Sample records for temperature irsl signal

  1. The effect of preheating on the IRSL signal from feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, A.S.; Buylaert, J.P.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov


    It is difficult to relate the IRSL signal from feldspar to a particular region of the TL curve; prior IR stimulation reduces the TL signal over a wide range of temperatures. Such data are apparently consistent with the observation from pulse anneal experiments that a laboratory-induced IRSL signal...... is consistent with a kinetic analysis of sensitivity-corrected IRSL data. The corollary to our observations is that shallow (unstable) traps do not give rise to a significant IRSL signal....... is detectably eroded by a relatively low temperature preheat. These results can be explained by a distribution of trap depths of IR sensitive traps, and/or by changes in recombination probability induced by IR exposure. To investigate the relative importance of these processes, we first examine the relationship...

  2. Pulsed IRSL: A stable and fast bleaching luminescence signal from feldspar for dating Quaternary sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Kondo, Reisuke; Lauer, Tobias


    Elevated temperature post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL; pIRIR) dating method using feldspar has led to a significant advancement in dating Quaternary sediments, as this signal has been shown to be stable on geological time scales. In comparison to the conventional IRSL,...

  3. Stability of IRSL signals from sedimentary K-feldspar samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Jain, Mayank


    show that the pIRIR signal has a greater thermal stability than the IRSL signal and that the trend in increasing thermal stability is mirrored by a decreasing fading rate. We also investigate the effect of preheat temperature and IR stimulation power on the decay shape and conclude that the data can...... be explained in terms of either a single- or multiple-trap model. We present evidence that may suggest that at least part of pIRIR signal is derived from a high temperature trap (∼550°C thermoluminescence (TL) peak), although again the data can also be explained in terms of a single-trap model. Finally, we......Recent work has identified IR stimulated luminescence signals at elevated temperature from both potassium- and sodium-rich feldspars that have much lower anomalous fading rates than the conventional signal measured using IR stimulation at 50°C. This paper examines the stability of these signals...

  4. Photon transferred TL signals from potassium feldspars and their effects on post-IR IRSL measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Jintang [State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029 (China); Salisbury, James Barrett [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 (United States)


    A recent flourish of studies using post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL) signals for retrospective dose determinations necessitates the investigation of photon transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) signals induced by IR stimulation for potassium feldspars (K-feldspars). In this study, we investigated characteristics of PTTL signals and their effects on post-IR IRSL measurements for K-feldspars extracted from two bedrock samples. The temperature corresponding to maximum PTTL intensity (T{sub peak}) and the highest temperature at which PTTL signals are observed (T{sub max}) increase with the preheat temperature before IR stimulation, although no further increment of T{sub peak} is observed when preheat is higher than 320 °C. The interference of the PTTL signal with the post-IR IRSL signal is non-monotonically dependent upon the temperature of the latter. The PTTL signals lead to an underestimation of the thermal stability of multiple-elevated-temperature (MET)-post-IR IRSL{sub 290} signals and may contribute to poor dose recovery ratios (DRR) using post-IR IRSL{sub 290} signals. The DRR values are substantially improved when the temperatures of preheat and post-IR IR stimulation are elevated to suppress the interference of the PTTL signal. This study highlights the importance of a careful inspection on PTTL signals before measuring the post-IR IRSL signals for K-feldspars. - Highlights: • PTTL signals show major dependence on preheat temperature. • PTTL signals cause underestimation of thermal stability for MET-pIRIR{sub 290} signals. • High temperature pIRIR suppresses PTTL signals and improves dose recovery ratios.

  5. Dating Middle Pleistocene loess from Stari Slankamen (Vojvodina, Serbia) — Limitations imposed by the saturation behaviour of an elevated temperature IRSL signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Andrew Sean; Schmidt, E.D.; Stevens, T.


    Recent advances in post-IR IRSL dating have led to breakthroughs in dating upper Middle Pleistocene loess sequences. Here, an elevated temperature post-IR IR protocol using a second IR stimulation temperature of 290°C is applied to eleven polymineral fine-grain (4–11μm) samples from the lower par...

  6. Anomalous fading of the TL, Blue-SL and IR-SL signals of fluorapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirliganis, N. [Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, Archaeometry Laboratory, Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)]. E-mail:; Polymeris, G. [Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, Archaeometry Laboratory, Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Loukou, Z. [Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, Archaeometry Laboratory, Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    The thermoluminescence (TL), blue stimulated luminescence (BSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals of fluorapatite (originating from Durango, Mexico) were measured and found to exhibit strong anomalous fading (AF). The experimentally obtained OSL and IRSL decay curves were transformed into pseudo-linear modulated (pseudo-LM) decay curves. The resulting glow-curve shaped pseudo-LM decay curves were analyzed using a deconvolution analysis, similar to the one used for the glow-curve deconvolution (GCD) of TL glow-curves. It was found that the pseudo-LM OSL and IRSL decay curves consist of two components named fast and slow, respectively, and their individual contribution was estimated. The AF of the remnant TL, BSL and IRSL as a function of the storage time was fitted using the tunneling model equations and the fading rate g, in terms of percentage per decade was evaluated. According to the obtained g values, the AF of the BSL and IRSL is stronger than that of the TL. The AF of the fast component of BSL and IRSL is almost the same. The AF of the slow component of IRSL is, by approximately a factor of 2, stronger than that of the BSL.

  7. Establishing a luminescence chronology for a palaeosol-loess profile at Tokaj (Hungary): A comparison of quartz OSL and polymineral IRSL signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, Ann-Kathrin; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew


    We present a comparative study of quartz OSL, polymineral IRSL at low temperature (50 °C, IR50) and post-IR elevated temperature (290 °C) IRSL (pIRIR290) feldspar dating on nine samples from the Tokaj loess section in NE Hungary (SE Europe). Preheat plateau tests show a drop in quartz OSL De...

  8. Luminescence dating of the PASADO core 5022-1D from Laguna Potrok Aike (Argentina) using IRSL signals from feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, A.S.; Gebhardt, A.C.


    bleaching rates of the conventional IRSL signal (IR50) and the pIRIR290 signal and the relationship between resulting equivalent doses; this is used to identify and reject poorly bleached samples. Eighteen samples out of 47 were rejected based on this criterion, without reference to absolute doses...... or stratigraphy; the resulting age–depth profile is self-consistent, increases smoothly with depth and is in agreement with independent age control based on volcanic ash layers (Reclús, Mt Burney and Hudson tephras) at the top and middle of the core. Our new luminescence chronology suggests that the 5022-1D core...

  9. On the applicability of post-IR IRSL dating to Japanese loess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.


    in nature. As a contribution to the further testing of post-IR IRSL dating, we have used 18 samples from two Japanese loess profiles for which quartz OSL and tephra ages up to 600 ka provide age control. After a preheat of 320°C (60 s), the polymineral fine grains (4–11 μm) were bleached with IR at 50°C......Recent work on infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating has focussed on finding and testing signals which show less or negligible fading. IRSL signals measured at elevated temperature following IR stimulation at 50°C (post-IR IRSL) have been shown to be much more stable than the low...... temperature IRSL signal and seem to have considerable potential for dating. For Early Pleistocene samples of both European and Chinese loess natural post-IR IRSL signals lying in the saturation region of the laboratory dose response curve have been observed; this suggests that there is no significant fading...

  10. Luminescence dating of the Stratzing loess profile (Austria) – Testing the potential of an elevated temperature post-IR IRSL protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew


    , which leads to significant age underestimation. Fading corrections have been proposed but these corrections are reliant on inherent assumptions and in any case are inapplicable at large doses (as the growth curve approaches saturation). Recent studies have identified a post-IR IRSL signal that shows...... less fading and is thus less dependent on accurate fading corrections. This study builds upon these investigations and applies a post-IR IRSL SAR dating protocol to polymineral fine-grain samples of the loess/palaeosol sequence in Stratzing, Lower Austria. After a preheat at 320 °C (60 s) and an IR...... to 20 Gy are observed. For the oldest samples, the natural signal is in, or close to, saturation, indicating that fading is negligible in nature. This observation is inconsistent with the measured laboratory fading rates of 1–1.5%/decade and needs further investigation....

  11. IRSL and post-IR IRSL residual doses recorded in modern dust samples from the Chinese Loess Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Thiel, Christine; Murray, Andrew S.


    Using a set of modern/young (0 to about 200 years old) dust samples collected from the Chinese Loess Plateau the bleachability of IRSL measured at 50°C (IR50) and post-IR50 elevated temperature IRSL (measured at 225°C and at 290°C) is investigated by measuring the apparent (residual) doses recorded...

  12. Stability of fine-grained TT-OSL and post-IR IRSL signals from a c. 1 Ma sequence of aeolian and lacustrine deposits from the Nihewan Basin (northern China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    We tested the suitability of the fine-grained quartz (4–11 μm) Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and thermally-transferred OSL (TT-OSL), and the fine-grained polymineral (4–11 μm) post-infrared IRSL (post-IR IRSL or pIRIR) signals for dating samples from aeolian-lacustrine deposits from the X...... accurate ones; nevertheless, these ages provide the first long series absolute chronology for study of local palaeolithic and geomorphic evolution history aside from the  magnetostratigraphical results available before this research....

  13. Luminescence dating of Pleistocene alluvial sediments affected by the Alhama de Murcia fault (eastern Betics, Spain) – a comparison between OSL, IRSL and post-IRIRSL ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    , Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) at 50°C, and post-IR elevated temperature (225°C) IRSL signals from K-feldspar. All signals pass the routine tests associated with the Single Aliquot Regenerative (SAR) protocol, including the recycling ratio, recuperation, and dose recovery tests. The equivalent...... these signals; the residual doses are 0.17±0.15 Gy and 0.93±0.80 Gy, respectively. For both signals, the residual doses appear to depend on the corresponding natural doses; that is, the larger the natural doses, the larger the residuals, an observation made for the first time for IRSL signals. The average...

  14. The effect of test dose and first IR stimulation temperature on post-IR IRSL measurements of rock slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Murray, Andrew; Sohbati, Reza


    curve saturation (or Do) with test dose size when the regeneration doses are first given in increasing order, and then decreasing order. This trend disappears if these orders are reversed. The reproducibility of dose response curves is dependent on the size of the test dose (poorer for small test dose......). For rock slices given a saturation dose in the laboratory, it is observed that the sensitivity corrected pIRIR290 signal lies close to saturation level of the dose response curve, for first IR stimulation at temperatures between 50 and 250°C. However, the pIRIR290 signal from naturally saturated slices...... lies close to the laboratory saturation levels only for higher first IR stimulation temperatures e.g. 200°C or 250°C. Our data confirm earlier suggestions based on sand-grain measurements that, for older sam-ples, accurate measurements close to saturation require that a higher first IR temperature...

  15. Correlation of basic TL, OSL and IRSL properties of ten K-feldspar samples of various origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfampa, I.K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Polymeris, G.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Pagonis, V. [McDaniel College, Physics Department, Westminster, MD 21157 (United States); Theodosoglou, E. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Laboratory of Radiation Applications and Archaeological Dating, Department of Archaeometry and Physicochemical Measurements, ‘Athena’ R.& I.C., Kimmeria University Campus, GR67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, G., E-mail: [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    Highlights: • OSL and IRSL bleaching behavior of ten K-feldspar samples is presented. • OSL and IRSL decay curves were component resolved using tunneling model. • The growth of integrated OSL and IRSL signals versus time was described by new expression based on tunneling model. • Correlation between TL, OSL and IRSL signals and of all properties with K-feldspar structure was discussed. - Abstract: Feldspars stand among the most widely used minerals in dosimetric methods of dating using thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Having very good dosimetric properties, they can in principle contribute to the dating of every site of archaeological and geological interest. The present work studies basic properties of ten naturally occurring K-feldspar samples belonging to three feldspar species, namely sanidine, orthoclase and microcline. The basic properties studied are (a) the influence of blue light and infrared stimulation on the thermoluminescence glow-curves, (b) the growth of OSL, IRSL, residual TL and TL-loss as a function of OSL and IRSL bleaching time and (c) the correlation between the OSL and IRSL signals and the energy levels responsible for the TL glow-curve. All experimental data were fitted using analytical expressions derived from a recently developed tunneling recombination model. The results show that the analytical expressions provide excellent fits to all experimental results, thus verifying the tunneling recombination mechanism in these materials and providing valuable information about the concentrations of luminescence centers.

  16. A detailed post-IR IRSL chronology for the last interglacial soil at the Jingbian loess site (northern China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Yeo, Eun-Young; Thiel, Christine


    for S1 is ~150 g m-2 a-1, considerably higher than at many other sites but within the overall range of Loess Plateau estimates. The remarkably stable sediment accumulation at the site contrasts with a more complex record of environmental and monsoonal change recorded in grain-size and magnetic...... using instrumental dating techniques. We use the post-IR IRSL signal from sand-sized grains of K-rich feldspar. Signal resetting in the agricultural layer shows that it is possible to almost completely zero this signal in nature. First IR stimulation plateau measurements show that there is no clear...... dependence of De on first IR stimulation temperature between 50 and 260 °C suggesting negligible signal fading. Resultant ages are consistent with a last interglacial age (~130 to ~75 ka) and are also consistent within errors with continuous linear sedimentation rates. The average mass accumulation rate...

  17. On the shape of continuous wave infrared stimulated luminescence signals from feldspars: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, V.; Jain, Mayank; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov


    The continuous-wave IRSL (CW-IRSL) signals from feldspars are known to decay in a non-exponential manner, and their exact mathematical description is of great importance in dosimetric and dating studies. This paper investigates the possibility of fitting experimental CW-IRSL curves from a variety...

  18. A comparison of TT-OSL and post-IR IRSL dating of coastal deposits on Cap Bon peninsula, north-eastern Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.


    In this study thermally transferred (TT) OSL and post-IR elevated temperature IRSL (290 °C) (pIRIR290) dating are applied to deposits covering coastal terraces on the Cap Bon peninsula, Tunisia. Both methods perform well under standard performance tests; dose recovery tests using a modern analogue...

  19. Na-rich feldspar as a luminescence dosimeter in infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Jain, Mayank


    One of the challenges in dating rock surfaces is the choice of the luminescence mineral. Although quartz is the preferred dosimeter in sediment dating, it is often not sufficiently sensitive when extracted from solid rocks. The intensity of signals from feldspars tends to be much less dependent...... for measurement. This latter problem does not apply to Na-rich feldspar because of the absence of internal radioactivity.The potential application of Na-rich feldspar as a luminescence dosimeter for the IRSL dating of rock surfaces is investigated using a variety of sediment samples from different geological...... settings for which independent age control is available. The blue and yellow luminescence emissions are measured for IR stimulation at 50 °C (IR50), and post-IR IR stimulation at 290 °C (pIRIR290). Thermal stability experiments imply that the corresponding signals in both emissions have comparable thermal...

  20. Interaction of light and temperature signalling. (United States)

    Franklin, Keara A; Toledo-Ortiz, Gabriela; Pyott, Douglas E; Halliday, Karen J


    Light and temperature are arguably two of the most important signals regulating the growth and development of plants. In addition to their direct energetic effects on plant growth, light and temperature provide vital immediate and predictive cues for plants to ensure optimal development both spatially and temporally. While the majority of research to date has focused on the contribution of either light or temperature signals in isolation, it is becoming apparent that an understanding of how the two interact is essential to appreciate fully the complex and elegant ways in which plants utilize these environmental cues. This review will outline the diverse mechanisms by which light and temperature signals are integrated and will consider why such interconnected systems (as opposed to entirely separate light and temperature pathways) may be evolutionarily favourable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  1. A search for IRSL-Active dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity : a spectroscopic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnson, O.


    The spectral and radiation dose characteristics of a range of previously uninvestigated alumine-silicate materials are surveyed, with the intention of searching for alternative, high sensitivity materials that could potentially be used as InfraRed Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) dosemeters...

  2. Timing of the deglaciation in southern Patagonia: Testing the applicability of K-Feldspar IRSL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomdin, Robin; Murray, Andrew S.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov


    during deglaciation of the PIS, with an expected age range of 17 and 22 ka, and from recently deposited sediment. We measure small aliquots and single grain distributions using an IR50 SAR protocol with IRSL stimulation at 50 °C following a preheat at 250 °C (held for 60 s). Uncertainties are assigned......The timing of the ice margin retreat of the Late Glacial Patagonian Ice Sheet (PIS) in southern Patagonia has been the object of discussion for many years. In order to resolve questions about the complex response of the PIS to past climate change, any geological interpretation and data modelling...... environmental ODs between 30 and 130% and mean residual doses between ∼30 and 80 Gy. Minimum age models are used to identify the part of the dose population that is most likely to have been well-bleached and results from these models are compared. The models give ages that are consistent with each other...

  3. Potential and limits of OSL, TT-OSL, IRSL and pIRIR290 dating methods applied on a Middle Pleistocene sediment record of Lake El'gygytgyn, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zander


    Full Text Available This study tests the paleomagnetic and proxy-data based Mid- to Upper Pleistocene sediment deposition history of Lake El'gygytgyn by applying different approaches of luminescence dating techniques on sediment cores taken from the centre of the 175 m deep lake. For dating polymineral and quartz fine grains (4–11 μm grain size range were extracted from nine different levels from the upper 28 m of sediment cores 5011-1A and 5011-1B. According to the independent age model, the lowest sample from 27.8–27.9 m below lake bottom level correlates to the Brunhes-Matuyama (B/M reversal. Polymineral sub-samples were analysed by infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL and post-IR IRSL measured at 290 °C (pIRIR290 using single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR sequences. SAR protocols were further applied to measure the blue light optically stimulated luminescence (OSL and thermally-transferred OSL (TT-OSL of fine-grained quartz supplemented by a multiple aliquot approach. Neither low temperature IRSL measurements at 50 °C nor any OSL dating approach on quartz yielded reliable results. Deconvolution of their dose response curves revealed a pseudo-increase of the dose response curves and explains the observed underestimation. The pIRIR protocol applied to polymineral fine grains was the only luminescence technique able to provide dating results of acceptable accuracy up to ca. 700 ka when correlated to the existing proxy-data and paleomagnetic based age record. We present the potential and limits of the different dating techniques and a correlation of pIRIR290 results with the proxy-data based age model.

  4. Temperature compensation method using readout signals of ring laser gyroscope. (United States)

    Li, Geng; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Guangzong; Wei, Guo; Zhang, Pengfei; Long, Xingwu


    Traditional compensation methods using temperature-related parameters have little effect when the ring laser gyroscope (RLG) bias changes rapidly. To solve this problem, a novel RLG bias temperature compensation method using readout signals is proposed in this paper. Combined with the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm, the novel method can improve the precision of the RLG bias. Experiments show that by utilizing the readout signals in the LS-SVM model, the RLG bias stability can be significantly raised compared to the original data. The novel method proposed in this paper is shown to be feasible, even when the RLG bias changes rapidly.

  5. Modeling of the shape of infrared stimulated luminescence signals in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.


    a tunneling process, leading to the emission of light. The model explains the experimentally observed existence of two distinct time intervals in the luminescence intensity; a rapid initial decay of the signal followed by a much slower gradual decay of the signal with time.The initial fast decay region...... corresponds to a fast rate of recombination processes taking place along the infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) curves. The subsequent decay of the simulated IRSL signal is characterized by a much slower recombination rate, which can be described by a power-law type of equation.Several simulations...... of equation. The exponent in this power-law is found to depend very weakly on the various parameters in the model, in agreement with the results of experimental studies. The results from the model are compared with experimental IRSL curves obtained using different IR stimulating power, and good quantitative...

  6. Revisiting the loess/palaeosol sequence in Paks, Hungary: A post-IR IRSL based chronology for the ‘Young Loess Series’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Horváth, Erzsébet; Frechen, Manfred


    In Hungary, many loess/palaeosol sequences have been found to be discontinuous. In order to allow for correlations with other Quaternary records, reliable chronologies are needed.We therefore apply post-IR infrared (IR) stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL; pIRIR290) dating to the uppermost 20 m...

  7. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie


    hillslope erosion by rainfall on snow-free surfaces, and increased meltwater production on snow-free glacier surfaces. Despite the rise in air temperature, changes in mean discharge in the mid-1980s were not statistically significant, and their interpretation is complicated by hydropower reservoir management and the flushing operations at intakes. Overall, the results show that to explain changes in suspended sediment transport from large Alpine catchments it is necessary to include an understanding of the multitude of sediment sources involved together with the hydroclimatic conditioning of their activation (e.g. changes in precipitation, runoff, air temperature). In addition, this study points out that climate signals in suspended sediment dynamics may be visible even in highly regulated and human-impacted systems. This is particularly relevant for quantifying climate change and hydropower impacts on streamflow and sediment budgets in Alpine catchments.

  8. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa


    concentration through hillslope erosion by rainfall on snow-free surfaces, and increased meltwater production on snow-free glacier surfaces. Despite the rise in air temperature, changes in mean discharge in the mid-1980s were not statistically significant, and their interpretation is complicated by hydropower reservoir management and the flushing operations at intakes. Overall, the results show that to explain changes in suspended sediment transport from large Alpine catchments it is necessary to include an understanding of the multitude of sediment sources involved together with the hydroclimatic conditioning of their activation (e.g. changes in precipitation, runoff, air temperature. In addition, this study points out that climate signals in suspended sediment dynamics may be visible even in highly regulated and human-impacted systems. This is particularly relevant for quantifying climate change and hydropower impacts on streamflow and sediment budgets in Alpine catchments.

  9. Radiation Hard Wide Temperature Range Mixed-Signal Components Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low temperature survivability, high performance and radiation tolerance of electronics in combination is required for NASA's surface missions. Modern sub-micron CMOS...

  10. Small lakes show muted climate change signal in deepwater temperatures (United States)

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Hanson, Paul C.


    Water temperature observations were collected from 142 lakes across Wisconsin, USA, to examine variation in temperature of lakes exposed to similar regional climate. Whole lake water temperatures increased across the state from 1990 to 2012, with an average trend of 0.042°C yr−1 ± 0.01°C yr−1. In large (>0.5 km2) lakes, the positive temperature trend was similar across all depths. In small lakes (0.5 times the maximum lake depth. The differing response of small versus large lakes is potentially a result of wind-sheltering reducing turbulent mixing magnitude in small lakes. These results demonstrate that small lakes respond differently to climate change than large lakes, suggesting that current predictions of impacts to lakes from climate change may require modification.

