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Sample records for temperature magnetocaloric effect

  1. Effect of low temperature annealing on magneto-caloric effect of Ni–Mn–Sn–Al ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sandeep [Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, West Bengal (India); LCMP, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Stern-Taulats, Enric; Mañosa, Lluís [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Mukhopadhyay, P.K., E-mail: pkm@bose.res.in [LCMP, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • Magnetic properties of the system changed after secondary heat treatment. • MCE was enhanced after Al was partially replaced with Sn in Ni–Mn–Al system. • Suitable heat treatment further increased overall MCE in the sample. • Change in magnetic properties occurred due to change in atomic ordering. - Abstract: We studied the effect of low temperature annealing on the atomic ordering and consequent changes in the magnetization and magnetocaloric effect of the sample. The annealing at lower temperatures initially decreased the magnetization and magnetocaloric effect in the sample, but at higher annealing temperatures both increased. The changes in magnetization and magnetocaloric effect arise from the change in atomic ordering. We have shown that post quenching heat treatment offers easy way of optimizing the alloy for magnetocaloric effect. In order to verify that there was no overestimation in the measurement of magnetocaloric effect we also performed an infield calorimetric measurements and compared them with those from the magnetization measurements. We did not find remarkable difference between them.

  2. Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second...

  3. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Reproducible room temperature giant magnetocaloric effect in Fe-Rh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, Meghmalhar; Roy, S. B.

    2008-10-01

    We present the results of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) studies in polycrystalline Fe-Rh alloy over a temperature range of 250-345 K across the first order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition. By measuring the MCE under various thermomagnetic histories, contrary to the long held belief, we show here explicitly that the giant MCE in Fe-Rh near room temperature does not vanish after the first field cycle. In spite of the fact that the virgin magnetization curve is lost after the first field cycle near room temperature, reproducibility in the MCE under multiple field cycles can be achieved by properly choosing a combination of isothermal and adiabatic field variation cycles in the field-temperature phase space. This reproducible MCE leads to a large effective refrigerant capacity of 324.42 J kg-1, which is larger than that of the well-known magnetocaloric material Gd5Si2Ge2. This information could be important as Fe-Rh has the advantage of having a working temperature of around 300 K, which can be used for room temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  4. New type of magnetocaloric effect: Implications on low-temperature magnetic refrigeration using an Ericsson cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeya, H.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Moorman, J.O.

    1994-01-01

    The low-temperature, high magnetic field heat capacity (1.5 to 70 K and 0 to 9.85 T), dc and ac magnetic behaviors of the compound (Gd 0.54 Er 0.46 )AlNi show that field-induced magnetic entropy change is significant and almost constant over the temperature region of ∼15 to ∼45 K. The resulting temperature dependence of the magnetocaloric effect, nearly constant over a 30+ K temperature range, is unprecedented (most magnetic materials have a caretlike shape temperature dependence). These data show that (Gd 0.54 Er 0.46 )AlNi can be used as an effective active magnetic regenerator material for an Ericsson-cycle magnetic refrigerator, and could substitute for complex composite layered materials suggested earlier

  5. Room temperature magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-In-Cr ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkera, Harish Sharma [Functionalnanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand-247667 (India); Singh, Inderdeep [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand-24667 (India); Kaur, Davinder, E-mail: dkaurfph@iitr.ernet.in [Functionalnanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand-247667 (India)

    2017-02-15

    The influence of Cr substitution for In on the martensitic phase transformation and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been investigated in Ni-Mn-Cr-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) measurements demonstrated that the martensitic transformation temperatures (T{sub M}) monotonously increase with the increase of Cr content due to change in valence electron concentration (e/a) and cell volume. From the study of isothermal magnetization curves (M-H), magnetocaloric effect around the martensitic transformation has been investigated in these FSMA thin films. The magnetic entropy change ∆S{sub M} of 7.0 mJ/cm{sup 3}-K was observed in Ni{sub 51.1}Mn{sub 34.9}In{sub 9.5}Cr{sub 4.5} film at 302 K in an applied field of 2 T. Further, the refrigerant capacity (RC) was also calculated for all the films in an applied field of 2 T. These findings indicate that the Cr doped Ni-Mn-In FSMA thin films are potential candidates for room temperature micro-length-scale magnetic refrigeration applications. - Highlights: • The Cr content leads to an increase in the martensitic transformation temperature. • The ∆S{sub M} =7 mJ/cm{sup 3}-K at 302 K was observed in the Ni{sub 51.1}Mn{sub 34.9}In{sub 9.5}Cr{sub 4.5}. • The RC =39.2 mJ/K at 2 T was obtained in Ni{sub 51.1}Mn{sub 34.9}In{sub 9.5}Cr{sub 4.5} film.

  6. Magnetocaloric effect and other low-temperature properties of Pr2Pt2 In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboukam, J. J.; Sondezi, B. M.; Tchokonté, M. B. Tchoula; Bashir, A. K. H.; Strydom, A. M.; Britz, D.; Kaczorowski, D.

    2018-05-01

    We report on X-ray diffraction, electrical transport, heat capacity and magnetocaloric effect measurements of a polycrystalline sample of Pr2Pt2 In . The compound forms in the tetragonal Mo2FeB2 type structure and orders ferromagnetically at TC=9 K. In the ordered state, its thermodynamic and electrical transport properties are dominated by magnon contributions with an energy gap of about 8 K in the spin-wave spectrum. The magnitude of magnetocaloric effect is similar to the values reported for most rare-earth based intermetallics. Characteristic behavior of the isothermal magnetic entropy change maximum points to a second-order character of the ferromagnetic phase transition in the compound studied.

  7. Magnetocaloric effect of polycrystalline Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 compound: Investigation of low temperature magnetic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kalipada; Banu, Nasrin; Das, I.; Dev, B. N.

    2018-06-01

    An attempt has been made to probe low temperature magnetic state of the polycrystalline Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 compound via magnetization and magnetocaloric studies. In the context of the earlier debatable reports on the above mentioned compound between the existence of glassy magnetic state and small ferromagnetic domains from the 'ac' susceptibility measurements, our experimental observation from magnetocaloric effect study clearly indicates the existence of ferromagnetic droplets along with certain amount of superparamagnetic component at low temperature (magnetization (even at H = 0.01 T) data do not exhibit the spin freezing nature at the low temperature which is almost a generic tendency of glassy magnetic state. Our study also highlights the competence of magnetocaloric effect as a tool to distinguish between different magnetic states of a compound.

  8. Giant magnetocaloric effect in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system by establishing a Curie-temperature window

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, E. K.

    2013-03-28

    An effective scheme of isostructural alloying was applied to establish a Curie-temperature window in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system. With the simultaneous accomplishment of decreasing structural-transition temperature and converting antiferromagnetic martensite to ferromagnetic state, a 200 K Curie-temperature window was established between Curie temperatures of austenite and martensite phases. In the window, a first-order magnetostructural transition between paramagnetic austenite and ferromagnetic martensite occurs with a sharp jump in magnetization, showing a magnetic entropy change as large as −40 J kg−1 K−1 in a 50 kOe field change. This giant magnetocaloric effect enables Mn1− x Co x NiGe to become a potential magnetic refrigerant.

  9. Magnetocaloric refrigeration near room temperature (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Thanh, D.T.C.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Modern society relies on readily available refrigeration. The ideal cooling machine would be a compact, solid state, silent and energy-efficient heat pump that does not require maintenance. Magnetic refrigeration has three prominent advantages compared to compressor-based refrigeration. First, there are no harmful gases involved, second it may be built more compact as the working material is a solid and third magnetic refrigerators generate much less noise. Recently, a new class of magnetic refrigerant materials for room-temperature applications was discovered. These new materials have important advantages over existing magnetic coolants: They exhibit a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in conjunction with a magnetic phase transition of first order. This MCE is, larger than that of Gd metal, which is used in the demonstration refrigerators built to explore the potential of this evolving technology. In the present review, we compare the different materials considering both scientific aspects and industrial applicability

  10. Tuning of the magneto-caloric effects in MnFe(P,As) by substitution of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegus, O.; Brueck, E.; Li, X.W.; Zhang, L.; Dagula, W.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    MnFe(P,As) displays a large magnetocaloric effect around room temperature. Substitution of Cr for Fe results in a reduction of both the ordering temperature and the magnetocaloric effect. Substitution of Co for Fe leads to a decrease of the ordering temperature, whereas 10% extra Fe substituted for Mn leads to an increase of the ordering temperature. Finally, 10% extra Mn substituted for Fe results in an enhanced magnetocaloric effect with hardly any change of ordering temperature

  11. Magnetocaloric effect of Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 alloys in low magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is studied by measuring magnetic entropy change ( M) and adiabatic temperature change ( ad) in a magnetic field of 1.5 T using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a home-made magnetocaloric effect measuring apparatus, respectively. The maximum M of the alloys ...

  12. Quantification of the effect of hysteresis on the adiabatic temperature change in magnetocaloric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2014-01-01

    description of the phase transition at varying magnetic fields and temperatures. Using detailed experimental property data, a Preisach type model is used to describe the thermal hysteresis effects and simulate the material under realistic working conditions. We find that the adiabatic temperature change...

  13. Innovative Methodological Approaches for evaluating the Magnetocaloric Effect in Functional Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cugini, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    The experimental characterization of magnetocaloric effect has a fundamental role in the development of an efficient, environmentally friendly and cost-effective room-temperature magnetic refrigeration technology. The proper measure of the magnetocaloric effect as a function of temperature and magnetic field, in terms of adiabatic temperature change and isothermal entropy change, is required to compare the potentiality of different materials and to lead to their development. Moreover, the tes...

  14. Very large refrigerant capacity at room temperature with reproducible magnetocaloric effect in Fe0.975Ni0.025Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manekar, Meghmalhar; Roy, S B

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) measurements on Fe 0.975 Ni 0.025 Rh. The MCE is estimated using both the isothermal field-dependent magnetization and the temperature-dependent magnetization in constant magnetic fields. We find a very large effective refrigerant capacity of nearly 492.8 J kg -1 , with the hot end at about 307 K, which is reproducible over many field cycles. We compare this refrigerant capacity with those of two well known systems, namely Gd 5 Ge 1.9 Si 2 Fe 0.1 and MnFeP 0.45 As 0.55 , which show a large MCE near room temperature, and also with our earlier results on the parent Fe-Rh alloy. The large effective refrigerant capacity in our sample is one of the largest achieved yet at room temperature with a significant improvement over the parent Fe-Rh system. (fast track communication)

  15. A novel magnetic valve using room temperature magnetocaloric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    changes. This is made possible by the strong temperature dependence of the magnetization close to the Curie temperature of the magnetocaloric materials. Different compositions of both La0.67(Ca,Sr)0.33MnO3 and La(Fe,Co,Si)13 have been considered for use in prototype valves. Based on measured magnetization...

  16. Properties of magnetocaloric materials with a distribution of Curie temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The magnetocaloric properties of inhomogeneous ferromagnets that contain distributions of Curie temperatures are considered as a function of the width of such a distribution. Assuming a normal distribution of the Curie temperature, the average adiabatic temperature change, ΔTad, the isothermal...... of the distribution, explaining the observed mismatch of peak temperatures reported in experiments. Also, the field dependence of ΔTad and Δs is found to depend on the width of the distribution....

  17. Magnetocaloric effect and its implementation in critical behaviour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Model; manganites; magnetization; magnetocaloric effect; critical exponent. 1. Introduction. Large number of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) materials have attracted much ... external magnetic field, which is advantageous for applica- tion as magnetic ... of the magnetic phase transition and critical behaviour can be obtained by ...

  18. Tunable Curie temperature around room temperature and magnetocaloric effect in ternary Ce–Fe–B amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu-bai; Zhang, Le-le; Zhang, Xue-feng; Li, Yong-feng; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Tong-yun; Shen, Bao-gen

    2017-01-01

    Ce 13−x Fe 81+x B 6 ( x   =  0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2) amorphous magnets were prepared by melt-spinning method. These magnets are magnetically soft at low temperature, and undergo a second-order phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state near room temperature with a broad temperature span. The phase-transition temperature is tunable by the variation of the Ce/Fe atomic ratio, which is mainly due to the change of the coordination number of Fe atoms in these ternary Ce–Fe–B amorphous magnets. Though the entropy change is low, the refrigeration capacities are in the ranges of 116–150 J kg −1 and 319–420 J kg −1 , respectively, for the magnetic field changes of 0–2 T and 0–5 T, which is comparable with those of conventional magnetic materials for room-temperature refrigeration. Given the low cost of Fe and Ce, Ce–Fe–B amorphous magnets are attractive magnetic refrigerant candidates. (paper)

  19. Room temperature inverse magnetocaloric effect in Pd substituted Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Ritwik, E-mail: ritwik.saha@tifr.res.in; Nigam, A.K.

    2014-09-01

    The structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric effects for Ni{sub 50−x}Pd{sub x}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} Heusler alloys have been investigated around both structural and magnetic transitions. The room temperature X-ray diffraction indicates 10 M modulated martensitic structure with an orthorhombic unit cell for x=0 and 1. However, the superstructure reflections for x=2 alloy imply that the pattern is related to the L2{sub 1} phase. The maximum entropy change occurring at the martensitic transition is found to be 21 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} alloy around room temperature. Despite the smaller change in entropy around room temperature, 3.8 times larger value of refrigerant capacity (184.6 J/kg) is achieved for 2% substitution of Pd, due to occurrence of magnetic entropy change in a broader temperature region.

  20. Magnetocaloric effect in Heusler shape-memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planes, A.; Manosa, Ll.; Moya, X.; Krenke, T.; Acet, M.; Wassermann, E.F.

    2007-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the magnetocaloric properties of Ni-Mn-X Heusler shape-memory alloys with X=Ga, Sn and In. In these materials, the magnetocaloric effect is a consequence of the magnetostructural coupling that enables the magnetic shape-memory properties. We show that inverse magnetocaloric effects can occur in these materials. The origin of this anomalous behavior is different in stoichiometric Ni 2 MnGa and in Ni-Mn-Sn/In. In the former case it is related to the strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the martensitic phase, while in the later it is an intrinsic effect associated with an incipient antiferromagnetism

  1. Magnetocaloric effect in quantum spin-s chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Honecker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We compute the entropy of antiferromagnetic quantum spin-s chains in an external magnetic field using exact diagonalization and Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetocaloric effect, i. e., temperature variations during adiabatic field changes, can be derived from the isentropes. First, we focus on the example of the spin-s=1 chain and show that one can cool by closing the Haldane gap with a magnetic field. We then move to quantum spin-s chains and demonstrate linear scaling with s close to the saturation field. In passing, we propose a new method to compute many low-lying excited states using the Lanczos recursion.

  2. Giant magnetocaloric effect in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system by establishing a Curie-temperature window

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, E. K.; Zhang, H. G.; Xu, G. Z.; Zhang, X. M.; Ma, R. S.; Wang, W. H.; Chen, J. L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, G. H.; Feng, L.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    An effective scheme of isostructural alloying was applied to establish a Curie-temperature window in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system. With the simultaneous accomplishment of decreasing structural-transition temperature and converting

  3. Investigation on the magnetocaloric effect in TbN compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Nóbrega, E.P.; Alho, B.P.; Ribeiro, P.O. [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais (DIMAT), Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Sousa, V.S.R. de; Caldas, A.; Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    One of the biggest challenges in materials science is to understand the microscopic mechanisms responsible in storage and release material entropy. TbN compound, which presents non-degeneracy in ground state, was studied and the calculated magnetocaloric effect is in good agreement with the recent experimental data. Also inverse magnetocaloric effect and spin reorientation transition were predicted in TbN. The theoretical investigations were carried out using a Hamiltonian, which includes the crystalline electrical field, Zeeman and exchange interactions. - Highlights: • Theoretical description of the magnetocaloric effect in TbN. • Influence of the crystalline electrical field anisotropy on TbN. • Predictions of inverse and anomalous magnetocaloric effect in TbN.

  4. Influence of atomic ordering on elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects of a Ni–Cu–Mn–Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chonghui [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter and State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Yu, E-mail: yuwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter and State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tang, Zhao; Liao, Xiaoqi; Yang, Sen; Song, Xiaoping [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter and State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Ni{sub 51}Cu{sub 4}Mn{sub 20}Ga{sub 25} alloy exhibits normal elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects. • L2{sub 1} atomic order of the alloy is increased after annealing at 773 K for 10 h. • Increasing L2{sub 1} atomic order improves its elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects. • Atomic ordering modifies the magnetic and martensitic transitions of the system. - Abstract: The coexisting elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys have attracted much attention for the potential application in solid state refrigeration. Previous studies show that the L2{sub 1} atomic ordering of Heusler ferromagnetic shape memory alloys plays important role on their magnetocaloric effect. However, no research work investigates the effect of atomic ordering on their elastocaloric effect yet. In this study, we investigated the influence of atomic ordering on the elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects of a Ni{sub 51}Cu{sub 4}Mn{sub 20}Ga{sub 25} ferromagnetic shape memory alloy. The alloy exhibits normal elastocaloric effect and normal magnetocaloric effect near room temperature. Moreover, we found that the enhancement of atomic order in this alloy can greatly increase the entropy change and refrigeration capacity of its elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects. This is attributed to that the atomic ordering modifies the magnetic and martensitic transitions of the system.

  5. Influence of atomic ordering on elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects of a Ni–Cu–Mn–Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chonghui; Wang, Yu; Tang, Zhao; Liao, Xiaoqi; Yang, Sen; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni 51 Cu 4 Mn 20 Ga 25 alloy exhibits normal elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects. • L2 1 atomic order of the alloy is increased after annealing at 773 K for 10 h. • Increasing L2 1 atomic order improves its elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects. • Atomic ordering modifies the magnetic and martensitic transitions of the system. - Abstract: The coexisting elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys have attracted much attention for the potential application in solid state refrigeration. Previous studies show that the L2 1 atomic ordering of Heusler ferromagnetic shape memory alloys plays important role on their magnetocaloric effect. However, no research work investigates the effect of atomic ordering on their elastocaloric effect yet. In this study, we investigated the influence of atomic ordering on the elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects of a Ni 51 Cu 4 Mn 20 Ga 25 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy. The alloy exhibits normal elastocaloric effect and normal magnetocaloric effect near room temperature. Moreover, we found that the enhancement of atomic order in this alloy can greatly increase the entropy change and refrigeration capacity of its elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects. This is attributed to that the atomic ordering modifies the magnetic and martensitic transitions of the system

  6. Magnetic refrigeration at room temperature - from magnetocaloric materials to a prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Pryds, Nini; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2011-01-01

    Based on the magnetocaloric effect, magnetic refrigeration at room temperature has for the past decade been a promising, environmentally friendly new energy technology predicted to have a significantly higher efficiency than the present conventional methods. However, so far only a few prototype...... refrigeration machines have been presented worldwide and there are still many scientific and technological challenges to be overcome. We report here on the MagCool project, which spans all the way from basic materials studies to the construction of a prototype. Emphasis has been on ceramic magnetocaloric...... materials, their shaping and graded composition for technological use. Modelling the performance of a permanent magnet with optimum use of the flux and relatively low weight, and designing and constructing a prototype continuous magnetic refrigeration device have also been major tasks in the project...

  7. Magnetic refrigeration at room temperature - from magnetocaloric materials to a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, L Theil; Pryds, N; Bahl, C R H; Smith, A

    2011-01-01

    Based on the magnetocaloric effect, magnetic refrigeration at room temperature has for the past decade been a promising, environmentally friendly new energy technology predicted to have a significantly higher efficiency than the present conventional methods. However, so far only a few prototype refrigeration machines have been presented worldwide and there are still many scientific and technological challenges to be overcome. We report here on the MagCool project, which spans all the way from basic materials studies to the construction of a prototype. Emphasis has been on ceramic magnetocaloric materials, their shaping and graded composition for technological use. Modelling the performance of a permanent magnet with optimum use of the flux and relatively low weight, and designing and constructing a prototype continuous magnetic refrigeration device have also been major tasks in the project.

  8. Nonuniversal scaling of the magnetocaloric effect as an insight into spin-lattice interactions in manganites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    is not given uniquely by the critical exponents of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition, i.e., the scaling is nonuniversal. A theoretical description based on the Bean-Rodbell model and taking into account compositional inhomogeneities is shown to be able to account for the observed field dependence....... In this way the determination of the nonuniversal field dependence of the magnetocaloric effect close to a phase transition can be used as a method to gain insight into the strength of the spin-lattice interactions of magnetic materials. The approach is shown also to be applicable to first-order transitions.......We measure the magnetocaloric effect of the manganite series La0.67Ca0.33-xSrxMnO3 by determining the isothermal entropy change upon magnetization, using variable-field calorimetry. The results demonstrate that the field dependence of the magnetocaloric effect close to the critical temperature...

  9. Large magnetocaloric effect of GdNiAl2 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembele, S.N.; Ma, Z.; Shang, Y.F.; Fu, H.; Balfour, E.A.; Hadimani, R.L.; Jiles, D.C.; Teng, B.H.; Luo, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the structure, magnetic properties, and magnetocaloric effect of the polycrystalline compound GdNiAl 2 . Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement and Rietveld refinement revealed that GdNiAl 2 alloy is CuMgAl 2 -type phase structure with about 1 wt% GdNi 2 Al 3 secondary phase. Magnetic measurements suggest that the compound is ferromagnetic and undergoes a second-order phase transition near 28 K. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change reaches 16.0 J/kg K for an applied magnetic field change of 0–50 kOe and the relative cooling power was 6.4×10 2 J/kg. It is a promising candidate as a magnetocaloric material working near liquid hydrogen temperature (~20 K) exhibiting large relative cooling power. - Highlights: • Preferred orientation with axis of [010] was found in the GdNiAl 2 compound. • The ΔS Mmax and the RCP are 16.0 J/kg K and 640 J/kg, respectively, for ΔH=50 kOe. • Relative low rare earth content in GdNiAl 2 comparing with other candidates

  10. (Dy0.5Er0.5)Al2: A large magnetocaloric effect material for low-temperature magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, H.; Moorman, J.O.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    The low-temprature heat capacity and ac and dc magnetic properties of (Dy 0.5 Er 0.5 )Al 2 have been studied as a function of magnetic fields up to ∼10 T. The magnetocaloric effect in (Dy 0.5 Er 0.5 )Al 2 is 30% larger than that of the prototype material, GdPd. Magnetic measurements show that there is no measurable magnetic hysteresis above ∼17 K. These results suggest that (Dy 0.5 Er 0.5 )Al 2 would be a significantly better magnetic refrigerant than GdPd

  11. Heat capacity and magnetocaloric effect in polycrystalline Gd 1-xSm xMn 2Si 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Niraj K.; Suresh, K. G.; Nigam, A. K.; Malik, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    We report the magnetocaloric effect in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change as well as adiabatic temperature change, calculated using the heat capacity data. Using the zero-field heat capacity data, the magnetic contribution to the heat capacity has been estimated. The variations in the magnetocaloric behavior have been explained on the basis of the magnetic structure of these compounds. The refrigerant capacities have also been calculated for these compounds.

  12. The effect of plastic deformation on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Gd-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskaev, Sergey; Skokov, Konstantin; Karpenkov, Dmitry; Khovaylo, Vladimir; Ulyanov, Maxim; Bataev, Dmitry; Dyakonov, Alexandr; Fazlitdinova, Alfiya; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    We report on the magnetocaloric effect in Gd100-xBx (x = 0, 10, 15) cold rolled ribbons. A moderate entropy change ΔS = 5 J/kg·K and adiabatic change of ΔT = 4.8 K were observed for the as-cast materials in an external magnetic field of 3 T which is less by 20% in comparison with the pure gadolinium metal. It was found that a significant (up to 70%) depression of magnetization and magnetocaloric properties developed in the course of plastic deformation can completely be restored by means of a high temperature heat treatment. It is concluded that cold rolling is one promising technique for producing foil shaped magnetocaloric materials suitable for designing heat exchangers of magnetic cooling devices.

  13. Magnetic hysterysis evolution of Ni-Al alloy with Fe and Mn substitution by vacuum arc melting to produce the room temperature magnetocaloric effect material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar [PPS Materials Science, FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Mechanical Engineering Dept., FT-Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon 42435 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@sci.ui.ac.id [PPS Materials Science, FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Setiawan, Jan [Center for Nuclear Fuel Tecnology-Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional, Tangerang Selatan 15310 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-17

    The development of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) material is done in order to reduce the damage of the ozone layer caused by the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emitted into the air. The research dealing with synthesis of magnetocaloric materials based of Ni-Al Heusler Alloy structure and by varying substitution some atoms of Ni with Fe and Al with Mn on Ni-Al Heusler Alloy structure to become Ni{sub 44}Fe{sub 6}Mn{sub 32}Al{sub 18}. Vacuum Arc Melting (VAM) equipment is used to form the alloys on vacuum condition and by flowing argon gas atmosphere and then followed by annealing process for 72 hours. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) reveals that crystallite structure of material is observed. We define that Ni{sub 44}Fe{sub 6} as X{sub 2}, Mn{sub 25} as Y, and Al{sub 18}Mn{sub 7} as Z. Based on the XRD result, we observed that the general formula X{sub 2}YZ is not changed. The PERMAGRAF measurement revealed that there exists of magnetic hysterysis. The hysterysis show that the magnetic structures of the system undego evolution from diamagnetic to soft ferromagnetic material which all of the compound have the same crystallite structure. This evolution indicated that the change in the composition has led to changes the magnetic composition. Mn is the major element that gives strong magnetic properties to the sample. When Mn partially replaced position of Al, the sample became dominant to be influenced to improve their magnetic properties. In addition, substitution a part of Ni by Fe in the composition reveals a pinning of the domain walls in the sample.

  14. Magnetocaloric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, Stinus

    2008-10-15

    New and improved magnetocaloric materials are one of the cornerstones in the development of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has been used since the 1930ies in cryogenic applications, but has since the discovery of room temperature refrigerants received enormous attention. This Ph.D. work has been mainly concerned with developing a new technique to characterize the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and using this technique in the investigations on new and improved magnetocaloric materials. For this purpose a novel differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with applied magnetic fields was developed for measuring heat capacity as function of magnetic field. Measurements using the developed DSC demonstrate a very high sensitivity, fast measurements and good agreement with results obtained by other techniques. Furthermore, two material systems have been described in this work. Both systems take basis in the mixed-valence manganite system La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} well known from research on colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The mixed-valence manganite crystallizes in the perovskite structure of general formula ABO{sub 3}. The first material system is designed to investigate the influence of low level Cu doping on the B-site. Six different samples were prepared with over-stoichiometric compositions La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1.05}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}, x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. All compositions crystallized well in the same perovskite structure, but the morphology of the samples changed drastically with doping. Investigation on the magnetocaloric properties revealed that small levels of Cu up to around 3% could improve the magnetocaloric performance of the materials. Furthermore, Cu could be used to tune the temperature interval without deteriorating the MCE, which is a much desired characteristic for potential use in magnetic refrigerators. A less comprehensive part of the work has been concerned with the investigation of doping on the A

  15. Measuring the effect of demagnetization in stacks of gadolinium plates using the magnetocaloric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipso, K.W.; Nielsen, K.K.; Christensen, D.V.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Engelbrecht, K.; Theil Kuhn, L.; Smith, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of demagnetization in a stack of gadolinium plates is determined experimentally by using spatially resolved measurements of the adiabatic temperature change due to the magnetocaloric effect. The number of plates in the stack, the spacing between them and the position of the plate on which the temperature is measured are varied. The orientation of the magnetic field is also varied. The measurements are compared to a magnetostatic model previously described. The results show that the magnetocaloric effect, due to the change in the internal field, is sensitive to the stack configuration and the orientation of the applied field. This may have significant implications for the construction of a magnetic cooling device. - Highlights: → The magnetocaloric effect is used as an indirect measure of the internal magnetic field. → To our knowledge nobody has published experimental determination of demagnetizing field in stack configurations of plates of magnetic material. → We present good agreement between the experimental results and an established numerical model. → This serves to show that the model may be used further to predict, e.g., optimal configurations.

  16. Metamagnetism, sign reversal and low temperature magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuV2Al20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Kumar, K.; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Strydom, André M.

    2018-04-01

    The Frank-Kasper cage compound EuV2Al20 crystallizes in the cubic structure with Fd 3 ‾ m space group and exhibits unusual magnetic and transport properties. The system undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition below 5.6 K wherein the Eu2+ moments are aligned anti-parallel along 〈1 1 1〉 direction and the system exhibits a weak metamagetic transition at the field of 1 T. Arrott plots (M2 vs H / M) show a "S" shaped variation in the low fields below TN and the plausible reason for the occurrence of negative slope is discussed. Isothermal magnetic entropy change is estimated from both magnetization and heat capacity measurements invoking the Maxwell's thermodynamic relations. Temperature variation of ΔSm showed a weak negative minimum and a sign reversal at the field value of 1 T due to field induced metamagnetic transition. Universal master curve is constructed by rescaling the ΔSm vs T curves in the context of analysing the nature of the magnetic transition.

  17. Simulation of the magnetocaloric effect in Tb nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmo, Dory Hélio A. L., E-mail: doryh@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental (DFTE), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal-RN (Brazil); Mello, Vamberto D. [Departamento de Física,Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (UERN), Mossoró-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Manoel S. [Escola de Ciência e Tecnologia (ECT), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2014-03-31

    Rare-earth (RE) metals have different magnetic structures resulting from the competition between the crystal-field and exchange interactions. When a magnetic field is applied it creates a third interaction and the magnetic structures are more complicated. In thin films, it is expected that even the magnetic arrangement itself can be strongly modified. Rare-earth helimagnets such as Terbium (Tb), Holmium (Ho) and Dysprosium (Dy) represent the best candidates to evidence such finite-size effects. This finite-size effect is caused by the reduced number of atoms in the direction perpendicular to the film plane that leads to a decrease of the total magnetic exchange energy. We report this contribution to the investigation of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of thin Terbium films in the helimagnetic temperature range, from T{sub C} = 219 K to T{sub N} = 231 K, for external fields of the order of 1 kOe. We find that for strong fields, H = 50 kOe, the adiabatic temperature change ΔT near the Néel temperature is around 15 K for any thickness of Tb films. However large thickness effects are found for small values of the magnetic field. For field strength of the order of a few kOe, the thermocaloric efficiency increases significantly for ultrathin (nanomagnetic) films.

  18. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ni-Mn-Cr-Sn Heusler alloys under the effects of hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudip; Us Saleheen, Ahmad; Quetz, Abdiel; Chen, Jing-Han; Aryal, Anil; Dubenko, Igor; Stadler, Shane; Ali, Naushad

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic, thermal, and magnetocaloric properties of Ni45Mn43CrSn11 Heusler alloy have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and magnetization with hydrostatic pressure measurements. A shift in the martensitic transition temperature (TM) to higher temperatures was observed with the application of pressure. The application of pressure stabilizes the martensitic state and demonstrated that pressure can be a parameter used to control and tune the martensitic transition temperature (the temperature where the largest magnetocaloric effect is observed). The magnetic entropy change significantly decreases from 33 J/kg K to 16 J/kg K under the application of a hydrostatic pressure of 0.95 GPa. The critical field of the direct metamagnetic transition increases, whereas the initial susceptibility (dM/dH) in the low magnetic field region drastically decreases with increasing pressure. The relevant parameters that affect the magnetocaloric properties are discussed.

  19. Effects of pre-deformation on the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric property in Ni-Mn-Co-Sn ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Sheng-Can; Xuan Hai-Cheng; Zhang Cheng-Liang; Wang Liao-Yu; Cao Qing-Qi; Wang Dun-Hui; Du You-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric effect in pre-deformed Ni-Mn-Co-Sn ribbons. The experimental results show that the reverse martensitic transformation temperature T M increases with the increasing pre-pressure, suggesting that pre-deformation is another effective way to adjust T M in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Large magnetic entropy changes and refrigerant capacities are obtained in these ribbons as well. It also discusses the origin of the enhanced martensitic transformation temperature and magnetocaloric property in pre-deformed Ni-Mn-Co-Sn ribbons

  20. Colossal magnetocaloric effect in magneto-auxetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, M. R.; Wojciechowski, K. W.; Grima, J. N.; Caruana-Gauci, R.; Dudek, K. K.

    2015-08-01

    We show that a mechanically driven magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in magneto-auxetic systems (MASs) in the vicinity of room temperature is possible and the effect can be colossal. Even at zero external magnetic field, the magnetic entropy change in this reversible process can be a few times larger in magnitude than in the case of the giant MCE discovered by Pecharsky and Gschneidner in Gd5(Si2Ge2). MAS represent a novel class of metamaterials having magnetic insertions embedded within a non-magnetic matrix which exhibits a negative Poisson’s ratio. The auxetic behaviour of the non-magnetic matrix may either enhance the magnetic ordering process or it may result in a transition to the disordered phase. In the MAS under consideration, a spin 1/2 system is chosen for the magnetic component and the well-known Onsager solution for the two-dimensional square lattice Ising model at zero external magnetic field is used to show that the isothermal change in magnetic entropy accompanying the auxetic behaviour can take a large value at room temperature. The practical importance of our findings is that MCE materials used in present engineering applications may be further enhanced by changing their geometry such that they exhibit auxetic behaviour.

  1. Colossal magnetocaloric effect in magneto-auxetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, M R; Dudek, K K; Wojciechowski, K W; Grima, J N; Caruana-Gauci, R

    2015-01-01

    We show that a mechanically driven magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in magneto-auxetic systems (MASs) in the vicinity of room temperature is possible and the effect can be colossal. Even at zero external magnetic field, the magnetic entropy change in this reversible process can be a few times larger in magnitude than in the case of the giant MCE discovered by Pecharsky and Gschneidner in Gd 5 (Si 2 Ge 2 ). MAS represent a novel class of metamaterials having magnetic insertions embedded within a non-magnetic matrix which exhibits a negative Poisson’s ratio. The auxetic behaviour of the non-magnetic matrix may either enhance the magnetic ordering process or it may result in a transition to the disordered phase. In the MAS under consideration, a spin 1/2 system is chosen for the magnetic component and the well-known Onsager solution for the two-dimensional square lattice Ising model at zero external magnetic field is used to show that the isothermal change in magnetic entropy accompanying the auxetic behaviour can take a large value at room temperature. The practical importance of our findings is that MCE materials used in present engineering applications may be further enhanced by changing their geometry such that they exhibit auxetic behaviour. (paper)

  2. Order of magnetic transition and large magnetocaloric effect in Er3Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Shen; Jian-Feng, Wu; Jin-Liang, Zhao; Feng-Xia, Hu; Ji-Rong, Sun; Bao-Gen, Shen

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the Er 3 Co compound, which undergoes ferromagnetic ordering below the Curie temperature T C = 13 K. It is found by fitting the isothermal magnetization curves that the Landau model is appropriate to describe the Er 3 Co compound. The giant magnetocaloric effect (MCE) without hysteresis loss around T C is found to result from the second-order ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic transition. The maximal value of magnetic entropy change is 24.5 J/kg·K with a refrigerant capacity (RC) value of 476 J/kg for a field change of 0–5 T. Large reversible MEC and RC indicate the potentiality of Er 3 Co as a candidate magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00173-14-1-G016 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 82-2020-17 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology NRL Grant N00173-14-l-G016 CODE 8200: Spacecraft Engineering Department...82-11-0 1: Space and Space Systems Technology General Engineering & Research, L.L.C. Technical & Administrative point of contact: Dr. Robin

  4. Observation of large magnetocaloric effect in equiatomic binary compound ErZn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetism, magnetocaloric effect and universal behaviour in rare earth Zinc binary compound of ErZn have been studied. The ErZn compound undergoes a second order paramagnetic (PM to ferromagnetic (FM transition at Curie temperature of TC ∼ 20 K. The ErZn compound exhibits a large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE around its own TC. The rescaled magnetic entropy change curves overlap with each other under various magnetic field changes, further confirming the ErZn with the second order phase transition. For the magnetic field change of 0-7 T, the maximum values of the magnetic entropy change (−ΔSMmax, relative cooling power (RCP and refrigerant capacity (RC for ErZn are 23.3 J/kg K, 581 J/kg and 437 J/kg, respectively.

  5. MnFe(PGe) compounds: Preparation, structural evolution, and magnetocaloric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Ming; Zhang Hong-Guo; Zhang Jiu-Xing; Liu Dan-Min

    2015-01-01

    The interdependences of preparation conditions, magnetic and crystal structures, and magnetocaloric effects (MCE) of the MnFePGe-based compounds are reviewed. Based upon those findings, a new method for the evaluation of the MCE in these compounds, based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), is proposed. The MnFePGe-based compounds are a group of magnetic refrigerants with giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE), and as such, have drawn tremendous attention, especially due to their many advantages for practical applications. Structural evolution and phase transformation in the compounds as functions of temperature, pressure, and magnetic field are reported. Influences of preparation conditions upon the homogeneity of the compounds’ chemical composition and microstructure, both of which play a key role in the MCE and thermal hysteresis of the compounds, are introduced. Lastly, the origin of the “virgin effect” in the MnFePGe-based compounds is discussed. (paper)

  6. Measurement of pressure effects on the magnetic and the magnetocaloric properties of the intermetallic compounds DyCo2 and Er(Co1-xSix)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Niraj K; Kumar, Pramod; Suresh, K G; Nigam, A K; Coelho, A A; Gama, S

    2007-01-01

    The effect of external pressure on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of polycrystalline compounds DyCo 2 and Er(Co 1-x Si x ) 2 (x = 0,0.025 and 0.05) has been studied. The ordering temperatures of both the parent and the Si-substituted compounds are found to decrease with pressure. In all the compounds, the critical field for metamagnetic transition increases with pressure. It is seen that the magnetocaloric effect in the parent compounds is almost insensitive to pressure, while there is considerable enhancement in the case of Si-substituted compounds. Spin fluctuations arising from the magnetovolume effect play a crucial role in determining the pressure dependence of the magnetocaloric effect in these compounds. The variation of the magnetocaloric effect is explained on the basis of the Landau theory of magnetic phase transitions

  7. Magnetocaloric effect in “reduced” dimensions: Thin films, ribbons, and microwires of Heusler alloys and related compounds: Magnetocaloric effect in “reduced” dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khovaylo, Vladimir V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow 119049 Russia; ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 Russia; Rodionova, Valeria V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow 119049 Russia; Innovation Park and Institute of Physics & Technology, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 Russia; Shevyrtalov, Sergey N. [Innovation Park and Institute of Physics & Technology, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 Russia; Novosad, Val [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA

    2014-08-19

    Room temperature magnetic refrigeration is an energy saving and environmentally-friendly technology which has developed rapidly from a basic idea to prototype devices. The performance of magnetic refrigerators crucially depends on the magnetocaloric properties and the geometry of the employed refrigerants. Here we review the magnetocaloric properties of Heusler alloys and related compounds with a high surface to volume ratio such as films, ribbons and microwires, and compare them with their bulk counterparts.

  8. Direct and indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect in bulk and nanostructured Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Mohammadreza; Aslani, Amir; Hosseinnia, Marjan; Bennett, Lawrence H.; Della Torre, Edward

    2018-05-01

    A systematic study of the magnetocaloric effect of a Ni51Mn33.4In15.6 Heusler alloy converted to nanoparticles via high energy ball-milling technique in the temperature range of 270 to 310 K has been performed. The properties of the particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and magnetometer techniques. Isothermal magnetic field variation of magnetization exhibits field hysteresis in bulk Ni51Mn33.4In15.6 alloy across the martensitic transition which significantly lessened in the nanoparticles. The magnetocaloric effects of the bulk and nanoparticle samples were measured both with direct method, through our state of the art direct test bed apparatus with controllability over the applied fields and temperatures, as well as an indirect method through Maxwell and thermodynamic equations. In direct measurements, nanoparticle sample's critical temperature decreased by 6 K, but its magnetocaloric effect enhanced by 17% over the bulk counterpart. Additionally, when comparing the direct and indirect magnetocaloric curves, the direct method showed 14% less adiabatic temperature change in the bulk and 5% less adiabatic temperature change in the nanostructured sample.

  9. Near room temperature magnetocaloric properties and the universal curve of MnCoGe1-xCux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiaodong; Liu, Yongsheng; Lu, Xiaofei; Shen, Yulong; Wang, Wenli; Yu, Wenying; Zhou, Tao; Gao, Tian

    2017-05-01

    Intermetallic compounds based on MnCoGe have drawn attention due to the coupled magnetic and structural transformations and the large magnetocaloric entropy. Here, we provide a systematic comparison of experimental data under different magnetic fields with magnetic and the magnetocaloric properties. The ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC) increases from 353.4(6) K for x = 0.01 to 363.4(4) K for x = 0.04 with increasing nominal copper content. The maximum magnetic entropy change |ΔSM| in a magnetic field change of 5 T is found to be 18.3(2) J/(kg K) with a large relative cooling power (RCP) value of 292.5(4) J/kg for x = 0.01, revealing that the present system can provide an acceptable magnetocaloric effect at a cheaper price for magnetic refrigeration materials. Making attempt to contrast a master curve for the present system, we find the experimental values of magnetic field dependence of the magnetic entropy change are consistent with a phenomenological universal curve.

  10. Magnetocaloric effect and refrigeration cooling power in amorphous Gd7Ru3 alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar; Rachana Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the magnetic, heat capacity and magneto-caloric effect (MCE) of amorphous Gd7Ru3 compound. Both, temperature dependent magnetization and heat capacity data reveals that two transitions at 58 K and 34 K. MCE has been calculated in terms of isothermal entropy change (ΔSM) and adiabatic temperature change (ΔTad) using the heat capacity data in different fields. The maximum values of ΔSM and ΔTad are 21 Jmol−1K−1 and 5 K respectively, for field change of 50 kOe whereas re...

  11. Magnetic properties and low-temperature large magnetocaloric effect in the antiferromagnetic HoCu{sub 0.33}Ge{sub 2} and ErCu{sub 0.25}Ge{sub 2} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, R.L. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China); Xu, Z.Y., E-mail: zhyxu@nim.ac.cn [National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, L.C. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dong, Q.Y.; Zhang, Y. [Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Liu, F.H. [National Space Science Center, Beijing 100190 (China); Mo, Z.J. [School of material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Niu, E. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Fu, C.L.; Cai, W.; Chen, G.; Deng, X.L. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Antiferromagnetic material RCu{sub x}Ge{sub 2} of high purity was prepared. • Large MCE as −10.2 J/kg K and −10.5 J/kg K for RCu{sub x}Ge{sub 2} (Ho, Er) was obtained for field change of 0–50 kOe. • The RCu{sub x}Ge{sub 2} compounds with variable x had different transition temperature which made them suitable for ‘table-like’ magnetocaloric refrigerant. - Abstract: Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of HoCu{sub 0.33}Ge{sub 2} and ErCu{sub 0.25}Ge{sub 2} compounds have been investigated. The compounds were determined to be antiferromagnetic with the Néel temperatures T{sub N} = 9 K and 3.9 K, respectively. The critical transition magnetic fields for the metamagnetic transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state below T{sub N} were determined to be 10 kOe for HoCu{sub 0.33}Ge{sub 2} at 5 K and 6 kOe for ErCu{sub 0.25}Ge{sub 2} at 2 K. Large MCE with the maximal values of magnetic entropy changes (ΔS{sub M}) as −10.2 J/kg K at 10.5 K were found in HoCu{sub 0.33}Ge{sub 2} for field changes of 0–70 kOe and −10.5 J/kg K at 5.5 K in ErCu{sub 0.25}Ge{sub 2} for field changes of 0–50 kOe, respectively. The large ΔS{sub M} around T{sub N} as well as no hysteresis loss made RCu{sub x}Ge{sub 2} competitive candidates as low temperature magnetic refrigerant.

  12. Pressure effect on phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in Gd.sub.5./sub.Ge.sub.4./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arnold, Zdeněk; Skorokhod, Yuriy; Kamarád, Jiří; Magen, C.; Algarabel, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2009), 07A934/1-07A934/3 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/06/0368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Curie temperature * ferromagnetic materials * ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transitions * gadolinium compounds * magnetocaloric effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.072, year: 2009

  13. Magnetocaloric effect of Gd4(BixSb1-x)3 alloy series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Xuejun

    1999-01-01

    Alloys from the Gd 4 (Bi x Sb 1-x ) 3 series were prepared by melting a stoichiometric amounts of pure metals in an induction furnace. The crystal structure is of the anti-Th 3 P 4 type (space group Ibar 43d) for all the compounds tested. The linear increase of the lattice parameters with Bi concentration is attributed to the larger atomic radius of Bi than that of Sb. Magnetic measurements show that the alloys order ferromagnetically from 266K to 330K, with the ordering temperature increasing with decreasing Bi concentration. The alloys are soft ferromagnets below their Curie temperatures, and follow the Curie-Weiss law above their ordering temperatures. The paramagnetic effective magnetic moments are low compared to the theoretical value for a free Gd 3+ , while the ordered magnetic moments are close to the theoretical value for Gd. The alloys exhibit a moderate magnetocaloric effect (MCE) whose maxima are located between 270K and 338K and have relatively wide peaks. The peak MCE temperature decreases with decreasing Bi concentration while the peak height increases with decreasing Bi concentration. The Curie temperatures determined from inflection points of heat capacity are in good agreement with those obtained from the magnetocaloric effect. The MCE results obtained from the two different methods (magnetization and heat capacity) agree quite well with each other for all of the alloys in the series

  14. Monte Carlo simulation study of magnetocaloric effect in NdMnO{sub 3} perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, PB 63 46000 Safi (Morocco); Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Jabar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Curie, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-03-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in NdMnO{sub 3} perovskite is investigated by using the Monte Carlo simulations. The Curie temperature T{sub C} of NdMnO{sub 3} compound is deduced from the variation of the magnetization vs. the temperature with different values of external magnetic field. The variation of magnetization with the external magnetic field H is given. The specific heat with the temperature is established for different external magnetic field. The thermal magnetic entropy for different external magnetic field and different exchange interactions in NdMnO{sub 3} compound is obtained. The adiabatic temperature change is obtained. The relative cooling power with different external magnetic field is established. The magnetocaloric effect has been investigated from magnetization. - Highlights: • Results obtained show that the PM–FM transition is of second order in NdMnO{sub 3}. • Critical properties of NdSi at the FM–PM transition have been analyzed. • The Curie temperature and magnetic entropy have been obtained.

  15. Magnetocaloric effect in rare-earth intermetallics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-27

    and adiabatic temperature (ad) that accompany magnetic transitions in materials during the application or the removal of magnetic field under adiabatic conditions. The physics of MCE gets enriched by correlated ...

  16. Magnetocaloric effect in potassium doped lanthanum manganite perovskites prepared by a pyrophoric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soma; Dey, T. K.

    2006-08-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in fine grained perovskite manganites of the type La1-xKxMnO3 (0value of 3.00 J kg-1 K-1 at 310 K amongst the compounds investigated. Moreover, the maximum magnetic entropy change exhibits a linear dependence with applied magnetic field. The estimated adiabatic temperature change at TC and at 1 T field also increases with K doping, being a maximum of 2.1 K for the La0.85K0.15MnO3 compound. The relative cooling power (RCP) of La1-xKxMnO3 compounds is estimated to be about one-third of that of the prototype magnetic refrigerant material (pure Gd). However, La1-xKxMnO3 compounds possess an MCE around room temperature, which is comparable to that of Gd. Further, tailoring of their TC, higher chemical stability, lower eddy current heating and lower cost of synthesis are some of the attractive features of K doped lanthanum manganites that are advantageous for a magnetic refrigerant. The temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) measured under various magnetic fields is explained fairly well using the Landau theory of phase transitions. Contributions of magnetoelastic and electron interaction are found to have a strong influence in the magnetocaloric effect of manganites.

  17. Effect of terbium substitution on the magnetocaloric properties of Gd3Ga5O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshmi, C.P.; Savitha Pillai, S.; Varma, Manoj Raama; Suresh, K.G.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic refrigeration is an environment friendly cooling technology based on magnetocaloric effect. The most crucial ingredient behind a magnetic refrigerator is a magnetic material which possesses large magnetocaloric effect. Certain materials when placed in a magnetic field suddenly get heats up and suddenly cooled down by the application and the removal of magnetic field due to their change in entropy. This is measured either in terms of isothermal entropy change and adiabatic temperature change observed when the applied magnetic field is varied. The refrigerators which operate below 15K have applications in liquefying helium and for the development of space based cooling system for the space crafts. The material of choice in this temperature range is rare earth gallium garnets. Rare earth garnets are complex ceramic oxides having the chemical formula A 3 B 2 C 3 O 12 have attracted attention due to their interesting magnetic properties. The magnetism in R 3 Ga 5 O 12 is due to the exchange interaction between the rare earth spins. In the proposed work we have chosen Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 as parent material, substituted Tb systematically in the place of Gd. The structural studies were done by using Rietveld analysis of X-Ray diffraction. There is a systematic variation of volume and lattice parameter upon substitution of Tb. The magnetic characterizations were done by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The experimental magnetic moments of the materials were calculated from the M-T curve by using Curie-Weiss fit and are good agreement with the theoretical values. There is a systematic increase of magnetic moments by Tb substitution. The magnetocaloric effect is calculated by using the integrated Maxwell's relation from the magnetization data. At low magnetic fields the Tb substituted compounds show good MCE values than GGG. Tb substitution enhances the magnetocaloric effect at low magnetic fields and the ΔS M values are higher for x = 1 and 3 at 1T. Hence these

  18. Magnetocaloric effect in magnetothermally-responsive nanocarriers for hyperthermia-triggered drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianbo; Qu Yang; Ren Jie; Yuan Weizhong; Shi Donglu

    2012-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effects and lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were investigated in a magnetothermally-responsive nanocarrier for magnetothermal drug release under alternating magnetic field (AMF). The Mn 0.2 Zn 0.8 Fe 2 O 4 nanoparticles with low T c were dispersed in a polymeric matrix consisting of N-Isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (HMAAm). The magnetocaloric effects and LCST of the nanocarriers were characterized by using high-resolution electron transmission microscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The maximum self-heating temperature of 42.9 °C was achieved by optimizing the Mn 0.2 Zn 0.8 Fe 2 O 4 concentration in the polymer matrix. By adjusting the NIPAAm to HMAAm ratio, the LCST was controlled at an ideal level of 40.1 °C for efficient thermosensitive drug delivery. Magnetothermally responsive drug release of Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, was significantly enhanced by application of an external AMF on the nanocarriers. The cytotoxicity experimental results in vitro show good biocompatibility and efficient therapeutic effects in cancer treatment. (paper)

  19. Theoretical investigations on the magnetocaloric and barocaloric effects in Tb{sub y}Gd{sub (1−y)}Al{sub 2} series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, P.O.; Alho, B.P.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Nóbrega, E.P. [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A.Magnus G. [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo – UNIFESP, 12231-280 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia – INMETRO, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Sousa, V.S.R. de; Caldas, A.; Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-25

    Highlights: ► Anisotropic magnetocaloric effect in in Tb{sub 0.4}Gd{sub 0.6}Al{sub 2}. ► Prediction of barocaloric effect in Tb{sub 0.4}Gd{sub 0.6}Al{sub 2}. ►An optimal hybrid magnetocaloric material using Tb{sub y}Gd{sub (1-y)}Al{sub 2} compounds. -- Abstract: We report the calculations on the magnetocaloric and barocaloric effects in ferromagnetic series Tb{sub y}Gd{sub (1−y)}Al{sub 2}. Our model includes the crystalline electrical field interaction, exchange interactions among Tb–Tb, Gd–Gd and Tb–Gd magnetic ions and the Zeeman effect for an anisotropic system. The lattice and electronic entropies were included in adiabatic processes. The magnetocaloric effect calculated for magnetic field changes along the easy magnetic direction 〈1 1 1〉 is in good agreement with the experimental data. Calculation along the hard magnetization direction 〈0 0 1〉 predicts anomalous magnetocaloric effect, which was ascribed to the spin reorientation processes. From the available experimental data of Curie temperature dependence on pressure, the exchange model parameters were scaled and the barocaloric effect was calculated.

  20. The normal and inverse magnetocaloric effect in RCu2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.Q.; Xu, Z.Y.; Zhang, B.; Hu, F.X.; Shen, B.G.

    2017-01-01

    Orthorhombic polycrystalline RCu 2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds were synthesized and the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) were investigated in detail. All of the RCu 2 compounds are antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered. As temperature increases, RCu 2 compounds undergo an AFM to AFM transition at T t and an AFM to paramagnetic (PM) transition at T N . Besides of the normal MCE around T N , large inverse MCE around T t was found in TbCu 2 compound. Under a field change of 0–7 T, the maximal value of inverse MCE is even larger than the value of normal MCE around T N for TbCu 2 compound. Considering of the normal and inverse MCE, TbCu 2 shows the largest refrigerant capacity among the RCu 2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds indicating its potential applications in low temperature multistage refrigeration. - Highlights: • Large inverse magnetocaloric effect is observed in TbCu 2 compound. • The AFM to AFM transition is observed in RCu 2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds. • The MCE performance of TbCu 2 compound is evaluated in a more comprehensively way.

  1. Pressure effects on the magnetocaloric properties of MnFeP1-x As x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, E.; Kamarad, J.; Sechovsky, V.; Arnold, Z.; Tegus, O.; Boer, F.R. de

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the potential magnetic-refrigerant materials MnFeP 1- x As x with x=0.35 and 0.55. While applied pressure reduces both the Curie temperature and magnetic moment of the former compound, the Curie temperature of the latter is increased whereas the moment is hardly affected by pressure. The same trends are seen in the magnetocaloric properties. These results indicate a different character of the magnetism in these two materials. While the compound with x=0.35 exhibits a volume instability like a weak itinerant ferromagnet, whereas the one with x=0.55 behaves as a strong itinerant ferromagnet. An alternative scenario may be formulated within the localized-moment picture. One may interpret the effect of pressure on the compound with x=0.35 as an indication of pressure-induced enhancement of antiferromagnetic interactions. This latter interpretation is offered by a pronounced enhancement of the high-field susceptibility under pressure

  2. Glassy formation ability, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingwei; Xu, Chi; Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have fabricated the Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon with good glassy formation ability by melt-spinning technology. A broad paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition (second ordered) together with a large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon was observed around the Curie temperature TC ∼ 11 K. Under the magnetic field change (ΔH of 0-7 T, the values of MCE parameter of the maximum magnetic entropy change (-ΔSMmax) and refrigerant capacity (RC) for Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon reach 21.4 J/kg K and 599 J/kg, respectively. The outstanding glass forming ability as well as the excellent magneto-caloric properties indicate that Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous could be a good candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  3. Analysis of the Anisotropic Magnetocaloric Effect in RMn2O5 Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Balli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the strong magnetic anisotropy shown by the multiferroic RMn2O5 (R = magnetic rare earth compounds, a large adiabatic temperature change can be induced (around 10 K by rotating them in constant magnetic fields instead of the standard magnetization-demagnetization method. Particularly, the TbMn2O5 single crystal reveals a giant rotating magnetocaloric effect (RMCE under relatively low constant magnetic fields reachable by permanent magnets. On the other hand, the nature of R3+ ions strongly affects their RMCEs. For example, the maximum rotating adiabatic temperature change exhibited by TbMn2O5 is more than five times larger than that presented by HoMn2O5 in a constant magnetic field of 2 T. In this paper, we mainly focus on the physics behind the RMCE shown by RMn2O5 multiferroics. We particularly demonstrate that the rare earth size could play a crucial role in determining the magnetic order, and accordingly, the rotating magnetocaloric properties of RMn2O5 compounds through the modulation of exchange interactions via lattice distortions. This is a scenario that seems to be supported by Raman scattering measurements.

  4. Magnetocaloric effect in Heusler alloys Ni50Mn34In16 and Ni50Mn34Sn16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V. K.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Kumar, Ravi; Ganguli, Tapas; Tiwari, Pragya; Roy, S. B.

    2007-12-01

    We present results of detailed ac susceptibility, magnetization and specific heat measurements in Heusler alloys Ni50Mn34In16 and Ni50Mn34Sn16. These alloys undergo a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition around 305 K, which is followed by a martensitic transition in the temperature regime around 220 K. Inside the martensite phase both the alloys show signatures of field-induced transition from martensite to austenite phase. Both field- and temperature-induced martensite-austenite transitions are relatively sharp in Ni50Mn34In16. We estimate the isothermal magnetic entropy change and adiabatic temperature change across the various phase transitions in these alloys and investigate the possible influence of these transitions on the estimated magnetocaloric effect. The sharp martensitic transition in Ni50Mn34In16 gives rise to a comparatively large inverse magnetocaloric effect across this transition. On the other hand the magnitudes of the conventional magnetocaloric effect associated with the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition are quite comparable in these alloys.

  5. Experimental study of magnetocaloric effect in the two-level quantum system KTm(MoO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, R.; Tkáč, V.; Orendáčová, A.; Orendáč, M.; Valenta, J.; Sechovský, V.; Feher, A.

    2018-05-01

    KTm(MoO4)2 belongs to the family of binary alkaline rare-earth molybdates. This compound can be considered to be an almost ideal quantum two-level system at low temperatures. Magnetocaloric properties of KTm(MoO4)2 single crystals were investigated using specific heat and magnetization measurement in the magnetic field applied along the easy axis. Large conventional magnetocaloric effect (-ΔSM ≈ 10.3 J/(kg K)) was observed in the magnetic field of 5 T in a relatively wide temperature interval. The isothermal magnetic entropy change of about 8 J/(kgK) has been achieved already for the magnetic field of 2 T. Temperature dependence of the isothermal entropy change under different magnetic fields is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a quantum two-level system with Δ ≈ 2.82 cm-1. Investigation of magnetocaloric properties of KTm(MoO4)2 suggests that the studied system can be considered as a good material for magnetic cooling at low temperatures.

  6. Phase transitions and magnetocaloric effects in intermetallic compounds MnFeX (X=P, As, Si, Ge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegus, O.; Bao Li-Hong; Song Lin

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of giant magnetocaloric effect in MnFeP 1−x As x compounds, much valuable work has been performed to develop and improve Fe 2 P-type transition-metal-based magnetic refrigerants. In this article, the recent progress of our studies on fundamental aspects of theoretical considerations and experimental techniques, effects of atomic substitution on the magnetism and magnetocalorics of Fe 2 P-type intermetallic compounds MnFeX (X=P, As, Ge, Si) is reviewed. Substituting Si (or Ge) for As leads to an As-free new magnetic material MnFeP 1−x Si(Ge) x . These new materials show large magnetocaloric effects resembling MnFe(P, As) near room temperature. Some new physical phenomena, such as huge thermal hysteresis and ‘virgin’ effect, were found in new materials. On the basis of Landau theory, a theoretical model was developed for studying the mechanism of phase transition in these materials. Our studies reveal that MnFe(P, Si) compound is a very promising material for room-temperature magnetic refrigeration and thermo-magnetic power generation. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  7. Magnetocaloric effects in MnFeP1-x As x -based compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, E.; Ilyn, M.; Tishin, A.M.; Tegus, O.

    2005-01-01

    Here we present the results of an investigation of some magnetic and thermal properties of the compounds MnFeP 0.45 As 0.55 , MnFeP 0.47 As 0.53 , and Mn 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.47 As 0.53 which can be regarded as possible magnetic refrigerants for room temperature applications. Magnetization measurements are performed in the temperature range 250-330 K, in magnetic fields up to 5 T. The coexistence of the magnetic and structural first-order phase transitions is revealed in all three samples, suggesting its key role in the large values observed for the magnetocaloric effect. The adiabatic temperature change measured directly was up to 4.0, 3.4, and 4.2 K for a magnetic field change of 1.45 T

  8. Magnetocaloric effect in Sr2CrIrO6 double perovskite: Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhazouani, O.; Slassi, A.; Ziat, Y.; Benyoussef, A.

    2017-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) combined with the Metropolis algorithm has been performed to study the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in the promising double perovskite (DP) Sr2CrIrO6 that has not so far been synthetized. This paper presents the global magneto-thermodynamic behavior of Sr2CrIrO6 compound in term of MCE and discusses the behavior in comparison to other DPs. Thermal dependence of the magnetization has been investigated for different values of reduced external magnetic field. Thermal magnetic entropy and its change have been obtained. The adiabatic temperature change and the relative cooling power have been established. Through the obtained results, Sr2CrIrO6 DP could have some potential applications for magnetic refrigeration over a wide temperature range above room temperature and at large magnetic fields.

