the economics of production.The damask steel was prepared by forge welding from a packet consisting of 17 layers (9 layers of tool steel 19 133 (ČSN with the thickness of 6 mm and 8 layers 80NiCr11 steel in the form of saw bands with the thickness of 1.2 mm. The packet was cut into 8 parts, folded 3 times and forged together, which provided damask steel with 136 layers. The resulting steel bars were used to make semi-finished products with the approximate dimensions of the test specimens. For evaluation of mechanical properties were applied the following tests: tensile test, Charpy impact test, hardness and microhardness measurementsThe results of tests proved that the properties of damask steel are dependent not only on the direction led impact quality forge weld layers and content iof nhomogeneities in the place of discord, but also on the quenching and tempering temperature, resp. on the choice of quenching bath, which determine the final structure of steel and the resulting hardness, respectively microhardness.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystal Supercrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Enrico; Podsiadlo, Paul; Shevchenko, Elena; Ogletree, D. Frank; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Ashby, Paul D.

    2009-12-30

    Colloidal nanocrystals attract significant interest due to their potential applications in electronic, magnetic, and optical devices. Nanocrystal supercrystals (NCSCs) are particularly appealing for their well ordered structure and homogeneity. The interactions between organic ligands that passivate the inorganic nanocrystal cores critically influence their self-organization into supercrystals, By investigating the mechanical properties of supercrystals, we can directly characterize the particle-particle interactions in a well-defined geometry, and gain insight into both the self-assembly process and the potential applications of nanocrystal supercrystals. Here we report nanoindentation studies of well ordered lead-sulfide (Pbs) nanocrystal supercrystals. Their modulus and hardness were found to be similar to soft polymers at 1.7 GPa and 70 MPa respectively and the fractures toughness was 39 KPa/m1/2, revealing the extremely brittle nature of these materials.

  15. Mechanical properties of human pulleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, G T; Cooney, W P; Amadio, P C; An, K N

    1990-11-01

    In order to determine the mechanical properties of the fibro-osseous pulleys in the hand, the diaphyseal annular pulleys, the volar plate annular pulleys and the cruciate or condensable portions were tested. A custom-made loading device provided proper fit of the soft tissues for a uniform distribution of the pulley load during testing. The A2 pulley was found to be the strongest of the pulleys; the A1 and A4 were the next strongest. The A3 pulley was nearly equal in mean breaking strength to the other annular pulleys, but in absolute breaking load was considerably weaker because of its shortness. The A4 was the least compliant of the pulleys. We concluded that the fibro-osseous A2 and A4 were mechanically stronger and stiffer pulleys than the A1, A3, A5 (volar plate) pulleys. In testing one type of pulley reconstruction, we found that the "belt loop" technique of Karev nearly matched the annular pulleys in strength and energy absorption.

  16. Mechanical Proprieties of Steel at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Diana Ancaş

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental test results obtained in the study of steel mechanical proprieties variation in case of high temperatures (fire are presented. The proprieties are referring to: Young’s modulus, E, the elastic limit, σe, and the characteristic diagram of the material (the rotation stress-strain. Theoretical laws that the model the steel behaviour at high temperature have been elaborated based on the most significant studies presented in the literature.

  17. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Chun Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP, and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance (ICR of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature.

  18. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time-Temperature Superposition Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Chun; Chien, Yi-Chi; Wu, Tung-Lin; Hung, Ke-Chang; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2017-03-30

    This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP), and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance ( ICR ) of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature.

  19. Determining the mechanical constitutive properties of metals as a function of strain rate and temperature: A combined experimental and modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. M. Robertson; A. Beaudoin; J. Lambros

    2004-01-05

    OAK-135 Development and validation of constitutive models for polycrystalline materials subjected to high strain rate loading over a range of temperatures are needed to predict the response of engineering materials to in-service type conditions (foreign object damage, high-strain rate forging, high-speed sheet forming, deformation behavior during forming, response to extreme conditions, etc.). To account accurately for the complex effects that can occur during extreme and variable loading conditions, requires significant and detailed computational and modeling efforts. These efforts must be closely coupled with precise and targeted experimental measurements that not only verify the predictions of the models, but also provide input about the fundamental processes responsible for the macroscopic response. Achieving this coupling between modeling and experimentation is the guiding principle of this program. Specifically, this program seeks to bridge the length scale between discrete dislocation interactions with grain boundaries and continuum models for polycrystalline plasticity. Achieving this goal requires incorporating these complex dislocation-interface interactions into the well-defined behavior of single crystals. Despite the widespread study of metal plasticity, this aspect is not well understood for simple loading conditions, let alone extreme ones. Our experimental approach includes determining the high-strain rate response as a function of strain and temperature with post-mortem characterization of the microstructure, quasi-static testing of pre-deformed material, and direct observation of the dislocation behavior during reloading by using the in situ transmission electron microscope deformation technique. These experiments will provide the basis for development and validation of physically-based constitutive models, which will include dislocation-grain boundary interactions for polycrystalline systems. One aspect of the program will involve the dire ct

  20. Ultrasonic investigation of mechanical properties of double base rocket propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeff, J.A. van der; Boer, R.S. de

    1976-01-01

    For a series of double base rocket propellants and for poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) the longitudinal and transverse sound wave velocities are measured at a frequency of 0.351 MHz in t h e temperature range of −40°C to +60°C. The relations between these acoustic properties and mechanical properties

  1. Mechanical Properties of Nylon Harp Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lynch-Aird

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Monofilament nylon strings with a range of diameters, commercially marketed as harp strings, have been tested to establish their long-term mechanical properties. Once a string had settled into a desired stress state, the Young’s modulus was measured by a variety of methods that probe different time-scales. The modulus was found to be a strong function of testing frequency and also a strong function of stress. Strings were also subjected to cyclical variations of temperature, allowing various thermal properties to be measured: the coefficient of linear thermal expansion and the thermal sensitivities of tuning, Young’s modulus and density. The results revealed that the particular strings tested are divided into two groups with very different properties: stress-strain behaviour differing by a factor of two and some parametric sensitivities even having the opposite sign. Within each group, correlation studies allowed simple functional fits to be found to the key properties, which have the potential to be used in automated tuning systems for harp strings.

  2. influence of intercritical annealing temperature on mechanical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Mechanical testing. (tensile, impact and hardness) of the annealed samples were conducted at room temperature. The fracture surfaces of the impact test samples were examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Micros structural ... improved formability, capacity to absorb crash energy and ability to resist ...

  3. Mechanical Properties and Deformation Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Churyumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallic glasses demonstrate unique properties, including large elastic limit and high strength, which make them attractive for practical applications. Unlike crystalline alloys, metallic glasses, in general, do not exhibit a strain hardening effect, while plastic deformation at room temperature is localized in narrow shear bands. Room-temperature mechanical properties and deformation behavior of bulk metallic glassy samples and the crystal-glassy composites are reviewed in the present paper.

  4. Mechanical Properties and Deformation Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Yu. Churyumov; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Larissa V. Louzguina-Luzgina

    2012-01-01

    Metallic glasses demonstrate unique properties, including large elastic limit and high strength, which make them attractive for practical applications. Unlike crystalline alloys, metallic glasses, in general, do not exhibit a strain hardening effect, while plastic deformation at room temperature is localized in narrow shear bands. Room-temperature mechanical properties and deformation behavior of bulk metallic glassy samples and the crystal-glassy composites are reviewed in the present paper.

  5. influence of intercritical annealing temperature on mechanical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of the impact test samples were examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Micros structural evolution of the samples was also examined with an optical microscope. The results showed that all the evaluated mechanical properties were improved by intercritical annealing, with the samples treated at 790OC ...

  6. Mechanical properties of LaFe11.5Si1.5/Cu negative thermal composite and its application as clamp materials for tensile test at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Y.; Huang, R.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, C.; Li, L.

    2017-09-01

    La (Fe, Si)13 compounds have been widely studied for their excellent negative thermal expansion (NTE) properties. However, their poor mechanical properties limit their practical applications. In this work, LaFe11.5Si1.5/Cu material was fabricated. It was found that the NTE behavior occurs obviously at cryogenic temperatures and the ratio of ΔL/L can reach to 0.12%. Mechanical tests indicated that the absolute value of compressive strength at 77K and 300K is 365MPa and 222MPa, respectively. The elastic modulus at 77K and 300K is -109GPa and -87GPa, respectively. In addition, the average hardness is 337Hv performed in the Vickers hardness tester. Loose between the samples and clamps in the tensile test due to the contraction of clamp at low temperatures remains a big issue. In order to solve this problem, some LaFe11.5Si1.5/Cu NTE sheets are added between the clamp and the tested samples. Results showed that the samples with NTE materials sheets embedded is held tighter by the clamp. The maximum force of the tensile test is 9.77N and 5.48N, respectively, which illustrates that the adding of NTE material does make sense.

  7. Mechanical Properties of WE43 Magnesium Alloy Joint at Elevated Temperature / Właściwości Mechaniczne Złączy Ze Stopu Magnezu WE43 W Podwyższonej Temperaturze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turowska A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The WE43 cast magnesium alloy, containing yttrium and rare earth elements, remains stable at temperatures up to 300°C, according to the manufacturer, and therefore it is considered for a possible application in the aerospace and automotive. Usually, it is cast gravitationally into sand moulds and used for large-size castings that find application in the aerospace industry. After the casting process any possible defects that might appear in the casting are repaired with the application of welding techniques. These techniques also find application in renovation of the used cast elements and in the process of joining the cast parts into complex structures. An important factor determining the validity of the application of welding techniques for repairing or joining cast magnesium alloys is the structural stability and the stability of the properties of the joint in operating conditions. In the literature of the subject are information on the properties of the WE43 alloy or an impact of heat treatment on the structure and properties of the alloy, however, there is a lack of information concerning the welded joints produced from this alloy. This paper has been focused on the analysis the microstructure of the welded joints and their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. To do this, tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 300°C were performed. The tests showed, that up to the temperature of 150°C the crack occurred in the base material, whereas above this temperature level the rapture occurred within the weld. The loss of cohesion resulted from the nucleation of voids on grain boundaries and their formation into the main crack. The strength of the joints ranged from 150 MPa to 235 MPa, i.e. around 90 % of strength of the WE43 alloy after heat treatment (T6. Also performed a profilometric examination was to establish the shape of the fracture and to analyze how the temperature affected a contribution of phases in the process of

  8. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.

  9. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He

    2017-03-01

    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  10. Effect of cellulose fiber reinforcement on the temperature dependent mechanical performance of nylon 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi Tajvidi; Mokhtar Feizmand; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton

    2009-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of pure nylon 6 and its composite with cellulose fibers (containing 25 wt% cellulose fibers), the materials were sampled and tested at three representative temperatures of 256, 296, and 336 K. Flexural and tensile tests were performed and the reductions in mechanical properties were evaluated....

  11. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended ...

  12. Effect of irradiation temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties of V-4Cr-4Ti irradiated to low doses in fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Alexander, D.J.; Gibson, L.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests performed on irradiated V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-6%)Ti alloys indicate that pronounced hardening and loss of strain hardening capacity occurs for doses of 0.1--20 dpa at irradiation temperatures below {approximately}330 C. The amount of radiation hardening decreases rapidly for irradiation temperatures above 400 C, with a concomitant increase in strain hardening capacity. Low-dose (0.1--0.5 dpa) irradiation shifts the dynamic strain aging regime to higher temperatures and lower strain rates compared to unirradiated specimens. Very low fracture toughness values were observed in miniature disk compact specimens irradiated at 200--320 C to {approximately}1.5--15 dpa and tested at 200 C.

  13. Temperature dependent terahertz properties of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abdur; Azad, Abul; Moore, David

    Terahertz spectroscopy has been demonstrated as an ideal nondestructive method for identifying hazardous materials such as explosives. Many common explosives exhibit distinct spectral signatures at terahertz range (0.1-6.0 THz) due to the excitations of their low frequency vibrational modes. Ammonium nitrate (AN), an easily accessible oxidizer often used in improvised explosive, exhibits strong temperature dependence. While the room temperature terahertz absorption spectrum of AN is featureless, it reveals distinct spectral features below 240 K due to the polymorphic phase transition. We employed terahertz time domain spectroscopy to measure the effective dielectric properties of AN embedded in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder. The dielectric properties of pure AN were extracted using three different effective medium theories (EMT), simple effective medium approach, Maxwell-Garnett (MG) model, and Bruggeman (BR) model. In order to understand the effect of temperature on the dielectric properties, we varied the sample temperature from 5K to 300K. This study indicates presence of additional vibrational modes at low temperature. These results may greatly enhance the detectability of AN and facilitate more accurate theoretical modeling.

  14. High Temperature Mechanisms for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jerri; Narine, Roop; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Gorevan, Steven

    Future Venus missions, including New Frontiers Venus In-Situ Explorer and three Flagship Missions - Venus Geophysical Network, Venus Mobile Explorer and Venus Surface Sample Return all focus on searching for evidence of past climate change both on the surface and in the atmospheric composition as well as in the interior dynamics of the planet. In order to achieve these goals and objectives, many key technologies need to be developed for the Venus extreme environment. These key technologies include sample acquisition systems and other high-temperature mechanisms and mobility systems capable of extended operation when directly exposed to the Venus surface or lower atmosphere environment. Honeybee Robotics has developed two types of high temperature motors, the materials and components in both motors were selected based on the requirement to survive temperatures above a minimum of 460° C, at earth atmosphere. The prototype Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) has been operated non-continuously for over 20 hours at Venus-like conditions (460° C temperature, mostly CO2 gas environment) and it remains functional. A drilling system, actuated by two SRMs was tested in Venus-like conditions, 460° C temperature and mostly CO2 gas environment, for more than 15 hours. The drill successfully completed three tests by drilling into chalk up to 6 inches deep in each test. A first generation Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor and high temperature resolver were also tested and the feasibility of the designs was demonstrated by the extended operation of both devices under Venus-like condition. Further development of the BLDC motor and resolver continues and these devices will, ultimately, be integrated into the development of a high temperature sample acquisition scoop and high temperature joint (awarded SBIR Phase II in October, 2007). Both the SR and BLDC motors will undergo extensive testing at Venus temperature and pressure (TRL6) and are expected to be mission ready before the next New

  15. Properties of ferrites at low temperatures (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Gerald F.

    1997-04-01

    At cryogenic temperatures magnetic properties of ferrites change significantly from their values at room temperature, which has been the main regime for most device applications. Recently, microwave ferrite devices with superconducting microstrip circuits have been demonstrated at a temperature of 77 K with virtually no electrical conduction losses. Conventional ferrimagnetic garnet and spinel compositions, however, are not generally optimized for low temperatures and may require chemical redesign if the full potential of these devices is to be realized. Saturation magnetizations increase according to the Brillouin-Weiss function dependence that is characteristic of all ferromagnetic materials. Increased magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetostriction can have large effects on hysteresis loop squareness and coercive fields that are essential for stable phase shift and efficient switching. Rare-earth impurities and other ions with short spin-lattice relaxation times can cause increased microwave losses. In this article, the basic magnetochemistry pertaining to ferrites will be examined for adaptation of ferrite technology to cryogenic environments.

  16. Degradation of mechanical properties of cast Cr-Mo-V and Cr-W-V steam turbine casings after long-term service at elevated temperatures: Pt. 2:; Fracture toughness, correlation of fracture toughness with Charpy V-notch toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzmann, M.; Man, J.; Vlach, B. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie); Krumpos, J. (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Plzen (Czech Republic). Inst. of Technology and Reliability of Machine Structures)

    1994-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure at elevated temperatures on the transition behaviour of the fracture toughness temperature curve of cast Cr-Mo-V and Cr-W-V steels has been studied. The fracture toughness versus temperature behaviour after any operational period seems to be controlled by the initial fracture properties. Relationships linking the fracture toughness to Charpy V-notch impact properties are reported. The validity of these relationships for cast steels was confirmed. (Author)

  17. Influence of Ultrasonic Melt Treatment and Cooling Rates on the Microstructural Development and Elevated Temperature Mechanical Properties of a Hypereutectic Al-18Si-4Cu-3Ni Piston Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jea-Hee; Cho, Young-Hee; Jung, Jae-Gil; Lee, Jung-Moo [Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The influence of ultrasonic melt treatment (UST) combined with a change in cooling rates on the microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical properties of a hypereutectic Al-18Si-4Cu-3Ni piston alloy was investigated. Microstructural observation confirmed that UST effectively refined the sizes of primary Si and intermetallic compounds (e.g. ε-Al{sub 3}Ni) while promoting their homogeneous distribution. Besides the refinement of the constituent phases, the size of the dendrite arm spacing (DAS), which was hardly affected by UST, significantly deceased with increasing cooling rates. The refinement of the solidification structure in the alloy achieved through both UST and increased cooling rates resulted in an improvement in tensile properties, ultimate tensile strength and elongation in particular, after T5 heat treatment followed by overaging at 350 ℃. However, the elevated temperature yield strength of the alloy was not associated with the refinement, but was rather correlated with the 3-D interconnectivity, morphology and volume fraction of the primary Si.

  18. Effect of sintering temperature on the morphology and mechanical properties of PTFE membranes as a base substrate for proton exchange membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aida Zubir

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development of PTFE membranes as the base substrates for producing proton exchange membrane by using radiation-grafting technique. An aqueous dispersion of PTFE, which includes sodium benzoate, is cast in order to form suitable membranes. The casting was done by usinga pneumatically controlled flat sheet membrane-casting machine. The membrane is then sintered to fuse the polymer particles and cooled. After cooling process, the salt crystals are leached from the membrane by dissolution in hot bath to leave a microporous structure, which is suitable for such uses as a filtration membrane or as a base substrate for radiation grafted membrane in PEMFC. The effects of sintering temperature on the membrane morphology and tensile strength were investigated at 350oC and 385oC by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EX 20, respectively. The pore size and total void space are significantly smaller at higher sintering temperature employed with an average pore diameter of 11.78 nm. The tensile strength and tensile strain of sintered PTFE membrane at 385oC are approximately 19.02 + 1.46 MPa and 351.04 + 23.13 %, respectively. These results were indicated at 385oC, which represents significant improvements in tensile strength and tensile strain, which are nearly twice those at 350oC.

  19. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped ZnO....... Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...... for conventional ZnO materials. For Al-doped ZnO, α- and γ-Al2O3 were selectively used as dopants in order to understand the doping mechanism of each phase and their effects on the thermoelectric properties. The samples were prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique from precursors calcined at various...

  20. Nanoporous gold synthesized by plasma-assisted inert gas condensation: room temperature sintering, nanoscale mechanical properties and stability against high energy electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrauch, S.; Wagner, C.; Suckfuell, C.; Lotnyk, A.; Knolle, W.; Gerlach, J. W.; Mayr, S. G.

    2018-02-01

    With a plasma assisted gas condensation system it is possible to achieve high-purity nanoporous Au (np-Au) structures with minimal contaminations and impurities. The structures consist of single Au-nanoparticles, which partially sintered together due to their high surface to volume ratio. Through electron microscopy investigations a porosity  >50% with ligament sizes between 20–30 nm was revealed. The elastic modulus of the np-Au was determined via peak force quantitative nanomechanical mapping and resulted in values of 7.5  ±  1.5 GPa. The presented structures partially sintered at room temperature, but proved to be stable to electron irradiation with energies of 7 MeV up to doses of 100 MGy. The electron irradiation stability opens the venue for electron assisted functionalization with biomolecules.

  1. Materials support for the development of high temperature advanced furnaces (HITAF): A comparison of selected mechanical properties for three SiC-based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breder, K.; Tennery, V.J.

    1994-09-01

    Purpose of this project is to compare structural ceramic materials proposed for use in the air heater of a coal fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) for power generation. The work will provide necessary initial strength and statistical material parameters for design of a prototype system. Two teams are currently funded by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) under the Combustion 2000 program to develop such a system. One team is led by the United Technologies Research Corporation, and consists of UTC Turbo Power and Marine Division, Bechtel, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a Joint Venture of Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) Technologies, Reaction Engineering International (REI) and University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC); the other team is led by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and members are AiResearch Division of AlliedSignal Aerospace Systems & Equipment, Research Cottrell, TRW, General Electric and Bechtel.

  2. Hydride reorientation and its impact on ambient temperature mechanical properties of high burn-up irradiated and unirradiated recrystallized Zircaloy-2 nuclear fuel cladding with an inner liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzoux, Q.; Bouffioux, P.; Machiels, A.; Yagnik, S.; Bourdiliau, B.; Mallet, C.; Mozzani, N.; Colas, K.

    2017-10-01

    Precipitation of radial hydrides in zirconium-based alloy cladding concomitant with the cooling of spent nuclear fuel during dry storage can potentially compromise cladding integrity during its subsequent handling and transportation. This paper investigates hydride reorientation and its impact on ductility in unirradiated and irradiated recrystallized Zircaloy-2 cladding with an inner liner (cladding for boiling water reactors) subjected to hydride reorientation treatments. Cooling from 400 °C, hydride reorientation occurs in recrystallized Zircaloy-2 with liner at a lower effective stress in irradiated samples (below 40 MPa) than in unirradiated specimens (between 40 and 80 MPa). Despite significant hydride reorientation, unirradiated recrystallized Zircaloy-2 with liner cladding containing ∼200 wppm hydrogen shows a high diametral strain at fracture (>15%) during burst tests at ambient temperature. This ductile behavior is due to (1) the lower yield stress of the recrystallized cladding materials in comparison to hydride fracture strength (corrected by the compression stress arising from the precipitation) and (2) the hydride or hydrogen-depleted zone as a result of segregation of hydrogen into the liner layer. In irradiated Zircaloy-2 with liner cladding containing ∼340 wppm hydrogen, the conservation of some ductility during ring tensile tests at ambient temperature after reorientation treatment at 400 °C with cooling rates of ∼60 °C/h is also attributed to the existence of a hydride-depleted zone. Treatments at lower cooling rates (∼6 °C/h and 0.6 °C/h) promote greater levels of hydrogen segregation into the liner and allow for increased irradiation defect annealing, both of which result in a significant increase in ductility. Based on this investigation, given the very low cooling rates typical of dry storage systems, it can be concluded that the thermal transients associated with dry storage should not degrade, and more likely should actually

  3. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  4. Mechanical properties of F82H plates with different thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo, E-mail: sakasegawa.hideo@jaea.go.jp; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mass effect, homogeneity, and anisotropy in mechanical properties were studied. • Thickness dependence of tensile property was not observed. • Thickness dependence of Charpy impact property was observed. • Appropriate mechanical properties were obtained using an electric furnace. - Abstract: Fusion DEMO reactor requires over 11,000 tons of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel and it is indispensable to develop the manufacturing technology for producing large-scale components of DEMO blanket with appropriate mechanical properties. This is because mechanical properties are generally degraded with increasing production volume. In this work, we focused mechanical properties of F82H–BA12 heat which was melted in a 20 tons electric arc furnace. Plates with difference thicknesses from 18 to 100 mm{sup t} were made from its ingot through forging and hot-rolling followed by heat treatments. Tensile and Charpy impact tests were then performed on plates focusing on their homogeneity and anisotropy. From the result, their homogeneity and anisotropy were not significant. No obvious differences were observed in tensile properties between the plates with different thicknesses. However, Charpy impact property changed with increasing plate thickness, i.e. the ductile brittle transition temperature of a 100 mm{sup t} thick plate was higher than that of the other thinner plates.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Contact Lens Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eon; Saha, Mou; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2017-11-07

    To evaluate the mechanical properties of commonly available soft contact lens materials and compare results using custom-built MicroTensometer. The Young modulus, parameters for stress relaxation, and toughness of 18 types of single vision soft contact lenses were measured using custom-built MicroTensometer. Five lenses of each type were soaked in standard phosphate buffered saline and measured at a temperature of 35°C. Each lens was flattened and sliced into a rectangular strip sample using two parallel blades. The Acuvue Moist 1-Day and SofLens Daily lenses measured lowest moduli, whereas Air Optix Night & Day Aqua and Premio measured the highest. The measured moduli for silicone hydrogel materials were generally higher compared with the hydrogels except for Dailies AquaComfort Plus. The exponential curve fitted over the decay in stress showed a consistent time constant of approximately 10 sec for most lens types measured. However, the amplitude constant varied from 2.84% for SofLens Daily to 22.39% for Acuvue TruEye 1-Day. The toughness results showed that Dailies AquaComfort Plus is strong but not necessarily tough. The mechanical properties of commonly prescribed soft contact lens materials were measured using a dedicated instrument. Its reliability was demonstrated, and modulus results were compared against published data from manufacturers and other research groups. Agreement was generally good, with only a few exceptions exceeding 15% difference. The more recently released silicone hydrogel lens types have reduced modulus, approaching that of medium or high water content hydrogel materials.

  6. Pressing Speed, Specific Pressure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in the process of aluminum alloy die castings production, which is nowadays deeply implemented into the rapidly growing automobile, shipping and aircraft industries, is aimed at increasing the useful qualitative properties of the die casting in order to obtain its high mechanical properties at acceptable economic cost. Problem of technological factors of high pressure die casting has been a subject of worldwide research (EU, US, Japan, etc.. The final performance properties of die castings are subjected to a large number of technological factors. The main technological factors of high pressure die casting are as follows: plunger pressing speed, specific (increase pressure, mold temperature as well as alloy temperature. The contribution discusses the impact of the plunger pressing speed and specific (increase pressure on the mechanical properties of the casting aluminum alloy.

  7. Mechanical, microstructure and electrical properties of ternary ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 3. Mechanical, microstructure and electrical properties of ternary ZnO–V2O5–Mn3O4 varistor with sintering temperature. S El-Rabai A H Khafagy M T Dawoud M T Attia. Volume 38 Issue 3 June 2015 pp 773-781 ...

  8. Comparison of mechanical properties for several electrical spring contact alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Terry V.