  11. Stratigraphy, optical dating chronology (IRSL) and depositional model of pre-LGM glacial deposits in the Hope Valley, New Zealand (United States)

    Rother, Henrik; Shulmeister, James; Rieser, Uwe


    A 110 m thick succession of glacial valley fill is described from Poplars Gully, central South Island, New Zealand. The section consists of eight lithofacies assemblages that represent different stages of ice occupation in the valley. Basal sediments record an ice retreat phase followed by a glacial re-advance which deposited mass flow diamictons and till. A subsequent ice retreat from the site is indicated by the stratigraphic transition from till to thick glacio-fluvial gravels. This is followed by a probably short-lived glacier re-advance that caused folding and thrusting of proglacial sediments. Final glacial retreat from the valley led to the formation of a large proglacial lake. In total, Poplars Gully holds evidence for two major ice advances, separated by a glacial retreat that resulted in complete ice evacuation from the lower Hope Valley. Infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating on ice-proximal sediments from Poplars Gully yielded six ages between 181 and 115 ka BP. Our stratigraphic logging and dating results show that the fill sequence was not, as previously thought, deposited in association with ice advances during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) nor indeed during the last glacial cycle. LGM glaciers later overran the fill but we find that the older glacial sequences are considerably more voluminous than those deposited during the last glacial cycle. We also show that the mid-Pleistocene glaciers carved a much deeper valley trough than did glaciers during the LGM. Taken together these features are likely to reflect a significant difference in the magnitude of successive Pleistocene glaciations in the valley, with the mid-Pleistocene ice advances having been considerably larger than those of the last glacial cycle. The recognition of the in-situ survival of extensive pre-MIS 5 (Marine Isotope Stage) deposits in valley troughs that were later occupied by LGM glaciers represents a new feature in the Quaternary stratigraphy of the Southern Alps. The

  12. Testing the application of post IR IRSL dating to Iron- and Viking-age ceramics and heated stones from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khasawneh, Sahar Al; Murray, Andrew; Bonatz, Dominik


    In this study we test, for the first time, the potential of an elevated temperature post-IR IR (pIRIR290) SAR protocol for the dating of young heated artefacts. Seven heated stones and seven potshards were collected from three different archaeological sites in Denmark: one site from the early Pre...... are shown to be close to unity. The performance of the feldspar pIRIR290 protocol is then examined by comparing the pIRIR290 ages with those based on the quartz OSL signal; the average ratio of pIRIR290 to OSL ages is 1.14 ± 0.05 (n = 14) and there is some suggestion that the possible overestimation....... Comparison with the archaeological age control is not able to identify whether quartz or feldspar provides the most reliable dating signal. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mekhrengin


    Full Text Available Modified phase-generated carrier homodyne demodulation technique for fiber-optic sensors is presented. Nowadays phase-generated carrier homodyne demodulation technique is one of the most widespread. One of its drawbacks is the temperature dependence of the output signal because of the modulator scale factor temperature dependence. In order to compensate this dependence an automatic adjustment of the phase modulation depth is necessary. To achieve the result, additional harmonics analysis is used with the help of the Bessel functions. For this purpose the known demodulation scheme is added with the branch, where interferometric signal is multiplied by the third harmonic of the modulation signal. The deviation of optimal ratio of odd harmonics is used as a feedback signal for adjusting the modulation depth. Unwanted emissions arise in the feedback signal, when the third harmonic possesses a value close to zero. To eliminate unwanted emission in the feedback signal, the principle scheme is added with one more branch, where interferometric signal is multiplied by the forth harmonic of the modulation signal. The deviation of optimal ratio of even harmonics is used as a feedback signal alternately with the deviation of optimal ratio of odd harmonics. A mathematical model of the algorithm is designed using the MATLAB package. Results of modeling have confirmed that suggested method gives the possibility for an automatic adjustment of the phase modulation depth and makes it possible to compensate temperature dependence for the modulator scale factor and output signal magnitude.

  14. High resolution OSL and post-IR IRSL dating of the last interglacialeglacial cycle at the Sanbahuo loess site (northeastern China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Shuangwen; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew


    in this region is restricted by the lack of independent age control. In this study, coarse-grained quartz SAR OSL and K-feldspar post-IR infrared (IR) stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL; pIRIR290) methods have been used to date the Sanbahuo loess site in northeastern China. The quartz OSL characteristics...... and natural samples; the results are satisfactory up to ~800 Gy. Resulting quartz OSL and feldspar pIRIR290 ages are in good agreement at least back to ~44 ka; beyond this feldspar pIRIR290 ages are older. The feldspar ages are consistent with the expected age of the S1 palaeosol (MIS 5). There appears...

  15. A Coupled Phase-Temperature Model for Dynamics of Transient Neuronal Signal in Mammals Cold Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Ahmad Kirana


    Full Text Available We propose a theoretical model consisting of coupled differential equation of membrane potential phase and temperature for describing the neuronal signal in mammals cold receptor. Based on the results from previous work by Roper et al., we modified a nonstochastic phase model for cold receptor neuronal signaling dynamics in mammals. We introduce a new set of temperature adjusted functional parameters which allow saturation characteristic at high and low steady temperatures. The modified model also accommodates the transient neuronal signaling process from high to low temperature by introducing a nonlinear differential equation for the “effective temperature” changes which is coupled to the phase differential equation. This simple model can be considered as a candidate for describing qualitatively the physical mechanism of the corresponding transient process.

  16. Quantifying the deep convective temperature signal within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Paulik


    Full Text Available Dynamics on a vast range of spatial and temporal scales, from individual convective plumes to planetary-scale circulations, play a role in driving the temperature variability in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. Here, we aim to better quantify the deep convective temperature signal within the TTL using multiple datasets. First, we investigate the link between ozone and temperature in the TTL using the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ dataset. Low ozone concentrations in the TTL are indicative of deep convective transport from the boundary layer. We confirm the usefulness of ozone as an indicator of deep convection by identifying a typical temperature signal associated with reduced ozone events: an anomalously warm mid to upper troposphere and an anomalously cold upper TTL. We quantify these temperature signals using two diagnostics: (1 the "ozone minimum" diagnostic, which has been used in previous studies and identifies the upper tropospheric minimum ozone concentration as a proxy for the level of main convective outflow; and (2 the "ozone mixing height", which we introduce in order to identify the maximum altitude in a vertical ozone profile up to which reduced ozone concentrations, typical of transport from the boundary layer are observed. Results indicate that the ozone mixing height diagnostic better separates profiles with convective influence than the ozone minimum diagnostic. Next, we collocate deep convective clouds identified by CloudSat 2B-CLDCLASS with temperature profiles based on Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC Global Position System (GPS radio occultations. We find a robust large-scale deep convective TTL temperature signal, that is persistent in time. However, it is only the convective events that penetrate into the upper half of the TTL that have a significant impact on TTL temperature. A distinct seasonal difference in the spatial scale and the persistence of

  17. Comparison of signaling interactions determining annual and perennial plant growth in response to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid eWingler


    Full Text Available Low temperature inhibits plant growth despite the fact that considerable rates of photosynthetic activity can be maintained. Instead of lower rates of photosynthesis, active inhibition of cell division and expansion is primarily responsible for reduced growth. This results in sink limitation and enables plants to accumulate carbohydrates that act as compatible solutes or are stored throughout the winter to enable re-growth in spring. Regulation of growth in response to temperature therefore requires coordination with carbon metabolism, e.g. via the signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate. The phytohormones gibberellins (GA and jasmonate (JA play an important role in regulating growth in response to temperature. Growth restriction at low temperature is mainly mediated by DELLA proteins, whose degradation is promoted by GA. For annual plants, it has been shown that the GA/DELLA pathway interacts with JA signaling and C-repeat binding factor (CBF dependent cold acclimation, but these interactions have not been explored in detail for perennials. Growth regulation in response to seasonal factors is, however, particularly important in perennials, especially at high latitudes. In autumn, growth cessation in trees is caused by shortening of the daylength in interaction with phytohormone signaling. In perennial grasses seasonal differences in the sensitivity to GA may enable enhanced growth in spring. This review provides an overview of the signaling interactions that determine plant growth at low temperature and highlights gaps in our knowledge, especially concerning the seasonality of signaling responses in perennial plants.

  18. Extreme Temperature Performance of Automotive-Grade Small Signal Bipolar Junction Transistors (United States)

    Boomer, Kristen; Damron, Benny; Gray, Josh; Hammoud, Ahmad


    Electronics designed for space exploration missions must display efficient and reliable operation under extreme temperature conditions. For example, lunar outposts, Mars rovers and landers, James Webb Space Telescope, Europa orbiter, and deep space probes represent examples of missions where extreme temperatures and thermal cycling are encountered. Switching transistors, small signal as well as power level devices, are widely used in electronic controllers, data instrumentation, and power management and distribution systems. Little is known, however, about their performance in extreme temperature environments beyond their specified operating range; in particular under cryogenic conditions. This report summarizes preliminary results obtained on the evaluation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) automotive-grade NPN small signal transistors over a wide temperature range and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on functionality of these transistors and to determine suitability for use outside their recommended temperature limits.

  19. Reliability of temperature signal in various climate indicators from northern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti Hari

    Full Text Available We collected relevant observational and measured annual-resolution time series dealing with climate in northern Europe, focusing in Finland. We analysed these series for the reliability of their temperature signal at annual and seasonal resolutions. Importantly, we analysed all of the indicators within the same statistical framework, which allows for their meaningful comparison. In this framework, we employed a cross-validation procedure designed to reduce the adverse effects of estimation bias that may inflate the reliability of various temperature indicators, especially when several indicators are used in a multiple regression model. In our data sets, timing of phenological observations and ice break-up were connected with spring, tree ring characteristics (width, density, carbon isotopic composition with summer and ice formation with autumn temperatures. Baltic Sea ice extent and the duration of ice cover in different watercourses were good indicators of winter temperatures. Using combinations of various temperature indicator series resulted in reliable temperature signals for each of the four seasons, as well as a reliable annual temperature signal. The results hence demonstrated that we can obtain reliable temperature information over different seasons, using a careful selection of indicators, combining the results with regression analysis, and by determining the reliability of the obtained indicator.

  20. Measuring system for magnetic field and temperature with digital signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.


    Full Text Available The measuring system for the magnetic field and temperature using silicon whiskers p-type conductivity as a primary device has been developed. The developed system allows the measurement of the magnetic field and temperature in the temperature range 4,2—77 K, as well as to measure the temperature under the influence of magnetic fields in the range of 100—300 K. It is shown that this system is suitable for the conversion of small signals using a programmable gain amplifier and analog-to-digital converter with high resolution.

  1. Integration of photoperiod and cold temperature signals into flowering genetic pathways in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyung; Park, Chung-Mo


    Appropriate timing of flowering is critical for propagation and reproductive success in plants. Therefore, flowering time is coordinately regulated by endogenous developmental programs and external signals, such as changes in photoperiod and temperature. Flowering is delayed by a transient shift to cold temperatures that frequently occurs during early spring in the temperate zones. It is known that the delayed flowering by short-term cold stress is mediated primarily by the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). However, how the FLC-mediated cold signals are integrated into flowering genetic pathways is not fully understood. We have recently reported that the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION 1 (ICE1), which is a master regulator of cold responses, FLC, and the floral integrator SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) constitute an elaborated feedforward-feedback loop that integrates photoperiod and cold temperature signals to regulate seasonal flowering in Arabidopsis. Cold temperatures promote the binding of ICE1 to FLC promoter to induce its expression, resulting in delayed flowering. However, under floral inductive conditions, SOC1 induces flowering by blocking the ICE1 activity. We propose that the ICE1-FLC-SOC1 signaling network fine-tunes the timing of photoperiodic flowering during changing seasons.

  2. Investigation of temperature feedback signal parameters during neoplasms treatment by diode laser radiation (United States)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Gelfond, Mark L.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.


    Dynamics of temperature signal in operation area and laser power at nevus, papilloma, and keratoma in vivo removal by a 980+/-10 nm diode laser with "blackened" tip operating in continuous (CW) mode and with temperature feedback (APC) mode are presented. Feedback allows maintaining temperature in the area of laser treatment at a preset level by regulating power of diode laser radiation (automatic power control). Temperature in the area of laser treatment was controlled by measuring the amplitude of thermal radiation, which occurs when tissue is heated by laser radiation. Removal of neoplasm was carried out in CW mode with laser radiation average power of 12.5+/-0.5 W; mean temperature in the area of laser treatment was 900+/-10°C for nevus, 800+/-15°C for papilloma, and 850+/-20°C for keratoma. The same laser radiation maximal power (12.5 W) and targeted temperature (900°C) were set for nevus removal in APC mode. The results of investigation are real time oscillograms of the laser power and temperature in the area of laser treatment at neoplasms removal in two described above modes. Simultaneously with the measurement of laser power and the temperature in the area of laser treatment video recording of surgeon manipulations was carried out. We discuss the correlation between the power of the laser radiation, the temperature in the area of laser treatment and consistency of surgeon manipulation. It is shown that the method of removal (excision with or without traction, scanning) influences the temperature in the area of laser treatment. It was found, that at removal of nevus with temperature feedback (APC) mode to achieve comparable with CW mode temperature in the area of laser treatment (900+/-10°C) 20-50% less laser power is required. Consequently, removing these neoplasms in temperature feedback mode can be less traumatic than the removal in CW mode.

  3. Investigation of temperature-dependent small-signal performances of TB SOI MOSFETs (United States)

    Huang, Yuping; Liu, Jun; Lü, Kai; Chen, Jing


    This paper investigated the temperature dependence of the cryogenic small-signal ac performances of multi-finger partially depleted (PD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), with T-gate body contact (TB) structure. The measurement results show that the cut-off frequency increases from 78 GHz at 300 K to 120 GHz at 77 K and the maximum oscillation frequency increases from 54 GHz at 300 K to 80 GHz at 77 K, and these are mainly due to the effect of negative temperature dependence of threshold voltage and transconductance. By using a simple equivalent circuit model, the temperature-dependent small-signal parameters are discussed in detail. The understanding of cryogenic small-signal performance is beneficial to develop the PD SOI MOSFETs integrated circuits for ultra-low temperature applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61331006) and the National Defense Pre-Research Foundation of China (No. 9140A11040114DZ04152).

  4. Extreme temperature robust optical sensor designs and fault-tolerant signal processing (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel Agha [Oviedo, FL; Perez, Frank [Tujunga, CA


    Silicon Carbide (SiC) probe designs for extreme temperature and pressure sensing uses a single crystal SiC optical chip encased in a sintered SiC material probe. The SiC chip may be protected for high temperature only use or exposed for both temperature and pressure sensing. Hybrid signal processing techniques allow fault-tolerant extreme temperature sensing. Wavelength peak-to-peak (or null-to-null) collective spectrum spread measurement to detect wavelength peak/null shift measurement forms a coarse-fine temperature measurement using broadband spectrum monitoring. The SiC probe frontend acts as a stable emissivity Black-body radiator and monitoring the shift in radiation spectrum enables a pyrometer. This application combines all-SiC pyrometry with thick SiC etalon laser interferometry within a free-spectral range to form a coarse-fine temperature measurement sensor. RF notch filtering techniques improve the sensitivity of the temperature measurement where fine spectral shift or spectrum measurements are needed to deduce temperature.

  5. On-chip temperature-based digital signal processing for customized wireless microcontroller (United States)

    Farhah Razanah Faezal, Siti; Isa, Mohd Nazrin Md; Harun, Azizi; Nizam Mohyar, Shaiful; Bahari Jambek, Asral


    Increases in die size and power density inside system-on-chip (SoC) design have brought thermal issue inside the system. Uneven heat-up and increasing in temperature offset on-chip has become a major factor that can limits the system performance. This paper presents the design and simulation of a temperature-based digital signal processing for modern system-on-chip design using the Verilog HDL. This design yields continuous monitoring of temperature and reacts to specified conditions. The simulation of the system has been done on Altera Quartus Software v. 14. With system above, microcontroller can achieve nominal power dissipation and operation is within the temperature range due to the incorporate of an interrupt-based system.

  6. Doppler signals observed during high temperature thermal ablation are the result of boiling (United States)



    Purpose To elucidate the causation mechanism of Spectral Doppler ultrasound signals (DUS) observed during high temperature thermal ablation and evaluate their potential for image-guidance. Methods Sixteen ex vivo ablations were performed in fresh turkey breast muscle, eight with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) devices, and eight with a conductive interstitial thermal therapy (CITT) device. Temperature changes in the ablation zone were measured with thermocouples located at 1 to 10mm away from the ablation probes. Concomitantly, DUS were recorded using a standard diagnostic ultrasound scanner. Retrospectively, sustained observations of DUS were correlated with measured temperatures. Sustained DUS was arbitrarily defined as the Doppler signals lasting more than 10 s as observed in the diagnostic ultrasound videos captured from the scanner. Results For RFA experiments, minimum average temperature (T1±SD) at which sustained DUS were observed was 97.2±7.3°C, while the maximum average temperature (T2±SD) at which DUS were not seen was 74.3±9.1°C. For CITT ablation, T1 and T2 were 95.7±5.9°C and 91.6±7.2°C, respectively. It was also observed, especially during CITT ablation, that temperatures remained relatively constant during Doppler activity. Conclusions The value of T1 was near the standard boiling point of water (99.61°C) while T2 was below it. Together, T1 and T2 support the conclusion that DUS during high temperature thermal ablation are the result of boiling (phase change). This conclusion is also supported by the nearly constant temperature histories maintained at locations from which DUS emanated. PMID:20569109

  7. Effect of Rabi splitting on the low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance signal of anthracite. (United States)

    Fedaruk, Ryhor; Strzelczyk, Roman; Tadyszak, Krzysztof; Markevich, Siarhei A; Augustyniak-Jabłokow, Maria Aldona


    Specific distortions of the EPR signal of bulk anthracite are observed at low temperatures. They are accompanied by variations in the microwave oscillator frequency and are explained by the manifestation of the Rabi splitting due to the strong coupling between electron spins and the cavity, combined with the use of an automatic frequency-control (AFC) system. EPR signals are recorded at negligible saturation in the temperature range of 4-300K with use of the AFC system to keep the oscillator frequency locked to the resonant frequency of the TM110 cylinder cavity loaded with the sample. For the sample with a mass of 3.6mg the line distortions are observed below 50K and increase with temperature lowering. The oscillator frequency variations are used to estimate the coupling strength as well as the number of spins in the sample. It is shown that the spin-cavity coupling strength is inversely proportional to temperature and can be used for the absolute determination of the number of spins in a sample. Our results indicate that at low temperatures even 10 16 spins of the anthracite sample, with a mass of about 0.5mg, can distort the EPR line. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Respiration detection chip with integrated temperature-insensitive MEMS sensors and CMOS signal processing circuits. (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yu-Chen; Chen, Tse-An; Lin, Ren-Yi; Liu, Tin-Hao


    An airflow sensing chip, which integrates MEMS sensors with their CMOS signal processing circuits into a single chip, is proposed for respiration detection. Three micro-cantilever-based airflow sensors were designed and fabricated using a 0.35 μm CMOS/MEMS 2P4M mixed-signal polycide process. Two main differences were present among these three designs: they were either metal-covered or metal-free structures, and had either bridge-type or fixed-type reference resistors. The performances of these sensors were measured and compared, including temperature sensitivity and airflow sensitivity. Based on the measured results, the metal-free structure with fixed-type reference resistors is recommended for use, because it has the highest airflow sensitivity and also can effectively reduce the output voltage drift caused by temperature change.

  9. High sensitive translational temperature measurement using characteristic curve of second harmonic signal in wavelength modulation spectroscopy. (United States)

    Matsui, Makoto; Yamada, Tohru


    A high sensitive measurement system of translational temperature of plasma was developed. In this system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy, a peak value of second harmonic signal was measured as a function of modulation depth. The translational temperature was estimated by fitting the theoretically calculated curve to the measured characteristic curve. The performance of this system was examined using microwave discharge plasma. As a result of comparison with conventional laser absorption spectroscopy, both results show good agreement in the measurable region of the laser absorption spectroscopy. Next, the measurable limit of this system was investigated by decreasing the target number density. The detectable fractional absorption was as low as 3.7 × 10-5 in which condition the signal to noise ratio was the order of single digit at the averaging number of 40. This value is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of the laser absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Evaluation of acoustic emission signals during monitoring of thick-wall vessels operating at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasopoulos, A.; Tsimogiannis, A. [Envirocoustics S.A., El. Venizelou 7 and Delfon, Athens (Greece)


    Acoustic Emission testing of thick wall vessels, operating at elevated temperatures is discussed and pattern recognition methodologies for AE data evaluation are presented. Two different types of testing procedures are addressed: Cool Down monitoring and semi-continuous periodic monitoring. In both types of tests, temperature variation is the driving force of AE as opposed to traditional AE testing where controlled pressure variation is used as AE stimulus. Representative examples of reactors cool down testing as well as in-process vessel monitoring are given. AE activity as a function of temperature and pressure variation is discussed. In addition to the real-time limited criteria application, unsupervised pattern recognition is applied as a post-processing tool for multidimensional sorting, noise discrimination, characterizing defects and/or damage. On the other hand, Supervised Pattern Recognition is used for data classification in repetitive critical tests, leading to an objective quantitative comparison between repeated tests. Results show that damage sustained by the equipment can be described by the plotting the cumulative energy of AE, from critical signal classes, versus temperature. Overall, the proposed methodology can reduce the complexity of AE tests in many cases leading to higher efficiency. The possibility for real time signals classification, during permanent AE installations and continuous monitoring is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Devices and Mixed-Signal Circuits for Extreme Temperature Applications (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik


    Electronic systems in planetary exploration missions and in aerospace applications are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings in their operational environments. Electronics designed for such applications must, therefore, be able to withstand exposure to extreme temperatures and to perform properly for the duration of the missions. Electronic parts based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are known, based on device structure, to provide faster switching, consume less power, and offer better radiation-tolerance compared to their silicon counterparts. They also exhibit reduced current leakage and are often tailored for high temperature operation. However, little is known about their performance at low temperature. The performance of several SOI devices and mixed-signal circuits was determined under extreme temperatures, cold-restart, and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of these devices for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperatures. The experimental results obtained on selected SOI devices are presented and discussed in this paper.

  12. The Software Design of SiBCN Temperature Sensor Wireless Sweep Signal Receiving and Dispatching System Based on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Chengzhi


    Full Text Available SiBCN (silicon boron carbon nitrogen wireless passive microwave resonant cavity temperature sensor is a new type of sensor under the development trend of radio frequency microwave technology. Based on the working principle of the sensor, the software design of SiBCN temperature sensor wireless sweep transceiver system based on FPGA is carried out on the basis of the existing wireless sweep signal transceiver system hardware. Let the signal source send the 11.0GHz ~ 11.6GHz range sweep signal to the sensor. The feedback signal of the sensor is filtered and the resonant frequency is obtained. The detection of temperature is based on the correspondence between the resonant frequency and the temperature.Through the analysis of the measured results, the system software design meets the requirements, and the temperature and frequency change rate is about 421.2KHz / °C.

  13. Effect of Temperature on Ultrasonic Signal Propagation for Extra Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration (United States)

    Alias, N. A.; Hamid, S. B. Abdul; Sophian, A.


    Fraud cases involving adulteration of extra virgin olive oil has become significant nowadays due to increasing in cost of supply and highlight given the benefit of extra virgin olive oil for human consumption. This paper presents the effects of temperature variation on spectral formed utilising pulse-echo technique of ultrasound signal. Several methods had been introduced to characterize the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with other fluid sample such as mass chromatography, standard method by ASTM (density test, distillation test and evaporation test) and mass spectrometer. Pulse-echo method of ultrasound being a non-destructive method to be used to analyse the sound wave signal captured by oscilloscope. In this paper, a non-destructive technique utilizing ultrasound to characterize extra virgin olive oil adulteration level will be presented. It can be observed that frequency spectrum of sample with different ratio and variation temperature shows significant percentages different from 30% up to 70% according to temperature variation thus possible to be used for sample characterization.

  14. Surface temperature and precipitation affecting GPS signals before the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Central Italy) (United States)

    Amoruso, A.; Crescentini, L.; Chiaraluce, L.


    An Mw 6.1 normal faulting earthquake struck Central Italy in 2009 April, which unfortunately nucleated right below the town of L'Aquila, causing more than 300 casualties and widespread damage. The main shock was preceded by a foreshock sequence lasting ∼6 months. It has been claimed that an analysis of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data shows that during the foreshock sequence a 5.9 Mw slow slip event (SSE) occurred along a decollement located beneath the reactivated normal fault system. This hypothesized SSE that started in the middle of 2009 February and lasted for almost two weeks would have eventually loaded the largest foreshock and the main shock. We show that the strain signal that the SSE would have generated at two laser strainmeters operating at about 20 km NE from the SSE source was essentially undetected. We then propose an alternative interpretation for the displacement observed in the GPS data. A transient signal is present in temperature and precipitation time-series recorded close to the GPS station that has largest signal referred to the SSE, implying that these contaminated the GPS record. This work illustrates how environmental noise may be relevant when investigating small strain signals, showing the importance of having data from weather stations and water level sensors colocated with GPS stations.