  9. Hysteresis in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars

    , obtained at the initial low and final high field. However, in first order materials thermal entropy hysteresis loops are obtained through characterization, corresponding to measurements done in an increasing and a decreasing temperature mode. Indirectly determining the MCE through the use of the Maxwell...... order materials, taking the magnetic and thermal history dependence of material properties into account, as well as the heat production due to hysteretic losses. MnFe(P,As) and Gd5Si2Ge2 compounds are modelled and it is found that the Preisach approach is suitable to reproduce material behavior in both......In this thesis the effects of hysteresis on magnetocaloric material properties and their performance in magnetic refrigeration devices are investigated. This is done through an experimental and model study of first order magnetocaloric materials MnFe(P,As) and Gd5Si2Ge2. The experimental...

  10. Large magnetocaloric effect of GdNiAl{sub 2} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembele, S.N.; Ma, Z.; Shang, Y.F. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Fu, H., E-mail: fuhao@uestc.edu.cn [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Balfour, E.A. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Hadimani, R.L.; Jiles, D.C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Teng, B.H.; Luo, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the structure, magnetic properties, and magnetocaloric effect of the polycrystalline compound GdNiAl{sub 2}. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement and Rietveld refinement revealed that GdNiAl{sub 2} alloy is CuMgAl{sub 2}-type phase structure with about 1 wt% GdNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} secondary phase. Magnetic measurements suggest that the compound is ferromagnetic and undergoes a second-order phase transition near 28 K. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change reaches 16.0 J/kg K for an applied magnetic field change of 0–50 kOe and the relative cooling power was 6.4×10{sup 2} J/kg. It is a promising candidate as a magnetocaloric material working near liquid hydrogen temperature (~20 K) exhibiting large relative cooling power. - Highlights: • Preferred orientation with axis of [010] was found in the GdNiAl{sub 2} compound. • The ΔS{sub Mmax} and the RCP are 16.0 J/kg K and 640 J/kg, respectively, for ΔH=50 kOe. • Relative low rare earth content in GdNiAl{sub 2} comparing with other candidates.

  11. Second Law Violation By Magneto-Caloric Effect Adiabatic Phase Transition of Type I Superconductive Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Keefe

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of traditional formulations of the Second Law, evidenced by attainment of a final process temperature below that which would result from an adiabatic magneto-caloric process applied to bulk dimensioned specimens.

  12. Direct and indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect in a La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 ceramic perovskite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, A.R.; Linderoth, Søren; Mørup, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The adiabatic temperature change DeltaT(ad) due to a change of the external magnetic field (the magnetocaloric effect) for a perovskite-type La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 sample has been measured directly and indirectly (from the entropy change) and the results are compared. From the indirect method, involving...

  13. Giant magnetocaloric effect, magnetization plateaux and jumps of the regular Ising polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strečka, Jozef; Karľová, Katarína; Madaras, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization process and adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic Ising spin clusters with the shape of regular polyhedra (Platonic solids) are exactly examined within the framework of a simple graph-theoretical approach. While the Ising cube as the only unfrustrated (bipartite) spin cluster shows just one trivial plateau at zero magnetization, the other regular Ising polyhedra (tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron and dodecahedron) additionally display either one or two intermediate plateaux at fractional values of the saturation magnetization. The nature of highly degenerate ground states emergent at intermediate plateaux owing to a geometric frustration is clarified. It is evidenced that the regular Ising polyhedra exhibit a giant magnetocaloric effect in a vicinity of magnetization jumps, whereas the Ising octahedron and dodecahedron belong to the most prominent geometrically frustrated spin clusters that enable an efficient low-temperature refrigeration by the process of adiabatic demagnetization

  14. Glass formation, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of ternary Ho–Al–Co bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Li, Ran; Ji, Yunfei; Liu, Fanmao; Luo, Qiang; Zhang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    A ternary Ho–Al–Co system with high glass-forming ability (GFA) was developed and fully glassy rods with diameters up to 1 cm can be produced for the best glass former of Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 alloy. The thermal stability and low-temperature magnetic properties of the Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) were studied. The magnetic transition temperature of this alloy is ∼14 K as determined by the thermomagnetic measurement. Two indicators, i.e. isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔS M ) and the relative cooling power (RCP), were adopted to evaluate the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of the alloy under a low magnetic field up to 2 T, which can be generated by permanent magnets. The values of |ΔS M | and RCP are 7.98 J kg −1 K −1 and 191.5 J kg −1 , respectively. The Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 BMG with good MCE and high GFA provides an attractive candidate for magnetic refrigeration applications, like hydrogen liquefaction and storage. - Highlights: ► A ternary Ho–Al–Co BMG system with high glass-forming ability was developed. ► Fully glassy rods of Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 alloy were produced up to 1 cm in diameter. ► The thermal stability and magnetic properties of the BMG were evaluated. ► The BMG exhibits good magnetocaloric effect under a low magnetic field up to 2 T.

  15. Anisotropy of the magnetocaloric effect in DyNiAl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštil, J.; Javorský, P.; Andreev, Alexander V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 321, č. 15 (2009), s. 2318-2321 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetocaloric effec * DyNiAl * magnetism * anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2009

  16. Conventional and inverse magnetocaloric effect in Pr2CuSi3 and Gd2CuSi3 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fang; Yuan, Feng-ying; Wang, Jin-zhi; Feng, Tang-fu; Hu, Guo-qi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two phase transitions in a narrow temperature range were observed and studied. • Both typical and inverse magnetocaloric effect were observed and discussed. • The inverse magnetocaloric effect was attributed to the spin-glass behavior. - Abstract: Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in Pr 2 CuSi 3 and Gd 2 CuSi 3 compounds were investigated systematically. Both Pr 2 CuSi 3 and Gd 2 CuSi 3 compounds experienced two phase transitions in a relatively narrow temperature range: first a paramagnet (PM)–ferromagnet (FM) second-order phase transition at 12 and 26 K and then a FM–spin glass (SG) transition at 6 K and 7.5 K, respectively. The magnetic entropy change (ΔS M ) was calculated based on Maxwell relation using the collected magnetization data. The maximum of ΔS M for Pr 2 CuSi 3 and Gd 2 CuSi 3 compounds was 7.6 and 5 J kg −1 K −1 , respectively, at the applied filed change of 0–5 T. The shape of the temperature dependence of ΔS M (ΔS M –T) curve was obviously different from that of the conventional magnetic materials undergoing only one typical phase transition. In the left half part of ΔS M –T curve, ΔS M is not very sensitive to the applied field and they tend to intersect with the decrease of temperature. Both typical conventional and inverse MCE behavior were observed in Gd 2 CuSi 3 , which would be originated from the two transition features at the low temperatures

  17. Magnetocaloric cooling: the phenomenon and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of the giant magnetocaloric effect in Gd5Si2Ge2 and other R5T4 compounds (R = rare earth metal and T is a Group 14 element) generated a broad interest in the magnetocaloric effect and magnetic refrigeration near room temperature in particular, and in magnetostructural transitions in general. Reports on the giant magnetocaloric effect in other systems soon followed. These include MnFePxAs1-x and related compounds, La(Fe1-xSix)13 and their hydrides, Mn(AsxSb1-x) , CoMnSixGe1-x and related compounds, Ni2MnGa and some closely related Heusler phases, and a few non-metallic systems. A common feature observed in all giant magnetocaloric effect materials is the enhancement of the magnetic entropy change by the overlapping contribution from the lattice. In addition to the interplay between magnetic and lattice entropies, both of which are intrinsic materials' parameters that in principle can be modeled theoretically from first principles, extrinsic parameters such as microstructure and nanostructure, have been found to play a role in controlling both the magnetostructural transition(s) and magnetocaloric effect. Both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are, therefore, important in order to maximize magnetocaloric effect. The role of different control parameters and the potential pathways towards materials exhibiting advanced magnetocaloric effect will be discussed. This work is supported by the Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358 with Iowa State University.

  18. Magnetocaloric effect in La(FexSi1-x)13 doped with hydrogen and under external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, L.G. de; Oliveira, N.A. de

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the magnetocaloric effect in the compounds La(Fe x Si 1-x ) 13 doped with hydrogen and subjected to external pressure. We use a microscopical model where the Coulomb interaction between itinerant electrons is treated in the mean field approach. The effect of hydrogen atoms is considered as a chemical pressure. We also include phenomenologically the magnetoelastic coupling via the renormalization of the electron dispersion relation and the Debye temperature. The calculated isothermal entropy changes upon magnetic field variations for the compound La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 H y are in good agreement with the available experimental data

  19. Indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect using a novel differential scanning calorimeter with magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stinus; Linderoth, Søren; Pryds, Nini

    2008-01-01

    A simple and high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) unit operating under magnetic field has been built for indirect determination of the magnetocaloric effect. The principle of the measuring unit in the calorimeter is based on Peltier elements as heat flow sensors. The high...

  20. Magnetocaloric properties of distilled gadolinium: effects of structural inhomogeneity and hydrogen impurity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burkhanov, G.S.; Kolchugina, N.B.; Tereshina, Evgeniya; Tereshina, I. S.; Politova, G.A.; Chzhan, V.B.; Badurski, D.; Chistyakov, O.D.; Paukov, M.; Drulis, H.; Havela, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 24 (2014), "242402-1"-"242402-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-purity rare- earth metals * gadolinium * magnetocaloric effect * hydrogenation * structural studies Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  1. Hydrostatic pressure-tuned magnetostructural transition and magnetocaloric effect in Mn-Co-Ge-In compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, F. X.; Shen, F. R.; Liu, Y.; Li, J.; Qiao, K. M.; Wang, J.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2018-05-01

    Polycrystalline MnCoGe0.99In0.01 with magnetostructural transition temperature (Tmstr) around 330 K has been prepared by arc-melting technique, and the pressure-tuned magnetostructural transition as well as the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been investigated. The experimental results indicate that a pressure (P) smaller than 0.53 GPa can shift Tmstr to lower temperature at a considerable rate of 119 K/GPa with the coupled nature of magnetostructural transition unchanged. However, as P reaches 0.53 GPa, the martensitic structural transition temperature (TM) further shifts to 254 K while the magnetic transition temperature of austenitic phase (TCA) occurs at around 282 K, denoting the decoupling of magnetostructural transition. Further increasing P to 0.87 GPa leads the further shift of TM to a lower temperature while the TCA keeps nearly unchanged. Therefore, the entropy change (ΔS) of the MnCoGe0.99In0.01 under different magnetic fields can be tailored by adjusting the hydrostatic pressure.

  2. Large roomtemperature magnetocaloric effect with negligible magnetic hysteresis losses in Mn1-xVxCoGe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, S.C.; Zheng, Y.X.; Xuan, H.C.; Shen, L.J.; Cao, Q.Q.; Wang, D.H.; Zhong, Z.C.; Du, Y.W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties have been investigated in a series of Mn 1-x V x CoGe (x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.05) alloys. The substitution of V for Mn reduces the structural transformation temperature of MnCoGe alloy effectively and results in a second-order magnetic transition in Mn 0.95 V 0.05 CoGe alloys. Large room temperature magnetocaloric effect and almost zero magnetic hysteresis losses are simultaneously achieved in the alloys with x=0.01, 0.02, and 0.03. The reasons for the negligible magnetic hysteresis losses and the potential application for the roomtemperature magnetic refrigeration are discussed. - Highlights: → V-substitution for Mn reduces the structural transformation temperature of MnCoGe. → FM-PM transition presents the second-order nature in Mn0.95V0.05CoGe. → The first-order FM-PM transitions are observed for alloys with x=0.01, 0.02, and 0.03. → Large room temperature MCEs are achieved in these alloys. → Negligible magnetic HL is achieved for these alloys simultaneously.

  3. The correlation of the magnetic properties and the magnetocaloric effect in (Gd1-xErx)NiAl alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, B.J.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the magnetic properties of several (Gd 1-x Er x )NiAl alloys (where x=0, 0.30, 0.40, 0.46, 0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00) was undertaken using both ac and dc magnetic and heat capacity measurements in an attempt to understand the table-like magnetocaloric effect previously observed in (Gd 0.54 Er 0.46 )NiAl. Results indicate the presence of both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ordering processes in all alloys containing Gd. For ErNiAl, a metamagnetic transition from an antiferromagnetic ground state was observed. Within each alloy, several magnetic transitions occur over a temperature range from 10 K [in (Gd 0.20 Er 0.80 )NiAl] up to 35 K (in GdNiAl), with all but the lowest temperature transition shifting to higher temperatures with increasing Gd content. The change in magnetic entropy (ΔS mag ) induced by a change in field is observed to peak around the Nacute eel temperature for ErNiAl while gradually broadening and shifting toward the Curie temperature as the Gd content is increased. For Gd-rich alloys, a significant contribution to ΔS mag is observed at both the low and high temperature transitions, resulting in a rounded, skewed caret-like temperature profile of the magnetocaloric effect. Factors, which are believed to contribute to this effect, include the presence and temperature spacing of multiple zero-field transitions, which most likely result from competing anisotropy and exchange interactions within a frustrated hexagonal spin lattice. This leads to broad peaks in the magnetic heat capacity that span several transition temperatures, providing for a substantial ΔS mag over an extended temperature range. This characteristic is desired for application to magnetic refrigeration, where certain thermodynamic cycles (e.g., Ericsson cycle) require specific temperature profiles of the magnetocaloric effect in refrigerant materials (e.g., a constant change in magnetic entropy as a function of temperature within the region of cooling). In

  4. Second Law Violation By Magneto-Caloric Effect Adiabatic Phase Transition of Type I Superconductive Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of tradi...

  5. Magnetocaloric effect of Er.sub.5./sub.Si.sub.4./sub. under hydrostatic pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arnold, Zdeněk; Magen, C.; Morellon, L.; Algarabel, P.A.; Kamarád, Jiří; Ibarra, M. R.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 14 (2009), 144430/1-144430/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Curie temperature * entropy * erbium compounds * ferromagnetic materials * high-pressure solid-state phase transformations * magnetisation * magnetocaloric Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  6. Direct measurement of the magnetocaloric effect in Tb5Si2Ge2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tocado, L.; Palacios, E.; Burriel, R.

    2005-01-01

    A method for measuring the adiabatic temperature change ΔT S upon quasi-static application of an external magnetic field H is proposed. ΔT S is directly measured with an accuracy better than 0.01K. Results of experiments on the giant magnetocaloric compound Tb 5 Si 2 Ge 2 are compared with those obtained from magnetization and heat capacity in an applied field

  7. The physical mechanism of magnetic field controlled magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance in bulk PrGa compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X. Q.; Wu, H.; Chen, J.; Zhang, B.; Li, Y. Q.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Huang, Q. Z.; Shen, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    The PrGa compound shows excellent performance on the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and magnetoresistance (MR). The physical mechanism of MCE and MR in PrGa compound was investigated and elaborated in detail on the basis of magnetic measurement, heat capacity measurement and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiment. New types of magnetic structure and magnetic transition are found. The results of the NPD along with the saturation magnetic moment (MS) and magnetic entropy (SM) indicate that the magnetic moments are randomly distributed within the equivalent conical surface in the ferromagnetic (FM) temperature range. PrGa compound undergoes an FM to FM transition and an FM to paramagnetic (PM) transition as temperature increases. The magnetizing process was discussed in detail and the physical mechanism of the magnetic field controlled magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and the magnetoresistance (MR) was studied. The formation of the plateau on MCE curve was explained and MR was calculated in detail on the basis of the magnetic structure and the analysis of the magnetizing process. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the calculations. Finally, the expression of MR = β(T)X2 and its application conditions were discussed, where X is M(H)/Meff, and Meff is the paramagnetic effective moment. PMID:26455711

  8. Research for magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 1-x}Dy{sub x} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xueling; Shitao, Li; An, Zhang; Hui, Xu; Ni, Jiansen; Zhou, Bangxin [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 20007 (China)

    2007-12-15

    The magnetocaloric effect (MEC) in Gd{sub 1-x}Dy{sub x} (x=0.13,0.20,0.27,0.34,0.40) alloys is investigated using commercial elements with purity of up to 99.80% for Gd and Dy. These alloys are prepared by arc melting in stoichiometric proportions on a water-cooled copper crucible under high pure argon atmosphere. As a result, when x was changed from 0 to 40at%, the adiabatic temperature change ({delta}T) increases from 1.6 K to 3.1 K, the Curie temperature decreased from 288 K to 245.5 K. Gd{sub 73}Dy{sub 27} exhibits the largest {delta}T{sub max} value of 3.1 K at the T{sub C} value of 260 K among the alloys investigated up to 1.2 T (tesla) applied field, it is almost same as the {delta}T of high pure unitary Gd (99.99%) and is clearly superior to commercial unitary Gd (99.80%). The T{sub C} of Gd{sub 73}Dy{sub 27} alloy is minor to high pure unitary Gd (99.99%) and commercially unitary Gd (99.80%). But this alloy prepared by commercial elements with low cost has better MEC to be a promising candidate for magnetic working substances for room temperature magnetic refrigeration. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Giant anisotropy of magnetocaloric effect in TbMnO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Li, Guo-Ke; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Zheng, Lin; Lu, Yi

    2011-05-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in TbMnO3 single crystals was investigated by isothermal magnetization curves for the ab plane at low temperatures. Large magnetic entropy change, ΔSM = -18.0 J/kg K, and the refrigerant capacity, RC = 390.7 J/kg, are achieved near the ordering temperature of Tb3+ moment (TNTb) under 70 kOe along the a axis. Furthermore, the TbMnO3 single crystal exhibits a giant MCE anisotropy. The difference of ΔSMand RC between the a and b axes is field and temperature dependent, which reaches maximum values of 11.4 J/kg K and 304.1 J/kg, respectively. By taking magnetocrystalline anisotropy into account, the rotating ΔSMwithin the ab plane can be well simulated, indicating that the anisotropy of ΔSMis directly contributed from the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Our finding for giant MCE anisotropy in TbMnO3 single crystals explores the possibility of using this material for magnetic refrigerators by rotating its magnetization vector rather than moving it in and out of the magnet.

  10. Ageing effect on the magnetocaloric properties of Gd, Gd5Si1.9Ge2.1 and on the eutectic composition Gd75Cd25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canepa, F; Cirafici, S; Napoletano, M; Cimberle, M R; Tagliafico, L; Scarpa, F

    2008-01-01

    The ageing effects due to the interaction with typical working fluids (water and air) of magnetic refrigerant materials have been analysed for up to one year. Among the many compounds reported to exhibit a sufficiently high magnetocaloric effect, we decided to artificially age Gd, which represents the first choice high magnetocaloric element, Gd 5 Si 1.9 Ge 2.1 , belonging to the series Gd 5 (Si x Ge 4-x ) 4 which for x ∼ 0.5 displays a giant magnetocaloric effect, and finally, the eutectic Gd 75 Cd 25 alloy, presenting an almost constant adiabatic temperature rise in an interesting temperature span (260-280 K). Magnetothermal results give evidence that corrosion and corrosion/erosion processes take place with different results on the refrigerant properties of all the materials. The adiabatic temperature rise is strongly reduced due to surface oxidation which lowers thermal conduction while the effect on the refrigerant capacity Q is definitely smaller. The effects of corrosion/erosion processes are confirmed by quantitative chemical analysis performed on the refrigerant fluid before and after the ageing process. Employing working fluids with a reduced corrosive effect but with comparable thermal properties may be a viable way of avoiding corrosion damage; alternatively the use of additives to decrease the corrosive properties of the fluids is strongly suggested

  11. Spatially resolved measurements of the magnetocaloric effect and the local magnetic field using thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis; Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2010-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect causes a magnetic material to change temperature upon application of a magnetic field. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the adiabatic temperature change are performed on a plate of gadolinium using thermography. The adiabatic temperature change is used to extract...... the corresponding change in the local magnetic field strength. The measured temperature change and local magnetic field strength are compared to results obtained with a numerical model, which takes demagnetization into account and employs experimental data....

  12. Hydrostatic pressure effect on the magnetocaloric behavior of Ga-doped MnNiGe magnetic equiatomic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, P; Das, D; Chatterjee, S; Pramanick, S; Majumdar, S

    2016-01-01

    The magnetocaloric properties of a new class of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys of nominal composition MnNiGe 0.928 Ga 0.072 have been investigated in ambient conditions as well as in the presence of external hydrostatic pressure. Both inverse (6.35 Jkg −1 K −1 for 0  −  50 kOe around 160 K) and conventional (−4.54 Jkg −1 K −1 for 0–50 kOe around 210 K) magnetocaloric effects (MCEs) have been observed around the structural and magnetic transitions respectively. The sample can be thought of as being derived from the parent MnNiGe alloy, where Ga was doped at the expense of the Ge atom. Ga doping at Ge sites brings down the martensitic transition temperature to below room temperature and induces ferromagnetism by affecting the lattice volume of the alloy. However, below the first-order martensitic transition the alloy loses its ferromagnetism. Application of external hydrostatic pressure results in a revival of ferromagnetic interactions in the martensitic phase of the alloy and a considerable increase in the refrigeration capacity around the conventional MCE region. (paper)

  13. Complex magnetic properties and large magnetocaloric effects in RCoGe (R=Tb, Dy compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Complicated magnetic phase transitions and Large magnetocaloric effects (MCEs in RCoGe (R=Tb, Dy compounds have been reported in this paper. Results show that the TbCoGe compounds have a magnetic phase transition from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic (AFM-PM at TN∼16 K, which is close to the value reported by neutron diffraction. The DyCoGe compound undergoes complicated phase changes from 2 K up to 300 K. The peak at 10 K displays a phase transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (AFM-FM. In particular, a significant ferromagnetic to paramagnetic (FM-PM phase transition was found at the temperature as high as 175 K and the cusp becomes more abrupt with the magnetic field increasing from 0.01 T to 0.1 T. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change of TbCoGe and DyCoGe compounds achieve 14.5 J/kg K and 11.5 J/kg K respectively for a field change of 0-5 T. Additionally, the correspondingly considerable refrigerant capacity value of 260 J/kg and 242 J/kg are also obtained respectively, suggesting that both TbCoGe and DyCoGe compounds could be considered as good candidates for low temperature magnetic refrigerant.

  14. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE): Microscopic approach within Tyablikov approximation for anisotropic ferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelnikova, O.A.; Prudnikov, V.N. [Physical Faculty, Lomonosov State University, Department of Magnetism, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rudoy, Yu.G., E-mail: rudikar@mail.ru [People' s Friendship University of Russia, Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the microscopic approach to the description of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) started by Kokorina and Medvedev (E.E. Kokorina, M.V. Medvedev, Physica B 416 (2013) 29.) by applying it to the anisotropic ferromagnet of the “easy axis” type in two settings—with external magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the axis of easy magnetization. In the last case there appears the field induced (or spin-reorientation) phase transition which occurs at the critical value of the external magnetic field. This value is proportional to the exchange anisotropy constant at low temperatures, but with the rise of temperature it may be renormalized (as a rule, proportional to the magnetization). We use the explicit form of the Hamiltonian of the anisotropic ferromagnet and apply widely used random phase approximation (RPA) (known also as Tyablikov approximation in the Green function method) which is more accurate than the well known molecular field approximation (MFA). It is shown that in the first case the magnitude of MCE is raised whereas in the second one the MCE disappears due to compensation of the critical field renormalized with the magnetization.

  15. Magnetocaloric effect, thermal conductivity, and magnetostriction of epoxy-bonded La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, K.; Murayama, D.; Takeshita, M.; Ura, Y.; Abe, S.; Numazawa, T.; Takata, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kuriiwa, T.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic materials with large magnetocaloric effect are significantly important for magnetic refrigeration. La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 compounds are one of the promising magnetocaloric materials that have a first order magnetic phase transition. Transition temperature of hydrogenated La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 increased up to room temperature region while keeping metamagnetic transition properties. From view point of practical usage, bonded composite are very attractive and their properties are important. We made epoxy bonded La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 hydrides. Magnetocaloric effect was studied by measuring specific heat, magnetization, and temperature change in adiabatic demagnetization. The composite had about 20% smaller entropy change from the hydrogenated La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 powder in 2 T. Thermal conductivity of the composite was several times smaller than La(Fe,Si)13. The small thermal conductivity was explained due to the small thermal conductivity of epoxy. Thermal conductivity was observed to be insensitive to magnetic field in 2 T. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction of the composite material were measured. The composite expanded about 0.25% when it entered into ferromagnetic phase. Magnetostriction of the composite in ferromagnetic phase was about 0.2% in 5 T and much larger than that in paramagnetic phase. The composite didn’t break after about 100 times magnetic field changes in adiabatic demagnetization experiment even though it has magnetostriction.

  16. Europium substitution effects on structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in La0.5Ca0.5MnO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boujelben W.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline samples La0.5-xEuxCa0.5MnO3 (x=0 and 0.1. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns show that our samples are single phase and crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. Magnetization measurements versus temperature at a magnetic applied field of 500 Oe indicate that La0.4Eu0.1Ca0.5MnO3 sample exhibits a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature. Magnetic measurements reveal strong magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the Curie temperature TC. The parent compound shows a negative magnetic entropy change of ∆SM=−1.13Jkg−1K−1 at 220K and a positive magnetocaloric effects ∆SM=1Jkg−1K−1 at 150K under a magnetic applied field of 2T. La0.4Eu0.1Ca0.5MnO3 exhibits a maximum value of magnetic entropy change ∆SM=−1.15Jkg−1K−1 at 130K under an applied field of 2T and a large relative cooling power RCP with a maximum value of 72 J/kg.

  17. Direct measurements of conventional and anisotropic magnetocaloric effect in binary RAl2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J. C. B.; Gandra, F. G.

    2017-06-01

    We report on specific heat and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) measurements in single crystals of HoAl2, DyAl2, and TbAl2 measured by a heat flux technique using Peltier devices. Those compounds order ferromagnetically at 31 K, 61 K, and 106 K respectively, and present a spin reorientation transition (SRT) below TC. We study the dependence of the SRT with magnetic field and temperature by means of specific heat measurements performed in single crystals oriented at the [" separators="| 100 ], [" separators="| 110 ], and [" separators="| 111 ] directions with the aid of calculations using a simple model. We obtained the conventional MCE for HoAl2 and TbAl2 and also the anisotropic version of the effect obtained indirectly from the specific heat for TbAl2 and DyAl2. We also present the results for a direct determination of the anisotropic MCE for DyAl2 by measuring the heat flux generated by a rotation of the single crystal under constant field.

  18. Thermodynamic behavior and enhanced magnetocaloric effect in a frustrated spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg triangular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alécio, Raphael Cavalcante; Strečka, Jozef; Lyra, Marcelo L.

    2018-04-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of an Ising-Heisenberg triangular tube with Heisenberg intra-rung and Ising inter-rung interactions is exactly obtained in an external magnetic field within the framework of the transfer-matrix method. We report rigorous results for the temperature dependence of the magnetization, entropy, pair correlations and specific heat, as well as typical iso-entropic curves. The discontinuous field-driven ground-state phase transitions are reflected in some anomalous thermodynamic behavior as for instance a striking low-temperature peak of the specific heat and an enhanced magnetocaloric effect. It is demonstrated that the intermediate magnetization plateaus shrink in and the relevant sharp edges associated with the magnetization jump round off upon increasing temperature.

  19. The effects of substituting Ag for In on the magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric properties of Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of substituting Ag for In on the structural, magnetocaloric, and thermomagnetic properties of Ni50Mn35In15−xAgx (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 Heusler alloys was studied. The magnitude of the magnetization change at the martensitic transition temperature (TM decreased with increasing Ag concentration. Smaller magnetic entropy changes (ΔSM were observed for the alloys with larger Ag concentrations and the martensitic transition shifted to higher temperature. A shift of TM by about 25 K to higher temperature was observed for an applied hydrostatic pressure of P = 6.6 kbar with respect to ambient pressure. A large drop in resistivity was observed for large Ag concentration. The magnetoresistance was dramatically suppressed due to an increase in the disorder of the system with increasing Ag concentration. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed.

  20. Pulsed high-magnetic-field experiments: New insights into the magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Mejía, C.; Nayak, A. K.; Felser, C.; Nicklas, M.; Ghorbani Zavareh, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Skourski, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The present pulsed high-magnetic-field study on Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 gives an extra insight into the thermodynamics of the martensitic transformation in Heusler shape-memory alloys. The transformation-entropy change, ΔS, was estimated from field-dependent magnetization experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields and by heat-capacity measurements in static fields. We found a decrease of ΔS with decreasing temperature. This behavior can be understood by considering the different signs of the lattice and magnetic contributions to the total entropy. Our results further imply that the magnetocaloric effect will decrease with decreasing temperature and, furthermore, the martensitic transition is not induced anymore by changing the temperature in high magnetic fields

  1. The influence of Co substitution on the magnetocaloric effect of Gd(Al,Fe)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, J Q; Yan, J L; Huang, J L; Zhu, J M; Chen, X; Zhuang, Y H

    2007-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in samples GdAl 1.7 (Fe 1-x Co x ) 0.3 with x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurements. It was found that five samples crystallize well in the MgCu 2 -type structure. The lattice parameter and the values of Curie temperature decrease with increasing Co content, whereas the magnetic-entropy change and cooling capacity increase. In the magnetic-field change of 2.0 T the maximum of the magnetic-entropy change and refrigerant capacity in sample GdAl 1.7 Fe 0.7 Co 0.3 reach 4.8 J kg -1 K -1 and 88.3 J kg -1 , respectively. The maximum of the magnetic-entropy change is comparable to that of Gd metal (3.8 J kg -1 K -1 in Δ B=1.5 T)

  2. Negative thermal expansion and magnetocaloric effect in Mn-Co-Ge-In thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Qiao, K. M.; Zuo, S. L.; Zhang, H. R.; Kuang, H.; Wang, J.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    MnCoGe-based alloys with magnetostructural transition show giant negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior and magnetocaloric effects (MCEs) and thus have attracted a lot of attention. However, the drawback of bad mechanical behavior in these alloys obstructs their practical applications. Here, we report the growth of Mn-Co-Ge-In films with thickness of about 45 nm on (001)-LaAlO3, (001)-SrTiO3, and (001)-Al2O3 substrates. The films grown completely overcome the breakable nature of the alloy and promote its multifunctional applications. The deposited films have a textured structure and retain first-order magnetostructural transition. NTE and MCE behaviors associated with the magnetostructural transition have been studied. The films exhibit a completely repeatable NTE around room temperature. NTE coefficient α can be continuously tuned from the ultra-low expansion (α ˜ -2.0 × 10-7/K) to α ˜ -6.56 × 10-6/K, depending on the growth and particle size of the films on different substrates. Moreover, the films exhibit magnetic entropy changes comparable to the well-known metamagnetic films. All these demonstrate potential multifunctional applications of the present films.

  3. Indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect using a novel differential scanning calorimeter with magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, S; Linderoth, S; Pryds, N; Kuhn, L Theil; Jensen, J Buch

    2008-08-01

    A simple and high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) unit operating under magnetic field has been built for indirect determination of the magnetocaloric effect. The principle of the measuring unit in the calorimeter is based on Peltier elements as heat flow sensors. The high sensitivity of the apparatus combined with a suitable calibration procedure allows very fast and accurate heat capacity measurements under magnetic field to be made. The device was validated from heat capacity measurements for the typical DSC reference material gallium (Ga) and a La(0.67)Ca(0.33)MnO(3) manganite system and the results were highly consistent with previous reported data for these materials. The DSC has a working range from 200 to 340 K and has been tested in magnetic fields reaching 1.8 T. The signal-to-noise ratio is in the range of 10(2)-10(3) for the described experiments. Finally the results have been compared to results from a Quantum Design(R) physical properties measuring system. The configuration of the system also has the advantage of being able to operate with other types of magnets, e.g., permanent magnets or superconducting coils, as well as the ability to be expanded to a wider temperature range.

  4. Magnetocaloric effect in Ni{sub 2}MnGa single crystal in the vicinity of the martensitic phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radelytskyi, I., E-mail: radel@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Pękała, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Al. Zwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Gawryluk, D.J. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Laboratory for Scientific Developments and Novel Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Berkowski, M.; Fink-Finowicki, J. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Diduszko, R. [Tele and Radio Research Institute, ul Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Dyakonov, V.; Szymczak, H. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-05-15

    The magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the martensitic transformation for a single crystalline alloy with a composition close to the stoichiometric Ni{sub 2}MnGa has been determined indirectly by M(T,H) magnetization measurements. It has an inverse character. The magnetocaloric parameters, i.e., the magnetic entropy change, refrigeration capacity and various hysteretic effects have been calculated from the M(T,H) dependences. Besides the martensitic transition a weak entirely separated intermartensitic transition was observed. These two successive magneto-structural transformations give contributions to the observed magnetocaloric effect. Unusual dependence of entropy change as a function of magnetic field has been explained as arising because of two different mechanisms. Additionally, to confirm that studied martensitic transformation is a first order phase transition electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power measurements have been performed. - Highlights: • Inverse magnetocaloric effect in Ni{sub 50.4}Mn{sub 24.9}Ga{sub 24.7} single crystal was measured. • The martensitic and separated intermartensitic transition were investigated. • Anisotropy of measured magnetocaloric effect was discussed.

  5. Magnetocaloric effect in textured rare earth intermetallic compound ErNi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sankar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Melt-spun ErNi crystallizes in orthorhombic FeB-type structure (Space group Pnma, no. 62 similar to the arc-melted ErNi compound. Room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD experiments reveal the presence of texture and preferred crystal orientation in the melt-spun ErNi. The XRD data obtained from the free surface of the melt-spun ErNi show large intensity enhancement for (1 0 2 Bragg reflection. The scanning electron microscopy image of the free surface depicts a granular microstructure with grains of ∼1 μm size. The arc-melted and the melt-spun ErNi compounds order ferromagnetically at 11 K and 10 K (TC respectively. Field dependent magnetization (M-H at 2 K shows saturation behaviour and the saturation magnetization value is 7.2 μB/f.u. for the arc-melted ErNi and 7.4 μB/f.u. for the melt-spun ErNi. The isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSm close to TC has been calculated from the M-H data. The maximum isothermal magnetic entropy change, -ΔSmmax, is ∼27 Jkg-1K-1 and ∼24 Jkg-1K-1 for the arc-melted and melt-spun ErNi for 50 kOe field change, near TC. The corresponding relative cooling power values are ∼440 J/kg and ∼432 J/kg respectively. Although a part of ΔSm is lost to crystalline electric field (CEF effects, the magnetocaloric effect is substantially large at 10 K, thus rendering melt-spun ErNi to be useful in low temperature magnetic refrigeration applications such as helium gas liquefaction.

  6. Magnetocaloric effect in textured rare earth intermetallic compound ErNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Aparna; Chelvane, J. Arout; Morozkin, A. V.; Nigam, A. K.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.; Nirmala, R.

    2018-05-01

    Melt-spun ErNi crystallizes in orthorhombic FeB-type structure (Space group Pnma, no. 62) similar to the arc-melted ErNi compound. Room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments reveal the presence of texture and preferred crystal orientation in the melt-spun ErNi. The XRD data obtained from the free surface of the melt-spun ErNi show large intensity enhancement for (1 0 2) Bragg reflection. The scanning electron microscopy image of the free surface depicts a granular microstructure with grains of ˜1 μm size. The arc-melted and the melt-spun ErNi compounds order ferromagnetically at 11 K and 10 K (TC) respectively. Field dependent magnetization (M-H) at 2 K shows saturation behaviour and the saturation magnetization value is 7.2 μB/f.u. for the arc-melted ErNi and 7.4 μB/f.u. for the melt-spun ErNi. The isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSm) close to TC has been calculated from the M-H data. The maximum isothermal magnetic entropy change, -ΔSmmax, is ˜27 Jkg-1K-1 and ˜24 Jkg-1K-1 for the arc-melted and melt-spun ErNi for 50 kOe field change, near TC. The corresponding relative cooling power values are ˜440 J/kg and ˜432 J/kg respectively. Although a part of ΔSm is lost to crystalline electric field (CEF) effects, the magnetocaloric effect is substantially large at 10 K, thus rendering melt-spun ErNi to be useful in low temperature magnetic refrigeration applications such as helium gas liquefaction.

  7. Developments in magnetocaloric refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, Ekkes

    2005-01-01

    Modern society relies on readily available refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has three prominent advantages compared with compressor-based refrigeration. First, there are no harmful gases involved; second, it may be built more compactly as the working material is a solid; and third, magnetic refrigerators generate much less noise. Recently a new class of magnetic refrigerant-materials for room-temperature applications was discovered. These new materials have important advantages over existing magnetic coolants: they exhibit a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in conjunction with a magnetic phase-transition of first order. This MCE is larger than that of Gd metal, which is used in the demonstration refrigerators built to explore the potential of this evolving technology. In the present review we compare the different materials considering both scientific aspects and industrial applicability. Because fundamental aspects of MCE are not so widely discussed, we also give some theoretical considerations. (topical review)

  8. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects in Mn1.2Fe0.8P1-xGex compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Z Q; Wang, G F; Lin Song; Tegus, O; Brueck, E; Buschow, K H J

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects in the Mn 1.2 Fe 0.8 P 1-x Ge x compounds with x = 0.2, 0.22, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the Mn 1.2 Fe 0.8 P 1-x Ge x compounds crystallize in the hexagonal Fe 2 P-type crystal structure. The magnetic moments of the Mn 1.2 Fe 0.8 P 1-x Ge x compounds measured at 5 K and 5 T increase with increasing Ge content. The Curie temperature increases strongly and the magnetic entropy change has a maximum around 233 K for the compound with x = 0.22, which is about 19 and 31 J kg -1 K -1 for a field change of 2 and 5 T, respectively

  9. Magnetocaloric effects in RTX intermetallic compounds (R = Gd–Tm, T = Fe–Cu and Pd, X = Al and Si)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hu; Shen Bao-Gen

    2015-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of RTSi and RT Al systems with R = Gd–Tm, T = Fe–Cu and Pd, which have been widely investigated in recent years, is reviewed. It is found that these RTX compounds exhibit various crystal structures and magnetic properties, which then result in different MCE. Large MCE has been observed not only in the typical ferromagnetic materials but also in the antiferromagnetic materials. The magnetic properties have been studied in detail to discuss the physical mechanism of large MCE in RTX compounds. Particularly, some RTX compounds such as ErFeSi, HoCuSi, HoCuAl exhibit large reversible MCE under low magnetic field change, which suggests that these compounds could be promising materials for magnetic refrigeration in a low temperature range. (topical review)

  10. Effect of spin fluctuations in magnetocaloric and magnetoresistance properties of Dy10Co20Si70 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, T. P.; Arun, K.; Curlik, Ivan; Ilkovic, Sergej; Reiffers, Marian; Dzubinska, Andrea; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Systematic investigations on the structure, magnetic, thermodynamic, magnetocaloric and magnetoresistance (MR) properties of the arc melted Dy10Co20Si70 alloy are presented. The Dy10Co20Si70 alloy crystallizes in tetragonal BaNiSn3-type DyCoSi3 (space group = I4mm; No. 107) as a major phase and CaF2-type CoSi2 (space group = Fm-3m; No. 225) and C-type Si (space group = Fd-3m; No. 227) as minor phases. The title compound exhibits multiple magnetic transitions having antiferromagnetic ordering at temperatures, viz., T1 = 10.8 K, T2 = 8.8 K and T3 = 3.3 K. The magnetic and thermodynamic studies confirm these magnetic anomalies in the compound. The large value of maximum magnetic entropy change, -ΔSMM a x = 16.4 and 26.6 J/kg K for the field change ΔH of 50 and 90 kOe, respectively, observed in the compound is associated with field induced magnetic transitions. Asymmetric broadening of the magnetic entropy change peaks above the ordering temperatures resulting in significant refrigerant capacities of 361 and 868 J/kg for ΔH = 50 and 90 kOe, respectively, in the compound is due to the spin fluctuation effect. The sign reversal in MR measurements is attributed to the field induced antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition. A large positive MR (42% in 90 kOe) is observed at 2 K. The H2 dependence of both the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and MR in the paramagnetic regime indicates the role of the applied magnetic field in suppressing the spin fluctuations. The large MCE and MR together with no thermal or magnetic hysteresis establish this new compound as an attractive multifunctional magnetic material.

  11. Magnetocaloric effect and multifunctional properties of Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubenko, Igor, E-mail: igor_doubenko@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Samanta, Tapas; Kumar Pathak, Arjun [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Kazakov, Alexandr; Prudnikov, Valerii [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorob' evy Gory, 11999I Moscow (Russian Federation); Stadler, Shane [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Granovsky, Alexander [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorob' evy Gory, 11999I Moscow (Russian Federation); IKERBASQUE, The Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Paseo M. de Lardizabal 3, 20018 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Zhukov, Arcady [IKERBASQUE, The Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Paseo M. de Lardizabal 3, 20018 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Ali, Naushad [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The studies of magnetocaloric properties, phase transitions, and phenomena related to magnetic heterogeneity in the vicinity of the martensitic transition (MT) in Ni-Mn-In and Ni-Mn-Ga off-stoichiometric Heusler alloys are summarized. The crystal structure, magnetocaloric effect (MCE), and magnetotransport properties were studied for the following alloys: Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 50-x}In{sub x}, Ni{sub 50-x}Co{sub x}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15}, Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35-x}Co{sub x}In{sub 15}, Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 14}Z (Z=Al, Ge), Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15-x}Si{sub x}, Ni{sub 50-x}Co{sub x}Mn{sub 25+y}Ga{sub 25-y}, and Ni{sub 50-x}Co{sub x}Mn{sub 32-y}FeyGa{sub 18}. It was found that the magnetic entropy change, {Delta}S, associated with the inverse MCE in the vicinity of the temperature of the magneto-structural transition, TM, persists in a range of (125-5) J/(kg K) for a magnetic field change {Delta}H=5 T. The corresponding temperature varies with composition from 143 to 400 K. The MT in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 50-x}In{sub x} (x=13.5) results in a transition between two paramagnetic states. Associated with the paramagnetic austenite-paramagnetic martensite transition {Delta}S=24 J/(kg K) was detected for {Delta}H=5 T at T=350 K. The variation in composition of Ni{sub 2}MnGa can drastically change the magnetic state of the martensitic phase below and in the vicinity of TM. The presence of the martensitic phase with magnetic moment much smaller than that in the austenitic phase above TM leads to the large inverse MCE in the Ni{sub 42}Co{sub 8}Mn{sub 32-y}FeyGa{sub 18} system. The adiabatic change of temperature ({Delta}T{sub ad}) in the vicinity of TC and TM of Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 14}Z (Z=Al, Ge) was found to be {Delta}T{sub ad}=-2 K and 2 K for {Delta}H=1.8 T, respectively. It was observed that |{Delta}T{sub ad}| Almost-Equal-To 1 K for {Delta}H=1 T for both types of transitions. The results on resistivity, magnetoresistance, Hall

  12. Magneto-caloric effect in the pseudo-binary intermetallic YPrFe{sub 17} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pablo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro, E-mail: pgorria@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Sanchez Llamazares, Jose L. [Division de Materiales Avanzados, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Perez, Maria J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Franco, Victorino [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Reiffers, Marian; Kovac, Jozef [Institute of Experimental Physics, Watsonova 47, SK-04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Puente-Orench, Ines [Institute Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YPrFe{sub 17} exhibits a broad {Delta}S{sub M}(T) associated with the ferro-to-paramagnetic phase transition (T{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 290 K). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain |{Delta}S{sub M}| Almost-Equal-To 2.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} and RCP Almost-Equal-To 100 J kg{sup -1}for a magnetic field change of 1.5 T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A single master curve for {Delta}S{sub M} is found when compared with other isostructural R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} binary alloys. - Abstract: We have synthesized the intermetallic YPrFe{sub 17} compound by arc-melting. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction show that the crystal structure is rhombohedral with R3{sup Macron }m space group (Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type). The investigated compound exhibits a broad isothermal magnetic entropy change {Delta}S{sub M}(T) associated with the ferro-to-paramagnetic phase transition (T{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 290 K). The |{Delta}S{sub M}| ( Almost-Equal-To 2.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and the relative cooling power ( Almost-Equal-To 100 J kg{sup -1}) have been calculated for applied magnetic field changes up to 1.5 T. A single master curve for {Delta}S{sub M} under different values of the magnetic field change can be obtained by a rescaling of the temperature axis. The results are compared and discussed in terms of the magneto-caloric effect in the isostructural R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (R = Y, Pr and Nd) binary intermetallic alloys.

  13. Pressure effects on the magnetocaloric properties of MnFeP.sub.1-x./sub.As.sub.x./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brück, E.; Kamarád, Jiří; Sechovský, V.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Tegus, O.; De Boer, F. R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 310, - (2007), e1008-e1009 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetic refrigeration * magnetocaloric effect * pressure effect * MnFe(P, As) compounds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.704, year: 2007

  14. Magnetism and large magnetocaloric effect in HoFe{sub 2-x}Al{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mican, S., E-mail: sever.mican@ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Benea, D., E-mail: diana.benea@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tetean, R., E-mail: romulus.tetean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, RO-400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of HoFe{sub 2-x}Al{sub x} compounds are reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic structure calculations show a good agreement between theory and experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic transitions close to room temperature for the Fe-rich samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High values of the relative cooling power for all of the investigated samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No hysteresis losses in applied fields of up to 4 T. - Abstract: The structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of several HoFe{sub 2-x}Al{sub x} compounds were investigated. The compounds in the Fe-rich region (0.36 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To x Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.4) crystallize in the cubic MgCu{sub 2} (C15) structure, while for the ones in the intermediate region (0.75 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To x Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1.125) the hexagonal MgZn{sub 2} (C14) structure was observed. Electronic structure calculations were performed, showing a good agreement between theory and experiment. The Curie temperatures were found to decrease with Al content. For the Fe-rich compounds, these are close to room temperature, while for the compounds in the intermediate region, transition temperatures are well below 300 K. No magnetic hysteresis was found around the Curie temperature for applied magnetic fields of up to 4 T. All of the investigated compounds undergo a second-order magnetic phase transition at the Curie temperature. A maximum magnetic entropy change value of 7.6 J/kg K was obtained for the sample with x = 1.125, all of the samples displaying rather large RCP values. The possibility of incorporating these materials in magnetic refrigeration devices is discussed.

  15. Effect of rapid quenching on the magnetism and magnetocaloric effect of equiatomic rare earth intermetallic compounds RNi (R = Gd, Tb and Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajivgandhi, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Arout Chelvane, J. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Quezado, S.; Malik, S.K. [Departamento de F’ısica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072-970 (Brazil); Nirmala, R., E-mail: nirmala@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Melt-spinning yields microcrystalline RNi (R = Gd, Tb and Ho) samples with texture. • The texture-induced anisotropy affects magnetic and magnetocaloric properties. • Melt-spinning helps one engineer magnetocaloric effect in rare-earth compounds. - Abstract: Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in RNi (where R = Gd, Tb and Ho) compounds has been studied in their arc-melted and melt-spun forms. The compound GdNi has the orthorhombic CrB-type structure (Space group Cmcm, No. 63) and the compound HoNi has the orthorhombic FeB-type structure (Space group Pnma, No. 62) at room temperature regardless of their synthesis condition. However, arc-melted TbNi orders in a monoclinic structure (Space group P2{sub 1}/m, No. 11) and when it is rapidly quenched to a melt-spun form, it crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (Space group Pnma, No. 62). The arc-melted GdNi, TbNi and HoNi compounds order ferromagnetically at ∼69 K, ∼67 K and ∼36 K (T{sub C}) respectively. While the melt-spun GdNi shows about 6 K increase in T{sub C}, the ordering temperature of TbNi remains nearly the same in both arc-melted and melt-spun forms. In contrast, a reduction in T{sub C} by about 8 K is observed in melt-spun HoNi, when compared to its arc-melted counterpart. Isothermal magnetic entropy change, ∆S{sub m}, calculated from the field dependent magnetization data indicates an enhanced relative cooling power (RCP) for melt-spun GdNi for field changes of 20 kOe and 50 kOe. A lowered RCP value is observed in melt-spun TbNi and HoNi. These changes could have resulted from the competing shape anisotropy and the granular microstructure induced by the melt-spinning process. Tailoring the MCE of rare earth intermetallic compounds by suitably controlled synthesis techniques is certainly one of the directions to go forward in the search of giant magnetocaloric materials.

  16. Influence of the materials magnetic state on the accurate determination of the magnetocaloric effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forchelet J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a detailed study of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE in different first order magnetic transition (FOMT materials with different situation of the magnetic state (magnetic order. For this purpose, R-Co2, MnAs based compounds were considered in this study. The MCE is discussed in terms of Maxwell relation (MR and Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C equation. The deviation observed between both methods is discussed and analyzed. On the other hand, practically all the reported data of the MCE in the literature are associated to the applied external magnetic field and have not been corrected taking into account the demagnetization effect related to the materials shape. The obtained results demonstrate that this phenomenon can alter drastically the MCE values by cancelling out a large part of the external field, resulting in spurious values of the measured MCE. The effect of the demagnetization field on the magnetocaloric performances is also the subject of this paper.

  17. Multifunctional phenomena in rare-earth intermetallic compounds with a laves phase structure: giant magnetostriction and magnetocaloric effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tereshina, I.; Cwik, J.; Tereshina, Evgeniya; Politova, G.; Burkhanov, G.; Chzhan, V.; Ilyushin, A.; Miller, M.; Zaleski, A.; Nenkov, K.; Schultz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 11 (2014), s. 2504604 ISSN 0018-9464 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : giant magnetostriction * Laves phase structure * magnetic anisotropy * magnetocaloric effect * rare-earth intermetallic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  18. Magnetocaloric effect in rare-earth intermetallics: Recent trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... intermetallic hydrides, manganite oxides, Ni–Mn–Sb-type shape memory ... With the help of temperature-dependent heat capacity information in various applied .... for relative cooling power and a wide working temperature range of about ...

  19. Effect of vanadium doping on structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, M., E-mail: mansourimoufida23@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Omrani, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, W. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Centre de Recherche en Informatique, Multimédia et Traitement Numérique des Données, BP 275, Sakiet Ezzit, 3021 Sfax (Tunisia); Koubaa, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Madouri, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructure, LPN-CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Cheikhrouhou, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-03-01

    We report the effect of vanadium doping on structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}V{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.05; 0.1). Our samples were elaborated using the conventional solid state reaction method at high temperatures. X-Ray powder diffraction at room temperature indicates that our samples crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with Pbnm space group. Magnetic measurements reveal a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature. Magnetocaloric studies show that the maximum of the magnetic entropy change and the relative cooling power (RCP) are found to be 2.42 J Kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 162.75 J Kg{sup −1} for x=0.05 and 3.12 J Kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 221.31 J Kg{sup −1} for x=0.1 under a field change of 5 T. - Highlights: • The La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}V{sub x}O{sub 3}(x=0.05 and x=0.1) compounds were synthesized using conventional solid state reaction method. • T{sub C} increases with V content from 187 K for x=0.05 to 263 K for x=0.1 • Large magnetocaloric effect is reported based on second order phase transition. • Noticeable |∆S{sub M}| at 5 T field makes the system useful for magnetic refrigeration.

  20. Effect of B-doping on the structural, magnetotransport and magnetocaloric properties of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolat, V.S.; Gencer, H.; Gunes, M.; Atalay, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Mn site substitution of B on the structural, electrical and magnetocaloric properties of manganites was investigated. Polycrystalline manganites with the chemical composition La 0.67 Ca 0.33 Mn 1-x B x O 3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were prepared by the standard solid-state process. It was found that the magnetisation, the Curie temperature and the maximum value of the magnetic entropy change |ΔS m | decrease with increasing concentration of B

  1. Magnetic Properties and Magnetocaloric Effect in Layered NdMn1.9Ti0.1Si2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Md Din

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The structural and magnetic properties of the NdMn1.9Ti0.1Si2 compund have been studied by high-intensity x-ray and high-resolution neutron powder diffraction, specific heat, dc magnetization, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements over the temperature range of 3-450 K. The Curie temperature and Néel temperature of layered NdMn1.9Ti0.1Si2 are indicated as TC ~ 22 K and TN ~ 374 K respectively. The first order magnetic transition from antiferromagnetic [AFil-type] to ferromagnetic [F(Nd+Fmc] around TC is found in layered NdMn1.9Ti0.1Si2 and is associated with large magnetocaloric effect. This behavior has been confirmed as a contribution of the magnetostructural coupling by using neutron and x-ray powder diffraction. The magnetic entropy change –ΔSM ~ 15.3 J kg-1 K-1 and adiabatic temperature change ΔTad ~ 4.7 K have been determined using magnetization and specific heat measurement under 0-5 T applied fields. This compound exhibits almost no thermal and magnetic hysteresis, thus potentially applicable in low temperature region for magnetic refrigerator material

  2. Giant magnetocaloric effect in antiferromagnetic DyVO{sub 4} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midya, A., E-mail: arindam.midya@saha.ac.in; Khan, N.; Bhoi, D.; Mandal, P.

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of DyVO{sub 4} by magnetization and heat capacity measurements. χ(T) shows antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at T{sub N}{sup Dy}∼3.5K. The compound undergoes a metamagnetic transition and exhibits a huge entropy change. The maximum values of magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}), adiabatic temperature change (ΔT{sub ad}) and refrigerant capacity (RC) reach 26 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}, 17 K, and 526 J kg{sup −1}, respectively for a field change of 0–8 T. Moreover, the material is highly insulating and exhibits no thermal and field hysteresis, satisfying the necessary conditions for a good magnetic refrigerant material.

  3. A comparative study of critical phenomena and magnetocaloric properties of ferromagnetic ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Yusuf; Akinci, Ümit

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties, as well as the phase diagrams of a ferromagnetic ternary alloy system have been studied. A detailed comparison of two different methods, namely the effective field theory (EFT), and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations has been provided. Our numerical data show that the general qualitative picture presented by two methods are in a good agreement with each other. In terms of the magnetocaloric properties, our results yield that it is possible to design magnetic materials with a variety of working temperatures and magnetocaloric properties (such as large ΔSM and q values) by manipulating the magnetic phase transition via tuning the compositional factor (i.e. the mixing ratio of sublattice ions). The observed magnetocaloric effect has been found to be a direct one with ΔSM < 0 associated with a second order phase transition.

  4. Isostructural magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric effect in Ising antiferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavanov, G.Yu; Kalita, V.M.; Loktev, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the external magnetic field induced isostructural I st order magnetic phase transition between antiferromagnetic phases with different antiferromagnetic vector values is associated with entropy. It is found, that depending on temperature the entropy jump and the related heat release change their sign at this transition point. In the low-temperature region of metamagnetic I st order phase tensition the entropy jump is positive, and in the triple point region this jump for isostructural magnetic transition is negative

  5. Table-like magnetocaloric effect of Fe88−xNdxCr8B4 composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, J.W.; Zheng, Z.G.; Zhong, X.C.; Franco, V.; Montemayor, R.; Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    The narrow working temperature range due to the sharp magnetic entropy change |ΔS M | peak and large thermal or magnetic hysteresis restricts the practical application of magnetocaloric materials. In this work, the table-like magnetocaloric effect (MCE) was obtained in the multilayer composite of Fe 88−x Nd x Cr 8 B 4 alloys with various Nd substitutions for Fe (x=5, 8, 10, 12, and 15), which were prepared by arc-melting followed by melt-spinning. The substation of Nd was found to enhance the glass-forming ability. For the alloys with Nd substitution from 5 at% to 15 at%, the Curie temperature (T C ) ranged from 322 K to 350 K and the peak value of |ΔS M | remained almost constant, 3.4–3.5 J/(kg K) under an applied field of 0–5 T. The composite with various Nd contents was prepared by stocking the ribbons layer by layer. The |ΔS M | of the composite approached a nearly constant value of ∼3.2 J/(kg K) in a field change of 0–5 T in a wide temperature span over 40 K, resulting in large refrigerant capacity value of >408 J/kg. This |ΔS M | value was much larger than the previous reported Fe-based amorphous composite Fe 78−x Ce x Si 4 Nb 5 B 12 Cu 1 . This composite can be used as the working material in the Ericsson-cycle magnetic regenerative refrigerator around room temperature. - Highlights: • The T C ranges from 322 K to 350 K when increasing Nd substitution from 5 to 15 at%. • |ΔS M | remains relatively constant, about 3.4–3.5 J/(kg K) under H=0–5 T. • RC decreases from 93 to 78 J/kg in a field change of 1.5 T when Nd increasing. • Table-like MCE ,|ΔS M | ~3.2J/kg K under 0–5 T, appeared in the composite. • A wide working temperature range (40 K) and enhanced RC (>408J/kg) were obtained in the composite

  6. Theoretical approach to the magnetocaloric effect with hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, V.; Bertotti, G.; LoBue, M.; Sasso, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a thermodynamic model with internal variables is presented and applied to ferromagnetic hysteresis. The out-of-equilibrium Gibbs free energy of a magnetic system is expressed as a function of the internal state of the Preisach model. Expressions for the system entropy and the entropy production are derived. By this approach it is possible to reproduce the characteristic features of the experimentally observed temperature changes (of the order of 10 -4 K around room temperature) induced by the magnetic field along the hysteresis loop performed in iron under adiabatic condition

  7. The effect of demagnetization on the magnetocaloric properties of gadolinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2009-01-01

    of gadolinium. The adiabatic temperature change DeltaTad of gadolinium sheets upon application of a magnetic field has been measured at a range of applied magnetic fields and sample orientations. A significant dependence of DeltaTad on the sample orientation is observed. This can be accounted...... for by the demagnetization factor. Also, the temperature dependence of DeltaTad has been measured experimentally and modeled by mean field theory. Corrections to mean field theory modeling due to the demagnetization field are proposed and discussed. ©2009 American Institute of Physics...

  8. Improvement of magnetocaloric properties of Gd-Ge-Si alloys by alloying with iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erenc-Sędziak T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of annealing of Gd5Ge2Si2Fex alloys at 1200°C and of alloying with various amount of iron on structure as well as thermal and magnetocaloric properties is investigated. It was found that annealing for 1 to 10 hours improves the entropy change, but reduces the temperature of maximum magnetocaloric effect by up to 50 K. Prolonged annealing of the Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy results in the decrease of entropy change due to the reduction of Gd5Ge2Si2 phase content. Addition of iron to the ternary alloy enhances the magnetocaloric effect, if x = 0.4 – 0.6, especially if alloying is combined with annealing at 1200°C: the peak value of the isothermal entropy change from 0 to 2 T increases from 3.5 to 11 J/kgK. Simultaneously, the temperature of maximum magnetocaloric effect drops to 250 K. The changes in magnetocaloric properties are related to the change in phase transformation from the second order for arc molten ternary alloy to first order in the case of annealed and/or alloyed with iron. The results of this study indicate that the minor addition of iron and heat treatment to Gd-Ge-Si alloys may be useful in improving the materials’ magnetocaloric properties..

  9. Giant magnetocaloric effect in Gd5(Si2Ge2 alloy with low purity Gd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Santiago Alves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gd5(Ge1-xSi x, x < 4 based alloys are potential candidates for magnetic refrigeration in the range ~20 - ~290 K. However, one of the greatest obstacles for the use of that technology in large scale is the utilization of high pure Gd metal (99.99 wt. (% to produce the GdGeSi alloys, since the impurity elements decrease the intensity of the magnetocaloric effect (EMC¹. In this work, we prove that annealing of the Gd5Ge2Si2 can promote remarkable values for the EMC in comparison to those obtained for the alloy with high pure Gd. Also, the as cast alloy and the annealed alloy are not monophasic, but have at least two crystalline phases in their microstructure. Results for X-ray analysis, optical and electronic microscopy and magnetization measurements are reported.