    1976-06-01

    Work was conducted to determine whether beryllium-nickel alloy 440 had mechanical properties which made it suitable as a substitute for the presently used precious metal contact alloys Paliney 7 and Neyoro G, in certain electrical contact applications. Possible areas of applicability for the alloy were where extremely low contact resistance was not necessary or in components encountering elevated temperatures above those presently seen in weapons applications. Evaluation of the alloy involved three major experimental areas: 1) measurement of the room temperature microplastic (epsilon approximately 10/sup -6/) and macroplastic (epsilon approximately 10/sup -3/) behavior of alloy 440 in various age hardening conditions, 2) determination of applied stress effects on stress relaxation or contact force loss and 3) measurement of elevated temperature mechanical properties and stress relaxation behavior. Similar measurements were also made on Neyoro G and Paliney 7 for comparison. The primary results of the study show that beryllium-nickel alloy 440 is from a mechanical properties standpoint, equal or superior to the presently used Paliney 7 and Neyoro G for normal Sandia requirements. For elevated temperature applications, alloy 440 has clearly superior mechanical properties.

  9. Mechanical properties of low tantalum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortovich, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical property behavior of equiaxed cast B-1900 + Hf alloy as a function of tantalum content was studied. Tensile and stress rupture characterization was conducted on cast to size test bars containing tantalum at the 4.3% (standard level), 2.2% and 0% levels. Casting parameters were selected to duplicate conditions used to prepare test specimens for master metal heat qualification. The mechanical property results as well as results of microstructural/phase analysis of failed test bars are presented.

  10. Response of mechanical properties of glasses to their chemical, thermal and mechanical histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    of glass fibers are dependent on the thermal history (measured as fictive temperature), tension, chemical composition and redox state. However, the fictive temperature affects the hardness of bulk glass in a complicated manner, i.e., the effect does not exhibit a clear regularity in the range......Mechanical properties are a key factor to be considered when designing new glass compositions, optimizing glass processing parameters and defining the glass application fields. However, mechanical properties of glasses are complex values since they are influenced by many factors such as structure......, surface, thermal history or excess entropy of the final glass state. Here I review recent progresses in understanding of the responses of mechanical properties of oxide glasses to the compositional variation, thermal history and mechanical deformation. The tensile strength, elastic modulus and hardness...

  11. Mechanisms underlying temperature extremes in Iberia: a Lagrangian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the occurrence of temperature extremes in Iberia are analysed considering a Lagrangian perspective of the atmospheric flow, using 6-hourly ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the years 1979–2012. Daily 2-m minimum temperatures below the 1st percentile and 2-m maximum temperatures above the 99th percentile at each grid point over Iberia are selected separately for winter and summer. Four categories of extremes are analysed using 10-d backward trajectories initialized at the extreme temperature grid points close to the surface: winter cold (WCE and warm extremes (WWE, and summer cold (SCE and warm extremes (SWE. Air masses leading to temperature extremes are first transported from the North Atlantic towards Europe for all categories. While there is a clear relation to large-scale circulation patterns in winter, the Iberian thermal low is important in summer. Along the trajectories, air mass characteristics are significantly modified through adiabatic warming (air parcel descent, upper-air radiative cooling and near-surface warming (surface heat fluxes and radiation. High residence times over continental areas, such as over northern-central Europe for WCE and, to a lesser extent, over Iberia for SWE, significantly enhance these air mass modifications. Near-surface diabatic warming is particularly striking for SWE. WCE and SWE are responsible for the most extreme conditions in a given year. For WWE and SCE, strong temperature advection associated with important meridional air mass transports are the main driving mechanisms, accompanied by comparatively minor changes in the air mass properties. These results permit a better understanding of mechanisms leading to temperature extremes in Iberia.

  12. Properties of ferrites at low temperatures (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, G.F. [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, Massachusetts 02173 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    At cryogenic temperatures magnetic properties of ferrites change significantly from their values at room temperature, which has been the main regime for most device applications. Recently, microwave ferrite devices with superconducting microstrip circuits have been demonstrated at a temperature of 77 K with virtually no electrical conduction losses. Conventional ferrimagnetic garnet and spinel compositions, however, are not generally optimized for low temperatures and may require chemical redesign if the full potential of these devices is to be realized. Saturation magnetizations increase according to the Brillouin{endash}Weiss function dependence that is characteristic of all ferromagnetic materials. Increased magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetostriction can have large effects on hysteresis loop squareness and coercive fields that are essential for stable phase shift and efficient switching. Rare-earth impurities and other ions with short spin-lattice relaxation times can cause increased microwave losses. In this article, the basic magnetochemistry pertaining to ferrites will be examined for adaptation of ferrite technology to cryogenic environments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Mechanical performance of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi Tajvidi; Nazanin Motie; Ghonche Rassam; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton

    2010-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of hemp fiber polypropylene composites, formulations containing 25% and 40% (by weight) hemp fiber were produced and tested at three representative temperatures of 256, 296, and 336 K. Flexural, tensile, and impact tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis, were performed and the reduction...

  14. Structure–mechanics property relationship of waste derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik, E-mail: odas566@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes, E-mail: d.bhattacharyya@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    The widespread applications of biochar in agriculture and environmental remediation made the scientific community ignore its mechanical properties. Hence, to examine the scope of biochar's structural applications, its mechanical properties have been investigated in this paper through nanoindentation technique. Seven waste derived biochars, made under different pyrolysis conditions and from diverse feedstocks, were studied via nanoindentation, infrared spectroscopy, X–ray crystallography, thermogravimetry, and electron microscopy. Following this, an attempt was made to correlate the biochars' hardness/modulus with reaction conditions and their chemical properties. The pine wood biochar made at 900 °C and 60 min residence time was found to have the highest hardness and elastic modulus of 4.29 and 25.01 GPa, respectively. It was shown that a combination of higher heat treatment (≥ 500 °C) temperature and longer residence time (~ 60 min) increases the values of hardness and modulus. It was further realized that pyrolysis temperature was a more dominant factor than residence time in determining the final mechanical properties of biochar particles. The degree of aromaticity and crystallinity of the biochar were also correlated with higher values of hardness and modulus. - Highlights: • Characterization was done on waste based biochars which included nanoindentation. • Pine saw dust biochar made at 900 °C for 60 min had highest hardness/modulus. • Combination of temperature/residence time affect biochar's mechanical propertie.s • Aromaticity and crystallinity positively affected biochar's mechanical properties.

  15. The ion temperature gradient: An intrinsic property of Earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, San; Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lin, Y.; Wang, X. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Although the ion temperature gradient along (XGSM) and across (ZGSM) the Earth's magnetotail, which plays a key role in generating the cross-tail current and establishing pressure balance with the lobes, has been extensively observed by spacecraft, the mechanism responsible for its formation is still unknown. We use multispacecraft observations and three-dimensional (3-D) global hybrid simulations to reveal this mechanism. Using THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms), Geotail, and ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun) observations during individual, near-simultaneous plasma sheet crossings from 10 to 60 RE, we demonstrate that the ion temperature ZGSM profile is bell-shaped at different geocentric distances. This ZGSM profile is also prevalent in statistics of 200 THEMIS current sheet crossings in the near-Earth region. Using 3-D global hybrid simulations, we show that mapping of the XGSM gradient of ion temperature along magnetic field lines produces such a bell-shaped profile. The ion temperature mapping along magnetic field lines in the magnetotail enables construction of two-dimensional distributions of these quantities from vertical (north-south) spacecraft crossings. Our findings suggest that the ion temperature gradient is an intrinsic property of the magnetotail that should be considered in kinetic descriptions of the magnetotail current sheet. Toward this goal, we use theoretical approaches to incorporate the temperature gradient into kinetic current sheet models, making them more realistic.

  16. Temperature-dependent surface nanomechanical properties of a thermoplastic nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Dobryden, Illia; Ihrner, Niklas; Johansson, Mats; Ma, Houyi; Pan, Jinshan; Claesson, Per M

    2017-05-15

    In polymer nanocomposites, particle-polymer interactions influence the properties of the matrix polymer next to the particle surface, providing different physicochemical properties than in the bulk matrix. This region is often referred to as the interphase, but detailed characterization of its properties remains a challenge. Here we employ two atomic force microscopy (AFM) force methods, differing by a factor of about 15 in probing rate, to directly measure the surface nanomechanical properties of the transition region between filler particle and matrix over a controlled temperature range. The nanocomposite consists of poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (PiBMA) with a high concentration of hydrophobized silica nanoparticles. Both AFM methods demonstrate that the interphase region around a 40-nm-sized particle located on the surface of the nanocomposite could extend to 55-70nm, and the interphase exhibits a gradient distribution in surface nanomechanical properties. However, the slower probing rate provides somewhat lower numerical values for the surface stiffness. The analysis of the local glass transition temperature (Tg) of the interphase and the polymer matrix provides evidence for reduced stiffness of the polymer matrix at high particle concentration, a feature that we attribute to selective adsorption. These findings provide new insight into understanding the microstructure and mechanical properties of nanocomposites, which is of importance for designing nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conformal Properties in High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, K -I; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the properties of quarks and gluons above the chiral phase transition temperature $T_c,$ using the RG improved gauge action and the Wilson quark action with two degenerate quarks mainly on a $32^3\\times 16$ lattice. In the one-loop perturbation theory, the thermal ensemble is dominated by the gauge configurations with effectively $Z(3)$ center twisted boundary conditions, making the thermal expectation value of the spatial Polyakov loop take a non-trivial $Z(3)$ center. This is in agreement with our lattice simulation of high temperature QCD. We further observe that the temporal propagator of massless quarks at extremely high temperature $\\beta=100.0 \\, (T \\simeq10^{58} T_c)$ remarkably agrees with the temporal propagator of free quarks with the $Z(3)$ twisted boundary condition for $t/L_t \\geq 0.2$, but differs from that with the $Z(3)$ trivial boundary condition. As we increase the mass of quarks $m_q$, we find that the thermal ensemble continues to be dominated by the $Z(3)$ twisted gauge fi...

  18. The mechanism and properties of acid-coagulated milk gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid-coagulated milk products such as fresh acid-coagulated cheese varieties and yogurt areimportant dairy food products. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in gel formation, physical properties of acid gels, and the effects of processing variables such as heat treatment and gelation temperature on the important physical properties of acid milk gels. This paper reviews the modern concepts of possible mechanisms involved in the formation of particle milk gel aggregation, along with recent developments including the use of techniques such as dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology to observe the gel formation process, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to monitor gel microstructure.

  19. Evaluation of fundamental properties of filter materials at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Y.; Hiramatsu, K.; Kawamoto, H. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya (Japan); Araki, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Hekinan (Japan); Yamada, M.; Iida, J. [Center For Coal Utilization Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In developing a dust collecting technology for high-temperature coal combustion gases for use in a next-generation system of efficient power generation, it is important to raise reliability by ascertaining the relevant physical properties and behaviors of the dust collecting filters. Accordingly, the aim of this research is to clarify the mechanical and thermal properties, and the high-temperature corrosion behaviors (oxidization, reduction), which figure among the fundamental factors restricting reliability in filter materials. In addition, since the ultimate research aim is the selection and development of filters which can be used in the actual dust collecting systems PFBC (950 C in an oxidization atmosphere) and IGCC (700 C in a reduction atmosphere), it is also necessary to conduct tests on the fundamental properties of existing filters, and to classify them for their suitability with given service atmospheres. Finally, for one particular filter selected as suitable for an oxidation atmosphere of 950 C, observations are made of mechanical properties and micro-structural changes before and after an actual dust collecting trial, and cause of damage are investigated. (orig.)

  20. Controlling Mechanical Properties of Bis-leucine Oxalyl Amide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, William; Carvajal, Daniel; Shull, Kenneth

    2011-03-01

    is-leucine oxalyl amide is a low molecular weight gelator capable of gelling polar and organic solvents. A fundamental understanding of self-assembled systems can lead to new methods in drug delivery and the design of new soft material systems. An important feature of self-assembled systems are the intermolecular forces between solvent and gelator molecule; by changing the environment the gel is in, the mechanical properties also change. In this project two variables were considered: the degree of neutralization present for the gelator molecule from neutral to completely ionized, and the concentration of the gelator molecule, from 1 weight percent to 8 weight percent in 1-butanol. Mechanical properties were studied using displacement controlled indentation techniques and temperature sweep rheometry. It has been found that properties such as the storage modulus, gelation temperature and maximum stress allowed increase with bis-leucine oxalyl amide concentration. The results from this study establish a 3-d contour map between the gelator concentration, the gelator degree of ionization and mechanical properties such as storage modulus and maximum stress allowed. The intermolecular forces between the bis-leucine low molecular weight gelator and 1-butanol govern the mechanical properties of the gel system, and understanding these interactions will be key to rationally designed self-assembled systems.

  1. Hydrogen storage properties on mechanically milled graphite

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Takayuki; Chen, D. M.; Isobe, Shigehito; Gomibuchi, Emi; Fujii, Hironobu

    2004-01-01

    We investigated hydrogen absorption/desorption and structural properties in mechanically milled graphite under hydrogen pressures up to 6 MPa to clarify catalytic and hydrogen pressure effects in the milling. The results indicate that a small amount of iron contamination during milling plays a quite important role as a catalyst for hydrogen absorption/desorption properties in graphite. Two-peak structure for hydrogen desorption in the TDS profile is due to existence of two different occupatio...

  2. Mechanical Properties of Ingot Nb Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Matalevich, Joseph; Rao Myneni, Ganapati

    2014-07-01

    This contribution presents the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and of strain along the contour of a single-cell cavity made of ingot Nb subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. The data were used to infer mechanical properties of this material after cavity fabrication, by comparison with the results from simulation calculations done with ANSYS. The objective is to provide useful information about the mechanical properties of ingot Nb cavities which can be used in the design phase of SRF cavities intended to be built with this material.

  3. Microfibrous silver-coated polymeric scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Kalakonda, Parvathalu.

    2017-07-07

    Electrospun scaffolds of poly(glycerol sebacate)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PGS/PCL) have been used for engineered tissues due to their desirable thermal and mechanical properties as well as their tunable degradability. In this paper, we fabricated micro-fibrous scaffolds from a composite of PGS/PCL using a standard electrospinning method and coated them with silver (Ag). The low temperature coating method prevented substrate melting and the Ag coating decreases the pore size and increases the diameter of fibers which resulted in enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. We further compared the mechanical properties of the composite fibrous scaffolds with different thicknesses of Ag coated scaffolds. The composite fibrous scaffold with a 275 nm Ag coating showed higher tensile modulus (E) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) without any post-processing treatment. Lastly, potential controlled release of the Ag coating from the composite fibrous scaffolds could present interesting biomedical applications.

  4. Mechanical Properties for Reliability Analysis of Structures in Glassy Carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Despite its good physical properties, the glassy carbon material is not widely used, especially for structural applications. Nevertheless, its transparency to particles and temperature resistance are interesting properties for the applications to vacuum chambers and components in high energy physics. For example, it has been proposed for fast shutter valve in particle accelerator [1] [2]. The mechanical properties have to be carefully determined to assess the reliability of structures in such a material. In this paper, mechanical tests have been carried out to determine the elastic parameters, the strength and toughness on commercial grades. A statistical approach, based on the Weibull’s distribution, is used to characterize the material both in tension and compression. The results are compared to the literature and the difference of properties for these two loading cases is shown. Based on a Finite Element analysis, a statistical approach is applied to define the reliability of a structural component in gl...

  5. The mechanisms of negative oxygen ion formation from Al-doped ZnO target and the improvements in electrical and optical properties of thin films using off-axis dc magnetron sputtering at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu Chi; Thuy Trinh, Thanh; Le, Tran; Tran, Cao Vinh; Tran, Tuan; Park, Hyeongsik; Dao, Vinh Ai; Yi, Junsin

    2011-10-01

    Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films have been prepared on glass substrates by dc magnetron sputtering using ceramic ZnO with 2 wt% Al2O3 target. The mechanism of negative oxygen ion generation on an AZO target surface and its influence on the conductivity of films were discussed. The negative ion generation on an AZO target was contributed by the surface ionization leading to the spot emission from Al atoms adsorbed on the AZO target surface. The contribution of negative ions' current was mainly from the erosion area of the target due to its higher temperature. To reduce the damage caused by negative ion bombardment to film growth, an off-axis sputtering system was proposed, where the substrates were placed perpendicular to the target. The effects of distance (d) on the electrical properties of films were experimentally verified in detail. A low resistivity of 3.7 × 10-4 Ω cm, an average transmittance above 85% in the visible range (300-800 nm) and reflectance higher than 85% in the infrared range (2500-4000 nm) were obtained for the films deposited at d = 2.5 cm. The overall analysis revealed that the generation of negative ions on the AZO target has a great influence on film growth, especially in the ultra-low pressure deposition process. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of reducing the negative effects of ion bombardment on the quality of films, which would be of great merit for industrial applications.

  6. Effect of pouring temperature on the properties of Al-8%Si alloy sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that the density and mechanical properties of the sand castings decrease with increase in pouring temperature, particularly at 800-850°C, although the fluidity of the molten alloy increases with increase with temperature. The study, therefore, recommended pouring temperatures of 650-700°C in order to obtain ...

  7. Effect of temperature to the properties of sago starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Kamal, M.; Baini, R.; Mohamaddan, S.; Selaman, O. S.; Zauzi, N. Ahmad; Rahman, M. R.; Rahman, N. Abdul; Chong, K. H.; Atan, M. F.; Samat, N. A. S. Abdul; Taib, S. N. L.; Othman, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the importance of sago starch has increased, as it has become one of the main economically important agricultural crops to the most Southeast Asia countries. In the present work, an analysis on drying process of sago starch (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) underwent various temperature has been made by using four empirical equations. The main goal of this analysis is to suggest the most accurate equation, in order to model and simulate the mechanical drying of sago starch. The experimental investigations were carried out in a gravity convection lab oven; and ±50g of sago starch (sample heights of 1 cm) was dried through four different temperatures, which were 50, 60, 70 and 80ºC. The effect of drying temperature on the drying kinetics, as well as various qualities attributes of sago starch, such as microstructure, colour and functional properties were investigated. The results suggested that drying temperature has significant effect on sago starch drying kinetic; therefore, drying temperature would be the basis to select drying condition. Meanwhile, it was found that the various drying temperature ranging from 50 to 80ºC affected the product quality especially in term of colour.

  8. Mechanical properties of wet granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, Z.; Geromichalos, D.; Herminghaus, S.; Kohonen, M.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Scheel, M.; Schulz, M.

    2005-01-01

    We elaborate on the impact of liquids upon the mechanical properties of granular materials. We find that most of the experimental and simulation results may be accounted for by a simple model assuming frictionless, spherical grains, with a hysteretic attractive interaction between neighbouring

  9. Improving mechanical properties of aluminium alloy through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy (Al-Si-Fe) reinforced with coconut shell-ash particulate. The aluminium (Al-Si-Fe) alloy composite was produced by a double-stir casting process at a speed of 700 rpm for 10 and 5 minutes at first and second stirring respectively.

  10. Material, compressional and mechanical properties of Borassus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compressional and mechanical properties of tablet formulations incorporating native and modified Borassus aethiopum starches as binder were evaluated. The native Borassus aethiopum starch (BAS) was modified to yield fully gelatinised starch (FGBAS) and microcrystalline starch (MBAS). The compressional ...

  11. Mechanical properties of glass polymer multilayer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mechanical properties of glass polymer multilayer composite. A SEAL, N R BOSE, S K DALUI, A K MUKHOPADHYAY*, K K PHANI and. H S MAITI. Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700 032, India. Abstract. The preliminary experimental studies on the comparative behaviour of the deformation ...

  12. Thermal, electrochemical and mechanical properties of shape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resemblance with structure of casted shape memory alloy obtained from the vacuum induction process. The Vickers hardness test was also performed. Quenched microstructure with improved hardness than pre-quenched structure was observed. Keywords: Shape Memory Alloy, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties ...

  13. Synthesis, mechanical, thermal and chemical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Chemistry, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli 627 012, India. MS received 28 August 2003; ... thanes were characterized with respect to their resistance to chemical reagents and mechanical properties such as tensile strength, ..... Recent advances (ed.) I S. Bhardwajj (New ...

  14. Properties of aluminum alloys tensile, creep, and fatigue data at high and low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This book compiles more than 300 tables listing typical average properties of a wide range of aluminum alloys. The individual test results were compiled, plotted in various ways, and analyzed. The average values from the tensile and creep tests were then normalized to the published typical room-temperature tensile properties of the respective alloys for easy comparison. This extensive project was done by Alcoa Laboratories over a period of several years. The types of data presented include: Typical Mechanical Properties of Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys at Various Temperatures, including tensile properties at subzero temperatures, at temperature after various holding times at the test temperature, and at room temperature after exposure at various temperatures for various holding times; creep rupture strengths for various times at various temperatures; stresses required to generate various amounts of creep in various lengths of time; rotating-beam fatigue strengths; modulus of elasticity as a function of t...

  15. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  16. Isotropic microscale mechanical properties of coral skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca; Molinari, Alan; Fantazzini, Paola; Dauphen, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Caroselli, Erik; Prada, Fiorella; Goffredo, Stefano; Di Giosia, Matteo; Reggi, Michela; Falini, Giuseppe

    2015-05-06

    Scleractinian corals are a major source of biogenic calcium carbonate, yet the relationship between their skeletal microstructure and mechanical properties has been scarcely studied. In this work, the skeletons of two coral species:solitary Balanophyllia europaea and colonial Stylophora pistillata, were investigated by nanoindentation. The hardness HIT and Young's modulus E(IT) were determined from the analysis of several load-depth data on two perpendicular sections of the skeletons: longitudinal (parallel to the main growth axis) and transverse. Within the experimental and statistical uncertainty,the average values of the mechanical parameters are independent on the section's orientation. The hydration state of the skeletons did not affect the mechanical properties. The measured values, EIT in the 76-77 GPa range, and H(IT) in the 4.9–5.1 GPa range, are close to the ones expected for polycrystalline pure aragonite. Notably, a small difference in H(IT) is observed between the species. Different from corals, single-crystal aragonite and the nacreous layer of the seashell Atrina rigida exhibit clearly orientation-dependent mechanical properties. The homogeneous and isotropic mechanical behaviour of the coral skeletons at the microscale is correlated with the microstructure,observed by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the longitudinal and transverse sections.

  17. Mechanical characteristics of the porcine retina in low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kinon; Weiland, James D

    2012-04-01

    We previously observed that the stiffness of the porcine retina was significantly higher when deforming at room temperature than at body temperature. The present study further investigates this phenomenon by examining the mechanical properties of the retina in saline at temperature lower than room temperature. Tensile testing was performed on a total of 15 retinal strips dissected from pig eyes. Equal amount of strips from the dissection were tested at 37.0 ± 0.3°C, 26.1 ± 0.1°C, and 7.8 ± 1.2°C. Their transition modulus, stress, and strain were measured for statistical analysis. The transition modulus, the transition stress, and the transition strain of the retinal strips were found to be 11.12 ± 6.10 kPa, 0.12 ± 0.07 kPa, and 0.016 ± 0.001, respectively, at 37.0°C. These values were 111.25 ± 88.16 kPa, 1.11 ± 0.85 kPa, and 0.016 ± 0.001 at 26.1°C, and 125.13 ± 63.61 kPa, 1.30 ± 0.50 kPa, and 0.017 ± 0.003 at 7.8°C, respectively. The differences of the transition modulus and the transition stress at between 37.0°C and 26.1°C and at between 37.0°C and 7.8°C were statistically significant (P retina from body temperature is potentially useful to decrease retinal damage in posterior eye surgeries by increasing the resistance of the retina to mechanical deformation.

  18. Mechanical Properties of EPON 826/DEA Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-26

    properties of Epon 826 and Epon 828 , a similar resin, have been studied by several authors (Katz et al. 1980; Enns and Gillham 1983; Truong 1990; Kozey and...on hydrostatic pressure up to 17 MPa. Chen and Zhang (1997) and Chen and Zhou (1998) studied Epon 828 with curing agent T-403 under compressive...2002) Chen, W., Zhang, X.: Dynamic response of Epon 828 /T-403 under multiaxial loading at various temperatures. J. Eng. Mater. Technol. Trans. ASME

  19. Mechanical properties and structure of magnesium alloy AS31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hanus

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary materials should possess high mechanical properties, physical and chemical, as well as technological ones, to ensure long and reliable use. The non-ferrous metals alloys used nowadays, including the magnesium alloys, meet the above-mentioned requirements and expectations regarding the contemporary materials.Magnesium alloys are primarily used in aeronautical and automobile industry in wide variety of structural characteristics because of their favorable combination of tensile strength (160 to 365 MPa, elastic modulus (45 GPa, and low density (1 740 kg/m3, which is two-thirds that of aluminum. Magnesium alloys have high strength-to-weight ratio (tensile strength/density, comparable to those of other structural metals. [1-6]Knowledge of the relaxation properties of metal materials at high temperatures is necessary for the verification of susceptibility of castings to the creation of defects during the production process. Temperature limits of materials where highest tension values are generated may be detected with tensile tests under high temperatures. The generated tensions in the casting are a cause of the creation and development of defects. At acoustic emission (hereinafter called the "AE" use, tensile tests at high temperatures may, among other things, be used for analysis of the AE signal sources and set, in more detail, the temperature limit of elastic-plastic deformations existence in the material under examination. The results of the temperature drop where tension at casting cooling is generated or its release at heating are basic data for controlled cooling mode (and temperature of casting knocking out of the form as well as necessary for the thermal mode for the casting tension reduction. [7-9]Knowledge of elastic-plastic properties at elevated temperatures is often important for complex evaluation of magnesium alloys. Objective of the work was focused on determination of changes of elastic-plastic properties of magnesium

  20. Mechanism of boron uptake by hydrocalumite calcined at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xinhong; Sasaki, Keiko; Takaki, Yu; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Ideta, Keiko; Miyawaki, Jin

    2015-04-28

    Hydrocalumite (Ca-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH)) was prepared and applied for the removal of borate. The properties of Ca-Al-LDH calcined at different temperatures were diverse, which affected the sorption density and mechanism of boron species. The sorption density increased with increase in calcined temperature and the sample calcined at 900°C (Ca-Al-LDH-900) showed the maximum sorption density in this work. The solid residues after sorption were characterized by (11)B NMR, (27)Al NMR, SEM, and XRD to investigate the sorption mechanism. Dissolution-reprecipitation was the main mechanism for sorption of borate in Ca-Al-LDH. For Ca-Al-LDH calcined at 300 and 500°C, regeneration occurred in a short time and the newly forming LDHs were decomposed to release Ca(2+) ions and formed ettringite with borate. Two stages occurred in the sorption of boron by Ca-Al-LDH calcined at 900°C. In the first stage, boron species adsorbed on the alumina gel resulting from the hydration of calcined products. In this stage, borate was included as an interlayer anion into the newly forming LDHs in the following stage, and then immobilized as HBO3(2-) into the interlayer, most the LDHs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical and mechanical properties of lamellar compounds of graphite

    OpenAIRE

    Костиков, Александр Анатольевич; Довгаль, Анна Николаевна; Черномаз, Владимир Николаевич; Кузнецов, Андрей Андреевич

    2013-01-01

    In this paper physical, mechanical and thermophysical properties of lamellar graphite compounds with various intercalants have been studied as a function of temperature and oxidants. The focus of the study was the influence of various factors on lamellar graphite compounds parameters, namely: elongation of samples, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity. The following factors have been considered: oxidant concentration in the synthesis of lamellar graphite compounds, the particle...