  15. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Mo Koo


    Full Text Available Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard requires that the normal signal level for pressure, flow, and resistance temperature detector sensors be in the range of 4~20 mA for most instruments. Whereas, in the case that an abnormal signal is expected from an instrument, such a signal should be refined through a signal validation process so that the refined signal could be available in the control room. For some abnormal signals expected under severe accident conditions, to date, diagnostics and response analysis have been evaluated with an equivalent circuit model of real instruments, which is regarded as the best method. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a program designed to implement a diagnostic and response analysis for equivalent circuit modeling. The program links signal analysis tool code to abnormal signal simulation engine code not only as a one body order system, but also as a part of functions of a PC-based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analysis module developed to obtain a varying range of the R-C circuit elements in high temperature conditions. As a result, a special function for abnormal pulse signal patterns can be obtained through the program, which in turn makes it possible to analyze the abnormal output pulse signals through a response characteristic of a 4~20 mA circuit model and a range of the elements changing with temperature under an accident condition.

  16. Temperature-induced protein secretion by Leishmania mexicana modulates macrophage signalling and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Hassani

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. These digenetic microorganisms undergo a marked environmental temperature shift (TS during transmission from the sandfly vector (ambient temperature, 25-26°C to the mammalian host (37°C. We have observed that this TS induces a rapid and dramatic increase in protein release from Leishmania mexicana (cutaneous leishmaniasis within 4 h. Proteomic identification of the TS-induced secreted proteins revealed 72 proteins, the majority of which lack a signal peptide and are thus thought to be secreted via nonconventional mechanisms. Interestingly, this protein release is accompanied by alterations in parasite morphology including an augmentation in the budding of exovesicles from its surface. Here we show that the exoproteome of L. mexicana upon TS induces cleavage and activation of the host protein tyrosine phosphatases, specifically SHP-1 and PTP1-B, in a murine bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line. Furthermore, translocation of prominent inflammatory transcription factors, namely NF-κB and AP-1 is altered. The exoproteome also caused inhibition of nitric oxide production, a crucial leishmanicidal function of the macrophage. Overall, our results provide strong evidence that within early moments of interaction with the mammalian host, L. mexicana rapidly releases proteins and exovesicles that modulate signalling and function of the macrophage. These modulations can result in attenuation of the inflammatory response and deactivation of the macrophage aiding the parasite in the establishment of infection.

  17. Advanced Signal Processing for High Temperatures Health Monitoring of Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipes (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi


    An advanced signal processing methodology is being developed to monitor the height of condensed water thru the wall of a steel pipe while operating at temperatures as high as 250deg. Using existing techniques, previous study indicated that, when the water height is low or there is disturbance in the environment, the predicted water height may not be accurate. In recent years, the use of the autocorrelation and envelope techniques in the signal processing has been demonstrated to be a very useful tool for practical applications. In this paper, various signal processing techniques including the auto correlation, Hilbert transform, and the Shannon Energy Envelope methods were studied and implemented to determine the water height in the steam pipe. The results have shown that the developed method provides a good capability for monitoring the height in the regular conditions. An alternative solution for shallow water or no water conditions based on a developed hybrid method based on Hilbert transform (HT) with a high pass filter and using the optimized windowing technique is suggested. Further development of the reported methods would provide a powerful tool for the identification of the disturbances of water height inside the pipe.

  18. One-thousand-fold enhancement of high field liquid nuclear magnetic resonance signals at room temperature (United States)

    Liu, Guoquan; Levien, Marcel; Karschin, Niels; Parigi, Giacomo; Luchinat, Claudio; Bennati, Marina


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a fundamental spectroscopic technique for the study of biological systems and materials, molecular imaging and the analysis of small molecules. It detects interactions at very low energies and is thus non-invasive and applicable to a variety of targets, including animals and humans. However, one of its most severe limitations is its low sensitivity, which stems from the small interaction energies involved. Here, we report that dynamic nuclear polarization in liquid solution and at room temperature can enhance the NMR signal of 13C nuclei by up to three orders of magnitude at magnetic fields of ∼3 T. The experiment can be repeated within seconds for signal averaging, without interfering with the sample magnetic homogeneity. The method is therefore compatible with the conditions required for high-resolution NMR. Enhancement of 13C signals on various organic compounds opens up new perspectives for dynamic nuclear polarization as a general tool to increase the sensitivity of liquid NMR.

  19. Signal Sensing and Transduction by Histidine Kinases as Unveiled through Studies on a Temperature Sensor. (United States)

    Abriata, Luciano A; Albanesi, Daniela; Dal Peraro, Matteo; de Mendoza, Diego


    Histidine kinases (HK) are the sensory proteins of two-component systems, responsible for a large fraction of bacterial responses to stimuli and environmental changes. Prototypical HKs are membrane-bound proteins that phosphorylate cognate response regulator proteins in the cytoplasm upon signal detection in the membrane or periplasm. HKs stand as potential drug targets but also constitute fascinating systems for studying proteins at work, specifically regarding the chemistry and mechanics of signal detection, transduction through the membrane, and regulation of catalytic outputs. In this Account, we focus on Bacillus subtilis DesK, a membrane-bound HK part of a two-component system that maintains appropriate membrane fluidity at low growth temperatures. Unlike most HKs, DesK has no extracytoplasmic signal-sensing domains; instead, sensing is carried out by 10 transmembrane helices (coming from two protomers) arranged in an unknown structure. The fifth transmembrane helix from each protomer connects, without any of the intermediate domains found in other HKs, into the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer (DHp) domain located in the cytoplasm, which is followed by the ATP-binding domains (ABD). Throughout the years, genetic, biochemical, structural, and computational studies on wild-type, mutant, and truncated versions of DesK allowed us to dissect several aspects of DesK's functioning, pushing forward a more general understanding of its own structure/function relationships as well as those of other HKs. We have shown that the sensing mechanism is rooted in temperature-dependent membrane properties, most likely a combination of thickness, fluidity, and water permeability, and we have proposed possible mechanisms by which DesK senses these properties and transduces the signals. X-ray structures and computational models have revealed structural features of TM and cytoplasmic regions in DesK's kinase- and phosphatase-competent states. Biochemical and genetic

  20. Climate-signal changes in a temperature-sensitive dendroclimatic network: the influence of site aspect (United States)

    Leonelli, Giovanni; Pelfini, Manuela; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Cherubini, Paolo


    Tree-rings have an important role in defining past climate variability and within the several climatic proxies they are particularly useful because they may provide past information with annual resolution at the century and millennia scale. Many temperature or precipitation reconstructions have been developed by using tree-ring chronologies from climatically-limited environments. Recent findings, however, have demonstrated a divergence between tree-ring data and air-temperature instrumental records for the recent decades. We analyzed thirteen Pinus cembra ring-width chronologies coming from high-altitude sites comprised in the Ortles-Cevedale Group, an area extending over 30 km in the Central Italian Alps, with several peaks above 3000 m a.s.l. A climatic analysis was performed on the whole period covered by meteorological data (1865-2003) by means of bootstrapped correlation functions. A second climatic analysis was performed by means of a moving correlation approach with the aim to check the stability of the climatic signal over time. Both the analyses were performed using seasonal and monthly climate variables grouping the chronologies from N and SW-facing sites. The climatic analysis on the whole period revealed both the whole summer (JJA) and July temperatures resulted as the most important climatic variables in modulating tree-ring growth. The moving correlation analysis revealed that site aspect influences non-stationary growth-climate relationships over time. In particular, chronologies from N-facing sites showed stable relationships over time, whereas a general increasing divergence between ring width and the summer temperature record (JJA) has been observed especially for chronologies from SW-facing slopes. The monthly analysis of long-term changes in the temperature-growth relationships revealed for all the chronologies significant non-stationary responses especially for late spring (May) and early summer (June) temperature (decreasing correlations

  1. Single temperature sensor based evaporator filling control using excitation signal harmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Rasmussen, Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh


    An important aspect of efficient and safe operation of refrigeration and air conditioning systems is superheat control for evaporators. This is conventionally controlled with a pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, an expansion valve and Proportional-Integral (PI) controllers or more advanced...... model based control. In this paper we show that superheat can be controlled without a pressure sensor and without a model of the system. This is achieved by continuous excitation of the system and by applying Fourier analysis, which gives an error signal that can be used together with standard PI...... a large operating range with only one sensor. It is believed that the method in general is applicable to a wide variety of nonlinear systems for which the desired operating points are close to points of zero mean curvature of system nonlinearities....

  2. Signal transduction leading to low-temperature tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Knight, Marc R


    Calcium is used by most cells to convert external signals into biochemical events within the cytosol. To detect the effects of cold stress, a gene encoding apoaequorin has been introduced into various cell types that, in the presence of coelenterazine, allows calcium levels to be monitored by the emission of blue light. All cell types respond to the cold by elevating calcium. This event is rapid after cold stress but then shows a slower kinetic response. The magnitude is dependent on both the rate and the final temperature to which cooling occurs. It would appear that calcium is transferred both from outside the cell and from the vacuole into the cytosol. The more rapid phase involves the former and the slower phase the latter. By studying mutant plants, it has been identified that an increase in intracellular calcium can activate the expression of transcription factors that control the subsequent transcription of a whole battery of genes which must be switched on to provide cold tolerance in the plant.

  3. Respiration and heartbeat signal detection from airflow at airway in rat by catheter flow sensor with temperature compensation function (United States)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Kawaoka, H.; Yamada, T.; Matsushima, M.; Kawabe, T.; Shikida, M.


    We previously proposed an evaluation method for detecting both respiration and heartbeat signals from the airflow at the mouth (Kawaoka et al 201518th Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems; Kawaoka et al 2015 IEEE Sensors; Kawaoka et al 2016 Technical Digest IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Conf.). In the current study, we developed a catheter flow sensor with temperature compensation that uses MEMS technologies and used it to directly detect the breathing airflow in the airway of a rat. The temperature sensors were integrated with the catheter flow sensor. Heaters working as airflow and temperature sensors were produced on polymer film by using the same fabrication process so that the temperature coefficients of their resistances would coincide. As a result, the variation in sensor outputs due to the airflow temperature changes ranging from 20 °C to 34 °C was suppressed to less than 2.5%. The developed catheter flow sensor was inserted into the airway of a rat to detect both respiration and heartbeat signals. The accuracy of the breathing airflow measurements was improved thanks to the temperature compensation. The tidal volume variations between the expired and inspired air were suppressed to within 5%. Heartbeat signal information was extracted from the measured breathing waveforms by applying a discrete Fourier transform.

  4. Further investigations on 'non-fading' in K-Feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov


    We give a theoretical overview of non-fading infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in feldspars, followed by intercomparison of potential methods on some sediment extracts. We observe that a more stringent thermal wash on its own is not effective in obtaining a more stable signal......, suggesting that the higher the stimulation temperature in post IR-IRSL methods, the greater the ability to access distant electron hole pairs. We further find that the delayed off-time signal in time-resolved IRSL has immense potential for sampling non-fading signal and should be explored further......; this signal also appears to be well reset in nature and avoids unwanted thermal transfer effects in comparison to the post IR-IRSL signal measured at 290 degrees C. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved....

  5. Role of alternative pre-mRNA splicing in temperature signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capovilla, G.; Pajoro, A.; Immink, R.G.H.; Schmidt, M.


    Developmental plasticity enables plants to respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions, such as temperature fluctuations. Understanding how plants measure temperature and integrate this information into developmental programs at the molecular level will be essential to breed thermo-tolerant

  6. Signal-based nonlinear modelling for damage assessment under variable temperature conditions by means of acousto-ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Arredondo, M. -A.; Sierra-Perez, Julian; Tibaduiza, D. -A.


    of the structures ensuring their proper functioning. Changes in environmental and operational conditions (EOC), in particularly temperature, affect the performance of SHM systems that constitutes a great limitation for their implementation in real world applications. This paper describes a health monitoring......, namely optimal baseline selection and optimal signal stretch, are investigated within the proposed methodology where the performance is assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. The methodology is experimentally tested in a pipeline. Results show that the methodology is a robust practical...

  7. Improved Design of Radiation Hardened, Wide-Temperature Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA space exploration projects require avionic systems, components, and controllers that are capable of operating in the extreme temperature and radiation...

  8. Simultaneous in vivo recording of local brain temperature and electrophysiological signals with a novel neural probe (United States)

    Fekete, Z.; Csernai, M.; Kocsis, K.; Horváth, Á. C.; Pongrácz, A.; Barthó, P.


    Objective. Temperature is an important factor for neural function both in normal and pathological states, nevertheless, simultaneous monitoring of local brain temperature and neuronal activity has not yet been undertaken. Approach. In our work, we propose an implantable, calibrated multimodal biosensor that facilitates the complex investigation of thermal changes in both cortical and deep brain regions, which records multiunit activity of neuronal populations in mice. The fabricated neural probe contains four electrical recording sites and a platinum temperature sensor filament integrated on the same probe shaft within a distance of 30 µm from the closest recording site. The feasibility of the simultaneous functionality is presented in in vivo studies. The probe was tested in the thalamus of anesthetized mice while manipulating the core temperature of the animals. Main results. We obtained multiunit and local field recordings along with measurement of local brain temperature with accuracy of 0.14 °C. Brain temperature generally followed core body temperature, but also showed superimposed fluctuations corresponding to epochs of increased local neural activity. With the application of higher currents, we increased the local temperature by several degrees without observable tissue damage between 34-39 °C. Significance. The proposed multifunctional tool is envisioned to broaden our knowledge on the role of the thermal modulation of neuronal activity in both cortical and deeper brain regions.

  9. Improved Design of Radiation Hardened, Wide-Temperature Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA space exploration missions require the electronics for avionic systems, components, and controllers that are capable of operating in the extreme temperature and...

  10. Refeeding signal in fasting-incubating king penguins: changes in behavior and egg temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Groscolas; F. Decrock; M.-A. Thil; C. Fayolle; C. Boissery; J.-P. Robin


    .... Behavior and egg temperature (Tegg) were continuously monitored by video monitoring and biotelemetry, respectively, in fasting-incubating king penguins kept in a pen to prevent relief by the partner until spontaneous egg abandonment...

  11. Temperature-Independent Switching Rates for a Random Telegraph Signal in a Silicon Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, Nick; Fleetwood, D.M.; Scofield, John H.


    We have observed discrete random telegraph signals (RTS'S) in the drain voltages of three, observed above 30 K were thermally activated. The switching rate for the only RTS observed below 30 K was thermally activated above 30 K but temperature-independent below 10 K. To our knowledge, this cross-over from thermal activation to tunneling behavior has not been previously observed for RTS's Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MCEWETS) often exhibit relatively large levels of low-frequency (1/fl noise) [1,2]. Much evidence suggests that this noise is related to the capture all cases, switching rates have been thermally activated, often with different activation energies for capture and/or emission is accompanied by lattice relaxation. Though thermally activated behavior has sufficiently low temperatures [7,9]. While not observed in MOSFETS, cross-over from thermal activation to configurational tunneling has been observed for RTS's in junctions [13]. drain voltage was observed to randomly switch between two discrete levels, designated as Vup and Vdn, similar to RTS's reported by others [2,7'- 11 ]. We have characterized six RTS `S for temperatures above 30 K where thermally activated switching rates are observed. The properties of five of these have been the trap, i.e., the mean time a captured charge carrier spends in the trap before it is emitted. Similarly, we identify the mean time in the low resistance state ( trup in state Vup) as the capture time rc. F@ure 1 shows a typical time trace of the drain-voltage fluctuation &d(t)= Vd(t)+Vd>. This indicate that both the mean capture and emission times become independent of Tat low temperatures and where a= capture or emission, is temperature independent. The solid curve in Figure 3(a) (mean capture time) was obtained using a weighted nonlinear charge carriers are not in thermal equilibrium with the lattice, i.e., that while the lattice is being cooled Instead, we believe that the

  12. Low temperature motion of hydrogen on metal surfaces signals breakdown of quantum mechanics in 3+1 dimensions (United States)

    Drakova, D.; Doyen, G.


    The low temperature motion of hydrogen on solid metal surfaces displays some unexplained experimental features: in the quantum diffusion regime more than nine orders of magnitude difference between the diffusion rates on different metal surfaces have been measured, the lowest diffusion rates being established in the low temperature scanning tunnelling microscope. Furthermore telegraph-signal-like adsorption site change, rather than Rabi oscillations predicted by Schrödinger equation in 3+1 dimensions, is observed, signaling the breakdown of quantum mechanics in 3+1 dimensions. A theory is presented to resolve these problems, involving the entanglement of the adsorbate motion to gravitons in high-dimensional spacetime. Soft local massive gravonons, induced in the presence of the adsorbate, determine the time scale for surface diffusion. The γη-model is used for the evaluation of the soft gravonon modes. Weak and local entanglement of the adsorbate motion with a nearly degenerate graviton continuum of high density of states are the conditions for the telegraph-signal-like time development of adsorption site change. In contrast to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, this apparent "classical" behaviour of the adsorbate in 3+1 dimensional spacetime is the result of the solution of Schrödinger's time dependent equation in high-dimensional spacetime.

  13. Impact of precipitation intermittency on NAO-temperature signals in proxy records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casado


    Full Text Available In mid and high latitudes, the stable isotope ratio in precipitation is driven by changes in temperature, which control atmospheric distillation. This relationship forms the basis for many continental paleoclimatic reconstructions using direct (e.g. ice cores or indirect (e.g. tree ring cellulose, speleothem calcite archives of past precipitation. However, the archiving process is inherently biased by intermittency of precipitation. Here, we use two sets of atmospheric reanalyses (NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction and ERA-interim to quantify this precipitation intermittency bias, by comparing seasonal (winter and summer temperatures estimated with and without precipitation weighting. We show that this bias reaches up to 10 °C and has large interannual variability. We then assess the impact of precipitation intermittency on the strength and stability of temporal correlations between seasonal temperatures and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. Precipitation weighting reduces the correlation between winter NAO and temperature in some areas (e.g. Québec, South-East USA, East Greenland, East Siberia, Mediterranean sector but does not alter the main patterns of correlation. The correlations between NAO, δ18O in precipitation, temperature and precipitation weighted temperature are investigated using outputs of an atmospheric general circulation model enabled with stable isotopes and nudged using reanalyses (LMDZiso (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom. In winter, LMDZiso shows similar correlation values between the NAO and both the precipitation weighted temperature and δ18O in precipitation, thus suggesting limited impacts of moisture origin. Correlations of comparable magnitude are obtained for the available observational evidence (GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation and Greenland ice core data. Our findings support the use of archives of past δ18O for NAO reconstructions.

  14. Nicotine and elevated body temperature reduce the complexity of the genioglossus and diaphragm EMG signals in rats during early maturation (United States)

    Akkurt, David; Akay, Yasemin M.; Akay, Metin


    In this paper, we examined the effect of nicotine exposure and increased body temperature on the complexity (dynamics) of the genioglossus muscle (EMGg) and the diaphragm muscle (EMGdia) to explore the effects of nicotine and hyperthermia. Nonlinear dynamical analysis of the EMGdia and EMGg signals was performed using the approximate entropy method on 15 (7 saline- and 8 nicotine-treated) juvenile rats (P25-P35) and 19 (11 saline- and 8 nicotine-treated) young adult rats (P36-P44). The mean complexity values were calculated over the ten consecutive breaths using the approximate entropy method during mild elevated body temperature (38 °C) and severe elevated body temperature (39-40 °C) in two groups. In the first (nicotine) group, rats were treated with single injections of nicotine enough to produce brain levels of nicotine similar to those achieved in human smokers (2.5 (mg kg-1)/day) until the recording day. In the second (control) group, rats were treated with injections of saline, beginning at postnatal 5 days until the recording day. Our results show that warming the rat by 2-3 °C and nicotine exposure significantly decreased the complexity of the EMGdia and EMGg for the juvenile age group. This reduction in the complexity of the EMGdia and EMGg for the nicotine group was much greater than the normal during elevated body temperatures. We speculate that the generalized depressive effects of nicotine exposure and elevated body temperature on the respiratory neural firing rate and the behavior of the central respiratory network could be responsible for the drastic decrease in the complexity of the EMGdia and EMGg signals, the outputs of the respiratory neural network during early maturation.

  15. Design, Development and Implementation of the IR Signalling Techniques for Monitoring Ambient and Body Temperature in WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Baqai


    Full Text Available Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks. This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes, TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags

  16. Learning from the interplay between discharge and water temperature for signals of hydrologic and atmospheric change (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Larsen, Joshua


    The interplay between river discharge and water temperature regimes determines the habitat quality of river ecosystems, and understanding their interplay is thus critical to assess future ecosystem health in the context of climate change and anthropogenic impacts. Beyond the evident practical importance for ecosystem management, understanding this water temperature-discharge interplay also has great potential to gain new insights into the dominant hydro-climatological processes occurring at the catchment scale. Central to this is the analysis of bivariate distributions between discharge and water temperature, in combination with simple thermal models, at different temporal scales and across many catchments. Potential insights to be gained include: i) the relative roles of rain, glacier, snow, and groundwater inputs, ii) the influence of atmospheric forcings, and iii) the mixing of the stream network. Using detailed records from Swiss catchments, we show the relative importance of these drivers, how they vary between catchments, as well as their susceptibility to change over time. This work provides a data-based, yet physical basis for understanding how the thermal regime of rivers is regulated by hydrologic and atmospheric processes, and thus provides a template to understand the thermal range of aquatic ecosystems. Such a physical understanding is critical in order to better interpret changing stream temperatures, and the thermal flux they provide to downstream lake and ocean environments.