  10. Giant reversible magnetocaloric effect in flower-like β-Co(OH){sub 2} hierarchical superstructures self-assembled by nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianguo; Feng, Chao; Xiao, Feng; Jin, Chuangui; Xia, Ailin, E-mail: liuxianguohugh@gmail.com, E-mail: eeswor@polyu.edu.hk [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, PR (China); Or, Siu Wing [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Sun, Yuping [Center for Engineering Practice and Innovation Education, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, PR (China)

    2014-01-15

    A facile hydrothermal strategy is proposed to synthesize flower-like β- Co(OH){sub 2} hierarchical microspherical superstructures with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 µm, which are self-assembled by β - Co(OH){sub 2} nano sheets with the average thickness ranging between 20 and 40 nm. The magnetocaloric effect associated with magnetic phase transitions in Co(OH){sub 2} superstructures has been investigated. A sign change in the magnetocaloric effect is induced by a magnetic field, which is related to a filed-induced transition from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic state below the Néel temperature. The large reversible magnetic-entropy change –ΔS{sub m} (13.4 J/kg K at 15 K for a field change of 5 T) indicates that flower-like Co(OH){sub 2} superstructures is a potential candidate for application in magnetic refrigeration in the low-temperature range. (author)

  11. The effect of tapering on a magnetocaloric regenerator bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallolio, Stefano; Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    . Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of the tapering of the regenerators, which exhibit better air-gap utilization. Several simulations using a 1D AMR model were run to study the performance of the tapered regenerator, and the results were compared to the case of the straight regenerator bed...

  12. A study of the phase transition and magnetocaloric effect in multiferroic La{sub 2}MnNiO{sub 6} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balli, M., E-mail: mohamed.balli@usherbrooke.ca; Jandl, S. [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Fournier, P. [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8 (Canada); Gospodinov, M. M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia 1184 (Bulgaria)

    2014-05-07

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of single crystal double perovskite La{sub 2}MnNiO{sub 6} have been investigated in details. Its ordered phase with a high Curie temperature (T{sub C} = 280 K) exhibits a significant refrigerant capacity around room temperature. A model based on the mean field theory approximation has been used in order to quantify the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in the ordered La{sub 2}MnNiO{sub 6}. The magnetization and entropy changes were satisfactorily simulated as a function of temperature and magnetic field. On the other hand, the presence of cationic disorder in La{sub 2}MnNiO{sub 6} phases allows to shift the Curie point to low temperature without a significant change in the magnetocaloric performance.

  13. Phase transitions, magnetotransport and magnetocaloric effects in a new family of quaternary Ni-Mn-In-Z Heusler alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Alexander; Prudnikov, Valerii; Granovsky, Alexander; Perov, Nikolai; Dubenko, Igor; Pathak, Arjun Kumar; Samanta, Tapas; Stadler, Shane; Ali, Naushad; Zhukov, Arcady; Ilyin, Maxim; Gonzalez, Julian

    2012-09-01

    The magnetic, magnetotransport, and magnetocaloric properties near compound phase transitions in Ni50Mn35In14Z (Z = In, Ge, Al), and Ni48Co2Mn35In15 Heusler alloys have been studied using VSM and SQUID magnetometers (at magnetic fields (H) up to 5 T), four-probe method (at H = 0.005-1.5 T), and an adiabatic magnetocalorimeter (for H changes up to deltaH = 1.8 T), respectively. The martensitic transformation (MT) is accompanied by large magnetoresistance (up to 70%), a significant change in resistivity (up to 200%), and a sign reversal of the ordinary Hall effect coefficient, all related to a strong change in the electronic spectrum at the MT. The field dependences of the Hall resistance are complex in the vicinity of the MT, indicating a change in the relative concentrations of the austenite and martensite phases at strong fields. Negative and positive changes in adiabatic temperatures of about -2 K and +2 K have been observed in the vicinity of MT and Curie temperatures, respectively, for deltaH = 1.8 T.

  14. Effects of the thermal and magnetic paths on first order martensite transition of disordered Ni45Mn44Sn9In2 Heusler alloy exhibiting a giant magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance near room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabri, T.; Ghosh, A.; Nair, Sunil; Awasthi, A. M.; Venimadhav, A.; Nath, T. K.

    2018-05-01

    The existence of a first order martensite transition in off-stoichiometric Ni45Mn44Sn9In2 ferromagnetic shape memory Heusler alloy has been clearly observed by thermal, magnetic, and magneto-transport measurements. Field and thermal path dependence of the change in large magnetic entropy and negative magnetoresistance are observed, which originate due to the sharp change in magnetization driven by metamagnetic transition from the weakly magnetic martensite phase to the ferromagnetic austenite phase in the vicinity of the martensite transition. The noticeable shift in the martensite transition with the application of a magnetic field is the most significant feature of the present study. This shift is due to the interplay of the austenite and martensite phase fraction in the alloy. The different aspects of the first order martensite transition, e.g. broadening of the martensite transition and the field induced arrest of the austenite phase are mainly related to the dynamics of coexisting phases in the vicinity of the martensite transition. The alloy also shows a second order ferromagnetic  →  paramagnetic transition near the Curie temperature of the austenite phase. A noticeably large change in magnetic entropy (ΔS M   =  24 J kg‑1 K‑1 at 298 K) and magnetoresistance (=  ‑33% at 295 K) has been observed for the change in 5 and 8 T magnetic fields, respectively. The change in adiabatic temperature for the change in a magnetic field of 5 T is found to be  ‑3.8 K at 299 K. The low cost of the ingredients and the large change in magnetic entropy very near to the room temperature makes Ni45Mn44Sn9In2 alloy a promising magnetic refrigerant for real technological application.

  15. Magnetocaloric effect in In doped YbMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattibabu, Bhumireddi, E-mail: bsb.satti@gmail.com [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Department of Electronics and Physics, Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam 530045 (India); Bhatnagar, A.K., E-mail: anilb42@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Vinod, K.; Mani, Awadhesh [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric (MCE) properties of Yb{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} and Yb{sub 0.8}In{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} polycrystalline samples are presented in this paper. Isothermal magnetization measurements reveal a field induced magnetic transition. Magnetic entropy change of 2.34±0.35 J/mole-K for Yb{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} and 2.64±0.38 J/mole-K for Yb{sub 0.8}In{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} field change ΔH =10 KOe is observed around the ferromagnetic ordering temperature of Yb{sup 3+}. Values of relative cooling power for the same field change are found to be 38.03±9 J /mol, and 40.90±10 J/mol for Yb{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} and Yb{sub 0.8}In{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3}, respectively. These values suggest In doped YbMnO{sub 3} may be a potential candidate for magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures.

  16. Magnetocaloric effect and critical behavior in melt-extracted Gd{sub 60}Co{sub 15}Al{sub 25} microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Dawei; Jiang, Sida; Chen, Dongming; Liu, Yanfen; Sun, Jianfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Shen, Hongxian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Institute of Materials and Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Liu, Jingshun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot (China); Phan, Manh-Huong [Institute of Materials and Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Wang, Huan; Qin, Faxiang [Institute for Composites Science and Innovation (InCSI), College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-09-15

    High-quality Gd{sub 60}Co{sub 15}Al{sub 25} microwires with an average diameter of 40 μm were successfully fabricated by the melt-extraction method. The as-cast microwires undergo a second-order paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (PM-FM) transition at ∝100 K. Large values of the magnetic entropy change (-ΔS{sub M} ∝9.73 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and the refrigerant capacity (RC ∝732 J kg{sup -1}) are achieved for a field change of 5 T. A careful analysis of critical exponents near the PM-FM transition indicates the significant effects of structural disorder on the long-range ferromagnetic interaction and the magnetocaloric response of the microwires. The excellent magnetocaloric properties make the Gd{sub 60}Co{sub 15}Al{sub 25} microwires very promising for use in magnetic refrigerators operating in the liquid nitrogen temperature range. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Table-like magnetocaloric effect in Gd56Ni15Al27Zr2 alloy and its field independence feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurgo Balfour, E.; Ma, Z.; Fu, H.; Wang, L.; Luo, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.; Wang, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain “table-like” magnetocaloric effect (MCE), multiple-phase Gd 56 Ni 15 Al 27 Zr 2 alloy was prepared by arc-melting followed by suck-casting method. Powder x-ray diffraction and calorimetric measurements reveal that the sample contains both glassy and crystalline phases. The fraction of the glassy phase is about 62%, estimated from the heat enthalpy of the crystallization. The crystalline phases, Gd 2 Al and GdNiAl further broadened the relatively wider magnetic entropy change (−ΔS M ) peak of the amorphous phase, which resulted in the table-like MCE over a maximum temperature range of 52.5 K to 77.5 K. The plateau feature of the MCE was found to be nearly independent of the applied magnetic field from 3 T to 5 T. The maximum −ΔS M value of the MCE platforms is 6.0 J/kg K under applied magnetic field change of 5 T. Below 3 T, the field independence of the table-like feature disappears. The relatively large constant values of −ΔS M for the respective applied magnetic fields have promising applications in magnetic refrigeration using regenerative Ericsson cycle

  18. Magnetism of a sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} alloy: Magnetic susceptibilities and magnetocaloric effect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bałanda, Maria [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, PL-31-342 Kraków (Poland); Dubiel, Stanisław M., E-mail: Stanislaw.Dubiel@fis.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Pełka, Robert [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, PL-31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} alloy was studied by means of AC and DC magnetic susceptibilities. • Re-entrant character of the magnetism has been evidenced. • Curie temperature was found as ∼169 K and the spin-freezing temperature as ∼164 K. • Critical exponents β = 0.6, γ = 1.0 and Δ = 1.6 were determined. • Magnetocaloric effect was investigated. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of a sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} intermetallic compound were studied by means of ac and dc magnetic susceptibility and magnetocaloric effect measurements. The compound is a soft magnet yet it was found to behave like a re-entrant spin-glass system. The magnetic ordering temperature was found to be T{sub C} ≈ 170 K, while the spin-freezing temperature was ∼164 K. Its relative shift per decade of ac frequency was 0.002, a value smaller than that typical of canonical spin-glasses. Magnetic entropy change, ΔS, in the vicinity of T{sub C} was determined for magnetic field, H, ranging between 5 and 50 kOe. Analysis of ΔS in terms of the power law yielded the critical exponent, n, vs. temperature with the minimum value of 0.75 at T{sub C}, while from the analysis of a relative shift of the maximum value of ΔS with the field a critical exponent Δ = 1.7 was obtained. Based on scaling laws relationships values of other two exponents viz. β = 0.6 and γ = 1 were determined.

  19. Influence of Dy addition on the magnetocaloric effect of La0.67Ca0.33Mn0.9V0.1O3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisha, P.; Savitha Pillai, S.; Suresh, K.G.; Raama Varma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    The influence of partial substitution of La by Dy on the magnetocaloric response of (La 1-x Dy x ) 0.67 Ca 0.33 Mn 0.9 V 0.1 O 3 , where x=0.03, 0.15 and 0.25 is studied. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction pattern using GSAS method shows that the compounds adopt the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. The systematic change in lattice parameters and magnetic phase transition indicates the substitution effect of Dy. From the magnetization isotherms at different temperatures, magnetic entropy change close to their respective transition temperatures (T C ) has been evaluated. The maximum value of entropy change near T C is found to be about 4.8 J/kg K at 187.5 K for LCMVDy 0.03 , 2.45 J/kg K at 107.5 K for LCMVDy 0.15 and 2.15 J/kg K at 92.5 K for LCMVDy 0.25 at 4 T. Dy addition produces a reduction in T C and in magnitude of the magnetic entropy change. Even though the entropy change decreases with increasing Dy substitution the refrigerant temperature range, ΔT, is found to be 10 K for LCMVDy 0.03 , 31 K for LCMVDy 0.15 and 35 K for LCMVDy 0.25 compounds [90%] at 4 T. The field dependence of the magnetic entropy change is also analyzed showing the power law dependence, ΔS M ∞H n where n=0.75(2) for LCMVDy 0.03 , n=0.80(4) for LCMVDy 0.15 and n=0.92(8) for LCMVDy 0.25 compounds at their respective transition temperatures. The relative cooling power and its field dependance are also analyzed. - Highlights: → Studied magnetocaloric response of Dy substituted solid state synthesized LCMVO. → Studied the field dependence of the magnetic entropy change (ΔS M ∞H n ). → Studied the field dependence of Relative cooling power (RCP∞H 1+1/δ ). → Considerably large magnetocaloric effect and moderate relative cooling power.

  20. New aspects of magnetocaloric effect in NiMn{sub 0.89}Cr{sub 0.11}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworska-Gołąb, T., E-mail: teresa.jaworska-golab@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Baran, S. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Duraj, R. [Institute of Physics, Cracow University of Technology, Podchorążych 1, 30-084 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Dyakonov, V. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); A.A. Galkin Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, 83-114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Sivachenko, A. [A.A. Galkin Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, 83-114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Tyvanchuk, Yu. [Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 79-005 Lviv (Ukraine); Szymczak, H. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Szytuła, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Investigations of structural and magnetic phase transitions in the NiMn{sub 0.89}Cr{sub 0.11}Ge half-Heusler alloy were carried out by DSC, XRD (80–400 K), magnetic susceptibility and magnetization (1.9–400 K, magnetic field up to 9.0 T, pressure up to 5.25 kbar) measurements. At high temperatures the sample is a single phase crystallizing in the hexagonal crystal structure (Ni{sub 2}In-type, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc) while below 260 K, down to 100 K, some amount of the hexagonal phase coexists with the orthorhombic (TiNiSi-type, space group Pnma) one. Strong magnetostructural coupling is observed. Magnetic data indicate that with increasing temperature magnetic properties of the sample change from antiferro- to ferro- and then to paramagnetic ones. The latter magnetic phase transition is associated with the crystal structure change and results in large magnetic entropy change equal to −51 J/kg K at μ{sub 0}H= 9.0 T near 260 K. Application of external pressure shifts T{sub C} towards lower temperatures. - Highlights: • # Pnma below 210 K, # P6{sub 3}/mmc above 260 K, for 210 K magnetocaloric effect observed about 260 K at ambient pressure. • Magnetostructural effect observed at 260 K (ΔV/V= 2.4%) at ambient pressure. • Magnetic measurements under hydrostatic pressure up to 5.25 kbar; (p, T) diagram.

  1. Martensitic phase transformations and magnetocaloric effect in Al co-sputtered Ni–Mn–Sb alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkera, Harish Sharma; Choudhary, Nitin; Kaur, Davinder

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Al content leads to a increase in the martensitic transformation temperature. • A maximum ΔS M = 23 mJ/cm 3 K at 300 K was observed in the N 49.8 Mn 32.97 Al 4.43 Sb 12.8 . • The refrigeration capacity RC = 64.4 mJ/cm 3 at 2 T for N 49.8 Mn 32.97 Al 4.43 Sb 12.8 film. - Abstract: We systematically investigated the influence of aluminium (Al) content on the martensitic transformations and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in Ni–Mn–Sb ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) thin films. The temperature-dependent magnetization (M–T) and resistance (R–T) results displayed a monotonic increase in martensitic transformation temperature (T M ) with increasing Al content. From the isothermal magnetization (M–H) curves, a large magnetic entropy change (ΔS M ) of 23 mJ/cm 3 K was observed in N 49.8 Mn 32.97 Al 4.43 Sb 12.8 . A remarkable enhancement of MCE could be attributed to the significant change in the magnetization of Ni–Mn–Sb films with increasing Al content. Furthermore, a high refrigerant capacity (RC) was observed in Ni–Mn–Sb–Al thin films as compared to pure Ni–Mn–Sb. The substitution of Al for Mn in Ni–Mn–Sb thin films with field induced MCE are potential candidates for micro length scale magnetic refrigeration applications where low magnetic fields are desirable

  2. Insulating phase in Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}: An investigation using critical analysis and magnetocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, Imtiaz Noor; Pramanik, A.K., E-mail: akpramanik@mail.jnu.ac.in

    2017-01-15

    The nature of insulating phase in 5d based Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} is quite debated as the theoretical as well as experimental investigations have put forward evidences in favor of both magnetically driven Slater-type and interaction driven Mott-type insulator. To understand this insulating behavior, we have investigated the nature of magnetic state in Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} through studying critical exponents, low temperature thermal demagnetization and magnetocaloric effect. The estimated critical exponents do not exactly match with any universality class, however, the values obey the scaling behavior. The exponent values suggest that spin interaction in present material is close to mean-field model. The analysis of low temperature thermal demagnetization data, however, shows dual presence of localized- and itinerant-type of magnetic interaction. Moreover, field dependent change in magnetic entropy indicates magnetic interaction is close to mean-field type. While this material shows an insulating behavior across the magnetic transition, yet a distinct change in slope in resistivity is observed around T{sub c}. We infer that though the insulating phase in Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} is more close to be Slater-type but the simultaneous presence of both Slater- and Mott-type is the likely scenario for this material. - Highlights: • Critical analysis shows Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} has ferromagnetic ordering temperature T{sub c}~225 K. • Obtained critical exponents imply spin interaction is close to mean-field model. • Analysis of magneto-entropy data also supports mean-field type interaction. • However, the presence of both itinerant and localized spin interaction is evident. • Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} has simultaneous presence of both Slater- and Mott-type insulating phase.

  3. Magnetocaloric effect in (La1-xAx)2/3Ba1/3Mn1.05O3-δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancona-Torres, Carlos Eugenio; Menon, Mohan; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    Recently, a large magnetocaloric effect has been reported in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3-δ at about 300 K. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the ion size distribution at the A site on the magnetocaloric effect of this perovskite material. This is accomplished by replacing the lanthanum by Ce, Pr......, and Nd, which allows us to study the effect of both the average size, , and the distribution, σrA, on the magnetic properties of the system. Using magnetization and heat capacity measurements, we determine the important magnetocaloric parameters ΔSM and ΔTad of (La1-xAx)2/3Ba1/3Mn1.05O3-δ powders...

  4. Table-like magnetocaloric effect in Gd–Ni–Al amorphous/nanocrystalline composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Linlin; Du, Juan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Gd–Ni–Al amorphous/nanocrystalline composites produced by melt-spinning method with double magnetocaloric effect (MCE) plateaus have been developed. Two MCE plateaus, ∼4.7 J kg −1 K −1 (90–120 K) and ∼3.60 J kg −1 K −1 (250–275 K), were discovered in Gd 80 Ni 11.6 Al 8.4 for a magnetic field change of 0 to 5 T. For Gd 90 Ni 5.8 Al 4.2 , the plateau values are ∼3.90 J kg −1 K −1 (85–120 K) and ∼6.70 J kg −1 K −1 (265–280 K) for a magnetic field change of 0–5 T. The reason why MCE plateau formation was investigated and discussed. These composites having two MCE plateaus are competitive candidates for the ideal Ericsson cycle. (paper)

  5. The persistence of the magnetocaloric effect in (La1-x)A(x)(0.67)Ba0.33Mn1.05O3-δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancona-Torres, Carlos Eugenio; Pryds, Nini; Kuhn, Luise Theil

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of (La1-xAx)0.67Ba0.33Mn1.05O3-δ, with A being a mixture of lanthanides containing 66% La, 22% Nd, 8% Pr and 4% Ce, were prepared by the glycine-nitrate method, with target compositions of x = 0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1. The effect of the mixture of lanthanides on the Curie...... temperature, TC, and the magnetocaloric properties was investigated. The prepared samples are single phase, with space group R-3c. The lattice parameters and average A-site ionic radius, rA decrease linearly with x while the size disorder, as characterized by the variance, σ2, increases from 0.014 to 0...

  6. Magnetocaloric effect in the La0.8Ce0.2Fe11.4-xCoxSi1.6 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.F.; Song, L.; Li, F.A.; Ou, Z.Q.; Tegus, O.; Brueck, E.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of substitution of Co for Fe on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La 0.8 Ce 0.2 Fe 11.4-x Co x Si 1.6 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) compounds have been investigated. X-ray diffraction shows that all compounds crystallize in the NaZn 13 -type structure. Magnetic measurements show that the Curie temperature (T C ) can be tuned between 184 and 294 K by changing the Co content from 0 to 1. A field-induced methamagnetic transition occurs in samples with x=0, 0.2 and 0.4. The magnetic entropy changes of the compounds have been determined from the isothermal magnetization measurements by using the Maxwell relation.

  7. Strain dependent magnetocaloric effect in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin-films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Suresh Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The strain dependent magnetocaloric properties of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films deposited on three different substrates (001 LaAlO3 (LAO, (001 SrTiO3 (STO, and (001 La0.3Sr0.7Al0.65Ta0.35O9 (LSAT have been investigated under low magnetic fields and around magnetic phase transition temperatures. Compared to bulk samples, we observe a remarkable decrease in the ferromagnetic transition temperature that is close to room temperature, closely matched isothermal magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power values in tensile strained La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 films. The epitaxial strain plays a significant role in tuning the peak position of isothermal magnetic entropy change towards room temperature with improved cooling capacity.

  8. Magnetocaloric properties of the hexagonal HoMnO{sub 3} single crystal revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balli, M., E-mail: Mohamed.balli@Usherbrooke.ca [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Roberge, B.; Vermette, J.; Jandl, S. [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Fournier, P. [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1Z8 (Canada); Gospodinov, M.M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia 1184 (Bulgaria)

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the hexagonal HoMnO{sub 3} single crystal have been revisited. It was found that the magnetocaloric effect shown by HoMnO{sub 3} strongly depends on the crystal orientation in respect to the applied magnetic field. Consequently, a large thermal effect can be induced by spinning the single crystal HoMnO{sub 3} around the a (or b) axis in a constant magnetic field instead of the conventional magnetization–demagnetization process. Under 7 T, the maximum rotating entropy change was evaluated to be about 8 J/kg K. The associated adiabatic temperature change reaches a value of about 5 K. These values are comparable to those of the other oxides exhibiting a large rotating magnetocaloric effect. The presence of both conventional and rotating thermal effects makes the hexagonal HoMnO{sub 3} more interesting from a practical point of view.

  9. Study of geometries of active magnetic regenerators for room temperature magnetocaloric refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2017-01-01

    Room temperature magnetic refrigeration has attracted substantial attention during the past decades and continuing to increase the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMR) is of great interest. Optimizing the regenerator geometry and related operating parameters is a practical and effect......Room temperature magnetic refrigeration has attracted substantial attention during the past decades and continuing to increase the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMR) is of great interest. Optimizing the regenerator geometry and related operating parameters is a practical...... and effective way to obtain the desired cooling performance. To investigate how to choose and optimize the AMR geometry, a quantitative study is presented by simulations based on a one-dimensional (1D) numerical model. Correlations for calculating the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient are reviewed...... and chosen for modeling different geometries. Moreover, the simulated impacts of various parameters on the regenerator efficiency with a constant specific cooling capacity are presented. An analysis based on entropy production minimization reveals how those parameters affect the main losses occurring inside...

  10. Study of the magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in Dy{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yikun, E-mail: ykzhang10@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 200072 (China); Institute of Materials Physics, University of Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, D-48149, Münster (Germany); Xu, Xiao; Yang, Yang; Hou, Long; Ren, Zhongming [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 200072 (China); Li, Xi, E-mail: lx_net@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 200072 (China); Wilde, Gerhard [Institute of Materials Physics, University of Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, D-48149, Münster (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in Dy{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In compound have been investigated. Dy{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In undergoes two magnetic phase transitions, a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM) at T{sub C} ∼ 49.5 K followed by a spin reorientation (SR) at T{sub SR} ∼ 19.5 K. For a magnetic field change of 0–7 T, the maximum values of the magnetic entropy change (−ΔS{sub M}{sup max}) are estimated to be 16.5 around T{sub C} and 6.7 J/kg K around T{sub SR} with a large relative cooling power (RCP) value of 617 J/kg. The modified Arrott plots and universal curves of the rescaled ΔS{sub M} confirmed that the magnetic phase transitions in Dy{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In compound belongs the second order phase transitions. The present results may provide some clues to search for new magnetocaloric materials belonging to RE{sub 2}T{sub 2}X system. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in Dy{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In was studied. • The Dy{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In undergoes 2 s order magnetic phase transitions. • A large reversible MCE was observed in Dy{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In. • The origin of MCE and its potential application in Dy{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In were discussed.

  11. Pressure enhancement of the giant magnetocaloric effect in LaFe.sub.11.6./sub.Si.sub.1.4./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sun, Y.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Kamarád, Jiří; Wang, G.-J.; Shen, B.G.; Cheng, Z.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 17 (2006), 172513/1-172513/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : intermetallic compounds * magnetocaloric effect * pressure effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.977, year: 2006

  12. Giant magnetocaloric effect from reverse martensitic transformation in Ni–Mn–Ga–Cu ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Sudip Kumar, E-mail: sudips@barc.gov.in [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Sarita [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Babu, P.D. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Biswas, Aniruddha [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Siruguri, Vasudeva [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Krishnan, Madangopal [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2016-06-15

    In an effort to produce Giant Magnetocaloric effect (GMCE) near room temperature, in a first ever such study, the austenite transformation temperature (A{sub s}) was fine tuned to ferromagnetic Curie temperature (T{sub C}) in Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMA) and a large GMCE of ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K was achieved in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 18.5}Cu{sub 6.5}Ga{sub 25} alloy during reverse martensitic transformation (heating cycle) for a magnetic field change of 9 T at 303 K. Fine tuning of A{sub s} with T{sub C} was achieved by Cu substitution in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 25−x}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 25} (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0)-based FSMAs. Characterizations of these alloys were carried out using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and DC magnetization measurements. Addition of Cu to stoichiometric Heusler type Ni{sub 2}MnGa increases the martensitic transformation temperatures and decreases T{sub C}. Concurrently, ΔSM increases with Cu addition and peaks at 6.5 at% Cu for which there is a virtual overlap between T{sub C} and A{sub s}. Maximum Refrigerant Capacity (RCP) of 327.0 J/Kg was also achieved in the heating cycle for 9 T field change at 303 K. Corresponding values for the cooling cycle measurements (measured during forward transformation) were 30.4 J/Kg-K and 123.5 J/Kg respectively for the same 6.5 at% Cu sample under the same thermo-magnetic conditions. - Highlights: • A{sub s} was fine tuned to T{sub C} in Cu substituted Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 25−x}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 25} (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0) alloys. • MT temperature increases with Cu addition while T{sub C} decreases. • A virtual overlapping of A{sub s} with T{sub C} was found in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 18.5}Cu{sub 6.5}Ga{sub 25} alloys. • ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K achieved from reverse MT for Δ(μ{sub 0}H) = 9 T at 303 K. • A highest RCP value of 94.6 J/Kg was observed for Δ(μ{sub 0}H) = 5 T in Cu:6.5 alloys.

  13. Giant magnetocaloric effect from reverse martensitic transformation in Ni–Mn–Ga–Cu ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sudip Kumar; Sarita; Babu, P.D.; Biswas, Aniruddha; Siruguri, Vasudeva; Krishnan, Madangopal

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to produce Giant Magnetocaloric effect (GMCE) near room temperature, in a first ever such study, the austenite transformation temperature (A_s) was fine tuned to ferromagnetic Curie temperature (T_C) in Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMA) and a large GMCE of ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K was achieved in Ni_5_0Mn_1_8_._5Cu_6_._5Ga_2_5 alloy during reverse martensitic transformation (heating cycle) for a magnetic field change of 9 T at 303 K. Fine tuning of A_s with T_C was achieved by Cu substitution in Ni_5_0Mn_2_5_−_xCu_xGa_2_5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0)-based FSMAs. Characterizations of these alloys were carried out using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and DC magnetization measurements. Addition of Cu to stoichiometric Heusler type Ni_2MnGa increases the martensitic transformation temperatures and decreases T_C. Concurrently, ΔSM increases with Cu addition and peaks at 6.5 at% Cu for which there is a virtual overlap between T_C and A_s. Maximum Refrigerant Capacity (RCP) of 327.0 J/Kg was also achieved in the heating cycle for 9 T field change at 303 K. Corresponding values for the cooling cycle measurements (measured during forward transformation) were 30.4 J/Kg-K and 123.5 J/Kg respectively for the same 6.5 at% Cu sample under the same thermo-magnetic conditions. - Highlights: • A_s was fine tuned to T_C in Cu substituted Ni_5_0Mn_2_5_−_xCu_xGa_2_5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0) alloys. • MT temperature increases with Cu addition while T_C decreases. • A virtual overlapping of A_s with T_C was found in Ni_5_0Mn_1_8_._5Cu_6_._5Ga_2_5 alloys. • ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K achieved from reverse MT for Δ(μ_0H) = 9 T at 303 K. • A highest RCP value of 94.6 J/Kg was observed for Δ(μ_0H) = 5 T in Cu:6.5 alloys.

  14. Scaling and universality in magnetocaloric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R. H.

    2014-01-01

    -order phase transition within the context of the theory of critical phenomena. Sufficiently close to the critical temperature of a second-order material, the scaling of the isothermal entropy change will be determined by the critical exponents and will be the same as that of the singular part of the entropy......The magnetocaloric effect of a magnetic material is characterized by two quantities, the isothermal entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change, both of which are functions of temperature and applied magnetic field. We discuss the scaling properties of these quantities close to a second...... fields are not universal, showing significant variation for models in the same universality class. As regards the adiabatic temperature change, it is not determined exclusively by the singular part of the free energy and its derivatives. We show that the field dependence of the adiabatic temperature...

  15. Enhanced magnetocaloric properties and critical behavior of (Fe0.72Cr0.28)3Al alloys for near room temperature cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V; Maheshwar Repaka, D V; Chaudhary, V; Ramanujan, R V

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic cooling is an environmentally friendly, energy efficient, thermal management technology relying on high performance magnetocaloric materials (MCM). Current research has focused on low cost, corrosion resistant, rare earth (RE) free MCMs. We report the structural and magnetocaloric properties of novel, low cost, RE free, iron based (Fe 0.72 Cr 0.28 ) 3 Al alloys. The arc melted buttons and melt spun ribbons possessed the L2 1 crystal structure and B2 crystal structure, respectively. A notable enhancement of 33% in isothermal entropy change (−Δ S m ) and 25% increase in relative cooling power (RCP) for the ribbons compared to the buttons can be attributed to higher structural disorder in the Fe–Cr and Fe–Al sub-lattices of the B2 structure. The critical behavior was investigated using modified Arrott plots, the Kouvel–Fisher plot and the critical isotherm technique; the critical exponents were found to correspond to the short-range order 3D Heisenberg model. The field and temperature dependent magnetization curves of (Fe 0.72 Cr 0.28 ) 3 Al alloys revealed their soft magnetic nature with negligible hysteresis. Thus, these alloys possess promising performance attributes for near room temperature magnetic cooling applications. (paper)

  16. Enhanced magnetocaloric properties and critical behavior of (Fe0.72Cr0.28)3Al alloys for near room temperature cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V.; Maheshwar Repaka, D. V.; Chaudhary, V.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic cooling is an environmentally friendly, energy efficient, thermal management technology relying on high performance magnetocaloric materials (MCM). Current research has focused on low cost, corrosion resistant, rare earth (RE) free MCMs. We report the structural and magnetocaloric properties of novel, low cost, RE free, iron based (Fe0.72Cr0.28)3Al alloys. The arc melted buttons and melt spun ribbons possessed the L21 crystal structure and B2 crystal structure, respectively. A notable enhancement of 33% in isothermal entropy change (-ΔS m) and 25% increase in relative cooling power (RCP) for the ribbons compared to the buttons can be attributed to higher structural disorder in the Fe-Cr and Fe-Al sub-lattices of the B2 structure. The critical behavior was investigated using modified Arrott plots, the Kouvel-Fisher plot and the critical isotherm technique; the critical exponents were found to correspond to the short-range order 3D Heisenberg model. The field and temperature dependent magnetization curves of (Fe0.72Cr0.28)3Al alloys revealed their soft magnetic nature with negligible hysteresis. Thus, these alloys possess promising performance attributes for near room temperature magnetic cooling applications.

  17. Magnetocaloric properties and critical behavior of high relative cooling power FeNiB nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, V. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute @NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Maheswar Repaka, D. V.; Chaturvedi, A.; Ramanujan, R. V., E-mail: ramanujan@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sridhar, I. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-10-28

    Low cost magnetocaloric nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention for energy efficient applications. We report a very high relative cooling power (RCP) in a study of the magnetocaloric effect in quenched FeNiB nanoparticles. RCP increases from 89.8 to 640 J kg{sup −1} for a field change of 1 and 5 T, respectively, these values are the largest for rare earth free iron based magnetocaloric nanomaterials. To investigate the magnetocaloric behavior around the Curie temperature (T{sub C}), the critical behavior of these quenched nanoparticles was studied. Detailed analysis of the magnetic phase transition using the modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher method, and critical isotherm plots yields critical exponents of β = 0.364, γ = 1.319, δ = 4.623, and α = −0.055, which are close to the theoretical exponents obtained from the 3D-Heisenberg model. Our results indicate that these FeNiB nanoparticles are potential candidates for magnetocaloric fluid based heat pumps and low grade waste heat recovery.

  18. The effect of adding aluminum and iron to Tb–Dy–Ho–Co multicomponent alloys on their structure and magnetic and magnetocaloric properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Politova, G.A.; Burkhanov, G.S.; Tereshina, I. S.; Kaminskaya, T.; Chzhan, V.B.; Tereshina, Evgeniya

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 4 (2017), s. 577-582 ISSN 1063-7842 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : multicomponent alloys * Laves phase compounds * magnetocaloric effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2016

  19. Enhancement of magnetocaloric effect by external hydrostatic pressure in MnNi0.75Fe0.25Ge alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, K.; Dutta, P.; Dasgupta, P.; Pramanick, S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2018-06-01

    A systematic investigation on the structural and magnetic properties of an Fe-doped MnNiGe alloy with nominal composition MnNi0.75Fe0.25Ge has been performed. Temperature dependent x-ray diffraction studies indicate a clear structural phase transition (martensitic type) from the high temperature hexagonal austenite phase (space group P63/mmc) to the low temperature orthorhombic martensite phase (space group Pnma). Interestingly, about 1.4% of the high temperature hexagonal phase has been observed at 15 K, which is well below the martensitic phase transition (MPT) temperature. The studied alloy is found to be ferromagnetic in nature at the lowest temperature of measurement and the saturation moment increases in the presence of external hydrostatic pressure (P). In addition, it shows a significantly large conventional (negative) magnetocaloric effect with an adiabatic entropy change () of about ‑16.2 J kg‑1 K‑1 around the MPT for a magnetic field changing from 0  →  5 T. The most interesting observation is the  ∼40.1% increase in the peak value of on application of 6 kbar of external P. A considerable increment in the refrigeration capacity has also been noted with the applied P.

  20. Spin correlations in (Mn,Fe)2(P,Si) magnetocaloric compounds above Curie temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, X.F.; Caron, L.; Gubbens, P.C.M.; Yaouanc, A; Dalmas de Réotier, P; Luetkens, H.; Amato, A; van Dijk, N.H.; Brück, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal-field muon-spin relaxation (LF-μSR) technique was employed to study the spin correlations in (Mn,Fe)2(P,Si) compounds above the ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC). The (Mn,Fe)2(P,Si) compound under study is found to show itinerant magnetism. The standard deviation of the

  1. Table-like magnetocaloric effect of Fe{sub 88−x}Nd{sub x}Cr{sub 8}B{sub 4} composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, J.W.; Zheng, Z.G.; Zhong, X.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Franco, V. [Departamento Física de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Montemayor, R.; Liu, Z.W. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng, D.C., E-mail: medczeng@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-09-15

    The narrow working temperature range due to the sharp magnetic entropy change |ΔS{sub M}| peak and large thermal or magnetic hysteresis restricts the practical application of magnetocaloric materials. In this work, the table-like magnetocaloric effect (MCE) was obtained in the multilayer composite of Fe{sub 88−x}Nd{sub x}Cr{sub 8}B{sub 4} alloys with various Nd substitutions for Fe (x=5, 8, 10, 12, and 15), which were prepared by arc-melting followed by melt-spinning. The substation of Nd was found to enhance the glass-forming ability. For the alloys with Nd substitution from 5 at% to 15 at%, the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) ranged from 322 K to 350 K and the peak value of |ΔS{sub M}| remained almost constant, 3.4–3.5 J/(kg K) under an applied field of 0–5 T. The composite with various Nd contents was prepared by stocking the ribbons layer by layer. The |ΔS{sub M}| of the composite approached a nearly constant value of ∼3.2 J/(kg K) in a field change of 0–5 T in a wide temperature span over 40 K, resulting in large refrigerant capacity value of >408 J/kg. This |ΔS{sub M}| value was much larger than the previous reported Fe-based amorphous composite Fe{sub 78−x}Ce{sub x}Si{sub 4}Nb{sub 5}B{sub 12}Cu{sub 1}. This composite can be used as the working material in the Ericsson-cycle magnetic regenerative refrigerator around room temperature. - Highlights: • The T{sub C} ranges from 322 K to 350 K when increasing Nd substitution from 5 to 15 at%. • |ΔS{sub M}| remains relatively constant, about 3.4–3.5 J/(kg K) under H=0–5 T. • RC decreases from 93 to 78 J/kg in a field change of 1.5 T when Nd increasing. • Table-like MCE ,|ΔS{sub M}| ~3.2J/kg K under 0–5 T, appeared in the composite. • A wide working temperature range (40 K) and enhanced RC (>408J/kg) were obtained in the composite.

  2. Theoretical investigations on magnetocaloric effect in Er{sub 1−y}Tb{sub y}Al{sub 2} series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, P.O., E-mail: paula.ribeiro@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Alho, B.P.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Nóbrega, E.P.; Sousa, V.S.R. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, CNPEM, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Caldas, A. [Sociedade Unificada de Ensino Superior e Cultura, SUESC, 20211-351 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, N.A. de; Ranke, P.J. von [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2015-04-01

    We report on the magnetic and magnetocaloric effect calculations in rare earth Er{sub 1−y}Tb{sub y}Al{sub 2} compounds (y=0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00). Our model Hamiltonian has contributions of the crystalline electrical field anisotropy in both Er and Tb magnetic sublattices, disorder in exchange interactions among Er–Er, Tb–Tb and Er–Tb magnetic ions and the Zeeman effect. The magnetization, the isothermal entropy change (ΔS{sub T}) and the adiabatic temperature change (ΔT{sub ad}) dependence on temperature were simulated and, compared with the experimental data available. - Highlights: • Modeling Er{sub (1−y)}Tb{sub y}Al{sub 2} intermetallic compounds. • Magnetic entropy changes in Er{sub (1−y)}Tb{sub y}Al{sub 2}. • Adiabatic temperature changes in Er{sub 0.75}Tb{sub 0.25}Al{sub 2} and Er{sub 0.65}Tb{sub 0.35}Al{sub 2} compounds.

  3. Evolution of magnetostructural transition and magnetocaloric effect with Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Lifu; Hu, Fengxia; Wu, Rongrong; Wang, Jianping; Chen, Liming; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen; Li, Lain-Jong; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds has been investigated. The substitution of Al for Ge enhances Mn-Mn covalent bonding by shortening the distance of nearest Mn atom layers, and thus stabilizes the hexagonal structure. As a result, first-order magnetostructural transition between ferromagnetic martensite and paramagnetic austenite takes place for the optimized compositions (x = 0.01, 0.02). Accompanied with the magnetostructural transition, large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is observed. More doping of Al(x = 0.03, 0.04) leads to the separation of magnetic and structural transitions and remarkable reduction of MCE. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Evolution of magnetostructural transition and magnetocaloric effect with Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Lifu

    2014-01-03

    The effect of Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds has been investigated. The substitution of Al for Ge enhances Mn-Mn covalent bonding by shortening the distance of nearest Mn atom layers, and thus stabilizes the hexagonal structure. As a result, first-order magnetostructural transition between ferromagnetic martensite and paramagnetic austenite takes place for the optimized compositions (x = 0.01, 0.02). Accompanied with the magnetostructural transition, large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is observed. More doping of Al(x = 0.03, 0.04) leads to the separation of magnetic and structural transitions and remarkable reduction of MCE. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Magnetocaloric refrigeration concepts: current state of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2014-01-01

    Refrigeration devices based on the magnetocaloric effect have been prototyped in great numbers during the past decade. The search for the optimal combination of magnetic field source, regenerator geometry, magnetocaloric material composition and flow system design has resulted in a variety...

  6. Effect of Fe substitution on magnetocaloric effect in La0.7Sr0.3Mn1-xFexO3 (0.05≤x≤0.20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, S.K.; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Mahendiran, R.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the effect of Fe substitution on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in La 0.7 Sr 0.3 Mn 1-x Fe x O 3 (x=0.05, 0.07, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) over a wide temperature range (T=10-400 K). It is shown that substitution by Fe gradually decreases the ferromagnetic Curie temperature (T C ) and saturation magnetization up to x=0.15 but a dramatic change occurs for x=0.2. The x=0.2 sample can be considered as a phase separated compound in which both short-range ordered ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases coexist. The magnetic entropy change (-ΔS m ) was estimated from isothermal magnetization curves and it decreases with increase of Fe content from 4.4 J kg -1 K -1 at 343 K (x=0.05) to 1.3 J kg -1 K -1 at 105 K (x=0.2), under ΔH=5 T. The La 0.7 Sr 0.3 Mn 0.93 Fe 0.07 O 3 sample shows negligible hysteresis loss, operating temperature range over 60 K around room temperature with refrigerant capacity of 225 J kg -1 , and magnetic entropy of 4 J kg -1 K -1 which will be an interesting compound for application in room temperature refrigeration. - Research highlights: → We report magnetocaloric effect in La 0.7 Sr 0.3 Mn 1-x Fe x O 3 (x=0-0.2). → Magnetic entropy change (ΔS m ) decreases with increasing x. → A large ΔS m and refrigeration capacity are found around 300 K in x=0.07.

  7. Behavior of the magnetocaloric effect in La0.7Ba0.2Ca0.1Mn1-xSnxO3 manganite oxides as promising candidates for magnetic refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Ja.; Mnefgui, Safa; Ben Hassine, A.; Tahri, Ta.; Oumezzine, M.; Hlil, E. K.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetocaloric effect along with magnetic phase transition in the peroveskite polycrystalline samples La0.7Ba0.2Ca0.1Mn1-xSnxO3 (x = 0 and 0.1) was investigated. The samples were synthesized using conventional solid state reaction at 1400 °C temperature. Magnetization vs. temperature measurements, under a magnetic field of μ0H = 0.05 T, showed a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at Curie temperature, TC, which decreases from 310 K for x = 0-290 K for x = 0.1. A large magnetic entropy change | ΔSM | deduced from isothermal magnetization curves, has been observed in our samples with a peak centered on their respective TC. Interesting values of the relative cooling power (RCP), 237 J kg-1 for x = 0 and 248 J kg-1 x = 0.1, make these samples promising candidates for magnetic refrigeration around room temperature.

  8. Microstructure evolution and large magnetocaloric effect of La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2 alloy prepared by strip-casting and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X. C.; Feng, X. L.; Huang, J. H.; Zhang, H.; Huang, Y. L.; Liu, Z. W.; Jiao, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure and magnetocaloric effect of the La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2 strip-cast flakes annealed between 1273K and 1423K for different time have been investigated. For the flakes annealed for 2h from 1273K to 1423K, the shape and distribution of α-Fe, La-rich and NaZn13-type 1:13 phases are quite sensitive to the annealing temperature. Especially, at a high annealing temperature of 1423K, the 1:13 phase began to decompose into macroscopic α-Fe conglomerations and La-rich dendrites. With the increase of annealing time from 0 to 12h at 1323K, the amount of 1:13 phase increased significantly and reached ˜93.50 wt.% at 12h. However, an overlong annealing time also led to 1:13 phase decomposition and influenced the magnetic performance. For the flakes annealed at 1323K for 12h, large magnetic entropy change value of 18.12Jkg-1K-1 at 5T has been obtained. The present results indicate that strip casting method can potentially be used in mass production of high performance magnetocaloric materials.

  9. Magneto-thermal conduction and magneto-caloric effect in poly and nano crystalline forms of multiferroic GdCrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, S; Philip, J

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinium chromite, GdCrO 3 , belongs to the family of rare earth chromites, exhibiting multiferroism with coupling between electric polarization and magnetic ordering. It is understood that the interaction between Gd 3+ and Cr 3+ ions is responsible for switchable polarization in this system. Below Néel temperature the spins of Cr 3+ ions interact in anti-parallel through super exchange mechanism, giving rise to antiferromagnetic ordering at around 169 K in poly and nanocrystalline phases of this material. In order to understand the nature of spin–lattice coupling and magnon–phonon interaction in the intermediate temperature range (150–250 K), the magneto-thermal conduction and magneto-caloric effect in poly and nanocrystalline forms of this material are reported. These properties show anomalies around 169 K, which is described as due to spin–phonon coupling. When particle sizes are reduced to nanometer scales, thermal conductivity decreases significantly while specific heat capacity increases. The former is explained as due to reduction in phonon mean free path and phonon scattering from nanoparticle interfaces, while the latter is ascribed to contributions from Einstein oscillators at weakly bound atoms at the interfaces of nanocrystals. (paper)

  10. Reversible and irreversible magnetocaloric effect in the NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} superconductor in relation to specific heat and magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plackowski, T [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, ulica Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Wang, Y [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Lortz, R [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Junod, A [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Wolf, Th [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Postfach 3640, D-76021Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-11-02

    A recently developed technique for measuring the isothermal magnetocaloric coefficient (M{sub T}) is applied to the study of a superconducting NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} single crystal. Results are compared with magnetization (M) and specific heat (C). In the reversible region both C and M{sub T} follow the scaling law of the 3D-xy universality class. The anomalies connected with flux-line lattice melting are visible on M{sub T}(B) curves as peaks and steps, similar to C(T) curves yet with much smaller background. At lower temperature, in the irreversible region the M{sub T}(B) behaviour resembles more that of M(B), exhibiting the 'fishtail' effect. Our results confirm that the peculiarities of the phase diagram known from the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, e.g. vortex melting, dominance of critical fluctuations and absence of a B{sub c2} critical field line, are a common property of RE-123 systems.

  11. Effects of the partial substitution of Ni by Cr on the transport, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of Ni50Mn37In13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pandey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of Ni50-xCrxMn37In13 Heusler alloys have been synthesized and investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD, field and pressure dependent magnetization, and electrical resistivity measurements. The partial substitution of Ni by Cr in Ni50Mn37In13 significantly improves the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the martensitic transition (TM. This system also shows a large negative entropy change at the Curie temperature (TC, making it a candidate material for application in a refrigeration cycle that exploits both positive and negative magnetic entropy changes. The refrigeration capacity (RC values at TM and TC increase significantly by more than 20 % with Cr substitution. The application of hydrostatic pressure increases the temperature stability of the martensitic phase in Ni45Cr5Mn37In13. The influence of Cr substitution on the transport properties of Ni48Cr2Mn37In13 is discussed. An asymmetric magnetoresistance, i.e., a spin-valve-like behavior, has been observed near TM for Ni48Cr2Mn37In13.

  12. Microstructure and magnetocaloric effect in cast LaFe11.5Si1.5Bx (x=0.5, 1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Long, Y.; Cao, Q.; Mudryk, Ya.; Zou, M.; Gschneidner, K.A.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Phase formation, structure, and the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in as-cast LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 B x (x=0.5, 1.0) compounds have been studied. The Curie temperatures, T C , are ∼211 and 230 K for x=0.5 and 1.0, respectively, which are higher than that of annealed LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 (T C =183 K), while the maximum magnetic entropy changes at the respective T C under a magnetic field change of 0-5 T are 7.8 and 5.8 J/(kg K). Wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS) analysis shows that only a small fraction of boron atoms is dissolved in the NaZn 13 -type structure phase, and that the compositions of the as-cast LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 B x (x=0.5, 1.0) alloys are much different from the intended nominal compositions. These as-cast alloys exhibit second-order magnetic phase transitions and low MCEs. However, based on the relative cooling power, the as-cast LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 B x alloys are promising candidates for magnetic refrigerants over a wide temperature range.

  13. Pressure effects in the giant magnetocaloric compounds Gd.sub.5./sub.(Si.sub.x./sub.Ge.sub.1 - x./sub.).sub.4./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morellon, L.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Algarabel, P. A.; Magen, C.; Ibarra, M. R.; Skorokhod, Yuriy

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2004), s. 1623-1630 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943 Grant - others:CICYT(ES) MAT2000-1756 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetocaloric effect * high pressure * Gd 5 Si 4-x Ge x * magnetic transitions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.049, year: 2004

  14. Large rotating magnetocaloric effect in ErAlO3 single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of ErAlO3 single crystal were investigated. Magnetization of ErAlO3 shows obvious anisotropy when magnetic field is applied along the a, b and c axes, which leads to large anisotropic magnetic entropy change. In particular, large rotating field entropy change from the b to c axis within the bc plane is obtained and reaches 9.7 J/kg K at 14 K in a field of 5 T. This suggests the possibility of using ErAlO3 single crystal for magnetic refrigerators by rotating its magnetization vector rather than moving it in and out of the magnet.

  15. Adiabatic physics of an exchange-coupled spin-dimer system: Magnetocaloric effect, zero-point fluctuations, and possible two-dimensional universal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambleby, J.; Goddard, P. A.; Singleton, John; Jaime, Marcelo; Lancaster, T.

    2017-01-01

    We present the magnetic and thermal properties of the bosonic-superfluid phase in a spin-dimer network using both quasistatic and rapidly changing pulsed magnetic fields. The entropy derived from a heat-capacity study reveals that the pulsed-field measurements are strongly adiabatic in nature and are responsible for the onset of a significant magnetocaloric effect (MCE). In contrast to previous predictions we show that the MCE is not just confined to the critical regions, but occurs for all fields greater than zero at sufficiently low temperatures. We explain the MCE using a model of the thermal occupation of exchange-coupled dimer spin states and highlight that failure to take this effect into account inevitably leads to incorrect interpretations of experimental results. In addition, the heat capacity in our material is suggestive of an extraordinary contribution from zero-point fluctuations and appears to indicate universal behavior with different critical exponents at the two field-induced critical points. Finally, the data at the upper critical point, combined with the layered structure of the system, are consistent with a two-dimensional nature of spin excitations in the system.

  16. High performance magnetocaloric perovskites for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian R. H.; Velazquez, David; Nielsen, Kaspar K.

    2012-01-01

    We have applied mixed valance manganite perovskites as magnetocaloric materials in a magnetic refrigeration device. Relying on exact control of the composition and a technique to process the materials into single adjoined pieces, we have observed temperature spans above 9 K with two materials...

  17. Phase formation kinetics, hardness and magnetocaloric effect of sub-rapidly solidified LaFe11.6Si1.4 plates during isothermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yuting; Xu, Zhishuai; Luo, Zhiping; Han, Ke; Zhai, Qijie; Zheng, Hongxing

    2018-05-01

    High-temperature phase transition behavior and intrinsic brittleness of NaZn13-type τ1 phase in La-Fe-Si magnetocaloric materials are two key problems from the viewpoint of materials production and practical applications. In the present work, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation was introduced to quantitatively characterize the formation kinetics of τ1 phase in sub-rapidly solidified LaFe11.6Si1.4 plates during the isothermal annealing process. Avrami index was estimated to be 0.43 (∼0.5), which suggests that the formation of τ1 phase is in a diffusion-controlled one-dimensional growth mode. Meanwhile, it is found that the Vickers hardness as a function of annealing time for sub-rapidly solidified plates also agrees well with the JMAK equation. The Vickers hardness of τ1 phase was estimated to be about 754. Under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe, the maximum magnetic entropy change was about 22.31 J/(kg·K) for plates annealed at 1323 K for 48 h, and the effective magnetic refrigeration capacity reached 191 J/kg.

  18. Table-like magnetocaloric effect in Gd{sub 56}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 27}Zr{sub 2} alloy and its field independence feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agurgo Balfour, E.; Ma, Z.; Fu, H., E-mail: fuhao@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: rockingsandstorm@163.com; Wang, L.; Luo, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Wang, S. F., E-mail: fuhao@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: rockingsandstorm@163.com [North Electronic Device Research Institute, Beijing 100141 (China)

    2015-09-28

    In order to obtain “table-like” magnetocaloric effect (MCE), multiple-phase Gd{sub 56}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 27}Zr{sub 2} alloy was prepared by arc-melting followed by suck-casting method. Powder x-ray diffraction and calorimetric measurements reveal that the sample contains both glassy and crystalline phases. The fraction of the glassy phase is about 62%, estimated from the heat enthalpy of the crystallization. The crystalline phases, Gd{sub 2}Al and GdNiAl further broadened the relatively wider magnetic entropy change (−ΔS{sub M}) peak of the amorphous phase, which resulted in the table-like MCE over a maximum temperature range of 52.5 K to 77.5 K. The plateau feature of the MCE was found to be nearly independent of the applied magnetic field from 3 T to 5 T. The maximum −ΔS{sub M} value of the MCE platforms is 6.0 J/kg K under applied magnetic field change of 5 T. Below 3 T, the field independence of the table-like feature disappears. The relatively large constant values of −ΔS{sub M} for the respective applied magnetic fields have promising applications in magnetic refrigeration using regenerative Ericsson cycle.

  19. Glass formation ability, structure and magnetocaloric effect of a heavy rare-earth bulk metallic glassy Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, C.-L. [Shanghai University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanchang Road 149, Zhabei District, 200072 Shanghai (China)], E-mail: jochollong@163.com; Xia Lei; Ding Ding; Dong Yuanda; Gracien, Ekoko [Shanghai University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanchang Road 149, Zhabei District, 200072 Shanghai (China)

    2008-06-30

    The glass formation ability, the structure and the magnetocaloric effect of the bulk metallic glassy Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} alloy were investigated. Bulk metallic glassy (BMGs) alloys were prepared by a copper-mold casting method. The glass forming ability and their structure were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The XRD analysis revealed that the as-cast cylinder of Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} alloy showed fully amorphous structure in 2 mm diameter. The DSC revealed that the bulk cylinder of the Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} alloy showed a distinct glass transition temperature and a relatively wide supercooled liquid region before crystallization. SQUID investigated the magnetic properties and the entropy changes. The Curie temperature of Gd{sub 55}Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 20} BMGs alloy was about 130 K, but the maximum magnetic entropy changes(-{delta}S{sub M}) showed at about 125 K, a little lower than the Curie temperature 130 K. The reason could probably be due to the presence of a little amount of nanocrystalline particles between amorphous phases. The BMG alloy has the characteristic of second-order transition (SOT) on Arrott plots. The results showed that the amorphous sample had a relatively improved magnetocaloric effect, indicating that the amorphous alloy could be considered as a candidate for magnetic refrigeration applications in the temperature interval range of 100-200 K.

  20. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in the HoNi1−xCuxIn (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4) intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Zhao-Jun; Shen, Jun; Yan, Li-Qin; Tang, Cheng-Chun; He, Xiao-Nan; Zheng, Xinqi; Wu, Jian-Feng; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in HoNi 1−x Cu x In (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4) compounds have been investigated. With the substitution of Cu for Ni, the Ho magnetic moment will cant from the c-axis, and form a complicated magnetic structure. These compounds exhibit two successive magnetic transitions with the increase in temperature. The large reversible magnetocaloric effects have been observed in HoNi 1−x Cu x In compounds around T ord , with no thermal and magnetic hysteresis loss. The large reversible isothermal magnetic entropy change (−ΔS M ) is 20.2 J/kg K and the refrigeration capacity (RC) reaches 356.7 J/kg for field changes of 5 T for HoNi 0.7 Cu 0.3 In. Especially, the value of −ΔS M (12.5 J/kg K) and the large RC (132 J/kg) are observed for field changes of 2 T for HoNi 0.9 Cu 0.1 In. Additionally, the values of RC are improved to 149 J/K for the field changes of 2 T due to a wide temperature span for the mix of HoNi 0.9 Cu 0.1 In and HoNi 0.7 Cu 0.3 In compounds with the mass ratio of 1:1. These compounds with excellent MCE are expected to have effective applications in magnetic refrigeration around 20 K. - Highlights: • For magnetic-field changes of 2 T, the values of RC are improved to 149 J/K. • MCEs of these compounds show no thermal and magnetic hysteresis. • Compounds show two successive magnetic transitions with the increase in temperature. • With the substitution of Cu for Ni, compounds form a complicated magnetic structure

  1. Magnetocaloric effect and corrosion resistance of La(Fe, Si)13 composite plates bonded by different fraction of phenolic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K. S.; Xue, J. N.; Wang, Y. X.; Sun, H.; Long, Y.

    2018-04-01

    La(Fe, Si)13-based composite plates were successfully fabricated using different amount of phenolic resin. The introduction of phenolic resin as binder increased the corrosion resistance and maintained giant magnetocaloric effect for La(Fe, Si)13-based composite plates. It was found that corroded spots were firstly observed on the boundaries between resin and La(Fe, Si)13 particles, rather than in La(Fe, Si)13-based particles, after being immersed in static distilled water. The corrosion rate decreased significantly with the increase of resin content. And the increase of the content of phenolic resin leads to the reduction of corrosion current density. Meanwhile, the volumetric magnetic entropy change ΔSM decreases slightly as the content of phenolic resin increases. The ΔSM of the plates with 3 wt.%, 5 wt.% and 8 wt.% resin are 63.1, 61.2 and 59.8 mJ/cm3 K under a low magnetic field change of 1 T, respectively.

  2. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of martensitic Ni2Mn1.4Sn0.6 Heusler alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernenko, Volodymyr A.; Barandiarán, Jose M.; Rodriguez Fernández, Jesus; Rojas, Daniel P.; Gutiérrez, Jon; Lázpita, Patricia; Orue, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    The evolutions of magnetic properties at low temperatures and the influence of magnetic field on the temperature dependence of specific heat in martensitic Ni 2 Mn 1.4 Sn 0.6 Heusler alloy are studied. The frequency-dependent blocking temperature and considerable exchange bias below it are measured in the martensitic phase. From the analysis of the specific heat curves under magnetic field, a large inverse magnetocaloric effect manifested as the magnetic field induced rise of isothermal magnetic entropy and/or magnetic field induced adiabatic temperature decrease in the vicinity of the reverse magnetostructural transformation and a significant value of the conventional magnetocaloric effect at the Curie temperature are obtained. The Debye temperature and electronic coefficient equal to Θ D =310±2 K and γ= 16.6±0.3 mJ/K 2 mol, respectively, do not depend on the magnetic field.

  3. Magnetocaloric effects in Mn1.35Fe0.65P1−xSix compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yao-Xiang; Tegus O; Bi Li-Ge

    2012-01-01

    The structural and magnetocaloric properties of Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 1−x Si x compounds are investigated. The Si-substituted compounds, Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 1−x Si x with x = 0.52, 0.54, 0.55, 0.56, and 0.57, are prepared by high-energy ball milling and the solid-state reaction. The X-ray diffraction shows that the compounds crystallize into the Fe 2 P-type hexagonal structure with space group P6-bar2m. The magnetic measurements show that the Curie temperature of the compound increases from 253 K for x = 0.52 to 296 K for x = 0.56. The isothermal magnetic-entropy change of the Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 1−x Si x compound decreases with the Si content increasing. The maximal value of the magnetic-entropy change is about 7.0 J/kg·K in the Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 0.48 Si 0.52 compound with a field change of 1.5 T. The compound quenched in water possesses a larger magnetic entropy change and a smaller thermal hysteresis than the non-quenched samples. The thermal hysteresis of the compound is less than 3.5 K. The maximum adiabatic temperature change is about 1.4 K in the Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 0.45 Si 0.55 compound with a field change of 1.48 T. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Investigation of magnetocaloric effect in La{sub 0.45}Pr{sub 0.25}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} by magnetic, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparnadevi, M; Barik, S K [Department of Physics, 2 Science Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore-117 452 (Singapore); Mahendiran, R [Department of Physics, 2 Science Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore-117 452 (Singapore)

    2012-10-15

    We investigated magnetocaloric effect in La{sub 0.45}Pr{sub 0.25}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} by direct methods (changes in temperature and latent heat) and indirect method (magnetization isotherms). This compound undergoes a first-order paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition with T{sub C}=200 K upon cooling. The paramagnetic phase becomes unstable and it transforms into a ferromagnetic phase under the application of magnetic field, which results in a field-induced metamagnetic transition (FIMMT). The FIMMT is accompanied by release of latent heat and temperature of the sample as evidenced from differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis experiments. A large magnetic entropy change of {Delta}S{sub m}=-7.2 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} at T=212.5 K and refrigeration capacity of 228 J kg{sup -1} are found for a field change of {Delta}H=5 T. It is suggested that destruction of magnetic polarons and growth of ferromagnetic phase accompanied by a lattice volume change with increasing magnetic field is responsible for the large magnetocaloric effect in this compound. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report magnetic entropy change measured by indirect and direct methods in La{sub 0.45}Pr{sub 0.25}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3.} Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous field-induced induced metamagnetic transition is found in the paramagnetic state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large reversible magnetic entropy change ({Delta}S{sub m}=7.2 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} for {Delta}H=5 T). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large refrigeration capacity (RC=228 J kg{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collapse of magnetic polarons is suggested as possible origin of the large MCE.