  2. Mechanical Properties of Individual Microgel Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Sara; Dufresne, Eric

    2009-03-01

    Microgels are important materials for both basic science and engineering and have wide applications from the study of phase transitions to the delivery of drugs. These micron and sub-micron particles, made of hydrogel materials, respond to solvent conditions. The most common microgels are environmentally sensitive, responding to temperature and pH. Our material of interest, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) or NIPAM, undergoes a deswelling transition above a critical temperature. The deswelling behavior of this polymeric material has been thoroughly studied in ensemble microgel systems as well as in bulk hydrogel samples. We present measurements of the elastic properties of single microgel particles using atomic force microscopy. We observe a stiffening of the Young's modulus by an order of magnitude at temperatures well above the transition, where the cross-linked polymer network has fully collapsed. Interestingly, near the transition we observe a comparable softening of the material.

  3. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Praseodymium Monopnictides: AN Ultrasonic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Vyoma; Kumar, Raj; Tripathy, Chinmayee; Singh, Devraj

    2013-09-01

    We have computed ultrasonic attenuation, acoustic coupling constants and ultrasonic velocities of praseodymium monopnictides PrX(X: N, P, As, Sb and Bi) along the , , in the temperature range 100-500 K using higher order elastic constants. The higher order elastic constants are evaluated using Coulomb and Born-Mayer potential with two basic parameters viz. nearest-neighbor distance and hardness parameter in the temperature range of 0-500 K. Several other mechanical and thermal parameters like bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, anisotropic ratio, tetragonal moduli, Breazeale's nonlinearity parameter and Debye temperature are also calculated. In the present study, the fracture/toughness (B/G) ratio is less than 1.75 which implies that PrX compounds are brittle in nature at room temperature. The chosen material fulfilled Born criterion of mechanical stability. We also found the deviation of Cauchy's relation at higher temperatures. PrN is most stable material as it has highest valued higher order elastic constants as well as the ultrasonic velocity. Further, the lattice thermal conductivity using modified approach of Slack and Berman is determined at room temperature. The ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation mechanisms have been computed using modified Mason's approach. The results with other well-known physical properties are useful for industrial applications.

  4. Mechanical Properties Of Traditional And Nanofibre Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursíny Petr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a comparison of mechanical properties of a conventional yarn and a textile from nanofibres. The conventional yarn represents the textile objects with high degree of orientation of fibres and the textile from nanofibres represents the textile objects with low degree of orientation of fibres. The theoretical section is concerned with the issue of internal structure of plied yarn and resulting differences in the orientation and straightening of fibres and in utilisation of deformation properties of fibres in comparison to the referred nano textile. The experimental section describes the manner of realisation of both static and dynamic tests of conventional yarn and strips of nanofibres. The results show differences in the mechanical properties of conventional yarn and textile strip from nanofibres under static and dynamic loading conditions. The processing technology of conventional yarn has been verified in the long term. But textiles from nanofibres are a relatively new material and mechanical properties of the detected differences point out possible problems with their behaviour during standard technological processes.

  5. Mechanical and thermophysical properties of rare-earth monopnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Vyoma; Singh, Devraj; Jain, Sushil Kumar

    2016-08-01

    The present paper addresses the temperature dependent elastic, mechanical and thermal properties of NaCl structure (B1 type) holmium monopnictides, HoX (X = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) computed using Coulomb and Born repulsive potentials extended up to second nearest neighbors. The second-order elastic constants (SOECs) of single crystals HoX are calculated as a function of temperature in the range 0-500K. The compounds under study are found to be brittle in nature. Beside these calculations, the theoretical hardness has been obtained for various rare-earth monopnictides using the elastic properties in the polycrystalline approach. The obtained hardness values indicate HoN to be hard, but cannot be considered super hard. The anisotropic nature of the chosen single crystal is an important physical quantity in studying the directional dependent thermal properties such as Debye temperature and thermal conductivity computed using ultrasonic velocities along different crystallographic directions. The obtained results are discussed in correlation with mechanical and thermophysical properties of similar materials.

  6. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptonstall, A.; Waller, M.; Robertson, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors.

  7. Mechanical and thermomechanical properties of polyamide 6/Brazilian organoclay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Anisio da Paz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymer/clay nanocomposites are a new class of composites with polymer matrices where the disperse phase is a silicate with elementary particles that have at least one of dimensions in nanometer order. Polyamide 6/Brazilian organoclay nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation, and the mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties were studied. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was verified by XRD and TEM analysis that all systems presented exfoliated structure predominantly. By thermogravimetry (TG, nanocomposites showed higher stabilities in relation to pure polymer. It was observed that the nanocomposites showed better mechanical properties compared to the properties of polyamide 6. The heat deflection temperature (HDT values of the nanocomposites showed a significant increase in relation to pure polymer.

  8. Properties of Free-Machining Aluminum Alloys at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, Jiří; Karlík, Miroslav; Haušild, Petr

    In areas close to the cutting tool the workpieces being dry machined could be heated up to 350°C and they may be impact loaded. Therefore it is of interest to study mechanical properties of corresponding materials at elevated temperatures. Free-machining alloys of Al-Cu and Al-Mg-Si systems containing Pb, Bi and Sn additions (AA2011, AA2111B, AA6262, and AA6023) were subjected to Charpy U notch impact test at the temperatures ranging from 20 to 350°C. The tested alloys show a sharp drop in notch impact strength KU at different temperatures. This drop of KU is caused by liquid metal embrittlement due to the melting of low-melting point dispersed phases which is documented by differential scanning calorimetry. Fracture surfaces of the specimens were observed using a scanning electron microscope. At room temperature, the fractures of all studied alloys exhibited similar ductile dimple fracture micromorphology, at elevated temperatures, numerous secondary intergranular cracks were observed.

  9. Mechanical properties of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Hecker, S.S.; Land, C.C.; Rohr, D.L.

    1977-04-01

    The mechanical properties of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ have been examined in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory mechanical test facility built to handle ..cap alpha..-radioactive materials. Compression tests were conducted as a function of temperature, strain rate, grain size, density, and storage time. At temperatures less than or equal to 1400/sup 0/C, test specimens of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ exhibit pseudobrittle behavior due to internal cracks. Plastic deformation is ''localized'' at the crack tips. Generalized plastic deformation is observed at 1500/sup 0/C. Ultimate stress values decrease markedly with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate, and decrease less with decreasing density, increasing storage time, and increasing grain size. Room temperature fracture is transgranular, whereas intergranular fracture predominates at elevated temperatures. Crack-free specimens of /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ exhibit extensive plastic deformation at 1000/sup 0/C and above. The relationship of these test results to the impact properties of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators is discussed.

  10. Electrical properties and transport mechanisms of Au/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode at high temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2016-05-01

    The electrical and transport mechanisms of a fabricated Au/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST)/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode have been studied in the temperature range of 280-430 K by current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements. The barrier heights (BHs) of the Au/BST/GaN MIS diode are found to be 0.85 eV ( I- V)/1.35 ( C- V) at 280 K and 1.14 eV ( I- V)/1.17 ( C- V) at 430 K. The series resistance ( R S) values determined by Cheung's functions are in good agreement with each other. The difference between BHs estimated by I- V and C- V methods are also discussed. Results show that the estimated interface state density ( N SS) of MIS diode decreases with an increase in temperature. Observations have indicated that the BH increases whereas ideality factor R S and N SS decreases with increasing temperature. Results have demonstrated that the reverse leakage current is dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission at temperatures of 280-340 K and by Schottky emission at temperatures of 370-430 K. It is also noted that there is a transition of the conduction mechanism in Au/BST/GaN MIS diode from Poole-Frenkel to Schottky emission at temperatures of 340-370 K.

  11. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  12. Neighborhood properties are important determinants of temperature sensitive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Temperature-sensitive (TS mutants are powerful tools to study gene function in vivo. These mutants exhibit wild-type activity at permissive temperatures and reduced activity at restrictive temperatures. Although random mutagenesis can be used to generate TS mutants, the procedure is laborious and unfeasible in multicellular organisms. Further, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the TS phenotype are poorly understood. To elucidate TS mechanisms, we used a machine learning method-logistic regression-to investigate a large number of sequence and structure features. We developed and tested 133 features, describing properties of either the mutation site or the mutation site neighborhood. We defined three types of neighborhood using sequence distance, Euclidean distance, and topological distance. We discovered that neighborhood features outperformed mutation site features in predicting TS mutations. The most predictive features suggest that TS mutations tend to occur at buried and rigid residues, and are located at conserved protein domains. The environment of a buried residue often determines the overall structural stability of a protein, thus may lead to reversible activity change upon temperature switch. We developed TS prediction models based on logistic regression and the Lasso regularized procedure. Through a ten-fold cross-validation, we obtained the area under the curve of 0.91 for the model using both sequence and structure features. Testing on independent datasets suggested that the model predicted TS mutations with a 50% precision. In summary, our study elucidated the molecular basis of TS mutants and suggested the importance of neighborhood properties in determining TS mutations. We further developed models to predict TS mutations derived from single amino acid substitutions. In this way, TS mutants can be efficiently obtained through experimentally introducing the predicted mutations.

  13. Analysis on High Temperature Aging Property of Self-brazing Aluminum Honeycomb Core at Middle Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Huan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tension-shear test was carried out on middle temperature self-brazing aluminum honeycomb cores after high temperature aging by micro mechanical test system, and the microstructure and component of the joints were observed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy to study the relationship between brazing seam microstructure, component and high temperature aging properties. Results show that the tensile-shear strength of aluminum honeycomb core joints brazed by 1060 aluminum foil and aluminum composite brazing plate after high temperature aging(200℃/12h, 200℃/24h, 200℃/36h is similar to that of as-welded joints, and the weak part of the joint is the base metal which is near the brazing joint. The observation and analysis of the aluminum honeycomb core microstructure and component show that the component of Zn, Sn at brazing seam is not much affected and no compound phase formed after high temperature aging; therefore, the main reason for good high temperature aging performance of self-brazing aluminum honeycomb core is that no obvious change of brazing seam microstructure and component occurs.

  14. Study on mechanical properties after laser forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Yao, Zhenqiang

    2009-01-01

    Laser forming is a means of processing materials in a novel manner. The mechanical properties of specimens after laser forming are investigated. By tension tests, the tension properties are analyzed to establish Ramberg-Osgood constitutive equations under different laser processing parameters. Experimental data show that the yield strength and tensile strength are improved after laser forming, while the elongation percentage is reduced. Based on the distribution of residual stresses as well as residual strains after the laser forming process, the fatigue life under different laser processing parameters is studied using low-cycle fatigue tests. The residual compressive plastic strain is the most important reason for improving the fatigue life of low carbon steel after laser forming. The fatigue fracture mechanism is shown through the analysis of macro-fracture and micro-fracture using the scanning electronic microscope.

  15. New approach of eggshell mechanical properties determinantion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Severa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach for determination of mechanical properties of hen’s eggshell. The suitability and applicability of a Berkovich indentation is discussed. The eggshells were tested in the area surrounding equator line. The deformation modes active during indentation have been examinined from the shape of load-displacement curves. According to measured dependencies, the eggshel shown an viscous-elastic deformation.The values of Young’s modulus E obtained from radial and tangential directions did not vary significantly. This fact shows on isotropic nature of eggshell structure. It was found that values of E do not significantly change neither around the cir­cum­fe­ren­ce of the equator. The values obtained within this research correspond to values reported in literature and obtained on macroscopic samples. Nanoindentation was found to be a precise and powerful tool, suitable for determining local variations of mechanical properties of eggshells.

  16. The Mechanical Properties of Recycled Polyethylene-Polyethylene Terephthalate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Avazverdi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, one of the thermoplastic polymers, is encountered with arduous problems in its recycling. After recycling, its mechanical properties drop dramatically and therefore it cannot be used to produce the products as virgin PET does. Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer which can be easily recycled using the conventional recycling processes. The decreased mechanical properties of virgin polyethylene due to the environmental factors can be improved by reinforcing fillers. In this paper, we studied the effects of adding recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET as a filler, in various amounts with different sizes, on the physical and mechanical properties of recycled polyethylene. Composite samples were prepared using an internal mixer at temperature 185°C, well below rPET melting point (250°C, and characterized by their mechanical properties. To improve the compatibility between different components, PE grafted with maleic anhydride was added as a coupling agent in all the compositions under study. The mechanical properties of the prepared samples were performed using the tensile strength, impact strength, surface hardness and melt flow index (MFI tests. To check the dispersity of the polyethylene terephthalate powder in the polyethylene matrix, light microscopy was used. The results showed that the addition of rPET improved the tensile energy, tensile modulus and surface hardness of the composites while reduced the melt flow index, elongation-at-yield, tensile strength and fracture energy of impact test. We could conclude that with increasing rPET percentage in the recycled polyethylene matrix, the composite became brittle, in other words it decreased the plastic behavior of recycled polyethylene. Decreasing particle size led to higher surface contacts, increased the mechanical properties and made the composite more brittle. The light microscopy micrographs of the samples showed a good distribution of small r

  17. Isotropic microscale mechanical properties of coral skeletons

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquini, Luca; Molinari, Alan; Fantazzini, Paola; Dauphen, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Caroselli, Erik; Prada, Fiorella; Goffredo, Stefano; Di Giosia, Matteo; Reggi, Michela; Falini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Scleractinian corals are a major source of biogenic calcium carbonate, yet the relationship between their skeletal microstructure and mechanical properties has been scarcely studied. In this work, the skeletons of two coral species: solitary Balanophyllia europaea and colonial Stylophora pistillata, were investigated by nanoindentation. The hardness HIT and Young's modulus EIT were determined from the analysis of several load–depth data on two perpendicular sections of the skeletons: longitud...

  18. Effect of Injection Molding Melt Temperatures on PLGA Craniofacial Plate Properties during In Vitro Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Pimenta de Melo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present mechanical and physicochemical properties during in vitro degradation of PLGA material as craniofacial plates based on different values of injection molded temperatures. Injection molded plates were submitted to in vitro degradation in a thermostat bath at 37 ± 1°C by 16 weeks. The material was removed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; then bending stiffness, crystallinity, molecular weights, and viscoelasticity were studied. A significant decrease of molecular weight and mechanical properties over time and a difference in FT-IR after 60 days showed faster degradation of the material in the geometry studied. DSC analysis confirmed that the crystallization occurred, especially in higher melt temperature condition. DMA analysis suggests a greater contribution of the viscous component of higher temperature than lower temperature in thermomechanical behavior. The results suggest that physical-mechanical properties of PLGA plates among degradation differ per injection molding temperatures.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Reza; Sadighi, Mojtaba; Mohammadi Aghdam, Mohammad; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA) using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions. PMID:28773735

  20. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant (Cij ) and bulk modulus. (KT) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (δT) as temperature-independent and then by treating δT as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when δT is ...

  1. Effects of fibre orientation on mechanical properties of hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ° and ± 45° was used and its effect on mechanical properties were studied. Composites containing hybrid fibres found to possess better mechanical properties, when compared to pure bamboo. In order to justify this, the following mechanical.

  2. High Temperature Deformation Mechanisms in a DLD Nickel Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Davies

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of employing Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM technologies to produce components in the aerospace industry is significantly increasing. This can be attributed to their ability to offer the near-net shape fabrication of fully dense components with a high potential for geometrical optimisation, all of which contribute to subsequent reductions in material wastage and component weight. However, the influence of this manufacturing route on the properties of aerospace alloys must first be fully understood before being actively applied in-service. Specimens from the nickel superalloy C263 have been manufactured using Powder Bed Direct Laser Deposition (PB-DLD, each with unique post-processing conditions. These variables include two build orientations, vertical and horizontal, and two different heat treatments. The effects of build orientation and post-process heat treatments on the materials’ mechanical properties have been assessed with the Small Punch Tensile (SPT test technique, a practical test method given the limited availability of PB-DLD consolidated material. SPT testing was also conducted on a cast C263 variant to compare with PB-DLD derivatives. At both room and elevated temperature conditions, differences in mechanical performances arose between each material variant. This was found to be instigated by microstructural variations exposed through microscopic and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analysis. SPT results were also compared with available uniaxial tensile data in terms of SPT peak and yield load against uniaxial ultimate tensile and yield strength.

  3. High Temperature Deformation Mechanisms in a DLD Nickel Superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sean; Jeffs, Spencer; Lancaster, Robert; Baxter, Gavin

    2017-04-26

    The realisation of employing Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies to produce components in the aerospace industry is significantly increasing. This can be attributed to their ability to offer the near-net shape fabrication of fully dense components with a high potential for geometrical optimisation, all of which contribute to subsequent reductions in material wastage and component weight. However, the influence of this manufacturing route on the properties of aerospace alloys must first be fully understood before being actively applied in-service. Specimens from the nickel superalloy C263 have been manufactured using Powder Bed Direct Laser Deposition (PB-DLD), each with unique post-processing conditions. These variables include two build orientations, vertical and horizontal, and two different heat treatments. The effects of build orientation and post-process heat treatments on the materials' mechanical properties have been assessed with the Small Punch Tensile (SPT) test technique, a practical test method given the limited availability of PB-DLD consolidated material. SPT testing was also conducted on a cast C263 variant to compare with PB-DLD derivatives. At both room and elevated temperature conditions, differences in mechanical performances arose between each material variant. This was found to be instigated by microstructural variations exposed through microscopic and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. SPT results were also compared with available uniaxial tensile data in terms of SPT peak and yield load against uniaxial ultimate tensile and yield strength.

  4. Measuring Mechanical Properties Of Optical Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nichols, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses mechanical tests measuring parameters of strength and fracture mechanics of optical glasses. To obtain required tables of mechanical properties of each glass of interest, both initial-strength and delayed-fracture techniques used. Modulus of rupture measured by well-known four-point bending method. Initial bending strength measured by lesser-known double-ring method, in which disk of glass supported on one face near edge by larger ring and pressed on its other face by smaller concentric ring. Method maximizes stress near center, making it more likely specimen fractures there, and thereby suppresses edge effects. Data from tests used to predict reliabilities and lifetimes of glass optical components of several proposed spaceborne instruments.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Nanofilled Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Elisabeta PELIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study concerning mechanical performance of thermoplastic nanocomposites based on isotactic polypropylene matrix, nanofilled with montmorillonite modified with quaternary ammonium salt and carboxyl functionalized carbon nanotubes, respectively, added in the same concentration relative to the matrix. The nanofilled and single polymer materials were obtained by simple melt compounding through extrusion process followed by injection molding into specific shape specimens for mechanical testing of the samples. Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and 3 point bending tests. In terms of modulus of elasticity, the results showed overall positive effects concerning the effect of nanofiller addition to the thermoplastic polymer. The fracture cross section of the tested specimens was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM microscopy.

  6. Influence of solution annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of Maraging 300 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Venceslau Xavier; Barros, Isabel Ferreira; Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes de, E-mail: venceslau@ifce.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e Materiais. Laboratorio de Caracterizacao de Materiais, Metalurgia Fisica e Grupo de Pesquisa de Transformacao de Fase

    2017-01-15

    Maraging 300 belongs to a family of metallic materials with extremely high mechanical strength and good toughness. Some works have been published about aging temperatures that improve ultimate strength resistance with acceptable toughness levels in this steel family, where the prior austenite grain size obtained by different solution annealing temperature influence in the final mechanical properties. Solution annealing temperatures ranging from 860 °C to 1150 deg C and were kept constant until the aging temperature. These treatments were used in order to investigate their influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of maraging steel 300, especially with regard to toughness. The characterization of the microstructure was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical properties were evaluated by Rockwell C hardness and Charpy impact tests. The results showed that there is a temperature range where one can get some improvement in toughness without a large loss of mechanical strength. (author)

  7. Mechanics of Protein Adaptation to High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnemann, Guillaume; Sterpone, Fabio

    2017-12-07

    Inspired by Somero's corresponding state principle that relates protein enhanced thermal stability with mechanical rigidity, we deployed state of the art computational techniques (based on atomistic steered molecular dynamics and Hamiltonian-replica exchange simulations) to study the in silico realization of mechanical and thermal unfolding of two homologous Csp proteins that have evolved to thrive in different thermal environments. By complementing recent single-molecule experiments, we unambiguously show that, for these homologues whose structures are very similar, the increased thermal resistance of the thermophilic variant is not associated with an increased mechanical stability. Our approach provides microscopic insights that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental techniques, and explains why the protein weak spots for thermal and mechanical denaturation are distinct.

  8. Mechanism of bacterial adaptation to low temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Survival of bacteria at low temperatures provokes scientific interest because of several reasons. Investigations in this area promise insight into one of the mysteries of life science – namely, how the machinery of life operates at extreme environments. Knowledge obtained from these studies is likely to be useful in controlling ...

  9. Mechanical properties of borophene films: a reactive molecular dynamics investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quy Le, Minh; Mortazavi, Bohayra; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-11-01

    The most recent experimental advances could provide ways for the fabrication of several atomic thick and planar forms of boron atoms. For the first time, we explore the mechanical properties of five types of boron films with various vacancy ratios ranging from 0.1-0.15, using molecular dynamics simulations with ReaxFF force field. It is found that the Young’s modulus and tensile strength decrease with increasing the temperature. We found that boron sheets exhibit an anisotropic mechanical response due to the different arrangement of atoms along the armchair and zigzag directions. At room temperature, 2D Young’s modulus and fracture stress of these five sheets appear in the range 63-136 N m-1 and 12-19 N m-1, respectively. In addition, the strains at tensile strength are in the ranges of 9%-14%, 11%-19%, and 10%-16% at 1, 300, and 600 K, respectively. This investigation not only reveals the remarkable stiffness of 2D boron, but establishes relations between the mechanical properties of the boron sheets to the loading direction, temperature and atomic structures.

  10. Mechanical properties of alumina porcelain during heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šín, Peter; Podoba, Rudolf; ŠtubÅa, Igor; Trník, Anton

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical strength and Young's modulus of green alumina porcelain (50 wt. % of kaolin, 25 wt. % of Al2O3, and 25 wt. % of feldspar) were measured during heating up to 900 °C and 1100 °C, respectively. To this end, we used the three point-bending method and modulated force thermomechanical analysis (mf-TMA). The loss liberation - of the physically bound water (20 - 250 °C) strengthens the sample and Young's modulus increases its values significantly. The dehydroxylation that takes place in the range of 400 - 650 °C causes a slight decrease in Young's modulus. On the other hand, the mechanical strength slightly increases in this temperature range, although it has a sudden drop at 420 °C. Beyond the dehydroxylation range, above 650 °C, both Young's modulus and mechanical strength increase. Above 950 °C, a sharp increase of Young's modulus is caused by the solid-state sintering and the new structure created by the high-temperature reactions in metakaolinite.

  11. Influence of temperature on fracture mechanisms of magnesium composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertnerova, V.; Jaeger, A.; Trojanova, Z. [Dept. of Metal Physics, Charles Univ., Praha (Czech Republic); Chalupova, M. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Univ. of Zilina, Zilina (Slovakia)

    2005-07-01

    Magnesium alloy AZ91 (9% Al, 1% Zn, 0.2% Mn in wt.%) with different reinforcements has been used to study fracture mechanisms and crack development. SiC particles and/or Saffil fibres were used as the reinforcement. Fracture surfaces of specimens prepared by impact tests in the temperature range from room temperature to 300 C were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Possible mechanisms of fracture are discussed in the relation to the test temperature. (orig.)

  12. High Temperature Exposure of HPC – Experimental Analysis of Residual Properties and Thermal Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlík Zbyšek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high temperature exposure on properties of a newly designed High Performance Concrete (HPC is studied in the paper. The HPC samples are exposed to the temperatures of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C respectively. Among the basic physical properties, bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity are measured. The mechanical resistivity against disruptive temperature action is characterised by compressive strength, flexural strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity. To study the chemical and physical processes in HPC during its high-temperature exposure, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA is performed. Linear thermal expansion coefficient is determined as function of temperature using thermodilatometry (TDA. In order to describe the changes in microstructure of HPC induced by high temperature loading, MIP measurement of pore size distribution is done. Increase of the total open porosity and connected decrease of the mechanical parameters for temperatures higher than 200 °C were identified.

  13. Pressure–temperature dependence of thermodynamic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    properties of materials under high pressures and temperatures for microscopic under- standing as well as technological applications. In this paper, we report our theoretical study of both pressure and temperature dependences of the thermal properties of rutile within the Debye and Debye–Grüneisen models with and ...