  17. MRI active guidewire with an embedded temperature probe and providing a distinct tip signal to enhance clinical safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonmez Merdim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of interventional cardiovascular MRI is hampered by the unavailability of active guidewires that are both safe and conspicuous. Heating of conductive guidewires is difficult to predict in vivo and disruptive to measure using external probes. We describe a clinical-grade 0.035” (0.89 mm guidewire for MRI right and left heart catheterization at 1.5 T that has an internal probe to monitor temperature in real-time, and that has both tip and shaft visibility as well as suitable flexibility. Methods The design has an internal fiberoptic temperature probe, as well as a distal solenoid to enhance tip visibility on a loopless antenna. We tested different tip-solenoid configurations to balance heating and signal profiles. We tested mechanical performance in vitro and in vivo in comparison with a popular clinical nitinol guidewire. Results The solenoid displaced the point of maximal heating (“hot spot” from the tip to a more proximal location where it can be measured without impairing guidewire flexion. Probe pullback allowed creation of lengthwise guidewire temperature maps that allowed rapid evaluation of design prototypes. Distal-only solenoid attachment offered the best compromise between tip visibility and heating among design candidates. When fixed at the hot spot, the internal probe consistently reflected the maximum temperature compared external probes. Real-time temperature monitoring was performed during porcine left heart catheterization. Heating was negligible using normal operating parameters (flip angle, 45°; SAR, 1.01 W/kg; the temperature increased by 4.2°C only during high RF power mode (flip angle, 90°; SAR, 3.96 W/kg and only when the guidewire was isolated from blood cooling effects by an introducer sheath. The tip flexibility and in vivo performance of the final guidewire design were similar to a popular commercial guidewire. Conclusions We integrated a fiberoptic temperature probe inside

  18. MRI active guidewire with an embedded temperature probe and providing a distinct tip signal to enhance clinical safety. (United States)

    Sonmez, Merdim; Saikus, Christina E; Bell, Jamie A; Franson, Dominique N; Halabi, Majdi; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Lederman, Robert J; Kocaturk, Ozgur


    The field of interventional cardiovascular MRI is hampered by the unavailability of active guidewires that are both safe and conspicuous. Heating of conductive guidewires is difficult to predict in vivo and disruptive to measure using external probes. We describe a clinical-grade 0.035" (0.89 mm) guidewire for MRI right and left heart catheterization at 1.5 T that has an internal probe to monitor temperature in real-time, and that has both tip and shaft visibility as well as suitable flexibility. The design has an internal fiberoptic temperature probe, as well as a distal solenoid to enhance tip visibility on a loopless antenna. We tested different tip-solenoid configurations to balance heating and signal profiles. We tested mechanical performance in vitro and in vivo in comparison with a popular clinical nitinol guidewire. The solenoid displaced the point of maximal heating ("hot spot") from the tip to a more proximal location where it can be measured without impairing guidewire flexion. Probe pullback allowed creation of lengthwise guidewire temperature maps that allowed rapid evaluation of design prototypes. Distal-only solenoid attachment offered the best compromise between tip visibility and heating among design candidates. When fixed at the hot spot, the internal probe consistently reflected the maximum temperature compared external probes.Real-time temperature monitoring was performed during porcine left heart catheterization. Heating was negligible using normal operating parameters (flip angle, 45°; SAR, 1.01 W/kg); the temperature increased by 4.2°C only during high RF power mode (flip angle, 90°; SAR, 3.96 W/kg) and only when the guidewire was isolated from blood cooling effects by an introducer sheath. The tip flexibility and in vivo performance of the final guidewire design were similar to a popular commercial guidewire. We integrated a fiberoptic temperature probe inside a 0.035" MRI guidewire. Real-time monitoring helps detect deleterious

  19. A Subset of Cytokinin Two-component Signaling System Plays a Role in Cold Temperature Stress Response in Arabidopsis* (United States)

    Jeon, Jin; Kim, Nan Young; Kim, Sunmi; Kang, Na Young; Novák, Ondrej; Ku, Su-Jin; Cho, Chuloh; Lee, Dong Ju; Lee, Eun-Jung; Strnad, Miroslav; Kim, Jungmook


    A multistep two-component signaling system is established as a key element of cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, we provide evidence for a function of the two-component signaling system in cold stress response in Arabidopsis. Cold significantly induced the expression of a subset of A-type ARR genes and of GUS in ProARR7:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis. AHK2 and AHK3 were found to be primarily involved in mediating cold to express A-type ARRs despite cytokinin deficiency. Cold neither significantly induced AHK2 and AHK3 expression nor altered the cytokinin contents of wild type within the 4 h during which the A-type ARR genes exhibited peak expression in response to cold, indicating that cold might induce ARR expression via the AHK2 and AHK3 proteins without alterations in cytokinin levels. The ahk2 ahk3 and ahk3 ahk4 mutants exhibited enhanced freezing tolerance compared with wild type. These ahk double mutants acclimated as efficiently to cold as did wild type. The overexpression of the cold-inducible ARR7 in Arabidopsis resulted in a hypersensitivity response to freezing temperatures under cold-acclimated conditions. The expression of C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element target genes was not affected by ARR7 overexpression as well as in ahk double mutants. By contrast, the arr7 mutants showed increased freezing tolerance. The ahk2 ahk3 and arr7 mutants showed hypersensitive response to abscisic acid (ABA) for germination, whereas ARR7 overexpression lines exhibited insensitive response to ABA. These results suggest that AHK2 and AHK3 and the cold-inducible A-type ARRs play a negative regulatory role in cold stress signaling via inhibition of ABA response, occurring independently of the cold acclimation pathway. PMID:20463025

  20. A new computational approach to reduce the signal from continuously recording gravimeters for the effect of atmospheric temperature (United States)

    Andò, Bruno; Carbone, Daniele


    The experience of several authors has shown that continuous measurements of the gravity field, accomplished through spring devices, are strongly affected by changes of the ambient temperature. The apparent, temperature-driven, gravity changes can be up to one order of magnitude higher than the expected changes of the gravity field. Since these effects are frequency-dependent and instrument-related, they must be removed through non-linear techniques and in a case-by-case fashion. Past studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of a Neuro-Fuzzy algorithm as a tool to reduce continuous gravity sequences for the effect of external temperature changes. In the present work, an upgraded version of this previously employed algorithm is tested against the signal from a gravimeter, which was installed in two different sites over consecutive 96-day and 163-day periods. The better performance of the new algorithm with respect to the previous one is proven. Besides, inferences about the site and/or seasonal dependence of the model structure are reported.

  1. The effect of signal to noise ratio on accuracy of temperature measurements for Brillouin lidar in water (United States)

    Liang, Kun; Niu, Qunjie; Wu, Xiangkui; Xu, Jiaqi; Peng, Li; Zhou, Bo


    A lidar system with Fabry-Pérot etalon and an intensified charge coupled device can be used to obtain the scattering spectrum of the ocean and retrieve oceanic temperature profiles. However, the spectrum would be polluted by noise and result in a measurement error. To analyze the effect of signal to noise ratio (SNR) on the accuracy of measurements for Brillouin lidar in water, the theory model and characteristics of SNR are researched. The noise spectrums with different SNR are repetitiously measured based on simulation and experiment. The results show that accuracy is related to SNR, and considering the balance of time consumption and quality, the average of five measurements is adapted for real remote sensing under the pulse laser conditions of wavelength 532 nm, pulse energy 650 mJ, repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse width 8 ns and linewidth 0.003 cm-1 (90 MHz). Measuring with the Brillouin linewidth has a better accuracy at a lower temperature (15 °C), based on the classical retrieval model we adopt. The experimental results show that the temperature error is 0.71 °C and 0.06 °C based on shift and linewidth respectively when the image SNR is at the range of 3.2 dB-3.9 dB.

  2. Magnetic Signals of High-Temperature Superconductor Bulk During the Levitation Force Measurement Process (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Zheng, Botian; Jin, Liwei; Deng, Zigang


    In order to study the commonly neglected magnetic field information in the course of levitation force measurement process in a superconducting maglev system, a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform was employed to acquire magnetic signals of a bulk high-Tc superconductor on both the top and the bottom surface. Working conditions including field cooling (FC) and zero field cooling were investigated for these vertical down and up motions above a permanent magnet guideway performed on a HTS maglev measurement system. We have discussed the magnetic flux variation process based on the Bean model. A magnetic hysteresis effect similar to the levitation force hysteresis loop of the bulk superconductor was displayed and analyzed in this paper. What is more valuable, there exists some available magnetic flux on the top surface of the bulk superconductor, and the proportion is as high as 62.42% in the FC condition, which provides an experimental hint to design the superconductor bulk and the applied field for practical use in a more efficient way. In particular, this work reveals real-time magnetic flux variation of the bulk superconductor in the levitation application, which is the other important information in contrast to the macroscopic levitation and guidance force investigations in previous studies, and it enriches the existing research methods. The results are significant for understanding the magnetic characteristic of superconductors, and they can contribute to optimize the present HTS maglev system design.

  3. Post-IR IRSL290 dating of K-rich feldspar sand grains in a wind-dominated system on Sardinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreucci, S.; Sechi, D.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    block sand-sized grains for quartz SAR-OSL and K-feldspar pIRIR dating were collected. The natural quartz SAR-OSL sample lies below the saturation limit of the dose response curve (De ... with the quartz result. A further test on older samples was carried out on the sedimentary succession at Bue Marino cave, which includes a sandy wind-blown unit, enclosed between two calcareous crusts. U-series dates of crusts constrain the aeolianite formation between ∼130 and ∼86 ka. The quartz SAR-OSL signals....... The pIRIR290 ages indicate an offset up to ∼1000 years. We can conclude that the pIRIR290 method on sand-sized K-feldspar grains shows great promise for samples at or beyond the quartz OSL age limit but should not be applied to Late Holocene or modern deposits....

  4. Correction of the temperature dependent error in a correlation based time-of-flight system by measuring the distortion of the correlation signal (United States)

    Hofbauer, M.; Seiter, J.; Davidovic, M.; Zimmermann, H.


    Correlation based time-of-flight systems suffer from a temperature dependent distance measurement error induced by the illumination source of the system. A change of the temperature of the illumination source, results in the change of the bandwidth of the used light emitters, which are light emitting diodes (LEDs) most of the time. For typical illumination sources this can result in a drift of the measured distance in the range of ~20 cm, especially during the heat up phase. Due to the change of the bandwidth of the LEDs the shape of the output signal changes as well. In this paper we propose a method to correct this temperature dependent error by investigating this change of the shape of the output signal. Our measurements show, that the presented approach is capable of correcting the temperature dependent error in a large range of operation without the need for additional hardware.

  5. Modeling Growth and Toxin Production of Toxigenic Fungi Signaled in Cheese under Different Temperature and Water Activity Regimes. (United States)

    Camardo Leggieri, Marco; Decontardi, Simone; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Pietri, Amedeo; Battilani, Paola


    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro and model the effect of temperature (T) and water activity (aw) conditions on growth and toxin production by some toxigenic fungi signaled in cheese. Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium camemberti, P. citrinum, P. crustosum, P. nalgiovense, P. nordicum, P. roqueforti, P. verrucosum were considered they were grown under different T (0-40 °C) and aw (0.78-0.99) regimes. The highest relative growth occurred around 25 °C; all the fungi were very susceptible to aw and 0.99 was optimal for almost all species (except for A. versicolor, awopt = 0.96). The highest toxin production occurred between 15 and 25 °C and 0.96-0.99 aw. Therefore, during grana cheese ripening, managed between 15 and 22 °C, ochratoxin A (OTA), penitrem A (PA), roquefortine-C (ROQ-C) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) are apparently at the highest production risk. Bete and logistic function described fungal growth under different T and aw regimes well, respectively. Bete function described also STC, PA, ROQ-C and OTA production as well as function of T. These models would be very useful as starting point to develop a mechanistic model to predict fungal growth and toxin production during cheese ripening and to help advising the most proper setting of environmental factors to minimize the contamination risk.

  6. Modeling Growth and Toxin Production of Toxigenic Fungi Signaled in Cheese under Different Temperature and Water Activity Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Camardo Leggieri


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro and model the effect of temperature (T and water activity (aw conditions on growth and toxin production by some toxigenic fungi signaled in cheese. Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium camemberti, P. citrinum, P. crustosum, P. nalgiovense, P. nordicum, P. roqueforti, P. verrucosum were considered they were grown under different T (0–40 °C and aw (0.78–0.99 regimes. The highest relative growth occurred around 25 °C; all the fungi were very susceptible to aw and 0.99 was optimal for almost all species (except for A. versicolor, awopt = 0.96. The highest toxin production occurred between 15 and 25 °C and 0.96–0.99 aw. Therefore, during grana cheese ripening, managed between 15 and 22 °C, ochratoxin A (OTA, penitrem A (PA, roquefortine-C (ROQ-C and mycophenolic acid (MPA are apparently at the highest production risk. Bete and logistic function described fungal growth under different T and aw regimes well, respectively. Bete function described also STC, PA, ROQ-C and OTA production as well as function of T. These models would be very useful as starting point to develop a mechanistic model to predict fungal growth and toxin production during cheese ripening and to help advising the most proper setting of environmental factors to minimize the contamination risk.

  7. An explorative study on the validity of various definitions of a 2·2°C temperature threshold as warning signal for impending diabetic foot ulceration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlens, Anke M.; Holloway, Samantha; Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.


    Home monitoring of skin temperature is effective to prevent diabetic foot ulceration. We explored the validity of various definitions for the >2 2 degrees C left-to-right threshold used as a warning signal for impending ulceration. Twenty patients with diabetes and peripheral

  8. Inhibition of FUSCA3 degradation at high temperature is dependent on ABA signaling and is regulated by the ABA/GA ratio. (United States)

    Chiu, Rex Shun; Saleh, Yazan; Gazzarrini, Sonia


    During seed imbibition at supra-optimal temperature, an increase in the abscisic acid (ABA)/gibberellin (GA) ratio imposes secondary dormancy to prevent germination (thermoinhibition). FUSCA3 (FUS3), a positive regulator of seed dormancy, accumulates in seeds imbibed at high temperature and increases ABA levels to inhibit germination. Recently, we showed that ABA inhibits FUS3 degradation at high temperature, and that ABA and high temperature also inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome system, by dampening both proteasome activity and protein polyubiquitination. Here, we investigated the role of ABA signaling components and the ABA antagonizing hormone, GA, in the regulation of FUS3 levels. We show that the ABA receptor mutant, pyl1-1, is less sensitive to ABA and thermoinhibition. In this mutant background, FUS3 degradation in vitro is faster. Similarly, GA alleviates thermoinhibition and also increases FUS3 degradation. These results indicate that inhibition of FUS3 degradation at high temperature is dependent on a high ABA/GA ratio and a functional ABA signaling pathway. Thus, FUS3 constitutes an important node in ABA-GA crosstalk during germination at supra-optimal temperature.

  9. Effect of junction temperature on the large-signal properties of a 94 GHz silicon based double-drift region impact avalanche transit time device (United States)

    Acharyya, Aritra; Banerjee, Suranjana; Banerjee, J. P.


    The authors have developed a large-signal simulation technique extending an in-house small-signal simulation code for analyzing a 94 GHz double-drift region impact avalanche transit time device based on silicon with a non-sinusoidal voltage excitation and studied the effect of junction temperature between 300 and 550 K on the large-signal characteristics of the device for both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed modes of operation. Results show that the large-signal RF power output of the device in both CW and pulsed modes increases with the increase of voltage modulation factor up to 60%, but decreases sharply with further increase of voltage modulation factor for a particular junction temperature; while the same parameter increases with the increase of junction temperature for a particular voltage modulation factor. Heat sinks made of copper and type-IIA diamond are designed to carry out the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of the device operating in CW and pulsed modes respectively. Authors have adopted Olson's method to carry out the transient analysis of the device, which clearly establishes the superiority of type-IIA diamond over copper as the heat sink material of the device from the standpoint of the undesirable effect of frequency chirping due to thermal transients in the pulsed mode.

  10. A comparative study of the luminescence characteristics of polymineral fine grains and coarse-grained K-, and Na-rich feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.


    °C indicate that the signal stabilities are similar among the different feldspar types, when a higher preheat temperature (>320 °C) is used. Thermal activation energies for IRSL and pIRIR signals are largest in K-feldspar and smallest in polymineral fine grains, in both blue and UV detection windows...

  11. Preliminary study of the application of natural olivine in Cenozoic dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Masashi [Department of Geography, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Tani, Atsushi [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Shimada, Aiko [Department of Geography, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)


    The study investigated the luminescence behaviour of natural olivine to discuss the potential for Cenozoic (quaternary) dating. The UV-blue thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of irradiated olivines have a resolved peak at 190 deg. C and other peaks at higher temperature at lower dose levels, and broad signals around 275-310 and 375-400 deg. C at higher dose levels. The UV-blue TL increases with additional laboratory dose to {approx}1.6kGy within a plateau temperature region, suggesting the possibility of dosimetry and Cenozoic dating. Both infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and blue light stimulated luminescence (BLSL) were detected from laboratory-irradiated olivines although the BLSL was weaker than the IRSL. Furthermore, post-BL IRSL was detected but post-IR BLSL was not observed. Therefore, IR stimulation is recommended for optically stimulated luminescence measurements with natural olivine. The growth of the IRSL signal component with doses less than several tens of Gy are too weak to measure. The dose-response curves suggest that further investigations on various types of olivine are needed for practical IRSL dating in the late Pleistocene or more recent.

  12. Seismic activity and thermal regime of low temperature fumaroles at Mt. Vesuvius in 2004-2011: distinguishing among seismic, volcanic and hydrological signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cusano


    Full Text Available Seismological, soil temperature and hydrological data from Mt. Vesuvius are collected to characterize the present-day activity of the volcanic/hydrothermal system and to detect possible unrest-related phenomena. We present patterns of seismicity and soil temperature in the crater area during the period February 2004-December 2011. The temporal distribution of number and depth of Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes and the energy release are considered. Hourly data of soil temperature have been acquired since January 2004 in different locations along the rim and within the crater. The observed changes of temperature are studied to establish a temporal-based correlation with the volcanic activity and/or with external forcing, as variations of the regional and local stress field acting on the volcano or meteorological phenomena. The comparison between seismic activity and temperature data highlights significant variations possibly related to changes in fluid circulation in the hydrothermal system of the volcano. The common continuous observations start just before a very shallow earthquake occurred in August 2005, which was preceded by a thermal anomaly. This coincidence has been interpreted as related to fluid-driven rock fracturing, as observed in other volcanoes. For the successive temporal patterns, the seismicity rate and energy release are characterized by slight variations accompanied by changes in temperature. This evidence of reactivity of the fumarole thermal field to seismic strain can be used to discriminate between tectonic and volcanic signals at Mt. Vesuvius.

  13. Diamagnetic Torque Signal and Temperature-Dependent Paramagnetism in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Mochiku, Takashi; Ooi, Shuichi; Hirata, Kazuto; Sugii, Kaori; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya


    Magnetic torque and resistance measurements for the superconducting cuprate Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ with Tc = 87 K have been performed to determine the phase diagram in a parallel magnetic field fields up to 14 T. The anisotropy of the magnetization, derived from the torque, is found to decrease with decreasing temperature below 125 K, which can be ascribed to the temperature dependent paramagnetic spin susceptibility. The angular dependence of the torque clearly shows small diamagnetism due to fluctuating or inhomogeneous superconductivity at temperatures between Tc and ˜100 K. The results suggest that the pseudogap is not of superconducting origin.

  14. Recent advance in high manufacturing readiness level and high temperature CMOS mixed-signal integrated circuits on silicon carbide (United States)

    Weng, M. H.; Clark, D. T.; Wright, S. N.; Gordon, D. L.; Duncan, M. A.; Kirkham, S. J.; Idris, M. I.; Chan, H. K.; Young, R. A. R.; Ramsay, E. P.; Wright, N. G.; Horsfall, A. B.


    A high manufacturing readiness level silicon carbide (SiC) CMOS technology is presented. The unique process flow enables the monolithic integration of pMOS and nMOS transistors with passive circuit elements capable of operation at temperatures of 300 °C and beyond. Critical to this functionality is the behaviour of the gate dielectric and data for high temperature capacitance-voltage measurements are reported for SiO2/4H-SiC (n and p type) MOS structures. In addition, a summary of the long term reliability for a range of structures including contact chains to both n-type and p-type SiC, as well as simple logic circuits is presented, showing function after 2000 h at 300 °C. Circuit data is also presented for the performance of digital logic devices, a 4 to 1 analogue multiplexer and a configurable timer operating over a wide temperature range. A high temperature micro-oven system has been utilised to enable the high temperature testing and stressing of units assembled in ceramic dual in line packages, including a high temperature small form-factor SiC based bridge leg power module prototype, operated for over 1000 h at 300 °C. The data presented show that SiC CMOS is a key enabling technology in high temperature integrated circuit design. In particular it provides the ability to realise sensor interface circuits capable of operating above 300 °C, accommodate shifts in key parameters enabling deployment in applications including automotive, aerospace and deep well drilling.

  15. Climate signals in a multispecies tree-ring network from central and southern Italy and reconstruction of the late summer temperatures since the early 1700s (United States)

    Leonelli, Giovanni; Coppola, Anna; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Baroni, Carlo; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Gentilesca, Tiziana; Ripullone, Francesco; Borghetti, Marco; Conte, Emanuele; Tognetti, Roberto; Marchetti, Marco; Lombardi, Fabio; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Pelfini, Manuela; Cherubini, Paolo; Provenzale, Antonello; Maggi, Valter


    A first assessment of the main climatic drivers that modulate the tree-ring width (RW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) along the Italian Peninsula and northeastern Sicily was performed using 27 forest sites, which include conifers (RW and MXD) and broadleaves (only RW). Tree-ring data were compared using the correlation analysis of the monthly and seasonal variables of temperature, precipitation and standardized precipitation index (SPI, used to characterize meteorological droughts) against each species-specific site chronology and against the highly sensitive to climate (HSTC) chronologies (based on selected indexed individual series). We find that climate signals in conifer MXD are stronger and more stable over time than those in conifer and broadleaf RW. In particular, conifer MXD variability is directly influenced by the late summer (August, September) temperature and is inversely influenced by the summer precipitation and droughts (SPI at a timescale of 3 months). The MXD sensitivity to August-September (AS) temperature and to summer drought is mainly driven by the latitudinal gradient of summer precipitation amounts, with sites in the northern Apennines showing stronger climate signals than sites in the south. Conifer RW is influenced by the temperature and drought of the previous summer, whereas broadleaf RW is more influenced by summer precipitation and drought of the current growing season. The reconstruction of the late summer temperatures for the Italian Peninsula for the past 300 years, based on the HSTC chronology of conifer MXD, shows a stable model performance that underlines periods of climatic cooling (and likely also wetter conditions) in 1699, 1740, 1814, 1914 and 1938, and follows well the variability of the instrumental record and of other tree-ring-based reconstructions in the region. Considering a 20-year low-pass-filtered series, the reconstructed temperature record consistently deviates influence the tree-ring MXD at our study sites. The

  16. Study of sensitivity change of OSL signals from quartz and feldspars as a function of preheat temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungner, H.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.


    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals from feldspar and quartz samples were studied using infrared (860 nm) and green light (420-575 nm) stimulation. A serious problem connected with the regeneration technique used for dating is associated with a change of OSL sensitivity to radiation...... in the couse of the measurement process. A typical effect seen is a large increase of the apparent strength of our beta source when calibrated against a gamma source. If the regeneration procedure is used, it is shown that the sensitivity increases up to similar to 50% during the measurement process...

  17. O-Fucose Monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch Has a Temperature-sensitive Function and Cooperates with O-Glucose Glycan in Notch Transport and Notch Signaling Activation* (United States)

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O.; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji


    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1R245A knock-in), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1R245A knock-in and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions. PMID:25378397

  18. O-fucose monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch has a temperature-sensitive function and cooperates with O-glucose glycan in Notch transport and Notch signaling activation. (United States)

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji


    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1(R245A knock-in)), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1(R245A knock-in) and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. A possible high-mobility signal in bulk MoTe2: Temperature independent weak phonon decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titao Li


    Full Text Available Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs have attracted great attention due to their non-zero bandgap for potential application in high carrier mobility devices. Recent studies demonstrate that the carrier mobility of MoTe2 would decrease by orders of magnitude when used for few-layer transistors. As phonon scattering has a significant influence on carrier mobility of layered material, here, we first reported temperature-dependent Raman spectra of bulk 2H-MoTe2 from 80 to 300 K and discovered that the phonon lifetime of both E12g and A1g vibration modes are independent with temperature. These results were explained by the weak phonon decay in MoTe2. Our results imply the existence of a carrier mobility higher than the theoretical value in intrinsic bulk 2H-MoTe2 and the feasibility to obtain MoTe2-based transistors with sufficiently high carrier mobility.