  5. Investigation of magnetocaloric effect in La0.45Pr0.25Ca0.3MnO3 by magnetic, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparnadevi, M.; Barik, S.K.; Mahendiran, R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated magnetocaloric effect in La 0.45 Pr 0.25 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 by direct methods (changes in temperature and latent heat) and indirect method (magnetization isotherms). This compound undergoes a first-order paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition with T C =200 K upon cooling. The paramagnetic phase becomes unstable and it transforms into a ferromagnetic phase under the application of magnetic field, which results in a field-induced metamagnetic transition (FIMMT). The FIMMT is accompanied by release of latent heat and temperature of the sample as evidenced from differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis experiments. A large magnetic entropy change of ΔS m =−7.2 J kg −1 K −1 at T=212.5 K and refrigeration capacity of 228 J kg −1 are found for a field change of ΔH=5 T. It is suggested that destruction of magnetic polarons and growth of ferromagnetic phase accompanied by a lattice volume change with increasing magnetic field is responsible for the large magnetocaloric effect in this compound. - Highlights: ► We report magnetic entropy change measured by indirect and direct methods in La 0.45 Pr 0.25 Ca 0.3 MnO 3. ► Anomalous field-induced induced metamagnetic transition is found in the paramagnetic state. ► A large reversible magnetic entropy change (ΔS m =7.2 J kg −1 K −1 for ΔH=5 T). ► A large refrigeration capacity (RC=228 J kg −1 ). ► Collapse of magnetic polarons is suggested as possible origin of the large MCE.

  6. Coupled magnetostructural transition in Ni-Mn-V-Ga Heusler alloys and its effect on the magnetocaloric and transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarajan, U; Kannan, M; Thiyagarajan, R; Arumugam, S; Manivel Raja, M; Rama Rao, N V; Singh, Sanjay; Venkateshwarlu, D; Ganesan, V; Ohashi, M

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the magnetocaloric and transport properties of Ni 2.2 Mn 0.72−x V x Ga 1.08 (x  =  0.0, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12) magnetic shape memory alloys are investigated. The alloys show a coupled magnetostructural transition from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite in a composition range of 0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.08. For higher V substitution (x  =  0.12), the martensite transition is lower than the conventional ferromagnetic transition. Large magnetic entropy change values of about 12.4, 16.2 and 19 J kg −1 K −1 and corresponding refrigeration capacities of 60.6, 82.5, and 103 J kg −1 were observed for x  =  0, 0.04 and 0.08 alloys, respectively. The above two parameters linearly increase with increasing magnetic field. The indirect adiabatic temperature change calculated from the heat capacity measurement is found to be at its maximum for x  =  0.12 at H  =  8 T. The magnetoresistance is observed to increase from 0% (x  =  0.12) to 28% (x  =  0) at the maximum field of 8 T. The Sommerfeld coefficients are almost the same for the parent and a V-doped sample, which reveals a low free electron density, and the Debye coefficients decrease with an increase in V doping, confirming the phenomenon of electron–phonon scattering. The critical exponents at second order magnetic transition for x  = 0.12 are calculated as β  =  0.482, γ  =  1.056, δ  =  3.021, which agrees closely with mean field theory. (paper)

  7. Effect of Fe substitution on the structure and magnetocaloric effect of Mn{sub 5−x}Fe{sub x}GeSi{sub 2} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.W.; Yan, J.L., E-mail: yjl@gxu.edu.cn; Feng, E.L.; Tang, G.W.; Zhou, K.W.

    2017-01-15

    The structure and magnetocaloric effect of Mn{sub 5−x}Fe{sub x}GeSi{sub 2} compounds were studied. Analysis of X-ray powder diffraction and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy revealed that Mn{sub 5−x}Fe{sub x}GeSi{sub 2} alloys with x<1 crystallize in the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure (space group P6{sub 3}/mcm), maintaining the structure of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}; and alloys with x=1.5 and 2 consist of the major Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type phase and the minor Ni{sub 2}In-type phase (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc). The results of Rietveld refinement showed that the cell parameters for the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type phase decrease with increasing Fe content. The positive slopes in Arrott plots indicate that a second-order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition occurs. The Curie temperature increases with increasing Fe content from 182 K for x=0.6 to 224 K for x=2. The maximum magnetic entropy change of 3.7 J/(kg K) for x=0.8 was found under a magnetic field change of 0–20 kOe. - Highlights: • Mn{sub 5−x}Fe{sub x}GeSi{sub 2} alloys with x<1 crystallize in the hexagonal Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. Alloys with x=1.5 and 2 consist of a major Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type phase and a secondary Ni{sub 2}In-type phase. • The cell parameters decrease and the Curie temperature increases with increasing x in Mn{sub 5−x}Fe{sub x}GeSi{sub 2} alloys. • The maximum -∆S{sub M} of 3.7 J/(kg K) and RCP of 211 J/kg for x=0.8 was found under a magnetic field change of 0–20 kOe.

  8. Effect of Fe substitution on magnetocaloric effect in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} (0.05{<=}x{<=}0.20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S K; Krishnamoorthi, C [Department of Physics and NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, 2 Science Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542, Singapore. (Singapore); Mahendiran, R [Department of Physics and NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, 2 Science Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542, Singapore. (Singapore)

    2011-04-15

    We have studied the effect of Fe substitution on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.05, 0.07, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) over a wide temperature range (T=10-400 K). It is shown that substitution by Fe gradually decreases the ferromagnetic Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and saturation magnetization up to x=0.15 but a dramatic change occurs for x=0.2. The x=0.2 sample can be considered as a phase separated compound in which both short-range ordered ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases coexist. The magnetic entropy change (-{Delta}S{sub m}) was estimated from isothermal magnetization curves and it decreases with increase of Fe content from 4.4 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} at 343 K (x=0.05) to 1.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} at 105 K (x=0.2), under {Delta}H=5 T. The La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.93}Fe{sub 0.07}O{sub 3} sample shows negligible hysteresis loss, operating temperature range over 60 K around room temperature with refrigerant capacity of 225 J kg{sup -1}, and magnetic entropy of 4 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} which will be an interesting compound for application in room temperature refrigeration. - Research highlights: > We report magnetocaloric effect in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0-0.2). > Magnetic entropy change ({Delta}S{sub m}) decreases with increasing x. > A large {Delta}S{sub m} and refrigeration capacity are found around 300 K in x=0.07.

  9. Study of Magnetocaloric Cooling for Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-12

    The AMR bed, made of stainless steel 304, encloses the magnetocaloric working substance. Each part of the refrigerator is controlled by the...prototype is composed of magnetic field, hydraulic circuit, stainless steel AMR bed and control system. There are various sensors for measuring...DSC and VSM results show that the martensitic transition temperatures of Ni-Co-Mn-Sn decreased with increasing Co content. Co substitution resulted in

  10. Tuning of magnetocaloric effect in a La.sub.0.69./sub.Ca.sub.0.31./sub.MnO.sub.3./sub. single crystal by pressure,

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sun, Y.; Kamarád, Jiří; Arnold, Zdeněk; Kou, Z.; Cheng, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 10 (2006), 102505/1-102505/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/06/0368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetocaloric effect * pressure effect * manganites * single crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.977, year: 2006

  11. Pressure effects in the giant magnetocaloric compounds Gd5(SixGe1-x)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morellon, L; Arnold, Z; Algarabel, P A; Magen, C; Ibarra, M R; Skorokhod, Y

    2004-01-01

    We report a study of the effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 9 kbar on selected compounds of the Gd 5 (Si x Ge 1-x ) 4 series (x = 0.8, 0.45, 0.1) by means of ac magnetic susceptibility, compressibility, and linear thermal expansion measurements. The pressure-induced increase of the transition temperatures at the second-order boundaries of the phase diagram is rather moderate: dT C /dP ∼ +0.3Kk-bar -1 (x = 0.8) and dT N /P ∼+0.7Kkbar -1 (x = 0.1). This effect is stronger in the 0 C /dP ∼ +3 Kk-bar -1 (x = 0.45,0.1), indicating that the ferromagnetic ordering can be simultaneously driven through a pressure-induced structural transformation. The values of d lnT C /d lnV calculated with the use of the measured value of compressibility (k ∼1.8 M-bar -1 ) are significantly lower than those estimated from the concentration dependence of the lattice cell volume, thus demonstrating that the dependence of the transition temperatures upon changing the Si/Ge ratio across the series cannot be explained by a pure volume effect

  12. Magnetic field dependence of Griffith phase and magnetocaloric effect in Ca0.85Dy0.15MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Ripan; Sarkar, Bidyut; Pal, Sudipta

    2018-03-01

    Temperature and Magnetic field dependent magnetization properties of electron doped polycrystalline sample Ca0.85Dy0.15MnO3 (CDMO) prepared by solid state reaction method have been studied. The sample undergoes ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition at about 111k. From the study of magnetic properties in terms of Arrot plots it is observed that the phase transition is of 2nd order. The Griffith phase behavior of the sample is suppressed with the increase of the applied magnetic field strength H. We have estimated the magnetic entropy change from experimental magnetization and temperature data. For a magnetic field change of 8000 Oe, the maximum value of magnetic entropy change arrives at a value of 1.126 J-kg-1 k-1 in this magnetocaloric material.

  13. Toward a better understanding of the magnetocaloric effect: An experimental and theoretical study of MnFe{sub 4}Si{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdon, Olivier, E-mail: gourdono@lanl.gov [Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center, National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Gottschlich, Michael; Persson, Joerg [Jülich Center for Neutron Science JCNS-2 and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI-4, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich 52425 Jülich (Germany); Cruz, Clarina de la [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Petricek, Vaclav [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); McGuire, Michael A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Brückel, Thomas [Jülich Center for Neutron Science JCNS-2 and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI-4, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The intermetallic compound MnFe{sub 4}Si{sub 3} has been studied by high-resolution Time of Flight (TOF) neutron powder diffraction. MnFe{sub 4}Si{sub 3} crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/mcm with lattice constants of a=b=6.8043(4) Å and c=4.7254(2) Å at 310 K. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show clearly the magnetic transition from paramagnetism to ferromagnetism at about 302(2) K. Magnetic structure refinements based on neutron powder diffraction data with and without external magnetic field reveal strong evidence on the origin of the large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in this material as a partial reordering of the spins between ∼270 K and 300 K. In addition, electronic structure calculations using the self-consistent, spin-polarized Tight Binding-Linear MuffinTin Orbital (TB-LMTO) method were also accomplished to address the “coloring problem” (Mn/Fe site preference) as well as the unique ferromagnetic behavior of this intermetallic compound. - Graphical abstract: Theoretical and experimental reinvestigation of the magnetic structure of MnFe{sub 4}Si{sub 3} for a better understanding of its large magnetocaloric effect (MCE). - Highlights: • Strong magnetic transition from paramagnetism to ferromagnetism at about 302(2) K. • MCE associated to a partial reordering of the spins between ∼270 K and 300 K. • DFT calculations show strong relation between MCE and spintronic materials.

  14. Martensitic transition, inverse magnetocaloric effect and shape memory characteristics in Mn{sub 48−x}Cu{sub x}Ni{sub 42}Sn{sub 10} Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changqin [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Li, Zhe [Reasearch center for magnetic materials and devices & Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional and Low Dimensional Materials of Yunnan Higher Education Institute, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China); Zhang, Yuanlei [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Reasearch center for magnetic materials and devices & Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional and Low Dimensional Materials of Yunnan Higher Education Institute, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China); Liu, Yang; Sun, Junkun; Huang, Yinsheng; Kang, Baojuan [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Xu, Kun [Reasearch center for magnetic materials and devices & Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional and Low Dimensional Materials of Yunnan Higher Education Institute, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China); Deng, Dongmei [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Jing, Chao, E-mail: cjing@staff.shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we have systematically prepared a serials of polycrystalline Mn{sub 48−x}Cu{sub x}Ni{sub 42}Sn{sub 10} alloys (x=0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12) and investigated the influence of the Cu doping on martensitic transition (MT) as well as magnetic properties. Experimental results indicate that the MT temperature and the martensite Curie temperature (T{sub c}{sup M}) shift to high temperature with increasing the substitution of Cu (from Mn rich alloy to Ni rich alloy), while the austenite Curie temperature (T{sub c}{sup A}) is almost unchanged. It was found that the structures undergo L2{sub 1} and 4O with the increasing of Cu concentration near room temperature. Therefore, the magnetostructural transition can be tuned by appropriate Cu doping in these alloys. Moreover, we mainly studied the multiple functional properties for inverse magnetocaloric effect and shape memory characteristics associated with the martensitic transition. A large positive isothermal entropy change of Mn{sub 48}Ni{sub 42}Sn{sub 10} was obtained, and the maximum transition entropy change achieves about 48 J/kg K as x=8. In addition, a considerable temperature-induced spontaneous strain with the value of 0.16% was obtained for Mn{sub 48}Ni{sub 42}Sn{sub 10} alloys.

  15. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect tuning efficiency in Ni-Mn-Sn alloy ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Nedelcos, A.; Sánchez Llamazares, J. L.; Daniel-Perez, G.

    2017-11-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effect of microstructure on the magnetic entropy change of Ni50Mn37Sn13 ribbon alloys. Unchanged sample composition and cell parameter of austenite allowed us to study strictly the correlation between the average grain size and the total magnetic field induced entropy change (ΔST). We found that a size-dependent martensitic transformation tuning results in a wide temperature range tailoring (>40 K) of the magnetic entropy change with a reasonably small variation on the peak value of the total field induced entropy change. The peak values varied from 6.0 J kg-1 K-1 to 7.7 J kg-1 K-1 for applied fields up to 2 T. Different tuning efficiencies obtained by diverse MCE tailoring approaches are compared to highlight the advantages of the herein proposed mechanism.

  16. Some Aspects of Scaling and Universality in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect of a magnetic material is characterized by two quantities, the isothermal entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change, both of which are functions of temperature and applied magnetic field. We discuss the scaling properties of these quantities close to a second...... order phase transition within the context of critical scaling theory. In the critical region the isothermal entropy change will exhibit universal scaling exponents. However, this is only true close to Tc and for small fields; we show that for finite fields the scaling exponents in general become field...... dependent, even at Tc. Furthermore, the scaling exponents at finite fields are not universal: Two models with the same critical exponents can exhibit markedly different scaling behaviour even at relatively low fields. Turning to the adiabatic temperature change, we argue that it is not determined...

  17. Magnetocaloric properties of Gd in fields up to 14 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkid' ko, Yu.S. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Ćwik, J., E-mail: jacek.cwik@ml.pan.wroc.pl [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Ivanova, T.I.; Nikitin, S.A. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Miller, M. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Rogacki, K. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Institute of Low Temperatures and Structure Research, PAS, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • MCE of Gd in fields up to 14 T. • Extraction. • MCE described in terms of the Landau theory. - Abstract: The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of polycrystalline gadolinium was studied in high steady magnetic fields up to 14 T by direct measurements of the adiabatic temperature change (ΔT) using an “extraction method”. Large MCE was observed at the ferromagnetic phase transition resulting in ΔT of 19.5 K at a field change of 14 T. The direct measurements of MCE were performed using the measuring system designed and constructed by the authors. It was shown that near the Curie temperature, the magnetic field dependence of the adiabatic temperature change is far from saturation even in a 14 T field and is adequately described by the thermodynamic Landau theory for magnetic second-order phase transitions.

  18. Design, fabrication and thermal characterization of a magnetocaloric microcooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.; Ghirlanda, S.; Adams, C.; Bethala, B.; Sambandam, S.N.; Bhansali, S. [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., ENB118, Tampa, FL 33620, (United States)

    2006-12-11

    Magnetocaloric cooling is an alternative, high-efficiency cooling technology. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of a micromachined magnetocaloric cooler and demonstrate its ability to work in a small magnetic field (<1.2 T) with a cooling test. The cooler was built by fabricating Si microfluidic channels, and it was integrated with a Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}) magnetocaloric refrigeration element. The magnetic properties of the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}) material were characterized to calculate the magnetic entropy change at different ambient temperatures. Three different methods to integrate the channel layer and the magnetocaloric element were evaluated to test sealing and cooling performance. The cooling tests were performed by providing a magnetic field using an electromagnet. A test jig was constructed between the poles of an electromagnet to maintain a steady temperature during the test. Cooling tests were performed on the magnetocaloric element at ambient temperatures ranging from 258 to 280 K using a magnetic field of 1.2 T. Experimental results showed a maximum temperature change of 7 K on the magnetocaloric element alone at an ambient temperature of 258 K. Cooling tests of the fully integrated coolers were also performed. A solution of anti-freeze fluid (propylene glycol) and water was used as the coolant. The temperature of the working fluid decreased by 4.6 and 9 K for the glass and Si intermediate layers, respectively, confirming that the thermal conductivity of the materials is also an important factor in cooler performance. (Author)

  19. Enhancement of Magnetocaloric Effect in ({ {La}}_{0.67}{ {Ca}}_{0.33}{ {MnO}}_{3})/({ {La}}_{0.7}{ {Ba}}_{0.3}{ {MnO}}_{3}) ( La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 ) / ( La 0.7 Ba 0.3 MnO 3 ) Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelifi, J.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.

    2018-03-01

    The composite (La_{0.67}Ca_{0.33}MnO3)/La_{0.7}Ba_{0.3}MnO3) sample was prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction method, and their crystallographic structure was achieved by X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. The magnetic and magnetocaloric effect has been studied by magnetization measurements. Based on the relation: χ ^{-1}(T)∝ (T-T_C^Rand )^{1-λ }, the inverse of susceptibility shows a downturn before T_C indicating the existence of Griffiths phase for the temperature range T_C^Randphase has been obtained from detailed magnetization studies. Furthermore, a large magnetic entropy change is observed in (La_{0.67}Ca_{0.33}MnO3)/(La_{0.7}Ba_{0.3}MnO3) composite which possesses a large MCE characterized by two Δ S_M(T) peaks. It has revealed that the combination of manganite materials with different Curie temperatures is a possible method for enhancement of magnetocaloric effect. To determine the field dependence of the experimental Δ S_M(T), a local exponent n( T, H) can be calculated from the logarithmic derivative of the magnetic entropy change versus field; it is shown that for a multiphase system n evolves with field both at the Curie temperature of the system and at the Curie temperatures of the constituent phases.

  20. Materials Challenges for High Performance Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Magnetocaloric materials with a Curie temperature near room temperature have attracted signifi cant interest for some time due to their possible application for high-effi ciency refrigeration devices. This review focuses on a number of key issues of relevance for the characterization, performance....... The question of how to evaluate the suitability of a given material for use in a magnetocaloric device is covered in some detail, including a critical assessment of a number of common performance metrics. Of particular interest is which non-magnetocaloric properties need to be considered in this connection....... An overview of several important materials classes is given before considering the performance of materials in actual devices. Finally, an outlook on further developments is presented....

  1. Integration of a magnetocaloric heat pump in a low-energy residential building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johra, Hicham; Filonenko, Konstantin; Heiselberg, Per

    2018-01-01

    magnetocaloric effect of a solid refrigerant to build a cooling/heating cycle. It has the potential for high coefficient of performance, more silent operation and efficient part-load control. After presenting the operation principles of the magnetocaloric device and the different models used in the current...

  2. Critical behavior of Y-doped Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 manganites exhibiting the tricritical point and large magnetocaloric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, The-Long; Ho, T.A.; Thang, P.D.; Tran, Q.T.; Thanh, T.D.; Phuc, N.X.; Phan, M.H.; Huy, B.T.; Yu, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tricritical point in Y-doped Nd 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 manganites. • A large magnetic-entropy change. • Magnetic inhomogeneity and phase separation. - Abstract: We have determined the values of critical exponents of two polycrystalline samples (Nd 1−x Y x ) 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (x = 0 and 0.07) from the magnetization data versus temperature and magnetic field, M(H, T), to learn about their magnetic and magnetocaloric (MC) properties. The results reveal the samples exhibiting the crossover of first-order and second-order phase transitions, where the exponent values β = 0.271 and γ = 0.922 for x = 0, and β = 0.234–0.236 and γ = 1.044–1.063 for x = 0.07 determined by using modified Arrott plots and static-scaling hypothesis are close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory (β = 0.25 and γ = 1.0). Particularly, the T C of x = 0 and 0.07 can be any value in the temperature ranges of 240–255 K and 170–278 K, respectively, depending on the magnitude of applied magnetic field and determination techniques. Around the T C , studying the MC effect of the samples has revealed a large magnetic-entropy change (ΔS m ) up to ∼8 J/kg K for the applied field interval ΔH = 50 kOe, corresponding to refrigerant capacity values of 200–245 J/kg. These phenomena are related to the crossover nature and the persisting of FM/anti-FM interactions even above the T C , as further confirmed by electron-spin-resonance data, Curie–Weiss law-based analyses, and an exponential parameter characteristic of magnetic order n = dLn|ΔS m |/dLnH

  3. Magnetocaloric effect of Gd5 Si2 Ge2 alloys in low magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Gd5Si2Ge2 compounds are promising as high-performance magnetic refrigerants working room temperature in relatively low ... 2000) as well as their magnetic properties (Pecharsky ... tron microscope (SEM) with the energy dispersive X-ray.

  4. Effect of Si/Ge ratio on resistivity and thermopower in Gd{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} magnetocaloric compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Kumar, D.M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Manivel Raja, M., E-mail: mraja@dmrl.drdo.i [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabahar, K.; Chandrasekaran, V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Poddar, Asok; Ranganathan, R. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Suresh, K.G. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The effect of Si/Ge ratio on resistivity and thermopower behavior has been investigated in the magnetocaloric ferromagnetic Gd{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} compounds with x=1.7-2.3. Microstructural studies reveal the presence of Gd{sub 5}(Si,Ge){sub 4}-matrix phase (5:4-type) along with traces of secondary phases (5:5 or 5:3-type). The x=1.7 and 2.0 samples display the presence of a first order structural transition from orthorhombic to monoclinic phase followed by a magnetic transition of the monoclinic phase. The alloys with x=2.2 and 2.3 display only magnetic transitions of the orthorhombic phase. A low temperature feature apparent in the AC susceptibility and resistivity data below 100 K reflects an antiferromagnetic transition of secondary phase(s) present in these compounds. The resistivity behavior study correlates with microstructural studies. A large change in thermopower of -8 {mu}V/K was obtained at the magneto-structural transition for the x=2 compound. - Research highlights: Effect of Si/Ge ratio on microstructure, magneto-structural transitions, resistivity ({rho}) and thermopower S(T) behaviour has been investigated in Gd{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} compounds with x=1.7, 2.0, 2.2 and 2.3. Microstructural studies reveal the presence of a Gd{sub 5}(Si,Ge){sub 4} -matrix phase (5:4-type) along with traces of secondary phases (5:5 or 5:3-type). The resistivity behaviour has shown good correlation with the microstructural studies. A large change in thermopower of -8{mu}V/K was obtained at the magneto-structural transition for the x=2 compound. The resistivity and change in thermopower values were high for the alloys with Si/Ge ratio {<=}1 compared to that of the alloys with Si/Ge ratio >1.

  5. Large magnetocaloric effect of NdGa compound due to successive magnetic transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X. Q.; Xu, J. W.; Shao, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, S. G.; Xu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. C.; Chen, J.; Shen, B. G.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic behavior and MCE property of NdGa compound were studied in detail. According to the temperature dependence of magnetization (M-T) curve at 0.01 T, two sharp changes were observed at 20 K (TSR) and 42 K (TC), respectively, corresponding to spin reorientation and FM-PM transition. Isothermal magnetization curves up to 5 T at different temperatures were measured and magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) was calculated based on M-H data. Temperature dependences of -ΔSM for a field change of 0-2 T and 0-5 T show that there are two peaks on the curves corresponding to TSR and TC, respectively. The value of the two peaks is 6.4 J/kg K and 15.5 J/kg K for the field change of 0-5 T. Since the two peaks are close, the value of -ΔSM in the temperature range between TSR and TC keeps a large value. The excellent MCE performance of NdGa compound benefits from the existence of two successive magnetic transitions.

  6. Magnetocaloric heat pump device, a heating or cooling system and a magnetocaloric heat pump assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a magnetocaloric heat pump device, comprising a magnetocaloric bed; a magnetic field source, the magnetocaloric bed and the magnetic field source being arranged to move relative to each other so as to generate a magnetocaloric refrigeration cycle within the heat pump, wherein...

  7. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of HoCo3B2 compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A sample of HoCo3B2 compound was synthesized, and the magnetic and MCE properties were investigated. Compound shows a change corresponding to R-R (R = rare earth sublattice magnetic order transition and the transition temperature is determined to be 11.8 K (TC. The characteristic of Arrott plots with positive slope around TC was observed, indicating a second-order phase transition. Based on isothermal magnetization data, together with Maxwell’s relationship, the magnetic entropy change (-ΔSM was calculated. The maximum -ΔSM reaches 7.8, 12.7 and 14.4 J/kg K for field range of 0-2 T, 0-5 T and 0-7 T, respectively. Accordingly, the value of RC (refrigerant capacity is 99, 289 and 432 J/kg for above field ranges. The large MCE of HoCo3B2 compound indicates its potential application for magnetic refrigeration in low temperature range.

  8. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of HoCo3B2 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X. Q.; Xu, J. W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, S. G.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. C.; Shen, B. G.

    2018-05-01

    A sample of HoCo3B2 compound was synthesized, and the magnetic and MCE properties were investigated. Compound shows a change corresponding to R-R (R = rare earth) sublattice magnetic order transition and the transition temperature is determined to be 11.8 K (TC). The characteristic of Arrott plots with positive slope around TC was observed, indicating a second-order phase transition. Based on isothermal magnetization data, together with Maxwell's relationship, the magnetic entropy change (-ΔSM) was calculated. The maximum -ΔSM reaches 7.8, 12.7 and 14.4 J/kg K for field range of 0-2 T, 0-5 T and 0-7 T, respectively. Accordingly, the value of RC (refrigerant capacity) is 99, 289 and 432 J/kg for above field ranges. The large MCE of HoCo3B2 compound indicates its potential application for magnetic refrigeration in low temperature range.

  9. Negative and positive magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Fe-Mn-Ga alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Jingfang; Huang Peng; Zhang Hu; Long Yi; Wu Guangheng; Rongchang Ye; Chang Yongqin; Farong Wan

    2007-01-01

    The phase transition process and magnetic entropy change ΔS of Ni 54.5 FeMn 20 Ga 24.5 alloy were studied. Substitution of Fe for Ni increases the Curie temperature and decreases the temperature of martensitic phase transition. The transition from ferromagnetic martensitic to ferrormagnetic austenitic state leads to an abrupt increase of magnetization below 0.5T and an abrupt decrease of magnetization above 0.5T. The sign of ΔS changes from positive to negative with increasing the applied field from 0.5 to 2T. The maximal value of the positive magnetic entropy change ΔS is about 3.1J/kgK for the applied field from 0 to 0.5T. The increase of applied field from 1.5T results in a negative ΔS. The peak of negative ΔS is -2.1J/kgK for a field change of 2T

  10. Effects of hysteresis and Brayton cycle constraints on magnetocaloric refrigerant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. D.; Buffington, T.; Shamberger, P. J.

    2018-05-01

    Despite promising proofs of concept, system-level implementation of magnetic refrigeration has been critically limited by history-dependent refrigerant losses that interact with governing thermodynamic cycles to adversely impact refrigeration performance. Future development demands a more detailed understanding of how hysteresis limits performance, and of how different types of cycles can mitigate these limitations, but without the extreme cost of experimental realization. Here, the utility of Brayton cycles for magnetic refrigeration is investigated via direct simulation, using a combined thermodynamic-hysteresis modeling framework to compute the path-dependent magnetization and entropy of a model alloy for a variety of feasible Brayton cycles between 0-1.5 T and 0-5 T. By simultaneously varying the model alloy's hysteresis properties and applying extensions of the thermodynamic laws to non-equilibrium systems, heat transfers and efficiencies are quantified throughout the space of hystereses and Brayton cycles and then compared with a previous investigation using Ericsson cycles. It is found that (1) hysteresis losses remain a critical obstacle to magnetic refrigeration implementation, with efficiencies >80% in the model system requiring hysteresis refrigerant transformation temperatures at the relevant fields; (3) for a given hysteresis and field constraint, Brayton and Ericsson-type cycles generate similar efficiencies; for a given temperature span, Ericsson cycles lift more heat per cycle, with the difference decreasing with the refrigerant heat capacity outside the phase transformation region.

  11. Magnetocaloric effect in multiferroic Y-type hexaferrite Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2(Fe0.92Al0.0812O22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetocaloric effect is investigated in multiferroic Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2(Fe0.92Al0.0812O22 ceramic with Y-type hexagonal system. Three magnetic transitions, from alternating longitudinal conical to mixed conical at ∼240 K, to ferrimagnetic at ∼297 K, further to paramagnetic at ∼702 K, are unambiguously determined. Furthermore, obvious MCE is shown, and the maximum values of the magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power are evaluated to be 1.53 JKg−1K−1 and 280 JKg−1 for a field change of 7 T, respectively. In addition, inverse MCE is also observed, which might be associated with the first-order magnetic phase transition between two incommensurate longitudinal conical phases.

  12. Magnetocaloric effect and transport properties of Gd5Ge2(Si1-x Sn x )2 (x=0.23 and 0.40) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoy, J.C.P.; Plaza, E.J.R.; Nascimento, F.C.; Coelho, A.A.; Pereira, M.C.; Fabris, J.D.; Raposo, M.T.; Cardoso, L.P.; Persiano, A.I.C.; Gama, S.

    2007-01-01

    We report a study about the structural properties of polycrystalline samples of nominal composition Gd 5 Ge 2 (Si 1- x Sn x ) 2 (x=0.23, 0.40) that closely influence their physical behavior particularly related to electric resistivity and magnetocaloric (MCE) effect. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement method, metallographic analyses, 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, DC magnetization and electrical transport measurements. It was identified a Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 -monoclinic phase for x=0.23 and a Sm 5 Sn 4 -orthorhombic phase (type II) for x=0.40, both with two non-equivalent crystallographic sites for the Sn ions. We were able to infer on the role of tin on the magnetic and transport properties in these compounds

  13. Magnetocaloric effect in gadolinium-oxalate framework Gd2(C2O4)3(H2O)6⋅(0⋅6H2O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Romain; Didelot, Emilie; Mazet, Thomas; Malaman, Bernard; François, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic refrigerants incorporating Gd 3+ ions and light organic ligands offer a good balance between isolation of the magnetic centers and their density. We synthesized the framework material Gd 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 (H 2 O) 6 ⋅0.6H 2 O by a hydrothermal route and characterized its structure. The honeycomb lattice of Gd 3+ ions interlinked by oxalate ligands in the (a,c) plane ensures their decoupling in terms of magnetic exchange interactions. This is corroborated by magnetic measurements indicating negligible interactions between the Gd 3+ ions in this material. The magnetocaloric effect was evaluated from isothermal magnetization measurements. The maximum entropy change −ΔS M max reaches 75.9 mJ cm −3 K −1 (around 2 K) for a moderate field change (2 T)

  14. Effect of Bi substitution on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ni50Mn35In15-xBix Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Anil; Quetz, Abdiel; Pandey, Sudip; Dubenko, Igor; Stadler, Shane; Ali, Naushad

    2018-05-01

    The structural, magnetic, magnetocaloric, and transport properties of Ni50Mn35In15-xBix (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5) compounds has been studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry, and magnetization measurements. A mixture of high temperature austenite phase (AP) and low temperature martensitic phase (MP) was observed from the XRD at room temperature. The saturation magnetization MS at 10 K was found to decrease with increasing Bi content. A shift in the martensitic transition temperature (TM) relative to the parent compound was observed with a maximum shift of ˜ 36 K for x = 1.5. Abnormal shifts in TC and TM to higher temperatures were observed at high field for x ≥ 0.5. Large magnetic entropy changes (ΔSM) of about 40 J/kg K (x = 0) and 34 J/kg K (x = 0.25) were observed at TM with H = 5 T, which reduced significantly for higher Bi concentrations. The doping of small amounts of Bi in the In sites increased the peak width of the ΔSM curves at the second order transition, leading to larger values of relative cooling power. A significant magnetoresistance (-30%) was observed near TM with ΔH = 5T for x = 0.5.

  15. Influence of Si and Ge on the magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric properties of MnFe(P, Si, Ge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cam Thanh, D.T.; Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Klaasse, J.C.P.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we found a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and favourable magnetic properties in low cost and nontoxic MnFe(P, Si, Ge) compounds [D.T. Cam Thanh, E. Brueck, O. Tegus, J.C.P. Klaasse, T.J. Gortenmulder, K.H.J. Buschow, J. Appl. Phys. 99 (2006) 08Q107]. These compounds are promising for magnetic refrigeration applications. One of the interesting points in these compounds is a nonlinear dependence of the Curie temperature (T C ) on Si concentration. This dependence is associated with the change in the lattice parameters a and c, and their ratio c/a. Compounds with larger a parameter and smaller c/a ratio have higher T C . It is clear that Si and Ge atoms play an important role in the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in the MnFe(P, Si, Ge) compounds. In this paper, we study the effect of Si and Ge on the magnetic phase transition in these materials. Our study shows that the temperature of the phase transition, from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic, can be tuned in the room temperature range without losing giant magnetocaloric properties

  16. Effect of spin reorientation on magnetocaloric and transport properties of NdAl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.V. de, E-mail: marcos_vinicios@hotmail.com [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, J.A. da [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, L.S. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Tocantins, IFTO – Campus Colinas do Tocantins, AV. Bernardo Sayao S/N, Chácara Raio de Sol, Setor Santa Maria, CEP 77760-000 Colinas do Tocantins, TO (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    We report the magneto-thermal and resistive properties of rare-earth dialuminide NdAl{sub 2}, including spin reorientation transition. To this purpose, we used a theoretical model that considers the interactions of exchange and Zeeman, besides the anisotropy due to the electrical crystal field. The theoretical results obtained were compared to experimental data of the NdAl{sub 2} in single crystal and bulk forms. Explicitly, we have calculated the anisotropic variation of magnetic entropy with the magnetic field oriented along the three principal crystallographic directions: [100], [110], and [111] of NdAl{sub 2} single crystal, where a signature of the spin reorientation is observed in the [110] and [111] directions. Moreover, of magnetoresistivity we consider the applied magnetic field along the crystallographic directions [100] and [110]. In turn, for the polycrystalline form, the good agreement between theory and experiment confirms the presence of spin reorientation, which was predicted theoretically in magnetization curves. - Highlights: • Modeling of the thermodynamics quantities in NdAl{sub 2} single crystal and policrystal. • Modeling of the transport properties in NdAl{sub 2} single crystal. • Effect of reorientation of spin on caloric and transport properties.

  17. Magnetic properties and tunable magneto-caloric effect in La0.8Ce0.2Fe11.5-xCoxSi1.5C0.2 (x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiming; Wang, Xiangjie; Ding, Zan; Li, Lingwei

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic and magneto-caloric properties in the ternary elementals doped La0.8Ce0.2Fe11.5-xCoxSi1.5C0.2 (x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) compounds were studied. With the increases of Co content x, the Curie temperature TC increases and the thermal hysteresis decreases. All the compounds undergo a second-order magnetic phase transition and exhibit a considerable reversible tunable magneto-caloric effect. The values of maximum magnetic entropy change (-ΔSMmax) and the Relative Cooling Power (RCP) are kept at same high level with different Co content. Under a magnetic field change of 0-5 T, the values of -ΔSMmax for La0.8Ce0.2Fe11.5-xCoxSi1.5C0.2 are 10.5, 10.7, and 9.8 J/kg K for x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7, respectively. The corresponding values of RCP are 267.1, 289.9, and 290.2 J/kg.

  18. Effect of substitution of Fe for Mn on the structural, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of LaNdSrCaMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhahri, Ja. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Faculty of Sciences of Monastir, University of Monastir (Tunisia); Dhahri, A., E-mail: abdessalem_dhahri@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Faculty of Sciences of Monastir, University of Monastir (Tunisia); Center for Scientific Research, Department of Physics, Al-Qunfudah University College, Umm Al-Qura University (Saudi Arabia); Oummezzine, M. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Faculty of Sciences of Monastir, University of Monastir (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Ne´el, CNRS–Université J. Fourier, BP166, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-03-15

    We have studied the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.1}Sr{sub 0.15}Ca{sub 0.15}Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} (LNSCMFe{sub x}) perovskite samples. The samples were synthesized using the solid-state reaction at high temperature and were analyzed by XRD data based on the Rietveld refinement technique. LNSCMFe{sub x} samples crystallized in orthorhombic symmetry with Pnma space group. Besides, the curves of magnetization reveals that all samples exhibit a magnetic transition from the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase at the Curie temperature T{sub C}, which decreases from 327 K to 296 K with the increase of the Fe doping level from x=0 to x=0.1. The thermal evolution of magnetization in the ferromagnetic phase at low temperature varies as T{sup 3/2} in accordance with Bloch's law. The magnitude of the isothermal magnetic entropy, (−ΔS{sub M}{sup max}), at the FM Curie temperature increases from 3.79 J/kg K for x=0 composition to 5.8 J/kg K for x=0.1, under a magnetic field of 5 T. For an applied magnetic field of 5 T, the relative cooling power (RCP) values are found to vary between 173.66 and 231.76 J/kg. These results suggest that these materials could be used as an active magnetic refrigerant around room temperature. - Highlights: • La{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.1}Sr{sub 0.15}Ca{sub 0.15}Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} samples were prepared using solid-state reaction. • The manganite phase crystallizes in an orthorhombic (Pnma) structure. • The samples exhibit a second order PM–FM phase transition at T{sub C}. • LNSCMFe{sub 0.05} and LNSCMFe{sub 0.1} are potential candidates for room-temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  19. Anisotropic thermal conductivity in epoxy-bonded magnetocaloric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Bruno; Sellschopp, Kai; Bierdel, Marius; Funk, Alexander; Bobeth, Manfred; Krautz, Maria; Waske, Anja

    2016-09-01

    Thermal management is one of the crucial issues in the development of magnetocaloric refrigeration technology for application. In order to ensure optimal exploitation of the materials "primary" properties, such as entropy change and temperature lift, thermal properties (and other "secondary" properties) play an important role. In magnetocaloric composites, which show an increased cycling stability in comparison to their bulk counterparts, thermal properties are strongly determined by the geometric arrangement of the corresponding components. In the first part of this paper, the inner structure of a polymer-bonded La(Fe, Co, Si)13-composite was studied by X-ray computed tomography. Based on this 3D data, a numerical study along all three spatial directions revealed anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite: Due to the preparation process, the long-axis of the magnetocaloric particles is aligned along the xy plane which is why the in-plane thermal conductivity is larger than the thermal conductivity along the z-axis. Further, the study is expanded to a second aspect devoted to the influence of particle distribution and alignment within the polymer matrix. Based on an equivalent ellipsoids model to describe the inner structure of the composite, numerical simulation of the thermal conductivity in different particle arrangements and orientation distributions were performed. This paper evaluates the possibilities of microstructural design for inducing and adjusting anisotropic thermal conductivity in magnetocaloric composites.

  20. Tuning of normal and inverse magnetocaloric effect in Sm{sub 0.35}Pr{sub 0.15}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} phase separated manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, S.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dasgupta, Papri; Poddar, A. [Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, West Bengal (India); Nath, T.K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: ΔS{sub M} vs. T plots of nano (left) and bulk (right) samples at different magnetic fields. - Highlights: • Bulk to nano show first order FM → PM phase transition at low magnetic field. • Bulk sample exhibits normal and inverse MCE around T{sub C} and after T{sub g}, respectively. • The value of ΔS{sub M} at T{sub C} is almost three times larger than at T{sub g}. • The value of ΔS{sub M} also decreases with reduction of particles sizes. • The bulk sample also exhibits a large RCP of 43.5 J/kg for a magnetic field of 1 T. - Abstract: Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Sm{sub 0.35}Pr{sub 0.15}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} polycrystalline manganite (bulk and nanometric samples) are investigated in detail. It has been observed that all the particle sizes (bulk to nano) show first order ferromagnetic → paramagnetic phase transition at low magnetic field. Ferromagnetic transition temperature also decreases with decreasing the particle size. This suggests that ferromagnetism is weakened and the first order magnetic phase transition is softened. We have investigated the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of both bulk and nanometric samples around their spin glass-like transition temperature, T{sub g} and Curie temperature, T{sub C}. It has been found that bulk sample exhibits both normal (i.e., negative ΔS{sub M}) and inverse (i.e., positive ΔS{sub M}) MCE around T{sub C} and after T{sub g}, respectively. The value of ΔS{sub M} (+3.17 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}) at T{sub C} is almost three times larger than at T{sub g} (ΔS{sub M} = −0.52 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}) for a magnetic field change of 7 T. The bulk sample also exhibits a large relative cooling power (RCP) of 43.5 J/kg for a magnetic field of 1 T. The corresponding adiabatic temperature change of bulk sample is observed to be ∼1.5 K for a magnetic field change of 3 T. The value of ΔS{sub M} also decreases with reduction of particles sizes. The temperature width of ΔS{sub M

  1. Magnetostructural transformation and magnetocaloric effect in Mn48‑x V x Ni42Sn10 ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Najam ul; Shah, Ishfaq Ahmad; Khan, Tahira; Liu, Jun; Gong, Yuanyuan; Miao, Xuefei; Xu, Feng

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we tuned the magnetostructural transformation and the coupled magnetocaloric properties of Mn48‑x V x Ni42Sn10 (x = 0, 1, 2, and 3) ferromagnetic shape memory alloys prepared by means of partial replacement of Mn by V. It is observed that the martensitic transformation temperatures decrease with the increase of V content. The shift of the transition temperatures to lower temperatures driven by the applied field, the metamagnetic behavior, and the thermal hysteresis indicates the first-order nature for the magnetostructural transformation. The entropy changes with a magnetic field variation of 0–5 T are 15.2, 18.8, and 24.3 {{J}}\\cdot {kg}}-1\\cdot {{{K}}}-1 for the x = 0, 1, and 2 samples, respectively. The tunable martensitic transformation temperature, enhanced field driving capacity, and large entropy change suggest that Mn48‑x V x Ni42Sn10 alloys have a potential for applications in magnetic cooling refrigeration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51601092, 51571121, and 11604148), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 30916011344 and 30916011345), the Fund Program for the Scientific Activities of Selected Returned Overseas Professionals in Shanxi Province, China, the Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (Grant No. 2016M591851), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20160833, 20160829, and 20140035), the Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Province, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (Grant No. 2016-092).

  2. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the exactly solvable mixed-spin Ising model on a decorated triangular lattice in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálisová, Lucia; Strečka, Jozef

    2018-05-01

    The ground state, zero-temperature magnetization process, critical behaviour and isothermal entropy change of the mixed-spin Ising model on a decorated triangular lattice in a magnetic field are exactly studied after performing the generalized decoration-iteration mapping transformation. It is shown that both the inverse and conventional magnetocaloric effect can be found near the absolute zero temperature. The former phenomenon can be found in a vicinity of the discontinuous phase transitions and their crossing points, while the latter one occurs in some paramagnetic phases due to a spin frustration to be present at zero magnetic field. The inverse magnetocaloric effect can also be detected slightly above continuous phase transitions following the power-law dependence | - ΔSisomin | ∝hn, where n depends basically on the ground-state spin ordering.

  3. Magnetocaloric effect and the influence of pressure on magnetic properties of La-excess pseudo-binary alloys La{sub 1+δ}(Fe{sub 0.85}Si{sub 0.15}){sub 13}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong, Van Hiep; Do Thi, Kim Anh [Faculty of Physics, VNU-University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Thuan Nguyen, Khac; Nhat Hoang, Nam, E-mail: namnhat@gmail.com, E-mail: nhathn@vnu.edu.vn [Faculty of Engineering Physics and Nanotechnology, VNU-University of Engineering and Technology, 144 Xuan Thuy, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Le, Van Hong [Duy Tan University, 25 Quang Trung str., Da Nang (Viet Nam)

    2016-10-14

    The La-excess alloys La{sub 1+δ}(Fe{sub 0.85}Si{sub 0.15}){sub 13} (δ = 0.06 and 0.09) exhibit large magnetocaloric effect which has been attributed to the occurrence of itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition near the Curie temperature T{sub C}. The maximum entropy change −ΔS{sub m} was shown to be from 4.5 to 11.5 J/kg K for the applied field variation ΔH from 20 to 70 kOe, respectively. The estimated relative cooling power for ΔH = 70 kOe was 418 J/kg. The alloys show a typical NaZn{sub 13}-type cubic structure, featuring a doping-induced magnetovolume effect with the increase in T{sub C}. Under the applied pressure up to 2 GPa, the T{sub C} as deduced from resistance measurements decreased linearly, ΔT{sub C} = 113 (for δ = 0.06) and 111 K (for δ = 0.09), together with a corresponding decrease of resistivity, Δρ = 6.1 μΩ m at room temperature for both samples. At a low pressure, the effect of spontaneous magnetostriction on T{sub C} caused by applying the pressure appeared to have a similar magnitude to that of the negative magnetovolume effect caused by La-excess doping. In comparison with other stoichiometric La(Fe{sub 1−x}Si{sub x}){sub 13} compounds, the pressure in our case was shown to have a smaller influence on T{sub C}.

  4. Magnetocaloric piezoelectric composites for energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Michael; Liang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Magnetocaloric alloy, Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 , was developed into a composite with the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) piezoelectric polymer. This multifunctional material possesses unique properties that are suitable for energy conversion and harvesting. Experimental approaches include using an arc melting technique to synthesize the Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 (GSG) alloy and the spinning casting method to fabricate the composite. The materials were characterized using various techniques at different length scales. These include atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the phase transformation of the magnetocaloric material close to its Curie temperature induced a significant increase in power generation in the piezoelectric polymer. The power output of a laminated structure was 1.1 mW, more than 200 thousand times higher than the piezoelectric materials alone (5.1 nW). (technical note)

  5. The effect of boron doping on crystal structure, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of DyCo{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.L., E-mail: wangchaolun2004@163.com [The Ames Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, J. [The Ames Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States); Mudryk, Y.; Gschneidner, K.A. [The Ames Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Long, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Pecharsky, V.K. [The Ames Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetic entropy changes of DyCo{sub 2}B{sub x} (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2) alloys were investigated. The Curie temperature (T{sub C}) increases with increasing B concentration. The frequency dependence of ac magnetic susceptibility of DyCo{sub 2} caused by the narrow domain wall pinning effect is depressed by B doping, but the coercivity and the magnetic viscosity are prominently increased in the B doped alloys. The magnetic transition nature of DyCo{sub 2}B{sub x} changes from the first-order to the second-order with increasing x, which leads to the decrease of the maximum magnetic entropy change. However, the relative cooling power (RCP) of DyCo{sub 2} and the B doped alloys remains nearly constant. - Highlights: • The discrepancy between the ZFC and FCC curves of DyCo{sub 2}B{sub x} is enhanced in the B doped samples, while the frequency dependence of the ac magnetic susceptibility is depressed. • The Curie temperature, coercivity and viscosity of DyCo{sub 2}B{sub x} are increased by B doping • The magnetic transition nature of the B doped samples is changed from first order to second order, leading to the decrease of magnetic entropy change. However, the relative cooling power of DyCo{sub 2}B{sub 0.05} is increased about 18%.

  6. Effect of excess Ni on martensitic transition, exchange bias and inverse magnetocaloric effect in Ni{sub 2+x}Mn{sub 1.4−x}Sn{sub 0.6} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Mayukh K., E-mail: mayukh.ray@saha.ac.in; Bagani, K.; Banerjee, S., E-mail: sangam.banerjee@saha.ac.in

    2014-07-05

    Highlights: • Excess Ni causes an increase in the martensite transition temperature. • The system Ni{sub 2+x}Mn{sub 1.4−x}Sn{sub 0.6} exhibit multifunctional properties. • The RCP and EB increases continuously with excess Ni concentration in the system. • Antiferromagnetic interaction increases with excess Ni concentration. - Abstract: The martensitic transition, exchange bias (EB) and inverse magnetocaloric effect (IMCE) of bulk Ni{sub 2+x}Mn{sub 1.4−x}Sn{sub 0.6} (x = 0, 0.06, 0.12, 0.18) Heusler alloy is investigated in this paper. Substitution of Mn by Ni causes an increase in the martensite transition temperature (T{sub M}), decrease in Curie temperature of austenite phase (T{sub C}{sup A}) and also a decrease in the saturation magnetic moment (M{sub sat}). While the decrease in T{sub C}{sup A} and M{sub sat} is explained by the dilution of the magnetic subsystems and on the other hand the increase in T{sub M} is due to the increase of valence electron concentration per atom (e/a). All the alloys shows EB effect below a certain temperature (T{sup ∗}) and EB field (H{sub EB}) value is almost thrice in magnitude for x = 0.18 sample compared to x = 0 sample at 5 K. In these alloys, Ni/Mn atoms at regular site couples antiferromagnetically (AFM) with the excess Ni atoms at Mn or Sn sites and this AFM coupling plays the key role in the observation of EB. For the IMCE, the change in magnetic entropy (ΔS{sub M}) initially increased with excess Ni concentration upto x = 0.12 but then a drastic fall in ΔS{sub M} value is observed for the sample x = 0.18 but the relative cooling power (RCP) value is increased continuously with the excess Ni concentration.

  7. Magnetocaloric effect and negative thermal expansion in hexagonal Fe doped MnNiGe compounds with a magnetoelastic AFM-FM-like transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe; Liu, Enke; Zhou, Haichun; Zhang, Yuanlei; Jing, Chao

    2017-01-30

    We report a detailed study of two successive first-order transitions, including a martensitic transition (MT) and an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM)-like transition, in Mn 1-x Fe x NiGe (x = 0, 0.06, 0.11) alloys by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization and linear thermal expansion measurements. Such an AFM-FM-like transition occurring in the martensitic state has seldom been observed in the M(T) curves. The results of Arrott plot and linear relationship of the critical temperature with M 2 provide explicit evidence of its first-order magnetoelastic nature. On the other hand, their performances as magnetocaloric and negative thermal expansion materials were characterized. The isothermal entropy change for a field change of 30 kOe reaches an impressive value of -25.8 J/kg K at 203 K for x = 0.11 compared to the other two samples. It demonstrates that the magneto-responsive ability has been significantly promoted since an appropriate amount of Fe doping can break the local Ni-6Mn AFM configuration. Moreover, the Fe-doped samples reveal both the giant negative thermal expansion and near-zero thermal expansion for different temperature ranges. For instance, the average thermal expansion coefficient ā of x = 0.06 reaches -60.7 × 10 -6 /K over T = 231-338 K and 0.6 × 10 -6 /K over T = 175-231 K during cooling.

  8. Magnetocaloric properties of manganese(III) porphyrins bearing 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.V., E-mail: vvk@isc-ras.ru [G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya str., 1, Ivanovo 153045 (Russian Federation); Lomova, T.N.; Maslennikova, A.N.; Korolev, D.V. [G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya str., 1, Ivanovo 153045 (Russian Federation); Shpakovsky, D.B.; Zhang, Jianwei; Milaeva, E.R. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Fine Organic Synthesis, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and heat capacity during the magnetization of (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (1), (5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (2), and (5-(4-palmitoyloxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (3) in their aqueous suspensions were determined by the microcalorimetric method over the temperature range of 278–320 K and in magnetic fields from 0 to 1 T. MCE was positive for all complexes studied, i.e. the magnetic field impression under adiabatic conditions led to an increase in temperature of the complexes suspensions. MCE increased with an increase in the magnetic field induction at all temperatures studied. Dependences of MCE on temperature had weak maxima at 298 K at all magnetic induction values. The disturbance of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding of hydroxyl groups is one of probable reasons for such dependences type. MCE values increased under the palmitoyl substituent incorporation into one of the phenol groups at all temperatures. The heat capacity of the studied complexes rose slightly with temperature growth. Dependences of the heat capacity on temperature showed that the magnetic component of the heat capacity did not appear due to the presence of the manganese atom acting as a paramagnetic center in complexes 1, 2, and 3. The relation between the complexes structure and their magnetothermal properties was analyzed. It was justified that the changes of magnetothermal properties were caused by electronic substitution effects and, to an even greater degree, by the conditions of intermolecular hydrogen bonds formation in the paramagnetic materials. - Highlights: • The magnetocaloric effect and heat capacity of 3 manganese porphyrin were determined. • Temperature dependences of magnetocaloric effect has been studied. • The relation between the

  9. Magnetic refrigeration capabilities of magnetocaloric Ni2Mn:75Cu:25Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jenkins, C. A.; Dubenko, I.; Samanta, T.; Ali, N.; Roy, S.

    2013-03-01

    Doping-driven competition between energetically similar ground states leads to many exciting materials phenomena such as the emergence of high-Tc superconductivity, diluted magnetic semiconductors, and colossal magnetoresistance. Doped Ni2MnGa Heusler alloy, which is a multifunctional ferromagnetic alloy with various exotic physical properties demonstrates this notion of rich phenomenology via modified ground spin states. Adopting this generic concept, here we will present a novel doped Ni2Mn.75Cu.25Ga alloy that offers unprecedented co-existence of the magnetocaloric effect and fully controlled ferromagnetism at room temperature. Application of site engineering enables us to manipulate the ground spin state that leads to the decrease in magnetic transition temperature and also increases the delocalization of the Mn magnetism. SQUID magnetometery suggests that Cu doping enhances the saturation magnetization, coercive field and clarity of magnetic hysteresis loops. By exploiting x-ray absorption techniques and measuring element specific magnetic hysteresis loops, here we will describe the microscopic origin of enhnaced magnetocaloric properties and d-d interaction driven charge transfer effects in Ni2Mn.75Cu.25Ga This work was supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46291

  10. Influence of manganite powder grain size and Ag-particle coating on the magnetocaloric effect and the active magnetic regenerator performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcaud, J.A.; Neves Bez, Henrique; Ruiz-Trejo, E.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetocaloric performance of La0.67Ca0.27Sr0.06Mn1.05O3 is investigated as a function of the powder grain size and also as a function of decoration of grains with highly conductive silver particulates as a coating layer. We demonstrate that the thermal and electrical conductivities can be si...

  11. The effects of small metal additions (Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Al, Bi, Sn) on the magnetocaloric properties of the Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shull, R. D.; Provenzano, V.; Shapiro, A. J.; Fu, A.; Lufaso, M. W.; Karapetrova, J.; Kletetschka, Günther; Mikula, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 8 (2006), s. 8-8 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetocaloric * (Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Al, Bi, Sn) additions * Cryogenic properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  12. Estimation of magnetocaloric properties by using Monte Carlo method for AMRR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, R; Fukuda, H; Numazawa, T; Tamura, R; Li, J; Saito, A T; Nakagome, H; Kaji, S

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a wide refrigerating temperature range in magnetic refrigeration, it is effective to layer multiple materials with different Curie temperatures. It is crucial to have a detailed understanding of physical properties of materials to optimize the material selection and the layered structure. In the present study, we discuss methods for estimating a change in physical properties, particularly the Curie temperature when some of the Gd atoms are substituted for non-magnetic elements for material design, based on Gd as a ferromagnetic material which is a typical magnetocaloric material. For this purpose, whilst making calculations using the S=7/2 Ising model and the Monte Carlo method, we made a specific heat measurement and a magnetization measurement of Gd-R alloy (R = Y, Zr) to compare experimental values and calculated ones. The results showed that the magnetic entropy change, specific heat, and Curie temperature can be estimated with good accuracy using the Monte Carlo method. (paper)

  13. Phase control studies in Gd5Si2Ge2 giant magnetocaloric compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo, J.H.; Pereira, A.M.; Ventura, J.; Oliveira, G.N.P.; Araújo, J.P.; Tavares, P.B.; Fernandes, L.; Algarabel, P.A.; Magen, C.; Morellon, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of time dependence of O(I) to M phase. ► Determination of the optimal annealing time. ► New method for phase amount estimation (O(I) and M). ► Effect of annealing on the MCE. ► Analysis of the nature of the magnetic transition through the Arrot plot representation. - Abstract: A systematic set of annealings on arc-melted synthesized Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 sample was performed. Through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetometry measurements we monitored the effect of varying the annealing time with constant temperature (T = 1473 K) on the formation of the monoclinic (M) crystallographic phase fraction, which is the one responsible for the giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE) in this compound. The conversion of the orthorhombic O(I) crystallographic phase into M was achieved, resulting in a significant increase of the M mass fraction. Such conversion led to a change in the magnetic transition nature, evolving from a second to a first order transition for the as-cast and annealed samples, respectively. An optimal annealing time range for the M phase conversion was identified to be within 80–120 min at T = 1473 K followed by a rapid quenching to liquid N 2 . Furthermore, an increase up to ∼50% of the magnetocaloric effect was obtained for the sample annealed during 120 min.

  14. Magnetic, transport and magnetocaloric properties in the Laves phase intermetallic Ho (Co1−xAlx)2 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, T.I.; Nikitin, S.A.; Tskhadadze, G.A.; Koshkid’ko, Yu.S.; Suski, W.; Iwasieczko, W.; Badurski, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Al influence on magnetic properties of the Ho (Co 1-x Al x ) 2 compounds is analyzed. • The first-order magnetic transition appears in sample with Al concentrations x ≤ 0.06. • The MCE and Curie temperature TC demonstrate complex Al concentration dependences. • The magnetoresistance for sample with Al concentration x = 0.06 (58%) is maximum. • High magnetic fields changes the Curie temperature T c of the Ho (Co 1−x Al x ) 2 compounds. - Abstract: The magnetization, magnetoresistivity and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of the Ho (Co 1−x Al x ) 2 Laves phase intermetallic compounds for x ⩽ 0.2 have been investigated. Complex measurements have been carried out in order to determine the influence of substitution in the Co sublattice by Al on the Co moment, type of the magnetic transition and related properties of these compounds. A comparative analysis of the magnetic, transport and magnetocaloric properties of Ho (Co 1−x Al x ) 2 alloys under various Al concentration is represented. Substitutions at the Co site by Al are found to result in the appearance of itinerant electron metamagnetism (IEM) at the small Al concentrations and in positive magnetovolume effect, leading to an initial increase in the ordering temperature; on the other hand the magnetic phase transition temperature as well as ΔT (MCE) do not depend in direct way on the Al concentration. The 16% increase of magnetocaloric effect for the alloy with x = 0.02 is detected in relation to maternal HoCo 2 . A giant value of magnetoresistivity (58%) is observed for the alloy with the same Al concentration

  15. Magneto-caloric and magneto-resistive properties of La0.67Ca0.33-xSrxMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reves Dinesen, Anders

    2004-08-01

    This thesis presents results of an experimental investigation of magneto-caloric and magneto-resistive properties of a series of polycrystalline Ca- and Sr-doped lanthanum manganites, La 0.67 Ca 0.33-x Sr x MnO 3 (0≤ x ≤ 0.33), with the perovskite structure. The samples consisted of sintered oxide powders prepared the glycine-nitrate combustion technique. The compounds were ferromagnetic and showed a Curie transition in the temperature range 267370 K (T C increased with increasing x). An analysis of the structural properties was carried out by means of x-ray diffraction and the Rietveld technique. The variation of the Ca/Sr ratio was found to cause a transition from orthorhombic to rhombohedral symmetry in the composition range 0.110 0.67 Ca 0.33-x Sr x MnO 3 samples was measured directly and indirectly (by means of magnetization measurements). All the samples showed a magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of T C . A model for the mag-netocaloric effect based on Weiss mean field theory and classical theories for heat capacities was developed. The model provided reasonable predictions of the magneto-caloric properties of the samples. The compounds with low Sr content showed a magnetocaloric effect comparable to that of Gadolinium, the prototypical working material for magnetic refrigeration at room temperature. A less comprehensive part of the investigation regarded the magneto-resistive properties of the La 0.67 Ca 0.33-x Sr x MnO 3 system. It was found that th polycrystalline nature of the compounds played a decisive role for the magnetotransport properties. Characteristic grain boundary effects, such as a low-field magnetoresistance, which is absent in single-crystalline perovskites, were observed. The low-field effect is usually ascribed to spin-dependent scattering in grain boundaries. Qualitatively the results obtained for the La 0.67 Ca 0.33-x Sr x MnO 3 samples were consistent with this model. The resistivity contribution arising from the presence of

  16. Structural flexibility in magnetocaloric RE5T4 (RE=rare-earth; T=Si,Ge,Ga) materials: Effect of chemical substitution on structure, bonding and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Sumohan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The binary, ternary and multicomponent intermetallic compounds of rare-earth metals (RE) with group 14 elements (Tt) at the RE5Tt4 stoichiometry have been known for over 30 years, but only in the past decade have these materials become a gold mine for solid-state chemistry, materials science and condensed matter physics. It all started with the discovery of a giant magnetocaloric effect in Gd5Si2Ge2, along with other extraordinary magnetic properties, such as a colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistance. The distinctiveness of this series is in the remarkable flexibility of the chemical bonding between well-defined, subnanometer-thick slabs and the resultant magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic properties of these materials. This can be controlled by varying either or both RE and Tt elements, including mixed rare-earth elements on the RE sites and different group 14 (or T = group 13 or 15) elements occupying the Tt sites. In addition to chemical means, the interslab interactions are also tunable by temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Thus, this system provides a splendid 'playground' to investigate the interrelationships among composition, structure, physical properties, and chemical bonding. The work presented in this dissertation involving RE5T4 materials has resulted in the successful synthesis, characterization, property measurements, and theoretical analyses of various new intermetallic compounds. The results provide significant insight into the fundamental magnetic and structural behavior of these materials and help us better understand the complex link between a compound's composition, its observed structure, and its properties.