  14. Unique mechanical properties of nanostructured metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2007-11-01

    Recently, it becomes possible to fabricate bulk metals having ultrafine grained or nanocrystalline structures of which grain size is in nano-meter dimensions. One of the promising ways to realize bulk nanostructured metals is severe plastic deformation (SPD) above logarithmic equivalent strain of 4. We have developed an original SPD process, named Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) using rolling deformation in principle, and have succeeded in fabricating bulk nanostructured sheets of various kinds of metals and alloys. The ARB process and the nanostructured metals fabricated by the ARB are introduced in this paper. The nanostructured metals sometimes perform quite unique mechanical properties, that is rather surprising compared with conventionally coarse grained materials. The unique properties seem to be attributed to the characteristic structures of the nano-metals full of grain boundaries.

  15. PICA Variants with Improved Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Jeremy; Ghandehari, Ehson M.; Fan, Wenhong; Stackpoole, Margaret; Chavez-Garcia, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) is a member of the family of Lightweight Ceramic Ablators (LCAs) and was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a thermal protection system (TPS) material for the Stardust mission probe that entered the Earth s atmosphere faster than any other probe or vehicle to date. PICA, carbon fiberform base and phenolic polymer, shows excellent thermal insulative properties at heating rates from about 250 W/sq cm to 1000 W/sq cm. The density of standard PICA - 0.26 g/cu cm to 0.28 g/cu cm - can be changed by changing the concentration of the phenolic resin. By adding polymers to the phenolic resin before curing it is possible to significantly improve the mechanical properties of PICA without significantly increasing the density.

  16. Influence of vacuum hot-pressing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy obtained by blended elemental and master alloy addition powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzoni, L., E-mail: bolzoni.leandro@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Navas, E.M.; Gordo, E. [Department of Materials Science, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-14

    This study addresses the processing of near-net-shape, chemically homogeneous and fine-grained Ti-3Al-2.5V components using vacuum hot-pressing. Two Ti-3Al-2.5V starting powders were considered. On one side, hydride-dehydride (HDH) elemental titanium was blended with an HDH Ti-6Al-4V prealloyed powder. On the other side, an Al:V master alloy was added to the HDH elemental titanium powder. The powders were processed applying a uniaxial pressure of 30 MPa. The sintering temperatures studied varied between 900 Degree-Sign C and 1300 Degree-Sign C. The relative density of the samples increased with processing temperature and almost fully dense materials were obtained. The increase of the sintering temperature led also to a strong reaction between the titanium powders and the processing tools. This phenomenon occurred particularly with boron nitride (BN) coating, which was used to prevent the direct contact between titanium and graphite tools. The flexural properties of the Ti-3Al-2.5V samples increased with vacuum hot-pressing temperature and are comparable to those specified for wrought titanium medical devices. Therefore, the produced materials are promising candidates for load bearing applications as implant materials. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost fully dense Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy components are obtained by means of hot-pressing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bending properties of the Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy are studied in details. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction that occurs between the Ti-3Al-2.5V powder and the BN coating is analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural evolution of blending elemental and master alloy materials with the temperature.

  17. Heterocyclic methacrylates for clinical applications. I. Mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M P; Braden, M

    1991-09-01

    The mechanical properties of a number of heterocyclic and one cyclic methacrylate have been studied for their potential in low polymerization shrinkage systems. This study included both homopolymers and room temperature polymerizing systems using poly(ethyl methacrylate) powder with a heterocyclic methacrylate monomer. The one cyclic methacrylate studied, isobornyl methacrylate, gave an extremely brittle polymer; furthermore, it would not form a dough with poly(ethyl methacrylate). The homopolymers gave Young's moduli in the range 1.38-2.19 GN/m2, i.e. lower than poly(methyl methacrylate). The moduli of poly(ethyl methacrylate)/monomer systems are theoretically predictable from the moduli of the homopolymers involved. The above materials were generally ductile and the mechanical properties indicated a useful class of materials for clinical use.

  18. On the mechanical properties of selenite glass nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Arun Kr.; Kundu, Ranadip; Roy, Debasish; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the room temperature micro-hardness of selenite glass-nanocomposites has been measured using a Vickers and Knoop micro hardness tester where the applied load varies from 0.01N to 0.98 N. A significant indentation size effect was observed for each sample at relatively low indentation test loads. The classical Meyer's law and the proportional specimen resistance model were used to analyze the micro-hardness behavior. It was found that the selenite glass-nanocomposite becomes harder with increasing CuI composition and the work hardening coefficient and mechanical properties like Young modulus, E, were also calculated. Our results open the way for the preparation, application and investigation of significant mechanical properties of new type of glass-nanocomposites.

  19. Densification and mechanical properties of liquid phase sintered tantalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatti, D.G. [EEL-USP, Polo Urbo Industrial, Gleba AI6, Lorena/SP (Brazil); Holanda, J.N.F. de [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense - UENF/CCT/PPGECM, Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ (Brazil); Gomes, U.U. [DFTE-UFRN, Natal/RN (Brazil); Filgueira, M.

    2009-10-15

    This paper has as main objective to investigate the influence of nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) addition on the tantalum (Ta) powder processing, by promoting a liquid phase sintering (LPS). The role of these metals is to lower the Ta sintering temperature, maintaining good densification and mechanical properties. Ni, Fe and Cu 1wt% additions to Ta powder were performed. Samples were cold pressed at 350 MPa. Sintering was carried out at 1300 to 2000 C, for 1 hour, under a vacuum of 10{sup -6} Pa. Density, linear shrinkage and activation energy were measured and calculated. Hardness and compression tests were also conducted. Ni was the most promissing Ta LPS activator, once it enabled the best results of densification and mechanical properties. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Verdichtung und mechanische Eigenschaften von fluessigphasengesintertem Tantalum. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Bio-Polymer Graphite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddam Kamarudin, M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Munirah Abdullah, Nur; Abdullah, M. F. L.

    2017-08-01

    Waste cooking oil is used as the main substances in producing graphite biopolymer thin films. Biopolymer is produce from the reaction of bio-monomer and cross linker with the ratio of 2:1 and addition of graphite with an increment of 2% through a slip casting method. The morphological surface properties of the samples are observed by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It is shown that the graphite particle is well mixed and homogenously dispersed in biopolymer matrix. Meanwhile, the mechanical response of materials by monitoring the change in the material properties in terms of frequency and temperature of the samples were determined using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The calculated cross-linked density of biopolymer composites revealed the increment of graphite particle loading at 8% gives highest results with 260.012 x 103 M/m3.

  1. High-temperature properties of mineral wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Maria; Ståhl, Kenny

    Thermal stability and thereby fire safety is an essential property of fibrous insulating materials for buildings. At the same time the viscosity is an important manufacturing property that may impair the thermal stability. This project aims at investigating the thermal stability of some mineral...

  2. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of spark plasma sintered alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheb Nouari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report temperature-dependent thermal properties of alumina powder and bulk alumina consolidated by spark plasma sintering method. The properties were measured between room temperature and 250ºC using a thermal constants analyzer. Alumina powder had very low thermal properties due to the presence of large pores and absence of bonding between its particles. Fully dense alumina with a relative density of 99.6 % was obtained at a sintering temperature of 1400°C and a holding time of 10 min. Thermal properties were found to mainly dependent on density. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of the fully dense alumina were 34.44 W/mK, 7.62 mm2s-1, and 1.22 J/gK, respectively, at room temperature. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity decreased while specific heat increased with the increase in temperature from room temperature to 250ºC.

  3. Relationships between conversion, temperature and optical properties during composite photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Benjamin; Wilson, Nicholas D; Newman, Sheldon M; Pfeifer, Carmem S; Stansbury, Jeffrey W

    2010-06-01

    Optical properties of composite restoratives, both cured and uncured, are of obvious importance in a procedure reliant on photoactivation, since they may affect light transmission and therefore materials conversion upon which mechanical properties and ultimate clinical performance are dependent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate simultaneous, real-time conversion, and the development of the temperature and optical properties. The dimethacrylate resin (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA 70/30mass%) was prepared at three filler loading (0, 35 or 70mass%: no fill, low and high fill, respectively) combined with three initiator concentrations (CQ/EDMAB: 0/0, 0.2/0.8 or 1.0/1.6mass%). Specimens were exposed to either low (50mWcm(-2)) or high (500mWcm(-2)) irradiance. Simultaneous conversion (near-IR peak area), temperature (thermocouple) and visible light transmission (UV-vis spectroscopy) measurements were conducted throughout the polymerization process. The refractive index of the resin rises linearly with conversion (r(2)=0.976), producing a refractive index match between resin/filler at approximately 58% conversion in these materials. The percentage increase in light transmission during conversion was greater for increasing filler levels. Higher CQ content led to maximum light transmission at slightly higher levels of conversion (60-65% and 50-55% for the high and low filled materials, respectively). The broad distribution of filler concentrations allows for the clinically relevant generalization that highly filled composites not only jeopardize absolute light transmission, conversion and depth of cure, but also demonstrate the complex interrelationship that exists between materials, processing conditions and the optical properties of dental composites. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Linking properties to microstructure through multiresolution mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Cahal James

    The macroscale mechanical and physical properties of materials are inherently linked to the underlying microstructure. Traditional continuum mechanics theories have focused on approximating the heterogeneous microstructure as a continuum, which is conducive to a partial differential equation mathematical description. Although this makes large scale simulation of material much more efficient than modeling the detailed microstructure, the relationship between microstructure and macroscale properties becomes unclear. In order to perform computational materials design, material models must clearly relate the key underlying microstructural parameters (cause) to macroscale properties (effect). In this thesis, microstructure evolution and instability events are related to macroscale mechanical properties through a new multiresolution continuum analysis approach. The multiresolution nature of this theory allows prediction of the evolving magnitude and scale of deformation as a direct function of the changing microstructure. This is achieved via a two-pronged approach: (a) Constitutive models which track evolving microstructure are developed and calibrated to direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the microstructure. (b) The conventional homogenized continuum equations of motion are extended via a virtual power approach to include extra coupled microscale stresses and stress couples which are active at each characteristic length scale within the microstructure. The multiresolution approach is applied to model the fracture toughness of a cemented carbide, failure of a steel alloy under quasi-static loading conditions and the initiation and velocity of adiabatic shear bands under high speed dynamic loading. In each case the multiresolution analysis predicts the important scale effects which control the macroscale material response. The strain fields predicted in the multiresolution continuum analyses compare well to those observed in direct numerical simulations of the

  5. Passive mechanical properties of ovine rumen tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Stephen J.; Cater, John E.; Walker, Cameron G.; Amirapu, Satya; Waghorn, Garry C.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical and structural properties of ovine rumen tissue have been determined using uniaxial tensile testing of tissue from four animals at five rumen locations and two orientations. Animal and orientation did not have a significant effect on the stress-strain response, but there was a significant difference between rumen locations. Histological studies showed two orthogonal muscle layers in all regions except the reticulum, which has a more isotropic structure. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model was fitted to the relaxation stage for each region. Model predictions of the ramp stage had RMS errors of 13-24% and were within the range of the experimental data.

  6. Mechanical properties of low dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Deepika

    Recent advances in low dimensional materials (LDMs) have paved the way for unprecedented technological advancements. The drive to reduce the dimensions of electronics has compelled researchers to devise newer techniques to not only synthesize novel materials, but also tailor their properties. Although micro and nanomaterials have shown phenomenal electronic properties, their mechanical robustness and a thorough understanding of their structure-property relationship are critical for their use in practical applications. However, the challenges in probing these mechanical properties dramatically increase as their dimensions shrink, rendering the commonly used techniques inadequate. This dissertation focuses on developing techniques for accurate determination of elastic modulus of LDMs and their mechanical responses under tensile and shear stresses. Fibers with micron-sized diameters continuously undergo tensile and shear deformations through many phases of their processing and applications. Significant attention has been given to their tensile response and their structure-tensile properties relations are well understood, but the same cannot be said about their shear responses or the structure-shear properties. This is partly due to the lack of appropriate instruments that are capable of performing direct shear measurements. In an attempt to fill this void, this dissertation describes the design of an inexpensive tabletop instrument, referred to as the twister, which can measure the shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of micron-sized individual fibers. An automated system applies a pre-determined twist to the fiber sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and KevlarRTM 119, were found to have G = 17 and 2.4 GPa, respectively. In addition to measuring the shear

  7. Analysis of Mechanical Properties for GEM Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Yuk Ming

    2016-01-01

    In view of new assembly technique of the GEM detector; in which three foils stack is stretched to get the uniform gaps among the foils. We studied the mechanical properties of the foil material. We conditioned the samples in different environments to make them extra dry and wet. As holes are the major source of the charge amplification their deformation can effect the detector performance. Therefore in our studies we also studied at which level of the stress the holes deformation is seen. These tensile and holes deformation studies can help to optimize the stress during detector assembly.

  8. The change in physical and mechanical properties of technical fabric by means of plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyushina, S.; Krasina, I.; Minyazova, A.; Antonova, M.; Parsanov, A.; Eworo, B.

    2017-11-01

    The properties of a technical cushion fabric modified by a low-temperature plasma are studied. It established that the treatment with plasma of low pressure allows us to give anti-adhesive properties of technical fabrics with improvement of physical and mechanical properties.

  9. Properties of magnetocaloric materials with a distribution of Curie temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The magnetocaloric properties of inhomogeneous ferromagnets that contain distributions of Curie temperatures are considered as a function of the width of such a distribution. Assuming a normal distribution of the Curie temperature, the average adiabatic temperature change, ΔTad, the isothermal...

  10. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture ofextremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1 the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2 the thin films of ustenite between the individual ferriteplatelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale. Considering the nanometer grain sizes, the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes, and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and “green” material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over alternative materials.

  11. Mechanical and magnetic properties of composite materials with polymer matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of modern technologies require materials with unusual combinations of properties that cannot be met by the conventional metal alloys, ceramics, and polymeric materials. Material property combinations and ranges have been extended by the development of composite materials. Development of Nd-Fe-B/polymer composite magnetic materials has significantly increased interest in research and development of bonded magnets, since particles of Nd-Fe-B alloys are proved to be very suitable for their production. This study investigates the mechanical and magnetic properties of compression molded Nd-Fe-B magnets with different content of magnetic powder in epoxy matrix. Mechanical properties were investigated at ambient temperature according to ASTM standard D 3039-00. The obtained results show that tensile strength and elongation decrease with an increase of Nd-Fe-B particles content in epoxy matrix. The modulus of elasticity increases, which means that in exploitation material with higher magnetic powder content, subjected to the same level of stress, undergoes 2 to 3.5 times smaller deformation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used to examine the morphology of sample surfaces and fracture surfaces caused by the tensile strength tests. The results of SQUID magnetic measurements show an increase of magnetic properties of the investigated composites with increasing content of Nd-Fe-B particles.

  12. Mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 228-MPS on mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The State-of-the-Art Report of RILEM Technical Committee 228-MPS on Mechanical properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) summarizes an extensive body of information related to mechanical properties and mechanical behaviour of SCC. Due attention is given to the fact that the composition of SCC varies significantly. A wide range of  mechanical properties are considered, including compressive strength, stress-strain relationship, tensile and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, shear strength, effect of elevated temperature, such as fire spalling and residual properties after fire, in-situ properties, creep, shrinkage, bond properties, and structural behaviour. A chapter on fibre-reinforced SCC is included, as well as a chapter on specialty SCC, such as light-weight SCC, heavy-weight SCC, preplaced aggregate SCC, special fibre reinforced SCC, and underwater concrete.

  13. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of Fe-(8-9)%Cr reduced activation steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Robertson, J.P.; Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The key thermophysical and mechanical properties for 8--9%Cr reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are summarized, including temperature-dependent tensile properties in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions, stress-rupture behavior, elastic constants, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, specific heat, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. The estimated lower and upper temperatures limits for structural applications are 250 and 550 C due to radiation hardening/embrittlement and thermal creep considerations, respectively.

  14. Mechanical properties of 3D ceramic nanolattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Lucas

    Developments in advanced nanoscale fabrication techniques have allowed for the creation of 3-dimensional hierarchical structural meta-materials that can be designed with arbitrary geometry. These structures can be made on length scales spanning multiple orders of magnitude, from tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns. The smallest features are controllable on length scales where materials have been shown to exhibit size effects in their mechanical properties. Combining novel nanoscale mechanical properties with a 3-dimensional architecture enables the creation of new classes of materials with tunable and unprecedented mechanical properties. We present the fabrication and mechanical deformation of hollow tube alumina nanolattices that were fabricated using two-photon lithography direct laser writing (DLW), atomic layer deposition (ALD), and oxygen plasma etching. Nanolattices were designed in a number of different geometries including octet-truss, octahedron, and 3D Kagome. Additionally, a number of structural parameters were varied including tube wall thickness (t) , tube major axis (a) , and unit cell size (L) . The resulting nanolattices had a range of densities from ρ = 4 to 250 mg/cm3. Uniaxial compression and cyclic loading tests were performed on the nanolattices to obtain the yield strength and modulus. In these tests, a marked change in the deformation response was observed when the wall thickness was reduced below 20nm; thick-walled nanolattices (t>20nm) underwent catastrophic, brittle failure, which transitioned to a gradual, ductile-like deformation as wall thickness was reduced. Thick-walled nanolattices also exhibited no recovery after compression, while thin-walled structures demonstrated notable recovery, with some recovering by 98% after compression to 50% strain and by 80% when compressed to 90% strain. Across all geometries, unit cell sizes, and wall thicknesses, we found a consistent power law relation between strength and modulus with

  15. Dielectric properties of some cadmium and mercury amino alcohol complexes at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAA E. ALI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of some cadmium and mercury amino alcohol complexes were studied within the temperature range of 100–300 K at the frequencies of 100, 300 and 1000 kHz. The polarization mechanisms are suggested and the dependence of both e and tg d on both temperature and frequency are analyzed. The analysis of the data reveals semi-conducting features based mainly on the hopping mechanism.

  16. Temperature Dependent Electrical and Micromechanical Properties of Lanthanum Titanate with Additions of Yttria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    Lanthanum titanate (La2Ti2O7) a layered distorted perovskite (1) with space group Pna2(sub 1) has been shown to have potential as a high temperature piezoelectric (2). However this highly refractory oxide compound must be consolidated at relatively high temperatures approximately 1400 C. Commercial La2Ti207 powders were mechanically alloyed with additions of Y2O3 to lower the consolidation temperature by 300 C and to provide post processing mechanical stability. Temperature dependent electrical, elastic and anelastic behavior were selected as nondestructive means of evaluating the effects of yttria on the properties of this ferroceramic material.

  17. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the neutron irradiated beryllium with total fast neutron fluences of 1.3 - 4.3 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 327 - 616degC were studied. Swelling increased by high irradiation temperature, high fluence, and by the small grain size and high impurity. Obvious decreasing of the fracture stress was observed in the bending test and in small grain specimens which had many helium bubbles on the grain boundary. Decreasing of the fracture stress for small grain specimens was presumably caused by crack propagation on the grain boundaries which weekend by helium bubbles. (author)

  19. Fractographic correlations with mechanical properties in ferritic martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpan; Chakravartty, Jayanta Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The ultimate continuum of a material is nothing but the process called fracture. Fracture surface retains the imprint of the entire deformation history undergone in a material. Hence, it is possible to derive the approximate deformation and fracture properties of a material from a systematic fracture feature analysis. There has been large volume of literature available in the open domain correlating different mechanical and fracture responses of reduced activation ferritic martensitic grade steels under various testing conditions/circumstances with corresponding microstructural interpretation. There has been no such literature available to establish the relationship between the two-dimensional fracture geometry/topography with its corresponding deformation and mechanical properties of the material as a function of testing temperature, which has been the primary aim in the current investigation. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried out to realize this fact. In order to establish the above hypothesis, many tensile experiments were carried out at constant strain rate by systematic variation of the test temperature. The initial void volume fraction or the inclusion content of material was kept unaltered and the test temperature has been varied orderly on different multiple specimens to vary the deformation-induced nucleation sites of micro voids (i.e. different carbides, phase interfaces, dislocation pile up etc), which results in a change of fracture topography under uniaxial tensile deformation. A conventional metallographic technique followed by optical microscopy has been employed to understand the basic morphologies and characteristics of the alloy exposed at different temperatures. Fractographic investigation of the broken tensile specimens at various temperatures is carried out to measure the fracture features by using quantitative fractography on representative scanning electron fractographs through image processing.

  20. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper,we give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope.We also ... Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 8701, Beijing 100 080, China.

  1. High temperature properties of dispersion strengthened Al-Al4C3 materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besterci, M.; Slesar, M.; Miskovicova, M.; Pelikan, K.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most important properties of dispersion strengthened materials is their strength stability at high temperatures. The strength and plasticity of the material Al + 5 vol. pct Al4C3, tested in the temperature range from 100 to 400 C, are analyzed. On the basis of the experiments the functions for the temperature dependence of the strength and plasticity are described, the deformation process is evaluated, and the fracture mechanisms are quantified. 17 references.

  2. Mechanical Properties and Durability of "Waterless Concrete"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutanji, Houssam; Grugel, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Waterless concrete consists of molten elementary sulfur and aggregate. The aggregates in lunar environment will be lunar rocks and soil. Sulfur is present on the Moon in Troilite soil (FeS) and by oxidation soil iron and sulfur can be produced. Iron can be used to reinforce the sulfur concrete. Sulfur concrete specimens were cycled between liquid nitrogen (approximately 191 C) and room temperature (approximately 21 C) to simulate exposure to a lunar environment. Cycled and control specimens were subsequently tested in compression at room temperatures (approximately 21 C) and approximately 101 C. Test results showed that due to temperature cycling, compressive strength of cycled specimens was 20% of those non-cycled. Microscopic examination of the fracture surfaces from the cycled samples showed clear de-bonding of the sulfur from the aggregate material whereas it was seen well bonded in those non-cycled. This reduction in strength can be attributed to the large differences in thermal coefficients of expansion of the materials constituting the concrete which promoted cracking. Similar sulfur concrete mixtures were strengthened with short and long glass fibers. The glass fibers from lunar regolith simulant was melted in a 25 cc Pt-Rh crucible in a Sybron Thermoline high temperature MoSi2 furnace at melting temperatures of 1450 to 1600 C for times of 30 min to 1 hour. Glass fibers were cast from the melt into graphite crucibles and were annealed for a couple of hours at 600 C. Glass fibers and small rods were pulled from the melt. The glass melt wets the ceramic rod and long continuous glass fibers were easily hand drawn. The glass fibers were immediately coated with a protective polymer to maintain the mechanical strength. The glass fibers were used to reinforce sulfur concrete plated to improve the flexural strength of the sulfur concrete. Prisms beams strengthened with glass fibers were tested in 4-point bending test. Beams strengthened with glass fiber showed to

  3. effects of temperature on the physicochemical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    properties. INTRODUCTION. Traditionally made edible vegetable oils that are unrefined are good sources of natural antioxidants, vitamin E, polyunsaturated fatty acids and minerals which are very important for human health (FAO and WHO. 2002, Hunter and Cason 2006). Edible oils and fats which are mainly traditionally.

  4. Environmental properties set cell mechanics and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmey, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Many cell types are sensitive to mechanical signals that are produced either by application of exogenous force to their surfaces, or by the resistance that their surroundings place on forces generated by the cells themselves. Cell morphology, motility, proliferation, and protein expression all change in response to substrate stiffness. Changing the elastic moduli of substrates alters the formation of focal adhesions, the assembly of actin filaments into bundles, and the stability of intermediate filaments. The range of stiffness over which different primary cell types respond can vary over a wide range and generally reflects the elastic modulus of the tissue from which these cells were isolated. Mechanosensing depends on the type of adhesion receptor by which the cell binds, and therefore on both the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix and the nature of its link to the cytoskeleton. Many cell types can alter their own stiffness to match that of the substrate to which they adhere. The maximal elastic modulus that cells such as fibroblasts can attain is similar to that of crosslinked actin networks at the concentrations in the cell cortex. The precise mechanisms of mechanosensing are not well defined, but they presumably require an elastic connection between cell and substrate, mediated by transmembrane proteins. The viscoelastic properties of different extracellular matrices and cytoskeletal elements strongly influence the response of cells to mechanical signals, and the unusual non-linear elasticity of many biopolymer gels, characterized by strain-stiffening, leads to novel mechanisms by which cells alter their stiffness by engagement of molecular motors that produce internal stresses. Cell cortical elasticity is dominated by cytoskeletal polymer networks and can be modulated by internal tension. Simultaneous control of substrate stiffness and adhesive patterns suggests that stiffness sensing occurs on a length scale much larger than single molecular

  5. Effect of austempering parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of horizontal continuous casting ductile iron dense bars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chun-jie Xu; Pan Dai; Zheng-yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    .... austenitizing temperature and time, and austempering temperature and time) on microstructure and mechanical properties of LZQT500-7 ductile iron dense bars with 172 mm in diameter which were produced by horizontal continuous casting (HCC...