  20. Short-day signals are crucial for the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Begonia semperflorens under low temperature condition. (United States)

    Zhang, Kai Ming; Wang, Jia Wan; Guo, Mei Li; Du, Wen Li; Wu, Rong Hua; Wang, Xian


    The leaves of Begonia semperflorens accumulate anthocyanins and turn red in autumn in sub-temperate areas. This induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in autumn has been attributed to the effects of low temperature, but the effects of different light regimes on this process are still being debated. In the present work, short days were found to be necessary for anthocyanin biosynthesis at low temperature. Under the same low-temperature conditions, Begonia seedlings grown under the short-day condition accumulated more carbohydrates and abscisic acid (ABA), which both induce anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, fewer carbohydrates and more gibberellin (GA) accumulated under the long-day conditions to maintain growth, which blocked anthocyanin biosynthesis and resulted in a lack of increases in the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and flavonoid-3-O-glucosyl transferase (UFGT). Consequently, carbon flux, which was altered due to the blockade of anthocyanin synthesis, was channelled into the production of quercetin and phenolic acids but not lignin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacts of light and temperature on shoot branching gradient and expression of strigolactone synthesis and signalling genes in rose. (United States)

    Djennane, Samia; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, Laurence; Kawamura, Koji; Lalanne, David; Laffaire, Michel; Thouroude, Tatiana; Chalain, Séverine; Sakr, Soulaiman; Boumaza, Rachid; Foucher, Fabrice; Leduc, Nathalie


    Light and temperature are two environmental factors that deeply affect bud outgrowth. However, little is known about their impact on the bud burst gradient along a stem and their interactions with the molecular mechanisms of bud burst control. We investigated this question in two acrotonic rose cultivars. We demonstrated that the darkening of distal buds or exposure to cold (5 °C) prior to transfer to mild temperatures (20 °C) both repress acrotony, allowing the burst of quiescent medial and proximal buds. We sequenced the strigolactone pathway MAX-homologous genes in rose and studied their expression in buds and internodes along the stem. Only expressions of RwMAX1, RwMAX2 and RwMAX4 were detected. Darkening of the distal part of the shoot triggered a strong increase of RwMAX2 expression in darkened buds and bark-phloem samples, whereas it suppressed the acropetal gradient of the expression of RwMAX1 observed in stems fully exposed to light. Cold treatment induced an acropetal gradient of expression of RwMAX1 in internodes and of RwMAX2 in buds along the stem. Our results suggest that the bud burst gradient along the stem cannot be explained by a gradient of expression of RwMAX genes but rather by their local level of expression at each individual position. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The anatomical study of the major signal points of the court-type Thai traditional massage on legs and their effects on blood flow and skin temperature. (United States)

    Viravud, Yadaridee; Apichartvorakit, Angkana; Mutirangura, Pramook; Plakornkul, Vasana; Roongruangchai, Jantima; Vannabhum, Manmas; Laohapand, Tawee; Akarasereenont, Pravit


    This study aims to investigate the relationship between major signal points (MaSPs) of the lower extremities used in court-type Thai traditional massage (CTTM) and the corresponding underlying anatomical structures, as well as to determine the short-term changes in blood flow and skin temperature of volunteers experiencing CTTM. MaSPs were identified and marked on cadavers before acrylic color was injected. The underlying structures marked with acrylic colors were observed and the anatomical structures were determined. Then, pressure was applied to each MaSP in human volunteers (lateral side of leg and medial side of leg) and blood flow on right dorsalis pedis artery was measured using duplex ultrasound while skin temperature changes were monitored using an infrared themographic camera. Short-term changes in the blood flow parameters, volume flow and average velocity, compared to baseline (P massage can stimulate skin blood flow because results showed increased skin temperature and blood flow characteristics. While these results were statistically significant, they may not be clinically relevant, as the present study focused on the immediate physiological effect of manipulation, rather than treatment effects. Thus, this study will serve as baseline data for further clinical studies in CTTM.

  3. Assessing OSL signal contamination with the composition test (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Daniels, J. T.; Rhodes, E. J.


    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) has been applied towards the dating of many geomorphologic contexts and surface processes. The evolution of fluvial systems have been extensively studied using OSL (e.g. Rittenour, 2008), but has yet to overcome the limitations for quartz based OSL dating of fluvial sediments in active tectonic areas. Unfortunately, quartz in these regions is often characterized by weak OSL emissions and can suffer from signal contamination from small mineral inclusions. The OSL signal contributions from these inclusions may dominate the measured signal, given that feldspar often has an inherently brighter signal than quartz. Previously, we presented a signal composition test (Lawson et al., 2012) which utilizes thermal quenching and susceptibility to infrared bleaching to assess the contributions of quartz emissions to the total OSL signal. Additional measurements have been made, accessing how small volumes of feldspar can affect the results of aliquots tested with this composition test. Further, additional feldspar samples have been assessed for their response to the composition test, whose chemistry was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy. The test offers a new tool to determine the best strategy to access signal properties within varying dating contexts, delivering a way to access the best way to date sediments. Lawson, M., Roder, B., Stang, D., & Rhodes, E., 2012. OSL and IRSL characteristics of quartz and feldspar from southern California, USA. Radiation Measurements 47, 830-836. Rittenour, R.M, 2008. Luminescence dating of fluvial deposits: applications to geomorphic, paleoseismic and archaeological research. Boreas 37, 613-635.

  4. High-temperature superconducting quantum interference device with cooled LC resonant circuit for measuring alternating magnetic fields with improved signal-to-noise ratio. (United States)

    Qiu, Longqing; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I; Usoskin, Alexander


    Certain applications of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) require a magnetic field measurement only in a very narrow frequency range. In order to selectively improve the alternating-current (ac) magnetic field sensitivity of a high-temperature superconductor SQUID for a distinct frequency, a single-coil LC resonant circuit has been used. Within the liquid nitrogen bath, the coil surrounds the SQUID and couples to it inductively. Copper coils with different numbers of windings were used to cover the frequency range from circuit, the signal-to-noise ratio of measurements could be improved typically by one order of magnitude or more in a narrow frequency band around the resonance frequency exceeding a few kilohertz. The best attained equivalent magnetic field resolution was 2.5 fT/radicalHz at 88 kHz. The experimental findings are in good agreement with mathematical analysis of the circuit with copper coil.

  5. Sequential determination of norfloxaxin and levofloxacin in the presence of other fluorquinolones using synchronous scanning room-temperature phosphorimetry and Th (IV) as the selective signal inducer (United States)

    Nava-Júnior, I. S.; Aucelio, R. Q.


    The selective determination of norfloxacin in mixtures with other fluorquinolones was achieved by synchronous scanning solid surface room-temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) and Th(NO 3) 4 as selective phosphorescence inducer. The method also allowed the determination of levofloxacin in a sequential way. The optimization of experimental conditions was made through an univariate approach, in order to find the best conditions for norfloxacin phosphorescence, followed by a 2 3 factorial design in order to verify interaction among relevant variables, to check robustness for each variable and to perform final adjustment of parameters. Absolute limit of detection (ALOD) for norfloxacin was 12 ng with a linear signal response extending up to 400 ng. Under the same experimental conditions set for norfloxacin, the ALOD for levofloxacin was 13 ng with linear signal response up to 450 ng. Accuracy of the method, using Th (IV) as selective phosphorescence inducer, was evaluated through the analysis of commercial and simulated pharmaceutical formulations with recoveries between 94.4 and 101% for norfloxacin and 95.9 and 103.8% for levofloxacin. The use of Cd (II), a traditional phosphorescence inducer for fluorquinolones, did not allow selective determination of norfloxacin. Further studies indicated the potential application of the method in urine samples.

  6. Influence of temperature in TL signal induced by gamma radiation in zircon prepared by sol gel via; Influencia de la temperatura en la senal TL inducida por la radiacion gamma en zirconia preparada via solgel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, P.; Castano, V.M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Laboratorio Juriquilla, A.P. 1-1010, 76001 Queretaro (Mexico); Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R. [ININ, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosa C, E. de la [Centro de Investigaciones en Optical, Leon, Gto. (Mexico)


    In this work, it was realized a study of the temperature effects in thermoluminescent signal (Tl) induced by gamma radiation in zircon, which was prepared by the sol gel method. According to the obtained results, the zircon thermically treated at 500 C or over is sensitive to radiation. This sensitivity is increased when the temperature in study is augmented, moreover, the Tl spectra form also is modified with the temperature increment. The samples thermically treated at 750 C or over present a linear response in the dose interval 27 to 165 Gy; therefore, such materials result promissories for dosimetric purposes. (Author)

  7. Characterization of the mrgRS locus of the opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei: temperature regulates the expression of a two-component signal transduction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dance David AB


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophyte in tropical environments and an opportunistic human pathogen. This versatility requires a sensing mechanism that allows the bacterium to respond rapidly to altered environmental conditions. We characterized a two-component signal transduction locus from B. pseudomallei 204, mrgR and mrgS, encoding products with extensive homology with response regulators and histidine protein kinases of Escherichia coli, Bordetella pertussis, and Vibrio cholerae. Results The locus was present and expressed in a variety of B. pseudomallei human and environmental isolates but was absent from other Burkholderia species, B. cepacia, B. cocovenenans, B. plantarii, B. thailandensis, B. vandii, and B. vietnamiensis. A 2128 bp sequence, including the full response regulator mrgR, but not the sensor kinase mrgS, was present in the B. mallei genome. Restriction fragment length polymorphism downstream from mrgRS showed two distinct groups were present among B. pseudomallei isolates. Our analysis of the open reading frames in this region of the genome revealed that transposase and bacteriophage activity may help explain this variation. MrgR and MrgS proteins were expressed in B. pseudomallei 204 cultured at different pH, salinity and temperatures and the expression was substantially reduced at 25°C compared with 37°C or 42°C but was mostly unaffected by pH or salinity, although at 25°C and 0.15% NaCl a small increase in MrgR expression was observed at pH 5. MrgR was recognized by antibodies in convalescent sera pooled from melioidosis patients. Conclusion The results suggest that mrgRS regulates an adaptive response to temperature that may be essential for pathogenesis, particularly during the initial phases of infection. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are very closely related species that differ in their capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Modifications in this region of the genome may

  8. Thermal Resonance in Signal Transmission


    Reigada Sanz, Ramon; Sarmiento, Antonio; Lindenberg, Katja


    We use temperature tuning to control signal propagation in simple one-dimensional arrays of masses connected by hard anharmonic springs and with no local potentials. In our numerical model a sustained signal is applied at one site of a chain immersed in a thermal environment and the signal-to-noise ratio is measured at each oscillator. We show that raising the temperature can lead to enhanced signal propagation along the chain, resulting in thermal resonance effects akin to the resonance obse...

  9. Radiation-Hardening of Best-in-Class SiGe Mixed-Signal and RF Electronics for Ultra-Wide Temperature Range Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative, reliable, low-power, and low-noise electronics that can operate over a wide temperature range and high radiation are critical for future NASA missions....

  10. Temperature Monitoring System Based on PLC


    Shoucheng Ding; Wenhui Li


    The programmable controller is an industrial control computer; it is the new automatic device inherited computer, automatic control technology and communication technology. System temperature signal detected by the temperature sensor. The temperature transmitter will be the temperature value converted into a voltage signal of 0-10V into PLC. PLC voltage signal setting compared to the temperature deviation after PID operation; the system will issue a temperature control signal to reach the ele...

  11. The primary signal in the biological perception of temperature: Pd-catalyzed hydrogenation of membrane lipids stimulated the expression of the desA gene in Synechocystis PCC6803. (United States)

    Vigh, L; Los, D A; Horváth, I; Murata, N


    One of the well-characterized phenomena associated with the acclimation of organisms to changes in ambient temperature is the regulation of the molecular motion or "fluidity" of membrane lipids via changes in the extent of unsaturation of the fatty acids of membrane lipids. The enzymes responsible for this process when the temperature is decreased are the desaturases, the activities of which are enhanced at low temperature. To examine whether the change in the fluidity of membrane lipids is the first event that signals a change in temperature, we studied the effect of the Pd-catalyzed hydrogenation of membrane lipids on the expression of the desA gene, which is responsible for the desaturation of fatty acids of membrane lipids in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. The Pd-catalyzed hydrogenation of plasma membrane lipids stimulated the expression of the desA gene. We also found that, for unexplained reasons, the hydrogenation was much more specific to a minor phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol, than to members of other lipid classes. These results suggest that the organism perceives a decrease in the fluidity of plasma membrane lipids when it is exposed to a decrease in temperature.

  12. Temperature reconstruction and volcanic eruption signal from tree-ring width and maximum latewood density over the past 304 years in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Li, Mingqi; Huang, Lei; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Shao, Xuemei


    This study presents a 304-year mean July-October maximum temperature reconstruction for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau based on both tree-ring width and maximum latewood density data. The reconstruction explained 58% of the variance in July-October maximum temperature during the calibration period (1958-2005). On the decadal scale, we identified two prominent cold periods during AD 1801-1833 and 1961-2003 and two prominent warm periods during AD 1730-1800 and 1928-1960, which are consistent with other reconstructions from the nearby region. Based on the reconstructed temperature series and volcanic eruption chronology, we found that most extreme cold years were in good agreement with major volcanic eruptions, such as 1816 after the Tambora eruption in 1815. Also, clusters of volcanic eruptions probably made the 1810s the coldest decade in the past 300 years. Our results indicated that fingerprints of major volcanic eruptions can be found in the reconstructed temperature records, while the responses of regional climate to these eruption events varied in space and time in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Temperature reconstruction and volcanic eruption signal from tree-ring width and maximum latewood density over the past 304 years in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Li, Mingqi; Huang, Lei; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Shao, Xuemei


    This study presents a 304-year mean July-October maximum temperature reconstruction for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau based on both tree-ring width and maximum latewood density data. The reconstruction explained 58% of the variance in July-October maximum temperature during the calibration period (1958-2005). On the decadal scale, we identified two prominent cold periods during AD 1801-1833 and 1961-2003 and two prominent warm periods during AD 1730-1800 and 1928-1960, which are consistent with other reconstructions from the nearby region. Based on the reconstructed temperature series and volcanic eruption chronology, we found that most extreme cold years were in good agreement with major volcanic eruptions, such as 1816 after the Tambora eruption in 1815. Also, clusters of volcanic eruptions probably made the 1810s the coldest decade in the past 300 years. Our results indicated that fingerprints of major volcanic eruptions can be found in the reconstructed temperature records, while the responses of regional climate to these eruption events varied in space and time in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Dependence of (anomalous) fading of infra-red stimulated luminescence on trap occupancy in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthekai, P.; Jain, Mayank; Gach, Grzegorz


    Dose dependency of anomalous fading of infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) from feldspars has been investigated using radiations of different ionisation qualities. The rate of fading of the IRSL signal after proton irradiation (9.4–30%/decade) is on an average almost twice compared to that a......Dose dependency of anomalous fading of infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) from feldspars has been investigated using radiations of different ionisation qualities. The rate of fading of the IRSL signal after proton irradiation (9.4–30%/decade) is on an average almost twice compared...

  15. Signal Words (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  16. Gigabit free-space multi-level signal transmission with a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser operating at room temperature


    Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Schatz, Richard; Storck, Joakim; Udalcovs, Aleksejs; Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo; Kakkar, Aditya; Maisons, Gregory; Carras, Mathieu; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Popov, Sergei; Lourdudoss, Sebastian


    Gigabit free-space transmissions are experimentally demon-strated with a quantum cascaded laser (QCL) emitting at mid-wavelength infrared of 4.65 mu m, and a commercial infrared photovoltaic detector. The QCL operating at room temperature is directly modulated using on - off keying and, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, four-and eight-level pulse amplitude modulations (PAM-4, PAM-8). By applying pre- and post-digital equalizations, we achieve up to 3 Gbit/s line data rate in a...

  17. Interferometric microwave radiometers for high-resolution imaging of the atmosphere brightness temperature based on the adaptive Capon signal processing algorithm. (United States)

    Park, Hyuk; Choi, Junho; Katkovnik, Vladimir; Kim, Yonghoon


    Passive microwave remote sensing from satellites and ground stations has contributed uniquely, and substantially, to the study of atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, and environmental monitoring. As user requirements are raised, in terms of the accuracy and the spatial resolution, a mechanically scanning radiometer, with a real aperture, becomes impractical due to the requirement for a very large antenna size. However, an aperture synthesis interferometric radiometer presents a valuable alternative. The work presented in this paper was devoted to high spatial resolution imaging, using the 37 GHz band interferometric radiometer, developed by ourselves. The spatially adaptive Capon beamforming method was exploited for the imaging, which outperformed the conventional Fourier Transform method. We concluded that the high spatial resolution imaging of the brightness temperature of the atmosphere could be accomplished with an interferometric radiometer equipped with the developed Capon beamforming imaging algorithm.

  18. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor)


    A rare earth optical temperature sensor is disclosed for measuring high temperatures. Optical temperature sensors exist that channel emissions from a sensor to a detector using a light pipe. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform the sensed thermal energy into a narrow band width optical signal that travels to a detector using a light pipe. An optical bandpass filter at the detector removes any noise signal outside of the band width of the signal from the emitter.

  19. Temperature transducer has high output, is time stable (United States)

    Follett, W. H.


    Compact, lightweight temperature transducer requires no amplification of its output signal and is time stable. It uses the temperature-dependent characteristics of a silicon transistor to provide a zero-to-five-volt signal proportional to temperature.

  20. Signaling aggression. (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T


    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-grain dating of young sediments using the pIRIR signal from feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Tony; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Jain, Mayank


    In this article we test for the first time the potential of single-grains of K-rich feldspar to date well-bleached and poorly bleached sediments using a post-IR IRSL (pIRIR) protocol. We measure natural dose distributions using K-rich feldspars from four coastal samples applying the pIRIR protoco...

  2. Separation of Climate Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C; Fodor, I


    Understanding changes in global climate is a challenging scientific problem. Simulated and observed data include signals from many sources, and untangling their respective effects is difficult. In order to make meaningful comparisons between different models, and to understand human effects on global climate, we need to isolate the effects of different sources. Recent eruptions of the El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo volcanoes coincided with large El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, which complicates the separation of their contributions on global temperatures. Current approaches for separating volcano and ENSO signals in global mean data involve parametric models and iterative techniques [3]. We investigate alternative methods based on principal component analysis (PCA) [2] and independent component analysis (ICA) [1]. Our goal is to determine if such techniques can automatically identify the signals corresponding to the different sources, without relying on parametric models.

  3. Late-onset temperature reduction can retard the aging process in aged fish via a combined action of an anti-oxidant system and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathway. (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Chang, Qingyun; Wang, Yu; Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui


    Two different mechanisms are considered to be related to aging. Cumulative molecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), the by-products of oxidative phosphorylation, is one of these mechanisms (ROS concept). Deregulated nutrient sensing by the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway is the second mechanism (IIS concept). Temperature reduction (TR) is known to modulate aging and prolong life span in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we first demonstrate that late-onset TR from 26 °C to 22 °C extends mean life span and maximum life span by approximately 5.2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri. We then show that TR is able to decrease the accumulation of the histological aging markers senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) in the epithelium and lipofuscin (LF) in the liver and to reduce protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels in the muscle. We also show that TR can enhance the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and stimulate the synthesis of SirT1 and FOXO3A/FOXO1A, both of which are the downstream regulators of the IIS pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that late-onset TR, a simple non-intrusion intervention, can retard the aging process in aged fish, resulting in their life span extension, via a synergistic action of an anti-oxidant system and the IIS pathway. This also suggests that combined assessment of the ROS and IIS concepts will contribute to providing a more comprehensive view of the anti-aging process.

  4. Gibberellin signaling. (United States)

    Hartweck, Lynn M


    This review covers recent advances in gibberellin (GA) signaling. GA signaling is now understood to hinge on DELLA proteins. DELLAs negatively regulate GA response by activating the promoters of several genes including Xerico, which upregulates the abscisic acid pathway which is antagonistic to GA. DELLAs also promote transcription of the GA receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1 (GID1) and indirectly regulate GA biosynthesis genes enhancing GA responsiveness and feedback control. A structural analysis of GID1 provides a model for understanding GA signaling. GA binds within a pocket of GID1, changes GID1 conformation and increases the affinity of GID1 for DELLA proteins. GA/GID1/DELLA has increased affinity for an F-Box protein and DELLAs are subsequently degraded via the proteasome. Therefore, GA induces growth through degradation of the DELLAs. The binding of DELLA proteins to three of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) proteins integrates light and GA signaling pathways. This binding prevents PIFs 3, 4, and 5 from functioning as positive transcriptional regulators of growth in the dark. Since PIFs are degraded in light, these PIFs can only function in the combined absence of light and presence of GA. New analyses suggest that GA signaling evolved at the same time or just after the plant vascular system and before plants acquired the capacity for seed reproduction. An analysis of sequences cloned from Physcomitrella suggests that GID1 and DELLAs were the first to evolve but did not initially interact. The more recently diverging spike moss Selaginella has all the genes required for GA biosynthesis and signaling, but the role of GA response in Selaginella physiology remains a mystery.

  5. Micromechanical Signal Processors (United States)

    Nguyen, Clark Tu-Cuong

    Completely monolithic high-Q micromechanical signal processors constructed of polycrystalline silicon and integrated with CMOS electronics are described. The signal processors implemented include an oscillator, a bandpass filter, and a mixer + filter--all of which are components commonly required for up- and down-conversion in communication transmitters and receivers, and all of which take full advantage of the high Q of micromechanical resonators. Each signal processor is designed, fabricated, then studied with particular attention to the performance consequences associated with miniaturization of the high-Q element. The fabrication technology which realizes these components merges planar integrated circuit CMOS technologies with those of polysilicon surface micromachining. The technologies are merged in a modular fashion, where the CMOS is processed in the first module, the microstructures in a following separate module, and at no point in the process sequence are steps from each module intermixed. Although the advantages of such modularity include flexibility in accommodating new module technologies, the developed process constrained the CMOS metallization to a high temperature refractory metal (tungsten metallization with TiSi _2 contact barriers) and constrained the micromachining process to long-term temperatures below 835^circC. Rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) was used to relieve residual stress in the mechanical structures. To reduce the complexity involved with developing this merged process, capacitively transduced resonators are utilized. High-Q single resonator and spring-coupled micromechanical resonator filters are also investigated, with particular attention to noise performance, bandwidth control, and termination design. The noise in micromechanical filters is found to be fairly high due to poor electromechanical coupling on the micro-scale with present-day technologies. Solutions to this high series resistance problem are suggested, including smaller

  6. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies has developed several new dielectrics for high temperature applications including signal conditioning, filtering and energy...

  7. Prosocial Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha

    In contrast to the standard economic theory predictions, it seems clear that people do spend their time and resource to benefit others. Many lab and field experiment studies show that people display prosocial preferences such as altruism, reciprocity and conditional cooperation, fairness, etc...... signalling can cause reverse price reactions resembling the crowding-out of pre-existing motives for prosocial behavior seen in situations of volunteering and charitable giving. Using a unique combination of questionnaire and purchase panel data, it presents evidence of such reputation-driven reverse price...

  8. Digital Signal Processing Based Biotelemetry Receivers (United States)

    Singh, Avtar; Hines, John; Somps, Chris


    This is an attempt to develop a biotelemetry receiver using digital signal processing technology and techniques. The receiver developed in this work is based on recovering signals that have been encoded using either Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) or Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) technique. A prototype has been developed using state-of-the-art digital signal processing technology. A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is being developed based on the technique and technology described here. This board is intended to be used in the UCSF Fetal Monitoring system developed at NASA. The board is capable of handling a variety of PPM and PCM signals encoding signals such as ECG, temperature, and pressure. A signal processing program has also been developed to analyze the received ECG signal to determine heart rate. This system provides a base for using digital signal processing in biotelemetry receivers and other similar applications.

  9. Temperature measurement (United States)

    ... an oral temperature. Other factors to take into account are: In general, rectal temperatures are considered to ... URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  10. Temperature analysis with voltage-current time differential operation of electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Leta Yar-Li; Glass, Robert Scott; Fitzpatrick, Joseph Jay; Wang, Gangqiang; Henderson, Brett Tamatea; Lourdhusamy, Anthoniraj; Steppan, James John; Allmendinger, Klaus Karl


    A method for temperature analysis of a gas stream. The method includes identifying a temperature parameter of an affected waveform signal. The method also includes calculating a change in the temperature parameter by comparing the affected waveform signal with an original waveform signal. The method also includes generating a value from the calculated change which corresponds to the temperature of the gas stream.

  11. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  12. Signal transduction during cold stress in plants. (United States)

    Solanke, Amolkumar U; Sharma, Arun K


    Cold stress signal transduction is a complex process. Many physiological changes like tissue break down and senescence occur due to cold stress. Low temperature is initially perceived by plasma membrane either due to change in membrane fluidity or with the help of sensors like Ca(2+) permeable channels, histidine kinases, receptor kinases and phospholipases. Subsequently, cytoskeleton reorganization and cytosolic Ca(2+) influx takes place. Increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) is sensed by CDPKs, phosphatase and MAPKs, which transduce the signals to switch on transcriptional cascades. Photosynthetic apparatus have also been thought to be responsible for low temperature perception and signal transduction. Many cold induced pathways are activated to protect plants from deleterious effects of cold stress, but till date, most studied pathway is ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway. However, the importance of CBF independent pathways in cold acclimation is supported by few Arabidopsis mutants' studies. Cold stress signaling has certain pathways common with other abiotic and biotic stress signaling which suggest cross-talks among these. Most of the economically important crops are sensitive to low temperature, but very few studies are available on cold susceptible crop plants. Therefore, it is necessary to understand signal transducing components from model plants and utilize that knowledge to improve survival of cold sensitive crop plants at low temperature.