  17. Three isostructural one-dimensional Ln(III) chains with distorted cubane motifs showing dual fluorescence and slow magnetic relaxation/magnetocaloric effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yu, Jia-Wen; Liu, Zhong-Yi; Yang, En-Cui; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-05

    Three new homometallic lanthanide complexes with mixed carboxylate-modified rigid ligands, [Ln(μ3-OH)(na)(pyzc)]n (na(-) = 1-naphtholate, pyzc(-) = 2-pyrazinecarboxylate, Ln = Dy (1), Yb (2), and Gd (3)), were solvothermally synthesized, and their structures and magnetic as well as photophysical properties were completely investigated. Complexes 1-3 are crystallographically isostructural, exhibiting linear chains with four bidentate bridging μ-COO(-) moieties encapsulated cubic {Ln4(μ3-OH)4}(8+) clusters repeatedly extended by 4-fold chelating-bridging-pyzc(-) connectors. Magnetically, the former two complexes with highly anisotropic Dy(III) and weak anisotropic Yb(III) ions in the distorted NO7 triangular dodecahedron coordination environment display field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization. Fitting the dynamic magnetic data to the Arrhenius law gives energy barrier ΔE/kB = 39.6 K and pre-exponential factor τo = 1.52 × 10(-8) s for 1 and ΔE/kB = 14.1 K and τo = 2.13 × 10(-7) s for 2. By contrast, complex 3 with isotropic Gd(III) ion and weak intracluster antiferromagnetic coupling shows a significant cryogenic magnetocaloric effect, with a maximum -ΔSm value of 30.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 2.5 K and 70 kOe. Additionally, the chromophoric na(-) and pyzc(-) ligands can serve as antenna groups, selectively sensitizing the Dy(III)- and Yb(III)-based luminescence of 1 and 2 in the UV-visible region by an intramolecular energy transfer process. Thus, complexes 1-3, incorporating field-induced slow magnetic magnetization and interesting luminescence together, can be used as composite magneto-optical materials. More importantly, these interesting results further demonstrate that the mixed-ligand system with rigid carboxylate-functionalized chromophores can be excellent candidates for the preparations of new bifunctional magneto-optical materials.

  18. Structural and magnetocaloric properties of (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) materials with added nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thang, N.V., E-mail: v.t.nguyen-1@tudelft.nl; Miao, X.F., E-mail: X.F.Miao@tudelft.nl; Dijk, N.H. van, E-mail: N.H.vanDijk@tudelft.nl; Brück, E., E-mail: E.H.Bruck@tudelft.nl

    2016-06-15

    Amongst magnetic materials that exhibit a giant magnetocaloric effect near room temperature, the (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) system is one of the most promising candidates for magnetic refrigeration. Although the (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) materials hold many advantages, controlling the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub m}, the adiabatic temperature change ΔT{sub ad}, the thermal hysteresis and the mechanical stability across the ferromagnetic transition requires a delicate tuning of the composition. This work investigates the addition of nitrogen, as an interstitial or substitutional element, as a new parameter to tune the properties of (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) materials. We found that the nitrogen addition results in a decrease of the Curie temperature, consistent with the observed increase in the c/a ratio. The introduction of nitrogen in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) materials also results in a strong enhancement of the mechanical stability. - Highlights: • N-doped materials were synthesized by high-energy ball milling and solid-state reactions. • Nitrogen atoms enter the structure both as substitutional and as interstitial element in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) materials. • Nitrogen addition leads to a decrease in the Curie temperature, while improving the mechanical stability and preserving the magnetocaloric properties. • The origin of the increase in the thermal hysteresis by increasing the N content has been investigated by analyzing the XRD data.

  19. Inter-particle interactions and magnetocaloric effect in a sample of ultrafine Fe1-x Hgx particles in Hg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Stanley; Mørup, Steen; Linderoth, S.

    1997-01-01

    to a state in which the magnetic moments of the particles are ordered. The magnetic entropy change induced by application of a magnetic field was determined in the temperature range from 70 to 200 K. When the sample was magnetized in 1 T the magnetic entropy change was almost constant in the temperature...... range from 130 to 200 K. In an applied field of 0.1 T, the entropy change was lower, and decreased with increasing temperature in the same temperature range. A model which takes into account the magnetic interactions between the particles was found to give a better description of the magnetic entropy...

  20. Experimental results for a magnetic refrigerator using three different types of magnetocaloric material regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2011-01-01

    in an experimental device. This paper compares the performance of three magnetocaloric material candidates for AMRs, La(Fe,Co,Si)13, (La,Ca,Sr)MnO3 and Gd, in an experimental active magnetic regenerator with a parallel plate geometry. The performance of single-material regenerators of each magnetocaloric material...... family were compared. In an attempt to improve system performance, graded two-material regenerators were made from two different combinations of La(Fe,Co,Si)13 compounds having different magnetic transition temperatures. One combination of the La(Fe,Co,Si)13 materials yielded a higher performance, while...

  1. Critical behavior of Y-doped Nd{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} manganites exhibiting the tricritical point and large magnetocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, The-Long; Ho, T.A. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Thang, P.D. [Faculty of Engineering Physics and Nanotechnology, VNU-University of Engineering and Technology, Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tran, Q.T. [Center for Science and Technology Communication, Ministry of Science and Technology, 113 Tran Duy Hung, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Thanh, T.D.; Phuc, N.X. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phan, M.H. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Huy, B.T. [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, S.C., E-mail: scyu@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Tricritical point in Y-doped Nd{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} manganites. • A large magnetic-entropy change. • Magnetic inhomogeneity and phase separation. - Abstract: We have determined the values of critical exponents of two polycrystalline samples (Nd{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}){sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0 and 0.07) from the magnetization data versus temperature and magnetic field, M(H, T), to learn about their magnetic and magnetocaloric (MC) properties. The results reveal the samples exhibiting the crossover of first-order and second-order phase transitions, where the exponent values β = 0.271 and γ = 0.922 for x = 0, and β = 0.234–0.236 and γ = 1.044–1.063 for x = 0.07 determined by using modified Arrott plots and static-scaling hypothesis are close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory (β = 0.25 and γ = 1.0). Particularly, the T{sub C} of x = 0 and 0.07 can be any value in the temperature ranges of 240–255 K and 170–278 K, respectively, depending on the magnitude of applied magnetic field and determination techniques. Around the T{sub C}, studying the MC effect of the samples has revealed a large magnetic-entropy change (ΔS{sub m}) up to ∼8 J/kg K for the applied field interval ΔH = 50 kOe, corresponding to refrigerant capacity values of 200–245 J/kg. These phenomena are related to the crossover nature and the persisting of FM/anti-FM interactions even above the T{sub C}, as further confirmed by electron-spin-resonance data, Curie–Weiss law-based analyses, and an exponential parameter characteristic of magnetic order n = dLn|ΔS{sub m}|/dLnH.

  2. Integration of a magnetocaloric heat pump in a low-energy residential building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johra, Hicham

    2018-01-01

    The EnovHeat project aims at developing an innovative heat pump system based on the magnetocaloric effect and active magnetic regenerator technology to provide for the heating needs of a single family house in Denmark. Unlike vapor-compression devices, magnetocaloric heat pumps use the reversible...... heat pump can deliver 2600 W of heating power with an appreciable average seasonal system COP of 3.93. On variable part-load operation with a simple fluid flow controller, it can heat up an entire house with an average seasonal system COP of 1.84....... magnetocaloric effect of a solid refrigerant to build a cooling/heating cycle. It has the potential for high coefficient of performance, more silent operation and efficient part-load control. After presenting the operation principles of the magnetocaloric device and the different models used in the current...... numerical study, this article demonstrates for the first time the possibility to utilize this novel heat pump in a building. This device can be integrated in a single hydronic loop including a ground source heat exchanger and a radiant under-floor heating system. At maximum capacity, this magnetocaloric...

  3. Influence of Co addition on the magnetocaloric effect of FeCoSiAlGaPCB amorphous alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Franco García, Victorino; Borrego Moro, Josefa María; Conde Amiano, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    The FeCoSiAlGaPCB alloys can be prepared as bulk amorphous materials, with outstanding mechanical properties and increased electrical resistivity. These features can be beneficial for their application as a magnetic refrigerant. The influence of Co addition on the magnetic entropy change of the alloy has been studied. This compositional modification displaces the temperature of the peak entropy change closer to room temperature, but reduces the refrigerant capacity of the material...

  4. Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect of MnCoGe{sub 1−x}Si{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, J.W.; Zheng, Z.G.; Montemayor, R.; Zhong, X.C.; Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C., E-mail: medczeng@scut.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    Here a cheaper alternative magnetic refrigeration material using MnCoGe{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5) alloys were investigated. The polycrystalline MnCoGe{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} alloys were prepared by arc-melting followed by annealing at 1123 K for 72 h. At a 0.5 at% Si substitution, the Curie temperatures increased by 10% to 374 K, the magnetic entropy change (|ΔS{sub M}|) values decreased by 32% to 2.1 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} in an applied field from 0 to 2 T and by 24% to 4.4 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} in an applied field from 0 to 5 T. However, the refrigeration capacity (RC{sub FWHM}) of this MnCoGe{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} alloy improved by 27% to 282 J kg{sup −1} and the operation temperature range (δT{sub FWHM}) improved by 92% to 96 K in an applied field at 5 T. The MnCoGe{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} alloy can compete with some of the MCE properties of the MnCo{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05}Ge, LaFe{sub 11}Al{sub 2}C{sub 0.5}, (Fe{sub 85}Co{sub 5}Cr{sub 10}){sub 91}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 2}, and even the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} alloys. The broad operation temperature range (96 K) at a higher Curie temperature (374 K) suggests that the MnCoGe{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} alloy can become a cheaper alternative MCE material (costing 70% less than a MnCoGe alloy). - Highlights: • The economic Si substitutes the noble metal Ge and broadens temperature span(96 K). • The T{sub C} arises when increasing Si in higher room temperature range, 340–374 K. • High thermal stability make them attractive for service temperature of above 300 K. • When Si increases, ΔS{sub M} decreases slightly due to the spontaneous magnetization M{sub S}. • The superior refrigerant capacity indicates that Si substitution benefits the MCE.

  5. Quantitative feasibility study of magnetocaloric energy conversion utilizing industrial waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuarnoz, D.; Kitanovski, A.; Gonin, C.; Borgeaud, Y.; Delessert, M.; Meinen, M.; Egolf, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model magnetic energy conversion machine for the use of industrial waste heat. ► Efficiencies and masses of the system are evaluated by a numerical model. ► Excellent potential of profitability is expected with large low-exergy heat sources. -- Abstract: The main objective of this theoretical study was to investigate under which conditions a magnetic energy conversion device (MECD) – utilizing industrial waste heat – is economically feasible. Furthermore, it was evaluated if magnetic energy conversion (MCE) has the potential of being a serious concurrent to already existing conventional energy conversion technologies. Up-today the availability of magnetocaloric materials with a high Curie temperature and a high magnetocaloric effect is rather limited. Therefore, this study was mainly focused on applications with heat sources of low to medium temperature levels. Magnetic energy conversion machines, containing permanent magnets, are numerically investigated for operation conditions with different temperature levels, defined by industrial waste heat sources and environmental heat sinks, different magnetic field intensities and different frequencies of operation (number of thermodynamic cycles per unit of time). Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations were performed in order to determine thermodynamic efficiencies and the exergy efficiencies as function of different operation conditions. From extracted data of our numerical results, approximate values of the total mass and total volume of magnetic energy conversion machines could be determined. These important results are presented dependent on the produced electric power. An economic feasibility study supplements the scientific study. It shows an excellent potential of profitability for certain machines. The most important result of this article is that the magnetic energy conversion technology can be economically and technically competitive to or even beat conventional energy

  6. Magnetocaloric effect and H gradient in bulk La(Fe,Si)13Hy magnetic refrigerants obtained by HDSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique; Eggert, Bruno G.F.; Lozano, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    the conventional ingot homogenization heat treatment of 7 days. The samples produced by HDSH showed higher amounts of hydrogen than the parts hydrogenated by the conventional method of thermal homogenization (20 h at 1423 K), milling to fine powder and subsequent hydrogenation. Hydrogenation parameters play...... an important role for the stability of the desired La(Fe,Si)13 phase during the process. Hydrogen desorption was seen to occur at two temperature ranges as a result of internal gradients. Dissimilar amounts of α-Fe were precipitated for different hydrogenation times. As a result, parts produced via HDSH with 2...

  7. Adiabatic temperature change from non-adiabatic measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carvalho, A.M.G.; Mejía, C.S.; Ponte, C.A.; Silva, L.E.L.; Kaštil, Jiří; Kamarád, Jiří; Gomes, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-5, č. článku 246. ISSN 0947-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetocaloric effect * adiabatic temperature change * calorimetric device * gadolinium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2016

  8. Magnetocaloric and magnetoresistive properties of La0.67Ca0.33-xSrxMnO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Anders Reves

    This thesis presents results of an experimental investigation of magneto-caloric and magnetoresistive properties of a series of polycrystalline Ca- and Sr-doped lanthanum manganites, La0.67Ca0.33-xSrxMnO3 (0=x=0.33 ), with the perovskite structure. The samples consisted of sintered oxide powders...... prepared the glycine-nitrate combustion technique. The compounds were ferromagnetic and showed a Curie transition in the temperature range 267–370 K (TC increased with increasing x). An analysis of the structural properties was carried out by means of x-ray diffraction and the Rietveld technique...... and the Curie temperature. The Mn–O–Mn bonds mediate ferromagnetism and electrical transport in these materials via the double-exchange mechanism. The magnetocaloric effect of the La0.67Ca0.33-xSrxMnO3 samples was measured directly and indirectly (by means of magnetization measurements). All the samples showed...

  9. Influence of magnetic field, chemical pressure and hydrostatic pressure on the structural and magnetocaloric properties of the Mn-Ni-Ge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubel, Andreas; Gottschall, Tino; Fries, Maximilian; Faske, Tom; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    The magnetic, structural and thermomagnetic properties of the MM’X material system of MnNiGe are evaluated with respect to their utilization in magnetocaloric refrigeration. The effects of separate and simultaneous substitution of Fe for Mn and Si on the Ge site are analysed in detail to highlight the benefits of the isostructural alloying method. A large range of compounds with precisely tunable structural and magnetic properties and the tuning of the phase transition by chemical pressure are compared to the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the martensitic transition. We obtained very large isothermal entropy changes Δ S_iso of up to -37.8 J kg-1 K-1 based on magnetic measurements for (Mn,Fe)NiGe in moderate fields of 2 T. The enhanced magnetocaloric properties for transitions around room temperature are demonstrated for samples with reduced Ge, a resource critical element. An adiabatic temperature change of 1.3 K in a magnetic field change of 1.93 T is observed upon direct measurement for a sample with Fe and Si substitution. However, the high volume change of 2.8% results in an embrittlement of large particles into several smaller fragments and leads to a sensitivity of the magnetocaloric properties towards sample shape and size. On the other hand, this large volume change enables to induce the phase transition with a large shift of the transition temperature by application of hydrostatic pressure (72 K GPa-1 ). Thus, the effect of 1.88 GPa is equivalent to a substitution of 10% Fe for Mn and can act as an additional stimulus to induce the phase transition and support the low magnetic field dependence of the phase transition temperature for multicaloric applications.

  10. Materials for room temperature magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl Hansen, B.

    2010-07-15

    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material to change its temperature when a magnetic field is applied or removed. For room temperature cooling, one utilizes that the magnetocaloric effect peaks near magnetic phase transitions and so the materials of interest all have a critical temperature within the range of 250 - 310 K. A magnetic refrigerant should fulfill a number of criteria, among these a large magnetic entropy change, a large adiabatic temperature change, preferably little to no thermal or magnetic hysteresis and the material should have the stability required for long term use. As the temperature range required for room temperature cooling is some 40 - 50 K, the magnetic refrigerant should also be able to cover this temperature span either by exhibiting a very broad peak in magnetocaloric effect or by providing the opportunity for creating a materials series with varying transition temperatures. (Author)

  11. The influence of quench atomic disorder on the magnetocaloric properties of Ni–Co–Mn–In alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sandeep; Glavatskyy, Illya; Biswas, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large magnetic entropy change (ΔS m = 11 J/Kg K) at 1.5 Tesla above 300 K is obtained. • The peak value of ΔS m is higher in disordered system. • Refrigeration capacity (RC) is unaffected by the quenched atomic disorder. - Abstract: The magnetocaloric effect in Ni–Co–Mn–In alloys is studied at low magnetic field, across the first order magnetostructural transition. The Co doping at Ni site induces the large magnetic entropy change (ΔS m ) above room temperature. The large ΔS m of 11 J/Kg K has been observed for disordered Ni 1.81 Co 0.22 Mn 1.46 In 0.51 alloy at 337 K at an applied field of 1.5 Tesla. The influence of quench atomic disorder on the magnetocaloric properties of Ni–Co–Mn–In alloys has been studied. The atomic disorder significantly increases the peak value of ΔS m and decreases the peak width. The refrigeration capacity (RC) is almost unchanged with atomic disorder

  12. Investigations in MnAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}: Experimental validation of a new magnetocaloric composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A. de, E-mail: acampos@icte.uftm.edu.br [Instituto de Ciências Tecnológicas e Exatas, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), 38066-200 Uberaba (Brazil); Luz, M.S. da; Campos, Adriana de [Instituto de Ciências Tecnológicas e Exatas, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), 38066-200 Uberaba (Brazil); Coelho, A.A.; Cardoso, L.P. [Instituto deFísica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos [Centro de Ciências Sociais, Saúde e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão – (UFMA), 65900-000 Imperatriz, MA (Brazil); Gama, S. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, 09971-270 SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    An overview of the magnetocaloric properties of the MnAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} is presented. The temperature dependence of the isothermal magnetic entropy, ΔS{sub mag}, and the refrigerant capacity, RC, have been investigated theoretically and experimentally in a composite based on second order MnAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} phases. This work demonstrates the outstanding agreement between the experimental results and the continuous curves predicted by numerical calculations, indicating that this approach can be used to design magnetic refrigerant materials with enhanced magnetocaloric response in magnetic refrigerator performing an Ericsson cycle near room temperature. - Highlights: • This is the first report showing the magnetocaloric properties of the MnAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} composite. • This work demonstrates a good agreement between experimental and the predicted by numerical calculations. The results indicating that this approach can be used to design magnetic refrigerant materials.

  13. A new type of magnetocaloric composite based on conductive polymer and magnetocaloric compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, W., E-mail: williamimamura@yahoo.com.br [State University of Maringá (UEM)/Department of Mechanical Engineering (DEM-PEM), 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Coelho, A.A. [State University of Campinas (Unicamp)/Department of Applied Physics (DFA-IFGW), 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Kupfer, V.L. [State University of Maringá (UEM)/Department of Chemistry (DQI-LMSen), 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Carvalho, A.M.G. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS)/Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), C. P. 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Zago, J.G. [State University of Maringá (UEM)/Department of Mechanical Engineering (DEM-PEM), 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Rinaldi, A.W. [State University of Maringá (UEM)/Department of Chemistry (DQI-LMSen), 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Favaro, S.L.; Alves, C.S. [State University of Maringá (UEM)/Department of Mechanical Engineering (DEM-PEM), 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a processing route of the first magnetocaloric composite with conductive polymer – wherein the magnetocaloric reinforcement is a compound Gd{sub 5.09}Ge{sub 2.03}Si{sub 1.88} and the ductile matrix is a conductive polymer polyaniline doped by camphorsulfonic acid (PAni-CSA). This new type of composite combines mechanical, electrical and magnetocaloric properties that can be applied in thermomagnetic machines. - Highlights: • We developed a new type of magnetocaloric composite: PAni-CSA/Gd5.09Ge2.03Si1.88. • We presented a processing route which use a conductive polymer instead of epoxy resins or thermoplastic polymers. • We varied the concentration of PAni-CSA (numerical type) and sintering (categorical type). • We analyzed the matrix (PAni-CSA), the magnetocaloric reinforcement (Gd5.09Ge2.03Si1.88) and the composites. • We presented and discussed mechanical, electrical and magnetocaloric properties.

  14. A new type of magnetocaloric composite based on conductive polymer and magnetocaloric compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, W.; Coelho, A.A.; Kupfer, V.L.; Carvalho, A.M.G.; Zago, J.G.; Rinaldi, A.W.; Favaro, S.L.; Alves, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a processing route of the first magnetocaloric composite with conductive polymer – wherein the magnetocaloric reinforcement is a compound Gd_5_._0_9Ge_2_._0_3Si_1_._8_8 and the ductile matrix is a conductive polymer polyaniline doped by camphorsulfonic acid (PAni-CSA). This new type of composite combines mechanical, electrical and magnetocaloric properties that can be applied in thermomagnetic machines. - Highlights: • We developed a new type of magnetocaloric composite: PAni-CSA/Gd5.09Ge2.03Si1.88. • We presented a processing route which use a conductive polymer instead of epoxy resins or thermoplastic polymers. • We varied the concentration of PAni-CSA (numerical type) and sintering (categorical type). • We analyzed the matrix (PAni-CSA), the magnetocaloric reinforcement (Gd5.09Ge2.03Si1.88) and the composites. • We presented and discussed mechanical, electrical and magnetocaloric properties.

  15. Magnetic structure and phase formation of magnetocaloric Mn-Fe-P-X compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Z.Q.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the crystal and magnetic structure, the magnetocaloric effect and related physical properties in Mn-Fe-P-X compounds. The influences of boron addition in (Mn,Fe)2(P,As) compounds have been studied. It is found that boron atoms occupy interstitial sites within the

  16. Influence of Fe doped on the magnetocaloric behavior of La_{{2}/{3}} Ca_{{1}/{3}} Mn1-x Fe x O3 compounds: a Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate-Cardona, J. D.; Barco-Rios, H.; Restrepo-Parra, E.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetocaloric behavior of La{2/{3}} Ca{1/{3}} Mn1-x Fe x O3 for x  =  0.00, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.08 and 0.10 under the influence of an external magnetic field was simulated and analyzed. Simulations were carried out using the Monte Carlo method and the classical Heisenberg model under the Metropolis algorithm. These mixed valence manganites are characterized by having three types of magnetic ions corresponding to Mn4+≤ft(S=\\frac{3}{2}\\right) , which are bonded with Ca2+ , and Mneg3+ and Mneg\\prime3+ (S=2) , related to La3+ . The Fe ions were randomly included, replacing Mn ions. With this model, the magnetic entropy change, Δ S , in an isothermal process was determined. -Δ Sm showed maximum peaks around the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition temperature, which depends on Fe doping. Relative cooling power was computed for different Fe concentrations varying the magnetic applied field. Our model and results show that the Fe doping decreases the magnetocaloric effect in the La{2/{3}} Ca{1/{3}} Mn1-x Fe x O3, making this a bad candidate for magnetic refrigeration. The strong dependence of the magnetocaloric behavior on Fe doping and the external magnetic field in La{2/{3}} Ca{1/{3}} Mn1-x Fe x O3 can boost these materials for the future technological applications.

  17. Developing a Magnetocaloric Domestic Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    beverage coolers, A/Cs for cars and electronics cooling. Devices for heating have not been extensively demonstrated. Here we consider a promising application of magnetocaloric heat pumps for domestic heating. The task of designing and building such a device is a multidisciplinary one encompassing materials...

  18. Operational test of bonded magnetocaloric plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Bonded plates made by hot pressing La0.85Ce0.15Fe11.25Mn0.25Si1.5Hy particles and resin have been tested as active magnetic regenerators in a small scale magnetocaloric device. Firstly the plates were carefully characterised magnetically and thermally. The plates were prepared with 5 wt% resin...

  19. Heat flux measurements of Tb{sub 3}M series (M=Co, Rh and Ru): Specific heat and magnetocaloric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, J.C.B., E-mail: jolmiui@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Lombardi, G.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Reis, R.D. dos [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Freitas, H.E.; Cardoso, L.P.; Mansanares, A.M.; Gandra, F.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We report on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the Tb{sub 3}M series, with M=Co, Rh and Ru, obtained using a heat flux technique. The specific heat of Tb{sub 3}Co and Tb{sub 3}Rh are very similar, with a first order type transition occurring around 6 K below the magnetic ordering temperature without any corresponding feature on the magnetization. The slightly enhanced electronic specific heat, the Debye temperature around 150 K and the presence of the magnetic specific heat well above the ordering temperature are also characteristic of many other compounds of the R{sub 3}M family (R=Rare Earth). The specific heat for Tb{sub 3}Ru, however, presents two peaks at 37 K and 74 K. The magnetization shows that below the first peak the system presents an antiferromagnetic behavior and is paramagnetic above 74 K. We obtained a magnetocaloric effect for M=Co and Rh, −∆S=12 J/kg K, but for Tb{sub 3}Ru it is less than 3 J/kg K (μ{sub 0}∆H=5 T). We believe that the experimental results show that the MCE is directly related with the process of hybridization of the (R)5d-(M)d electrons that occurs in the R{sub 3}M materials.

  20. Materials for Room Temperature Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered...... candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material...... to change its temperature when a magnetic field is applied or removed. For room temperature cooling, one utilizes that the magnetocaloric effect peaks near magnetic phase transitions and so the materials of interest all have a critical temperature within the range of 250 – 310 K. A magnetic refrigerant...

  1. Study of magnetic, structural and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} under high pressures and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaštil, J., E-mail: kastil@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics AS CR v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Arnold, Z. [Institute of Physics AS CR v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Isnard, O. [Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut Néel, 25 rus des martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Skourski, Y. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), HZ Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Kamarád, J. [Institute of Physics AS CR v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Itié, J.P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-02-15

    The structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} compound were measured in wide range of temperature, magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure. The structural study up to 10 GPa confirmed the existence of critical Mn-Mn distance 0.2883 nm for the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition at room temperature. The results demonstrated the crucial role of the volume in the suppression of the ferromagnetic phase above the transition temperature T{sub 1}=168 K under pressure. The huge pressure shift of the transition temperature T{sub 1}, dT{sub 1}/dp=230 K/GPa, was observed. Based on our magnetization measurement the low temperature transition at T{sub 2}=30 K is connected with reorientation of Mn moment and the rare-earth sublattice is not ordered in this case. The direct magnetocaloric measurement showed moderate values of the adiabatic temperature change connected with the magnetic transition at T{sub c} and T{sub 1} and confirmed the first order character of the transition at T{sub 1} and second order character of the transition at T{sub c}. - Highlights: • The huge pressure shift of the transition temperature dT{sub 1}/dp=230 K/GPa was observed. • Ferromagnetic order is suppressed by applying pressure of 1 GPa. • The direct magnetocaloric effect showed moderate values of ΔT{sub ad}.

  2. Magnetic, transport, and magnetocaloric properties of boron doped Ni-Mn-In alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, S.; Quetz, A.; Aryal, A.; Dubenko, I.; Ali, N. [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62902 (United States); Rodionov, I. D.; Blinov, M. I.; Titov, I. S.; Prudnikov, V. N.; Granovsky, A. B. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Stadler, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    The impact of B substitution in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15−x}B{sub x} Heusler alloys on the structural, magnetic, transport, and parameters of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been studied by means of room-temperature X-ray diffraction and thermomagnetic measurements (in magnetic fields (H) up to 5 T, and in the temperature interval 5–400 K). Direct adiabatic temperature change (ΔT{sub AD}) measurements have been carried out for an applied magnetic field change of 1.8 T. The transition temperatures (T-x) phase diagram has been constructed for H = 0.005 T. The MCE parameters were found to be comparable to those observed in other MCE materials such as Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34.8}In{sub 14.2}B and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 14}X (X=In, Al, and Ge) Heusler alloys. The maximum absolute value of ΔT{sub AD} = 2.5 K was observed at the magnetostructural transition for Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 14.5}B{sub 0.5}.

  3. Magnetic, transport, and magnetocaloric properties of boron doped Ni-Mn-In alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.; Quetz, A.; Aryal, A.; Dubenko, I.; Ali, N.; Rodionov, I. D.; Blinov, M. I.; Titov, I. S.; Prudnikov, V. N.; Granovsky, A. B.; Stadler, S.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of B substitution in Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15−x B x Heusler alloys on the structural, magnetic, transport, and parameters of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been studied by means of room-temperature X-ray diffraction and thermomagnetic measurements (in magnetic fields (H) up to 5 T, and in the temperature interval 5–400 K). Direct adiabatic temperature change (ΔT AD ) measurements have been carried out for an applied magnetic field change of 1.8 T. The transition temperatures (T-x) phase diagram has been constructed for H = 0.005 T. The MCE parameters were found to be comparable to those observed in other MCE materials such as Ni 50 Mn 34.8 In 14.2 B and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 14 X (X=In, Al, and Ge) Heusler alloys. The maximum absolute value of ΔT AD  = 2.5 K was observed at the magnetostructural transition for Ni 50 Mn 35 In 14.5 B 0.5

  4. Thermopower and magnetocaloric properties in NdSrMnO/CrO3 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. M.; Mohamed, H. F.; Paixão, J. A.; Mohamed, Sara A.

    2018-06-01

    The thermoelectric power (TEP) and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for (Nd0.6Sr0.4MnO3)1-x/(CrO3)x composites have been measured. The TEP measurements show a negative sign value of the Seebeck coefficient (S), in microvolts. TEP data construe in the low range of temperature by the magnon and phonon drag model, whereas at high temperature by small polaron conduction mechanism. Magnetic measurements exhibit that all composites show a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature. The Arrott plots of composites reveal the occurrence of a second order phase transition. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change (ΔS) is 2.37 J kg-1 K-1, achieved fore the composite with x = 0.015. Moreover, the maximum value of relative cooling power (RCP) is 122.1 J kg-1, achieved for the composite with x = 0.020. These composites may be appropriate for magnetic application near room temperature.

  5. Study of multi-layer active magnetic regenerators using magnetocaloric materials with first and second order phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric materials (MCM) with a first order phase transition (FOPT) usually exhibit a large, although sharp, isothermal entropy change near their Curie temperature, compared to materials with a second order phase transition (SOPT). Experimental results of applying FOPT materials in recent...

  6. Thermomagnetic and magnetocaloric properties of metamagnetic Ni-Mn-In-Co Heusler alloy in magnetic fields up to 140 kOe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamantsev Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High cooling power of magnetocaloric refrigeration can be achieved only at large amounts of heat, which can be transferred in one cycle from cold end hot end at quasi-isothermal conditions. The simple and robust experimental method of direct measuring of the transferred heat of materials with magnetocaloric effect (MCE in thermal contact with massive copper block with definite heat capacity in quasi-isothermal regime was proposed. The vacuum calorimeter for the specific transferred heat ΔQ and adiabatic temperature change ΔT measurements of MCE materials in the fields of Bitter coil magnet up to H = 140 kOe was designed and tested on samples of Ni43Mn37.9In12.1Co7 Heusler alloy with inverse MCE in the vicinity of meta-magnetostructural phase transition (PT. It was found, that the magnetic field H = 80 kOe produces complete PT from martensite to austenite with ΔQ = - 1600 J/kg at initial temperature 273 K.

  7. Magneto-caloric and magneto-resistive properties of La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reves Dinesen, Anders

    2004-08-01

    This thesis presents results of an experimental investigation of magneto-caloric and magneto-resistive properties of a series of polycrystalline Ca- and Sr-doped lanthanum manganites, La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (0{<=} x {<=} 0.33), with the perovskite structure. The samples consisted of sintered oxide powders prepared the glycine-nitrate combustion technique. The compounds were ferromagnetic and showed a Curie transition in the temperature range 267370 K (T{sub C} increased with increasing x). An analysis of the structural properties was carried out by means of x-ray diffraction and the Rietveld technique. The variation of the Ca/Sr ratio was found to cause a transition from orthorhombic to rhombohedral symmetry in the composition range 0.110 < x < 0.165. The analysis suggested a strong correlation between structural properties and magnetism, for instance a relationship between the mean MnOMn bond angle and the Curie temperature. The MnOMn bonds mediate ferromagnetism and electrical transport in these materials via the double-exchange mechanism. The magnetocaloric effect of the La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} samples was measured directly and indirectly (by means of magnetization measurements). All the samples showed a magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of T{sub C}. A model for the mag-netocaloric effect based on Weiss mean field theory and classical theories for heat capacities was developed. The model provided reasonable predictions of the magneto-caloric properties of the samples. The compounds with low Sr content showed a magnetocaloric effect comparable to that of Gadolinium, the prototypical working material for magnetic refrigeration at room temperature. A less comprehensive part of the investigation regarded the magneto-resistive properties of the La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} system. It was found that th polycrystalline nature of the compounds played a decisive role for the magnetotransport properties

  8. Magnetocaloric properties of a frustrated Blume-Capel antiferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žukovič Milan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature magnetization processes and magnetocaloric properties of a geometrically frustrated spin-1 Blume-Capel model on a triangular lattice are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The model is found to display qualitatively different behavior depending on the sign of the single-ion anisotropy D. For positive values of D we observe two magnetization plateaus, similar to the spin-1/2 Ising antiferromagnet, and negative isothermal entropy changes for any field intensity. For a range of small negative values of D there are four magnetization plateaus and the entropy changes can be either negative or positive, depending on the field. If D is negative but large in absolute value then the entropy changes are solely positive.

  9. Modulation infrared thermometry of caloric effects at up to kHz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döntgen, Jago; Rudolph, Jörg; Waske, Anja; Hägele, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel non-contact method for the direct measurement of caloric effects in low volume samples. The adiabatic temperature change ΔT of a magnetocaloric sample is very sensitively determined from thermal radiation. Rapid modulation of ΔT is induced by an oscillating external magnetic field. Detection of thermal radiation with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector allows for measurements at field frequencies exceeding 1 kHz. In contrast to thermoacoustic methods, our method can be employed in vacuum which enhances adiabatic conditions especially in the case of small volume samples. Systematic measurements of the magnetocaloric effect as a function of temperature, magnetic field amplitude, and modulation frequency give a detailed picture of the thermal behavior of the sample. Highly sensitive measurements of the magnetocaloric effect are demonstrated on a 2 mm thick sample of gadolinium and a 60 μm thick Fe80B12Nb8 ribbon.

  10. Magnetocaloric materials and first order phase transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique

    and magnetocaloric regenerative tests. The magnetic, thermal and structural properties obtained from such measurements are then evaluated through different models, i.e. the Curie-Weiss law, the Bean-Rodbell model, the free electron model and the Debye model.The measured magnetocaloric properties of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3...... heat capacity, magnetization and entropy change measurements. By measuring bulky particles (with a particle size in the range of 5001000 μm) of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz with first order phase transition, it was possible to observe very sharp transitions. This is not the case for finer ground particles which......This thesis studies the first order phase transitions of the magnetocaloric materials La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 and La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz trying to overcome challenges that these materials face when applied in active magnetic regenerators. The study is done through experimental characterization and modelling...

  11. Temperature Effect on Energy Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    We provide various estimates of temperature effect for accommodating seasonality in energy demand, particularly natural gas demand. We exploit temperature response and monthly temperature distribution to estimate the temperature effect on natural gas demand. Both local and global smoothed temperature responses are estimated from empirical relationship between hourly temperature and hourly energy consumption data during the sample period (1990 - 1996). Monthly temperature distribution estimates are obtained by kernel density estimation from temperature dispersion within a month. We integrate temperature response and monthly temperature density over all the temperatures in the sample period to estimate temperature effect on energy demand. Then, estimates of temperature effect are compared between global and local smoothing methods. (author). 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Tunable magnetocaloric effect in Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Mn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugapriya, K.; Palanivel, Balan [Pondicherry Engineering College, Department of Physics, Puducherry (India); Radheep, D.M.; Murugan, Ramaswamy [Pondicherry University, Department of Physics, Puducherry (India)

    2017-07-15

    Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Mn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) polycrystalline samples were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction. Magnetic characterizations of Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Mn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} revealed signature of antiferromagnetic ordering at temperatures (T{sub N}) ∝ 19, 25 and 29.5 K for x = 0.25, x = 0.5 and for x = 0.75, respectively. Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Mn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (x = 0.75) exhibits field-induced antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at ∝ 30 K with applied magnetic field of 4 and 5 T. Magnetocaloric change (ΔS{sub M}) increases from 3.5 to 19 J/kg K by increasing calcium concentration in the A-site. Those ΔS{sub M} values are relatively very high in these classes of antiferromagnetic perovskite systems and equal to the magnetisation values of the ferromagnetic perovskite manganites. This is the first report for the Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Mn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (x = 0.75) having large magnetic entropy changes induced by the low magnetic field. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of spin-glass material DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.34}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); College of Physics and Electronic Information Engineering, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang 641100 (China); Mudryk, Y., E-mail: slavkomk@ameslab.gov [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Pathak, A.K.; Feng, W. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Pecharsky, V.K. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Spin-glass state is observed in the DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.4} compound. • Random Ni/Si distribution in the AlB{sub 2}-type structure leads to magnetic frustration. • Magnetic frustration affects magnetic field dependence of magnetocaloric effect. - Abstract: Structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.34} were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization measurements. X-ray powder diffraction pattern shows that DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.34} crystallizes in the AlB{sub 2}-type hexagonal structure (space group: P6/mmm, No. 191, a = b = 3.9873(9) Å, and c = 3.9733(1) Å). The compound is a spin-glass with the freezing temperature T{sub G} = 6.2 K. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm magnetic frustration in DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.34}. The maximum value of the magnetic entropy change determined from M(H) data is −16.1 J/kg K at 10.5 K for a field change of 70 kOe.

  14. The influence of non-magnetocaloric properties on the AMR performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian; Smith, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The performance of Active Magnetic Regenerators (AMR) does not depend solely on the magnetocaloric effect of their constituents. Rather, it depends on several additional parameters, including, magnetic field, geometry (hydraulic diameter, cross-sectional area, regenerator length etc.), thermal pr...... a strong dependence on the orientation of the applied field and the regenerator geometry. Finally, the flow maldistribution of non-uniform regenerator geometries is found to degrade the AMR performance even at minor deviations from perfectly homogeneous regenerator matrices.......The performance of Active Magnetic Regenerators (AMR) does not depend solely on the magnetocaloric effect of their constituents. Rather, it depends on several additional parameters, including, magnetic field, geometry (hydraulic diameter, cross-sectional area, regenerator length etc.), thermal...... properties (conductivity, specific heat and mass density) and operating parameters (utilization, frequency, number of transfer units etc.). In this paper we focus on the influence of three parameters on regenerator performance: 1) Solid thermal conductivity, 2) magnetostatic demagnetization and 3) flow...

  15. Co and In doped Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys: a thorough structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabbrici, S.; Porcari, G.; Cugini, F.; Solzi, M.; Kamarád, Jiří; Arnold, Zdeněk; Cabassi, R.; Albertini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2014), s. 2204-2222 ISSN 1099-4300 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic shape memory materials * magnetocaloric effect * multifunctional Heusler alloys Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2014

  16. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in La{sub 0.35}Pr{sub 0.35}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, R. [Centre for High Pressure Research, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Esakki Muthu, S. [Centre for High Pressure Research, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CEA, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Manikandan, K. [Centre for High Pressure Research, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Arumugam, S., E-mail: sarumugam1963@yahoo.com [Centre for High Pressure Research, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetization of polycrystalline La{sub 0.35}Pr{sub 0.35}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} sample has been measured as a function of temperature (T) and magnetic field (H) under various external hydrostatic pressures (P) up to ~1 GPa. At ambient P, the sample exhibits paramagnetic (PM)–ferromagnetic (FM) transition (T{sub C}) at 167 K and 173 K in cooling and warming cycles respectively under the magnetic field (µ{sub 0}.H) of 0.1 T. It also shows a hysteresis during both temperature- and field- dependence of magnetization measurements at ambient P, suggests the presence of a first-order transition. Moreover, the field dependence of magnetization shows S type field-induced metamagnetic transition (FIMMT) over a temperature range below T{sub C} in the FM state. The application of P in M(T) increases T{sub C} at a rate [dT{sub C}/dP] of 13.9 K/GPa, but the thermally-driven first-order transition is not affected by P. However, the applied P suppresses FIMMT and reduces field-driven first-order transition in the magnetization isotherms [M(H)]below T{sub C}. H increases both magnetic entropy change (∆S{sub m}) and Relative Cooling Power (RCP), whereas the P slightly increases ∆S{sub m}{sup max} and no appreciable change in RCP. These results suggest that H and P can be used as a tool to enhance magnetocaloric values in the phase separated manganites. - Highlights: • At ambient P, La{sub 0.35}Pr{sub 0.35}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} sample shows first-order PM–FM transition. • P increases the T{sub C} at a rate of 13.9 K/GPa, thermal hysteresis is not affected. • P diminishes the field-driven first-order PM–FM transition, suppresses FIMMMT. • H increases ∆S{sub m} and RCP. P slightly increases ∆S{sub m}{sup max}, but no change in RCP by P.

  17. Magnetic, structural and magnetocaloric properties of Ni-Si and Ni-Al thermoseeds for self-controlled hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudip; Quetz, Abdiel; Aryal, Anil; Dubenko, Igor; Mazumdar, Dipanjan; Stadler, Shane; Ali, Naushad

    2017-11-01

    Self-controlled hyperthermia is a non-invasive technique used to kill or destroy cancer cells while preserving normal surrounding tissues. We have explored bulk magnetic Ni-Si and Ni-Al alloys as a potential thermoseeds. The structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the samples were investigated, including saturation magnetisation, Curie temperature (T C ), and magnetic and thermal hysteresis, using room temperature X-ray diffraction and magnetometry. The annealing time, temperature and the effects of homogenising the thermoseeds were studied to determine the functional hyperthermia applications. The bulk Ni-Si and Ni-Al binary alloys have Curie temperatures in the desired range, 316 K-319 K (43 °C-46 °C), which is suitable for magnetic hyperthermia applications. We have found that T C strictly follows a linear trend with doping concentration over a wide range of temperature. The magnetic ordering temperature and the magnetic properties can be controlled through substitution in these binary alloys.

  18. Rotating disk atomization of Gd and Gd-Y for hydrogen liquefaction via magnetocaloric cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinger, Tyler [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    In order to enable liquid hydrogen fuel cell technologies for vehicles the cost of hydrogen liquefaction should be lowered. The current method of hydrogen liquefaction is the Claude cycle that has a figure of merit (FOM) of 0.3-0.35. New magnetocaloric hydrogen liquefaction devices have been proposed with a FOM>0.5, which is a significant improvement. A significant hurdle to realizing these devices is the synthesis of spherical rare earth based alloy powders of 200μm in diameter. In this study a centrifugal atomization method that used a rotating disk with a rotating oil quench bath was developed to make gadolinium and gadolinium-yttrium spheres. The composition of the spherical powders included pure Gd and Gd0.91Y0.09. The effect of atomization parameters, such as superheat, melt properties, disk shape, disk speed, and melt system materials and design, were investigated on the size distribution and morphology of the resulting spheres. The carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen impurity levels also were analyzed and compared with the magnetic performance of the alloys. The magnetic properties of the charge material as well as the resulting powders were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The saturation magnetization and Curie temperature were the target properties for the resulting spheres. These values were compared with measurements taken on the charge material in order to investigate the effect of atomization processing on the alloys.

  19. Magnetocaloric properties in La{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} thin films: Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co; Ramos-Rivera, L.; Londoño-Navarro, J.

    2014-02-15

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of La{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} was analyzed when varying the stoichiometry (x=0.2, 0.33, 0.4 and 0.5) and the external applied magnetic field. Simulations were carried out using the Monte Carlo method having a configuration ascribed by the set S{sub z} of all-site spin projections, under the Metropolis algorithm. La{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} is characterized for three types of magnetic ions corresponding to Mn{sup 4+} (S=3/2), which are bonded to Ca{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 3+}(e{sub g}) and Mn{sup 3+}(e{sub g′}, S=2), which are both bonded to La{sup 3+}. Different interactions must be considered depending on the type of interacting ions. The entropy change ΔS in an isothermal process as well as the temperature change ΔT in an adiabatic process was determined with this model. Both ΔS and ΔT show stoichiometry-dependent maximums near the paramagnetic–ferromagnetic transition temperature (T{sub C}), confirming the order–disorder change at this temperature. The strong dependence in La{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} of the MCE on the stoichiometry and the external magnetic field makes this phenomenon important for different technological applications, particularly in refrigeration. - Highlights: • Thermal behavior of entropy, susceptibility and isothermal entropy change is studied. • ΔS and ΔT present a transition at the critical temperature depending on the stoichiometry. • Semi-classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian allows simulation of magnetocaloric effect in LCMO. • External magnetic field produces changes in ΔS and ΔT observed in the shifting of T{sub C}.

  20. A pathway to optimize the properties of magnetocaloric Mn_2_-_xFe_xP_1_-_yGe_y for magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.M.; Zhang, Z.L.; Zhou, S.L.; Huang, Q.Z.; Deng, X.J.; Yue, M.; Liu, C.X.; Zhang, J.X.; Lynn, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric materials can be useful in magnetic refrigeration applications, but to be practical the magneto-refrigerant needs to have a very large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) near room temperature for modest applied fields (<2 T) with small hysteresis and magnetostriction, and should have a complete magnetic transition, and environmentally friendly. One system that may fulfill these requirements is Mn_2_-_xFe_xP_1_-_yGe_y, where a combined first-order structural and magnetic transition occurs between the high temperature paramagnetic and low temperature ferromagnetic phase. We have used neutron diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and magnetization measurements to study the effects of Mn and Ge location in the structure on the ordered magnetic moment, MCE, and hysteresis for a series of compositions of the system near optimal doping. The diffraction results indicate that the Mn ions located on the 3f site enhance the desirable properties, while those located on the 3 g sites are detrimental. The phase fraction that transforms, hysteresis of the transition, and entropy change can be affected greatly by both the compositional homogeneity and the particle size, and an annealing procedure has been developed that substantially improves the performance of all three properties of the material. We also establish a correlation between applied magnetic field to complete the transition and the temperature range of coexistence of the PM and FM phase. On the basis of these results we have identified a pathway to understand the nature and to optimize the MCE properties of this system for magnetic refrigeration applications. - Highlights: • Compositional homogeneity and particle size affect the MCE properties. • Mn ions located on the 3f site enhance the desirable MCE properties. • A pathway to understand the nature and to optimize the MCE properties was identified.

  1. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of amorphous Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nóbrega, E.P., E-mail: pilad@cbpf.br; Costa, S.S.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Alho, B.P.; Caldas, A.; Ribeiro, P.O.; Sousa, V.S.R de; Oliveira, N.A. de; Ranke, P.J. von

    2017-01-15

    We report a theoretical model formed by two coupled magnetic sublattices of localized spins in the presence of an applied magnetic field to investigate the magnetic characteristics and magnetocaloric properties of amorphous yttrium iron garnet. The magnetic state equation is based on Handrich–Kobe´s theory, where the amorphization is taken into account by introducing fluctuations in the exchange parameters. Experimental results report that Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} presents a structural phase transition from crystalline to amorphous caused by a variation of external pressure. This phase transition on Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} leads to interesting results in the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric quantities. - Highlights: • Study of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of amorphous Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} compound. • Theoretical model formed by two coupled magnetic sublattices of localized spins in the presence of an applied magnetic field. • The influence of crystalline/amorphous transition on the magnetocaloric effect.

  2. Performance-oriented Analysis of a Hybrid magnetic Assembly for a Heat-pump Magnetocaloric Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional active-regenerator magnetocaloric devices include moving parts, with the purpose of generating an oscillating magnetic field in the magneto-caloric material, placed inside the regenerator. In this work a different design is analyzed, for application in a magnetocaloric heat pump...

  3. Influence of Mn incorporation for Ni on the magnetocaloric properties of rapidly solidified off-stoichiometric NiMnGa ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Sushmita; Singh, Satnam; Roy, R.K.; Ghosh, M.; Mitra, A.; Panda, A.K., E-mail: akpanda@nmlindia.org

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the magnetocaloric behaviour in a series of Ni{sub 77−x}Mn{sub x}Ga{sub 23} (x=23, 24, 25, 27 and 29) rapidly solidified alloys prepared in the form of ribbons by melt spinning technique. The approach of the study is to identify the off-stoichiometric composition wherein room temperature magneto-structural transformation is achieved. The alloy chemistry was tailored through Mn incorporation for Ni such that the magnetic and structural transitions were at close proximity to achieve highest entropy value of ΔS equal to 8.51 J Kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for #Mn{sub 24} ribbon measured at an applied field of 3 T. When such transitions are more staggered as in #Mn{sub 29} the entropy value of ribbon reduced to as low as 1.61 J Kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}. Near room temperature transformations in #Mn{sub 24} ribbon have been observed through calorimetric and thermomagnetic evaluation. Reverse martensitic transformation (martensite→autstenite) temperature indicates not only distinct change in the saturation flux density but also an inter-martensitic phase. Microstructural analysis of #Mn{sub 24} alloy ribbon revealed structural ordering with the existence of plate morphology evidenced for martensitic phase. - Highlights: • Magnetocaloric effect in a series of melt spun NiMnGa ribbon is addressed. • The alloy series revealed austenitic state as well as its presence with martensite. • The morphology of the ribbons has been shown and discussed through phase analysis. • Influence of magnetising field on entropy and relative cooling power is discussed. • Influence of intermartensitic state on magnetization plots have also been shown.

  4. Magnetocaloric Properties of Fe-Ni-Cr Nanoparticles for Active Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, V.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-10-01

    Low cost, earth abundant, rare earth free magnetocaloric nanoparticles have attracted an enormous amount of attention for green, energy efficient, active near room temperature thermal management. Hence, we investigated the magnetocaloric properties of transition metal based (Fe70Ni30)100-xCrx (x = 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7) nanoparticles. The influence of Cr additions on the Curie temperature (TC) was studied. Only 5% of Cr can reduce the TC from ~438 K to 258 K. These alloys exhibit broad entropy v/s temperature curves, which is useful to enhance relative cooling power (RCP). For a field change of 5 T, the RCP for (Fe70Ni30)99Cr1 nanoparticles was found to be 548 J-kg-1. Tunable TCin broad range, good RCP, low cost, high corrosion resistance and earth abundance make these nanoparticles suitable for low-grade waste heat recovery as well as near room temperature active cooling applications.

  5. Achieving a table-like magnetocaloric effect and large refrigerant capacity in in situ multiphase Gd65Mn25Si10 alloys obtained by crystallization treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, X Y; Zhong, X C; Huang, X W; Mo, H Y; Feng, X L; Liu, Z W; Jiao, D L

    2017-01-01

    In situ multiphase structure Gd 65 Mn 25 Si 10 alloys were fabricated by melt spinning and subsequent crystallization treatment. In the process of crystallization, the α -Gd, GdMn 2 and Gd 5 Si 3 phases precipitate in the amorphous matrix in turn. The Curie temperature ( T C ) values for the α -Gd crystallization phase and amorphous matrix can be tailored by tuning the crystallization treatment time. All three multiphase alloys obtained by crystallization treatment at 637 K for 20, 30 and 40 min, respectively, undergo multiple successive magnetic phase transitions. A table-like magnetic entropy change over a wide temperature range (∼90–120 K) and a large full width at half maximum (Δ T FWHM ) magnetic entropy change (∼230 K) were achieved in the above-mentioned crystallized alloys, resulting in large refrigerant capacities (RCs). The enhanced RCs of the three crystallized alloys for a magnetic field change of 0–5 T are in the range of 541–614 J kg −1 . Large Δ T FWHM and RC values and a table-like (−Δ S M ) max feature obtained in in situ multiphase Gd 65 Mn 25 Si 10 crystallized alloys make them suitable for potential application in efficient Ericsson-cycle magnetic refrigeration working in a temperature range from 74 to 310 K. (paper)

  6. Comparison of the order of magnetic phase transitions in several magnetocaloric materials using the rescaled universal curve, Banerjee and mean field theory criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrola-Gándara, L. A., E-mail: andres.burrola@gmail.com; Santillan-Rodriguez, C. R.; Rivera-Gomez, F. J.; Saenz-Hernandez, R. J.; Botello-Zubiate, M. E.; Matutes-Aquino, J. A. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico)

    2015-05-07

    Magnetocaloric materials with second order phase transition near the Curie temperature can be described by critical phenomena theory. In this theory, scaling, universality, and renormalization are key concepts from which several phase transition order criteria are derived. In this work, the rescaled universal curve, Banerjee and mean field theory criteria were used to make a comparison for several magnetocaloric materials including pure Gd, SmCo{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 0.2}, MnFeP{sub 0.46}As{sub 0.54}, and La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.15}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3}. Pure Gd, SmCo{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 0.2}, and La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.15}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} present a collapse of the rescaled magnetic entropy change curves into a universal curve, which indicates a second order phase transition; applying Banerjee criterion to H/σ vs σ{sup 2} Arrot plots and the mean field theory relation |ΔS{sub M}| ∝ (μ{sub 0}H/T{sub c}){sup 2/3} for the same materials also determines a second order phase transition. However, in the MnFeP{sub 0.46}As{sub 0.54} sample, the Banerjee criterion applied to the H/σ vs σ{sup 2} Arrot plot indicates a first order magnetic phase transition, while the mean field theory prediction for a second order phase transition, |ΔS{sub M}| ∝ (μ{sub 0}H/T{sub c}){sup 2/3}, describes a second order behavior. Also, a mixture of first and second order behavior was indicated by the rescaled universal curve criterion. The diverse results obtained for each criterion in MnFeP{sub 0.46}As{sub 0.54} are apparently related to the magnetoelastic effect and to the simultaneous presence of weak and strong magnetism in Fe (3f) and Mn (3g) alternate atomic layers, respectively. The simultaneous application of the universal curve, the Banerjee and the mean field theory criteria has allowed a better understanding about the nature of the order of the phase transitions in different magnetocaloric materials.

  7. Magnetocaloric properties of Nd.sub.5./sub.Si.sub.1.45./sub.Ge.sub.2.55./sub. compound under high hydrostatic pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skorokhod, Yuriy; Arnold, Zdeněk; Kamarád, Jiří; Morellon, L.; Magen, C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2006), s. 495-498 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/06/0368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetocaloric effect * magnetic properties * pressure effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.228, year: 2006

  8. Cepheid radii and effective temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernley, J.A.; Skillen, I.; Jameson, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    New infrared photometry for the Cepheid variables T Vul, δ Cephei and XCyg is presented. Combining this with published infrared photometry of T Vul, ηAql, S Sge and XCyg and published optical photometry we use the infrared flux method to determine effective temperatures and angular radii at all phases of the pulsation cycle. These angular radii combined with published radial velocity curves then give the radii of the stars. Knowing the radii and effective temperatures we obtain the absolute magnitudes. (author)

  9. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of MnFeP0.5Ge0.5-xSix compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, L.; Wang, G.F.; Ou, Z.Q.; Haschaolu, O.; Tegus, O.; Brueck, E.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and magnetic-entropy changes of the MnFeP 0.5 Ge 0.5-x Si x compounds with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.45. X-ray diffraction shows that the compounds crystallize in the Fe 2 P-type hexagonal structure. The lattice parameter a and the Curie temperature decreases with increasing x. The maximal magnetic-entropy changes for x = 0.4 and 0.45 derived from the magnetization data are about 6.0 J/kg K and 5.8 J/kg K, respectively, for a field change from 0 to 1.5 T

  10. Magnetic Grüneisen parameter and magnetocaloric properties of a coupled spin–electron double-tetrahedral chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gálisová, Lucia; Strečka, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Magnetocaloric effect in a double-tetrahedral chain, in which nodal lattice sites occupied by the localized Ising spins regularly alternate with three equivalent lattice sites available for mobile electrons, is exactly investigated by considering the one-third electron filling and the ferromagnetic Ising exchange interaction between the mobile electrons and their nearest Ising neighbours. The entropy and the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, which closely relate to the magnetocaloric effect, are exactly calculated in order to investigate the relation between the ground-state degeneracy and the cooling efficiency of the hybrid spin–electron system during the adiabatic demagnetization. - Highlights: • A double-tetrahedral chain of mobile electrons and localized Ising spins is studied. • Magnetic Grüneisen parameter for the system is exactly derived. • Macroscopically degenerate phases FRU and FM constitute the ground state. • MCE is three times higher nearby FRU–FM transition than in FRU phase at small fields

  11. Gd{sub 90}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 7.5} alloy displaying enhanced magnetocaloric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, V., E-mail: virgil12@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8552 (United States); Shull, R.D., E-mail: robert.shull@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8552 (United States); Kletetschka, G., E-mail: kletetschka@gmail.com [Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague 12843 (Czech Republic); Institute of Geology, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Prague 16500 (Czech Republic); Stutzman, P.E., E-mail: paul.stutzman@nist.gov [Materials and Structural Systems Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-861 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The Gd{sub 90}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 7.5} alloy displays superior magnetocaloric properties than Gd. • Alloy’s superior properties at relatively low field values: 400, 800 kA/m (0.5, 1 T). • We proposed two possible mechanisms for the Gd-based alloy enhanced properties. • We indicated a pathway for further improving the alloy magnetocaloric properties. - Abstract: We report on the discovery of a new Gd{sub 90}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 7.5} alloy exhibiting superior magnetocaloric properties compared to those of gadolinium. We present magnetically-derived entropy change, ΔS{sub M}, computed from magnetic data, and thermally-derived temperature change, ΔT{sub ad}, obtained from direct thermal measurements together with their respective MCE peaks for the alloy and gadolinium. The MCE peaks of the alloy are taller and broader than the corresponding MCE peaks of gadolinium. Correspondingly, the refrigeration capacity (RC) values of the alloy computed from magnetic and thermal MCEs for field changes, ΔH, of 400 kA/m (0.5 T) and 800 kA/m (1 T) are about 20% larger than those of gadolinium. Two possible mechanisms are proposed to account for the improved magnetocaloric properties of gadolinium alloyed with small amounts of Co and Fe, thereby pointing out a different methodology to use in the search for improved low field magnetic refrigerants.