  6. Mechanical properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Avinash

    The hardness, elastic modulus, subcritical crack growth and fracture toughness of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films have been investigated on thick (˜100 to 300 mum) free-standing films with regard to the composition, microstructure, failure mechanisms and measurement techniques. The rationale for this study was the uncertainty in measuring these properties in previous research and the variability in the composition and microstructure of the material, which may affect these properties. Two predominant micro-hardness measurement techniques, namely Vickers and Knoop indentation, were employed. Existing Young's modulus measurement techniques such as dynamic resonance and nano-indentation were reviewed for modulus measurement on these films. The validity of indentation fracture toughness measurement for CVD diamond films using micro-hardness indentation has been established based on comparison with the conventional method of tensile testing of pre-notched compact-tension samples. The fracture toughness, Ksbc, of diamond was measured using indentation methods and for the first time by the tensile testing of pre-notched fracture-mechanics type compact-tension samples. Measured Ksbc values were found to be between 5 and 7 MPa-msp{1/2} by either method. Studies on subcritical crack growth (i.e., at stress intensities less than Ksbc) indicated that CVD diamond is essentially immune to stress-corrosion cracking under sustained loads in room air, water and acid environments. Extensive studies of the microstructure and mechanisms of failure were conducted. A commonly known toughening mechanism for ceramics by weakening the grain boundary in order to promote intergranular failure and grain bridging, has been implemented to improve the toughness of CVD diamond films. Several films with nominally the same thickness but small differences in their non-diamond content were studied and a significant variation in the toughness measurements was observed

  7. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  8. Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Rubber Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhar, N. A. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.; Aziz, A. A.; Mat Isa, S. S.; Danial, N. S.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-11-01

    This research focused on development of wearable sensor device by using Prevulcanized Natural Rubber (PV) and Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR 50) latex incorporated with graphene oxide (GO), graphene paste, graphene powder and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) powder. The compounding formulation and calculation were based on phr (parts per hundred rubber) and all the samples were then tested for mechanical properties using Instron 5565 machine. It was found that the sonication effects on tensile strength may have better quality of tensile strength compared to non-sonicated GO. For PV incorporate GO, the optimum loading was best determined at loading 1.5 phr with or without sonication and similar result was recorded for PV/G. For ENR 50 incorporate graphene paste and rGO powder nanocomposite shows the best optimum was at 3.0 phr with 24 hours’ sonication.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Carbonitride Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingfang; Wang, Wei; Song, Lixin

    2003-02-01

    Silicon carbonitride thin films were synthesized by reactive rf sputtering a silicon carbide target in nitrogen and argon atmosphere, or sputtering a silicon nitride target in methane and argon atmosphere, respectively. The Nanoindentation technique (Nanoindenter XP system with a continuous stiffness measurement technique) was employed to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of thin films. The effects of sputtering power on the mechanical properties are different for the two SiCN thin films. With increasing sputtering power, the hardness and the elastic modulus decrease for the former but increase for the latter. The tendency is similar to the evolution trend of Si-C bonds in SiCN materials. This reflects that Si-C bonds provide greater hardness for SiCN thin films than Si-N and C-N bonds.

  10. Mechanical properties on geopolymer brick: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, L. M.; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ming, L. Y.; Ibrahim, W. M. W.; Tahir, M. F. M.

    2017-09-01

    Bricks has stand for many years as durable construction substantial, especially in the area of civil engineering to construct buildings. Brick commonly used in the structure of buildings as a construction wall, cladding, facing perimeter, paving, garden wall and flooring. The contribution of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in cement bricks production worldwide to greenhouse gas emissions. Due to this issue, some researchers have done their study with other materials to produce bricks, especially as a by-product material. Researchers take effort in this regard to synthesizing from by-product materials such as fly ash, bottom ash and kaolin that are rich in silicon and aluminium in the development of inorganic alumina-silicate polymer, called geopolymer Geopolymer is a polymerization reaction between various aluminosilicate oxides with silicates solution or alkali hydroxide solution forming polymerized Si-O-Al-O bonds. This paper summarized some research finding of mechanical properties of geopolymer brick using by-product materials.

  11. Correlation of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties of a novel hydrogen transport membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun

    A key part of the FutureGen concept is to support the production of hydrogen to fuel a "hydrogen economy," with the use of clean burning hydrogen in power-producing fuel cells, as well as for use as a transportation fuel. One of the key technical barriers to FutureGen deployment is reliable and efficient hydrogen separation technology. Most Hydrogen Transport Membrane (HTM) research currently focuses on separation technology and hydrogen flux characterization. No significant work has been performed on thermo-mechanical properties of HTMs. The objective of the thesis is to understand the structure-property correlation of HTM and to characterize (1) thermo mechanical properties under different reducing environments and thermal cycles (thermal shock), and (2) evaluate the stability of the novel HTM material. A novel HTM cermet bulk sample was characterized for its physical and mechanical properties at both room temperature and at elevated temperature up to 1000°C. Micro-structural properties and residual stresses were evaluated in order to understand the changing mechanism of the microstructure and its effects on the mechanical properties of materials. A correlation of the microstructural and thermo mechanical properties of the HTM system was established for both HTM and the substrate material. Mechanical properties of both selected structural ceramics and the novel HTM cermet bulk sample are affected mainly by porosity and microstructural features, such as grain size and pore size-distribution. The Young's Modulus (E-value) is positively correlated to the flexural strength for materials with similar crystallographic structure. However, for different crystallographic materials, physical properties are independent of mechanical properties. Microstructural properties, particularly, grain size and crystallographic structure, and thermodynamic properties are the main factors affecting the mechanical properties at both room and high temperatures. The HTM cermet behaves

  12. Effect of Temperature on Microstructure and Fracture Mechanisms in Friction Stir Welded Al6061 Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbane, A.; Ayoub, G.; Mansoor, B.; Hamade, R. F.; Imad, A.

    2017-05-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are widely used in different industries due to such attractive properties as adequate strength, ductility, and low density. It is desirable to characterize welds of aluminum alloys obtained using "friction stir welding" at high temperatures. Al-to-Al (both 6061-T6) butt joints are produced by friction stir welding at tool rotation speed of 1600 rpm and four levels of tool advancing speeds: 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mm/min. Microstructural properties of the different welds are investigated. Observed are noticeable differences in microstructure characteristics between the various weld zones. Mechanical properties of these welded joints are characterized under tensile tests at temperatures of 25, 100, 200, and 300 °C, at a constant strain rate of 10-3/s. The optimum microstructural and mechanical properties were obtained for the samples FS welded with 1600 rpm tool rotation speed at 1000 mm/min tool advancing speed. The studied welds exhibited yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and strain to failure with values inferior of those of the base material. Observations of postmortem samples revealed that in the temperature range of 25-200 °C the locus of failure originates at the region between the thermo-mechanically affected zone and the heat-affected zones. However, at higher temperatures (300 °C), the failure occurs in the stir zone. A change in the crack initiation mechanism with temperature is suggested to explain this observation.

  13. Mechanical properties of ceramic-polymer nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano crystalline powders of Barium Sodium Niobate (BNN with the composition Ba3–2x Na4+x R Nb10 O30 with (R stands for rare earth = 0, x = 0 have been prepared by conventional ceramic technique. Barium Sodium Niobate can form a wide range of solid solutions, incorporating rare earth and alkali, alkaline earth elements with different compositions. The powder belonged to tungsten bronze type structure with tetragonal symmetry and lattice constants a = b = 1.2421 nm and c = 0.3903 nm. XRD (X-ray Diffraction SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope studies revealed that the particle size is in the nanometer range. Composites are prepared by mixing powders of BNN with polystyrene at different volume fractions of the BNN. Melt mixing technique is carried out in a Brabender Plasticoder at a rotor speed of 60 rpm (rotations per minute for composite preparation. Mechanical properties such as stress-strain behavior, Young’s modulus, tensile strength, strain at break etc. are evaluated. Addition of filler enhances the mechanical properties of the polymer such as Young’s modulus and tensile strength. The composites showed the trend of perfect adhesion between the filler and the polymer. The filler particles are distributed relatively uniform fashion in all composites and the particles are almost spherical in shape with irregular boundaries. To explore more carefully the degree of interfacial adhesion between the two phases, the results are analyzed by using models featuring adhesion parameter. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  14. The mechanical and strength properties of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Diamond is an exciting material with many outstanding properties; see, for example Field J E (ed) 1979 The Properties of Diamond (London: Academic) and Field J E (ed) 1992 The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond (London: Academic). It is pre-eminent as a gemstone, an industrial tool and as a material for solid state research. Since natural diamonds grew deep below the Earth's surface before their ejection to mineable levels, they also contain valuable information for geologists. The key to many of diamond's properties is the rigidity of its structure which explains, for example, its exceptional hardness and its high thermal conductivity. Since 1953, it has been possible to grow synthetic diamond. Before then, it was effectively only possible to have natural diamond, with a small number of these found in the vicinity of meteorite impacts. Techniques are now available to grow gem quality synthetic diamonds greater than 1 carat (0.2 g) using high temperatures and pressures (HTHP) similar to those found in nature. However, the costs are high, and the largest commercially available industrial diamonds are about 0.01 carat in weight or about 1 mm in linear dimension. The bulk of synthetic diamonds used industrially are 600 µm or less. Over 75% of diamond used for industrial purposes today is synthetic material. In recent years, there have been two significant developments. The first is the production of composites based on diamond; these materials have a significantly greater toughness than diamond while still maintaining very high hardness and reasonable thermal conductivity. The second is the production at low pressures by metastable growth using chemical vapour deposition techniques. Deposition onto non-diamond substrates was first demonstrated by Spitsyn et al 1981 J. Cryst. Growth 52 219-26 and confirmed by Matsumoto et al 1982 Japan J. Appl. Phys. 21 L183-5. These developments have added further to the versatility of diamond. Two other groups of materials

  15. Biomimetic hydrogel with tunable mechanical properties for vitreous substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Sruthi; Liang, Jue; Struckhoff, Jessica; Hamilton, Paul D; Ravi, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    The vitreous humor of the eye is a biological hydrogel principally composed of collagen fibers interspersed with hyaluronic acid. Certain pathological conditions necessitate its removal and replacement. Current substitutes, like silicone oils and perfluorocarbons, are not biomimetic and have known complications. In this study, we have developed an in situ forming two-component biomimetic hydrogel with tunable mechanical and osmotic properties. The components are gellan, an analogue of collagen, and poly(methacrylamide-co-methacrylate), an analogue of hyaluronic acid; both endowed with thiol side groups. We used response surface methodology to consider seventeen possible hydrogels to determine how each component affects the optical, mechanical, sol-gel transition temperature and swelling properties. The optical and physical properties of the hydrogels were similar to vitreous. The shear storage moduli ranged from 3 to 358Pa at 1Hz and sol-gel transition temperatures from 35.5 to 43°C. The hydrogel had the ability to remain swollen without degradation for four weeks in vitro. Three hydrogels were tested for biocompatibility on primary porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells, human retinal pigment epithelial cells, and fibroblast (3T3/NIH) cells, by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system. The two-component hydrogels allowed for the tuning and optimizing of mechanical, swelling, and transition temperature to obtain three biocompatible hydrogels with properties similar to the vitreous. Future studies include testing of the optimized hydrogels in animal models for use as a long-term substitute, whose preliminary results are mentioned. Although hydrogels are researched as long-term vitreous substitute, none have advanced sufficiently to reach clinical application. Our work focuses on the development of a novel two component in situ forming hydrogel that bio-mimic the natural vitreous. Our thiol-containing copolymers can be injected as an aqueous solution into

  16. Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties and Fractal Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Countermeasures for reducing bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to the microgravity environment of space are continuing to be developed and improved. An important component of this effort is finite element modeling of the lower extremity and spinal column. These models will permit analysis and evaluation specific to each individual and thereby provide more efficient and effective exercise protocols. Inflight countermeasures and post-flight rehabilitation can then be customized and targeted on a case-by-case basis. Recent Summer Faculty Fellowship participants have focused upon finite element mesh generation, muscle force estimation, and fractal calculations of trabecular bone microstructure. Methods have been developed for generating the three-dimensional geometry of the femur from serial section magnetic resonance images (MRI). The use of MRI as an imaging modality avoids excessive exposure to radiation associated with X-ray based methods. These images can also detect trabecular bone microstructure and architecture. The goal of the current research is to determine the degree to which the fractal dimension of trabecular architecture can be used to predict the mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. The elastic modulus and the ultimate strength (or strain) can then be estimated from non-invasive, non-radiating imaging and incorporated into the finite element models to more accurately represent the bone tissue of each individual of interest. Trabecular bone specimens from the proximal tibia are being studied in this first phase of the work. Detailed protocols and procedures have been developed for carrying test specimens through all of the steps of a multi-faceted test program. The test program begins with MRI and X-ray imaging of the whole bones before excising a smaller workpiece from the proximal tibia region. High resolution MRI scans are then made and the piece further cut into slabs (roughly 1 cm thick). The slabs are X-rayed again

  17. Robust design of microelectronics assemblies against mechanical shock, temperature and moisture effects of temperature, moisture and mechanical driving forces

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, E-H

    2015-01-01

    Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock, Temperature and Moisture discusses how the reliability of packaging components is a prime concern to electronics manufacturers. The text presents a thorough review of this important field of research, providing users with a practical guide that discusses theoretical aspects, experimental results, and modeling techniques. The authors use their extensive experience to produce detailed chapters covering temperature, moisture, and mechanical shock induced failure, adhesive interconnects, and viscoelasticity. Useful progr

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Virshup

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep–wake cycle, feeding–fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks. But, unlike other chemical reactions, the output of the clock system remains nearly constant with fluctuations in ambient temperature, a phenomenon known as temperature compensation. In this brief review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the posttranslational modifications, especially a phosphoswitch mechanism controlling the stability of PER2 and its implications for the regulation of temperature compensation.

  19. Effect of Precuring Warming on Mechanical Properties of Restorative Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Nada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of prepolymerization warming on composites' mechanical properties, three composites were evaluated: Clearfil Majesty (CM (Kuraray, Z-100 (3M/ESPE, and Light-Core (LC (Bisco. Specimens were prepared from each composite at room temperature as control and 2 higher temperatures (37∘C and 54∘C to test surface hardness (SH, compressive strength (CS, and diametral tensile strength (DTS. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's LSD tests. Results revealed that prewarming CM and Z100 specimens significantly improved their SH mean values (P<0.05. Prewarming also improved mean CS values of Z100 specimens (P<0.05. Furthermore, DTS mean value of CM prepared at 52∘ was significantly higher than that of room temperature specimens (P<0.05. KHN, CS, and DTS mean values varied significantly among the three composites. In conclusion, Prewarming significantly enhanced surface hardness of 2 composites. Prewarming also improved bulk properties of the composites; however, this improvement was significant in only some of the tested materials.

  20. Effects of Decortication Temperature on the Functional Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained showed that the effects of decortication on the functional properties of cowpea flour were significantly different (p 0.05). Flour sample at decortication temperature of 40oC showed the least boiling and gelation temperature, and also the ...

  1. Effects of reaction temperature on size and optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. We report experimental results on the reaction temperature dependence of luminescence proper- ties in size-controlled CdSe nanocrystals. Such reaction temperature dependent property is also size- dependent. The diameter of the CdSe nanocrystals is tuned from 4–11⋅0 nm by varying the reaction tempera-.

  2. Effects of reaction temperature on size and optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effects of reaction temperature on size and optical properties of CdSe nanocrystals. Shutang Chen ... The diameter of the CdSe nanocrystals is tuned from 4–11.0 nm by varying the reaction temperatures. The growth ... Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, P.R. China ...

  3. Mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements affected by curing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; van Duinen, Raimond N B; Feilzer, Albert J

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to assess the influence of externally applied 'command' set applications on the mechanical properties of several commercially available conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC). Four different restorative GICs cements (Fuji IX FAST, Fuji IX, Ketac Molar Quick, Ketac Molar) were cured using three different methods, e.g. standard curing conditions (SC), ultrasonic excitation (UC) and by an external heat source (HC). The compressive strength of these samples was measured and the groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. A standard thermocouple (K-type) measured the temperature in GIC during curing. In general all experiments showed an increase in strength going from SC, UC to HC. Especially, the compressive strength of Fuji IX FAST and Ketac Molar increased by UC and HC compared to the SC values. The compressive strength of Fuji IX FAST as a function of time showed an increase in strength during 28d. There was a clear relationship between the temperature in the sample (SCproperties at early curing time can improve the survival rate of GICs in the clinical situation. Ultrasonic excitation can be used as a 'command' set method and improves the properties of GIC at early setting time.

  4. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cantilever Shaped Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thundat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Microcantilevers were first introduced as imaging probes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM due to their extremely high sensitivity in measuring surface forces. The versatility of these probes, however, allows the sensing and measurement of a host of mechanical properties of various materials. Sensor parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor, amplitude of vibration and bending due to a differential stress can all be simultaneously determined for a cantilever. When measuring the mechanical properties of materials, identifying and discerning the most influential parameters responsible for the observed changes in the cantilever response are important. We will, therefore, discuss the effects of various force fields such as those induced by mass loading, residual stress, internal friction of the material, and other changes in the mechanical properties of the microcantilevers. Methods to measure variations in temperature, pressure, or molecular adsorption of water molecules are also discussed. Often these effects occur simultaneously, increasing the number of parameters that need to be concurrently measured to ensure the reliability of the sensors. We therefore systematically investigate the geometric and environmental effects on cantilever measurements including the chemical nature of the underlying interactions. To address the geometric effects we have considered cantilevers with a rectangular or circular cross section. The chemical nature is addressed by using cantilevers fabricated with metals and/or dielectrics. Selective chemical etching, swelling or changes in Young’s modulus of the surface were investigated by means of polymeric and inorganic coatings. Finally to address the effect of the environment in which the cantilever operates, the Knudsen number was determined to characterize the molecule-cantilever collisions. Also bimaterial cantilevers with high thermal sensitivity were used to discern the effect of temperature

  5. Temperature-Dependent Electrical and Micromechanical Properties of Lanthanum Titanate with Additions of Yttria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature-dependent elastic properties were determined by establishing continuous flexural vibrations in the material at its lowest resonance frequency of 31tHz. The imaginary part of the complex impedance plotted as a function of frequency and temperature reveals a thermally activated peak, which decreases in magnitude as the temperature increases. Additions of yttria do not degrade the electromechanical in particularly the elastic and anelastic properties of lanthanum titanate. Y2O3/La2Ti2O7 exhibits extremely low internal friction and hence may be more mechanical fatigue-resistant at low strains.

  6. Self-brazing Mechanism of Aluminum Alloy at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Fang-jie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnCl2 and SnCl2 were added to the AlF3-CsF eutectic flux, which can be used for connecting aluminum alloy sheet by self-brazing at medium temperature. The influence of the amount of ZnCl2 and SnCl2 and the size of the T-joint area on the interface microstructure and the self-brazing joint mechanical properties was investigated. The interface microstructure, chemical compositions, defects and tensile fractography of the self-brazing joints were analyzed by metallographic microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that the joints are soundly bonded when both the mass fractions of ZnCl2 and SnCl2 are about 4%; the replacement reactions between Zn2+, Sn2+ of flux and Al atoms of base metal occur during brazing, then the liquid metals of Sn and Zn appear, a great degree of Zn which has high solid solution with Al spreads rapidly to the base metal; Sn is distributed along the interface forming a low melting point metal layer with Zn and Al; the brazing of joints with small area can be realized easily; there are a lot of dimples on the fracture surface and the tensile strength of the brazing joint reaches (58±5MPa.

  7. Experimental and computational investigation of temperature effects on soot mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiaojie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of initial ambient temperatures on combustion and soot emission characteristics of diesel fuel were investigated through experiment conducted in optical constant volume chamber and simulation using phenomenological soot model. There are four difference initial ambient temperatures adopted in our research: 1000 K, 900 K, 800 K and 700 K. In order to obtain a better prediction of soot behavior, phenomenological soot model was revised to take into account the soot oxidation feedback on soot number density and good agreement was observed in the comparison of soot measurement and prediction. Results indicated that ignition delay prolonged with the decrease of initial ambient temperature. The heat release rate demonstrated the transition from mixing controlled combustion at high ambient temperature to premixed combustion mode at low ambient temperature. At lower ambient temperature, soot formation and oxidation mechanism were both suppressed. But finally soot mass concentration reduced with decreasing initial ambient temperature. Although the drop in ambient temperature did not cool the mean in-cylinder temperature during the combustion, it did shrink the total area of local high equivalence ratio, in which soot usually generated fast. At 700 K initial ambient temperature, soot emissions were almost negligible, which indicates that sootless combustion might be achieved at super low initial temperature operation conditions.

  8. High Temperature Advanced Structural Composites. Volume 3. Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-02

    funcions of 00. For an incrase in temperature and stress denoted by A6, and so, we can now write do, - BAz; 6) do + b.(x; 9,) Ae, (5.1) with b,(x 9...Plasticity Theory of Fibrous Composite Materials," Metal Matriz Composites: Testig, Ana44iis, an Faiure Modes, ASTM STP 1032, W.S. Johnson, ed., American...diagraams of matriz material at various temperatures. 420 Table 1. Elastic Properties for Boron and Graphite Fibers Properties B Gr (****) E13 (MPa

  9. The Influence Of The Temperature Of Liquid Nitrogen On The Physical Properties Of Powder Magnetic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapelski D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the physical properties of soft magnetic iron composites and Nd-Fe-B bonded permanent magnets measured at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen. The objective of research was a determination of influence of liquid nitrogen temperature on the magnetic properties, resistivity and mechanical properties of different powder magnetic materials. Research was carried out for three powder materials: soft magnetic, i.e. Somaloy 700, AncorLam and hard magnetic powder MQP-B used for production of bonded magnets. Composite specimens were prepared by compression moulding technology.

  10. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  11. Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Cerium Monopnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Vyoma; Singh, Devraj; Jain, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction, thermoelastic relaxation and dislocation damping mechanisms has been investigated in cerium monopnictides CeX (X: N, P, As, Sb and Bi) for longitudinal and shear waves along {< }100{rangle }, {< }110{rangle } and {< }111{rangle } directions. The second- and third-order elastic constants of CeX have also been computed in the temperature range 0 K to 500 K using Coulomb and Born-Mayer potential upto second nearest neighbours. The computed values of these elastic constants have been applied to find out Young's moduli, bulk moduli, Breazeale's non-linearity parameters, Zener anisotropy, ultrasonic velocity, ultrasonic Grüneisen parameter, thermal relaxation time, acoustic coupling constants and ultrasonic attenuation. The fracture/toughness ratio is less than 1.75, which shows that the chosen materials are brittle in nature as found for other monopnictides. The drag coefficient acting on the motion of screw and edge dislocations due to shear and compressional phonon viscosities of the lattice have also been evaluated for both the longitudinal and shear waves. The thermoelastic loss and dislocation damping loss are negligible in comparison to loss due to Akhieser damping (phonon-phonon interaction). The obtained results for CeX are in qualitative agreement with other semi-metallic monopnictides.

  12. Mechanical properties of lanthanum and yttrium chromites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulik, S.W.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In an operating high-temperature (1000{degrees}C) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the interconnect separates the fuel (P(O{sub 2}){approx}10{sup -16} atm) and the oxidant (P(O2){approx}10{sup 0.2} atm), while being electrically conductive and connecting the cells in series. Such severe atmospheric and thermal demands greatly reduce the number of viable candidate materials. Only two materials, acceptor substituted lanthanum chromite and yttrium chromite, meet these severe requirements. In acceptor substituted chromites (Sr{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} for La{sup 3+}), charge compensation is primarily electronic in oxidizing conditions (through the formation of Cr{sup 4+}). Under reducing conditions, ionic charge compensation becomes significant as the lattice becomes oxygen deficient. The formation of oxygen vacancies is accompanied by the reduction of Cr{sup 4+} ions to Cr{sup 3+} and a resultant lattice expansion. The lattice expansion observed in large chemical potential gradients is not desirable and has been found to result in greatly reduced mechanical strength.

  13. Sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of Cr3C2–NiCr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Cr3C2–NiCr cermets are used as metal cutting tools due to their relatively high hardness and low sin- tering temperatures. In this study, a powder mixture consisting of 75 wt% Cr3C2–25 wt% NiCr was sintered at four different temperatures and characterized for its microstructure and mechanical properties.

  14. BUCKLING OF A COLUMN WITH TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT MATERIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer SOYKASAP

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckling of a column with temperature dependent material properties is investigated. Euler-Bernoulli theory of thin beams is used to derive the element matrices by means of the minimum potential energy principle. Temperature dependency of material properties is taken into account in the formulation. The column is divided into finite elements with the axial degrees of freedom defined at the outer fiber of the column. Column elements have simpler derivations and compact element matrices than those of classical beam-bending element. Some illustrative examples are presented to show the convergence of numerical results obtained by the use of new elements. The results are compared with those of the classical beam-bending element and analytical solution. The new element converges to the analytical results as powerful as the classical beam-bending element. The temperature effects on the buckling loads of the column with temperature dependent material properties are also examined.

  15. Martensitic stainless steel AISI 420—mechanical properties, creep and fracture toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnic, J.; Turkalj, G.; Canadija, M.; Lanc, D.; Krscanski, S.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper some experimental results and analyses regarding the behavior of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel under different environmental conditions are presented. That way, mechanical properties like ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 percent offset yield strength at lowered and elevated temperatures as well as short-time creep behavior for selected stress levels at selected elevated temperatures of mentioned material are shown. The temperature effect on mentioned mechanical properties is also presented. Fracture toughness was calculated on the basis of Charpy impact energy. Experimentally obtained results can be of importance for structure designers.