  13. One laser pulse generates two photoacoustic signals

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin


    Photoacoustic sensing and imaging techniques have been studied widely to explore optical absorption contrast based on nanosecond laser illumination. In this paper, we report a long laser pulse induced dual photoacoustic (LDPA) nonlinear effect, which originates from unsatisfied stress and thermal confinements. Being different from conventional short laser pulse illumination, the proposed method utilizes a long square-profile laser pulse to induce dual photoacoustic signals. Without satisfying the stress confinement, the dual photoacoustic signals are generated following the positive and negative edges of the long laser pulse. More interestingly, the first expansion-induced photoacoustic signal exhibits positive waveform due to the initial sharp rising of temperature. On the contrary, the second contraction-induced photoacoustic signal exhibits exactly negative waveform due to the falling of temperature, as well as pulse-width-dependent, signal amplitude which is caused by the concurrent heat accumulation and ...

  14. Continuous-time signals

    CERN Document Server

    Shmaliy, Yuriy


    Gives a modern description of continuous-time deterministic signals Signal formation techniquesTime vs. frequency and frequency vs. time analysisCorrelation and energy analysisNarrowband signals and sampling.

  15. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B


    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  16. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control (United States)

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.


    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  17. Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation. (United States)

    Romanovsky, A A


    This review analyses whether skin temperature represents ambient temperature and serves as a feedforward signal for the thermoregulation system, or whether it is one of the body's temperatures and provides feedback. The body is covered mostly by hairy (non-glabrous) skin, which is typically insulated from the environment (with clothes in humans and with fur in non-human mammals). Thermal signals from hairy skin represent a temperature of the insulated superficial layer of the body and provide feedback to the thermoregulation system. It is explained that this feedback is auxiliary, both negative and positive, and that it reduces the system's response time and load error. Non-hairy (glabrous) skin covers specialized heat-exchange organs (e.g. the hand), which are also used to explore the environment. In thermoregulation, these organs are primarily effectors. Their main thermosensory-related role is to assess local temperatures of objects explored; these local temperatures are feedforward signals for various behaviours. Non-hairy skin also contributes to the feedback for thermoregulation, but this contribution is limited. Autonomic (physiological) thermoregulation does not use feedforward signals. Thermoregulatory behaviours use both feedback and feedforward signals. Implications of these principles to thermopharmacology, a new approach to achieving biological effects by blocking temperature signals with drugs, are discussed.

  18. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham


    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  19. Sensing temperature. (United States)

    Sengupta, Piali; Garrity, Paul


    Temperature is an omnipresent physical variable reflecting the rotational, vibrational and translational motion of matter, what Richard Feynman called the "jiggling" of atoms. Temperature varies across space and time, and this variation has dramatic effects on the physiology of living cells. It changes the rate and nature of chemical reactions, and it alters the configuration of the atoms that make up nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules, significantly affecting their activity. While life may have started in a "warm little pond", as Charles Darwin mused, the organisms that surround us today have only made it this far by devising sophisticated systems for sensing and responding to variations in temperature, and by using these systems in ways that allow them to persist and thrive in the face of thermal fluctuation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A new design for simultaneous temperature and strain measurement with spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Chen, Fuchang; Chen, Bai; Lin, Zunqi


    We design a new system for simultaneous distributed measurement of temperature and strain based on both spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered signals. The Raman signal can determine the temperature. Although the Brillouin frequency shift is dependent on both temperature and strain of fiber, once the temperature is determined from the Raman signal, the strain can then be computed from the frequency measurement of the Brillouin signal.

  1. Nanocomposite thin films for optical temperature sensing (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Brown, Thomas D.; Buric, Michael P.; Matranga, Christopher


    The disclosure relates to an optical method for temperature sensing utilizing a temperature sensing material. In an embodiment the gas stream, liquid, or solid has a temperature greater than about C. The temperature sensing material is comprised of metallic nanoparticles dispersed in a dielectric matrix. The metallic nanoparticles have an electronic conductivity greater than approximately 10.sup.-1 S/cm at the temperature of the temperature sensing material. The dielectric matrix has an electronic conductivity at least two orders of magnitude less than the dispersed metallic nanoparticles at the temperature of the temperature sensing material. In some embodiments, the chemical composition of a gas stream or liquid is simultaneously monitored by optical signal shifts through multiple or broadband wavelength interrogation approaches. In some embodiments, the dielectric matrix provides additional functionality due to a temperature dependent band-edge, an optimized chemical sensing response, or an optimized refractive index of the temperature sensing material for integration with optical waveguides.

  2. A detailed post-IR IRSL dating study of the Niuyangzigou loess site in northeastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Shuangwen; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew Sean


    are satisfactory. Extensive pIRIR50,290 dose recovery tests were performed by adding doses on top of the natural dose. We found that dose recovery ratios improve significantly when the test dose ranges between ~15 and ~80% of the total dose, and good dose recovery (within ±5% of unity) can be obtained up to ∼800...... Gy. Otherwise, the dose recovery ratio deviates from unity. The De values also depend on the test dose size and so we conclude that the effect of test dose size should be routinely considered in pIRIR dating. First IR stimulation plateau pIRIR290 results are compared with multiple elevated...

  3. Tissue temperature monitoring using thermoacoustic and photoacoustic techniques (United States)

    Pramanik, Manojit; Erpelding, Todd N.; Jankovic, Ladislav; Wang, Lihong V.


    Real-time temperature monitoring with high spatial resolution (~1 mm) and high temperature sensitivity (1 °C or better) is needed for the safe deposition of heat energy in surrounding healthy tissue and efficient destruction of tumor and abnormal cells during thermotherapy. A temperature sensing technique using thermoacoustic and photoacoustic measurements combined with a clinical Philips ultrasound imaging system (iU22) has been explored in this study. Using a tissue phantom, this noninvasive method has been demonstrated to have high temporal resolution and temperature sensitivity. Because both photoacoustic and thermoacoustic signal amplitudes depend on the temperature of the source object, the signal amplitudes can be used to monitor the temperature. The signal is proportional to the dimensionless Grueneisen parameter of the object, which in turn varies with the temperature of the object. A temperature sensitivity of 0.5 °C was obtained at a temporal resolution as short as 3.6 s with 50 signal averages.

  4. Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor (United States)

    Grimm, Noel P.; Bauer, Frank I.; Bengel, Thomas G.; Kothmann, Richard E.; Mavretish, Robert S.; Miller, Phillip E.; Nath, Raymond J.; Salton, Robert B.


    A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

  5. Low temperature (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; de Jong, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.


    Amorphous silicon films have been made by HWCVD at a very low substrate temperature of ≤ 100 °C (in a dynamic substrate heating mode) without artificial substrate cooling, through a substantial increase of the filament–substrate distance ( 80 mm) and using one straight tantalum filament. The

  6. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  7. Signal sciences workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.


    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing.

  8. Retinoid signalling during embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappel, W.W.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Durston, A.J.


    Conclusion: Retinoids are suspected to have multiple functions during embryogenesis, which are carried out via various different signal transduction pathways involving active retinoids and nuclear retinoid receptors. Research focuses on the identification of the retinoid signal transduction

  9. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin


    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  10. Tetrapyrrole Signaling in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Larkin


    Full Text Available Tetrapyrroles make critical contributions to a number of important processes in diverse organisms. In plants, tetrapyrroles are essential for light signaling, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the assimilation of nitrate and sulfate, respiration, photosynthesis, and programed cell death. Thus, it is not surprising that tetrapyrrole metabolism is strictly regulated and that tetrapyrrole metabolism affects signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In plants and algae, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and were some of the first plastid signals demonstrated to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plants, the mechanism of tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling remains poorly understood. Additionally, some of experiments that tested ideas for possible signaling mechanisms appeared to produce conflicting data. In some instances, these conflicts are potentially explained by different experimental conditions. Although the biological function of tetrapyrrole signaling is poorly understood, there is compelling evidence that this signaling is significant. Specifically, this signaling appears to affect the accumulation of starch and may promote abiotic stress tolerance. Tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling interacts with a distinct plastid-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that depends on GENOMES UNCUOPLED1 (GUN1. GUN1 contributes to a variety of processes, such as chloroplast biogenesis, the circadian rhythm, abiotic stress tolerance, and development. Thus, the contribution of tetrapyrrole signaling to plant function is potentially broader than we currently appreciate. In this review, I discuss these aspects of tetrapyrrole signaling.

  11. Growth factor signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, SW; Boonstra, J; Defize, LHK; Kruijer, W; Van der Saag, PT; Tertoolen, LGJ; Van Zoelen, JJ; Den Hertog, J


    Signalling between cells in the developing vertebrate embryo is essential for nomal embryonic development. In the mid 1970's, signal transduction research started at the Hubrecht Laboratory with special emphasis on analysis of the signalling mechanisms that direct cell proliferation and


    temperature distributions over the sun at several frequencies are presented. The method by which antenna temperature is evaluated, using the Philco...calculate the variation of carrier-to-noise ratio as an antenna scans toward the sun while receiving signals from a deep-space probe and from a random-orbit satellite.

  13. High temperature spectral gamma well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, R.A.; Henfling, J.A.


    A high temperature spectral gamma tool has been designed and built for use in small-diameter geothermal exploration wells. Several engineering judgments are discussed regarding operating parameters, well model selection, and signal processing. An actual well log at elevated temperatures is given with spectral gamma reading showing repeatability.

  14. The Signal Distribution System

    CERN Document Server

    Belohrad, D; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    For the purpose of LHC signal observation and high frequency signal distribution, the Signal Distribution System (SDS) was built. The SDS can contain up to 5 switching elements, where each element allows the user to switch between one of the maximum 8 bi-directional signals. The coaxial relays are used to switch the signals. Depending of the coaxial relay type used, the transfer bandwidth can go up to 18GHz. The SDS is controllable via TCP/IP, parallel port, or locally by rotary switch.

  15. Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor (United States)

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane


    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and reduction of drift due to aging for a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The offset voltage signal generated by each magnetic field sensor is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  16. Equivalent dose estimation using a single aliquot of polymineral fine grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, D.; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.


    a blue detection window, and also with expected values of D-e based on independent age estimates and measured dose rates. We conclude that post-IR blue-stimulated luminescence provides reliable estimates of D-e, and that these are probably superior to the IRSL estimates obtained using both near-UV......-stimulated luminescence, and (iii) blue-stimulated luminescence following infrared (IR) stimulation, using a near-UV (290-380 nm) detection window in each case. For these three signals, there is a significant change in sensitivity with regeneration cycle; this change can be compensated for using the response to a fixed...... test dose after each natural or regenerated measurement. The source of the three luminescence signals is then investigated using pulse-anneal and elevated-temperature experiments. Fading tests on laboratory-induced signals show that although the IR signals fade by up to 23% in 15 days at 100 degrees...

  17. Superluminal Signal Velocity


    Nimtz, Guenter


    It recently has been demonstrated that signals conveyed by evanescent modes can travel faster than light. In this report some special features of signals are introduced and investigated, for instance the fundamental property that signals are frequency band limited. Evanescent modes are characterized by extraordinary properties: Their energy is {\\it negative}, they are not directly measurable, and the evanescent region is not causal since the modes traverse this region instantaneously. The stu...

  18. Noncausal Superluminal Nonlocal Signalling


    Srikanth, R.


    We propose a thought experiment for classical superluminal signal transmission based on the quantum nonlocal influence of photons on their momentum entangled EPR twins. The signal sender measures either position or momentum of particles in a pure ensemble of the entangled pairs, leaving their twins as localized particles or plane waves. The signal receiver distinguishes these outcomes interferometrically using a double slit interferometer modified by a system of optical filters. Since the col...

  19. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M


    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  20. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V


    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  1. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten


    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  2. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten


    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  3. Ubiquitination in apoptosis signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kooij, L.W.


    The work described in this thesis focuses on ubiquitination and protein degradation, with an emphasis on how these processes regulate apoptosis signaling. More specifically, our aims were: 1. To increase the understanding of ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis signaling. 2. To identify the E3

  4. SignalR blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar


    This book is designed for software developers, primarily those with knowledge of C#, .NET, and JavaScript. Good knowledge and understanding of SignalR is assumed to allow efficient programming of core elements and applications in SignalR.

  5. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.


    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  6. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)


    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  7. Neutron signal transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pleinert, H; Lehmann, E


    A new method called neutron signal transfer analysis has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogenous distributions from neutron radiographic measurements. The technique is based on a model which describes the detector signal obtained in the measurement as a result of the action of three different mechanisms expressed by signal transfer functions. The explicit forms of the signal transfer functions are determined by Monte Carlo computer simulations and contain only the distribution as a variable. Therefore an unknown distribution can be determined from the detector signal by recursive iteration. This technique provides a simple and efficient tool for analysis of this type while also taking into account complex effects due to the energy dependency of neutron interaction and single and multiple scattering. Therefore this method provides an efficient tool for precise quantitative analysis using neutron radiography, as for example quantitative determination of moisture distributions in porous buil...

  8. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  9. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin


    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  10. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors (United States)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ericson, M. Nance


    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature.

  11. Plant cytokinin signalling. (United States)

    Keshishian, Erika A; Rashotte, Aaron M


    Cytokinin is an essential plant hormone that is involved in a wide range of plant growth and developmental processes which are controlled through its signalling pathway. Cytokinins are a class of molecules that are N(6)-substituted adenine derivatives, such as isopentenyl adenine, and trans- and cis-zeatin, which are common in most plants. The ability to perceive and respond to cytokinin occurs through a modified bacterial two-component pathway that functions via a multi-step phosphorelay. This cytokinin signalling process is a crucial part of almost all stages of plant life, from embryo patterning to apical meristem regulation, organ development and eventually senescence. The cytokinin signalling pathway involves the co-ordination of three types of proteins: histidine kinase receptors to perceive the signal, histidine phosphotransfer proteins to relay the signal, and response regulators to provide signal output. This pathway contains both positive and negative elements that function in a complex co-ordinated manner to control cytokinin-regulated plant responses. Although much is known about how this cytokinin signal is perceived and initially regulated, there are still many avenues that need to be explored before the role of cytokinin in the control of plant processes is fully understood. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Temperature Modulation of a Catalytic Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Brauns


    Full Text Available The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additional information about the gas characteristics can be measured and drift effects caused by material shifting or environmental temperature changes can be avoided. In this work a miniaturized catalytic gas sensor which offers a very short response time (<150 ms was developed. Operation with modulated temperature allows analysis of the signal spectrum with advanced information content, based on the Arrhenius approach. Therefore, a high-precise electronic device was developed, since theory shows that harmonics induced by the electronics must be avoided to generate a comprehensible signal.

  13. Firing temperature of pottery using TL and OSL techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeris, G.S. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Sakalis, A. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Papadopoulou, D. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Department of Science, School of Technological Applications, Technological Educational Institute of Kavala, Agios Loukas, Kavala 65404 (Greece); Dallas, G. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi GR-67100 (Greece); Kitis, G. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece)], E-mail:


    Several methods of thermal analysis are used to determine in the laboratory the firing temperature of ancient ceramic sherds. These methods are based primarily on changes of physical characteristics occurring when clay minerals are heated. The luminescence properties of quartz grains in a ceramic matrix also undergo certain changes during firing. The possibility of measuring the sensitivity change (sensitization) of quartz in order to determine the firing temperature of archeological ceramic artifacts was investigated. The sensitivity change was studied for both the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal for a ceramic sample of known firing temperature. Various segments of the sample were annealed to a different temperature. Subsequently, the initial sensitivity, as well as the thermal and the pre-dose sensitization were measured for both TL and OSL at room temperature as a function of the annealing temperature. The obtained TL glow curves showed different shapes for annealing temperatures above the firing temperature. Thermal and pre-dose sensitizations also exhibited a similar, although less prominent, rise. The OSL signal was analyzed by integrating the raw signal over the initial second of stimulation. The initial sensitivity showed an abrupt change for annealing temperatures around the firing temperature. An alternative approach used for the analysis of the OSL signal involved a full-component resolved sensitization study. The same abrupt change for the initial sensitivity of both the first and second components was observed, as well as, a clear but not very prominent thermal sensitization trend for annealing temperatures above the firing temperature.

  14. A robust feldspar luminescence dating method for Middle and Late Pleistocene sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.


    Luminescence dating is used extensively to provide absolute chronologies for Late Pleistocene sediments. Nowadays, most optical dates are based on quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). However, the application of this signal is usually limited to the last ~100 ka because of saturation...... that this IRSL signal is unstable, and this instability often gives rise to significant age underestimation. Here we test against independent age control the recently developed feldspar post-IR IRSL approach to the dating of sediments, which appears to avoid signal instability. A physical model explaining our...... of the quartz luminescence signal with dose. In contrast, the feldspar infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dose–response curve grows to much higher doses; this has the potential to extend the datable age range by a factor of 4–5 compared with quartz OSL. However, it has been known for several decades...

  15. Signal flow analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, J R; Hiller, N


    Signal Flow Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of signal flow analysis. This book discusses the basic theory of signal flow graphs and shows their relation to the usual algebraic equations.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of properties of a flow graph. This text then demonstrates how flow graphs can be applied to a wide range of electrical circuits that do not involve amplification. Other chapters deal with the parameters as well as circuit applications of transistors. This book discusses as well the variety of circuits using ther

  16. Earlywood vessels of Castanea sativa record temperature before their formation. (United States)

    Fonti, Patrick; Solomonoff, Natalie; García-González, Ignacio


    The aim of this study was to identify the climatic signal contained in the earlywood vessel size of the ring-porous chestnut (Castanea sativa) and the physiological processes involved in the underlying mechanisms. In order to assign the encoded signal to a specific physiological process, bud phenology and vessel formation were monitored along an elevation transect and chronologies of the size of the first row of earlywood vessels were retrospectively correlated with 40 yr of early spring temperatures. The first vessels appeared in late April to early May, after encoding both a negative temperature signal in February-March (during tree quiescence) and a positive temperature signal in early April (at the time of resumption of shoot growth). We hypothesize that February and March temperatures affect cambial sensitivity to auxin, preconditioning tree responses later in the season. Furthermore, April temperature is related to tree activation whereby new hormone production fosters vessel expansion.

  17. Signal Station Inspection Reports (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  18. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers (United States)

    Cockroft, Scott L.


    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  19. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael


    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K


    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  1. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong


    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  2. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  3. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo


    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  4. Modest Advertising Signals Strength.


    Ram Orzach; Per Baltzer Overgaard; Yair Tauman


    This paper presents a signaling model where both price and advertising expenditures are used as signals of the initially unobservable quality of a newly introduced experience good. Consumers can be either "fastidious" or "indifferent". Fastidious individuals place a greater value on a high-quality product and a lesser value on the low-quality product than do indifferent individuals. It is shown that a sensible separating equilibrium exists where both firms set their full information prices. H...

  5. Lipid Signaling in Tumorigenesis


    Liu, Renyan; Huang, Ying


    Lipids are important cellular building blocks and components of signaling cascades. Deregulation of lipid metabolism or signaling is frequently linked to a variety of human diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. It is widely believed that lipid molecules or their metabolic products are involved in tumorigenic inflammation and thus, lipids are implicated as significant contributors or even primary triggers of tumorigenesis. Lipids are believed to directly or indirectly...

  6. Optical Signal Processing. (United States)


    that the readaptation phenomena is minimized as signal components leave the tap weight plane (the accumulator). In principle, the performance could be...accumulators so that the readaptation phenomena caused by large values pleaving the accumulator are minimized. Several examples of the performance...the jammer signal. The system then goes into a " readaptation " phase where the new contributions to the tap weights must offset the older cont

  7. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L


    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  8. Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control (United States)

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.


    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  9. Signal transduction during cold stress in plants


    Solanke, Amolkumar U.; Sharma, Arun K.


    Cold stress signal transduction is a complex process. Many physiological changes like tissue break down and senescence occur due to cold stress. Low temperature is initially perceived by plasma membrane either due to change in membrane fluidity or with the help of sensors like Ca2+ permeable channels, histidine kinases, receptor kinases and phospholipases. Subsequently, cytoskeleton reorganization and cytosolic Ca2+ influx takes place. Increase in cytosolic Ca2+ is sensed by CDPKs, phosphatas...

  10. Thermoacoustic measurement of the temperature during microwave thermotherapy (United States)

    Lou, Cunguang; Xing, Da; Nie, Liming


    Microwave thermotherapy (MT) has been an important treatment in oncology. The measurement of temperature during microwave thermotherapy is vital to ensure the safety of normal tissues. Thermoacoustic signals induced are temperature dependent. This phenomenon demonstrates that the thermal parameters are closely related to the generation of thermoacoustic pressure. Here we present the studies on pulsed microwave-induced thermoacoustic signals toward temperature monitoring of tissue thermotherapy. A high power pulsed microwave was used as thermoacoustic excitation source and heating source simultaneously, thermoacoustic pressure was captured by a multi-element linear transducer array. Excellent agreement was obtained between the inversion calculation results and the actual measurement temperature. The results suggest that thermoacoustic signals can be used to monitor thermotherapy temperature, and has the potential of reconstruct the temperature distribution by filter back-projection algorithm. This method has a great potential to develop into an integrated system for pulsed microwave thermotherapy and curative effect monitoring.

  11. Simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature and strain using spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Alahbabi, M. N.; Cho, Y. T.; Newson, Trevor P.


    We report on a novel method for simultaneous distributed measurement of the temperature and strain in an optical fiber based on spatially resolving the anti-Stokes signals of both the spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered signals.

  12. Respiration signals from photoplethysmography. (United States)

    Nilsson, Lena M


    Pulse oximetry is based on the technique of photoplethysmography (PPG) wherein light transmitted through tissues is modulated by the pulse. In addition to variations in light modulation by the cardiac cycle, the PPG signal contains a respiratory modulation and variations associated with changing tissue blood volume of other origins. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and neural fluctuations in the PPG signal are of different frequencies and can all be characterized according to their sinusoidal components. PPG was described in 1937 to measure blood volume changes. The technique is today increasingly used, in part because of developments in semiconductor technology during recent decades that have resulted in considerable advances in PPG probe design. Artificial neural networks help to detect complex nonlinear relationships and are extensively used in electronic signal analysis, including PPG. Patient and/or probe-tissue movement artifacts are sources of signal interference. Physiologic variations such as vasoconstriction, a deep gasp, or yawn also affect the signal. Monitoring respiratory rates from PPG are often based on respiratory-induced intensity variations (RIIVs) contained in the baseline of the PPG signal. Qualitative RIIV signals may be used for monitoring purposes regardless of age, gender, anesthesia, and mode of ventilation. Detection of breaths in adult volunteers had a maximal error of 8%, and in infants the rates of overdetected and missed breaths using PPG were 1.5% and 2.7%, respectively. During central apnea, the rhythmic RIIV signals caused by variations in intrathoracic pressure disappear. PPG has been evaluated for detecting airway obstruction with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 85%. The RIIV and the pulse synchronous PPG waveform are sensitive for detecting hypovolemia. The respiratory synchronous variation of the PPG pulse amplitude is an accurate predictor of fluid responsiveness. Pleth variability index is a continuous measure of the

  13. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl


    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  14. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric


    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  15. Integrin signaling in atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Finney, Alexandra C; Stokes, Karen Y; Pattillo, Christopher B; Orr, A Wayne


    Atherosclerosis, a chronic lipid-driven inflammatory disease affecting large arteries, represents the primary cause of cardiovascular disease in the world. The local remodeling of the vessel intima during atherosclerosis involves the modulation of vascular cell phenotype, alteration of cell migration and proliferation, and propagation of local extracellular matrix remodeling. All of these responses represent targets of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors. As such, alterations in integrin signaling affect multiple aspects of atherosclerosis, from the earliest induction of inflammation to the development of advanced fibrotic plaques. Integrin signaling has been shown to regulate endothelial phenotype, facilitate leukocyte homing, affect leukocyte function, and drive smooth muscle fibroproliferative remodeling. In addition, integrin signaling in platelets contributes to the thrombotic complications that typically drive the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we examine the current literature on integrin regulation of atherosclerotic plaque development and the suitability of integrins as potential therapeutic targets to limit cardiovascular disease and its complications.