  12. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of itinerant-electron system Hf{sub 1−x}Ta{sub x}Fe{sub 2} (x = 0.125 and 0.175)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diop, L.V.B. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Kastil, J. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Institute of Physics AS CR v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Isnard, O. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Arnold, Z.; Kamarad, J. [Institute of Physics AS CR v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • First report of the direct measurement of ΔT{sub ad} in Hf{sub 1−x}Ta{sub x}Fe{sub 2} compounds. • ΔT{sub ad} reach values of 2.5 K under μ{sub 0}ΔH = 3 T for x = 0.175 compound. • A field induced metamagnetic phase transition has been observed. - Abstract: Intrinsic magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) have been investigated for Hf{sub 1−x}Ta{sub x}Fe{sub 2} (x = 0.125 and 0.175) itinerant-electron compounds which exhibit a temperature-induced transition from the ferromagnetic (FM) to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state. Upon increasing Ta concentration, the ferromagnetic ordering temperature strongly decreases with decreasing the lattice parameters and both the isothermal magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M} and the adiabatic temperature change ΔT{sub ad} are enhanced. An adiabatic temperature change of ΔT{sub ad} = 2 and 2.5 K was observed in Hf{sub 0.875}Ta{sub 0.125}Fe{sub 2} and Hf{sub 0.825}Ta{sub 0.175}Fe{sub 2}, respectively, for a magnetic field change of 3 T. Therefore, the partial substitution of Ta for Hf is highly effective in the enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in Hf{sub 1−x}Ta{sub x}Fe{sub 2} systems. In addition substitution can be used to tune both the transition temperature but also the magnetic transition from first toward second order type.

  13. Long-range ferromagnetism and magnetocaloric effects in rapidly quenched Ni50−xCoxMn50−yAly ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Mai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ni50−xCoxMn50−yAly (x = 7 and 9; y = 17, 18 and 19 alloy ribbons were prepared by melt-spinning with a tangential velocity of copper wheel of 40 m s−1. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal multi-crystalline phase behavior in the fabricated ribbons. The shape of thermomagnetization curves clearly depends on Co and Al concentrations. The Curie temperatures (TC of the alloy ribbons strongly increase with increasing the Co concentration and slightly decrease with increasing the Al concentration. The martensitic-austenitic phase transition in the alloy ribbons can be manipulated by tuning Co and Al concentrations. The maximum magnetic entropy change |ΔSm|max of about 0.75 J kg−1 K−1 for a field change of 12 kOe at TC ≈ 364 K was achieved for the Ni43Co7Mn32Al18 ribbon. Critical analysis using the Arrott-Noaks and Kouvel–Fisher methods demonstrates the existence of a long-range ferromagnetic order in this ribbon.

  14. Impact of Annealing Temperature on the Physical Properties of the Lanthanum Deficiency Manganites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skini Ridha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The lanthanum deficiency manganites La0.8-x□xCa0.2MnO3 (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2, where □ is a lanthanum vacancy, were prepared using the classic ceramic methods with different thermal treatments (1373 K and 973 K. The structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of these compounds were studied as a function of annealing temperature. It was noted that the annealing temperature did not affect the crystal structure of our samples (orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. Nevertheless, a change in the variation of the unit cell volume V, the average bond length dMn–O, and the average bond angles θMn–O–Mn were observed. Magnetization versus temperature study has shown that all samples exhibited a magnetic transition from ferromagnetic (FM to paramagnetic (PM phase with increasing temperature. However, it can be clearly seen that the annealing at 973 K induced an increase of the magnetization. In addition, the magnetocaloric effect (MCE as well as the relative cooling power (RCP were estimated. As an important result, the values of MCE and RCP in our Lanthanum-deficiency manganites are reported to be near to those found in gadolinium, considered as magnetocaloric reference material.

  15. Structure and magnetocaloric properties of La1-xKxMnO3 manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.M.; Gamzatov, A.G.; Batdalov, A.B.; Mankevich, A.S.; Korsakov, I.E.

    2011-01-01

    A technology of obtaining the single-phase ceramic samples of La 1-x K x MnO 3 manganites and the dependence of their structural parameters on the content of potassium has been described. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in the obtained samples has been measured by two independent methods: classical direct methodic and a method of magnetic field modulation. The values of MCE obtained by both methods substantially differ. The explanation of the observed divergences is given. The correlation between the level of doping and MCE value has been defined. The value of T C determined by the MCE maximum conforms with the literature data obtained by other methods.

  16. Coloring problem and magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jinlei, E-mail: materyao@gmail.com [Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Morozkin, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Mozharivskyj, Yurij [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8} adopts the Er{sub 3}Ge{sub 4} structure (space group Cmcm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si and Co show site preference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic factors determine the site occupation of Si and Co. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8} order ferromagnetically below 172 K. - Abstract: The Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8} compound was synthesized by arc melting the constituent elements and subsequent annealing at 1070 K for 120 h. It adopts the Dy{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8}-type structure with the space group Cmcm and the unit cell parameters of a = 4.1176(7) A, b = 10.305(2) A, c = 12.778(2) A and V = 542.2(2) A{sup 3}. The Co and Si atoms preferentially occupy the 8f and 4a/4c sites, respectively. The atomic electronegativity and electron density at a given site determine its site occupation, according to the analysis of the electronic structure. Gd{sub 3}Co{sub 2.2}Si{sub 1.8} orders ferromagnetically with the Curie temperature of 172 K. The isothermal magnetic entropy change, -{Delta}S{sub m}, reaches the maximum value of 7.09 J/kg K at 170 K for a field change of 0-50 kOe.

  17. Toward a better understanding of the magnetocaloric effect: An experimental and theoretical study of MnFe.sub.4./sub.Si.sub.3./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gourdon, O.; Gottschlich, G.; Persson, J.; de la Cruz, C.; Petříček, Václav; McGuire, M.A.; Bruckel, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 216, AUG (2014), s. 56-64 ISSN 0022-4596 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magneto caloric effect materials * intermetallic * silicide * magnetism * neutron diffraction * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2014

  18. Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of AMn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 3} compounds with 0{<=}x{<=}0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omri, A., E-mail: omriaref@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1171, Sfax 3000 (Tunisia); Bejar, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1171, Sfax 3000 (Tunisia); Sajieddine, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 523, 23000, Beni-Mellal-Universite Sultan Moulay Sliman, Maroc (Morocco); Dhahri, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1171, Sfax 3000 (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Es-Souni, M. [University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Materials and Surface Technology, Grenzstrasse 3, Kiel (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of manganites series with the AMn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 3} (A=La{sub 0.75}Ca{sub 0.08}Sr{sub 0.17} and x=0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2) composition have been investigated to shed light on Ga-doping influence. Solid-state reaction method was used for preparation. From XRD study, all samples are found single phase and crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with the Pnma space group. The variation of the magnetization M vs. temperature T, under an applied magnetic field of 0.05 T, reveals a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition for all samples. The experimental results indicate that T{sub C} decreases from 336 to 135 K with increasing Ga substitution. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) was estimated, in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change (-{Delta}S{sub M}), using the M(T, {mu}{sub 0}H) data and employing the thermodynamic Maxwell equation. The maximum entropy change and Relative Cooling Power (RCP) show non-monotonic behaviors with increasing the concentration of Gallium. In fact, the maximum value of {Delta}S{sub Mmax}of AMn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 3} for x=0.00 and 0.2 samples is found to be, respectively, 2.87 and 1.17 J/kg/K under an applied magnetic field change of 2 T. For the same applied magnetic field ({mu}{sub 0}H=2 T), the RCP values are found to vary between 97.58 and 89 J/kg.

  19. About the mechanical stability of MnFe(P,Si,B) giant-magnetocaloric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillou, F., E-mail: f.guillou@tudelft.nl [FAME, Faculty of Applied Sciences, TU Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Yibole, H.; Dijk, N.H. van [FAME, Faculty of Applied Sciences, TU Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Zhang, L. [BASF Netherlands B.V., Strijkviertel 67, 3454 PK De Meern (Netherlands); Hardy, V. [CRISMAT, Ensicaen, UMR 6508 CNRS, 6 B" d Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Brück, E. [FAME, Faculty of Applied Sciences, TU Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Electrical resistivity and hardness show an evolution at T{sub C} with thermal cycling. • Degradation depends on the (c/a) lattice discontinuity at the transition. • Boron substituted materials present an improved mechanical stability. - Abstract: Due to its ability to control the latent heat and the hysteresis (thermal or magnetic) at the first-order transition (FOT) without deteriorating the saturation magnetisation, boron substitution in MnFe(P,Si) materials has recently been reported to be an ideal parameter to reach promising magnetocaloric performances: ΔS ≈ 10 Jkg{sup −1} K{sup −1} and cyclic ΔT of 2.6 K (and more) at a moderate magnetic field of ΔB = 1 T. Additionally, an interesting aspect for applications is the improvement of the mechanical stability in B doped materials compared to the pristine MnFe(P,Si) compounds. These improved mechanical properties were initially supported by naked-eye inspection and the observation of a constant ΔT during a few thousands of magnetic cycles. (Guillou et al., 2014) Here, the evolution upon cycling of MnFe(P,Si,B) materials is studied in a more quantitative and systematic manner. For that purpose transformation temperatures, electrical resistivity, micro-hardness and the microstructure are tracked as a function of the thermal cycling across the FOT for three prototypical compositions in the MnFe(P,Si,B) system. It turns out this set of data confirms the initial finding that B substitution has a positive effect on the mechanical stability. The origin of this improvement is discussed, in particular in respect to the lattice parameter discontinuities at the phase transition.

  20. Phase analysis and magnetocaloric properties of Zr substituted Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabahar, K.; Raj Kumar, D.M.; Manivel Raja, M.; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure, microstructure, magneto-structural transition and magnetocaloric effect have been investigated in series of (Gd 5-x Zr x )Si 2 Ge 2 alloys with 0≤x≥0.20. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed the presence of orthorhombic structure for Zr containing alloys at room temperature in contrast to the monoclinic structure observed in the parent Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 alloy. The microstructural studies reveal that, low Zr addition (x≤0.1) resulted in low volume fraction of detrimental Gd 5 Si 3 -type secondary phase compared to that present in the parent alloy. All the Zr containing alloys have shown the presence of only second order magnetic transition unlike the parent alloy showing both first order structural and second order magnetic transition. A moderate (ΔS) M value of -5.5 J/kg K was obtained for the x=0.05 alloy at an enhanced operating temperature of 292 K compared to -7.8 J/kg K at 274 K of the parent alloy for an applied field of 2 T. The interesting feature of Zr (x=0.05) containing alloy is the wide operating temperature range of ∼25 K than that of ∼10-12 K for the parent, which resulted in enhanced net refrigerant capacity of 103 J/kg compared to that of 53 J/kg for the parent alloy. - Research highlights: → Zr addition in Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 alloy has been investigated for the first time to reduce the 5:3-type (Gd 5 Si 3 ) secondary phase formed when using commercial grade elements in Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 alloy. → It is interesting to observe that Zr addition decrease the volume fraction 5:3. → The refrigerator capacity and transition temperature of Zr added alloy is greater than the pure Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 which makes this alloy promising for room temperature application.

  1. Tuning the magnetocaloric properties of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 manganites through Ni-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A.; Chavarriaga, E.; Supelano, I.; Parra, C. A.; Morán, O.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of Ni2+ doping on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 manganites synthesized via the auto-combustion method is reported. The aim of studying Ni2+-substituted La0.7Ca0.3Mn1 - xNixO3 (x = 0 , 0.02 , 0.07, and 0.1) manganites was to explore the possibility of increasing the operating temperature range for the magnetocaloric effect through tuning of the magnetic transition temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the phase purity of the synthesized samples. The substitution of Mn3+ ions by Ni2+ ions in the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 lattice was also corroborated through this technique. The dependence of the magnetization on the temperature reveals that all the compositions exhibit a well-defined ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition near the Curie temperature. A systematic decrease in the values of the Curie temperature is clearly observed upon Ni2+ doping. Probably the replacement of Mn3+ by Ni2+ ions in the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 lattice weakens the Mn3+-O-Mn4+ double exchange interaction, which leads to a decrease in the transition temperature and the magnetic moment in the samples. By using Arrott plots, it was found that the phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic is second order. The maximum magnetic entropy changes observed for the x = 0 , 0.02 , 0.07, and 0.1 composites was 0.85, 0.77, 0.63, and 0.59 J/kg K, respectively, under a magnetic field of 1.5 T. In general, it was verified that the magnetic entropy change achieved for La0.7Ca0.3Mn1 - xNixO3 manganites synthesized via the auto-combustion method is higher than those reported for other manganites with comparable Ni2+-doping levels synthesized via standard solid state reaction. The addition of Ni2+ increases the value of the relative cooling power as compared to that of the parent compound. The highest value of this parameter (∼60 J/kg) is found for a Ni-doping level of 2% around 230 K in a field of 1.5 T.

  2. A flexible numerical model to study an active magnetic refrigerator for near room temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, Ciro; Maiorino, Angelo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Salerno) (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology based on the magnetocaloric effect in solid-state refrigerants. This technology offers a smaller global environmental impact than the refrigeration obtained by means of the classical vapor compression machines operating with fluids such as HFCs. The Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) is currently the most studied ant tested magnetic cycle. It combines the regenerative properties of a high specific heat solid porous matrix with the ability of performing thermo-magnetic cycles thanks to the magnetocaloric property of the refrigerant; while a fluid pulsing through the regenerator works as a heat transfer medium. An active magnetic regenerator can provide larger temperature spans making up for the local small temperature variation of the refrigerant. In the present paper, a practical model for predicting the performance and efficiency of an AMRR cycle has been developed. The model evaluates both the refrigerant properties and the entire cycle of an AMR operating in conformity with a Brayton regenerative cycle. The magnetocaloric material of choice is gadolinium, while the heat transfer medium is liquid water. With this model can be predicted the refrigeration capacity, the power consumption and consequently the Coefficient of Performance. The results show a greater COP when compared to a classical vapor compression plant working between the same temperature levels. (author)

  3. A flexible numerical model to study an active magnetic refrigerator for near room temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, Ciro; Maiorino, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology based on the magnetocaloric effect in solid-state refrigerants. This technology offers a smaller global environmental impact than the refrigeration obtained by means of the classical vapor compression machines operating with fluids such as HFCs. The Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) is currently the most studied ant tested magnetic cycle. It combines the regenerative properties of a high specific heat solid porous matrix with the ability of performing thermo-magnetic cycles thanks to the magnetocaloric property of the refrigerant; while a fluid pulsing through the regenerator works as a heat transfer medium. An active magnetic regenerator can provide larger temperature spans making up for the local small temperature variation of the refrigerant. In the present paper, a practical model for predicting the performance and efficiency of an AMRR cycle has been developed. The model evaluates both the refrigerant properties and the entire cycle of an AMR operating in conformity with a Brayton regenerative cycle. The magnetocaloric material of choice is gadolinium, while the heat transfer medium is liquid water. With this model can be predicted the refrigeration capacity, the power consumption and consequently the Coefficient of Performance. The results show a greater COP when compared to a classical vapor compression plant working between the same temperature levels.

  4. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in second-order phase transition La1-xKxMnO3 and their composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Tran Dang; Linh, Dinh Chi; Yen, Pham Duc Huyen; Bau, Le Viet; Ky, Vu Hong; Wang, Zhihao; Piao, Hong-Guang; An, Nguyen Manh; Yu, Seong-Cho

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we present a detailed study on the magnetic properties and the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of La1-xKxMnO3 compounds with x=0.05-0.2. Our results pointed out that the Curie temperature (TC) could be controlled easily from 213 to 306 K by increasing K-doping concentration (x) from 0.05 to 0.2. In the paramagnetic region, the inverse of the susceptibility can be analyzed by using the Curie-Weiss law, χ(T)=C/(T-θ). The results have proved an existence of ferromagnetic clusters at temperatures above TC. Based on Banerjee's criteria, we also pointed out that the samples are the second-order phase transition materials. Their magnetic entropy change was calculated by using the Maxwell relation and a phenomenological model. Interestingly, the samples with x=0.1-0.2 exhibit a large MCE in a range of 282-306 K, which are suitable for room-temperature magnetic refrigeration applications. The composites obtained from single phase samples (x=0.1-0.2) exhibit the high relative cooling power values in a wide temperature range. From the viewpoint of the refrigerant capacity, the composites formed out of La1-xKxMnO3 will become more useful for magnetic refrigeration applications around room-temperature.

  5. Studies on magnetocaloric and magnetic coupling effects =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Joao Cunha de Sequeira

    O presente trabalho apresenta novas metodologias desenvolvidas para a analise das propriedades magneticas e magnetocaloricas de materiais, sustentadas em consideracoes teoricas a partir de modelos, nomeadamente a teoria de transicoes de fase de Landau, o modelo de campo medio molecular e a teoria de fenomeno critico. Sao propostos novos metodos de escala, permitindo a interpretacao de dados de magnetizacao de materiais numa perspectiva de campo medio molecular ou teoria de fenomeno critico. E apresentado um metodo de estimar a magnetizacao espontanea de um material ferromagnetico a partir de relacoes entropia/magnetizacao estabelecidas pelo modelo de campo medio molecular. A termodinamica das transicoes de fase magneticas de primeira ordem e estudada usando a teoria de Landau e de campo medio molecular (modelo de Bean-Rodbell), avaliando os efeitos de fenomenos fora de equilibrio e de condicoes de mistura de fase em estimativas do efeito magnetocalorico a partir de medidas magneticas. Efeitos de desordem, interpretados como uma distribuicao na interaccao magnetica entre ioes, estabelecem os efeitos de distribuicoes quimicas/estruturais nas propriedades magneticas e magnetocaloricas de materiais com transicoes de fase de segunda e de primeira ordem. O uso das metodologias apresentadas na interpretacao das propriedades magneticas de variados materiais ferromagneticos permitiu obter: 1) uma analise quantitativa da variacao de spin por iao Gadolinio devido a transicao estrutural do composto Gd5Si2Ge2, 2) a descricao da configuracao de cluster magnetico de ioes Mn na fase ferromagnetica em manganites da familia La-Sr e La-Ca, 3) a determinacao dos expoentes criticos β e δ do Niquel por metodos de escala, 4) a descricao do efeito da pressao nas propriedades magneticas e magnetocaloricas do composto LaFe11.5Si1.5 atraves do modelo de Bean-Rodbell, 5) uma estimativa da desordem em manganites ferromagneticas com transicoes de segunda e primeira ordem, 6) uma descricao de campo medio das propriedades magneticas da liga Fe23Cu77, 7) o estudo de efeitos de separacao de fase na familia de compostos La0.70-xErxSr0.30MnO3 e 8) a determinacao realista da variacao de entropia magnetica na familia de compostos de efeito magnetocalorico colossal Mn1-x-yFexCryAs.

  6. Magnetocaloric effect across the coupled structural and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    measurements for a magnetic field change of 2 T is around 1⋅3 J/kg K. A similar ... 250 K, the amount of tetragonal phase was 12% and ... method. Stoichiometric proportion of the starting materials Mn2O3 (99% Aldrich), SrCO3 (99⋅9% Al-.

  7. Proximity effect at Millikelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity effects have been studied extensively for the past 25 years. Typically, they are in films several thousand angstroms thick at temperatures not so far below T/sub CNS/, the transition temperature of the NS system. Interesting is, however, the proximity effect at temperatures much lower than T/sub CNS/. In this case, the Cooper-pair amplitudes are not small and very long pair penetration lengths into the normal metal can be expected. Thus, we have observed pair penetration lengths. For these investigations very suitable specimens are commercial wires of one filament of NbTi or Nb embedded in a copper matrix. The reasons are the high transmission coefficient at the interface between the copper and the superconductor and the fact that the copper in these commercial wires is rather clean with electron free paths between 5 to 10 μm long. In this paper, the magnetic properties of thick proximity systems in the range of temperatures between T/sub CNS/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ T/sub CNS/ in both low and high magnetic fields are discussed

  8. Tuning the magnetocaloric response in half-Heusler/Heusler MnNi1 +xSb solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Emily E.; Bocarsly, Joshua D.; Wyckoff, Kira E.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Seshadri, Ram

    2017-12-01

    Materials with a large magnetocaloric response are associated with a temperature change upon the application of a magnetic field and are of interest for applications in magnetic refrigeration and thermomagnetic power generation. The usual metric of this response is the gravimetric isothermal entropy change Δ SM . The use of a simple proxy for the Δ SM that is based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the magnetic electronic structure suggests that half-Heusler MnNiSb should be a better magnetocaloric than the corresponding Heusler compound MnNi2Sb . Guided by this observation, we present a study of MnNi1 +xSb (x =0 , 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0) to evaluate relevant structural and magnetic properties. DFT stability calculations suggest that the addition of Ni takes place at a symmetrically distinct Ni site in the half-Heusler structure and support the observation using synchrotron x-ray diffraction of a homogeneous solid solution between the half-Heusler and Heusler end members. There is a maximum in the saturation magnetization at x =0.5 and the Curie temperature systematically decreases with increasing x . Δ SM for a maximum magnetic field change of Δ H =5 T monotonically decreases in magnitude from -2.93 J kg-1K-1 in the half-Heusler to -1.35 J kg-1K-1 in the Heusler compound. The concurrent broadening of the magnetic transition results in a maximum in the refrigerant capacity at x =0.75 . The Curie temperature of this system is highly tunable between 350 K and 750 K, making it ideal for low grade waste heat recovery via thermomagnetic power generation. The increase in Δ SM with decreasing x may be extendable to other MnNi2Z Heusler systems that are currently under investigation for use in magnetocaloric refrigeration applications.

  9. Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} compounds with x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhahri, Ah., E-mail: dhahri.ahmad@outlook.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, BP 1171, Université de Sfax, 3000 (Tunisia); Jemmali, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, BP 1171, Université de Sfax, 3000 (Tunisia); Taibi, K. [Département SDM, FGMGP/USTHB, 16311 (Algeria); Dhahri, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, BP 1171, Université de Sfax, 3000 (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université J. Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The samples crystallize in the rhombohedral structure with the R3{sup ¯}c space group. • Enhancement of T{sub C} for the rhombohedral samples. • The relative cooling power increases with Cr-doping. • All samples exhibit a large magnetocaloric effect. • High values of the magnetoresistance in all samples. - Abstract: Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} compounds with x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1 have been investigated to shed light on Cr-doping influence. X-ray diffraction studies show that all samples crystallize in the rhombohedral symmetry with R3{sup ¯}c space group. Rietveld refinement structure shows that the insertion of Cr in Mn network modifies the structural parameters such as the volume, Mn–O–Mn angles and the Mn–O bond length. The substitution of Mn by Cr decreases the 2p-3d hybridization between O and Mn ions, reduces the bandwidth and increases the electron–phonon coupling. The investigation of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties reveals that the samples exhibit a paramagnetic(PM)–ferromagnetic (FM) transition with decreasing Curie temperature (T{sub C}) from 294 K to 255 K when Cr doping level increases. The magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}{sup max}) also decreases from 6.20 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for x = 0 to3.80 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for x = 0.1, while the relative cooling power (RCP) increases from 234.5 to 240 J kg{sup −1}, respectively, under a magnetic field of 5 T. These outcomes suggest that Mn-site Cr doping inhibits the enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in some perovskite manganites. This is explained by the weakening of the ferromagnetic double-exchange interaction between Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions.

  10. A Magnetocaloric Pump for Lab-On-Chip Technology: Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, L.J.

    2004-04-05

    A magnetocaloric pump provides a simple means of pumping fluid using only external thermal and magnetic fields. The principle, which can be traced back to the early work of Rosensweig, is straightforward. Magnetic materials tend to lose their magnetization as the temperature approaches the material's Curie point. Exposing a column of magnetic fluid to a uniform magnetic field coincident with a temperature gradient produces a pressure gradient in the magnetic fluid. As the fluid heats up, it loses its attraction to the magnetic field and is displaced by cooler fluid. The impact of such a phenomenon is obvious: fluid propulsion with no moving mechanical parts. Until recently, limitations in the magnetic and thermal properties of conventional materials severely limited practical operating pressure gradients. However, recent advancements in the design of metal substituted magnetite enable fine control over both the magnetic and thermal properties of magnetic nanoparticles, a key element in colloidal based magnetic fluids (ferrofluids). This manuscript begins with a basic description of the process and previous limitations due to material properties. This is followed by a review of existing methods of synthesizing magnetic nanoparticles as well as an introduction to a new approach based on thermophilic metal-reducing bacteria. We compare two compounds and show, experimentally, significant variation in specific magnetic and thermal properties. We develop the constitutive thermal, magnetic, and fluid dynamic equations associated with magnetocaloric pump and validate our finite element model with a series of experiments. Preliminary results show a good match between the model and experiment as well as approximately an order of magnitude increase in the fluid flow rate over conventional magnetite based ferrofluids operating below 80 C. Finally, as a practical demonstration, we describe a novel application of this technology: pumping fluids at the &apos

  11. A Magnetocaloric Pump for Lab-On-A-Chip Technology: Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, LJL

    2004-05-08

    A magnetocaloric pump provides a simple means of pumping fluid using only external thermal and magnetic fields. The principle, which can be traced back to the early work of Rosensweig, is straightforward. Magnetic materials tend to lose their magnetization as the temperature approaches the material's Curie point. Exposing a column of magnetic fluid to a uniform magnetic field coincident with a temperature gradient produces a pressure gradient in the magnetic fluid. As the fluid heats up, it loses its attraction to the magnetic field and is displaced by cooler fluid. The impact of such a phenomenon is obvious: fluid propulsion with no moving mechanical parts. Until recently, limitations in the magnetic and thermal properties of conventional materials severely limited practical operating pressure gradients. However, recent advancements in the design of metal substituted magnetite enable fine control over both the magnetic and thermal properties of magnetic nanoparticles, a key element in colloidal based magnetic fluids (ferrofluids). This manuscript begins with a basic description of the process and previous limitations due to material properties. This is followed by a review of existing methods of synthesizing magnetic nanoparticles as well as an introduction to a new approach based on thermophilic metal-reducing bacteria. We compare two compounds and show, experimentally, significant variation in specific magnetic and thermal properties. We develop the constitutive thermal, magnetic, and fluid dynamic equations associated with magnetocaloric pump and validate our finite element model with a series of experiments. Preliminary results show a good match between the model and experiment as well as approximately an order of magnitude increase in the fluid flow rate over conventional magnetite based ferrofluids operating below 80 C. Finally, as a practical demonstration, we describe a novel application of this technology: pumping fluids at the &apos

  12. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  13. Modelling and simulation of regenerators with complex flow arrangements for active magnetocaloric refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Compared to a conventional vapor compression refrigera-tion system, a magnetocaloric refrigerator has many advantages, such as potentially high efficiency, low vibration and avoidance of refrigerants that deplete the ozone layer and cause the green-house effect. As a main component of the active...... magnetic re-generative refrigerator, the regenerator plays an important role in the cooling performance and efficiency of the whole system. However, the regenerator design is constrained by several exter-nal factors, such as the geometry of the magnetic field source and flow resistance. In this work, novel...... regenerators with complex flow arrange-ments, providing high performance at lower pressure drop, are investigated. Correspondingly a one dimensional model is pre-sented and comparative studies between novel and conventional regenerators are carried out by simulation. The effect of regen-erator geometries...

  14. Magnetocaloric properties of LaFe13-x-yCoxSiy and commercial grade Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, R.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Katter, M.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetocaloric properties of three samples of LaFe 13-x-y Co x Si y have been measured and compared to measurements of commercial grade Gd. The samples have (x=0.86, y=1.08), (x=0.94, y=1.01) and (x=0.97, y=1.07) yielding Curie temperatures in the range 276-288 K. The magnetization, specific heat capacity and adiabatic temperature change have been measured over a broad temperature interval. Importantly, all measurements were corrected for demagnetization, allowing the data to be directly compared. In an internal field of 1 T the maximum specific entropy changes were 6.2, 5.1 and 5.0 J/kg K, the specific heat capacities were 910, 840 and 835 J/kg K and the adiabatic temperature changes were 2.3, 2.1 and 2.1 K for the three LaFeCoSi samples respectively. For Gd in an internal field of 1 T the maximum specific entropy change was 3.1 J/kg K, the specific heat capacity was 340 J/kg K and the adiabatic temperature change was 3.3 K. The adiabatic temperature change was also calculated from the measured values of the specific heat capacity and specific magnetization and compared to the directly measured values. In general an excellent agreement was seen.

  15. The influence of non-magnetocaloric properties on the performance in parallel-plate AMRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2014-01-01

    a strong dependence on the orientation of the applied field and the regenerator geometry. Finally, the flow maldistribution of non-uniform regenerator geometries is found to degrade the AMR performance even at minor deviations from perfectly homogeneous regenerator matrices. This paper reflects a summary......The performance of Active Magnetic Regenerators (AMR) does not depend solely on the magnetocaloric effect of their constituents. Rather, it depends on several additional parameters, including, magnetic field, geometry (hydraulic diameter, cross-sectional area, regenerator length etc.), thermal...... properties (conductivity, specific heat and mass density) and operating parameters (utilization, frequency, number of transfer units etc.). In this paper we focus on the influence of three parameters on regenerator performance: 1) Solid thermal conductivity, 2) magnetostatic demagnetization and 3) flow...

  16. Tunable magnetostructural coupling and large magnetocaloric effect in Mn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2x}Si{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.L., E-mail: zhangcl@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Science, Jiangnan University, WuXi 214122 (China); Nie, Y.G.; Shi, H.F.; Ye, E.J.; Zhao, J.Q. [School of Science, Jiangnan University, WuXi 214122 (China); Han, Z.D. [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Xuan, H.C. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, D.H. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Realizing FM/PM-type magnetostructural transition by co-substitution at both three atomic sites of MnNiSi. • Magnetostructural transition temperature is tunable in a broad temperature window of 285 K spanning room temperature. • Relatively high M{sub S} for the orthorhombic phase and large ΔM across the magnetostructural transition. • Relatively large magnetic entropy changes and broad working temperature span. - Abstract: A common method of realizing a magnetostructural coupling for MnNiSi is chemically alloying it with a ternary compound possessing a stable Ni{sub 2}In-type structure. In this way, the substituting elements and levels are determined by the stoichiometry of counterpart compounds. In this work, chemical co-substitutions of Fe and Ga at three different atomic sites of MnNiSi were performed. The selections of substitution elements and levels were based on the site occupation rule and an analysis of the site-dependent substitutional effects on structural stability, Curie temperatures, and magnetic moment of MnNiSi. A broad Curie temperatures window of 285 K spanning room temperature was established in Mn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2x}Si{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}. Strong magnetostructural transformations with large magnetization difference were realized in this window. A relatively large magnetic entropy change of −38.1 J/kg K was observed for a field change of 5 T near room temperature in the alloy with x = 0.15.

  17. Pressure-induced three-dimensional ferromagnetic correlations in the giant magnetocaloric compound Gd.sub.5./sub.Ge.sub.4./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magen, C.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Morellon, L.; Skorokhod, Yuriy; Algarabel, P. A.; Ibarra, M. R.; Kamarád, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 20 (2003), s. 207202-1 - 207202-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943 Grant - others:CICYT(ES) MAT2000-1756 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magneto-caloric compounds * pressure effect * magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.035, year: 2003

  18. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of itinerant-electron system Hf.sub.1-x./sub.Ta.sub.x./sub.Fe.sub.2./sub. (x = 0.125 and 0.175)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diop, L.V.B.; Kaštil, Jiří; Isnard, O.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Kamarád, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 627, Apr (2015), s. 446-450 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0692 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : itinerant-electron compounds * magnetic properties * magnetocaloric effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2015

  19. Study of magnetic, structural and magnetocaloric properties of La.sub.0.6./sub.Pr.sub.0.4./sub.Mn.sub.2./sub.Si.sub.2./sub. under high pressures and magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštil, Jiří; Arnold, Zdeněk; Isnard, O.; Skourski, Y.; Kamarád, Jiří; Itié, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 424, Feb (2017), s. 416-420 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03777S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetization * compressibility * magnetocaloric effect * high pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  20. Effect of Mn-site vacancies on the magnetic entropy change and the Curie temperature of La0.67Ca0.33Mn1-xO3 perovskite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wei; Nie, L.Y.; Xu, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Single-phase polycrystalline samples of La0.67Ca0.33Mn1-xO3 (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) have been prepared using the sol-gel method. The structure, magnetocaloric properties and the Curie temperature of the samples with different Mn vacancy concentrations have been investigated. The experimental...

  1. Thermal stability and magnetocaloric properties of GdDyAlCo bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hui, X. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: huixd01@hotmail.com; Chen, G.L. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-01-25

    Gd{sub 56-x}Dy{sub x}Al{sub 24}Co{sub 20} (x = 16, 20 and 22) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) alloys with a diameter of 2, 3 and 3 mm, respectively, were prepared by using copper mold casting. These alloys exhibit higher values of the glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, and activation energy of the glass transition and crystallization, compared with those of other known rare-earth-based BMGs. A maximum magnetic entropy changes of 15.78 J/(kg K) is obtained in Gd{sub 40}Dy{sub 16}Al{sub 24}Co{sub 20}, which is the maximal among all the bulk metallic glasses, and is much larger than those of the known crystalline magnetic refrigerant compound Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 1.9}Fe{sub 0.1} and pure Gd metal. All the three BMG alloys have a broader temperature range of the entropy change peak, resulting in larger refrigerate capacities (RC) than those of conventional crystalline materials. The excellent magnetocaloric properties combining with high thermal stability make them an attractive candidate for magnetic refrigerants in the temperature range of 20-100 K.

  2. Effects of partial Mn-substitution on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.95}X{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (Cr, Ni, Co and Fe) manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); M’nassri, R., E-mail: rafik_mnassri@yahoo.fr [Higher Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology of Kasserine, Kairouan University, B.P. 471, 1200 Kasserine (Tunisia); Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, W. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Chniba Boudjada, N. [Institut NEEL, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cheikhrouhou, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.95}X{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}(X = Cr, Ni, Co and Fe) ceramics were prepared by solid state method. • The manganite phases crystallize in an orthorhombic (Pnma) structure. • The samples exhibit a second order paramagnetic (PM)–ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition at the Curie temperature T{sub C}. • Maximum RCP equal to 405 J/kg observed for Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.95}Cr{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}. • Second order phase transition is confirmed by Arrott plots and universal curves of entropy change. • The experimental ΔS{sub M} are well predicted by the phenomenological universal curve. - Abstract: Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.95}X{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}(X = Cr, Ni, Co and Fe) ceramics have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic measurements. Powder samples have been elaborated using the solid state reaction method at high temperature. The Rietveld analysis of the powder X-ray diffraction shows that the samples crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. Magnetic measurements show that all our materials exhibit a paramagnetic–ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature. The Arrott plots of ours materials reveal the occurrence of a second-order phase transition. The maximum values of magnetic entropy change |ΔS{sub M}{sup max}| are 2.92, 2.96, 3.1, and 2.38 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} and the relative cooling power (RCP) values are 405.8, 378.2, 352.2 and 337.4 J kg{sup −1} for a magnetic-field change from 0 to 5 T for Cr, Ni, Co and Fe respectively. The large RCP found in our substituted samples will be interesting for magnetic refrigeration over a wide temperature range ∼130 K around its paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition temperature. With the scaling laws of ΔS{sub M}, the experimental ΔS{sub M} collapse onto a universal curve for several ceramics, where an average curve is obtained. With the

  3. Effect of ambient temperature on human pain and temperature perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigo, I A; Carli, F; Bushnell, M C

    2000-03-01

    Animal studies show reduced nociceptive responses to noxious heat stimuli and increases in endogenous beta-endorphin levels in cold environments, suggesting that human pain perception may be dependent on ambient temperature. However, studies of changes in local skin temperature on human pain perception have yielded variable results. This study examines the effect of both warm and cool ambient temperature on the perception of noxious and innocuous mechanical and thermal stimuli. Ten subjects (7 men and 3 women, aged 20-23 yr) used visual analog scales to rate the stimulus intensity, pain intensity, and unpleasantness of thermal (0-50 degrees C) and mechanical (1.2-28.9 g) stimuli applied on the volar forearm with a 1-cm2 contact thermode and von Frey filaments, respectively. Mean skin temperatures were measured throughout the experiment by infrared pyrometer. Each subject was tested in ambient temperatures of 15 degrees C (cool), 25 degrees C (neutral), and 35 degrees C (warm) on separate days, after a 30-min acclimation to the environment. Studies began in the morning after an 8-h fast. Mean skin temperature was altered by ambient temperature (cool room: 30.1 degrees C; neutral room: 33.4 degrees C; warm room: 34.5 degrees C; P cool than in the neutral environment (P cool room and that noxious heat stimuli were more unpleasant in a warm environment. Environmental temperature did not alter ratings of warm (37 and 40 degrees C) or mechanical stimuli. These results indicate that, in humans, a decrease in skin temperature following exposure to cool environments reduces thermal pain. Suppression of Adelta primary afferent cold fiber activity has been shown to increase cold pain produced by skin cooling. Our current findings may represent the reverse phenomenon, i.e., a reduction in thermal nociceptive transmission by the activation of Adelta cutaneous cold fibers.

  4. Magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric compound AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedervall, Johan, E-mail: johan.cedervall@kemi.uu.se [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, Mikael Svante; Sarkar, Tapati [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Delczeg-Czirjak, Erna K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergqvist, Lars [Department of Materials and Nano Physics and Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hansen, Thomas C. [Institut Laue-Langevin, B.P. 156, Grenoble Cedex 9, 38042 France (France); Beran, Premysl [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, 25068 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Nordblad, Per [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Sahlberg, Martin [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    The crystal and magnetic structures of AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2} have been studied with a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction and electronic structure calculations. The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties have been investigated by magnetisation measurements. The samples have been produced using high temperature synthesis and subsequent heat treatments. The compound crystallises in the orthorhombic crystal system Cmmm and it orders ferromagnetically at 285 K through a second order phase transition. At temperatures below the magnetic transition the magnetic moments align along the crystallographic a-axis. The magnetic entropy change from 0 to 800 kA/m was found to be −1.3 J/K kg at the magnetic transition temperature. - Graphical abstract: The magnetic structure of AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2} has been investigated using neutron diffraction and the magnetic spins have been found to align ferromagnetically along the crystallographic a-axis. - Highlights: • The crystal and magnetic structures of AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2} have been studied. • Orders ferromagnetically at 285 K via a second order phase transition. • The magnetic moments are found to be aligned along the crystallographic a-axis. • The magnetic entropy change from 0 to 800 kA/m was found to be −1.3 J/K kg.

  5. Effect of Cd doping on magnetocaloric effect and critical behavior analysis on perovskite Nd1-xCdxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) manganite polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, C.; Thiyagarajan, R.; Manikandan, K.; Sathiskumar, M.; Kanjariya, P. V.; Bhalodia, J. A.; Arumugam, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report the doping effect of divalent cation Cd2+ at Nd-site of intermediate bandwidth manganite system NdMnO3 through the temperature- and magnetic field-dependent magnetization measurements. The parent compound shows paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 56 K, whereas Cd doped samples show the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition with fluctuating TC. During this transition, Nd1-xCdxMnO3 (x = 0.1 and 0.2) samples exhibit first order nature, whereas Nd1-xCdxMnO3 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) samples exhibit second order nature. It confirms a crossover from first order transition to second order transition while x = 0.2 to x = 0.3. By having first order transition, x = 0.2 sample exhibits high magnetic entropy change of 3.62 J kg-1 K-1 for the magnetic field change of 5 T out of all compositions. By having second order transitions, x = 0.4 sample exhibits a high relative cooling power of 319.71 J kg-1 for the magnetic field change of 5 T out of all the compositions. The critical behavior of second order transition of x = 0.3 and 0.4 samples has been analyzed using Arrott and Kouvel-Fisher plots. The estimated critical exponents of these samples are nearly matched with the mean free model, which can be explained by the existence of dipole-dipole interaction by the Cd doping which strengthens long range ferromagnetic interactions between the spins.

  6. Review on numerical modeling of active magnetic regenerators for room temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Tusek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is an alternative refrigeration cycle with a potential gain of energy efficiency compared to conventional refrigeration techniques. The AMR poses a complex problem of heat transfer, fluid dynamics and magnetic fields, which requires detailed and robust modeling....... This paper reviews the existing numerical modeling of room temperature AMR to date. The governing equations, implementation of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE), fluid flow and magnetic field profiles, thermal conduction etc. are discussed in detail as is their impact on the AMR cycle. Flow channeling effects...

  7. Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} manganites (0≤x≤0.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choura Maatar, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); M’nassri, R. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Institut NEEL, CNRS, B.P.166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cheikhrouhou Koubaa, W., E-mail: wissem.koubaa@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Koubaa, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cheikhrouhou, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Sfax University, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Centre de Recherche en Informatique, Multimédia et Traitement Numérique des Données, Technopole de Sfax, Cité El Ons, Route de Tunis, Km 9, Sfax. B.P. 275, Sakiet Ezzit, 3021 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, we report the effect of Na doping on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} powder samples. Our polycristalline samples have been synthesized using the solid-state reaction method at high temperatures. The parent compound La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with Pbnm space group. Na doping induces a structural transition from orthorhombic (Pbnm space group) to rhombohedral (R-3C space group) symmetry. Magnetization measurements versus temperature in a magnetic applied field of 50 mT showed that all our investigated samples display a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature. The Curie temperature T{sub C} increases with Na content from 240 K for x=0 to 330 K for x=0.2. A large magnetocaloric effect has been observed in all samples, the maximum entropy change, |∆S{sub M}|{sub max}, shifts to smaller values with increasing Na content, from4.56 J/kg K (x=0.05) to 2.3 J/kg K (x=0.2) under a magnetic field change ∆µ{sub 0}H of 2 T. For the same applied magnetic field of 2 T, the Relative Cooling Power (RCP) values are found to be constant around 91 J/kg. - Graphical abstract: Sodium doping induces an increase of T{sub C} from 240 K for x=0 to 330 K for x=0.2. - Highlights: • La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} are synthesized using the ceramic method at high temperatures. • Na doping induces a structural transition from Pbnm to R-3C space group. • T{sub C} increases with Na content from 240 K for x=0 to 330 K for x=0.2. • RCP is constant around 91 J/kg for all compounds under 2 T.

  8. Thermodynamics of the Heat-Flux Avalanches at the First-Order Magnetic Transition in Magnetocaloric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Marco; Bennati, Cecilia; Basso, Vittorio

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the kinetics of first-order magnetic phase transitions by measuring and modeling the heat-flux avalanches corresponding to the irreversible motion of the phase-boundary interface separating the coexisting low- and high-temperature stable magnetic phases. By means of out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics, we encompass the damping mechanisms of the boundary motion in a phenomenological parameter αs. By analyzing the time behavior of the heat-flux signals measured on La (Fe -Mn -Si )13-H magnetocaloric compounds through Peltier calorimetry temperature scans performed at low rates, we relate the linear rise of the individual avalanches to the intrinsic-damping parameter αs.

  9. Effect of temperature on quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAHDI AHMADI BORJI

    2017-07-12

    Jul 12, 2017 ... Effect of temperature on InxGa1−xAs/GaAs quantum dots. MAHDI AHMADI BORJI1, ALI ... Attention should be given to the effects of temperature, ... tion 2 explains the model and method of the numerical simulation. Our results ...

  10. Structural, magnetic, magnetocaloric effect and critical behavior of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3−x}□{sub x}MnO{sub 3}(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makni-Chakroun, J., E-mail: makni.jihed@yahoo.fr [LT2S Lab, Digital Research Centre of Sfax, Sfax Technopark, BP 275, 3021 Sakiet-Ezzit (Tunisia); Sfifir, I.; Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, W.; Koubaa, M. [LT2S Lab, Digital Research Centre of Sfax, Sfax Technopark, BP 275, 3021 Sakiet-Ezzit (Tunisia); Cheikhrouhou, A. [Material Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, B.P. 1171, Sfax University, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The samples crystallize in the rhombohedral structure with R-3C space group. • Curie temperature T{sub C} decreases with lacuna. • (1/χ) versus temperature indicates Griffiths phase occurrence. • Result show that the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition is of second order. • Widom scaling relation confirms the critical exponent value. - Abstract: In this paper, we present the effect of Strontium vacancies on the structure and magnetic properties of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3−x}□{sub x}MnO{sub 3} nano-sized compounds (x = 0; 0.01; 0.03 and 0.05), synthesized using the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction revealed that these manganites crystallized in the rhombohedral structure with space group R3-C. From magnetization measurements as function of temperature and magnetic applied field, we have noticed a large magnetic entropy change (∆S{sub M}) around Curie temperature. ∆S{sub M} is found to decrease with the deficiency content (2.30 J/kg·K for x = 0–1.33 J/kg·K for x = 0.05 under magnetic field change µ{sub 0}∆H = 5 T). This behavior is accompanied by a slight reduction of the Curie temperature (T{sub C} = 338 and 328 K for x = 0 and 0.05, respectively). These results show that our materials are potential candidates for magnetic refrigerants working in above room temperature. The refined values of the critical exponents β, γ and δ obtained from the modified Arrott plots and Kouvel-Fisher method indicated that the behavior of the parent sample and the samples with 1and 3% of strontium-deficient are characterized by long-range mean-field behavior (with β = 0.50; γ = 1). However, for 5% lacuna, the magnetic behavior is close to the theoretical 3D-Heisemberg prediction with short-range exchange coupling.

  11. Universal behavior of magnetocaloric effect in a layered perovskite La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Tran Dang, E-mail: thanhxraylab@yahoo.com [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18-Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Manh, T.V.; Ho, T.A. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Telegin, Andrey [Department of Magnetic Semiconductors, Institute of Metal Physics, RAS (Russian Federation); Phan, T.L. [Department of Physics and Oxide Research Center, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, S.C., E-mail: scyu@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed analysis on temperature and magnetic field dependences of the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub m}) near the ferromagnetic (FM)–paramagnetic (PM) phase transition of a La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} single crystal. Experimental results reveal the material exhibiting a FM–PM phase transition at T{sub C}=85 K, and belongs to a second-order phase transition (SOPT). Around T{sub C}, −ΔS{sub m} reaches the maximum value (|ΔS{sub max}|), which increases with increasing an applied magnetic field change, ΔH. The |ΔS{sub max}| values found are about 0.93, 1.73, 2.38, 2.91, and 3.33 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for ΔH=10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 kOe, respectively. However, the peak position of the −ΔS{sub m}(T) curves is effectively shifted to higher temperatures when ΔH increases. Additionally, the ΔS{sub m}(T) curves measured at different ΔH values do not collapse into a universal curve when they are normalized to their respective ΔS{sub max} value, and Prod. Type: rescaled the temperature axis with θ{sub 1}=(T−T{sub C})/(T{sub r}−T{sub C}) for a reference temperature T{sub r}>T{sub C} or T{sub r}temperature range if using two separated reference temperatures, T{sub r1} and T{sub r2}, with θ{sub 2}=−(T−T{sub C})/(T{sub r1}−T{sub C}) for T≤T{sub C} and θ{sub 2}=(T−T{sub C})/(T{sub r2}−T{sub C}) for T>T{sub C}.

  12. Electrocutaneous sensitivity: effects of skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, W D; Reilly, J P

    1986-01-01

    The effect of human skin temperature on electrocutaneous sensitivity was examined using brief capacitive discharges. Stimuli were designed to ensure that sensory effects would be independent of skin resistance and would reflect underlying neural excitability as closely as possible. Skin temperature was manipulated by immersing the forearm in circulating hot or cold air. Detection thresholds on the arm and fingertip were raised by cooling, but were not altered by heating. Temperature-related sensitivity shifts were described by the same multiplicative factors for both threshold and suprathreshold levels. The temperature coefficient (Q10) for cutaneous sensitivity under these conditions was approximately 1.3.

  13. Structural, transport, magnetic, magnetocaloric properties and critical analysis of Ni-Co-Mn-Ga Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Devarajan, U.; Esakki Muthu, S.; Singh, Sanjay; Thiyagarajan, R.; Raja, M. Manivel; Rama Rao, N. V.; Banerjee, Alok

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we have investigated structural, transport, magnetic, magnetocaloric (MC) properties and critical exponents analysis of the (Ni2.1-xCox)Mn0.9 Ga (x = 0, 0.04, 0.12 and 0.2) Heusler alloys. For all compositions, cubic austenite (A) phase with metallic character is observed at room temperature (RT). With increasing of Co content, magnitude of resistivity decreases, whereas residual resistivity (ρ0) and electron scattering factor (A) increases linearly. Magnetic measurements exhibit that ferromagnetic (FM) Curie temperature (TCA) increases towards RT by increasing Co concentration. All samples show conventional MC and maximum magnetic entropy change (ΔSMpeak) of -2.8 Jkg-1 K-1 is observed for x = 0.12 at 147 K under 5 T. Further, hysteresis is observed between cooling and warming cycles around FM-PM (TCA) transition in x = 0, 0.04 samples, which suggests that first order nature of transition. However, there is no hysteresis across TCA for x = 0.12 and 0.2 samples suggesting second-order nature of the transition. The critical exponents are calculated for x = 0.12 sample around TCA using Arrott plot and Kouvel-Fisher method, the estimated critical exponents are found closer to the mean-field model reveals the long range ferromagnetic ordering in this composition.

  14. Experimental investigation of the effect of thermal hysteresis in first order material MnFe(P,As) applied in an AMR device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The magnetocaloric first order material MnFe(P,As) is a candidate for room temperature magnetic refrigeration. However, these materials have intrinsic hysteresis and the impact on the refrigeration performance has not yet been thoroughly investigated in the literature.Here, the magnetocaloric...... effect (MCE) and the thermal hysteresis are studied using vibrating sample magnetometry. The influence on actual refrigeration performance is investigated with an established active magnetic regenerator (AMR) test device (Bahl et al., 2008), utilizing a flat plate regenerator of a single Curie...... temperature material.We find that the MCE curves are shifted 1.5 K when comparing heating and cooling the material, while the maximum MCE remains constant. The width of the MCE curve peak is seen to increase 0.3 K when cooling compared to heating. These results are confirmed by experiments on the AMR test...

  15. Temperature effects in differential mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Evgeny V.; Coy, Stephen L.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.

    2009-01-01

    Drift gas temperature and pressure influence differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) performance, changing DMS peak positions, heights and widths. This study characterizes the effect of temperature on DMS peak positions. Positive ions of methyl salicylate, DMMP, and toluene, and negative ions of methyl salicylate and the reactant ion peaks were observed in purified nitrogen in the Sionex microDMx planar DMS. Measurements were made at ambient pressure (1 atm) at temperatures from 25 °C to 150 °C in a planar sensor with height 0.5 mm. Peak value of the separation voltage asymmetric waveform was scanned from 500 V to 1500 V. Compensation voltage (DMS peak position) showed a strong variation with temperature for all investigated ions. By generalizing the concept of effective ion temperature to include the effects of inelastic ion-molecular collisions, we have been able to condense peak position dependence on separation field and temperature to dependence on a redefined effective temperature including a smoothly varying inelasticity correction. It allows prediction and correction of the gas temperature effect on DMS peak positions.

  16. Electrical and morphological properties of magnetocaloric nano ZnNi ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemeda, O.M., E-mail: omhemeda@yahoo.co.uk [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Materials and Corrosion Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Abd Elkader, Omar H. [Electron Microscope & Thin Films Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Dokki 12622, Cairo (Egypt); Electron Microscope Unit, Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Hemeda, D.M.; Tawfik, A.; Mostafa, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt)

    2015-11-15

    A series of Zn{sub 1–x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano ferrite (with x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1) compositions were synthesized using the combustion technique. The powder samples were characterized by XRD. The X-ray analysis showed that the samples were single phase spinel cubic structure. The AC resistivity decreases by increasing the frequency from 1 kHz to 10 kHz. As the frequency of the applied field increases the hopping of charge carrier also increase, thereby decreasing the resistivity. A shift in dielectric maximum is observed toward higher temperature with increasing the Ni content from 536 K to 560 K at 1 kHz. The HRTEM (high resolution TEM) images of four compositions have lattice spacing which confirms the crystalline nature of the samples. The surface morphology SEM of the sample consists of some grains with relatively homogenies distribution with an average size varying from 0.85 to 0.92 μm. The values for entropy change in this work are still small but are significally higher than the values that have been reported for iron oxide nanoparticle. The magnetic entropy change was calculated from measurements of M (H, T) where H is the magnetic field and T is the temperature. The maximum value of entropy change (∆S) obtained near Curie temperature which makes these material candidates for magnetocaloric applications. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Ni–Zn ferrite were prepared by solution combustion method. • A shift in dielectric maximum is observed toward high temperature with increasing the Ni content. • The inter planner distance obtained from HRTEM coincide with the f XRD results. • The entropy change vs. temperature shows a broad maximum near Curie temperature. • This results are useful for the operation of cooling devices.

  17. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE ELECTRICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of elevated temperatures on the electrical properties of Bi metal probe to Si thin films had been investigated for electric field values 10-100V/m. Measurements of current (I) – voltage (V) characteristics were obtained at temperatures 300,320,340,360,380 and 400K respectively. The results indicated linear I–V ...

  18. MOSFET dosimetry: temperature effects in-vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.K.N.; Cheung, T.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 deg C up to 40 deg C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in-vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependant on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry the detector should be placed for approximately 60 seconds on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 seconds after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  19. Effects of temperature variation on MOSFET dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J; Yu, Peter K N

    2004-01-01

    This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown that the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 deg. C up to 40 deg. C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependent on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However, the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry, the detector should be placed for approximately 60 s on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 s after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established. (note)

  20. Temperature effects on flocculation, using different coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C S B; Fradin, E; Gregory, J

    2004-01-01

    Temperature is known to affect flocculation and filter performance. Jar tests have been conducted in the laboratory, using a photometric dispersion analyser (PDA) to assess the effects of temperature on floc formation, breakage and reformation. Alum, ferric sulphate and three polyaluminium chloride (PACI) coagulants have been investigated for temperatures ranging between 6 and 29 degrees C for a suspension of kaolin clay in London tap water. Results confirm that floc formation is slower at lower temperatures for all coagulants. A commercial PACl product, PAX XL 19, produces the largest flocs for all temperatures; and alum the smallest. Increasing the shear rate results in floc breakage in all cases and the flocs never reform to their original size. This effect is most notable for temperatures around 15 degrees C. Breakage, in terms of floc size reduction, is greater for higher temperatures, suggesting a weaker floc. Recovery after increased shear is greater at lower temperatures implying that floc break-up is more reversible for lower temperatures.

  1. The Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, Wim; Leclaire, Nicolas; Letang, Eric [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Girault, Emmanuel; Fouillaud, Patrick [CEA, VALDUC (France)

    2008-07-01

    Various theoretical studies have shown that highly diluted plutonium solutions could have a positive temperature effect but (up to now) no experimental program has confirmed this effect. The main goal of the French Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program (or PU+ in short) is to effectively show that such a positive temperature effect exists for diluted plutonium solutions. The experiments were conducted in the 'Apparatus B' facility at the CEA Valduc research centre in France and involved several sub-critical approach type of experiments using plutonium nitrate solutions with concentrations of 14.3, 15 and 20 g/l at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40 deg. C. A total number of 14 phase I experiments (consisting of independent subcritical approaches) have been performed (5 at 20 g/l, 4 at 15 g/l and 5 at 14.3 g/l) between 2006 and 2007. The impact of the uncertainties on the solution acidity and the plutonium concentration makes it difficult to clearly demonstrate the positive temperature effect, requiring an additional phase II experiment (in which the use of the same plutonium solution was ensured) from 22 to 28 deg. C performed in July 2007. This experiment has shown the existence of a positive temperature effect approx +2 pcm/deg. C (from 22 to 28 deg. C for a plutonium concentration of 14.3 g/l). (authors)

  2. Variable effects of temperature on insect herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Lemoine

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures can influence the top-down control of plant biomass by increasing herbivore metabolic demands. Unfortunately, we know relatively little about the effects of temperature on herbivory rates for most insect herbivores in a given community. Evolutionary history, adaptation to local environments, and dietary factors may lead to variable thermal response curves across different species. Here we characterized the effect of temperature on herbivory rates for 21 herbivore-plant pairs, encompassing 14 herbivore and 12 plant species. We show that overall consumption rates increase with temperature between 20 and 30 °C but do not increase further with increasing temperature. However, there is substantial variation in thermal responses among individual herbivore-plant pairs at the highest temperatures. Over one third of the herbivore-plant pairs showed declining consumption rates at high temperatures, while an approximately equal number showed increasing consumption rates. Such variation existed even within herbivore species, as some species exhibited idiosyncratic thermal response curves on different host plants. Thus, rising temperatures, particularly with respect to climate change, may have highly variable effects on plant-herbivore interactions and, ultimately, top-down control of plant biomass.

  3. Magnetic phase transitions and large magnetic entropy change with a wide temperature span in HoZn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingwei, E-mail: wei0396@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Yuan, Ye [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Zhang, Yikun [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Pöttgen, Rainer [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Zhou, Shengqiang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in HoZn were studied. • The critical properties of HoZn were systematically investigated. • The obtained critical exponents are satisfied with scaling theory. • A large reversible magnetocaloric effect in HoZn was observed. • HoZn could be a promising candidate for magnetic refrigeration. - Abstract: CsCl-type HoZn undergoes two successive magnetic phase transitions: (i) paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM) at T{sub C} ∼ 72 K and (ii) a spin reorientation (SR) at T{sub SR} ∼ 26 K. Magnetization and modified Arrott plots indicate that HoZn undergoes a second-order magnetic phase transition around T{sub C}. The obtained critical exponents have some small deviations from the mean-field theory, indicating a short range or a local magnetic interaction which is properly related to the coexistence of FM and SR transitions at low temperature. Two successive magnetic transitions in HoZn induce one broad pronounced peak together with a shoulder in the temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy change −ΔS{sub M}(T) curves, resulting in a wide temperature range with a large relative cooling power (RCP). For a field change of 0–7 T, the maximum value of −ΔS{sub M} is 15.2 J/kg K around T{sub C} with a large RCP value of 1124 J/kg. The large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and RC indicate that HoZn is a good candidate for active magnetic refrigeration.

  4. Effects of temperature increase in insect community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Midori; Fujii, Koichi

    1993-01-01

    Temperature will rise by 2degC in the near future. Potential effects of the rise on biological community are predicted with little evidence on the subjects. Individualistic responses of component species in community are often ignored. We performed experiments on a lab host-parasitoid community and tested the hypothesis that individualistic changes in developmental schedules by temperature rise can generate drastic community change. (author)

  5. Determination of adiabatic temperature change in MnFe(P,Ge) compounds with pulse-field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trung, N T; Tegus, O; Cam Thanh, D T; Buschow, K H J; Brueck, E; Klaasse, J C P

    2010-01-01

    Fast magnetic measurements performed by means of a 20 T pulse-field magnet provide a good approach for directly monitoring the magnetocaloric effect of the MnFe(P,Ge) compounds. Based on the comparison of magnetization curves obtained either in an adiabatic or isothermal process, we propose that the method introduced by Levitin et al is applicable to determine the adiabatic temperature change for an equivalent field change in first-order magnetic transition materials. More strikingly, experimental results confirm that the first-order nature of the transition in MnFe(P,Ge) alloys is not a limiting factor to the operation frequency of a magnetic refrigerator.

  6. Temperature effects on cathodoluminescence of enstatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgo, S.; Nishido, H.

    2017-12-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) of enstatite has been extensively investigated for planetary science applications. The CL features are affected by many factors of impurities such as transition metal elements, structural defects and sample temperature. However, the temperature effects on enstatite CL have not been clarified so far. In this study, we have quantitatively evaluated temperature effects on enstatite CL. Three samples of luminescent enstatite were employed for CL spectral measurements. Color CL imaging was carried out using a cold-cathode type Luminoscope with a cooled-CCD camera. CL spectroscopy was made by a SEM-CL system, which is comprised of SEM (JEOL: JSM-5410LV) combined with a grating monochromator (OXFORD: Mono CL2). The CL emitted from the sample was collected in the range of 300-800 nm with a photomultiplier tube by a photon counting method at various temperatures from -193-50 degree C. All CL spectra were corrected for total instrumental response. Color CL imaging reveals various CL emissions with red, reddish-purple and bluish-purple in the terrestrial and extraterrestrial enstatite. All of them have two broad emission bands at around 400 nm in a blue region and at around 670 nm in a red region at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The spectral peak in a red region is sharpened and enhanced at lower temperature due to reduction of thermal lattice vibration and an increase in luminescent efficiency. CL intensity at around 670 nm of enstatite decreases with an increase in sample temperature up to -110 degree C from -193 degree C, and increases with an increase in sample temperature between -110 and 50 degree C. This behavior is not able to be explained by a temperature quenching theory based on an increase in the probability of non-radiative transition with the rise of temperature. A least-square fitting of the Arrhenius plot by assuming a Mott-Seitz model provides an activation energy of less than 0.01 eV in temperature quenching process from

  7. Elevated temperature effects on concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.R.; Gruber, R.S.; Van Katwijk, C.