  16. The Yttrium Effect on Nanoscale Structure, Mechanical Properties, and High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance of (Ti0.6Al0.4)1- x Y x N Multilayer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Yazdi, Mohammad Arab Pour; Lomello, Fernando; Billard, Alain; Kovács, András; Schuster, Frédéric; Guet, Claude; White, Timothy J.; Wouters, Yves; Pascal, Céline; Sanchette, Frédéric; Dong, ZhiLi

    2017-09-01

    As machine tool coating specifications become increasingly stringent, the fabrication of protective titanium aluminum nitride (Ti-Al-N) films by physical vapor deposition (PVD) is progressively more demanding. Nanostructural modification through the incorporation of metal dopants can enhance coating mechanical properties. However, dopant selection and their near-atomic-scale role in performance optimization is limited. Here, yttrium was alloyed in multilayered Ti-Al-N films to tune microstructures, microchemistries, and properties, including mechanical characteristics, adhesion, wear resistance, and resilience to oxidation. By regulating processing parameters, the multilayer period (Λ) and Y content could be adjusted, which, in turn, permitted tailoring of grain nucleation and secondary phase formation. With the composition fixed at x = 0.024 in (Ti0.6Al0.4)1- x Y x N and Λ increased from 5.5 to 24 nm, the microstructure transformed from acicular grains with 〈111〉 preferred orientation to equiaxed grains with 〈200〉 texture, while the hardness (40.8 ± 2.8 GPa to 29.7 ± 4.9 GPa) and Young's modulus (490 ± 47 GPa to 424 ± 50 GPa) concomitantly deteriorated. Alternately, when Λ = 5.5 nm and x in (Ti0.6Al0.4)1- x Y x N was raised from 0 to 0.024, the hardness was enhanced (28.7 ± 7.3 GPa to 40.8 ± 2.8 GPa) while adhesion and wear resistance were not compromised. The Ti-Al-N adopted a rock-salt type structure with Y displacing either Ti or Al and stabilizing a secondary wurtzite phase. Moreover, Y effectively retarded coating oxidation at 1073 K (800 °C) in air by inhibiting grain boundary oxygen diffusion.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) Seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanical properties are very important in the design of machines and the analysis of the behaviour of products during agricultural processing. In this research work, the mechanical properties of Moringa were determined as design parameters for the development of an oil expeller for the crop. The properties were the ...

  18. chemical and mechanical properties of velvet tamarind fruit (dialium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and mechanical properties of unshelled (black), shelled (yellow) and kernel of Dialium guineense fruit. The chemical properties investigated include some proximate and mineral elements. The mechanical properties were bio-yield force, rupture force, deformation at ...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Khaya and Albizia Films Intended for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical properties of khaya and albizia films have been studied to assess their suitability for pharmaceutical coating. The two gums were initially characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties. The mechanical properties evaluated were tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation at break, strain ...

  20. Numerical prediction of microstructure and mechanical properties for the S-rail with tailored properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shouzhao; Liu, Lizhong; Hu, Ping; Shen, Guozhe; Gao, Junzhe; Huo, Xiaobo

    2013-05-01

    Hot stamped parts are applied widely to reduce the weight and meet safety requirements for new vehicles. It has been noticed, however, that hot stamped parts of fully martensitic transformation lead to a low elongation of about 5%. Hot stamped parts may be enhanced by locally tailoring their mechanical properties to improve their energy absorption. And partially heated dies offer a method for decreasing the cooling rate of blank located in hot region to obtain the hot stamped parts with tailored properties. In this paper, an S-Rail die was separated into three sections. The middle part of the die was heated and other parts maintained room temperature during the hot stamping process. The blank of 22MnB5 boron steel was stamped by this S-Rail die. A numerical model was established to simulate the stamping process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of blank located in the hot region and cold region were investigated. At the hot region temperature of 500°, the variation of Vickers hardness through the S-Rail bottom and side wall was investigated. The austenite decomposition curves in hot region and cold region were also given to reveal the difference of phase transformations.

  1. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Mechanical Properties Enhancement by Adhesion Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Etcheverry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass fibers (GF are the reinforcement agent most used in polypropylene (PP based composites, as they have good balance between properties and costs. However, their final properties are mainly determined by the strength and stability of the polymer-fiber interphase. Fibers do not act as an effective reinforcing material when the adhesion is weak. Also, the adhesion between phases can be easily degraded in aggressive environmental conditions such as high temperatures and/or elevated moisture, and by the stress fields to which the material may be exposed. Many efforts have been done to improve polymer-glass fiber adhesion by compatibility enhancement. The most used techniques include modifications in glass surface, polymer matrix and/or both. However, the results obtained do not show a good costs/properties improvement relationship. The aim of this work is to perform an accurate analysis regarding methods for GF/PP adhesion improvement and to propose a new route based on PP in-situ polymerization onto fibers. This route involves the modification of fibers with an aluminum alkyl and hydroxy-α-olefin and from there to enable the growth of the PP chains using direct metallocenic copolymerization. The adhesion improvements were further proved by fragmentation test, as well as by mechanical properties measurements. The strength and toughness increases three times and the interfacial strength duplicates in PP/GF composites prepared with in-situ polymerized fibers.

  2. Topological effects on the mechanical properties of polymer knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yani; Ferrari, Franco

    2017-11-01

    The mechanical properties of knotted polymer rings under stretching in a bad or good solvent are investigated by applying a force F to a point of the knot while keeping another point fixed. The Monte Carlo sampling of the polymer conformations is performed on a simple cubic lattice using the Wang-Landau algorithm. The specific energy, specific heat capacity, gyration radius and the force-elongation curves are computed for several knot topologies with lengths up to 120 lattice units. The common features of the mechanical and thermal behavior of stretched short polymer rings forming knots of a given topological type are analyzed as well as the differences arising due to topology and size effects. It is found that these systems admit three different phases depending on the values of the tensile force F and the temperature T. The transitions from one phase to the other are well characterized by the peaks of the specific heat capacity and by the data of the gyration radius and specific energy. At very low temperatures the force-elongation curves show that the stretching of a knot is a stepwise process, which becomes smooth at higher temperatures. Criteria for distinguishing topological and size effects are provided. It turns out from our study that the behavior of short polymer rings is strongly influenced by topological effects. In particular, the swelling and the swelling rate of knots are severely limited by the topological constraints. Several other properties that are affected by topology, like the decay of the specific energy at high tensile forces, are discussed. The fading out of the influences of topological origin with increasing knot lengths has been verified. Some anomalies detected in the plots of the specific heat capacity of very short and complex knots have been explained by the limitations in the number of accessible energy states due to the topological constraints.

  3. An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fibre, Loofah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical properties of sisal fibre, loofah matt, epoxy resin and their resulting composites were determined experimentally. The influence of volume fraction of the reinforcing fibres and matt on the mechanical properties of the composites was investigated. It was found that loofah matt reduces the mechanical ...

  4. Structural Properties and Mechanical Durability of Extruded Fish Feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubjerg, Anders Fjeldbo; Veje, Christian; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the possible correlation between mechanical properties of fish feed pellets and their mechanical durability. Mechanical properties were obtained by texture profile analysis (TPA) and stress relaxation test (SRT) of different types of fish feed. The results were correlated...

  5. Effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on mechanical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on mechanical properties of Roystonea regia-reinforced epoxy partially biodegradable composites ... Roystonea regia fibre; epoxy resin; alkali treatment; mechanical properties. ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506 004, India ...

  6. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  7. Tribological and mechanical comparison of sintered and hipped PM212: High temperature self-lubricating composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Bogdanski, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Selected tribological, mechanical and thermophysical properties of two versions of PM212 (sintered and hot isostatically pressed, HIPped) are compared. PM212, a high temperature self-lubricating composite, contains 70 wt percent metal bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent CaF2/BaF2 eutectic and 15 wt percent silver. PM212 in the sintered form is about 80 percent dense and has previously been shown to have good tribological properties from room temperature to 850 C. Tribological results of a fully densified, HIPped version of PM212 are given. They are compared to sintered PM212. In addition, selected mechanical and thermophysical properties of both types of PM212 are discussed and related to the tribological similarities and differences between the two PM212 composites. In general, both composites display similar friction and wear properties. However, the fully dense PM212 HIPped composite exhibits slight lower friction and wear than sintered PM212. This may be attributed to its generally higher strength properties. The sintered version displays stable wear properties over a wide load range indicating its promise for use in a variety of applications. Based upon their properties, both the sintered and HIPped PM212 have potential as bearing and seal materials for advanced high temperature applications.

  8. Tribological and mechanical comparison of sintered and HIPped PM212 - High temperature self-lubricating composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Bogdanski, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Selected tribological, mechanical and thermophysical properties of two versions of PM212 (sintered and hot isostatically pressed, HIPped) are compared. PM212, a high temperature self-lubricating composite, contains 70 wt percent metal bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent CaF2/BaF2 eutectic and 15 wt percent silver. PM212 in the sintered form is about 80 percent dense and has previously been shown to have good tribological properties from room temperature to 850 C. Tribological results of a fully densified, HIPped version of PM212 are given. They are compared to sintered PM212. In addition, selected mechanical and thermophysical properties of both types of PM212 are discussed and related to the tribological similarities and differences between the two PM212 composites. In general, both composites display similar friction and wear properties. However, the fully dense PM212 HIPped composite exhibits slight lower friction and wear than sintered PM212. This may be attributed to its generally higher strength properties. The sintered version displays stable wear properties over a wide load range indicating its promise for use in a variety of applications. Based upon their properties, both the sintered and HIPped PM212 have potential as bearing and seal materials for advanced high temperature applications.

  9. Temperature dependent fracture properties of shape memory alloys: novel findings and a comprehensive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletta, Carmine; Sgambitterra, Emanuele; Niccoli, Fabrizio

    2016-12-21

    Temperature dependent fracture properties of NiTi-based Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), within the pseudoelastic regime, were analyzed. In particular, the effective Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) was estimated, at different values of the testing temperature, by a fitting of the William's expansion series, based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements. It was found that temperature plays an important role on SIF and on critical fast fracture conditions. As a consequence, Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) approaches are not suitable to predict fracture properties of SMAs, as they do not consider the effects of temperature. On the contrary, good agreements between DIC results and the predictions of an ad-hoc analytical model were observed. In fact, the model takes into account the whole thermo mechanical loading condition, including both mechanical load and temperature. Results revealed that crack tip stress-induced transformations do not represent a toughening effect and this is a completely novel result within the SMA community. Furthremore, it was demonstrated that the analytical model can be actually used to define a temperature independent fracture toughness parameter. Therefore, a new approach is proposed, based on the analytical model, where both mechanical load and temperature are considered as loading parameters in SIF computation.

  10. Temperature Effects on the Tensile Properties of Precipitation-Hardened Al-Mg-Cu-Si Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Ferguson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Because the mechanical performance of precipitation-hardened alloys can be significantly altered with temperature changes, understanding and predicting the effects of temperatures on various mechanical properties for these alloys are important. In the present work, an analytical model has been developed to predict the elastic modulus, the yield stress, the failure stress, and the failure strain taking into consideration the effect of temperatures for precipitation-hardenable Al-Mg-Cu-Si Alloys (Al-A319 alloys. In addition, other important mechanical properties of Al-A319 alloys including the strain hardening exponent, the strength coefficient, and the ductility parameter can be estimated using the current model. It is demonstrated that the prediction results based on the proposed model are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally in Al-A319 alloys in the as-cast condition and after W and T7 heat treatments.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Mechanical Property of Post Friction Stir Weld Artificial Ageing of Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAN Zhenyu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available KWN model was used to establish the precipitation evolution model of friction stir welding of Al-Mg-Si alloy. The yield strength was divided into three parts:the contribution from grain size, the contribution from solid solution and the contribution from the precipitations. Based on this model, the yield strength and hardness of friction stir weld was predicted. The effect of post weld artificial ageing on mechanical properties of friction stir weld was further investigated. The results indicate that longer holding time can be beneficial to the recovery of mechanical properties in the stirring zone. Higher temperature can lead to quick recovery of mechanical properties in the stirring zone, but when the holding temperature is higher than 200℃, longer holding time can lead the base metal softened, which is harmful to the service of friction stir welds. The mechanical property in the heat affected zone cannot be improved by post weld artificial ageing.

  12. Effect of post cure time and temperature on the properties of two phenolic-fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, M. H.; Price, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    Some effects of post-cure time and temperature on the physicomechanical properties of a phenolic-asbestos and a phenolic-glass composite are studied. The molding and post-curing procedures are discussed along with physical and mechanical test results. It is found that the specific gravity of the panels tested decreased slightly but the hardness always increased with post cure, and that the mechanical properties had different patterns of response to increasing post-cure time and temperature. For tensile properties, strength decreased, modulus increased, and elongation at break exhibited little change. In general, the phenolic-asbestos showed more positive response to post cure than did the phenolic-glass. Mold venting is found to impart better properties to the composites concerned.

  13. Mechanical properties of micro-injected HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, A.; Pagano, C.; Agnelli, S.; Baldi, F.; Fassi, I.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-injection moulding is one of the key manufacturing technologies for the mass production of high value polymeric miniaturized-components. However, this process is not just a straightforward down scaling of the conventional injection moulding technique. Indeed, during the micro-injection the polymer melt is forced to flow at high strain rates through very small channels in non-isothermal conditions, and this can lead to complex microstructures and to parts with unexpected performances. In this work, the relationships among the processing conditions, the mechanical properties and the microstructural characteristics of miniaturized specimens obtained by injection moulding were investigated. Two model systems were considered with the same filler content of 15% wt. (HDPE-talc and HDPE-glass beads), representative of two different types of micro-composites: containing lamellar and spherical micro-particles, respectively. The attention was focused on the influence of the filler type and the process conditions on the mechanical behaviour, examined by uniaxial tensile tests and dynamic-mechanical analyses, and on the morphological characteristics of the specimens, examined by microscopy analyses. The results highlight that mechanical response of the miniaturized specimens is significantly affected by both the filler and the process conditions that can have an influence on the polymer microstructure. Lamellar composites showed the best performance due to the orientation of the talc particles during the micro-injection process, while, different morphologies of the skin/core transition region in dependence on the process temperatures were observable.

  14. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation, microstructure, and mechanical property interrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic techniques for mechanical property characterizations are reviewed and conceptual models are advanced for explaining and interpreting the empirically based results. At present, the technology is generally empirically based and is emerging from the research laboratory. Advancement of the technology will require establishment of theoretical foundations for the experimentally observed interrelations among ultrasonic measurements, mechanical properties, and microstructure. Conceptual models are applied to ultrasonic assessment of fracture toughness to illustrate an approach for predicting correlations found among ultrasonic measurements, microstructure, and mechanical properties.

  15. Ablative and mechanical properties of quartz phenolic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Gregori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quartz phenolic composites have been applied to thermal protection systems (TPSs for reentry vehicles since the late fifties due to their excellent ablative resistance and mechanical performance. TPSs must withstand the aggressive reentry environment, such as atomic oxygen, when submitted to very high temperatures (> 1000° C and heat flux. The ablative performance ofcomposites is influenced by both base materials and environmental parameters during the ablation process. For TPS systems phenolic resin is usually used as the base matrix due to its ability to form a stable char during decomposition. This char plays an important role in the absorption of the heat generated during the ablation process. During re-entry, parts of the charred matrix can be abrasively removed by shear force due to high pressure and velocity. In this work the ablative and mechanical properties of quartz phenolic composites were evaluated in order to identify the range of properties suitable for the use of these materials as thermal protection systems for space vehicles. Quartz fabric having an areal weight of 680 g/m2 and a resole-type phenolic resin were used to prepare the composites. The resin has a viscosity of 165 MPa at 20°C. The prepreg material was cured by heating under pressure of 100 bar in a mold. The resin content of the prepreg obtained was about 50 per cent. The mechanical properties evaluated were, tensile, shear and flexural strength. The results obtained showed that this material has average values of 38.5 MPa, 52 MPa and 85 MPa for tensile, shear and flexural strength, respectively. The ablative tests were carried out in a high-energy air plasma in ambient atmosphere and the mass losses were measured for different exposure time.

  16. Real-time observations of mechanical stimulus-induced enhancements of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xu; Liu Xiaoli; Sun Jialun [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300073 (China); He Shuojie [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300073 (China); Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Imshik [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300073 (China)], E-mail: ilee@nankai.edu.cn2; Pak, Hyuk Kyu [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Osteoblast, playing a key role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, is one of the mechanical stress sensitive cells. The effects of mechanical load-induced changes of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells were studied at real-time. Osteoblasts obtained from young Wister rats were exposed to mechanical loads in different frequencies and resting intervals generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tip and simultaneously measured the changes of the mechanical properties by AFM. The enhancement of the mechanical properties was observed and quantified by the increment of the apparent Young's modulus, E{sup *}. The observed mechanical property depended on the frequency of applied tapping loads. For the resting interval is 50 s, the mechanical load-induced enhancement of E{sup *}-values disappears. It seems that the enhanced mechanical property was recover able under no additional mechanical stimulus.

  17. Mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon, in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Nielsen, C H; Hegnsvad, S

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been widely applied for in vivo measurements of tendon mechanical properties. Assessments of human Achilles tendon mechanical properties have received great interest. Achilles tendon injuries predominantly occur in the tendon region between the Achilles-soleus myotendinous...... junction and Achilles-calcaneus osteotendinous junction i.e. in the free Achilles tendon. However, there has been no adequate ultrasound based method for quantifying the mechanical properties of the free human Achilles tendon. This study aimed to: 1) examine the mechanical properties of the free human...

  18. Preparation and low temperature properties of FeSi-type RuSi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschinger, B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Geibel, C. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Diehl, J. [Augsburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik 2; Weiden, M. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Guth, W. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Wildbrett, A. [Augsburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik 2; Horn, S. [Augsburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik 2; Steglich, F. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik

    1997-07-05

    We have reinvestigated the metallographic RuSi phase diagram and could establish the transition temperature from the low temperature FeSi-type to the high temperature CsCl-type structure for stoichiometric samples. Magnetic and transport properties of the low temperature modification in the temperature range 1.5 Ktemperature. Below 100 K, an additional gap opens and at temperatures <40 K variable-range hopping conduction sets in as the dominant transport mechanism. In contrast, resistivity measurements on CsCl-type RuSi show simple metallic behavior. (orig.)

  19. Magnetostructural, mechanical and electronic properties of manganese tetraboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcheng Liang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetostructural stabilities, mechanical behaviors and electronic structures of various phases of manganese tetraboride (MnB4 have been investigated systematically by density functional theory (DFT based first-principles methods. It is found that MnB4 undergoes temperature-induced phase transitions from the nonmagnetic (NM monoclinic mP20 structure to the ferromagnetic (FM orthorhombic oP10 structure at 438 K, then to the antiferromagnetic (AFM orthorhombic oP10 structure at 824 K. We reveal that the NM insulating mP20 phase stabilizes by the Peierls distortion breaking the structural degeneracy, while the FM and AFM metallic oP10 phases stabilize by the Stoner magnetism lifting the spin degeneracy. Furthermore, the calculated mechanical properties show that the NM mP20, FM oP10, and AFM oP10 phases exhibit low compressibility and high hardness, which originate from their three-dimensional covalent boron networks. Therefore, this unique temperature-assisted insulator-metal transition, strong stiffness and high hardness suggest that MnB4 may find promising technological applications as thermoelectric switches and field effect transistors at the extreme conditions.

  20. Magnetostructural, mechanical and electronic properties of manganese tetraboride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongcheng; Wu, Zhaobing; Wang, Shiming

    2015-11-01

    Magnetostructural stabilities, mechanical behaviors and electronic structures of various phases of manganese tetraboride (MnB4) have been investigated systematically by density functional theory (DFT) based first-principles methods. It is found that MnB4 undergoes temperature-induced phase transitions from the nonmagnetic (NM) monoclinic mP20 structure to the ferromagnetic (FM) orthorhombic oP10 structure at 438 K, then to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) orthorhombic oP10 structure at 824 K. We reveal that the NM insulating mP20 phase stabilizes by the Peierls distortion breaking the structural degeneracy, while the FM and AFM metallic oP10 phases stabilize by the Stoner magnetism lifting the spin degeneracy. Furthermore, the calculated mechanical properties show that the NM mP20, FM oP10, and AFM oP10 phases exhibit low compressibility and high hardness, which originate from their three-dimensional covalent boron networks. Therefore, this unique temperature-assisted insulator-metal transition, strong stiffness and high hardness suggest that MnB4 may find promising technological applications as thermoelectric switches and field effect transistors at the extreme conditions.

  1. Temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues measured with the shear wave elastography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Lin; Li, Guo-Yang; He, Ping; Mao, Ze-Qi; Cao, Yanping

    2017-01-01

    Determining the mechanical properties of brain tissues is essential in such cases as the surgery planning and surgical training using virtual reality based simulators, trauma research and the diagnosis of some diseases that alter the elastic properties of brain tissues. Here, we suggest a protocol to measure the temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues in physiological saline using the shear wave elastography method. Experiments have been conducted on six porcine brains. Our results show that the shear moduli of brain tissues decrease approximately linearly with a slope of -0.041±0.006kPa/°C when the temperature T increases from room temperature (~23°C) to body temperature (~37°C). A case study has been further conducted which shows that the shear moduli are insensitive to the temperature variation when T is in the range of 37 to 43°C and will increase when T is higher than 43°C. With the present experimental setup, temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues can be measured in a simulated physiological environment and a non-destructive manner. Thus the method suggested here offers a unique tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissues with potential applications in brain biomechanics research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF CORROSION OF ZINC POWDER ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of zinc corrosion in fresh concrete on the process of its hydration and evolution of common mechanical properties. Process of hydration was monitored by temperature measurement of hydrating concrete contaminated with zinc powder (0.5; 5.0 wt. % in closed system. Mechanical properties were monitored in similarly contaminated concrete samples (compressive cubic strength, compression modulus of elasticity. The results suggest that zinc corrosion products retard the concrete hydration and evolution of mechanical properties, however, forming hydrogen also has some negative effect.

  3. CURING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHLOROSULPHONATED POLYETHYLENE RUBBER BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the curing and mechanical properties of two series of prepared blends, i.e., chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/isobutylene-co-isoprene (IIR rubber blends and chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/chlorinated isobutylene-co-isoprene (CIIR rubber blends were carried out. Blends were prepared using a two-roll mill at a temperature of 40-50 °C. The curing was assessed using a Monsanto oscillating disc rheometer R-100. The process of vulcanization accelerated sulfur of pure rubbers and their blends was carried out in an electrically heated laboratory hydraulic press under a pressure of about 4 MPa and 160 °C. The stress-strain experiments were performed using a tensile tester machine (Zwick 1425. Results indicate that the scorch time, ts2, and optimum cure time, tc90, increase with increasing CSM content in both blends. The value of modulus at 100 and 300% elongation and tensile strength increases with increasing CSM content, whereas elongation at break shows a decreasing trend. The enhancement in mechanical properties was supported by data of crosslink density in these samples obtained from swelling measurement and scanning electron microscopy studies of the rubber blends fractured surfaces

  4. Cold-rolled multiphase boron steels: microstructure and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Dian Murari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the boron concentration on phase transformation characteristics, microstructure and mechanical properties of multiphase steels was investigated using computational thermodynamics (Thermo-Calc®, dilatometry, quantitative metallography and tensile tests. Pilot scale 50 kg steel ingots were prepared in an induction furnace operating under an argon gas atmosphere with boron contents between 0 and 47 ppm. The ingots were cut into 35 mm thick blocks, which were reheated to 1250 °C for 1 h and hot rolled for seven passes to attain a thickness of 7.0 mm. The hot-rolled sheets were machined and then cold rolled to a final thickness of 1.2 mm. Continuous annealing cycles were performed in a Bähr dilatomer and in a Gleeble machine. Continuous annealing laboratory simulations showed that boron did not significantly influence the amount of austenite formed during heating and soaking steps. However, boron influenced austenite transformation during the cooling step, which reduced the amount of ferrite and increased the amount of bainite. Regarding the mechanical properties, adding boron increased strength and decreased ductility of the product. The steels with boron concentrations up to 27 ppm exhibited the greatest effect. The amount of austenite, which was calculated using Thermo-Calc®, was slightly overestimated compared with that obtained by dilatometry and metallography, particularly for soaking temperatures lower than 800 °C.

  5. Meson properties at finite temperature and baryon density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, M.; Klimt, S.; Weise, W. (Inst. of Theoretical Physics, Univ. Regensburg (Germany))

    1992-06-22

    We use the generalized SU(3) version of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model to discuss properties of mesons, constituent quarks and vacuum structure as a function of density and temperature in compressed matter. Systematic low-density expansions are derived. In particular, we show that effects due to finite quasi-particle size are important in stabilizing the density and temperature dependence of the pion mass. (orig.).

  6. AlN Bandgap Temperature Dependence from its Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-07

    AlN bandgap temperature dependence from its optical properties E. Silveira a,, J.A. Freitas b, S.B. Schujman c, L.J. Schowalter c a Depto. de Fisica ...literature could, in part, be lifted in terms of selection rules for the optical transitions [5]. Further experimental investigations corroborated with...CL, transmission/ absorption and OR measurements at different temperatures. 2. Experimental details The high-quality large bulk AlN single crystals

  7. Temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, P.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic hysteresis properties of amorphous alloys have recently been discussed in terms of an exchange-enhanced applied field. This absolute-zero model is here extended to finite temperatures. The modified treatment predicts a remanent magnetization which is unaffected by thermal activation while the coercive force falls (finally to zero) as temperature increases. Comparison with experiment for TbFe/sub 2/ suggests that regions of volume approx. =7500 A/sup 3/ reverse coherently.

  8. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DECKING ON THE BASE OF POLYETHYLENE, POLYPROPYLENE AND POLYVINYLCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matseevich Tat’yana Anatol’evna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites (WPCs with the matrix polymers, polyethylene (PE, polypropylene (PP and polyvinyl chloride (PVC, were studied. The strength, modulus of elasticity, ultimate tensile strain and specific impact viscosity at positive and negative temperatures were measured. As a result of the comparative analysis, it is found that decking on the base of polyvinyl chloride had shown the best properties, while the mechanical properties of decking based on PE and PP are significantly inferior to the properties of materials based on PVC.

  9. Mechanical dissipation at elevated temperatures in tetrahedral amorphous carbon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Czaplewski, David A.; Wendt, Joel Robert

    2005-05-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of mechanical dissipation in tetrahedral amorphous carbon flexural and torsional resonators over the temperature range from 300 to 1023 K. The mechanical dissipation was found to be controlled by defects within the material, and the magnitude and temperature dependence of the dissipation were found to depend on whether flexural or torsional vibrational modes were excited. The defects that were active under flexural stresses have a relatively flat concentration from 0.4 to 0.7 eV with an ever increasing defect concentration up to 1.9 eV. Under shear stresses (torsion), the defect activation energies increase immediately beginning at 0.4 eV, with increasing defect concentration at higher energies.