  16. Purinergic signalling and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey; Novak, Ivana


    signalling, we will focus on the role of purinergic signalling and its changes associated with diabetes in the pancreas and selected tissues/organ systems affected by hyperglycaemia and other stress molecules of diabetes. Since this is the first review of this kind, a comprehensive historical angle is taken......The pancreas is an organ with a central role in nutrient breakdown, nutrient sensing and release of hormones regulating whole body nutrient homeostasis. In diabetes mellitus, the balance is broken-cells can be starving in the midst of plenty. There are indications that the incidence of diabetes...... type 1 and 2, and possibly pancreatogenic diabetes, is rising globally. Events leading to insulin secretion and action are complex, but there is emerging evidence that intracellular nucleotides and nucleotides are not only important as intracellular energy molecules but also as extracellular signalling...

  17. Significance of coherent Rayleigh noise in fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering (United States)

    DeSouza, K.


    The temperature resolution of a fibre-optic distributed temperature sensor based on taking the ratio of the temperature sensitive backscattered spontaneous Brillouin signal to the corresponding Rayleigh signal depends on the optical signal-to-noise of the receiver system and the amplitude fluctuations in the Rayleigh signal. The amplitude fluctuations or coherent Rayleigh noise have been investigated experimentally as a function of detection bandwidth, source bandwidth and spatial resolution and showed good agreement with theory.

  18. PKD signaling and pancreatitis. (United States)

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Pandol, Stephen J


    Acute pancreatitis is a serious medical disorder with no current therapies directed to the molecular pathogenesis of the disorder. Inflammation, inappropriate intracellular activation of digestive enzymes, and parenchymal acinar cell death by necrosis are the critical pathophysiologic processes of acute pancreatitis. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the key molecular signals that mediate these pathobiologic processes and develop new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the appropriate signaling pathways in order to improve outcomes for this disease. A novel serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as key participants in signal transduction, and this family is increasingly being implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions and diseases. This review summarizes recent findings of our group and others regarding the signaling pathway and the biological roles of the PKD family in pancreatic acinar cells. In particular, we highlight our studies of the functions of PKD in several key pathobiologic processes associated with acute pancreatitis in experimental models. Our findings reveal that PKD signaling is required for NF-κB activation/inflammation, intracellular zymogen activation, and acinar cell necrosis in rodent experimental pancreatitis. Novel small-molecule PKD inhibitors attenuate the severity of pancreatitis in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Further, this review emphasizes our latest advances in the therapeutic application of PKD inhibitors to experimental pancreatitis after the initiation of pancreatitis. These novel findings suggest that PKD signaling is a necessary modulator in key initiating pathobiologic processes of pancreatitis, and that it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for treatments of this disorder.

  19. Notch signaling and ageing. (United States)

    Polychronidou, Eleftheria; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Vlamos, Panayiotis; Baumann, Marc; Kossida, Sophia


    Notch signaling is a master controller of the neural stem cell and neural development maintaining a significant role in the normal brain function. Notch genes are involved in embryogenesis, nervous system, and cardiovascular and endocrine function. On the other side, there are studies representing the involvement of Notch mutations in sporadic Alzheimer disease, other neurodegenerative diseases such as Down syndrome, Pick's and Prion's disease, and CADASIL. This manuscript attempts to present a holistic view of the positive or negative contribution of Notch signaling in the adult brain, and at the same time to present and promote the promising research fields of study.

  20. Understanding signal integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Thierauf, Stephen C


    This unique book provides you with practical guidance on understanding and interpreting signal integrity (SI) performance to help you with your challenging circuit board design projects. You find high-level discussions of important SI concepts presented in a clear and easily accessible format, including question and answer sections and bulleted lists.This valuable resource features rules of thumb and simple equations to help you make estimates of critical signal integrity parameters without using circuit simulators of CAD (computer-aided design). The book is supported with over 120 illustratio

  1. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server



    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  2. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya


    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  3. Tempering temperature changes for robust development. (United States)

    Delidakis, Christos


    Developmental signaling pathways needed to evolve to be robust against environmental fluctuations. In this issue, Shimizu et al. reveal a complex system of interacting endocytic pathways that help to maintain consistent levels of Notch activity across a range of temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface-mount sapphire interferometric temperature sensor (United States)

    Zhu, Yizheng; Wang, Anbo


    A fiber-optic high-temperature sensor is demonstrated by bonding a 45°-polished single-crystal sapphire fiber on the surface of a sapphire wafer, whose optical thickness is temperature dependent and measured by white-light interferometry. A novel adhesive-free coupling between the silica and sapphire fibers is achieved by fusion splicing, and its performance is characterized. The sensor's interference signal is investigated for its dependence on angular alignment between the fiber and the wafer. A prototype sensor is tested to 1170 °C with a resolution of 0.4 °C, demonstrating excellent potential for high-temperature measurement.

  5. Recent trends in sea surface temperature off Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lluch-Cota, S.E; Tripp-Valdéz, M; Lluch-Cota, D.B; Lluch-Belda, D; Verbesselt, J; Herrera-Cervantes, H; Bautista-Romero, J


    .... In this study, an assessment of sea surface temperature change signals in the seas off Mexico is presented and compared to other regions and the world ocean, and to selected basin scale climatic...

  6. Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement with combined spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Alahbabi, M. N.; Cho, Y. T.; Newson, T. P.


    We report on a novel method for simultaneous distributed measurement of temperature and strain based on spatially resolving both spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered anti-Stokes signals. The magnitude of the intensity of the anti-Stokes Raman signal permits the determination of the temperature. The Brillouin frequency shift is dependent on both the temperature and the strain of the fiber; once the temperature has been determined from the Raman signal, the strain can then be computed from the frequency measurement of the Brillouin signal.

  7. On the trap depth of the IR-sensitive trap in Na- and K-feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kars, Romée H.; Poolton, Nigel R.J.; Jain, Mayank


    Feldspars are natural radiation dosimeters used in geological dating. The processes that underlie the measured natural- and laboratory induced infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals are, however, not fully understood. In this study we aim to determine the optical depth of the electron trap...... that is used in luminescence dating. A series of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) experiments were performed on two feldspar minerals (single-crystal museum specimens of Na- and K-feldspar) at a low temperature (10 K). The low temperature suppresses thermal processes that may be active during excitation...... the dependence of the OSL intensity on the excitation energy is deduced that band-tail states play a significant role during charge transport, thus complicating the precise determination of the optical trap depth. Both minerals display a small resonant transition when stimulated at∼2.05 eV. From the OSL data...

  8. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.


    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  9. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.


    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  10. Drought Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Drought Signaling in Plants. G Sivakumar Swamy. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 34-44. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  11. Symposium: Unveiling Affective Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Nijholt, Antinus; Westerink, J.H.D.M.; Spink, A.J.; Grieco, F; Krips, O.E.; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Zimmerman, P.H.


    The ability to process and, subsequently, understand affective signals is the core of emotional intelligence and empathy. However, more than a decade of research in affective computing has shown that it is hard to develop computational models of this process. We pose that the solution for this

  12. Unveiling Affective Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Nijholt, Antinus; Westerink, J.H.D.M.; Barakova, E.; de Ruyter, B.; Spink, A


    The ability to process and, subsequently, understand affective signals is the core of emotional intelligence and empathy. However, more than a decade of research in affective computing has shown that it is hard to develop computational models of this process. We pose that the solution for this

  13. Selenium and redox signaling. (United States)

    Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Flohé, Leopold


    Selenium compounds that contain selenol functions or can be metabolized to selenols are toxic via superoxide and H2O2 generation, when ingested at dosages beyond requirement. At supra-nutritional dosages various forms of programmed cell death are observed. At physiological intakes, selenium exerts its function as constituent of selenoproteins, which overwhelmingly are oxidoreductases. Out of those, the glutathione peroxidases counteract hydroperoxide-stimulated signaling cascades comprising inflammation triggered by cytokines or lipid mediators, insulin signaling and different forms of programmed cell death. Similar events are exerted by peroxiredoxins, which functionally depend on the selenoproteins of the thioredoxin reductase family. The thiol peroxidases of both families can, however, also act as sensors for hydroperoxides, thereby initiating signaling cascades. Although the interaction of selenoproteins with signaling events has been established by genetic techniques, the in vivo relevance of these findings is still hard to delineate for several reasons: The biosynthesis of individual selenoproteins responds differently to variations of selenium intakes; selenium is preferentially delivered to privileged tissues via inter-organ trafficking and receptor-mediated uptake, and only half of the selenoproteins known by sequence have been functionally characterized. The fragmentary insights do not allow any uncritical use of selenium for optimizing human health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Satiety signals and obesity. (United States)

    Hellström, Per M


    The obesity epidemic over the world has called to attention different ways to manage this development. As bariatric surgery today is the only manner by which rapid and sustained weight control can be achieved, new ways of treating obesity are under investigation. This review focuses on today's knowledge on satiety signaling as a means to combat obesity. The combined knowledge achieved from obesity surgery with gastric bypass and duodenal switch together with the pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes have given us some clues of how to manage obesity. The basis for our understanding is the present research focusing on the gut peptide hormones that are released in response to food intake, and the paucity of satiety signaling seems to prevail in obesity. This means that obese patients experience less activation of higher brain centers in association with a meal and therefore compensate with increased meal size or frequent food intake. Altered satiety signaling primarily emanating from the gastrointestinal tract seems to lead to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Pharmacological tools that enhance the gut hormone signaling are in focus for the upcoming venues of treatment.

  15. Signalling Nouns in Discourse. (United States)

    Flowerdew, John


    Presents a description of a major class of vocabulary, signalling nouns, that have important discourse functions in establishing links across and within clauses. The description provides a framework useful to materials writers, teachers, and learners of English for academic purposes. (Author/VWL)

  16. Body temperature norms (United States)

    Normal body temperature; Temperature - normal ... Morrison SF. Regulation of body temperature. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 59. Sajadi MM, Mackowiak ...

  17. Dual-wavelengths photoacoustic temperature measurement (United States)

    Liao, Yu; Jian, Xiaohua; Dong, Fenglin; Cui, Yaoyao


    Thermal therapy is an approach applied in cancer treatment by heating local tissue to kill the tumor cells, which requires a high sensitivity of temperature monitoring during therapy. Current clinical methods like fMRI near infrared or ultrasound for temperature measurement still have limitations on penetration depth or sensitivity. Photoacoustic temperature sensing is a newly developed temperature sensing method that has a potential to be applied in thermal therapy, which usually employs a single wavelength laser for signal generating and temperature detecting. Because of the system disturbances including laser intensity, ambient temperature and complexity of target, the accidental errors of measurement is unavoidable. For solving these problems, we proposed a new method of photoacoustic temperature sensing by using two wavelengths to reduce random error and increase the measurement accuracy in this paper. Firstly a brief theoretical analysis was deduced. Then in the experiment, a temperature measurement resolution of about 1° in the range of 23-48° in ex vivo pig blood was achieved, and an obvious decrease of absolute error was observed with averagely 1.7° in single wavelength pattern while nearly 1° in dual-wavelengths pattern. The obtained results indicates that dual-wavelengths photoacoustic sensing of temperature is able to reduce random error and improve accuracy of measuring, which could be a more efficient method for photoacoustic temperature sensing in thermal therapy of tumor.

  18. Small Turing universal signal machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durand-Lose


    Full Text Available This article aims at providing signal machines as small as possible able to perform any computation (in the classical understanding. After presenting signal machines, it is shown how to get universal ones from Turing machines, cellular-automata and cyclic tag systems. Finally a halting universal signal machine with 13 meta-signals and 21 collision rules is presented.

  19. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald


    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role...... using insulin signalling as a model system....

  20. Non-intrusive measurement of hot gas temperature in a gas turbine engine (United States)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko; Yan, Michelle Xiaohong; Rosca, Justinian; Ulerich, Nancy H.


    A method and apparatus for operating a gas turbine engine including determining a temperature of a working gas at a predetermined axial location within the engine. An acoustic signal is encoded with a distinct signature defined by a set of predetermined frequencies transmitted as a non-broadband signal. Acoustic signals are transmitted from an acoustic transmitter located at a predetermined axial location along the flow path of the gas turbine engine. A received signal is compared to one or more transmitted signals to identify a similarity of the received signal to a transmitted signal to identify a transmission time for the received signal. A time-of-flight is determined for the signal and the time-of-flight for the signal is processed to determine a temperature in a region of the predetermined axial location.

  1. Multiresolution Analysis of EEG Signals


    Borowska Marta; Białobłocka Natalia


    This paper reports on a multiresolution analysis of EEG signals. The dominant frequency components of signals with and without observed epileptic discharges were compared. The study showed that there were significant differences in dominant frequency between the signals with epileptic discharges and the signals without discharges. This gives the ability to identify epilepsy during EEG examination. The frequency of the signals coming from the frontal, central, parietal and occipital channels a...

  2. C59N Peapods Sensing the Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro Kaneko


    Full Text Available We report the novel photoresponse of nanodevices made from azafullerene (C59N-encapsulated single-walled carbon nanotubes (C59N@SWNTs, so called peapods. The photoconducting properties of a C59N@SWNT are measured over a temperature range of 10 to 300 K under a field-effect transistor configuration. It is found that the photosensitivity of C59N@SWNTs depends very sensitively on the temperature, making them an attractive candidate as a component of nanothermometers covering a wide temperature range. Our results indicate that it is possible to read the temperature by monitoring the optoelectronics signal of C59N@SWNTs. In particular, sensing low temperatures would become more convenient and easy by giving a simple light pulse.

  3. Optical Ring Resonator Based Temperature Sensor (United States)

    Addya, Subhankar; Dey, Sabitabrata; Mandal, Sanjoy


    Temperature sensor based on optical ring resonator has been demonstrated with its constituent material as silicon (Si-fiber) and germanium (Ge-fiber) in this work. It has been done through optical delay line signal processing technique in Z-domain. The group indices of both the materials vary with the change in temperature due to the thermo-optic effect in materials. Thus temperature dependence of free spectral range forms the basis of modeling the sensors. Silicon (Si) fiber based optical sensor can sense the temperature in the range 30-500 °C and that for germanium (Ge) fiber the range is -25 to 300 °C. Obtained temperature sensitivities for Ge and Si-fibers are 5.55 and 2.97 MHz/°C respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.


    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  5. Signals and Responses (United States)

    Lee, Angie


    The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria in the family Rhizobiaceae and members of the legume family (Fabaceae) has been well studied, particularly from the perspective of the early signaling and recognition events. Recent studies of non-nodulating legume mutants have resulted in the identification of a number of genes that are responsive to signal molecules from the bacteria. However, a second group of nodule-forming bacteria, completely unrelated to the Rhizobiaceae, which are α-Proteobacteria, has been discovered. These bacteria belong to the β-Proteobacteria and have been designated β-rhizobia to distinguish them from the better-known α-rhizobia. Here, we review what is known in this economically important symbiosis about the interaction between legumes and α-rhizobia, and we incorporate information, where known, about the β-rhizobia. PMID:19521481

  6. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M


    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  7. Multimodal signalling in estrildid finches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, A. C. R.; Funghi, C.; Soma, M.


    Sexual traits (e.g. visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multimodal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g. to increase the efficiency of communication) or that different signals trade off with each other...... in reproduction, dance with commonness and habitat type, whereas colour ornamentation was shown previously to correlate mostly with gregariousness. We conclude that multimodal signals evolve in response to various socio-ecological traits, suggesting the accumulation of distinct signalling functions....

  8. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan


    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  9. Signal analyser, the software support for education of signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tùma Jiøí


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the software that is supporting signal-processing lectures given for students of mechanical engineering. An application, named Signal Analyser is written in Visual Basic 6.0 language so it is working under Windows operating systems. The main idea is to demonstrate spectral analysis of signals that are taken from measurements in industry or synthesised by an incorporate signal generator.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Nonlinear dielectrics offer uniquely strong and tunable nonlinearities that make them attractive for current devices (for example, frequency-agile microwave filters) and for future signal-processing technologies. The goal of this project is to understand pulse propagation on nonlinear coplanar waveguide prototype devices. We have performed time-domain and frequency-domain experimental studies of simple waveguide structures and pursued a theoretical understanding of the propagation of signals on these nonlinear waveguides. To realistically assess the potential applications, we used a time-domain measurement and analysis technique developed during this project to perform a broadband electrodynamics characterization in terms of nonlinear, dispersive, and dissipative effects. We completed a comprehensive study of coplanar waveguides made from high-temperature superconducting thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} electrodes on nonlinear dielectric single-crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. By using parameters determined from small-signal (linear) transmission characteristics of the waveguides, we develop a model equation that successfully predicts and describes large-signal (nonlinear) behavior.

  11. A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    the signal to noise by contributing significantly to the overall system temperature. The power spectrum is ... the input of the circulator, the second term represents the thermal noise contribution from the feed assembly .... calibrated platinum resistance thermometer is estimated to give the temperature of liquid nitrogen baths ...

  12. Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature trends; maximum temperature warming; variability; regime shift; mountain stations; central. Himalayas. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, No. ... as signals of anthropogenic climate change. How- ever, studies by Fowler and Archer ... recorded values are outliers or true events, regres- sion through the origin was performed.

  13. Purinergic Signalling: Therapeutic Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Burnstock


    Full Text Available Purinergic signalling, i.e., the role of nucleotides as extracellular signalling molecules, was proposed in 1972. However, this concept was not well accepted until the early 1990’s when receptor subtypes for purines and pyrimidines were cloned and characterised, which includes four subtypes of the P1 (adenosine receptor, seven subtypes of P2X ion channel receptors and 8 subtypes of the P2Y G protein-coupled receptor. Early studies were largely concerned with the physiology, pharmacology and biochemistry of purinergic signalling. More recently, the focus has been on the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential. There was early recognition of the use of P1 receptor agonists for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia and A2A receptor antagonists are promising for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Clopidogrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, is widely used for the treatment of thrombosis and stroke, blocking P2Y12 receptor-mediated platelet aggregation. Diquafosol, a long acting P2Y2 receptor agonist, is being used for the treatment of dry eye. P2X3 receptor antagonists have been developed that are orally bioavailable and stable in vivo and are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of chronic cough, bladder incontinence, visceral pain and hypertension. Antagonists to P2X7 receptors are being investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Other investigations are in progress for the use of purinergic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis, myocardial infarction, irritable bowel syndrome, epilepsy, atherosclerosis, depression, autism, diabetes, and cancer.

  14. Method and apparatus for controlling the temperature in thermoforming machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, J.


    The temperature of upper and lower parts of a forming tool making deep-drawn thermoplastic articles is controlled with a system which performs the steps of passing a coolant of predetermined total volume through the upper part and the lower part of the forming tool; measuring the temperature of the upper and lower parts; determining the actual temperature difference between the upper and lower parts; comparing the actual temperature difference with a predetermined desired temperature difference; generating a signal representing the magnitude of deviation between the actual and desired temperature differences; and, as a function of the signal, increasing the volume of coolant passing through one of the forming tool parts and decreasing the volume of coolant passing through the other of the forming tool parts for reducing the magnitude of deviation while maintaining the total volume unchanged.

  15. Temperature Measurement of Ceramic Materials Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer (United States)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave


    The surface temperatures of several pure ceramic materials (alumina, beryllia, magnesia, yittria and spinel) in the shape of pellets were measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. In one of the measurements, radiation signal collection is provided simply by an optical fiber. In the other experiments, a 4.75 inch (12 cm) parabolic mirror collects the signal for the spectrometer. Temperature measurement using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer for these ceramic materials is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which varies with both temperature and wavelength. In at least one of the materials, yittria, the detected optical emission increased as the temperature was decreased due to such emissivity variation. The reasons for such changes are not known. The multiwavelength pyrometer has demonstrated its ability to measure surface temperatures under such conditions. Platinum electrodes were embedded in the ceramic pellets for resistance measurements as the temperature changed.

  16. Automatic Seismic Signal Processing (United States)


    81-04 4 February 1982 AUTOMATIC SEISMIC SIGNAL PROCESSING FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT i j Contract F08606-80.C-0021" PREPARED BY ILKKA NOPONEN, ROBERT SAX...PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER SAS-FR-81-04 7. AUTHOR(e) a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) F08606- 80-C-0021 ILKKA NOPONEN, ROBERT SAX AND F 6 C0 STEVEN...observed, as also Swindell and Snell (1977), that the distribu- tion of x was slightly skewed, we used the median of x instead of aver- age of x for U(x

  17. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K


    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  18. Neural Membrane Signaling Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wallace


    Full Text Available Throughout much of the history of biology, the cell membrane was functionally defined as a semi-permeable barrier separating aqueous compartments, and an anchoring site for proteins. Little attention was devoted to its possible regulatory role in intracellular molecular processes and neuron electrical signaling. This article reviews the history of membrane studies and the current state of the art. Emphasis is placed on natural and artificial membrane studies of electric field effects on molecular organization, especially as these may relate to impulse propagation in neurons. Implications of these studies for new designs in artificial intelligence are briefly examined.

  19. Neural membrane signaling platforms. (United States)

    Wallace, Ron


    Throughout much of the history of biology, the cell membrane was functionally defined as a semi-permeable barrier separating aqueous compartments, and an anchoring site for proteins. Little attention was devoted to its possible regulatory role in intracellular molecular processes and neuron electrical signaling. This article reviews the history of membrane studies and the current state of the art. Emphasis is placed on natural and artificial membrane studies of electric field effects on molecular organization, especially as these may relate to impulse propagation in neurons. Implications of these studies for new designs in artificial intelligence are briefly examined.

  20. Strigolactone Signaling and Evolution. (United States)

    Waters, Mark T; Gutjahr, Caroline; Bennett, Tom; Nelson, David C


    Strigolactones are a structurally diverse class of plant hormones that control many aspects of shoot and root growth. Strigolactones are also exuded by plants into the rhizosphere, where they promote symbiotic interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and germination of root parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae family. Therefore, understanding how strigolactones are made, transported, and perceived may lead to agricultural innovations as well as a deeper knowledge of how plants function. Substantial progress has been made in these areas over the past decade. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms, core developmental roles, and evolutionary history of strigolactone signaling. We also propose potential translational applications of strigolactone research to agriculture.

  1. A photonic integrated signal processor (United States)

    Yao, Jianping


    A photonic integrated signal processor based on the InP-InGaAsP material system consisting of a bypass waveguide and three mutually-coupled micro rings with each ring having two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and a current-injection phase modulator (PM) for ultra-wideband signal processing and microwave signal generation is discussed. The signal processor can be reconfigured to perform signal processing functions including temporal differentiation, and temporal integration. The reconfigurability is achieved by controlling the coupling between the rings and the bypass waveguide by a multi-mode interference (MMI) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) coupler and the injection currents to the SOAs. The current injection PM in a ring is used for wavelength tuning. In addition to signal processing, the signal processor can also be reconfigured to operate as a microwave signal generator. The generation a linearly chirped microwave waveform is discussed.

  2. Biological signals classification and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiasaleh, Kamran


    This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random, and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently ...

  3. Operational semantics for signal handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Strygin


    Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

  4. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies (United States)

    ... Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by ... common bacterial infections? If so, these recurrent infections may be a sign of an immunodeficiency disorder. The ...

  5. Insulin receptor signaling in cones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajala, Ammaji; Dighe, Radhika; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E; Rajala, Raju V S


    .... To date there are no studies on the insulin receptor signaling in cones; however, mRNA levels of IR signaling proteins are significantly higher in cone-dominant neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl...

  6. Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Zayed, Ahmed


    Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling presents recent advances in multiscale analysis and modeling using wavelets and other systems. This book also presents applications in digital signal processing using sampling theory and techniques from various function spaces, filter design, feature extraction and classification, signal and image representation/transmission, coding, nonparametric statistical signal processing, and statistical learning theory. This book also: Discusses recently developed signal modeling techniques, such as the multiscale method for complex time series modeling, multiscale positive density estimations, Bayesian Shrinkage Strategies, and algorithms for data adaptive statistics Introduces new sampling algorithms for multidimensional signal processing Provides comprehensive coverage of wavelets with presentations on waveform design and modeling, wavelet analysis of ECG signals and wavelet filters Reviews features extraction and classification algorithms for multiscale signal and image proce...