    1993-08-01

    The design of facilities to process or store radioactive wastes presents many challenging engineering problems. Such facilities must not only provide for safe storage of radioactive wastes but they must also be able to maintain confinement of these materials during and after natural phenomena events. Heat generated by the radioactive decay of the wastes will cause the temperature of the concrete containment structure to increase to a magnitude higher than that found in conventional structures. These elevated temperatures will cause strength-related concrete properties to degrade over time. For concrete temperatures less than 150 degree F, no reduction in strength is taken and the provisions of ACI 349, which states that higher temperatures are allowed if tests are provided to evaluate the reduction in concrete strength properties, apply. Methods proposed in a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) report, Modeling of Time-Variant Concrete Properties at Elevated Temperatures, can be used to evaluate the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete properties. Using these modified concrete properties the capacity of a concrete structure, subjected to elevated temperatures, to resist natural phenomena hazards can be determined

  8. Effective Tolman temperature induced by trace anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eune, Myungseok; Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae

    2017-01-01

    Despite the finiteness of stress tensor for a scalar field on the four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole in the Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum, the Tolman temperature in thermal equilibrium is certainly divergent on the horizon due to the infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature. The origin of this conflict is due to the fact that the conventional Tolman temperature was based on the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, which is, however, incompatible with the presence of the trace anomaly responsible for the Hawking radiation. Here, we present an effective Tolman temperature which is compatible with the presence of the trace anomaly by using the modified Stefan-Boltzmann law. Eventually, the effective Tolman temperature turns out to be finite everywhere outside the horizon, and so an infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature at the event horizon does not appear any more. In particular, it is vanishing on the horizon, so that the equivalence principle is exactly recovered at the horizon. (orig.)

  9. Effective Tolman temperature induced by trace anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eune, Myungseok [Sangmyung University, Department of Civil Engineering, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Gim, Yongwan [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sogang University, Research Institute for Basic Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Despite the finiteness of stress tensor for a scalar field on the four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole in the Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum, the Tolman temperature in thermal equilibrium is certainly divergent on the horizon due to the infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature. The origin of this conflict is due to the fact that the conventional Tolman temperature was based on the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, which is, however, incompatible with the presence of the trace anomaly responsible for the Hawking radiation. Here, we present an effective Tolman temperature which is compatible with the presence of the trace anomaly by using the modified Stefan-Boltzmann law. Eventually, the effective Tolman temperature turns out to be finite everywhere outside the horizon, and so an infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature at the event horizon does not appear any more. In particular, it is vanishing on the horizon, so that the equivalence principle is exactly recovered at the horizon. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear shell effects at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, N.J.; Miller, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    In discussing the disappearance of nuclear shell effects at high temperatures, it is important to distinguish between the ''smearing out'' of the single-particle spectrum with increasing temperature and the vanishing of shell related structures in many-body quantities such as the excitation energy per nucleon. We propose a semiempirical method to obtain an upper bound on the temperature required to smooth the single-particle spectrum, and point out that shell effects in many-body parameters may persist above this temperature. We find that the temperature required to smear out the single-particle spectrum is approximately 1 MeV for heavy nuclei (A approx-gt 150) and about 3--4 MeV for light nuclei (A approx-lt 50), in reasonable agreement with the estimate of 41/πA 1/3 obtained from calculations with harmonic oscillator potentials. These temperatures correspond to many-body excitation energies of approximately 20 and 60 MeV, respectively

  11. Effects of temperature changes on groundwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Lueders, Tillmann; Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone

    2014-05-01

    The use of groundwater as a carrier of thermal energy is becoming more and more important as a sustainable source of heating and cooling. At the same time, the present understanding of the effects of aquifer thermal usage on geochemical and biological aquifer ecosystem functions is extremely limited. Recently we started to assess the effects of temperature changes in groundwater on the ecological integrity of aquifers. In a field study, we have monitored hydrogeochemical, microbial, and faunal parameters in groundwater of an oligotrophic aquifer in the vicinity of an active thermal discharge facility. The observed seasonal variability of abiotic and biotic parameters between wells was considerable. Yet, due to the energy-limited conditions no significant temperature impacts on bacterial or faunal abundances and on bacterial productivity were observed. In contrast, the diversity of aquifer bacterial communities and invertebrate fauna was either positively or negatively affected by temperature, respectively. In follow-up laboratory experiments temperature effects were systematically evaluated with respect to energy limitation (e.g. establishment of unlimited growth conditions), geochemistry (e.g. dynamics of DOC and nutrients), microbiology (e.g. survival of pathogens), and fauna (temperature preference and tolerance). First, with increased nutrient and organic carbon concentrations even small temperature changes revealed microbiological dynamics. Second, considerable amounts of adsorbed DOC were mobilized from sediments of different origin with an increase in temperatures. No evidence was obtained for growth of pathogenic bacteria and extended survival of viruses at elevated temperatures. Invertebrates clearly preferred natural thermal conditions (10-12°C), where their highest frequency of appearance was measured in a temperature gradient. Short-term incubations (48h) of invertebrates in temperature dose-response tests resulted in LT50 (lethal temperature) values

  12. Numerical analysis of a magnetocaloric heat pump implementation into a residential building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johra, Hicham

    of the magneto-caloric heat pump in a single hydronic loop coupling directly the heat source and the heat sink without additional heat exchangers. Moreover, several parameters can be controlled in order to perform efficient part load power generation. The objective of this work is to understand how to integrate...... a magneto-caloric heat pump into a residential building and establish a control strategy for such device. A numerical model of a single family house with water based under-floor heating and horizontal ground source heat exchanger is created. It is used to demonstrate the feasibility and the advantages...... of the integrated magneto-caloric heat pump system is compared with conventional heat pumps one....

  13. Discrete breathers in graphane: Effect of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimova, J. A., E-mail: julia.a.baimova@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Murzaev, R. T.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Dmitriev, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems (Russian Federation); Zhou, Kun [Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Singapore)

    2016-05-15

    The discrete breathers in graphane in thermodynamic equilibrium in the temperature range 50–600 K are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. A discrete breather is a hydrogen atom vibrating along the normal to a sheet of graphane at a high amplitude. As was found earlier, the lifetime of a discrete breather at zero temperature corresponds to several tens of thousands of vibrations. The effect of temperature on the decay time of discrete breathers and the probability of their detachment from a sheet of graphane are studied in this work. It is shown that closely spaced breathers can exchange energy with each other at zero temperature. The data obtained suggest that thermally activated discrete breathers can be involved in the dehydrogenation of graphane, which is important for hydrogen energetics.

  14. Investigation on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of nanocrystalline Pr-deficient Pr1-xSrxMnO3-δ manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, B.; Athira, M.; Akshay, V. R.; Sudakshina, B.; Mutta, Geeta R.; Vasundhara, M.

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of nanocrystalline Pr-deficient Pr1-xSrxMnO3-δ Perovskite manganites. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray powder diffraction patterns confirms that all the studied compounds have crystallized into an orthorhombic structure with Pbnm space group. Transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals nanocrystalline compounds with crystallite size less than 50 nm. The selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal the highly crystalline nature of the compounds and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis shows that the obtained compositions are nearly identical with the nominal one. The oxygen stoichiometry is estimated by iodometric titration method and stoichiometric compositions are confirmed by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry analysis. A large bifurcation is observed in the ZFC/FC curves and Arrott plots not show a linear relation but have a convex curvature nature. The temperature dependence of inverse magnetic susceptibility at higher temperature confirms the existence of ferromagnetic clusters. The experimental results reveal that the reduction of crystallite size to nano metric scale in Pr-deficient manganites adversely influences structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties as compared to its bulk counterparts reported earlier.

  15. Crystal structure, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of aluminum-doped La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhamza, Amal; Dhahri, J. [Universite de Monastir, Laboratoire de la Matiere Condensee et des Nanosciences, Monastir (Tunisia); Rhouma, F.I.H. [Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-Conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut Neel, Grenoble (France)

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, we report on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of a series of nanocrystallines La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) which were prepared by the sol-gel method. The X-ray powder diffraction showed that all our synthesized samples were of a single phase and have crystallized in the hexagonal symmetry with R anti 3c space group. Magnetic measurements showed that the sample exhibits a ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition at a Curie temperature close to 206 K. The maximum value of the magnetic entropy change vertical stroke ΔS{sub M}{sup max} vertical stroke was found to be 1.09 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} for an applied magnetic field of 5T. At this value of magnetic field, the relative cooling power was 141 J kg{sup -1}. Our result on magnetocaloric properties suggests that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 3} nanopowder with (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) is attractive as a potential refrigerant for high-temperature magnetic refrigeration. (orig.)

  16. Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganites—A potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Omari, I. A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Suresh, K. G. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-03-03

    Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300 K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1} was observed near 300 K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300 K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300 K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62 K at 280 K.

  17. Determination of the magnetocaloric entropy change in the presence of phase separation and metastability: The case of Eu0.58Sr0.42MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, F.; Hardy, V.; Fruchart, D.; Zawilski, B.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in the manganite Eu 0.58 Sr 0.42 MnO 3 was derived by different methods, in a field range very sensitive to the phenomenon of phase separation. It turns out that a strong scatter in the MCE features was observed. When the applied field is less than the field required to complete the transition, it is found that the MCE can be strongly overestimated by “standard” indirect measurements. A way to properly estimate the MCE around a first order transition in the presence of phase separation and metastability is proposed. - Highlights: • The entropy change was investigated in an oxide with pronounced metastable effects. • A strong scatter is observed among results derived from several indirect methods. • It is found that even the calorimetric approach can be proned to artefacts. • A method is proposed to evaluate a “real” magnetocaloric entropy change

  18. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} exhibiting first-order and second-order magnetic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, T.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Dang, N.T. [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Phan, The-Long [Department of Physics and Oxide Research Center, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, D.S. [Physics Division, School of Science Education, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.W. [Department of Physics and Oxide Research Center, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, S.C., E-mail: scyu@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Polycrystalline orthorhombic samples La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0–0.09) were prepared by solid-state reaction. The study of magnetic properties revealed that the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) transition temperature (T{sub C}) increases from 255 to about 271 K with increasing Na-doping content (x) from 0 to 0.09, respectively. Around the T{sub C}, we have found the samples showing a large magnetocaloric (MC) effect with maximum values of magnetic entropy change (|ΔS{sub max}|) of 7–8 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} and relative cooling power RCP = 232–236 J/kg for the samples x = 0.03–0.09 in a magnetic-field interval ΔH = 40 kOe. Detailed analyses of isothermal magnetization data M(T, H) based on Banerjee's criteria indicated a first-to-second-order magnetic-phase transformation taking place at a threshold Na-doping concentration x{sub c} ≈ 0.06. This could also be observed clearly from the feature of entropy universal curves. An assessment of the magnetic-ordering exponent N = dLn|ΔS{sub m}|/dLnH demonstrates an existence of short-range magnetic order in the samples. We believe that the changes of the magnetic properties and MC effect in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} caused by Na doping are related to the changes in the structural parameters and Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+} ratio, which are confirmed by the geometrical and electronic analyses based on X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure. - Highlights: • Geometrical and electronic structures of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3}. • Threshold of first-to-second-order phase transformation in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3}. • Large magneto-caloric effect with |ΔS{sub max}| ≈ 7–8 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}, and RCP = 232–236 J/kg. • Universal curve of magnetic-entropy change.

  19. Effects of chilling temperatures on photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stress is an inescapable reality for most plants growing in natural settings. Conditions of sub or supra-optimal temperatures, water deficit, water logging, salinity, and pollution can have dramatic effects on plant growth and development, and in agricultural settings, yield. In cotton...

  20. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Temperature effects on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Windows User

    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Temperature effects on the hydrophobic force between two graphene-like surfaces in liquid water. TUHIN SAMANTA and BIMAN BAGCHI. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka 560. 012, India. Table of Contents. Figure S1. Page 2.

  1. Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to our knowledge of the effects of temperature on the population dynamics of freshwater snails and its bearing on their .... 28"C regime as reflected by the net reproduction rate recorded in Table 1. It was demonstrated by De Kock & .... ANDREW ARlHA, H.G. & BIRCH, L.C. 1954. The distribution and abundance of animals.

  2. Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided

  3. Martensitic transition near room temperature and the temperature- and magnetic-field-induced multifunctional properties of Ni49CuMn34In16 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V. K.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Khandelwal, A.; Roy, S. B.

    2010-11-01

    A near room-temperature martensitic transition is observed in the ferromagnetic austenite state of Ni50Mn34In16 alloy with 2% Cu substitution at the Ni site. Application of magnetic field in the martensite state induces a reverse martensitic transition in this alloy. dc magnetization, magnetoresistance and strain measurements in this alloy reveal that associated with this martensitic transition there exist a large magnetocaloric effect, a large magnetoresitance and a magnetic-field temperature-induced strain. This NiMnIn alloy system thus is an example of an emerging class of magnetic materials whose physical properties can be tuned by suitable chemical substitutions, to achieve magnetic-field and temperature-induced multifunctional properties at and around room temperature

  4. Temperature effect on surface oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquilla, I.; Barco, J.L. del; Ferron, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the first stages of the superficial oxidation of polycrystalline titanium was studied using both Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and emission shreshold (AEAPS). The number of compounds present on the surface was determined by application of the factor analysis technique. Reaction evolution was followed through the relative variation of Auger LMM and LMV transitions which are characteristic of titanium. Also the evolution of the chemical shift was determined by AEAPS. The amount of oxygen on the surface was quantified using transition KLL of oxygen. It was found that superficial oxidation depends on temperature. As much as three different compounds were determined according to substrate temperature and our exposure ranges. (Author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  5. Thermal investigations of a room temperature magnetic refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smaili, Arezki; Chiba, Younes [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d' Alger (Algeria)], email: arezki.smaili@enp.edu.dz

    2011-07-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is a concept based on the magnetocaloric effect that some materials exhibit when the external magnetic field changes. The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of a numerical model in predicting parameters of an active magnetic regenerator refrigerator. Numerical simulations were conducted to perform a thermal analysis on an active magnetic regenerator refrigerator operating near room temperature with and without applied cooling load. Curves of temperature span, cooling capacity and thermal efficiency as functions of the operating conditions were drawn and are presented in this paper. Results showed that at fixed frequency Ql versus mf has an optimum and COP was increased with cycle frequency values. This study demonstrated that the proposed numerical model could be used to predict parameters of an active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as it provides consistent results.

  6. Effective temperature in relaxation of Coulomb glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, A M; Ortuño, M; Caravaca, M; Pollak, M

    2008-08-01

    We study relaxation in two-dimensional Coulomb glasses up to macroscopic times. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm especially designed to escape efficiently from deep valleys around metastable states. We find that, during the relaxation process, the site occupancy follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature much higher than the real temperature T. Long electron-hole excitations are characterized by T(eff), while short ones are thermalized at T. We argue that the density of states at the Fermi level is proportional to T(eff) and is a good thermometer to measure it. T(eff) decreases extremely slowly, roughly as the inverse of the logarithm of time, and it should affect hopping conductance in many experimental circumstances.

  7. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of HoCr0.75Fe0.25O3 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnana, Ganesh; Babu, P. D.; Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana

    2018-05-01

    We report on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of HoCr0.75Fe0.25O3 compound around the Néel temperature (TN), which is due to Cr3+ ordering. Susceptibility (χ) vs. temperature (T) graph of HoCr0.75Fe0.25O3 compound infer two transitions due to the ordering of Cr3+ moments (TN ˜ 155 K) and Ho3+ moments (TNHo ˜ 8 K). Magnetic entropy (-ΔSM) value of 1.14 J kg-1 K-1 around 157.5 K with a magnetic field (H) of 90 kOe is attributed to antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of Cr3+ moments. A maximum value of adiabatic temperature (ΔTad) ˜ 0.41 K around TN is obtained and is found to increases with applied magnetic field. Negative slope for H/M vs. M2 graph is evident for HoCr0.75Fe0.25O3 compound below TN, which indicates the first order phase transition. Quantified values of -ΔSM and ΔTad open the way to explore rare earth orthochromites for the MCE properties and refrigeration applications.

  8. Tuning the magnetocaloric response of Er-based metallic glasses by varying structural order in disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Qiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Tang, Meibo [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Jun, E-mail: junshen@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2016-03-01

    The effects of structural order on magnetocaloric response have been explored in Er{sub 60}Al{sub 16}Co{sub 20}Ni{sub 4} metallic glass (MG). Compared with the fully amorphous structure of the as-spun ribbon (cooling rate ∼10{sup 6} K/s), the rod sample fabricated with a lower cooling rate (∼10{sup 3} K/s) contains a few crystalline phases embedded in the amorphous matrix. Annealing the ribbon in the supercooled liquid region results in formation of a large amount of nanocrystalline phase. Both the as-spun ribbon and rod samples show a single spin-glass-like transition behavior, while the annealed sample exhibits double-freezing processes. It is found that the sparsely distributed micro-sized crystalline phases (content fraction of 13%) exert a slight effect on the magnetic entropy change (MEC). However, densely distributed nanocrystallization phase (∼50%) in amorphous matrix leads to an obvious reduction of the MEC and refrigerant capacity (RC). The exponent n of field dependence of MEC is found to related to exchange frustration, random anisotropy, and structure ordering degrees. - Highlights: • We determined the significant role of the size and distribution of the crystalline phases on the magnetic structure and magnetic performance of metallic glass composite. • It is found that the sparsely distributed micro-sized crystalline phases (content fraction of 13%) exert a slight effect on the MEC. • Densely distributed nanocrystalline phase (~50%) leads to an obvious reduction of the MEC.

  9. Processing temperature effects on molybdenum disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, R.K.; Petrovic, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a series of MoSi 2 compacts that were fabricated at increasing hot-pressing temperatures to achieve different grain sizes. The materials were evaluated by Vickers indentation fracture to determine room-temperature fracture toughness, hardness, and fracture mode. From 1500 degrees to 1800 degrees C, MoSi 2 had a constant 67% transgranular fracture and linearly increasing rain size from 14 to 21 μm. Above 1800 degrees C, the fracture percentage increased rapidly to 97% transgranular at 1920 degrees C (32 μ grain size). Fracture toughness and hardness decreased slightly with increasing temperature. MoSi 2 processed at 1600 degrees C had the highest fracture toughness and hardness values of 3.6 MPa·m 1/2 and 9.9 GPa, respectively. The effects of SiO 2 formation from oxygen impurities in the MoSi 2 starting powders and MoSi 2 -Mo 5 Si 3 eutectic liquid formation were studied

  10. Nickel brittling by hydrogen. Temperature effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapitz, P.A; Fernandez, S; Alvarez, M.G

    2006-01-01

    The results of a study on the effect of different variables on the susceptibility to brittling by hydrogen and the velocity of propagation of fissures in nickel wire (99.7% purity) are described. The hydrogen load was carried out by cathodic polarization in H 2 SO 4 0.5m solution. The susceptibility to brittling by hydrogen was determined with traction tests at slow deformation speed and constant cathodic potential, and the later observation of the fracture surface by scanning electron microscopy. The variables studied were: applied cathodic overpower, speed of initial deformation and temperature. The results showed that the speed of fissure propagation in the nickel by brittleness from hydrogen is a function of the applied potential and the speed of deformation used. Without tension, the hydrogen load by cathodic polarization at room temperature leads to the formation of cavities similar to those observed when the hydrogenation is performed in the presence of gaseous hydrogen at high pressure and temperature (CW)

  11. The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on selected ... of 96h at different water temperatures representing the seasonal temperatures in the ... are mobilised to meet increased energy demands during periods of stress.

  12. Effect of temperature on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Kjøller, Claus

    Hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers is considered for seasonal energy storage in Denmark. However, an increase in the aquifer temperature might reduce permeability, and thereby increase production costs. An understanding of the factors that control permeability is required in order...... and the Klinkenberg procedure showed the expected correlation between the two measures, however, differences could be around one order of magnitude. In tight gas sandstones, permeability is often sensitive to net stress, which might change due to the pore pressure change in the Klinkenberg procedure. Besides...... affecting the Klinkenberg procedure, the combined effect of slip and changes in permeability would affect production during pressure depletion in tight gas sandstone reservoirs; therefore effects of gas slip and net stress on permeability were combined in a model based on the Klinkenberg equation. A lower...

  13. Magnetocaloric properties of rapidly solidified Dy{sub 3}Co alloy ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Llamazares, J. L., E-mail: jose.sanchez@ipicyt.edu.mx; Flores-Zúñiga, H.; Sánchez-Valdés, C. F. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A.C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4" a, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78216 (Mexico); Álvarez-Alonso, Pablo [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Lara Rodríguez, G. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Fernández-Gubieda, M. L. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); BC Materials, Camino de Ibaizabal, Edificio 500, Planta 1, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Zamudio, 48160 Derio (Spain)

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric (MC) properties of melt-spun ribbons of the Dy{sub 3}Co intermetallic compound were investigated. Samples were fabricated in an Ar environment using a homemade melt spinner system at a linear speed of the rotating copper wheel of 40 ms{sup −1}. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that ribbons crystallize into a single-phase with the Fe{sub 3}C-type orthorhombic crystal structure. The M(T) curve measured at 5 mT reveals the occurrence of a transition at 32 K from a first to a second antiferromagnetic (AFM) state and an AFM-to-paramagnetic transition at T{sub N} = 43 K. Furthermore, a metamagnetic transition is observed below T{sub N}, but the magnetization change ΔM is well below the one reported for bulk alloys. Below 12 K, large inverse MC effect and hysteresis losses are observed. This behavior is related to the metamagnetic transition. For a magnetic field change of 5 T (2 T) applied along the ribbon length, the produced ribbons show a peak value of the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}{sup peak} of −6.5 (− 2.1) Jkg{sup −1}K{sup −1} occurring close to T{sub N} with a full-width at half-maximum δT{sub FWHM} of 53 (37) K, and refrigerant capacity RC = 364 (83) Jkg{sup −1} (estimated from the product |ΔS{sub M}{sup peak}| × δT{sub FWHM})

  14. Effect of microstructure on the high temperature strength of nitride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of microstructure on the high temperature strength of nitride bonded silicon carbide composite. J Rakshit P K Das. Composites Volume ... The effect of these parameters on room temperature and high temperature strength of the composite up to 1300°C in ambient condition were studied. The high temperature flexural ...

  15. Managing Temperature Effects in Nanoscale Adaptive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, David

    2012-01-01

    This book discusses new techniques for detecting, controlling, and exploiting the impacts of temperature variations on nanoscale circuits and systems.  It provides a holistic discussion of temperature management, including physical phenomena (reversal of the MOSFET temperature dependence) that have recently become problematic, along with circuit techniques for detecting, controlling, and adapting to these phenomena. A detailed discussion is also included of the general aspects of thermal-aware system design and management of temperature-induced faults. A new sensor system is described that can determine the temperature dependence as well as the operating temperature to improve system reliability.  A new method is presented to control a circuit’s temperature dependence by individually tuning pull-up and pull-down networks to their temperature-insensitive operating points. This method extends the range of supply voltages that can be made temperature-insensitive, achieving insensitivity at nominal voltage fo...

  16. Room Temperature Silicene Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji

    Silicene, a buckled Si analogue of graphene, holds significant promise for future electronics beyond traditional CMOS. In our predefined experiments via encapsulated delamination with native electrodes approach, silicene devices exhibit an ambipolar charge transport behavior, corroborating theories on Dirac band in Ag-free silicene. Monolayer silicene device has extracted field-effect mobility within the theoretical expectation and ON/OFF ratio greater than monolayer graphene, while multilayer silicene devices show decreased mobility and gate modulation. Air-stability of silicene devices depends on the number of layers of silicene and intrinsic material structure determined by growth temperature. Few or multi-layer silicene devices maintain their ambipolar behavior for days in contrast to minutes time scale for monolayer counterparts under similar conditions. Multilayer silicene grown at different temperatures below 300oC possess different intrinsic structures and yield different electrical property and air-stability. This work suggests a practical prospect to enable more air-stable silicene devices with layer and growth condition control, which can be leveraged for other air-sensitive 2D materials. In addition, we describe quantum and classical transistor device concepts based on silicene and related buckled materials that exploit the 2D topological insulating phenomenon. The transistor device physics offer the potential for ballistic transport that is robust against scattering and can be employed for both charge and spin transport. This work was supported by the ARO.

  17. Combined scale effects for effective brazing at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern joining technology, the focus is on effective brazing and soldering of temperature sensitive materials. Here, as well as in diffusion welding processes the needed thermal energy is externally realized in the joint zone. This produces a heating of the whole joining parts, since in laminar joining the thermal energy is transported in interior by thermal conduction. An excess of critical temperatures or tolerable impact periods in wide parts of materials and respectively components is often not avoidable. This leads to thermal damages. In this point of view nanotechnology shows promising possibilities as scale effects and their resulting thermophysical effects such as melting temperature reduction and high diffusion rates can be used for providing a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis at room temperature. After ignition by an external energy source a self-propagating exothermic reaction is started. By producing a multilayer system with alternately arranged nanoscaled layers of e.g. Al and Ni the resulting thin foil can be used as heat source for melting the braze or solder material within the joining zone without any external preheating. Due to the high process velocities up to 30 m/s and the local heat input significant thermal influences on the joined parts are not detectable.

  18. Anisotropic and excellent magnetocaloric properties of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 single crystal with anomalous magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, J.C.; Zeng, R.; Kim, J.H.; Chen, D.P.; Dou, S.X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ΔS M shows a very large reversibility value at low field. ► The single crystal exhibits anisotropy in the MCE. ► La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 is weakly itinerant ferromagnetic. ► No hysteresis loss is observed. - Abstract: Magnetic properties and the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) have been investigated in La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 single crystal with applied field along both the ab-plane and the c-direction. Due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the crystal exhibits anisotropy in the MCE. Upon application of a 5 T field, the magnetic entropy changes (ΔS M ), reaching values of 7.668 J/(kg K) and 6.412 J/(kg K) for both the ab-plane and the c-direction, respectively. A magnetic entropy change of 3.3 J/(kg K) was achieved for a magnetic field change of 1.5 T at the Curie temperature, T C = 245 K. Due to the absence of grains in the single crystal, the ΔS M distribution here is much more uniform than for gadolinium (Gd) and other polycrystalline manganites, which is desirable for an Ericsson-cycle magnetic refrigerator. For a field change of 5 T, the relative cooling power, RCP, reached 358.17 J/kg, while the maximum adiabatic temperature change of 5.33 K and a magnetoresistance (MR) ratio of 507.88% at T C were observed. We analysed the magnetization of La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 single crystal at T C and estimated several parameters of spin fluctuation on the basis of a self-consistent renormalization theory of spin fluctuations, with reciprocal susceptibility above T C . We found that the magnetic property of La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 is weakly itinerant ferromagnetic. A large reversible MCE and no hysteresis loss with a considerable value of refrigerant capacity indicate that La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 single crystal is a potential candidate as a magnetic refrigerant.

  19. Modelling and comparison studies of packed screen regenerators for active magnetocaloric refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    In active magnetic regeneration (AMR) systems, not only the magnetocaloric properties of materials, but also the regenerator geometry plays an important role in the system performance. Packed sphere regenerators are often employed in existing prototypes, however, the characteristics such as relat...... is improved and applied to simulate the regenerators. The performance of the new regenerators is studied and compared with that of the packed sphere regenerators. Possible fabrication methods of the packed screen regenerators are also discussed....

  20. Modelling and comparison studies of packed screen regenerators for active magnetocaloric refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2014-01-01

    In active magnetic regeneration (AMR) systems, not only the magnetocaloric properties of materials, but also the regenerator geometry plays an important role in the system performance. Packed sphere regenerators are often employed in existing prototypes, however, the characteristics such as relat...... is improved and applied to simulate the regenerators. The performance of the new regenerators is studied and compared with that of the packed sphere regenerators. Possible fabrication methods of the packed screen regenerators are also discussed....

  1. Temperature dependence of radiation effects in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G; Katsumura, Y.; Kudoh, H.; Morita, Y.; Seguchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    Temperature dependence of crosslinking and gas evolution under γ-irradiation was studied for high-density and low-density polyethylene samples in the 30-360degC range. It was found that crosslinking was the predominant process up to 300degC and the gel point decreased with increasing temperature. At above 300degC, however, the gel fraction at a given dose decreased rapidly with temperature and the action of radiation turned to enhance polyethylene degradation. Yields of H 2 and hydrocarbon gases increased with temperature and the compositions of hydrocarbons were dose dependent. (author)

  2. Effective temperature in driven vortex lattices with random pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolton, Alejandro B.; Dominguez, Daniel; Exartier, Raphael; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.; Groenbech-Jensen, N.

    2003-09-01

    We study numerically correlation and response functions in non-equilibrium driven vortex lattices with random pinning. From a generalized fluctuation-dissipation relation we calculate an effective transverse temperature in the fluid moving phase. We find that the effective temperature decreases with increasing driving force and becomes equal to the equilibrium melting temperature when the dynamic transverse freezing occurs. We also discuss how the effective temperature can be measured experimentally from a generalized Kubo formula. (author)

  3. Magnetic memory effects in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockenbauer, A.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave absorption of high temperature oxide superconductors MBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (M = Y, Er, Dy, Ho, Lu, Tm, Gd) at 77 K have been studied by ESR. In granular samples diamagnetic zero-field resonance and strong ESR baseline hysteresis have been observed: for increasing field sweep - a high, for decreasing one - a low, while in constant field the baseline approaches the middle position with kinetics typical of spin-glasses. The hysteresis amplitude, i.e. the deviation of high and low baselines, possesses maximum at zero field if the sample is cooled down in zero field. In case of field cooling both the diamagnetic resonance and hysteresis maximum are shifted as a function of relative direction of the fields where the samples are cooled and measured, respectively. The shift is caused by the remanent diamagnetism of trapped fluxons. The hysteresis critically depends on the modulation amplitude of magnetic field, and no hysteresis can be observed if the microwave absorption is detected without field modulation. By applying saw-tooth sweep the spin-glass can be driven between two extreme hysteresis states, and the ESR response is rectangular for large saw-tooth amplitude and linear - for small one, while for intermediate amplitudes the recording shows characteristic memory effects. The hysteresis memory is explained in terms of loop distribution of fluxons. In the single crystal the fluxon absorptions are also detected and the separation of fluxon lines can be related to the hysteresis in granular samples. (author)

  4. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.

    2012-01-01

    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d max. , 10 × 10 cm 2 , 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4–40.6°C (85–105°F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used.

  5. Temperature has a causal effect on avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Holleman, L.J.M.; Caro, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Many bird species reproduce earlier in years with high spring temperatures, but little is known about the causal effect of temperature. Temperature may have a direct effect on timing of reproduction but the correlation may also be indirect, for instance via food phenology. As climate change has led

  6. Magnetization process and low-temperature thermodynamics of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg octahedral chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strečka, Jozef; Richter, Johannes; Derzhko, Oleg; Verkholyak, Taras; Karľová, Katarína

    2018-05-01

    Low-temperature magnetization curves and thermodynamics of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg octahedral chain with the intra-plaquette and monomer-plaquette interactions are examined within a two-component lattice-gas model of hard-core monomers, which takes into account all low-lying energy modes in a highly frustrated parameter space involving the monomer-tetramer, localized many-magnon and fully polarized ground states. It is shown that the developed lattice-gas model satisfactorily describes all pronounced features of the low-temperature magnetization process and the magneto-thermodynamics such as abrupt changes of the isothermal magnetization curves, a double-peak structure of the specific heat or a giant magnetocaloric effect.

  7. Optimization of magnetocaloric properties of arc-melted and spark plasma-sintered LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamba, P.; Morley, N.A.; Reaney, I.M.; Rainforth, W.M. [University of Sheffield, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cespedes, O. [University of Leeds, School of Physics and Astronomy, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} alloy has been synthesized in polycrystalline form using both arc melting and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The phase formation, hysteresis loss and magnetocaloric properties of the LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} alloys synthesized using the two different techniques are compared. The annealing time required to obtain the 1:13 phase is significantly reduced from 14 days (using the arc melting technique) to 30 min (using the SPS technique). The magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) for the arc-melted LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound, obtained for a field change of 5 - 0T (decreasing field), was estimated to be 19.6 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}. The effective RCP at 5T of the arc-melted LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound was determined to be 360 J kg{sup -1} which corresponds to about 88 % of that observed in Gd. A significant reduction in the hysteretic losses in the SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound was observed. The ΔS{sub M}, obtained for a field change of 5 - 0T (decreasing field), for the SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound decreases to 7.4 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}. The T{sub C} also shifts from 186 (arc-melted) to 230 K (SPS) and shifts the order of phase transition from first to second order, respectively. The MCE of the SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound spreads over a larger temperature range with the RCP value at 5T reaching 288 J kg{sup -1} corresponding to about 70 % of that observed in Gd. At low fields, the effective RCP values of the arc-melted and spark plasma-sintered LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compounds are comparable, thereby clearly demonstrating the potential of SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compounds in low-field magnetic refrigeration applications. (orig.)

  8. Temperature effects on waste glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, J.J.

    1991-02-01

    The temperature dependence of glass durability, particularly that of nuclear waste glasses, is assessed by reviewing past studies. The reaction mechanism for glass dissolution in water is complex and involves multiple simultaneous reaction proceeded, including molecular water diffusion, ion exchange, surface reaction, and precipitation. These processes can change in relative importance or dominance with time or changes in temperature. The temperature dependence of each reaction process has been shown to follow an Arrhenius relationship in studies where the reaction process has been isolated, but the overall temperature dependence for nuclear waste glass reaction mechanisms is less well understood, Nuclear waste glass studies have often neglected to identify and characterize the reaction mechanism because of difficulties in performing microanalyses; thus, it is unclear if such results can be extrapolated to other temperatures or reaction times. Recent developments in analytical capabilities suggest that investigations of nuclear waste glass reactions with water can lead to better understandings of their reaction mechanisms and their temperature dependences. Until a better understanding of glass reaction mechanisms is available, caution should be exercised in using temperature as an accelerating parameter. 76 refs., 1 tab

  9. Effects of cryogenic irradiation on temperature sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courts, S.S.; Holmes, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Several types of commercially available cryogenic temperature sensors were calibrated, irradiated at 4.2 K by a gamma or neutron source, and recalibrated in-situ to determine their suitability for thermometry in radiation environments. Comparisons were made between pre- and post-irradiation calibrations with the equivalent temperature shift calculated for each sensor at various temperature in the 4.2 K to 330 K range. Four post-irradiation calibrations were performed with annealing steps performed at 20 K, 80 K, and 330 K. Temperature sensors which were gamma irradiated were given a total dose of 10,000 Gy. Temperature sensors which were neutron irradiated were irradiated to a total fluence of 2 x 10 12 n/cm 2 . In general, for gamma radiation environments, diodes are unsuitable for use. Both carbon glass and germanium resistance sensors performed well at lower temperature, while platinum resistance sensors performed best above 30 K. Thin-film rhodium and Cernox trademark resistance sensors both performed well over the 4.2 K to 330 K range. Only thin-film rhodium and Cernox trademark resistance temperature sensors were neutron irradiated and they both performed well over the 4.2 K to 330 K range

  10. Memory effect in the high-temperature superconducting bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xing-Yi; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Effects of temperature cycles on levitation force relaxation are investigated. •Memory effect of the YBCO bulks is observed in experiments. •With an increase of temperature, memory of the superconductor is gradually lost. -- Abstract: We present an experimental investigation of the relaxation of vertical force components in a high-temperature superconducting levitation system with different temperature cycle processes. For a selected ambient temperature (T 1 ) of the system, the experimental results show that the relaxations of the levitation forces are strongly dependent on the initial temperature. When the sample was submitted to temperature jumps around T 1 , the sample temperature was regulated at T 2 , and there were two cases of the experiments, ΔT = T 2 − T 1 0 (positive temperature cycle). It was found that in the case of negative temperature cycle, the superconducting samples have memory effect. And for the positive temperature cycle, with the experimental temperature increase, the memory effect of samples is gradually losing. Additionally, with the increase of temperature, the influences of the negative and positive temperature cycle on the levitation force relaxation are unsymmetrical. All the results are interpreted by using the characteristics of the free energy ‘ground’ plot of the Spin-glasses qualitatively

  11. Analyses of TmAl{sub 2} and ErAl{sub 2} composite for use as an active magnetic regenerator close to liquid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.V. de, E-mail: marcos_vinicios@hotmail.com [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, J.A. da [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, L.S. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Tocantins, IFTO – Campus Colinas do Tocantins, AV. Bernardo Sayao S/N, Chácara Raio de Sol, Setor Santa Maria, CEP 77760-000, Colinas do Tocantins, TO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of the thermodynamics quantities in RAl{sub 2} (R = Er, Tm) single crystal and polycrystal. • An optimal hybrid magnetocaloric material using TmAl{sub 2} and ErAl{sub 2} compounds. • Suppression of the ferromagnetic canted order in the compound TmAl{sub 2} in single crystal form. - Abstract: We report the thermodynamic properties of selected intermetallic RAl{sub 2} (R = Er, Tm) compounds calculated by using a model Hamiltonian, including the Zeeman-exchange interactions and the crystalline electrical field, which are responsible for the magnetic anisotropy. The relationship between the behavior of the temperature-dependent magnetization, calculated in different crystallographic directions for several magnetic fields, and the influence of spin reorientation on the magnetocaloric effect, is discussed. In order to validate the obtained theoretical results, experimental data are compared to calculated data. Also, an optimum molar fraction of the ErAl{sub 2} and TmAl{sub 2} composite was determined theoretically, showing a high potential for use in a regenerative thermal cycle, especially close to the liquid helium temperature range.

  12. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON ELEVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    various temperature regimes before testing. A concrete mix of 1:1:3 ... approach arising from statistical evidence is not out of place. ... This paper presents the results of concrete cubes tests ..... accelerated there by reducing the strength of the.

  13. Finite temperature effects in primordial inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, G. B.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Olive, K. A.

    1983-11-01

    We present a detailed study of a recently proposed model for primordial inflation based on an N=1 locally supersymmetric potential. For a large class of parameters with which all cosmological constraints are satisfied, the temperature corrections can be neglected during the inflation period. At higher temperatures, the minimum is not at the origin, but very close to it. Address after July 1, 1983: Theory Group, Fermilab, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA.

  14. Effects of air temperature and discharge on Upper Mississippi River summer water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brian R.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rogala, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the potential effects of climate change has prompted studies of air temperature and precipitation associations with water temperatures in rivers and streams. We examined associations between summer surface water temperatures and both air temperature and discharge for 5 reaches of the Upper Mississippi River during 1994–2011. Water–air temperature associations at a given reach approximated 1:1 when estimated under an assumption of reach independence but declined to approximately 1:2 when water temperatures were permitted to covary among reaches and were also adjusted for upstream air temperatures. Estimated water temperature–discharge associations were weak. An apparently novel feature of this study is that of addressing changes in associations between water and air temperatures when both are correlated among reaches.

  15. Effects of open-air temperature on air temperature inside biological safety cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeno, Katsuro; Yamamura, Keiko; Osada, Takashi; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ando, Yuichi; Wakiya, Yoshifumi

    2011-02-14

    In Japan, biological safety cabinets (BSCs) are normally used by medical staff while handling antineoplastic agents. We have also set up a class II B2 BSC at the Division of Chemotherapy for Outpatients. The air temperature inside this BSC, however, decreases in winter. We assumed that this decrease is caused by the intake of open-air. Therefore, we investigated the effects of low open-air temperature on the BSC temperature and the time of admixtures of antineoplastic agents. The studies were conducted from January 1 to March 31, 2008. The outdoor air temperature was measured in the shade near the intake nozzle of the BSC and was compared with the BSC temperature. The correlation between the outdoor air temperature and the BSC temperature, the dissolution time of cyclophosphamide (CPA) and gemcitabine (GEM), and accurate weight measurement of epirubicin (EPI) solution were investigated for low and normal BSC temperatures. The BSC temperature was correlated with the open-air temperature for open-air temperatures of 5-20°C (p air is drawn from outdoors. We showed that the BSC temperature affects the dissolution rate of antineoplastic agents. Further, we suggested that the BSC temperature drop might delay the affair of the admixtures of antineoplastic agents and increase the waiting time of outpatients for chemotherapy.

  16. Temperature effects on the Davydov soliton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruzeiro, L.; Halding, J.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1988-01-01

    As a possible mechanism for energy storage and transport in proteins, Davydov has proposed soliton formation and propagation. In this paper we investigate the stability of Davydov solitons at biological temperatures. From Davydov’s original theory evolution equations are derived quantum mechanica......As a possible mechanism for energy storage and transport in proteins, Davydov has proposed soliton formation and propagation. In this paper we investigate the stability of Davydov solitons at biological temperatures. From Davydov’s original theory evolution equations are derived quantum...

  17. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler periods of the day or are indeterminate so flowering occurs over a longer period of the growing season. In controlled environment studies, warm temperatures increased the rate of phenological development; however, there was no effect on leaf area or vegetative biomass compared to normal temperatures. The major impact of warmer temperatures was during the reproductive stage of development and in all cases grain yield in maize was significantly reduced by as much as 80−90% from a normal temperature regime. Temperature effects are increased by water deficits and excess soil water demonstrating that understanding the interaction of temperature and water will be needed to develop more effective adaptation strategies to offset the impacts of greater temperature extreme events associated with a changing climate.

  18. The measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhou Zaiping; Zhang Longfang

    1999-01-01

    The author describes a experiment equipment used for measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators; gives some measurement results of temperature effect of light output for NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), plastic scintillator, ZnS(Ag), anthracene crystal glass scintillator; analyzes the error factors affecting the measurement results. The total uncertainty of the temperature effect measurement for NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator is 11%

  19. Effects of Elevated Temperature on Compressive Strength Of Concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the results of investigation of the effects of elevated temperatures on the compressive strength of Grade 40 concrete. A total of thirty cube specimens were cast, cured in water at ambient temperature in the laboratory and subjected to various temperature regimes before testing. A concrete mix of 1:1:3 ...

  20. Le Chatelier's Principle, Temperature Effects, and Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1985-01-01

    One of the most useful methods of understanding chemical equilibria is provided by Le Chatelier's principle. The relationships between this principle, temperature, and entropy are discussed. Tables with thermodynamic data for some net reactions commonly used to illustrate the principle and for reactions involving gases are included. (JN)

  1. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  2. TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CIGS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-30

    Jun 30, 2011 ... Key words: Thin film solar cells, SCAPS, CIGS, temperature, effiency energetic. 1. INTRODUCTION ... technology are the low material consumption and the high efficiency that has been demonstrated, which .... [2] S. Wenham, M. Green, M. Watt, Applied Photovoltaics, The University of New. South Wales ...

  3. Quantitative Temperature Dependence of Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Uchida

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report temperature-dependent measurements of longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs in Pt/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} (YIG/Pt systems in a high temperature range from room temperature to above the Curie temperature of YIG. The experimental results show that the magnitude of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/YIG/Pt systems rapidly decreases with increasing the temperature and disappears above the Curie temperature. The critical exponent of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/YIG/Pt systems at the Curie temperature is estimated to be 3, which is much greater than that for the magnetization curve of YIG. This difference highlights the fact that the mechanism of the LSSE cannot be explained in terms of simple static magnetic properties in YIG.

  4. A structural, magnetic and Moessbauer spectral study of the magnetocaloric Mn1.1Fe0.9P1-xGex compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sougrati, Moulay T; Hermann, Raphael P; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Brueck, E; Tegus, O; Trung, N T; Buschow, K H J

    2008-01-01

    The structural, magnetic and Moessbauer spectral properties of the magnetocaloric Mn 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 1-x Ge x compounds, with 0.19 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.74 Ge 0.26 . The temperature dependence of the magnetization reveals a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition with a Curie temperature between approximately 250 and 330 K and hysteresis width of 10 to 4 K, for 0.19 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.78 Ge 0.22 shows the largest isothermal entropy change of approximately 10 J/(kgKT) at 290 K. The Moessbauer spectra have been analysed with a binomial distribution of hyperfine fields correlated with a change in isomer shift and quadrupole shift, a distribution that results from the distribution of phosphorus and germanium among the near neighbours of the iron. The coexistence of paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases in ranges of temperature of up to 50 K around the Curie temperature is observed in the Moessbauer spectra and is associated with the first-order character of the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition. The temperature dependence of the weighted average hyperfine field is well fitted within the magnetostrictive model of Bean and Rodbell. Good fits of the Moessbauer spectra could only be achieved by introducing a difference between the isomer shifts in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, a difference that is related to the magnetostriction and electronic structure change.

  5. Effective model for deconfinement at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    In this talk I consider the deconfining phase transition at nonzero temperature in a SU(N) gauge theory, using a matrix model. I present some results including the position of the deconfining critical endpoint, where the first order transition for deconfinement is washed out by the presence of massive, dynamical quarks, and properites of the phase transition in the limit of large N. I show that the model is soluble at infinite N, and exhibits a Gross-Witten-Wadia transition

  6. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  7. Effect of temperature and temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashad, El H.; Zeeman, G.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of temperature, 50 and 60 °C, at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 and 10 days, on the performance of anaerobic digestion of cow manure has been investigated in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Furthermore, the effect of both daily downward and daily upward temperature

  8. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of Helminthosporium fulvum were investigated. Various temperature regimes of 10oC, 15oC, 20oC, 25oC, 30oC, 35oC and 40¢ªC were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. fulvum was obtained at 25¢ªC ...

  9. The effects of temperature on the radiation chemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of high energy radiation on polymers is dependent on a number of factors. One of the most important factors is the radiolysis temperature. This paper discusses the effects of the α-transition and the other secondary transitions, as well as the ceiling and melting temperatures, on the nature of the radiolysis reactions which occur for a number of polymers. Some implications of changes in the radiation chemistry of polymers with a change in the temperature are also considered. (author)

  10. The Effect of Temperature on Moisture Transport in Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2017-08-09

    Most concrete structures and buildings are under temperature and moisture variations simultaneously. Thus, the moisture transport in concrete is driven by the moisture gradient as well as the temperature gradient. This paper presents an experimental approach for determining the effect of different temperature gradients on moisture distribution profiles in concrete. The effect of elevated temperatures under isothermal conditions on the moisture transport was also evaluated, and found not to be significant. The non-isothermal tests show that the temperature gradient accelerates the moisture transport in concrete. The part of increased moisture transfer due to the temperature gradient can be quantified by a coupling parameter D HT , which can be determined by the present test data. The test results indicated that D HT is not a constant but increases linearly with the temperature variation. A material model was developed for D HT based on the experimental results obtained in this study.

  11. Effect of Temperature and Hose Genotype on Components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Temperature and Hose Genotype on Components of Resistance to Groundnut Rust. P Subrahmanyam, PV Subba Rao, PM Reddy, D McDonald. Abstract. The effects of temperature on incubation period, infection frequency, lesion diameter, leaf area damage, pustule rupture, and sporulation were quantified for six ...

  12. Preparing Magnetocaloric LaFeSi Uniform Microstructures by Spark Plasma Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, N.; Ocanã, J.; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of LaFeSi alloy powders was conducted to prepare magnetocaloric La-Fe-Si-based uniform microstructures. Two electrically insulating discs made of alumina were interposed between the punches and powder sample inhibiting the flow of electric current across the powder...... from hydrogenated and decrypted casting ingot. The characterizations of sintered samples were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Archimedes principle, Vicker’s hardness and microhardness. The uniformity of the microstructure was evaluated by checking the evidence of position on the Vicker...

  13. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 1.4-x}Yb{sub x}Ca{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himcinschi, C. [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Faculty of Physics; GSI, Strasbourg (France). Inst. de Physique et Chemie des Materiaux; Burzo, E. [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Deville, J.P. [GSI, Strasbourg (France). Inst. de Physique et Chemie des Materiaux

    2001-07-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 1.4-x}Yb{sub x}Ca{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} system were studied. Polycrystalline samples with x = 0 and 0.2 were prepared by solid state reaction. Magnetic measurements show that Curie temperatures decrease from 246 K for x = 0 down to 211 K for x = 0.2. The temperature dependences of the magnetic entropy change {delta}S{sub M}, show peaks close to the magnetic transition temperatures. Peak values of {delta}S{sub M} = 2.7 J/kg K and 2.1 J/kg K were obtained for compositions x = 0 and 0.2. The decrease in {delta}S{sub M} when changing composition was correlated with the diminution of exchange interactions. (orig.)

  14. Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33-x}Zn{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0.15 and 0.2) manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, Asma; Mohamed, Z.; Dhahri, J. [University of Monastir, Laboratory of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Monastir (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [CNRS, University of Joseph Fourier, Institut Neel, Grenoble (France); Alharbi, T.; Zaidi, M. [Majmaah University, College of Science of Zulfi, Al Majmaah (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-04-15

    We report on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of manganite La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33-x}Zn{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x=0.15 and 0.2). X-ray diffraction studies show that all samples crystallize with the rhombohedral symmetry within the space group R anti 3c. The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline perovskite were investigated from the measured magnetization data of the samples as a function of the applied magnetic field. The associated magnetic entropy change close to their respective Curie temperature T{sub C} and the relative cooling power (RCP) have been determined. It was found that the maximum change in magnetic entropy of La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33-x}Zn{sub x}MnO{sub 3} samples reached 3.4 J/kg K at T{sub C}=260 K for a magnetic field of 5 T and RCP=223.77 J/kg. In view of these results, La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33-x}Zn{sub x}MnO{sub 3} compounds are potential candidates for magnetic refrigeration. (orig.)

  15. 'Vanishing' structural effects of temperature in polymer glasses close to the glass-transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Suzuki, T.; Ito, Y.; Yu, R.S.; Kondo, K.; Yampolskii, Yu. P.; Alentiev, A.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements were used for observation of structural effects of temperature in polystyrene (PS), super-cross-linked polystyrene networks (CPS), and in polyimides (PI) below and in the vicinity of glass-transition temperature T g . 'Vanishing' of these structural effects in the repeating cycles of the temperature controlled PAL experiments due to the slow relaxation processes in different conditions and details of chemical structure is demonstrated. Obtained results illustrate complex, dependent on thermal history, inhomogeneous character of the glass structure. In fact, structure of some polymer glasses is changing continuously. Calculations of the number density of free volume holes in these conditions are discussed

  16. Effects of molten material temperatures and coolant temperatures on vapor explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tianshu; YANG Yanhua; YUAN Minghao; HU Zhihua

    2007-01-01

    An observable experiment facility for low-temperature molten materials to be dropped into water was set up in this study to investigate the mechanism of the vapor explosion. The effect of the fuel and coolant interaction(FCI) on the vapor explosion during the severe accidents of a fission nuclear reactor has been studied. The experiment results showed that the molten material temperature has an important effect on the vapor explosion behavior and pressure. The increase of the coolant temperature would decrease the pressure of the vapor explosion.

  17. Estimated effects of temperature on secondary organic aerosol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, P E; Bowman, F M

    2001-06-01

    The temperature-dependence of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations is explored using an absorptive-partitioning model under a variety of simplified atmospheric conditions. Experimentally determined partitioning parameters for high yield aromatics are used. Variation of vapor pressures with temperature is assumed to be the main source of temperature effects. Known semivolatile products are used to define a modeling range of vaporization enthalpy of 10-25 kcal/mol-1. The effect of diurnal temperature variations on model predictions for various assumed vaporization enthalpies, precursor emission rates, and primary organic concentrations is explored. Results show that temperature is likely to have a significant influence on SOA partitioning and resulting SOA concentrations. A 10 degrees C decrease in temperature is estimated to increase SOA yields by 20-150%, depending on the assumed vaporization enthalpy. In model simulations, high daytime temperatures tend to reduce SOA concentrations by 16-24%, while cooler nighttime temperatures lead to a 22-34% increase, compared to constant temperature conditions. Results suggest that currently available constant temperature partitioning coefficients do not adequately represent atmospheric SOA partitioning behavior. Air quality models neglecting the temperature dependence of partitioning are expected to underpredict peak SOA concentrations as well as mistime their occurrence.

  18. Temperature corrections, supersymmetric effective potentials and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.; Gaillard, M.K.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1985-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop temperature corrections to general potentials in N=1 supergravity, and study the conditions under which a new inflationary scenario is possible. The results are sensitive to the total number N of chiral superfields. For large N, we find that in 'hidden sector' models supersymmetry must be broken at a scale governed by the energy density of the false vacuum: msub(3/2) > or approx. 2√8π μ 2 /Msub(p), where μ approx.= (10 -3 -10 -4 )Msub(p) in typical inflationary scenarios. We also discuss an alternative picture where inflation occurs at the preonic level, before the preon-confining phase transition. (orig.)

  19. Effect of Cr substitution on magnetic and magnetic entropy change of La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (0.05≤x≤0.15) rhombohedral nanocrystalline near room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellouz, R., E-mail: bellouzridha@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir,Université de Monastir, 5019 (Tunisia); Oumezzine, M. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir,Université de Monastir, 5019 (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, National Centre for Scientific Research, Université Joseph Fourier, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Dhahri, E. [Laboratoire de Physique appliqué, Département de physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, 3018 (Tunisia)

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the effect of Cr substitution on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in nanocrystalline La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.05, 0.1 and 0.15). The materials were prepared using the Pechini sol–gel method. All the studied samples were crystallized into a single phase rhombohedral structure with R−3C space group. Magnetic measurements indicate that the ferromagnetic double exchange interaction is weakened with increasing Cr concentration, resulting in a shift in T{sub C} from 338 K to 278 K as x varied between 0.05 and 0.15. Detailed analyzes in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic (FM)–paramagnetic (PM) phase-transition temperature prove the samples undergoing a second-order phase transition. The magnetocaloric effect is calculated from the measurement of initial isothermal magnetization versus magnetic field at various temperatures. The maximum magnetic entropy change |ΔS{sub M}{sup max}| is found to decrease with increasing of Cr content from 4.04 J/Kg K for x=0.05–0.78 J/KgK for x=0.15 upon 5 T applied field change. The relative cooling power (RCP) of La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} series is nearly 54% of pure Gd, which will be an interesting system for application in room temperature refrigeration. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline materials La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} were obtained. • The Cr substitution decreases the T{sub C} from 338 K for x=0.05–278 K for x=0.15. • The relative cooling power of La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} is nearly 54% of pure Gd. • Arrott plot analyses was applied to study the order of the magnetic transition. • La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} samples show second order PM–FM transition at T=T{sub C}.

  20. Effects of temperature during the irradiation of calcium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negron M, A.; Camargo R, C.; Ramos B, S. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez V, V. [UNAM, Instituto de Quimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Uribe, R. M., E-mail: negron@nucleares.unam.mx [Kent State University, College of Technology, Kent 44240 Ohio (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The gamma irradiation of calcium carbonate at different doses (0 to 309 kGy) and temperature regimes (77 K to 298 K) was carried out to study the effects of irradiation temperature. The changes were followed by EPR spectroscopy. We observed the formation of a composite EPR spectrum even at low radiation doses and temperature. There is a strong effect on the evaluation of the radicals formed as a function of irradiation temperature, probably due to the diffusion in the frozen powder. Response curves show that this system tends to saturate at 10 MGy at 298 K. (Author)

  1. Effects of temperature during the irradiation of calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron M, A.; Camargo R, C.; Ramos B, S.; Gomez V, V.; Uribe, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    The gamma irradiation of calcium carbonate at different doses (0 to 309 kGy) and temperature regimes (77 K to 298 K) was carried out to study the effects of irradiation temperature. The changes were followed by EPR spectroscopy. We observed the formation of a composite EPR spectrum even at low radiation doses and temperature. There is a strong effect on the evaluation of the radicals formed as a function of irradiation temperature, probably due to the diffusion in the frozen powder. Response curves show that this system tends to saturate at 10 MGy at 298 K. (Author)

  2. Percolation temperature and the 'instability' of the effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A. de; Bazeia Filho, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.; Silva, A.J. da; Ventura, I.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in spontaneously broken lambda phi 4 theory the percolation temperature coincides with the temperature at which the semiclassical (loop) expansion of the effective potential (free energy) of the system around a uniform field configuration fails. This allows us to extract the percolation temperature directly from the effective potential. The addition of fermions or gauge fields does not alter the result as long as they are weakly coupled to the scalars. The coincidence holds in the high temperature limit at every order in the loop expansion. (Author) [pt

  3. Effect of temperature and temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Hamed M; Zeeman, Grietje; van Loon, Wilko K P; Bot, Gerard P A; Lettinga, Gatze

    2004-11-01

    The influence of temperature, 50 and 60 degrees C, at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 and 10 days, on the performance of anaerobic digestion of cow manure has been investigated in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Furthermore, the effect of both daily downward and daily upward temperature fluctuations has been studied. In the daily downward temperature fluctuation regime the temperatures of each reactor was reduced by 10 degrees C for 10 h while in the daily upward fluctuation regime the temperature of each reactor was increased 10 degrees C for 5 h. The results show that the methane production rate at 60 degrees C is lower than that at 50 degrees C at all experimental conditions of imposed HRT except when downward temperature fluctuations were applied at an HRT of 10 days. It also was found that the free ammonia concentration not only affects the acetate-utilising bacteria but also the hydrolysis and acidification process. The upward temperature fluctuation affects the maximum specific methanogenesis activity more severely as compared to imposed downward temperature fluctuations. The results clearly reveal the possibility of using available solar energy at daytime to heat up the reactor(s) without the need of heat storage during nights, especially at an operational temperature of 50 degrees C and at a 20 days HRT, and without the jeopardising of the overheating.

  4. Effect of temperature and temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Mashad, H.M. [Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt). Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering; Zeeman, G.; Van Loon, W.K.P.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G. [Wageningen University Agrotechnion (Netherlands). Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences

    2004-11-01

    The influence of temperature, 50 and 60 {sup o}C, at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 and 10 days, on the performance of anaerobic digestion of cow manure has been investigated in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Furthermore, the effect of both daily downward and daily upward temperature fluctuations has been studied. In the daily downward temperature fluctuation regime the temperatures of each reactor was reduced by 10 {sup o}C for 10 h while in the daily upward fluctuation regime the temperature of each reactor was increased 10 {sup o}C for 5 h. The results show that the methane production rate at 60 {sup o}C is lower than that at 50 {sup o}C at all experimental conditions of imposed HRT except when downward temperature fluctuations were applied at an HRT of 10 days. It also was found that the free ammonia concentration not only affects the acetate-utilising bacteria but also the hydrolysis and acidification process. The upward temperature fluctuation affects the maximum specific methanogenesis activity more severely as compared to imposed downward temperature fluctuations. The results clearly reveal the possibility of using available solar energy at daytime to heat up the reactor(s) without the need of heat storage during nights, especially at an operational temperature of 50 {sup o}C and at a 20 days HRT, and without the jeopardising of the overheating. (author)

  5. Reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation over a wide temperature window in Ni42-xCoxCu8Mn37Ga13 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Wang, Jingmin; Jiang, Chengbao; Xu, Huibin

    2018-05-01

    Ni42-xCoxCu8Mn37Ga13 (0 ≤ x ≤ 14) alloys are reported to exhibit a magnetostructural transition from weakly-magnetic martensite to ferromagnetic austenite over a rather wide temperature window ranging from 200 K to 380 K. Simultaneously a large magnetization change Δσ of up to 105 Am2 kg-1 is obtained at the martensitic transformation. A reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation is realized, resulting in a large magnetocaloric effect related to the high magnetic entropy change with a broad working temperature span. This work shows how it is possible to effectively tailor the magnetostructural transition in Ni-Mn-Ga alloys so as to achieve a reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation and associated functionalities.