  10. Compression, Mechanical and Release Properties of Chloroquine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: A study was made of the binding properties of trifoliate yam starch, obtained from Dioscorea dumetorum (Pax), in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch. Method: Compressional properties were analyzed using density measurements and compression equations of Heckel ...

  11. Mechanical properties of non-woven glass fiber geopolymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, D.; Kadlec, J.; Pola, M.; Kovářík, T.; Franče, P.

    2017-02-01

    This experimental research focuses on mechanical properties of non-woven glass fabric composites bound by geopolymeric matrix. This study investigates the effect of different matrix composition and amount of granular filler on the mechanical properties of final composites. Matrix was selected as a metakaolin based geopolymer hardened by different amount of potassium silicate activator. The ceramic granular filler was added into the matrix for investigation of its impact on mechanical properties and workability. Prepared pastes were incorporated into the non-woven fabrics by hand roller and final composites were stacked layer by layer to final thickness. The early age hardening of prepared pastes were monitored by small amplitude dynamic rheology approach and after 28 days of hardening the mechanical properties were examined. The electron microscopy was used for detail description of microstructural properties. The imaging methods revealed good wettability of glass fibers by geopolymeric matrix and results of mechanical properties indicate usability of these materials for constructional applications.

  12. Nanocrystalline forsterite for biomedical applications: synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S; Yaghoubi, A; Lee, K Y Sara; Chin, K M Christopher; Purbolaksono, J; Hamdi, M; Hassan, M A

    2013-09-01

    Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) because of its exceptionally high fracture toughness which is close to that of cortical bones has been nominated as a possible successor to calcium phosphate bioceramics. Recent in vitro studies also suggest that forsterite possesses good bioactivity and promotes osteoblast proliferation as well as adhesion. However studies on preparation and sinterability of nanocrystalline forsterite remain scarce. In this work, we use a solid-state reaction with magnesium oxide (MgO) and talc (Mg3Si4(OH)2) as the starting precursors to synthesize forsterite. A systematic investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of preparatory procedures including heat treatment, mixing methods and sintering temperature on development of microstructures as well as the mechanical properties of the sintered forsterite body. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrication, structure and mechanical properties of indium nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Budiman, Arief Suriadi; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solid and hollow cylindrical indium pillars with nanoscale diameters were prepared using electron beam lithography followed by the electroplating fabrication method. The microstructure of the solid-core indium pillars was characterized by scanning micro-X-ray diffraction, which shows that the indium pillars were annealed at room temperature with very few dislocations remaining in the samples. The mechanical properties of the solid pillars were characterized using a uniaxial microcompression technique, which demonstrated that the engineering yield stress is {approx}9 times greater than bulk and is {approx}1/28 of the indium shear modulus, suggesting that the attained stresses are close to theoretical strength. Microcompression of hollow indium nanopillars showed evidence of brittle fracture. This may suggest that the failure mode for one of the most ductile metals can become brittle when the feature size is sufficiently small.

  14. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti–Ag sintered alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mian [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Erlin, E-mail: zhangel@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-01

    In this research, Ag element was selected as an antibacterial agent to develop an antibacterial Ti–Ag alloy by a powder metallurgy. The microstructure, phase constitution, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of the Ti–Ag sintered alloys have been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, electrochemical measurements and antibacterial test. The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the antibacterial property and mechanical property as well as the anticorrosion property have been investigated. The microstructure results have shown that Ti–Ag phase, residual pure Ag and Ti were the mainly phases in Ti–Ag(S75) sintered alloy while Ti{sub 2}Ag was synthesized in Ti–Ag(S10) sintered alloy. The mechanical test indicated that Ti–Ag sintered alloy showed a much higher hardness and the compressive yield strength than cp-Ti but the mechanical properties were slightly reduced with the increase of Ag content. Electrochemical results showed that Ag powder size had a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of Ti–Ag sintered alloy. Ag content increased the corrosion resistance in a dose dependent way under a homogeneous microstructure. Antibacterial tests have demonstrated that antibacterial Ti–Ag alloy was successfully prepared. It was also shown that the Ag powder particle size and the Ag content influenced the antibacterial activity seriously. The reduction in the Ag powder size was benefit to the improvement in the antibacterial property and the Ag content has to be at least 3 wt.% in order to obtain a strong and stable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The bacterial mechanism was thought to be related to the Ti{sub 2}Ag and its distribution. - Highlights: • Ti–Ag alloy with up to 99% antibacterial rate was developed by powder metallurgy. • The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the

  15. High Temperature Properties and Recent Research Trend of Mg-RE Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Soo Woo [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    For the applications in automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries, the lightest structural Mg alloys have received much attention since 2000. There has been some progress for the improvement of the mechanical properties such as room temperature strength, formability and mechanical anisotropy. However, the high temperature strength of Mg alloys is very low to be used for the parts and structures of high temperature conditions. For the last decade, considerable efforts are concentrated for the development of Mg alloys to be used at high temperature. Newly developing Mg-RE alloys are the good examples for the high temperature use. In this regard, this review paper introduces the recent research trends for the development of Mg-RE alloys strengthened with some precipitates and the long period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures related RE elements.

  16. High Temperature Thermal Properties of Bentonite Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski P.K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of measuring thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bentonite foundry sand in temperature range ambient - 900­­°C. During the experiments a technical purity Cu plate was cast into the green-sand moulds. Basing on measurements of the mould temperature field during the solidification of the casting, the temperature relationships of the measured properties were evaluated. It was confirmed that water vaporization strongly influences thermal conductivity of the moulding sand in the first period of the mould heating by the poured casting.

  17. Dilute helium mixtures at low temperatures : properties and cooling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pentti, Elias

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental work on dilute mixtures of ³He in 4He, mainly at millikelvin temperatures. The isotopic helium mixture has the unique property of remaining a miscible liquid down to the absolute zero temperature. In the mK regime, it consists of two very different components: perfectly superfluid 4He, and a weakly interacting degenerate Fermi liquid of ³He, predicted by theory to undergo transition to the superfluid state at an extremely low temperature. To discover that tr...

  18. Optical and mechanical response of high temperature optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkis, Jim

    1991-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) will experience temperatures as high as 2500 F at critical locations in its structure. Optical fiber sensors were proposed as a means of monitoring the temperature in these critical regions by either bonding the optical fiber to, or embedding the optical fiber in, metal matrix composite (MMC) components. Unfortunately, the anticipated NASP temperature ranges exceed the glass transition region of the optical fiber glass. The attempt is made to define the operating temperature range of optical fiber sensors from both optical and mechanical perspectives. A full non-linear optical analysis was performed by modeling the optical response of an isolated sensor cyclically driven through the glass transition region.

  19. Mechanical properties determination of AM components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzugan, J.; Sibr, M.; Konopík, P.; Procházka, R.; Rund, M.

    2017-02-01

    Characterisation of engineering materials and components is a crucial part for design and save service life utilization. Due to components processing technologies and exploitation conditions local properties can significantly vary from location to location over larger components as well as over small material volumes with gradual material changes such as welds, coatings or additively manufactured parts. The current paper is dealing with local properties characterisation for additively manufacture (AM) components by micro tensile test (M-TT). Components produced by additive manufacturing techniques yield properties variation in dependence of the considered location within the component regarding to direction in relation to deposition process. Properties vary over the thickness, length, angle or contacts with the supporting structures necessary for a successful components production by additive manufacturing techniques. The properties differences are mainly related to varying heating/reheating and cooling conditions at various locations of usually very complex parts produced mainly by these technologies. The standard testing procedures fail to characterize such local properties of complex shaped objects due to large size requirements on specimens. Therefore, new techniques have to be established for such detailed local characterizations. Results of miniaturized tensile tests application for local properties and orientations are shown here.

  20. Effect of Intercritical Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Plain Carbon Dual Phase Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ali Soomro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of DP (Dual Phase steels are greatly influenced by the microstructural features such as grain size, morphology and martensite volume fraction (Vm%. These microstructural features can be altered by changing the soaking time and temperature within intercritical zone. Present study aims to study the effect of intercritical annealing temperature and soaking time on Vm% and its effects on mechanical properties of plain low carbon steel grade (AISI 1020 steel having ferritemartensitemicrostructure. Nine DP steel specimens with various amount of martensite were produced via intercritical heat treatment. Mechanical properties including TS (Tensile Strength, hardness and toughness were characterized and co-related with martensite volume fraction. It was found that increasing the intercritical annealing temperature and soaking time increases the Vm%. The optimum TS and hardness were found at 64Vm% and then decrease with further increase in Vm%. The toughness was found to have linear relationship with Vm%.

  1. Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X.

  2. Temperature effects on the electrical properties of multiphase polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, Biagio; Guadagno, Liberata; Lamberti, Patrizia; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo; Vertuccio, Luigi; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2014-05-01

    A study concerning the temperature dependence of some electrical properties of multiphase nanocomposite systems based on epoxy matrix, loaded with a 1% of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and different amounts of Hydrotalcite clay (HT), is presented. An extensive electrical characterization in DC was carried out highlighting that, consistently with the fluctuation-induced tunneling model, the electrical resistivity of the composites are characterized by a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) since it decreases monotonically with increasing temperature in the range 30-110°C. Furthermore, current-voltage (I-V) and temperature-voltage (T-V) characteristics with a perfect linear behavior are detected. The influence of different clay content on the electrical performance of the composites is also investigated. The interesting results open a new routes for such composites due their possible applications in the field of temperature sensor.

  3. MECHANICAL AND THERMO–MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AND SHORT CARBON FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. AGARWAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper based on bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites reports the effect of fiber loading on physical, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties respectively. The five different fiber loading, i.e., 10wt. %, 20wt. %, 30wt. %, 40wt. % and 50wt. % were taken for evaluating the above said properties. The physical and mechanical properties, i.e., hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength and impact strength are determined to represent the behaviour of composite structures with that of fiber loading. Thermo-mechanical properties of the material are measured with the help of Dynamic Mechanical Analyser to measure the damping capacity of the material that is used to reduce the vibrations. The effect of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan delta with temperature are determined. Finally, Cole–Cole analysis is performed on both bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites to distinguish the material properties of either homogeneous or heterogeneous materials. The results show that with the increase in fiber loading the mechanical properties of bidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites increases as compared to short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites except in case of hardness, short carbon fiber reinforced composites shows better results. Similarly, as far as Loss modulus, storage modulus is concerned bidirectional carbon fiber shows better damping behaviour than short carbon fiber reinforced composites.

  4. Effect of hexagonal boron nitride and graphite nanoparticles on the mechanical and physical properties of magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Z.; Trojanová, Z.; Arlic, U.; Kasakewitsch, A.; Dash, K.

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium nanocomposites reinforced with 3 vol.% of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and ultrafine-grained magnesium with 3 vol.% of graphite (Gr) nanoparticles were prepared by milling followed by hot extrusion. The influence of the hBN and Gr nanoparticles on the mechanical and physical properties of magnesium were subsequently investigated. The microstructure of the nanocomposites was analysed by electron microscopy. The nanocomposites were deformed in compression over a wide temperature range from room temperature to 300 °C and true stress-true strain curves were determined. The linear thermal expansion coefficient was measured over a wide temperature range from room temperature up to 400 °C. Pre-deformation in compression was used to estimate the influence of twins on the thermal expansion coefficient. The results are analysed and possible physical mechanisms for the observed mechanical and physical properties are discussed.

  5. Determination of Mechanical Properties of Microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical characterization methods can be important tools in optimizing the design of an encapsulation system. Food microcapsules can be subjected to considerable shear and extensional forces during their life cycle, and the shell of the capsules needs to be designed with sufficient mechanical

  6. Wave-Mechanical Properties of Stationary States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Alan

    This monograph is a review of the quantum mechanical concepts presented in two other monographs, "The Nature of Atoms" and "Bonds Between Atoms," by the same author. It is assumed the reader is familiar with these ideas. The monograph sketches only those aspects of quantum mechanics that are of most direct use in picturing and calculating the…

  7. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of High Temperature Solders: Effects of High Temperature Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnine, M.; Tolla, B.; Vahora, N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores the effects of aging on the mechanical behavior, microstructure evolution and IMC formation on different surface finishes of two high temperature solders, Sn-5 wt.% Ag and Sn-5 wt.% Sb. High temperature aging showed significant degradation of Sn-5 wt.% Ag solder hardness (34%) while aging has little effect on Sn-5 wt.% Sb solder. Sn-5 wt.% Ag experienced rapid grain growth as well as the coarsening of particles during aging. Sn-5 wt.% Sb showed a stable microstructure due to solid solution strengthening and the stable nature of SnSb precipitates. The increase of intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness during aging follows a parabolic relationship with time. Regression analysis (time exponent, n) indicated that IMC growth kinetics is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. The results have important implications in the selection of high temperature solders used in high temperature applications.

  8. Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bagasse/Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roohani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of bagasse/glass fiber/polypropylene hybrid composites. Composites were prepared by the melt compounding method and their properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber the melting temperature (Tm and the crystallisation temperature (Tc shift to higher temperatures and the degree of crystallinity (Xc increase. These findings suggest that the fibers played the role of a nucleating agent in composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that by the incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber into polypropylene, the storage modulus ( and the loss modulus ( increase whereas the mechanical loss factor (tanδ decrease. To assess the effect of reinforcement with increasing temperature, the effectiveness coefficient C was calculated at different temperature ranges and revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of fibers was more noticeable. The fiber-matrix adhesion efficiency determined by calculating of adhesion factor A in terms of the relative damping of the composite (tan δc and the polymer (tan δpand volume fraction of the fibers (Фf. Calculated adhesion factor A values indicated that by adding glass fiber to bagasse/polypropylene system, the fiber-matrix adhesion improve. Hybrid composite containing 25% bagasse and 15% glass fiber showed better fiber-matrix adhesion.

  9. Depolarization temperature and piezoelectric properties of TiO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    2TiO3–Na1/2Bi1/2(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, was synthesized using the two-stage calcination method and depolarization temperatures and piezoelectric properties were also investigated. The XRD analysis showed that the ceramics system had a ...

  10. Effect of Temperature on Antibiotic Properties of Garlic (Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOCTOR

    aqueous extracts of garlic and ginger to observe the effect of temperature on their antibiotic properties .... The agar well assay method was used to explore the .... action. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66:1950. Durairaj S, Srinivasan S, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P (2009). In vitro. Antibacterial Activity and Stability of Garlic Extract at ...

  11. Influence of substrate temperature on certain physical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The deposited films were subjected to various characterization studies, to explore certain features like the influence of various deposition temperatures on physical and antibacterial properties. XRD results showed that all the samples exhibited preferential orientation along the (2 2 2) plane. The variation in the crystalline ...

  12. Depolarization temperature and piezoelectric properties of Na1/2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1/2Bi1/2(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, was synthesized using the two-stage calcination method and depolarization temperatures and piezoelectric properties were also investigated. The XRD analysis showed that the ceramics system had a morphotropic ...

  13. Effect of substrate temperature on electrical and magnetic properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 5-6. Effect of substrate temperature on electrical and magnetic properties of epitaxial La 1 − Pb MnO3 films. Ajay Singh D K Aswal Shashwati Sen K Shah L C Gupta S K Gupta V C Sahni. Colossal Magnetoresistance & Other Materials Volume 58 Issue ...

  14. Temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of rubber wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Firoz Kabir; Wan M. Daud; Kaida B. Khalid; Haji A.A. Sidek

    2001-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of rubber wood was investigated in three anisotropic directions—longitudinal, radial, and tangential, and at different measurement frequencies. Low frequency measurements were conducted with a dielectric spectrometer, and high frequencies used microwave applied with open-ended coaxial probe sensors. Dielectric...

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Laser Treated Al Alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    An Al-Cu-Mg alloy, Al 2024-T3, was exposed to laser treatments at various scan velocities. In this paper the microstructural features and mechanical properties are reported. As far as the mechanical property is concerned a striking observation is a minimum in the hardness value at a laser scan

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser treated aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deHosson, JTM; vanOtterloo, LDM; Noordhuis, J; Mazumder, J; Conde, O; Villar, R; Steen, W

    1996-01-01

    Al-Cu alloys and an Al-Cu-Mg alloy, Al 2024-T3, were exposed to laser treatments at various scan velocities. In this paper the microstructural features and mechanical properties are reported. As far as the mechanical property of the Al-Cu-Mg alloy is concerned a striking observation is a minimum in

  17. Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present communication, a study on the synthesis and mechanical properties of new series of green composites involving Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre as a reinforcing material in urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin based polymer matrix has been reported. Static mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed ...

  18. Investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of Shea Tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the physical and mechanical properties of Shea Tree timber (V. paradoxa) for structural use obtained at different areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. Physical properties of the samples like moisture content, specific gravity and density was evaluated and the mechanical tests were tensile strength, modulus ...

  19. Role of Interfaces in Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Role of Interfaces in Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Materials · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Mechanical Properties · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Commercial Applications · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Grain Boundary Sliding and Slip · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Role of Grain Boundaries · Superplasticity in Zirconia · Slide 16.

  20. Mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon, in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Nielsen, C H; Hegnsvad, S

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been widely applied for in vivo measurements of tendon mechanical properties. Assessments of human Achilles tendon mechanical properties have received great interest. Achilles tendon injuries predominantly occur in the tendon region between the Achilles-soleus myotendinous...... Achilles tendon in vivo by the use of ultrasonography and 2) assess the between-day reproducibility of these measurements....

  1. Using nano-indentation and microscopy to obtain mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Schlangen, E.; Savija, B.; Ye, G.; Copuroglu, O.

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of mechanical behaviour of heterogeneous materials is only possible if the local properties of the components are known. In recent years nano-indentation is being applied on different levels to obtain local mechanical properties. The aim of this paper is to explore various ways to obtain

  2. Selected physical and mechanical properties of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.Q. Yu; Z.H. Jiang; C.Y. Hse; T.F. Shupe

    2008-01-01

    Selected physical and mechanical properties of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Selected physical and mechanical properties of 4?6 year old moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) grown in Zhejiang, China were investigated at different vertical and horizontal positions. Two way analysis of variance and Tukey?s mean comparison...

  3. Effect of oven residence time on mechanical properties in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P L Ramkumar

    Abstract. In rotational moulding of plastics, improving the mechanical properties without sacrificing the processibility is a challenging task. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of oven residence time on the mechanical properties of the rotationally moulded products made using linear low density.

  4. Thermal properties of solids at room and cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    This book is a guide for materials scientists, physicists, chemists and engineers who wish to explore the field of low-temperature material properties. The focus is on heat capacity, thermal expansion and electrical and thermal conductivity. The authors report a wide range of experimental details and data, and have compiled useful tables of low-temperature data. Each chapter of the book starts by addressing the theoretical basis of the phenomena. This is a concise presentation, but it helps the reader to develop a deeper understanding of the experiments. The second part of the chapters is dedicated to describing the main experimental techniques to measure thermal properties at low and very low temperature ranges. The final part of each chapter provides a wealth of relevant experimental data in the form of tables and graphs.

  5. Effects of Temperature and CSSX Organics on Saltstone Processing Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J

    2006-02-06

    This task was performed to determine whether the two variables, ''mix temperature'' and ''quantity of organics'' introduced into the decontaminated salt solution by the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process, need to be included in the upcoming Saltstone Variability Study. Because the amount and types of organics introduced through the CSSX process do not significantly impact the fresh properties of Saltstone, the ''quantity of organics'' variable will not be included in the Saltstone Variability Study. The Saltstone Variability Study should include the variable of ''mix temperature'' in the experimental design. Examples are presented in this report that clearly demonstrate a pronounced dependence of the fresh grout properties on ''mix temperature''. One example, using mixes made with the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) simulant, shows that the properties of gel time and bleed water are highly mix temperature dependent. The gel time increased from 15 minutes at 10 C to 90 minutes at 35 C with most of the change occurring between 20 and 30 C. That is, gel time is highly sensitive to mix temperature, especially in the temperature range over which processing is most likely. The volume percent bleed water for these mixes increased from {approx}1 % at 10 C to 13 % at 35 C. The gel times and volume percent bleed water are correlated such that the longer the gel time, the greater the amount of bleed water. In another example, and in contrast to the DDA results, gel times decreased with increasing temperatures for mixes made using the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) simulants. In this case the gel time decreased from 150 minutes at 10 C to 20 minutes at 38 C. The rheological properties of these mixes were shown to be dependent on temperature over the range of 10 to 40 C. The plastic viscosity increased from 35 cP at 40 C to values between 60 to 70 cP at 10

  6. Tensile Properties of Al-12Si Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting (SLM at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Gokuldoss Prashanth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting (SLM are attracting increasing attention and are regarded as the manufacturing technology of the future, because of their ability to produce near net shaped components of theoretically any shape with added functionality. Various properties, including mechanical, tribological, welding, and corrosion properties, of Al-12Si alloys fabricated via SLM have been extensively studied. However, all of these studies were carried out at ambient conditions. Nevertheless, under working conditions, these alloys experience service temperatures ranging between 373 and 473 K. The present study focuses on the evaluation of the mechanical properties of SLM-fabricated Al-12Si alloys in this temperature range. For this, Al-12Si alloy specimens were annealed at 573 K, a temperature well beyond the test temperature in order to provide a stable microstructure during tensile testing. The plasticity of these materials increases along with the size of the dimples on the fracture surface with increasing tensile test temperature. Moreover, the annealed Al-12Si alloy exhibits appreciable tensile properties when tested between 373 K and 473 K. The results suggest that Al-12Si samples fabricated via SLM may be ideal candidates for automotive applications such as pistons and cylinder heads.

  7. High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives: Possibilities and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of high-temperature lead-free solders has become an important issue for both the electronics and automobile industries because of the health and environmental concerns associated with lead usage. Unfortunately, limited choices are available as high-temperature lead-free solders. This work outlines...... the criteria for the evaluation of a new high-temperature lead-free solder material. A list of potential ternary high-temperature lead-free solder alternatives based on the Au-Sn and Au-Ge systems is proposed. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison of the high-temperature stability of microstructures...... and mechanical properties of these potential candidate alloys with respect to the currently used high-lead content solders is made. Finally, the paper presents the superior characteristics as well as some drawbacks of these proposed high-temperature lead-free solder alternatives....

  8. Phonon spectrum, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Daroca, D., E-mail: pdaroca@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientı´ficas y Técnicas (Argentina); Jaroszewicz, S. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA (Argentina); Llois, A.M. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientı´ficas y Técnicas (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    In this work, we study, by means of density functional perturbation theory and the pseudopotential method, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide. These properties are derived from the lattice dynamics in the quasi-harmonic approximation. The phonon spectrum of ThC presented in this article, to the best authors’ knowledge, have not been studied, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. We compare mechanical properties, volume thermal expansion and molar specific capacities with previous results and find a very good agreement.

  9. Effect of Injection Molding Melt Temperatures on PLGA Craniofacial Plate Properties duringIn VitroDegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Liliane Pimenta; Salmoria, Gean Vitor; Fancello, Eduardo Alberto; Roesler, Carlos Rodrigo de Mello

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present mechanical and physicochemical properties during in vitro degradation of PLGA material as craniofacial plates based on different values of injection molded temperatures. Injection molded plates were submitted to in vitro degradation in a thermostat bath at 37 ± 1°C by 16 weeks. The material was removed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; then bending stiffness, crystallinity, molecular weights, and viscoelasticity were studied. A significant decrease of molecular weight and mechanical properties over time and a difference in FT-IR after 60 days showed faster degradation of the material in the geometry studied. DSC analysis confirmed that the crystallization occurred, especially in higher melt temperature condition. DMA analysis suggests a greater contribution of the viscous component of higher temperature than lower temperature in thermomechanical behavior. The results suggest that physical-mechanical properties of PLGA plates among degradation differ per injection molding temperatures.

  10. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The key thermophysical and mechanical properties for SiC/SiC composites are summarized, including temperature-dependent tensile properties, elastic constants, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and specific heat. The effects of neutron irradiation on the thermal conductivity and dimensional stability (volumetric swelling, creep) of SiC is discussed. The estimated lower and upper temperatures limits for structural applications in high power density fusion applications are 400 and 1000 C due to thermal conductivity degradation and void swelling considerations, respectively. Further data are needed to more accurately determine these estimated temperature limits.

  11. 2Te3 mechanical and thermoelectric properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    pressive pressure stress in a steel mold and samples of size, 5 × 5 × 10 mm3 were obtained. These samples were sintered at sintering temperatures of 350, 425 and 500°C under 500 MPa compressive pressure for a period of. 10 min. Sintering condition including an axial pressure of. 500 MPa and a sintering time of 10 min ...

  12. Mechanical and thermal properties of prepacked aggregate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been found that POFA significantly reduces the temperature rise in prepacked aggregate concrete and delay the transfer of heat to the concrete body. The compressive and tensile strengths, however, increased with replacement up to20% POFA. The results obtained and the observation made in this study suggest that ...

  13. High-Temperature Oxide Regrowth on Mechanically-Damaged Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Lowe, Tracie M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the effects of mechanical damage from a sharp stylus on the regrowth of oxide layers on a Ni-based superalloy known as Pyromet 80A . It was found that the oxide that reformed on the damaged portion of a pre-oxidized surface differed from that which formed on undamaged areas after the equal exposures to elevated temperature in air. These findings have broad implications for modeling the processes of material degradation in applications such as exhaust valves in internal combustion engines because they imply that static oxidation data for candidate materials may not adequately reflect their reaction to operating environments that involve both mechanical contact and oxidation.

  14. Morphology, crystallization and dynamic mechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    unique optical, electric, and magnetic properties. Compared to other traditional materials, nanocomposite has .... The reagents such as sodium metasilicate and hydrochloric acid were analytical pure reagents (AR). ... Sodium metasilicate was dissolved into deionized water at a certain concentration in a reactor equipped ...

  15. Preparation and properties of mesoporous silica/bismaleimide/diallylbisphenol composites with improved thermal stability, mechanical and dielectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available New composites with improved thermal stability, mechanical and dielectric properties were developed, which consist of 2,2'-diallylbisphenol A (DBA/4,4'-bismaleimidodiphenylmethane (BDM resin and a new kind of organic/inorganic mesoporous silica (MPSA. Typical properties (curing behavior and mechanism, thermal stability, mechanical and dielectric properties of the composites were systematically investigated, and their origins were discussed. Results show that MPSA/DBA/BDM composites have similar curing temperature as DBA/BDM resin does; however, they have different curing mechanisms, and thus different crosslinked networks. The content of MPSA has close relation with the integrated performance of cured composites. Compared with cured DBA/BDM resin, composites with suitable content of MPSA show obviously improved flexural strength and modulus as well as impact strength; in addition, all composites not only have lower dielectric constant and similar frequency dependence, more interestingly, they also exhibit better stability of frequency on dielectric loss. For thermal stability, the addition of MPSA to DBA/BDM resin significantly decreases the coefficient of thermal expansion, and improves the char yield at high temperature with a slightly reduced glass transition temperature. All these differences in macro-properties are attributed to the different crosslinked networks between MPSA/DBA/BDM composites and DBA/BDM resin.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of low nickel maraging steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, W., E-mail: w.sha@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Ye, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Malinov, S. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wilson, E.A. [Faculty of Arts, Computing, Engineering and Sciences, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic calculations show that Laves phase, Fe{sub 2}(Nb,Mo), is formed at 750 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toughness after austenitization with lower temperature is significantly increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intercritical annealing did not improve hardness or toughness after aging. - Abstract: Austenitization with lower temperature and intercritical annealing were introduced in the treatment of a maraging steel with a composition of Fe-12.94Ni-1.61Al-1.01Mo-0.23Nb (wt.%). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to study the microstructure after austenitization at 950 Degree-Sign C and intercritical annealing, followed by aging at 485 and 600 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was applied to evaluate the formation of retained or reverted austenite. Thermodynamic calculation was employed to calculate equilibrium phase mole fractions. Hardness and Charpy impact toughness of the steel were measured. Intercritical annealing treatments did not result in significant increase of hardness either before or after aging. The Charpy impact toughness of the alloy in aged condition was enhanced after austenitization at 950 Degree-Sign C. No austenite was observed in XRD. However, suspected reverted austenite was found after austenitization at 950 Degree-Sign C followed by aging at 600 Degree-Sign C for 4 h. Relationships among heat treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties are discussed.

  17. The effect of sintering temperature on the properties of metakaolin artificial lightweight aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risdanareni, Puput; Ekaputri, Januarti Jaya; Triwulan

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the effect of sintering temperature on the properties of metakaolin artificial lightweight aggregate (ALWA). Three types of sintering temperature applied in this research are 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C, whereas ALWA without sintering treatment is used as data control. Properties of metakaolin ALWA investigated in this research are specific gravity, water absorption, physical appearance, porosity and aggregate impact value. Standard test used in this research is ASTM, AFNOR and British Standart. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that sintering temperature is greatly affect on the properties of metakaolin ALWA. Increased sintering temperatures can lead to decreased values of specific gravity, increased pore amount, increased aggregate impact value, increased water absorption values and change aggregate color to be more bright. Referring to the test results, sintering temperature not exceeding 900°C is recommended, as it provides good physical and mechanical properties to ALWA metakaolin. Further research on applying different method of sintering temperature and investigating the microstructure of ALWA metakaolin should be accomplished in order to improve the characteristic of ALWA metakaolin.

  18. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TORREFIED Ceiba pentandra WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer A. IYIOLA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for improving or enhancing the performance of wood to meet the use for high economic value is a necessity. Physico-mechanical properties of torrefied Ceiba pentandra wood were investigated. Thirty nine defect-free specimens of dimensions 20mm × 20mm × 60mm (breadth × thickness x length were prepared for the determination of dimensional stability and compression test. For the evaluation of static bending strength tests, thirty nine specimens of dimensions 20mm × 20mm x 300mm were prepared. The specimens (at constant m.c. of 12% were thermally treated at temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180o C for 60, 90 and 120 minutes duration. The wood samples were introduced into the furnace and ramped to the temperature at which the actual heat treatment occurred. Density, Moisture content, Weight Loss, Void Volume, Water absorption, Volume swelling, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE, Modulus of Rupture (MOR, Maximum Compression Strength (MCS and Hardness of the torrefied and untreated samples were investigated. The mean values of the density showed a significant reduction as a function of treatment condition. The mean values of the moisture content of the wood samples varies 7.40% to 3.35% which is the highest reduction found in the treatment180o C for 120minutes. High weight loss was observed at 180o C for 2hrs (6.99%. The value of the volumetric swelling ranges from 7.52% to 1.39% compared to control (28.94% in 24hrs. The mean values of thermally treated samples for Modulus of Elasticity ranging from 10401 N/mm2 (180°C at 60 min to 1757N/mm2 (120°C at 90 min compared to control (MOE = 1694N/mm2 . The Modulus of Elasticity of the heat-treated samples increased rapidly as the temperature rises to 180o C for 60minutes but decreased as the time increases. It can be concluded that thermal modification improved dimensional stability and mechanical properties of wood samples

  19. Description of a system for interlocking elevated temperature mechanical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, D. T.; Poulter, G. A.

    1995-07-01

    Long term mechanical creep and fatigue testing at elevated temperatures requires reliable systems with safeguards to prevent destruction of equipment, loss of data, and negative environmental impacts. Toward this goal, a computer controlled system has been developed and built for interlocking tests run on elevated temperature mechanical test facilities. Sensors for water flow, water pressure, water leakage, temperature, power, and hydraulic status are monitored to control specimen heating equipment through solid state relays and water solenoid valves. The system is designed to work with the default interlocks present in the RF generators and mechanical tests systems. Digital hardware consists of two National Instruments I/O boards mounted in a Macintosh IIci computer. Software is written in National Instruments LabVIEW. Systems interlocked include two MTS closed loop servo controlled hydraulic test frames, one with an RF generator and one with both an RF generator and a quartz lamp furnace. Control for individual test systems is modularized making the addition of more systems simple. If any of the supporting utilities fail during tests, heating systems, chill water, and hydraulics are powered down, minimizing specimen damage and eliminating equipment damage. The interlock control is powered by an uninterruptible power supply. Upon failure the cause is documented in an ASCII file.

  20. Mechanical properties of polypropylene/calcium carbonate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles in both tensile and impact mechanical properties of a polypropylene homopolymer. Four compositions of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites were prepared in a co-rotational twin screw extruder machine with calcium carbonate content of 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt. (% The tests included SEM analyzes together with EDS analyzer and FTIR spectroscopy for calcium carbonate, tensile and impact tests for PP and the nanocomposites. The results showed an increase in PP elastic modulus and a little increase in yield stress. Brittle-to-ductile transition temperature was reduced and the impact resistance increased with the addition of nanoparticles. From the stress-strain curves we determined the occurrence of debonding process before yielding leading to stress softening. Debonding stress was determined from stress-strain curves corresponding to stress in 1% strain. We concluded that the tensile properties depend on the surface contact area of nanoparticles and on their dispersion. Finally we believe that the toughening was due to the formation of diffuse shear because of debonding process.

  1. Mechanical characterisation of tungsten–1 wt.% yttrium oxide as a function of temperature and atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, T.; Jiménez, A. [Materials Science Department, Technical University of Madrid, E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Muñóz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Ballesteros, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés (Spain); Pastor, J.Y. [Materials Science Department, Technical University of Madrid, E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    This study evaluates the mechanical behaviour of an Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-dispersed tungsten (W) alloy and compares it to a pure W reference material. Both materials were processed via mechanical alloying (MA) and subsequent hot isostatic pressing (HIP). We performed non-standard three-point bending (TPB) tests in both an oxidising atmosphere and vacuum across a temperature range from 77 K, obtained via immersion in liquid nitrogen, to 1473 K to determine the mechanical strength, yield strength and fracture toughness. This research aims to evaluate how the mechanical behaviour of the alloy is affected by oxides formed within the material at high temperatures, primarily from 873 K, when the materials undergo a massive thermal degradation. The results indicate that the alloy is brittle to a high temperature (1473 K) under both atmospheres and that the mechanical properties degrade significantly above 873 K. We also used Vickers microhardness tests and the dynamic modulus by impulse excitation technique (IET) to determine the elastic modulus at room temperature. Moreover, we performed nanoindentation tests to determine the effect of size on the hardness and elastic modulus; however, no significant differences were found. Additionally, we calculated the relative density of the samples to assess the porosity of the alloy. Finally, we analysed the microstructure and fracture surfaces of the tested materials via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this way, the relationship between the macroscopic mechanical properties and micromechanisms of failure could be determined based on the temperature and oxides formed.

  2. Temperature dependent optical properties of PbS nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, M N; Li, Juerong; Clowes, S K; Curry, R J

    2012-07-11

    A comprehensive study of the optical properties of PbS nanocrystals (NCs) is reported that includes the temperature dependent absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and PL lifetime in the range of 3-300 K. The absorption and PL are found to display different temperature dependent behaviour though both redshift as temperature is reduced. This results in a temperature dependent Stokes shift which increases from ∼75 meV at 300 K with reducing temperature until saturating at ∼130 meV below ∼150 K prior to a small reduction to 125 meV upon cooling from 25 to 3 K. The PL lifetime is found to be single exponential at 3 K with a lifetime of τ(1) = 6.5 μs. Above 3 K biexponential behaviour is observed with the lifetime for each process displaying a different temperature dependence. The Stokes shift is modelled using a three-level rate equation model incorporating temperature dependent parameter values obtained via fitting phenomenological relationships to the observed absorption and PL behaviour. This results in a predicted energy difference between the two emitting states of ∼6 meV which is close to the excitonic exchange energy splitting predicted theoretically for these systems.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Spider Dragline Silk: Humidity, Hysteresis, and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehoff, T.; Glišović, A.; Schollmeyer, H.; Zippelius, A.; Salditt, T.

    2007-01-01

    Spider silk is well-known for its outstanding mechanical properties. However, there is a significant variation of these properties in literature and studies analyzing large numbers of silk samples to explain these variations are still lacking. To fill this gap, the following work examines the mechanical properties of major ampullate silk based on a large ensemble of threads from Nephila clavipes and Nephila senegalensis. In addition, the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the mechanical properties was quantified. The large effect of RH on the mechanical properties makes it plausible that the variation in the literature values can to a large extent be attributed to changes in RH. Spider silk's most remarkable property—its high tenacity—remains unchanged. In addition, this work also includes hysteresis as well as relaxation measurements. It is found that the relaxation process is well described by a stretched exponential decay. PMID:17766337

  4. Temperature dependence of the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria); Azeez, A.A. [African University of Science and Technology, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2017-05-15

    The effects of temperature on the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys have been theoretically investigated, using a combination of self association model, Darken's thermodynamic equation for diffusion, empirical model for viscosity and a statistical mechanics model. The results from this study show that change in temperature resulted in cross-over effects in bulk and surface properties. We also found that with an increase in temperature, a pronounced asymmetry of viscosity isotherm is significantly reduced, and viscosity isotherm exhibited anomalous behaviour. Our results reveal that the homocoordination tendency in Zn-Cd liquid alloys is not strong and reduces with increasing temperature. The study further suggests a pronounced segregation of Cd-atoms at the surface of Zn-Cd liquid alloys and the extent of segregation reduces with temperature. We as well found that, in addition to the reported understanding that size-factor determines the compositional location of asymmetry of the viscosity isotherm, temperature is an operating parameter that has effect, not only on the composition of asymmetry, but also on the magnitude of asymmetry. In all the properties investigated, the most pronounced effect of temperature (52.9 %) is on the viscosity while the least effect (7.1 %) is on the surface tension. (orig.)

  5. Effective mechanical properties of multilayer nano-heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, T; Mahata, A; Adhikari, S; Zaeem, M Asle

    2017-11-17

    Two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional materials are important nanostructures because of their exciting electronic, optical, thermal, chemical and mechanical properties. However, a single-layer nanomaterial may not possess a particular property adequately, or multiple desired properties simultaneously. Recently a new trend has emerged to develop nano-heterostructures by assembling multiple monolayers of different nanostructures to achieve various tunable desired properties simultaneously. For example, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 show promising electronic and piezoelectric properties, but their low mechanical strength is a constraint for practical applications. This barrier can be mitigated by considering graphene-MoS2 heterostructure, as graphene possesses strong mechanical properties. We have developed efficient closed-form expressions for the equivalent elastic properties of such multi-layer hexagonal nano-hetrostructures. Based on these physics-based analytical formulae, mechanical properties are investigated for different heterostructures such as graphene-MoS2, graphene-hBN, graphene-stanene and stanene-MoS2. The proposed formulae will enable efficient characterization of mechanical properties in developing a wide range of application-specific nano-heterostructures.

  6. Effect of quenching techniques on the mechanical properties of low carbon structural steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miernik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the impact of incomplete quenching technique on the mechanical properties of low carbon structural steel.Significant influence of the heating method to the α + γ field was observed on the strength and plasticity after hardening process. The best combination of mechanical properties was obtained for the 3th technique consisting of pre-heating the material to the austenite field, next cooling to the appropriate temperature in the α + γ and hardening from that dual phase region. The high level of toughness with relatively high strength were observed, compared to the properties obtained for the two other ways to quench annealing (incomplete hardening.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Composites with Titanium Diboride Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulima I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure and mechanical properties of the 316L steel composite reinforced with TiB2 phase were examined. The test materials were obtained by SPS technique from powders. From testing of the mechanical properties it follows that the optimum temperature for the fabrication of 316Lsteel-TiB2 composites by SPS is 1100°C. Studies have also proved that the critical content of TiB2 phase in steel matrix should not exceed 6vol%. Above this level, the plastic properties of the composite become unstable and strongly dependent on the time of sintering.

  8. Influence of non-metal inclusions on mechanical properties of CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shaojun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)], E-mail: sjliu@ipp.ac.cn; Huang Qunying [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Li Chunjing; Huang Bo [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The effect of the size and distribution of non-metal inclusions on mechanical properties of the China low activation martensitic steel (CLAM) was investigated. The tensile and Charpy V-notch impact tests showed that electroslag remelting improved the tensile properties and reduced the ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Inclusion detection of CLAM by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope showed that both the dimensions and quantities of the alumina inclusions decreased and their distributions became more uniform after remelting. The better refinement and distribution uniformity of alumina inclusions were considered as the main possible reasons for the improvement of the mechanical properties of CLAM steel after remelting.

  9. The importance of temperature dependent energy gap in the understanding of high temperature thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we show the importance of temperature dependent energy band gap, E g (T), in understanding the high temperature thermoelectric (TE) properties of material by considering LaCoO3 (LCO) and ZnV2O4 (ZVO) compounds as a case study. For the fix value of band gap, E g , deviation in the values of α has been observed above 360 K and 400 K for LCO and ZVO compounds, respectively. These deviation can be overcomed by consideration of temperature dependent band gap. The change in used value of E g with respect to temperature is ∼4 times larger than that of In As. This large temperature dependence variation in E g can be attributed to decrement in the effective on-site Coulomb interaction due to lattice expansion. At 600 K, the value of ZT for n and p-doped, LCO is ∼0.35 which suggest that it can be used as a potential material for TE device. This work clearly suggest that one should consider the temperature dependent band gap in predicting the high temperature TE properties of insulating materials.

  10. Low temperature dielectric properties of magnetoplumbite family of materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateshwaran, B.; Yao, M.; Guo, R.; Bhalla, A.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Technology; Pennsylvania State Univ.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetoplumbite family of materials exhibit properties that make them suitable to be used as substrates materials for microwave application. Four members of the family studied in this work are LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}, NdGaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 19}, CaGa{sub 6}Al{sub 6}O{sub 19} and CaGa{sub 12}O{sub 19}. Dielectric studies have been carried out over a temperature range of 4-300 K and a wide frequency range. All four exhibit a low dielectric constant with good temperature stability, low dielectric loss and favorable frequency dependence characteristics.

  11. High temperature heterogeneous reaction kinetics and mechanisms of tungsten oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Justin L.

    Tungsten, which is a material used in many high temperature applications, is limited by its susceptibility to oxidation at elevated temperatures. Although tungsten has the highest melting temperature of any metal, at much lower temperatures volatile oxides are formed during oxidation with oxygen containing species. This differs from many heterogeneous oxidation reactions involving metals since most reactions form very stable oxides that have higher melting or boiling points than the pure metal (e.g., aluminum, iron). Understanding heterogeneous oxidation and vaporization processes may allow for the expansion and improvement of high temperature tungsten applications. In order to increase understanding of the oxidation processes of tungsten, there is a need to develop reaction mechanisms and kinetics for oxidation processes involving oxidizers and environmental conditions of interest. Tungsten oxidation was thoroughly studied in the past, and today there is a good phenomenological understanding of these processes. However, as the design of large scale systems increasingly relies on computer modeling there becomes a need for improved descriptions of chemical reactions. With the increase in computing power over the last several decades, and the development of quantum chemistry and physics theories, heterogeneous systems can be modeled in detail at the molecular level. Thermochemical parameters that may not be measured experimentally may now be determined theoretically, a tool that was previously unavailable to scientists and engineers. Additionally, chemical kinetic modeling software is now available for both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. This study takes advantage of these new theoretical tools, as well as a thermogravimetric (TG) flow reactor developed as part of this study to learn about mechanisms and kinetics of tungsten oxidation. Oxidizers of interest are oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO 2), water (H2O), and other oxidizers present in combustion and

  12. Effects of welding parameters on the mechanical properties of inert gas welded 6063 Aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertan, Taner [MAKO Corporation (Turkey); Uguz, Agah [Uludag Univ. (Turkey). Mechnical Engineering Dept.; Ertan, Rukiye

    2012-07-01

    The influence of welding parameters, namely welding current and gas flow rate, on the mechanical properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) welded 6063 Aluminum alloy (AA 6063) has been investigated. In order to study the effect of the welding current and gas flow rate, microstructural examination, hardness measurements and room temperature tensile tests have been carried out. The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of GTAW welded joints have better mechanical properties than those of SMAW welded joints. Increasing the welding current appeared to have a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties. However, either increasing or decreasing the gas flow rate resulted in a decrease of hardness and tensile strength. It was also found that, the highest strength was obtained in GTAW welded samples at 220 A and 15 l/min gas flow rate.

  13. Influence of calcium compounds on the mechanical properties of fly ash geopolymer pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuujin, J; van Riessen, A; Williams, R

    2009-08-15

    The influence of calcium compounds (CaO and Ca(OH)(2)) on the mechanical properties of fly ash based geopolymers has been studied. Calcium compounds were substituted in fly ash at 1, 2 and 3 wt%, respectively. Curing of the geopolymers was performed at ambient temperature (20 degrees C) and 70 degrees C. Addition of calcium compounds as a fly ash substitute improved mechanical properties for the ambient temperature cured samples while decreasing properties for the 70 degrees C cured samples. Seven days compressive strength of the ambient temperature cured samples increased from 11.8 (2.9) to 22.8 (3.8)MPa and 29.2 (1.1)MPa for 3% CaO and 3% Ca(OH)(2) additions, respectively.

  14. Combined Effects of Curing Temperatures and Alkaline Concrete on Tensile Properties of GFRP Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-rui Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies have been conducted on the tensile properties of GFRP bars embedded in concrete under different environments. However, most of these studies have been experimentally based on the environmental immersion test after standard-curing and the lack of influence on the tensile properties of GFRP bars embedded in concrete during the curing process of concrete. This paper presents the results of the microscopic structures through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and tensile properties of GFRP bars, which were employed to investigate the combined effects of curing temperatures and alkaline concrete on tensile properties of GFRP bars. The results showed that the higher curing temperature aggravated the influence of the alkaline concrete environment on GFRP bars but did not change the mechanisms of mechanical degradation of the GFRP bars. The influence of different curing temperatures on the tensile strength of GFRP bars was different between the bare bar and bars in concrete. Finally, the exponential correlation equation of two different test methods was established, and the attenuation ratio of the tensile strength of GFRP bars embedded in concrete under different curing temperatures was predicted by the bare test.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Die-casting Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strontium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloys 380 and 413 are researched. All samples are prepared through high pressure die-casting, and the effect of the sample’s thickness is also compared. The results indicate that the Sr addition can refine the metallographic microstructure of two alloys in different degrees, mainly to eutectic Si phase. The mechanical properties of the two alloys are improved slightly through Sr modification to the thin wall castings. The enhancement of mechanical properties is evident to the thick wall castings.

  16. High temperature deformation mechanisms of L12-containing Co-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Michael Shaw

    Ni-based superalloys have been used as the structural material of choice for high temperature applications in gas turbine engines since the 1940s, but their operating temperature is becoming limited by their melting temperature (Tm =1300degrees C). Despite decades of research, no viable alternatives to Ni-based superalloys have been discovered and developed. However, in 2006, a ternary gamma' phase was discovered in the Co-Al-W system that enabled a new class of Co-based superalloys to be developed. These new Co-based superalloys possess a gamma-gamma' microstructure that is nearly identical to Ni-based superalloys, which enables these superalloys to achieve extraordinary high temperature mechanical properties. Furthermore, Co-based alloys possess the added benefit of exhibiting a melting temperature of at least 100degrees C higher than commercial Ni-based superalloys. Superalloys used as the structural materials in high pressure turbine blades must withstand large thermomechanical stresses imparted from the rotating disk and hot, corrosive gases present. These stresses induce time-dependent plastic deformation, which is commonly known as creep, and new superalloys must possess adequate creep resistance over a broad range of temperature in order to be used as the structural materials for high pressure turbine blades. For these reasons, this research focuses on quantifying high temperature creep properties of new gamma'-containing Co-based superalloys and identifying the high temperature creep deformation mechanisms. The high temperature creep properties of new Co- and CoNi-based alloys were found to be comparable to Ni-based superalloys with respect to minimum creep rates and creep-rupture lives at 900degrees C up to the solvus temperature of the gamma' phase. Co-based alloys exhibited a propensity for extended superlattice stacking fault formation in the gamma' precipitates resulting from dislocation shearing events. When Ni was added to the Co-based compositions

  17. Dependence of Glass Mechanical Properties on Thermal and Pressure History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Bauchy, Mathieu

    Predicting the properties of new glasses prior to manufacturing is a topic attracting great industrial and scientific interest. Mechanical properties are currently of particular interest given the increasing demand for stronger, thinner, and more flexible glasses in recent years. However, as a non......-equilibrium material, the structure and properties of glass depend not only on its composition, but also on its thermal and pressure histories. Here we review our recent findings regarding the thermal and pressure history dependence of indentation-derived mechanical properties of oxide glasses....

  18. The Deterioration Mechanism of Diester Aero Lubricating Oil at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of aero lubricating oil at high temperatures was accelerated by using a specific device simulating the operating conditions of engines, where the deterioration mechanism was obtained. Structures of the deteriorated lubricating oils were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. From the results, it can be concluded that deterioration of aero lubricating oil at high temperatures was composed of thermal pyrolysis, oxidation, and polymerization, with the generation of a variety of products, such as alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and esters, which caused the deterioration of physicochemical properties of the aero lubricating oil.

  19. Mechanical properties of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped W-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, M.V. [Departamento de Tecnologias Especiales Aplicadas a la Aeronautica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela de Ingenieria Aeronautica y del Espacio, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martin, A.; Pastor, J.Y. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); LLorca, J., E-mail: jllorca@mater.upm.e [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileno de Estudios Avanzados de Materiales (Instituto IMDEA Materiales), C/ Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2010-09-30

    W and W alloys are currently considered promising candidates for plasma facing components in future fusion reactors but most of the information on their mechanical properties at elevated temperature was obtained in the 1960s and 1970s. In this investigation, the strength and toughness of novel Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped W-Ti alloys manufactured by powder metallurgy were measured from 25 {sup o}C up to 1000 {sup o}C in laboratory air and the corresponding deformation and failure micromechanisms were ascertained from analyses of the fracture surfaces. Although the materials were fairly brittle at ambient temperature, the strength and toughness increased with temperature and Ti content up to 600 {sup o}C. Beyond this temperature, oxidation impaired the mechanical properties but the presence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} enhanced the strength and toughness retention up to 800 {sup o}C.

  20. Chitosan fibers with improved biological and mechanical properties for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Mohammad Z; Bou-Akl, Therese H; Blowytsky, Oksana; Walters, Henry L; Matthew, Howard W T

    2013-04-01

    The low mechanical properties of hydrogel materials such as chitosan hinder their broad utility for tissue engineering applications. Previous research efforts improved the mechanical properties of chitosan fiber through chemical and physical modifications; however, unfavorable toxicity effects on cells were reported. In this paper, we report the preparation of chitosan fibers with improved mechanical and biocompatibility properties. The structure-property relationships of extruded chitosan fibers were explored by varying acetic acid (AA) concentration, ammonia concentration, annealing temperature and degree of heparin crosslinking. Results showed that optimizing AA concentration to 2vol% improved fiber strength and stiffness by 2-fold. Extruding chitosan solution into 25wt% of ammonia solution reduced fiber diameters and improved fiber strength by 2-fold and stiffness by 3-fold, due to an increase in crystallinity as confirmed by XRD. Fiber annealing further reduced fiber diameter and improved fiber strength and stiffness as temperature increased. Chitosan fibers crosslinked with heparin had increased diameter but lower strength and stiffness properties and higher breaking strain values. When individual parameters were combined, further improvement in fiber mechanical properties was achieved. All mechanically improved fibers and heparin crosslinked fibers promoted valvular interstitial cells (VIC) attachment and growth over 10 day cultures. Our results demonstrate the ability to substantially improve the mechanical properties of chitosan fibers without adversely affecting their biological properties. The investigated treatments offer numerous advantages over previous physical/chemical modifications and thus are expected to expand the utility of chitosan fibers with tunable mechanical properties in various tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.