  6. The crystal and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric compound FeMnP(0.5)Si(0.5)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoglin, V.; Hudl, M.; Sahlberg, M.; Nordblad, P.; Beran, Přemysl; Anderson, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 9 (2011), s. 2434-2438 ISSN 0022-4596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Magnetocaloric * Neutron powder diffraction * X-ray diffraction (XRD) * Magnetic refrigeration * Magnetic structure Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.159, year: 2011

  7. Temperature, humidity and time. Combined effects on radiochromic film dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Miller, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of both relative humidity and temperature during irradiation on the dose response of FWT-60-00 and Riso B3 radiochromic film dosimeters have been investigated in the relative humidity (RH) range 11-94% and temperature range 20-60 degrees C for irradiation by Co-60 photons and 10-Me......V electrons. The results show that humidity and temperature cannot be treated as independent variables, rather there appears to be interdependence between absorbed dose, temperature, and humidity. Dose rate does not seem to play a significant role. The dependence of temperature during irradiation is +0.......25 +/- 0.1% per degrees C for the FWT-60-00 dosimeters and +0.5 +/- 0.1% per degrees C For Riso B3 dosimeters at temperatures between 20 and 50 degrees C and at relative humidities between 20 and 53%. At extreme conditions both with respect to temperature and to humidity, the dosimeters show much stronger...

  8. Effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of polymer mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marciano Laredo dos Reis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental program to investigate the effect of temperature on the performance of epoxy and unsaturated polyester polymer mortars (PM. PM is a composite material in which polymeric materials are used to bond the aggregates in a fashion similar to that used in the preparation of Portland cement concrete. For this purpose, prismatic and cylindrical specimens were prepared for flexural and compressive tests, respectively, at different temperatures. Measurements of the temperature-dependent elastic modulus and the compressive and flexural strength were conducted using a thermostatic chamber attached to a universal test machine for a range of temperatures varying from room temperature to 90 ºC. The flexural and compressive strength decreases as temperature increases, especially after matrix HDT. Epoxy polymer mortars are more sensitive to temperature variation than unsaturated polyester ones.

  9. Effect of temperature increments in septic tank efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi-Tec, M.; Caballero-Arzapalo, N.; Giacoman Vallejo, G.; Mendez-Novelo, R.; Quintal-Franco, C.

    2009-01-01

    Septic tanks are the main sewage disposal system used in Yucatan, Mexico. Septic tank content is stabilized under anaerobic conditions and is considered the temperature has a significant effect on the efficiency. This work was developed in order asses the feasibility to improve communal septic tanks efficiency by increasing content temperature. Temperatures inside the tank were increased using a hybrid heater system (solar and electricity). (Author)

  10. Modeling the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties: Study on the effect of temperature dependence for RFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yo; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency ablation (RFA) has increasingly been used over the past few years and RFA treatment is minimally invasive for patients. However, it is difficult for operators to control the precise formation of coagulation zones due to inadequate imaging modalities. With this in mind, an ablation system using numerical simulation to analyze the temperature distribution of the organ is needed to overcome this deficiency. The objective of our work is to develop a temperature dependent thermophysical liver model. First, an overview is given of the development of the thermophysical liver model. Second, a simulation to evaluate the effect of temperature dependence of the thermophysical properties of the liver is explained. Finally, the result of the simulation, which indicated that the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties accounts for temperature differences influencing the accuracy of RFA treatment is described.

  11. Experimental and computational investigation of temperature effects on soot mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiaojie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of initial ambient temperatures on combustion and soot emission characteristics of diesel fuel were investigated through experiment conducted in optical constant volume chamber and simulation using phenomenological soot model. There are four difference initial ambient temperatures adopted in our research: 1000 K, 900 K, 800 K and 700 K. In order to obtain a better prediction of soot behavior, phenomenological soot model was revised to take into account the soot oxidation feedback on soot number density and good agreement was observed in the comparison of soot measurement and prediction. Results indicated that ignition delay prolonged with the decrease of initial ambient temperature. The heat release rate demonstrated the transition from mixing controlled combustion at high ambient temperature to premixed combustion mode at low ambient temperature. At lower ambient temperature, soot formation and oxidation mechanism were both suppressed. But finally soot mass concentration reduced with decreasing initial ambient temperature. Although the drop in ambient temperature did not cool the mean in-cylinder temperature during the combustion, it did shrink the total area of local high equivalence ratio, in which soot usually generated fast. At 700 K initial ambient temperature, soot emissions were almost negligible, which indicates that sootless combustion might be achieved at super low initial temperature operation conditions.

  12. Temperature effects on neutron drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, M.; Aggarwal, Mamta

    1996-01-01

    Extremely neutron rich hot nuclei formed in high energy collisions having high thermal excitation energies are investigated in the framework of statistical theory and the effect of level density parameter a = U/T 2 , on the drip line is analysed

  13. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of High Temperature Solders: Effects of High Temperature Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnine, M.; Tolla, B.; Vahora, N.

    2018-04-01

    This paper explores the effects of aging on the mechanical behavior, microstructure evolution and IMC formation on different surface finishes of two high temperature solders, Sn-5 wt.% Ag and Sn-5 wt.% Sb. High temperature aging showed significant degradation of Sn-5 wt.% Ag solder hardness (34%) while aging has little effect on Sn-5 wt.% Sb solder. Sn-5 wt.% Ag experienced rapid grain growth as well as the coarsening of particles during aging. Sn-5 wt.% Sb showed a stable microstructure due to solid solution strengthening and the stable nature of SnSb precipitates. The increase of intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness during aging follows a parabolic relationship with time. Regression analysis (time exponent, n) indicated that IMC growth kinetics is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. The results have important implications in the selection of high temperature solders used in high temperature applications.

  14. Calorimetric and magnetic study for Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 36}In{sub 14} and relative cooling power in paramagnetic inverse magnetocaloric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Han, E-mail: jhchen@tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Bruno, Nickolaus M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Karaman, Ibrahim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Huang, Yujin; Li, Jianguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ross, Joseph H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    The non-stoichiometric Heusler alloy Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 36}In{sub 14} undergoes a martensitic phase transformation in the vicinity of 345 K, with the high temperature austenite phase exhibiting paramagnetic rather than ferromagnetic behavior, as shown in similar alloys with lower-temperature transformations. Suitably prepared samples are shown to exhibit a sharp transformation, a relatively small thermal hysteresis, and a large field-induced entropy change. We analyzed the magnetocaloric behavior both through magnetization and direct field-dependent calorimetry measurements. For measurements passing through the first-order transformation, an improved method for heat-pulse relaxation calorimetry was designed. The results provide a firm basis for the analytic evaluation of field-induced entropy changes in related materials. An analysis of the relative cooling power (RCP), based on the integrated field-induced entropy change and magnetizing behavior of the Mn spin system with ferromagnetic correlations, shows that a significant RCP may be obtained in these materials by tuning the magnetic and structural transformation temperatures through minor compositional changes or local order changes.

  15. Effect of temperature on shelf life, chemical and microbial properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cream cheese samples were analyzed to find out the effect of recommended storage temperature (4±1°C) and ambient room temperature (21±1°C) on pH, titratable acidity (% lactic acid), moisture content and microbial growth. Percent reduction in moisture content and increase in titratable acidity of cheeses were found to ...

  16. Temperature effects on quantum interference in molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    A number of experiments have demonstrated that destructive quantum interference (QI) effects in molecular junctions lead to very low conductances even at room temperature. On the other hand, another recent experiment showed increasing conductance with temperature which was attributed to decoheren...

  17. Effect of temperature and time on solvothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of temperature and time study on solvothermal synthesis of BaTiO3 revealed that a moderate reaction temperature i.e. 185◦C and longer reaction time favour tetragonal phase stabiliza- tion. Dissolution–precipitation appears to be the transformation mechanism for the crystallization of BaTiO3 from particulate TiO2 ...

  18. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-xiong, Pan; Jing-zhou, Zhang; Yong, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  19. Evaluation of the magnetocaloric response of nano-sized La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 manganites synthesized by auto-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Adrián; Chavarriaga, Edgar; Supelano, Iván; Parra, Carlos Arturo; Morán, Oswaldo

    2018-05-01

    A systematic study of the dependence of the magnetization on the magnetic field around the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition temperature is carried out on La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 (x=0, 0.02, 0.07, and 1) samples synthesized by auto-combustion method. The successful substitution of Mn3+ ions by Ni2+ ions in the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 lattice is corroborated by X-ray diffraction technique. Banerjees criteria, Arrott plots, and the scaling hypothesis are used to analyze the experimental data. It is verified that the Ni-doping increases the operating temperature range for magnetocaloric effect through tuning of the magnetic transition temperature. Probably, the replacement of Mn3+ by Ni2+ ions in the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 lattice weakens the Mn3+-O-Mn4+ double exchange interaction, which leads to a decrease in the transition temperature and magnetic moment in the samples. The Arrott plots suggest that the phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic in the nano-sized manganite is of second order. The analysis of the magnetization results show that the maximum magnetic entropy changes observed for x=0, 0.02, 0.07, and 0.1 compositions are 0.85, 0.77, 0.63, and 0.59 J/kg K, under a magnetic field of 1.5 T. These values indicate that the magnetic entropy change achieved for La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 manganites synthesized by auto-combustion method is higher than those reported for other manganites with comparable Ni-doping levels but synthesized by standard solid state reaction. It is also observed that the addition of Ni2+ increases the value of the relative cooling power as compared to that of the parent compound. The highest value of this parameter (˜60 J/kg) is found for a Ni-doping level of 2 % around 230 K in a field of 1.5 T.

  20. Modeling the Temperature Effect of Orientations in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahat Arif

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal comfort in a building has been an important issue for the environmental sustainability. It is an accepted fact that their designs and planning consume a lot of energy in the modern architecture of 20th and 21st centuries. An appropriate orientation of a building can provide thermally comfortable indoor temperatures which otherwise can consume extra energy to condition these spaces through all the seasons. This experimental study investigates the potential effect of this solar passive design strategy on indoor temperatures and a simple model is presented for predicting indoor temperatures based upon the ambient temperatures.

  1. Interactive effects of temperature and habitat complexity on freshwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrine, Jennifer; Jochum, Malte; Ólafsson, Jón S; O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2017-11-01

    Warming can lead to increased growth of plants or algae at the base of the food web, which may increase the overall complexity of habitat available for other organisms. Temperature and habitat complexity have both been shown to alter the structure and functioning of communities, but they may also have interactive effects, for example, if the shade provided by additional habitat negates the positive effect of temperature on understory plant or algal growth. This study explored the interactive effects of these two major environmental factors in a manipulative field experiment, by assessing changes in ecosystem functioning (primary production and decomposition) and community structure in the presence and absence of artificial plants along a natural stream temperature gradient of 5-18°C. There was no effect of temperature or habitat complexity on benthic primary production, but epiphytic production increased with temperature in the more complex habitat. Cellulose decomposition rate increased with temperature, but was unaffected by habitat complexity. Macroinvertebrate communities were less similar to each other as temperature increased, while habitat complexity only altered community composition in the coldest streams. There was also an overall increase in macroinvertebrate abundance, body mass, and biomass in the warmest streams, driven by increasing dominance of snails and blackfly larvae. Presence of habitat complexity, however, dampened the strength of this temperature effect on the abundance of macroinvertebrates in the benthos. The interactive effects that were observed suggest that habitat complexity can modify the effects of temperature on important ecosystem functions and community structure, which may alter energy flow through the food web. Given that warming is likely to increase habitat complexity, particularly at higher latitudes, more studies should investigate these two major environmental factors in combination to improve our ability to predict the

  2. Temperature Dependence of the Resonant Magnetoelectric Effect in Layered Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii A. Burdin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the resonant direct magnetoelectric effect on temperature is studied experimentally in planar composite structures. Samples of rectangular shapes with dimensions of 5 mm × 20 mm employed ferromagnetic layers of either an amorphous (metallic glass alloy or nickel with a thickness of 20–200 μm and piezoelectric layers of single crystalline langatate material or lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics with a thickness of 500 μm. The temperature of the samples was varied in a range between 120 and 390 K by blowing a gaseous nitrogen stream around them. It is shown that the effective characteristics of the magnetoelectric effect—such as the mechanical resonance frequency fr, the quality factor Q and the magnitude of the magnetoelectric coefficient αE at the resonance frequency—are contingent on temperature. The interrelations between the temperature changes of the characteristics of the magnetoelectric effect and the temperature variations of the following material parameters—Young’s modulus Y, the acoustic quality factor of individual layers, the dielectric constant ε, the piezoelectric modulus d of the piezoelectric layer as well as the piezomagnetic coefficients λ(n of the ferromagnetic layer—are established. The effect of temperature on the characteristics of the nonlinear magnetoelectric effect is observed for the first time. The results can be useful for designing magnetoelectric heterostructures with specified temperature characteristics, in particular, for the development of thermally stabilized magnetoelectric devices.

  3. Peltier Effect Based Temperature Controlled System for Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukda, T.; Jantaratana, P.

    2017-09-01

    The temperature control system was designed and built for application in dielectric spectroscopy. It is based on the dual-stage Peltier element that decreases electrical power and no cryogenic fluids are required. A proportional integral derivative controller was used to keep the temperature stability of the system. A Pt100 temperature sensor was used to measure temperature of the sample mounting stage. Effect of vacuum isolation and water-cooling on accuracy and stability of the system were also studied. With the incorporation of vacuum isolation and water-cooling at 18 °C, the temperature of the sample under test can be controlled in the range of -40 °C to 150 °C with temperature stability ± 0.025 °C.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND pH ON BACTERIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    The effect of temperature and pH on bacterial degradation of latex paint under humid condition by .... blade and plastic bags as described by Okpokwasili and. Ituen(1996) and .... provided different ecological niche for bacteria at favourable ...

  5. rainfall and temperature effects on flowering and pollen productions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON FLOWERING AND POLLEN. PRODUCTIONS IN COCOA ... chocolate or for extracting cocoa butter. Although, all cultivated .... healthy flowers of the selected clones. These flowers were stored in ...

  6. Statistical analysis of the effects of relative humidity and temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isreal

    and temperature on radio refractivity over Nigeria using satellite data ... refractive index of air causes adverse effects such as multipath ... decreased power levels at the receiver and to increased ... the southern and central part of Nigeria.

  7. Finite-temperature effects in helical quantum turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark Di Leoni, Patricio; Mininni, Pablo D.; Brachet, Marc E.

    2018-04-01

    We perform a study of the evolution of helical quantum turbulence at different temperatures by solving numerically the Gross-Pitaevskii and the stochastic Ginzburg-Landau equations, using up to 40963 grid points with a pseudospectral method. We show that for temperatures close to the critical one, the fluid described by these equations can act as a classical viscous flow, with the decay of the incompressible kinetic energy and the helicity becoming exponential. The transition from this behavior to the one observed at zero temperature is smooth as a function of temperature. Moreover, the presence of strong thermal effects can inhibit the development of a proper turbulent cascade. We provide Ansätze for the effective viscosity and friction as a function of the temperature.

  8. Preparation of nanostructured La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} ceramics by a combined sol–gel and spark plasma sintering route and resulting magnetocaloric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayadi, F.; Regaieg, Y. [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086 CNRS, 15 rue J.-A. de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, LPM, B.P 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, W.; Koubaa, M.; Cheikhrouhou, A. [Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, LPM, B.P 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Lecoq, H.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S. [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086 CNRS, 15 rue J.-A. de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Sicard, L., E-mail: lorette.sicard@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086 CNRS, 15 rue J.-A. de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2015-05-01

    This work proposes an original, easy to achieve and inexpensive route to synthesize manganite ceramics for magnetic refrigeration, combining sol–gel chemistry to Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The target La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) compounds are obtained as single phases which crystallize in the orthorhombic structure (Pnma space group). SPS allows a quick sintering at a relatively low temperature (700 °C in this work) compared to the conventional solid state method (≥1100 °C), leading to densified ultrafine grained pellets (85% of compactness). Magnetic studies show that Ba substitution does not affect significantly the relative cooling power (RCP) of these manganites, while it increases their Curie temperature (T{sub C}) by several tens of degrees. Typically, RCP values ranging between 267 and 270 J/kg (for a magnetic field change of 5 T) and T{sub C} between 205 and 245 K were measured when x was increased from 0 to 0.2, respectively. These results combined to the fact that the synthesis route is economically advantageous makes the obtained ceramics interesting as active refrigerants for magnetic refrigeration technology below room temperature. - Highlights: • Nanostructured La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} ceramics were obtained as single phase. • An original and low cost method was developed combining sol–gel chemistry and SPS. • The method can be extended to prepare most dense nanostructured oxides. • Our ceramics have higher RCP than those obtained by the solid state method. • The optimum temperature of the magnetocaloric effect is tunable with Ba content.

  9. Theory of the superconducting proximity effect below the transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvert, W.

    1975-01-01

    The form of the low-temperature theory of the superconducting proximity effect depends on whether the non-linear terms are assumed to depend only on the local value of the gap or on its average value over some finite range. The local assumption leads to smaller values of the gap and to unphysical results at low temperatures. The effect of non-locality is significant even in the Ginsburg-Landau regime. (author)

  10. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K R; MacFarlane, P D

    2013-01-01

    This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT) while dogs in group W received warmed (W) irrigation fluid (36°C). A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1) pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2) arrival into theatre, (T3) end of surgery and (T4) arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1) and return to the recovery suite (T4) was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58°C (pdogs were hypothermic (temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  11. High temperature effects on compact-like structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, E.E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    In this work we investigate the transition from kinks to compactons at high temperatures. We deal with a family of models, described by a real scalar field with standard kinematics, controlled by a single parameter, real and positive. The family of models supports kink-like solutions, and the solutions tend to become compact when the parameter increases to larger and larger values. We study the one-loop corrections at finite temperature, to see how the thermal effects add to the effective potential. The results suggest that the symmetry is restored at very high temperatures. (orig.)

  12. Chiral symmetry and finite temperature effects in quantum theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Aa.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation of the harmonic oscillator at finite temperature has been carried out, using the Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm. Accurate results for the energy and fluctuations have been obtained, with special attention to the manifestation of the temperature effects. Varying the degree of symmetry breaking, the finite temperature behaviour of the asymmetric linear model in a linearized mean field approximation has been studied. In a study of the effects of chiral symmetry on baryon mass splittings, reasonable agreement with experiment has been obtained in a non-relativistic harmonic oscillator model

  13. Temperature dependence of the elastocaloric effect in natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhongjian, E-mail: zhongjian.xie521@gmail.com; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel

    2017-07-12

    The temperature dependence of the elastocaloric (eC) effect in natural rubber (NR) has been studied. This material exhibits a large eC effect over a broad temperature range from 0 °C to 49 °C. The maximum adiabatic temperature change (ΔT) occurred at 10 °C and the behavior could be predicted by the temperature dependence of the strain-induced crystallization (SIC) and the temperature-induced crystallization (TIC). The eC performance of NR was then compared with that of shape memory alloys (SMAs). This study contributes to the SIC research of NR and also broadens the application of elastomers. - Highlights: • A large elastocaloric effect over a broad temperature range was found in natural rubber (NR). • The caloric performance of NR was compared with that of shape memory alloys. • The temperature dependence of the elastocaloric effect in NR can be prediced by the theory of strain-induced crystallization.

  14. HAp physical investigation - the effect of sintering temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Idris Besar; Rusnah Mustaffa; Cik Rohaida Che Hak

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the effect of sintering temperature on the physical properties of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp). In this study, the HAp was prepared using polymeric sponge techniques with different binder concentration. The sintering process was carried out in air for temperature ranging from 1200 degree C to 1600 degree C. Different physical properties namely density and porosity were observed at different sintering temperatures. The HAp prepared with higher PVP binder showed a slightly decreased in apparent density with increasing sintering temperature, while those HAp prepared with lower PVP showed a slightly increase in apparent density with increasing sintering temperature. The total porosity was found to be approximately constant in the whole sintering temperature range. However, closed porosity decreases with increasing sintering temperature for HAp prepared by lower binder concentration. On the other hand, the HAp prepared by higher binder concentration HAp showed increasing closed porosity with increasing sintering temperature. Other features such as the influence of sintering temperatures on grain and strut also be presented in this paper. (Author)

  15. Effect of temperature on task performance in officeenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Lei, Q.H.

    2006-07-01

    Indoor temperature is one of the fundamental characteristics of the indoor environment. It can be controlled with a degree of accuracy dependent on the building and its HVAC system. The indoor temperature affects several human responses, including thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance at work. In this study, we focused on the effects of temperature on performance at office work. We included those studies that had used objective indicators of performance that are likely to be relevant in office type work, such as text processing, simple calculations (addition, multiplication), length of telephone customer service time, and total handling time per customer for call-center workers. We excluded data from studies of industrial work performance. We calculated from all studies the percentage of performance change per degree increase in temperature, and statistically analyzed measured work performance with temperature. The results show that performance increases with temperature up to 21-22 C, and decreases with temperature above 23-24 C. The highest productivity is at temperature of around 22 C. For example, at the temperature of 30 C, the performance is only 91.1% of the maximum i.e. the reduction in performance is 8.9%

  16. Temperature effect compensation for fast differential pressure decay testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Tong, Xiaomeng; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the long temperature recovery period with differential pressure decay for leak detection, a novel method with temperature effect compensation is proposed to improve the testing efficiency without full stabilization of temperature. The mathematical model of conventional differential pressure decay testing is established to analyze the changes of temperature and pressure during the measuring period. Then the differential pressure is divided into two parts: the exponential part caused by temperature recovery and the linear part caused by leak. With prior information obtained from samples, parameters of the exponential part can be identified precisely, and the temperature effect will be compensated before it fully recovers. To verify the effect of the temperature compensated method, chambers with different volumes are tested under various pressures and the experiments show that the improved method is faster with satisfactory precision, and an accuracy less than 0.25 cc min −1  can be achieved when the compensation time is proportional to four times the theoretical thermal-time constant. (paper)

  17. Effect of In-situ Cure on Measurement of Glass Transition Temperatures in High-temperature Thermosetting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TEMPERATURES IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE THERMOSETTING POLYMERS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...illustrated the difficulties inherent in measurement of the glass transition temperature of this high-temperature thermosetting polymer via dynamic...copyright protection in the United States. EFFECT OF IN-SITU CURE ON MEASUREMENT OF GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURES IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE THERMOSETTING

  18. The effectiveness of dispersants under various temperature and salinity regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dispersants in Arctic waters where salinity and temperature interactions play a critical role. In particular, Corexit 9500 was tested on Alaska North Slope oil at different temperatures and salinity using the ASTM standard test and variations of this test. Results were compared to the only historically reported test in which both temperature and salinity were changed over a range of values. This series of tests demonstrated that there is an interaction between salinity, temperature and dispersant effectiveness. It was shown that conventional and currently available dispersants are nearly ineffective at 0 salinity. Dispersant effectiveness peaks at 20 to 40 units of salinity, depending on the type of dispersant. Corexit is less sensitive to salinity, while Corexit 9527 is more sensitive to salinity. There is a smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and as it exceeds this value. Results from the 2 field trials in fresh water suggest that laboratory tests correctly conclude that the effectiveness of dispersants is very low in freshwater. The study also examined several analytical factors such as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) versus relative petroleum hydrocarbon (RPH) methods, specific versus general calibration curves, and automatic versus manual baseline placement. The analytical variations of effectiveness by RPH or TPH methods do not affect the fundamental relationship between salinity and temperature. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Conduction-corrected modified effective temperature as the indices of combined and separate effect of environmental factors on sensational temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito [School of Life Studies, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, 17-3 Hoshigaoka-motomachi, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8662 (Japan); Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro [School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, 1-1-12 Hon-cho, Shinzaike, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092 (Japan); Kondo, Emi [Graduate School Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cyo, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468555 (Japan); Horikoshi, Tetsumi [Department of Techno-Business Administration, Graduate School of Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468555 (Japan); Matsubara, Naoki [Division of Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Kyoto Prefectural University, Nakaragi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 608522 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    In living spaces, people sit or lie on the floor and adopt a posture in which much of the surface of the body is in contact with the floor. When the temperature of the spatial structure or the surface temperature of an object in contact with the human body is not equivalent to the air temperature, these effects are non-negligible. Most research examining the physiological and psychological responses of the human body has involved subjects sitting in chairs. Research that takes into account body heat balance and assessments of thermal conduction into the environment is uncommon. Thus, in this study, conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETF), which is a new thermal environmental index incorporating heat conduction, is defined in order to make possible the evaluation of thermal environments that take into account different postures. This sensational temperature index converts the effects of the following parameters into a temperature equivalent: air velocity, thermal radiation, contact material surface temperature and humidity. This index has the features of a summation formula. Through the use of these parameters, it is possible to represent and quantify their composite influence on bodily sensation and the effects of discrete meteorological elements through an evaluation on an identical axis. (author)

  20. Effect of temperature on the radioiodination of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed-Ali, S.A.; Salacinski, P.R.; Landon, J.

    1981-01-01

    Studies have been undertaken to assess the effect of altering the temperature at which human growth hormone is radioiodinated on the incorporation of 125 I and the immunoreactivity and stability of the labelled hormone. Employing highly purified monomeric hormone it proved possible, by the iodogen procedure, to prepare a labelled product of high specific activity irrespective of temperature. However, in radioiodinations performed at ambient temperature (20 to 25 degrees) significant amounts of the labelled hormone were in an aggregated form which was less immunoreactive than the 125 I-labelled monomeric hormone. Such aggregation was largely prevented by radioiodinating at low temperature (0 to 4 degrees) and even the large monomeric peak was more immunoreactive (about 95% bound in antibody excess) than the monomeric peak from iodinations performed at room temperature

  1. Temperature effects on radiation damage in plastic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of present work was to study the temperature effect on radiation damage registration in the structure of a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector of the type CR-39. In order to study the radiation damage as a function of irradiation temperature, sheets of CR-39 detectors were irradiated with electron beams, simulating the interaction of positive ions. CR-39 detectors were maintained at a constant temperature from room temperature up to 373 K during irradiation. Two techniques were used from analyzing changes in the detector structure: Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR). It was found by EPR analysis that the amount of free radicals decrease as irradiation temperature increases. The IR spectrums show yield of new functional group identified as an hydroxyl group (OH). A proposed model of interaction of radiation with CR-39 detectors is discussed. (Author)

  2. Comparing the effect of pressure and temperature on ion mobilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Rouholahnejad, Fereshteh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pressure on ion mobilities has been investigated and compared with that of temperature. In this connection, an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) cell, which employs a corona discharge as the ionization source, has been designed and constructed to allow varying pressure inside the drift region. IMS spectra were recorded at various pressures ranging from 15 Torr up to atmospheric pressure. The results show that IMS peaks shift perfectly linear with pressure which is in excellent agreement with the ion mobility theory. However, experimental ion mobilities versus temperature show deviation from the theoretical trend. The deviation is attributed to formation of clusters. The different behaviour of pressure and temperature was explained on the basis of the different impact of pressure and temperature on hydration and clustering of ions. Pressure affects the clustering reactions linearly but temperature affects it exponentially

  3. A comparison between rare earth and transition metals working as magnetic materials in an AMR refrigerator in the room temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, C.; Greco, A.; Maiorino, A.; Masselli, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a two-dimensional (2D) multiphysics model of a packed bed regenerator made of magnetocaloric material. The regenerator operates as a refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator operating at room temperature on the strength of an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) cycle. The model is able to simulate the thermofluidodynamic behavior of the magnetocaloric material and the magnetocaloric effect of the refrigerant. The model has been validated by means of experimental results. Different magnetic materials have been tested with the model as refrigerants: pure gadolinium, second order phase magnetic transition Pr_0_._4_5Sr_0_._3_5MnO_3 and first order phase magnetic transition alloys Gd_5(Si_xGe_1_−_x)_4, LaFe_1_1_._3_8_4Mn_0_._3_5_6Si_1_._2_6H_1_._5_2, LaFe_1_1_._0_5Co_0_._9_4Si_1_._1_0 and MnFeP_0_._4_5As_0_._5_5. The tests were performed with fixed fluid flow rate (5 l/min), AMR cycle frequency (1.25 Hz) and cold heat exchanger temperature (288 K) while the hot heat exchanger temperature was varied in the range 295–302 K. The results, generated for a magnetic induction which varies from 0 to 1.5 T, are presented in terms of temperature span, refrigeration power and coefficient of performance. From a global point of view (performances and cost), the most promising materials are LaFeSi compounds which are really cheaper than rare earth compounds and they give a performance sufficiently higher than gadolinium. - Graphical abstract: • Active Magnetic Refrigeration (AMR) cycle; • First Order Transition magnetic materials (FOMT); • Second Order Transition magnetic materials (SOMT). - Highlights: • Comparison between different magnetic materials. • 2D model of an Active Magnetic Regenerative refrigeration cycle. • Validation of the model with experimental data. • Gd_5(Si_xGe_1_−_x)_4 is the most performant magnetic material. • The most promising are LaFeSi compounds which are cheaper and they give high performances.

  4. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  5. Effect of temperature and benzalkonium chloride on nitrate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaya, Malek G; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2011-04-01

    The effect of temperature and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on nitrate reduction was investigated in batch assays using a mixed nitrate reducing culture. Nitrate was transformed completely, mainly through denitrification, to dinitrogen at 5, 10, 15 and 22 °C. In the absence of BAC, reduction of individual nitrogen oxides had different susceptibility to temperature and transient nitrite accumulation was observed at low temperatures. When the effect of BAC was tested up to 100 mg/L from 5 to 22 °C, denitrification was inhibited at and above 50mg BAC/L with transient nitrite accumulation at all temperatures. The effect of BAC was described by a competitive inhibition model. Nitrite reduction was the denitrification step most susceptible to BAC, especially at low temperatures. BAC was not degraded during the batch incubation and was mostly biomass-adsorbed. Overall, this study shows that low temperatures exacerbate the BAC inhibitory effect, which in turn is controlled by adsorption to biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on interfacial temperature during early stages of drop evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatani, Yuki; Orejon, Daniel; Kita, Yutaku; Takata, Yasuyuki; Kim, Jungho; Sefiane, Khellil

    2016-04-01

    Understanding drop evaporation mechanisms is important for many industrial, biological, and other applications. Drops of organic solvents undergoing evaporation have been found to display distinct thermal patterns, which in turn depend on the physical properties of the liquid, the substrate, and ambient conditions. These patterns have been reported previously to be bulk patterns from the solid-liquid to the liquid-gas drop interface. In the present work the effect of ambient temperature and humidity during the first stage of evaporation, i.e., pinned contact line, is studied paying special attention to the thermal information retrieved at the liquid-gas interface through IR thermography. This is coupled with drop profile monitoring to experimentally investigate the effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on the drop interfacial thermal patterns and the evaporation rate. Results indicate that self-generated thermal patterns are enhanced by an increase in ambient temperature and/or a decrease in humidity. The more active thermal patterns observed at high ambient temperatures are explained in light of a greater temperature difference generated between the apex and the edge of the drop due to greater evaporative cooling. On the other hand, the presence of water humidity in the atmosphere is found to decrease the temperature difference along the drop interface due to the heat of adsorption, absorption and/or that of condensation of water onto the ethanol drops. The control, i.e., enhancement or suppression, of these thermal patterns at the drop interface by means of ambient temperature and relative humidity is quantified and reported.

  7. Temperature effects on hospital admissions for kidney morbidity in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Wang, Yu-Chun; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Lu, Chensheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to associate hospital admissions of kidney diseases with extreme temperature and prolonged heat/cold events in 7 regions of Taiwan. Methods: Age-specific ( 10 , O 3 , and NO 2 ) and potential confounders. Results: We observed a V or J-shape association between daily average temperatures and the RR estimates for hospital admissions of kidney diseases in Taiwan. The lowest risk for hospital admissions of kidney diseases was found at around 25 °C, and risk increased as temperatures deviated from 25 °C. The pooled cumulative 8-day RR for all ages of population of the 7 study areas were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19) at 18 °C and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.64) at 30 °C. High temperature has more profound influence on hospital admission of kidney diseases than low temperature. Temperature risks for hospital admissions were similar between younger (< 65 years) and elderly (65 + years) population. This study observed no significant effects of prolonged heat extremes on hospital admissions of kidney diseases. Conclusions: The heat effect for kidney morbidities leading to hospital admission was more significant than that of the cold temperature. This study did not find the age-dependent relative risks for temperature associating with hospital admissions of kidney diseases. - Highlights: ► V or J-shaped association was observed between daily temperatures and hospital admissions for renal diseases in Taiwan. ► The pooled relative risks accounting for 8 days of lag for the 7 study areas were 1.1 at 18 °C and 1.46 at 30 °C. ► There is no difference of the relative risk estimates for hospital admissions between younger and elderly population. ► We found significant protective effects of hospital admissions for prolonged cold extremes, but not for heat extremes

  8. Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.

  9. Effects of pressure and temperature on gate valve unwedging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damerell, P.S.; Harrison, D.H.; Hayes, P.W.; Simons, J.W.; Walker, T.A.

    1996-12-01

    The stem thrust required to unwedge a gate valve is influenced by the pressure and temperature when the valve is closed and by the changes in these conditions between closure and opening. {open_quotes}Pressure locking{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}thermal binding{close_quotes} refer to situations where pressure and temperature effects cause the unwedging load to be much higher than normal. A model of these phenomena has been developed. Wedging (closure) is modeled as developing an {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} between the disk and its seat rings in the valve. The effects of pressure and temperature are analyzed to determine the change in this disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes}. Flexibilities, of the disk, body, stem and yoke strongly influence the unwedging thrust. Calculations and limited comparisons to data have been performed for a range of valve designs and scenarios. Pressure changes can increase the unwedging load when there is either a uniform pressure decrease, or a situation where the bonnet pressure exceeds the pressures in the adjacent piping. Temperature changes can increase the unwedging load when: (1) valve closure at elevated system temperature produces a delayed stem expansion, (2) a temperature increase after closure produces a bonnet pressure increase, or (3) a temperature change after closure produces an increase in the disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} or disk-to-seat friction.

  10. Effects of pressure and temperature on gate valve unwedging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerell, P.S.; Harrison, D.H.; Hayes, P.W.; Simons, J.W.; Walker, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The stem thrust required to unwedge a gate valve is influenced by the pressure and temperature when the valve is closed and by the changes in these conditions between closure and opening. open-quotes Pressure lockingclose quotes and open-quotes thermal bindingclose quotes refer to situations where pressure and temperature effects cause the unwedging load to be much higher than normal. A model of these phenomena has been developed. Wedging (closure) is modeled as developing an open-quotes interferenceclose quotes between the disk and its seat rings in the valve. The effects of pressure and temperature are analyzed to determine the change in this disk-to-seat open-quotes interferenceclose quotes. Flexibilities, of the disk, body, stem and yoke strongly influence the unwedging thrust. Calculations and limited comparisons to data have been performed for a range of valve designs and scenarios. Pressure changes can increase the unwedging load when there is either a uniform pressure decrease, or a situation where the bonnet pressure exceeds the pressures in the adjacent piping. Temperature changes can increase the unwedging load when: (1) valve closure at elevated system temperature produces a delayed stem expansion, (2) a temperature increase after closure produces a bonnet pressure increase, or (3) a temperature change after closure produces an increase in the disk-to-seat open-quotes interferenceclose quotes or disk-to-seat friction

  11. Effects of tissue susceptibility on brain temperature mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudsley, Andrew A; Goryawala, Mohammed Z; Sheriff, Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    A method for mapping of temperature over a large volume of the brain using volumetric proton MR spectroscopic imaging has been implemented and applied to 150 normal subjects. Magnetic susceptibility-induced frequency shifts in gray- and white-matter regions were measured and included as a correction in the temperature mapping calculation. Additional sources of magnetic susceptibility variations of the individual metabolite resonance frequencies were also observed that reflect the cellular-level organization of the brain metabolites, with the most notable differences being attributed to changes of the N-Acetylaspartate resonance frequency that reflect the intra-axonal distribution and orientation of the white-matter tracts with respect to the applied magnetic field. These metabolite-specific susceptibility effects are also shown to change with age. Results indicate no change of apparent brain temperature with age from 18 to 84 years old, with a trend for increased brain temperature throughout the cerebrum in females relative for males on the order of 0.1°C; slightly increased temperatures in the left hemisphere relative to the right; and a lower temperature of 0.3°C in the cerebellum relative to that of cerebral white-matter. This study presents a novel acquisition method for noninvasive measurement of brain temperature that is of potential value for diagnostic purposes and treatment monitoring, while also demonstrating limitations of the measurement due to the confounding effects of tissue susceptibility variations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature effect on Zircaloy-4 stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.; Galvele, Jose R.

    1999-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 alloy in chloride, bromide and iodide solutions with variables as applied electrode potential, deformation rate and temperature have been studied. In those three halide solutions the susceptibility to SCC is only observed at potentials close to pitting potential, the crack propagation rate increases with the increase of deformation rate, and that the temperature has a notable effect only for iodide solutions. For chloride and bromide solutions and temperatures ranging between 20 to 90 C degrees it was not found measurable changes in crack propagation rates. (author)

  13. The effect of temperature and oxygen content on coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Milenkova; A.G. Borrego; D. Alvarez; J. Xiberta; R. Menendez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    In this study chars from six coals differing in rank and maceral composition have been prepared at 1100 and 1300{sup o}C in a drop tube reactor using four oxygen concentrations (0, 2.5, 10 and 21% oxygen). Char burnout, reactivity, morphology and optical texture have been considered in an attempt to understand the effect of temperature and oxygen concentration in relation to coal characteristics. Temperature has shown to have a different effect on conversion depending on coal rank. The high volatile coals showed similar conversions at 1100 and 1300{sup o}C at the various atmospheres tested, whereas higher rank coals showed higher conversions at 1300 than at 1100{sup o}C. The presence of oxygen in the reacting gas appears to have two opposite effects on coal combustion. On the one hand it prevents swelling and devolatilisation and on the other it enhances combustion. The burnout will depend on which process dominates. In addition, this effect appears to be temperature dependant and the inhibiting effect of oxygen on coal devolatilisation has shown to be higher at higher temperature, since at low temperature it only affects the lowest ranked coals. The presence of oxygen also affects the structure of carbonaceous material since the lower the oxygen concentration the higher the anisotropy development. The difference in temperature separating the two series of experiments (1000 and 1300{sup o}C) did not have a positive effect on the conversion of coals yielding highly porous chars whereas for coals yielding more dense structures higher conversions were achieved at higher temperatures. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Effect of ultraviolet rays in low temperature Si02 deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calix, V.M.; Peccoud, L.; Chevallier, M.

    1976-09-01

    Vitreous silicon dioxide films have been prepared on silicon wafers by the oxidation of SiH 2 at temperature below 360 deg C. In this experiment the samples were exposed to ultraviolet rays during deposition process. Results show that there is marked effect on the deposition rate which in turn is temperature dependent. The physical characteristics between the normal and ultraviolet-enhanced deposition show an increase of minute nodules of the latter

  15. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XII. Some Temperature Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, C.

    1951-06-25

    The photosynthetic assimilation of radioactive carbon dioxide for two-minute periods by Scenedesmus has bee studied at temperatures ranging from 25? to 44? C. All labeled intermediates cease to be formed at about 45? C. With rising temperature, the radioactivity reaching the sugar phosphate reservoirs decreases regularly while there is a sharp maximum in sucrose at 37? C. and a less pronounced one in malic and aspartic acids about 40? C. A tentative interpretation of these effects is offered.

  16. Effect of increasing growth temperature on yeast fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of increasing growth temperature on yeast fermentation was studied at approximately 5 oC intervals over a range of 18 – 37 oC, using one strain each of ale, lager and wine yeast. The ale and wine yeasts grew at all the temperatures tested, but lager yeast failed to grow at 37 oC. All these strains gave lower ...

  17. Magnetic refrigeration--towards room-temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Li, X.W.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Modern society relies very much on readily available cooling. Magnetic refrigeration based on the magneto-caloric effect (MCE) has become a promising competitive technology for the conventional gas-compression/expansion technique in use today. Recently, there have been two breakthroughs in magnetic-refrigeration research: one is that American scientists demonstrated the world's first room-temperature, permanent-magnet, magnetic refrigerator; the other one is that we discovered a new class of magnetic refrigerant materials for room-temperature applications. The new materials are manganese-iron-phosphorus-arsenic (MnFe(P,As)) compounds. This new material has important advantages over existing magnetic coolants: it exhibits a huge MCE, which is larger than that of Gd metal; and its operating temperature can be tuned from about 150 to about 335 K by adjusting the P/As ratio. Here we report on further improvement of the materials by increasing the Mn content. The large entropy change is attributed to a field-induced first-order phase transition enhancing the effect of the applied magnetic field. Addition of Mn reduces the thermal hysteresis, which is intrinsic to the first-order transition. This implies that already moderate applied magnetic fields of below 2 T may suffice

  18. The effect of non-uniform fuel rod temperatures on effective resonance integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichel, A.

    1961-06-01

    The effective resonance integral for heterogeneous lattices can be reduced to the effective resonance integral for an equivalent homogeneous system with a fairly well defined error depending on lump size and geometry. This report investigates the effect of a radial parabolic temperature variation in cylindrical lumps on the equivalent homogeneous effective resonance integral. Also determined is the equivalent uniform temperature to be taken in the usual formulae to allow for non-uniform fuel rod temperature. This effective temperature is found to be T eff. = T s + 4/9 (T c - T s ) where T s and T c are the surface and central temperatures of the lump. (author)

  19. Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo E.; Zhou, Xinwen; Svensson, Peter

    ) activity associated with bruxism. Repetition of the electrical stimulus and skin surface temperature (ST) may affect the perception of CES and possibly also the inhibitory EMG effects.Objectives: To determine the effects of stimulus repetition and skin ST on the perception of CES.  Methods: Healthy...

  20. Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cadmium and Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of tobacco as cigarette or otherwise has been demonstrated to contribute to air pollution via smoke generation resulting in adverse health effect. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the concentration, distribution of cadmium and lead between ash residue and smoke in some ...

  1. H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Huijser, A.; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2015-01-01

    The atomic mass ratio of ca. 2 between deuterium and hydrogen is the highest for any pair of stable isotopes and results in significant and measurable H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors containing these species. This paper discusses H/D isotope effects manifested in O-H/O-D...

  2. Effect of temperature on the passivation behavior of steel rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-meng; Cao, Bei; Wu, Yin-shun; Ma, Ke

    2014-05-01

    Steel rebar normally forms an oxide or rusty skin before it is embedded into concrete and the passivation properties of this skin will be heavily influenced by temperature. To study the effect of temperature on the passivation properties of steel rebar under different surface conditions, we conducted scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and electrochemical measurements, such as measurements of the free corrosion potential and polarization curves of HPB235 steel rebar. These measurements identified three kinds of surfaces: polished, oxide skin, and rusty skin. Our results show that the passivation properties of all the surface types decrease with the increase of temperature. Temperature has the greatest effect on the rusty-skin rebar and least effect on the polished steel rebar, because of cracks and crevices on the mill scale on the steel rebar's surface. The rusty-skin rebar exhibits the highest corrosion rate because crevice corrosion can accelerate the corrosion of the steel rebar, particularly at high temperature. The results also indicate that the threshold temperatures of passivation for the oxide-skin rebar and the rusty-skin rebar are 37°C and 20°C, respectively.

  3. The effects of temperatures on the pebble flow in a pebble bed high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, R. S.; Cogliati, J. J.; Gougar, H. D.

    2012-01-01

    The core of a pebble bed high temperature reactor (PBHTR) moves during operation, a feature which leads to better fuel economy (online refueling with no burnable poisons) and lower fuel stress. The pebbles are loaded at the top and trickle to the bottom of the core after which the burnup of each is measured. The pebbles that are not fully burned are recirculated through the core until the target burnup is achieved. The flow pattern of the pebbles through the core is of importance for core simulations because it couples the burnup distribution to the core temperature and power profiles, especially in cores with two or more radial burnup 'zones '. The pebble velocity profile is a strong function of the core geometry and the friction between the pebbles and the surrounding structures (other pebbles or graphite reflector blocks). The friction coefficient for graphite in a helium environment is inversely related to the temperature. The Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR) operated in Germany between 1983 and 1989. It featured a two-zone core, an inner core (IC) and outer core (OC), with different fuel mixtures loaded in each zone. The rate at which the IC was refueled relative to the OC in THTR was designed to be 0.56. During its operation, however, this ratio was measured to be 0.76, suggesting the pebbles in the inner core traveled faster than expected. It has been postulated that the positive feedback effect between inner core temperature, burnup, and pebble flow was underestimated in THTR. Because of the power shape, the center of the core in a typical cylindrical PBHTR operates at a higher temperature than the region next to the side reflector. The friction between pebbles in the IC is lower than that in the OC, perhaps causing a higher relative flow rate and lower average burnup, which in turn yield a higher local power density. Furthermore, the pebbles in the center region have higher velocities than the pebbles next to the side reflector due to the

  4. The effects of temperatures on the pebble flow in a pebble bed high temperature reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, R. S.; Cogliati, J. J.; Gougar, H. D. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The core of a pebble bed high temperature reactor (PBHTR) moves during operation, a feature which leads to better fuel economy (online refueling with no burnable poisons) and lower fuel stress. The pebbles are loaded at the top and trickle to the bottom of the core after which the burnup of each is measured. The pebbles that are not fully burned are recirculated through the core until the target burnup is achieved. The flow pattern of the pebbles through the core is of importance for core simulations because it couples the burnup distribution to the core temperature and power profiles, especially in cores with two or more radial burnup 'zones '. The pebble velocity profile is a strong function of the core geometry and the friction between the pebbles and the surrounding structures (other pebbles or graphite reflector blocks). The friction coefficient for graphite in a helium environment is inversely related to the temperature. The Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR) operated in Germany between 1983 and 1989. It featured a two-zone core, an inner core (IC) and outer core (OC), with different fuel mixtures loaded in each zone. The rate at which the IC was refueled relative to the OC in THTR was designed to be 0.56. During its operation, however, this ratio was measured to be 0.76, suggesting the pebbles in the inner core traveled faster than expected. It has been postulated that the positive feedback effect between inner core temperature, burnup, and pebble flow was underestimated in THTR. Because of the power shape, the center of the core in a typical cylindrical PBHTR operates at a higher temperature than the region next to the side reflector. The friction between pebbles in the IC is lower than that in the OC, perhaps causing a higher relative flow rate and lower average burnup, which in turn yield a higher local power density. Furthermore, the pebbles in the center region have higher velocities than the pebbles next to the side reflector due to the

  5. Effective temperature of the non-equilibrium electrons in a degenerate semiconductor at low lattice temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B.; Basu, A.; Das, J.; Bhattacharya, D.P., E-mail: d_p_bhattacharya@rediffmail.com

    2015-10-01

    The energy balance equation for the electron–phonon system is recast taking the degeneracy of the carrier ensemble into account. The effect of degeneracy on the field dependence of the temperature of the non-equilibrium carriers has been studied by solving the same equation. The high field distribution function of the carriers is assumed to be given by the Fermi Dirac function at the field dependent carrier temperature. The distribution function has been approximated in a way that facilitates analytical solution of the problem without any serious loss of accuracy. The field dependence of the electron temperature thus obtained seems to be significantly different from what follows had the degeneracy not been taken into account. The agreement of the results obtained from the present analysis with the available experimental data for Ge and InSb are quite satisfactory. The scope of further refinement of the present theory is highlighted.

  6. Cascade of Quantum Transitions and Magnetocaloric Anomalies in an Open Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val'kov, V. V.; Mitskan, V. A.; Shustin, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    A sequence of magnetocaloric anomalies occurring with the change in a magnetic field H is predicted for an open nanowire with the Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the induced superconducting pairing potential. The nature of such anomalies is due to the cascade of quantum transitions related to the successive changes in the fermion parity of the nanowire ground state with the growth of the magnetic field. It is shown that the critical H c values fall within the parameter range corresponding to the nontrivial values of the Z 2 topological invariant of the corresponding 1D band Hamiltonian characteristic of the D symmetry class. It is demonstrated that such features in the behavior of the open nanowire are retained even in the presence of Coulomb interactions.

  7. Solvated electrons at elevated temperatures in different alcohols: Temperature and molecular structure effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Lin, Mingzhang [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke, E-mail: katsu@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fu, Haiying; Muroya, Yusa [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The absorption spectra of solvated electrons in pentanol, hexanol and octanol are measured from 22 to 200, 22 to 175 and 50 to150 {sup o}C, respectively, at a fixed pressure of 15 MPa, using nanosecond pulse radiolysis technique. The results show that the peak positions of the absorption spectra have a red-shift (shift to longer wavelengths) as temperature increases, similar to water and other alcohols. Including the above mentioned data, a compilation of currently available experimental data on the energy of absorption maximum (E{sub max}) of solvated electrons changed with temperature in monohydric alcohols, diols and triol is presented. E{sub max} of solvated electron is larger in those alcohols that have more OH groups at all the temperatures. The molecular structure effect, including OH numbers, OH position and carbon chain length, is investigated. For the primary alcohols with same OH group number and position, the temperature coefficient increases with increase in chain length. For the alcohols with same chain length and OH numbers, temperature coefficient is larger for the symmetric alcohols than the asymmetric ones.

  8. Canceling effect leads temperature insensitivity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular enzymes are important for decomposition of many macromolecules abundant in soil such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and proteins (Allison et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2012). The temperature sensitivity of enzymes responsible for organic matter decomposition is the most crucial parameter for prediction of the effects of global warming on carbon cycle. Temperature responses of biological systems are often expressed as a Q10 functions; The Q10 describes how the rate of a chemical reaction changes with a temperature increase for 10 °C The aim of this study was to test how the canceling effect will change with variation in temperature interval, during short-term incubation. We additionally investigated, whether canceling effect occurs in a broad range of concentrations (low to high) and whether it is similar for the set of hydrolytic enzymes within broad range of temperatures. To this end, we performed soil incubation over a temperature range of 0-40°C (with 5°C steps). We determined the activities of three enzymes involved in plant residue decomposition: β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase, which are commonly measured as enzymes responsible for degrading cellulose (Chen et al., 2012), and xylanase, which degrades xylooligosaccharides (short xylene chain) in to xylose, thus being responsible for breaking down hemicelluloses (German et al., 2011). Michaelis-Menten kinetics measured at each temperature allowed to calculate Q10 values not only for the whole reaction rates, but specifically for maximal reaction rate (Vmax) and substrate affinity (Km). Subsequently, the canceling effect - simultaneous increase of Vmax and Km with temperature was analyzed within 10 and 5 degree of temperature increase. Three temperature ranges (below 10, between 15 and 25, and above 30 °C) clearly showed non-linear but stepwise increase of temperature sensitivity of all three enzymes and allowed to conclude for predominance of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic

  9. Temperature, humidity and time., Combined effects on radiochromic film dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Miller, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of both relative humidity and temperature during irradiation on the dose response of FWT-60-00 and Riso B3 radiochromic film dosimeters have been investigated in the relative humidity (RH) range 11-94% and temperature range 20-60 o C for irradiation by 60 Co photons and 10-MeV electrons. The results show that humidity and temperature cannot be treated as independent variables, rather there appears to be interdependence between absorbed dose, temperature, and humidity. Dose rate does not seem to play a significant role. The dependence of temperature during irradiation is + 0.25 ± 0.1% per o C for the FWT-60-00 dosimeters and +0.5 ± 0.1% per o C for Riso B3 dosimeters at temperatures between 20 and 50 o C and at relative humidities between 20 and 53%. At extreme conditions both with respect to temperature and to humidity, the dosimeters show much stronger dependences. Whenever possible one should use dosimeters sealed in pouches under controlled intermediate humidity conditions (30-50%) or, if that is impractical, one should maintain conditions of calibration as close as possible to the conditions of use. Without that precaution, severe dosimetry errors may result. (author)

  10. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  11. The effects of spatial sampling choices on MR temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nick; Vyas, Urvi; de Bever, Josh; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantify the effects that spatial sampling parameters have on the accuracy of magnetic resonance temperature measurements during high intensity focused ultrasound treatments. Spatial resolution and position of the sampling grid were considered using experimental and simulated data for two different types of high intensity focused ultrasound heating trajectories (a single point and a 4-mm circle) with maximum measured temperature and thermal dose volume as the metrics. It is demonstrated that measurement accuracy is related to the curvature of the temperature distribution, where regions with larger spatial second derivatives require higher resolution. The location of the sampling grid relative temperature distribution has a significant effect on the measured values. When imaging at 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm(3) resolution, the measured values for maximum temperature and volume dosed to 240 cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) or greater varied by 17% and 33%, respectively, for the single-point heating case, and by 5% and 18%, respectively, for the 4-mm circle heating case. Accurate measurement of the maximum temperature required imaging at 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm(3) resolution for the single-point heating case and 2.0 × 2.0 × 5.0 mm(3) resolution for the 4-mm circle heating case. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Temperature effects on interaction of positive ions with plastic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Anaya, D.

    1992-01-01

    The range of heavy charged particles in matter is dependent mainly on two groups of parameters, one related to the particle characteristics (charge z, mass m, energy E) and the other characterized by the stopping medium (charge z, density ρ). Those two groups are enough to describe the particle energy lost, which is related to the residual range. Research on charge particles registration using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), probe that environmental parameters affect the stabilization and formation of the tracks. One of those, is the temperature detector which shows an important effect during the irradiation on the characteristics of the tracks produced. In order to study the dependence of track geometry as a function of irradiation temperature, some SSNTD (CR 39 type) were irradiated with α particles and fission fragments. Results of this work show the existence of irradiation temperature effect on the track geometry. It is observed a reduction of length and diameters, as temperature increases. For low irradiation temperatures, there is a reduction of the track geometry, as compared with environmental temperature. (Author)

  13. Effect of temperature to the properties of sago starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Kamal, M.; Baini, R.; Mohamaddan, S.; Selaman, O. S.; Zauzi, N. Ahmad; Rahman, M. R.; Rahman, N. Abdul; Chong, K. H.; Atan, M. F.; Samat, N. A. S. Abdul; Taib, S. N. L.; Othman, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the importance of sago starch has increased, as it has become one of the main economically important agricultural crops to the most Southeast Asia countries. In the present work, an analysis on drying process of sago starch (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) underwent various temperature has been made by using four empirical equations. The main goal of this analysis is to suggest the most accurate equation, in order to model and simulate the mechanical drying of sago starch. The experimental investigations were carried out in a gravity convection lab oven; and ±50g of sago starch (sample heights of 1 cm) was dried through four different temperatures, which were 50, 60, 70 and 80ºC. The effect of drying temperature on the drying kinetics, as well as various qualities attributes of sago starch, such as microstructure, colour and functional properties were investigated. The results suggested that drying temperature has significant effect on sago starch drying kinetic; therefore, drying temperature would be the basis to select drying condition. Meanwhile, it was found that the various drying temperature ranging from 50 to 80ºC affected the product quality especially in term of colour.

  14. Effects of Transverse Power Distribution on Fuel Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Daeseong; Park, Jonghark; Seo, Chul Gyo; Chae, Heetaek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, transverse power distributions with segments of 4 and 18 are evaluated. Based on the power distribution, the fuel temperatures are evaluated with a consideration of lateral heat conduction. In the present study, the effect of the transverse power distribution on the fuel temperature is investigated. The transverse power distributions with variation of fuel segment number are evaluated. The maximum power peaking with 12 segments is higher than that with 4 segments. Based on the calculation, 6-order polynomial is generated to express the transverse power distributions. The maximum power peaking factor increases with segments. The averaged power peaking is 2.10, and the maximum power peaking with 18 segments is 2.80. With the uniform power distribution, the maximum fuel temperature is found in the middle of the fuel. As the power near the side ends of the fuel increases, the maximum fuel temperature is found near the side ends. However, the maximum fuel temperature is not found where the maximum transverse power is. This is because the high power locally released from the edge of the fuel is laterally conducted to the cladding. As a result of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of the high power peaking at the edge of the fuel on the fuel outer wall temperature is not significant

  15. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation. PMID:27626046

  16. Temperature effects on hospital admissions for kidney morbidity in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Kai [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wang, Yu-Chun [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung-Pei Road, Chung Li 320, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Environmental Risk Management, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung-Pei Road, Chung Li 320, Taiwan (China); Ho, Tsung-Jung [The Division of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Taiwan (China); School Of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 91 Xueshi Road, Taichung City 404, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chensheng, E-mail: cslu@hsph.harvard.edu [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: This study aimed to associate hospital admissions of kidney diseases with extreme temperature and prolonged heat/cold events in 7 regions of Taiwan. Methods: Age-specific (< 65 years, 65 + years and all ages) hospital admission records of nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis, in the form of electronic insurance reimbursement claims, were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database during the period of 2000–2008. The area–age-specific relative risk (RR) accounting for 8 days of lag for temperature on hospital admissions of kidney diseases were estimated using distributed lag non-linear models with the Poisson distribution controlling for extreme temperature events, levels of air pollutants (PM{sub 10}, O{sub 3}, and NO{sub 2}) and potential confounders. Results: We observed a V or J-shape association between daily average temperatures and the RR estimates for hospital admissions of kidney diseases in Taiwan. The lowest risk for hospital admissions of kidney diseases was found at around 25 °C, and risk increased as temperatures deviated from 25 °C. The pooled cumulative 8-day RR for all ages of population of the 7 study areas were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19) at 18 °C and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.64) at 30 °C. High temperature has more profound influence on hospital admission of kidney diseases than low temperature. Temperature risks for hospital admissions were similar between younger (< 65 years) and elderly (65 + years) population. This study observed no significant effects of prolonged heat extremes on hospital admissions of kidney diseases. Conclusions: The heat effect for kidney morbidities leading to hospital admission was more significant than that of the cold temperature. This study did not find the age-dependent relative risks for temperature associating with hospital admissions of kidney diseases. - Highlights: ► V or J-shaped association was observed between daily temperatures and

  17. A Preisach approach to modeling partial phase transitions in the first order magnetocaloric material MnFe(P,As)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Bahl, C.R.H.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2014-01-01

    of MnFe(P,As) under partial phase transitions, which is similar to what materials experience in actual magnetic refrigeration devices. Partial phase transition curves, in the absence of a magnetic field, are measured using calorimetry and the experimental results are compared to simulations......Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology that could provide energy efficient and environmentally friendly cooling. Magnetocaloric materials in which a structural phase transition is found concurrently with the magnetic phase transition are often termed first order magnetocaloric materials....... Such materials are potential candidates for application in magnetic refrigeration devices. However, the first order materials often have adverse properties such as hysteresis, making actual performance troublesome to quantify, a subject not thoroughly studied within this field.Here we investigate the behavior...

  18. A Preisach approach to modeling partial phase transitions in the first order magnetocaloric material MnFe(P,As)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, L. von, E-mail: lmoo@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bahl, C.R.H.; Nielsen, K.K.; Engelbrecht, K. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Küpferling, M.; Basso, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology that could provide energy efficient and environmentally friendly cooling. Magnetocaloric materials in which a structural phase transition is found concurrently with the magnetic phase transition are often termed first order magnetocaloric materials. Such materials are potential candidates for application in magnetic refrigeration devices. However, the first order materials often have adverse properties such as hysteresis, making actual performance troublesome to quantify, a subject not thoroughly studied within this field. Here we investigate the behavior of MnFe(P,As) under partial phase transitions, which is similar to what materials experience in actual magnetic refrigeration devices. Partial phase transition curves, in the absence of a magnetic field, are measured using calorimetry and the experimental results are compared to simulations of a Preisach-type model. We show that this approach is applicable and discuss what experimental data is required to obtain a satisfactory material model.

  19. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Sia, S.Y.; Fazal, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 C, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature. (author)

  20. Remote sensing of land surface temperature: The directional viewing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Schmugge, T.J.; Ballard, J.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important parameter in understanding global environmental change because it controls many of the underlying processes in the energy budget at the surface and heat and water transport between the surface and the atmosphere. The measurement of LST at a variety of spatial and temporal scales and extension to global coverage requires remote sensing means to achieve these goals. Land surface temperature and emissivity products are currently being derived from satellite and aircraft remote sensing data using a variety of techniques to correct for atmospheric effects. Implicit in the commonly employed approaches is the assumption of isotropy in directional thermal infrared exitance. The theoretical analyses indicate angular variations in apparent infrared temperature will typically yield land surface temperature errors ranging from 1 to 4 C unless corrective measures are applied