  7. Digital Signal Processing (Second Edition)


    Blackledge, Jonathan


    This book provides an account of the mathematical background, computational methods and software engineering associated with digital signal processing. The aim has been to provide the reader with the mathematical methods required for signal analysis which are then used to develop models and algorithms for processing digital signals and finally to encourage the reader to design software solutions for Digital Signal Processing (DSP). In this way, the reader is invited to develop a small DSP lib...

  8. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  9. Two-dimensional signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Garello, René


    This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.

  10. Sapphire-fiber-based distributed high-temperature sensing system. (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Hill, Cary; Cheng, Yujie; Homa, Daniel; Pickrell, Gary; Wang, Anbo


    We present, for the first time to our knowledge, a sapphire-fiber-based distributed high-temperature sensing system based on a Raman distributed sensing technique. High peak power laser pulses at 532 nm were coupled into the sapphire fiber to generate the Raman signal. The returned Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes signals were measured in the time domain to determine the temperature distribution along the fiber. The sensor was demonstrated from room temperature up to 1200°C in which the average standard deviation is about 3.7°C and a spatial resolution of about 14 cm was achieved.

  11. Asymmetry In Biphase Data Signals (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.


    Report presents analysis of some effects of asymmetry in Manchester (biphase) binary data signal transmitted by phase modulation of sinusoidal carrier signal. Report extends analysis described in article, "Effects of Asymmetry of NRZ Data Signals on Performance" (NPO-18261), to include case where data biphase-modulated directly on residual carrier.

  12. Cellular signalling properties in microcircuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; El Manira, Abdeljabbar; Wallén, Peter


    Molecules and cells are the signalling elements in microcircuits. Recent studies have uncovered bewildering diversity in postsynaptic signalling properties in all areas of the vertebrate nervous system. Major effort is now being invested in establishing the specialized signalling properties at th...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara D. Dubrovskaya


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with temperature effects dependence of the synchronization signal parameters in an optical fiber cable for a subcarrier wave quantum communication system. Two main causes of signal distortion are considered: the change in the refractive index as a function of the average daily temperature and the dispersion effects in the optical fiber, over which the signal is transmitted in the system. Method. To account for these effects, a temperature model has been created. The signal delay is calculated as a result of external influences in the system working with a standard fiber-optic cable. Real operational conditions are taken into account, including cable laying conditions, average daily temperature and wind speed. Main Results. The simulations were carried out on the standard single-mode fiber ITU-T G.652D. It was experimentally obtained that the maximum calculated phase mismatch of the synchronization signal for a system operating at a 100 km fiber length corresponds to a 1.7 ps signal time delay. The maximum operating intervals of the system without the use of phase adjustment are calculated. The obtained results are used to improve the parameters of the subcarrier wave quantum communication system. It is determined that the change in the refractive index in the fiber causes significant distortion of the signal. It is shown that stable operation is possible with adjustment every 158 ms. The additional phase delay resulting from the dispersion effects should be adjusted every 2.3 hours. Practical Relevance. The obtained results enable to optimize the parameters of the subcarrier wave quantum key distribution system to increase the overall key generation rate.

  14. Signal processing for ION mobility spectrometers (United States)

    Taylor, S.; Hinton, M.; Turner, R.


    Signal processing techniques for systems based upon Ion Mobility Spectrometry will be discussed in the light of 10 years of experience in the design of real-time IMS. Among the topics to be covered are compensation techniques for variations in the number density of the gas - the use of an internal standard (a reference peak) or pressure and temperature sensors. Sources of noise and methods for noise reduction will be discussed together with resolution limitations and the ability of deconvolution techniques to improve resolving power. The use of neural networks (either by themselves or as a component part of a processing system) will be reviewed.

  15. Advances in abscission signaling. (United States)

    Patharkar, O Rahul; Walker, John C


    Abscission is a process in plants for shedding unwanted organs such as leaves, flowers, fruits, or floral organs. Shedding of leaves in the fall is the most visually obvious display of abscission in nature. The very shape plants take is forged by the processes of growth and abscission. Mankind manipulates abscission in modern agriculture to do things such as prevent pre-harvest fruit drop prior to mechanical harvesting in orchards. Abscission occurs specifically at abscission zones that are laid down as the organ that will one day abscise is developed. A sophisticated signaling network initiates abscission when it is time to shed the unwanted organ. In this article, we review recent advances in understanding the signaling mechanisms that activate abscission. Physiological advances and roles for hormones in abscission are also addressed. Finally, we discuss current avenues for basic abscission research and potentially lucrative future directions for its application to modern agriculture. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  16. Advances in TRH signaling. (United States)

    Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Charli, Jean-Louis


    The activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is coordinated by hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons present in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons act as energy sensors. TRH controls the synthesis and release of thyrotropin, which activates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones; in target tissues, transporters and deiodinases control their local availability. Thyroid hormones regulate many functions, including energy homeostasis. This review discusses recent evidence that covers several aspects of TRH role in HPT axis regulation. Knowledge about the mechanisms of TRH signaling has steadily increased. New transcription factors engaged in TRH gene expression have been identified, and advances made on how they interact with signaling pathways and define the dynamics of TRH neurons response to acute and/or long-term influences. Albeit yet incomplete, the relationship of TRH neurons activity with positive energy balance has emerged. The importance of tanycytes as a central relay for the feedback control of the axis, as well as for HPT responses to alterations in energy balance, and other stimuli has been reinforced. Finally, some studies have started to shed light on the interference of prenatal and postnatal stress and nutrition on HPT axis programing, which have confirmed the axis susceptibility to early insults.

  17. Weld Nugget Temperature Control in Thermal Stir Welding (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)


    A control system for a thermal stir welding system is provided. The control system includes a sensor and a controller. The sensor is coupled to the welding system's containment plate assembly and generates signals indicative of temperature of a region adjacent and parallel to the welding system's stir rod. The controller is coupled to the sensor and generates at least one control signal using the sensor signals indicative of temperature. The controller is also coupled to the welding system such that at least one of rotational speed of the stir rod, heat supplied by the welding system's induction heater, and feed speed of the welding system's weld material feeder are controlled based on the control signal(s).

  18. Correcting the Cenozoic δ18O deep-sea temperature record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.


    The oxygen isotope signal in benthic foraminifera from deep-sea cores is mainly determined by deep-ocean temperature and land ice volume. Separating the temperature and ice volume signals is a key step in understanding the evolution of Cenozoic climate. Except for the last few million years,

  19. High Temperature, Wireless Seismometer Sensor for Venus (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter Gary W.; Kiefer, Walter S.


    Space agency mission plans state the need to measure the seismic activity on Venus. Because of the high temperature on Venus (462? C average surface temperature) and the difficulty in placing and wiring multiple sensors using robots, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents the description and proof of concept measurements of a high temperature, wireless seismometer sensor for Venus. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by the movement of an aluminum probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 700 Hz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator/sensor system at 426? C. This result indicates that the concept may be used on Venus.

  20. Design, construction, and analysis of a continuous-temperature infrared calibrator for temperature measurement using an infrared scanner. (United States)

    Hsieh, C K; Su, K C


    A continuous-temperature infrared calibrator is designed and constructed for providing reference video signals in temperature measurement using an infrared scanner. The calibrator can be controlled for a wide range of temperature settings and to present a continuous span of reference signals for calibration purposes. Both analytical and experimental methods are used to evaluate the performance of the calibrator. Results show that the calibrator has a normal total emissivity of at least 0.984, which is about 1% lower than the predicted value. Methods to improve the emissivity of the calibrator are also discussed. The paper provides for analytical equations useful for parameters estimation in the future design of the calibrator.

  1. Maine River Temperature Monitoring (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We collect seasonal and annual temperature measurements on an hourly or quarter hourly basis to monitor habitat suitability for ATS and other species. Temperature...

  2. High temperature measuring device (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.


    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2, C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  3. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GISTEMP dataset is a global 2x2 gridded temperature anomaly dataset. Temperature data is updated around the middle of every month using current data files from...

  4. Signals and systems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Wickert, Mark


    Getting mixed signals in your signals and systems course? The concepts covered in a typical signals and systems course are often considered by engineering students to be some of the most difficult to master. Thankfully, Signals & Systems For Dummies is your intuitive guide to this tricky course, walking you step-by-step through some of the more complex theories and mathematical formulas in a way that is easy to understand. From Laplace Transforms to Fourier Analyses, Signals & Systems For Dummies explains in plain English the difficult concepts that can trip you up

  5. Multiresolution Analysis of EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowska Marta


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a multiresolution analysis of EEG signals. The dominant frequency components of signals with and without observed epileptic discharges were compared. The study showed that there were significant differences in dominant frequency between the signals with epileptic discharges and the signals without discharges. This gives the ability to identify epilepsy during EEG examination. The frequency of the signals coming from the frontal, central, parietal and occipital channels are similar. Multiresolution analysis can be used to describe the activity of brain waves and to try to predict epileptic seizures, thereby contributing to precise medical diagnoses.

  6. Detection of signals in noise

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, Anthony D; Declaris, Nicholas


    Detection of Signals in Noise serves as an introduction to the principles and applications of the statistical theory of signal detection. The book discusses probability and random processes; narrowband signals, their complex representation, and their properties described with the aid of the Hilbert transform; and Gaussian-derived processes. The text also describes the application of hypothesis testing for the detection of signals and the fundamentals required for statistical detection of signals in noise. Problem exercises, references, and a supplementary bibliography are included after each c

  7. Rescaling Temperature and Entropy (United States)

    Olmsted, John, III


    Temperature and entropy traditionally are expressed in units of kelvin and joule/kelvin. These units obscure some important aspects of the natures of these thermodynamic quantities. Defining a rescaled temperature using the Boltzmann constant, T' = k[subscript B]T, expresses temperature in energy units, thereby emphasizing the close relationship…

  8. Machine intelligence and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vatsa, Mayank; Majumdar, Angshul; Kumar, Ajay


    This book comprises chapters on key problems in machine learning and signal processing arenas. The contents of the book are a result of a 2014 Workshop on Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing held at the Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. Traditionally, signal processing and machine learning were considered to be separate areas of research. However in recent times the two communities are getting closer. In a very abstract fashion, signal processing is the study of operator design. The contributions of signal processing had been to device operators for restoration, compression, etc. Applied Mathematicians were more interested in operator analysis. Nowadays signal processing research is gravitating towards operator learning – instead of designing operators based on heuristics (for example wavelets), the trend is to learn these operators (for example dictionary learning). And thus, the gap between signal processing and machine learning is fast converging. The 2014 Workshop on Machine Intel...

  9. Systemic signaling during plant defense. (United States)

    Kachroo, Aardra; Robin, Guillaume P


    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a type of pathogen-induced broad-spectrum resistance in plants. During SAR, primary infection-induced rapid generation and transportation of mobile signal(s) 'prepare' the rest of the plant for subsequent infections. Several, seemingly unrelated, mobile chemical inducers of SAR have been identified, at least two of which function in a feed-back regulatory loop with a lipid transfer-like protein. Signal(s) perception in the systemic tissues relies on the presence of an intact cuticle, the waxy layer covering all aerial parts of the plant. SAR results in chromatin modifications, which prime systemic tissues for enhanced and rapid signaling derived from salicylic acid, which along with its signaling components is key for SAR induction. This review summarizes recent findings related to SAR signal generation, movement, and perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring signal generators theory & design

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yuriy K


    The book brings together the following issues: Theory of deterministic, random and discrete signals reproducible in oscillatory systems of generators; Generation of periodic signals with a specified spectrum, harmonic distortion factor and random signals with specified probability density function and spectral density; Synthesis of oscillatory system structures; Analysis of oscillatory systems with non-linear elements and oscillation amplitude stabilization systems; It considers the conditions and criteria of steady-state modes in signal generators on active four-pole elements with unidirectional and bidirectional transmission of signals and on two-pole elements; analogues of Barkhausen criteria; Optimization of oscillatory system structures by harmonic distortion level, minimization of a frequency error and set-up time of the steady state mode; Theory of construction of random signal generators; Construction of discrete and digital signal generators; Practical design of main units of generators; Practical bl...

  11. [Signal Processing Suite Design (United States)

    Sahr, John D.; Mir, Hasan; Morabito, Andrew; Grossman, Matthew


    Our role in this project was to participate in the design of the signal processing suite to analyze plasma density measurements on board a small constellation (3 or 4) satellites in Low Earth Orbit. As we are new to space craft experiments, one of the challenges was to simply gain understanding of the quantity of data which would flow from the satellites, and possibly to interact with the design teams in generating optimal sampling patterns. For example, as the fleet of satellites were intended to fly through the same volume of space (displaced slightly in time and space), the bulk plasma structure should be common among the spacecraft. Therefore, an optimal, limited bandwidth data downlink would take advantage of this commonality. Also, motivated by techniques in ionospheric radar, we hoped to investigate the possibility of employing aperiodic sampling in order to gain access to a wider spatial spectrum without suffering aliasing in k-space.

  12. Signaling dynamics and peroxisomes. (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Rachubinski, Richard A; Aitchison, John D


    Peroxisomes are remarkably responsive organelles. Their composition, abundance and even their mechanism of biogenesis are influenced strongly by cell type and the environment. This plasticity underlies peroxisomal functions in metabolism and the detoxification of dangerous reactive oxygen species. However, peroxisomes are integrated into the cellular system as a whole such that they communicate intimately with other organelles, control signaling dynamics as in the case of innate immune responses to infectious disease, and contribute to processes as fundamental as longevity. The increasing evidence for peroxisomes having roles in various cellular and organismal functions, combined with their malleability, suggests complex mechanisms operate to control cellular dynamics and the specificity of cellular responses and functions extending well beyond the peroxisome itself. A deeper understanding of the functions of peroxisomes and the mechanisms that control their plasticity could offer opportunities for exploiting changes in peroxisome abundance to control cellular function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HVEM signalling promotes colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Schaer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor super family (TNFSF members regulate important processes involved in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation and are therefore crucial for the balance between homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Several members of the TNFSF are closely associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Thus, they represent interesting new targets for therapeutic treatment of IBD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used mice deficient in TNFSF member HVEM in experimental models of IBD to investigate its role in the disease process. Two models of IBD were employed: i chemical-induced colitis primarily mediated by innate immune cells; and ii colitis initiated by CD4(+CD45RB(high T cells following their transfer into immuno-deficient RAG1(-/- hosts. In both models of disease the absence of HVEM resulted in a significant reduction in colitis and inflammatory cytokine production. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that HVEM stimulatory signals promote experimental colitis driven by innate or adaptive immune cells.

  14. PKC signaling in glioblastoma (United States)

    do Carmo, Anália; Balça-Silva, Joana; Matias, Diana; Lopes, Maria Celeste


    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor characterized by intratumoral heterogeneity at cytopathological, genomic and transcriptional levels. Despite the efforts to develop new therapeutic strategies the median survival of GBM patients is 12−14 months. Results from large-scale gene expression profile studies confirmed that the genetic alterations in GBM affect pathways controlling cell cycle progression, cellular proliferation and survival and invasion ability, which may explain the difficulty to treat GBM patients. One of the signaling pathways that contribute to the aggressive behavior of glioma cells is the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. PKC is a family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases organized into three groups according the activating domains. Due to the variability of actions controlled by PKC isoforms, its contribution to the development of GBM is poorly understood. This review intends to highlight the contribution of PKC isoforms to proliferation, survival and invasive ability of glioma cells. PMID:23358475

  15. Lipid signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress. (United States)

    Hou, Quancan; Ufer, Guido; Bartels, Dorothea


    Lipids are one of the major components of biological membranes including the plasma membrane, which is the interface between the cell and the environment. It has become clear that membrane lipids also serve as substrates for the generation of numerous signalling lipids such as phosphatidic acid, phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, lysophospholipids, oxylipins, N-acylethanolamines, free fatty acids and others. The enzymatic production and metabolism of these signalling molecules are tightly regulated and can rapidly be activated upon abiotic stress signals. Abiotic stress like water deficit and temperature stress triggers lipid-dependent signalling cascades, which control the expression of gene clusters and activate plant adaptation processes. Signalling lipids are able to recruit protein targets transiently to the membrane and thus affect conformation and activity of intracellular proteins and metabolites. In plants, knowledge is still scarce of lipid signalling targets and their physiological consequences. This review focuses on the generation of signalling lipids and their involvement in response to abiotic stress. We describe lipid-binding proteins in the context of changing environmental conditions and compare different approaches to determine lipid-protein interactions, crucial for deciphering the signalling cascades. © 2016 JohnWiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cryogenic Semiconductor Detectors: Simulation of Signal Formation & Irradiation Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091318; Stamoulis, G; Vavougios, D

    The Beam Loss Monitoring system of the Large Hadron Collider is responsible for the pro- tection of the machine from damage and for the prevention of a magnet quench. Near the interaction points of the LHC, in the triplet magnets area, the BLMs are sensitive to the collision debris, limiting their ability to distinguish beam loss signal from signal caused due to the collision products. Placing silicon & diamond detectors inside the cold mass of the mag- nets, in liquid helium temperatures, would provide significant improvement to the precision of the measurement of the energy deposition in the superconducting coil of the magnet. To further study the signal formation and the shape of the transient current pulses of the aforementioned detectors in cryogenic temperatures, a simulation application has been developed. The application provides a fast way of determining the electric field components inside the detectors bulk and then introduces an initial charge distribution based on the properties of the radiat...

  17. Use phase signals to promote lifetime extension for Windows PCs. (United States)

    Hickey, Stewart; Fitzpatrick, Colin; O'Connell, Maurice; Johnson, Michael


    This paper proposes a signaling methodology for personal computers. Signaling may be viewed as an ecodesign strategy that can positively influence the consumer to consumer (C2C) market process. A number of parameters are identified that can provide the basis for signal implementation. These include operating time, operating temperature, operating voltage, power cycle counts, hard disk drive (HDD) self-monitoring, and reporting technology (SMART) attributes and operating system (OS) event information. All these parameters are currently attainable or derivable via embedded technologies in modern desktop systems. A case study detailing a technical implementation of how the development of signals can be achieved in personal computers that incorporate Microsoft Windows operating systems is presented. Collation of lifetime temperature data from a system processor is demonstrated as a possible means of characterizing a usage profile for a desktop system. In addition, event log data is utilized for devising signals indicative of OS quality. The provision of lifetime usage data in the form of intuitive signals indicative of both hardware and software quality can in conjunction with consumer education facilitate an optimal remarketing strategy for used systems. This implementation requires no additional hardware.

  18. Regulation of Hippo signalling by p38 signalling. (United States)

    Huang, Dashun; Li, Xiaojiao; Sun, Li; Huang, Ping; Ying, Hao; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jiarui; Song, Haiyun


    The Hippo signalling pathway has a crucial role in growth control during development, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Recent studies uncover multiple upstream regulatory inputs into Hippo signalling, which affects phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator Yki/YAP/TAZ by Wts/Lats. Here we identify the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a new upstream branch of the Hippo pathway. In Drosophila, overexpression of MAPKK gene licorne (lic), or MAPKKK gene Mekk1, promotes Yki activity and induces Hippo target gene expression. Loss-of-function studies show that lic regulates Hippo signalling in ovary follicle cells and in the wing disc. Epistasis analysis indicates that Mekk1 and lic affect Hippo signalling via p38b and wts We further demonstrate that the Mekk1-Lic-p38b cascade inhibits Hippo signalling by promoting F-actin accumulation and Jub phosphorylation. In addition, p38 signalling modulates actin filaments and Hippo signalling in parallel to small GTPases Ras, Rac1, and Rho1. Lastly, we show that p38 signalling regulates Hippo signalling in mammalian cell lines. The Lic homologue MKK3 promotes nuclear localization of YAP via the actin cytoskeleton. Upregulation or downregulation of the p38 pathway regulates YAP-mediated transcription. Our work thus reveals a conserved crosstalk between the p38 MAPK pathway and the Hippo pathway in growth regulation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS.

  19. Optimized Feature Extraction for Temperature-Modulated Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vergara


    Full Text Available One of the most serious limitations to the practical utilization of solid-state gas sensors is the drift of their signal. Even if drift is rooted in the chemical and physical processes occurring in the sensor, improved signal processing is generally considered as a methodology to increase sensors stability. Several studies evidenced the augmented stability of time variable signals elicited by the modulation of either the gas concentration or the operating temperature. Furthermore, when time-variable signals are used, the extraction of features can be accomplished in shorter time with respect to the time necessary to calculate the usual features defined in steady-state conditions. In this paper, we discuss the stability properties of distinct dynamic features using an array of metal oxide semiconductors gas sensors whose working temperature is modulated with optimized multisinusoidal signals. Experiments were aimed at measuring the dispersion of sensors features in repeated sequences of a limited number of experimental conditions. Results evidenced that the features extracted during the temperature modulation reduce the multidimensional data dispersion among repeated measurements. In particular, the Energy Signal Vector provided an almost constant classification rate along the time with respect to the temperature modulation.

  20. Brain temperature measurement: A study of in vitro accuracy and stability of smart catheter temperature sensors. (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wu, Pei-Ming; Wu, Zhizhen; Ahn, Chong H; LeDoux, David; Shutter, Lori A; Hartings, Jed A; Narayan, Raj K


    The injured brain is vulnerable to increases in temperature after severe head injury. Therefore, accurate and reliable measurement of brain temperature is important to optimize patient outcome. In this work, we have fabricated, optimized and characterized temperature sensors for use with a micromachined smart catheter for multimodal intracranial monitoring. Developed temperature sensors have resistance of 100.79 ± 1.19Ω and sensitivity of 67.95 mV/°C in the operating range from15-50°C, and time constant of 180 ms. Under the optimized excitation current of 500 μA, adequate signal-to-noise ratio was achieved without causing self-heating, and changes in immersion depth did not introduce clinically significant errors of measurements (temperature sensors in comparison to two types of commercial temperature probes (USB Reference Thermometer, NIST-traceable bulk probe with 0.05°C accuracy; and IT-21, type T type clinical microprobe with guaranteed 0.1°C accuracy) under controlled laboratory conditions. These in vitro experimental data showed that the temperature measurement performance of our sensors was accurate and reliable over the course of 5 days. The smart catheter temperature sensors provided accuracy and long-term stability comparable to those of commercial tissue-implantable microprobes, and therefore provide a means for temperature measurement in a microfabricated, multimodal cerebral monitoring device.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Virshup


    Full Text Available An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep–wake cycle, feeding–fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks. But, unlike other chemical reactions, the output of the clock system remains nearly constant with fluctuations in ambient temperature, a phenomenon known as temperature compensation. In this brief review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the posttranslational modifications, especially a phosphoswitch mechanism controlling the stability of PER2 and its implications for the regulation of temperature compensation.

  2. Information theory based approaches to cellular signaling. (United States)

    Waltermann, Christian; Klipp, Edda


    Cells interact with their environment and they have to react adequately to internal and external changes such changes in nutrient composition, physical properties like temperature or osmolarity and other stresses. More specifically, they must be able to evaluate whether the external change is significant or just in the range of noise. Based on multiple external parameters they have to compute an optimal response. Cellular signaling pathways are considered as the major means of information perception and transmission in cells. Here, we review different attempts to quantify information processing on the level of individual cells. We refer to Shannon entropy, mutual information, and informal measures of signaling pathway cross-talk and specificity. Information theory in systems biology has been successfully applied to identification of optimal pathway structures, mutual information and entropy as system response in sensitivity analysis, and quantification of input and output information. While the study of information transmission within the framework of information theory in technical systems is an advanced field with high impact in engineering and telecommunication, its application to biological objects and processes is still restricted to specific fields such as neuroscience, structural and molecular biology. However, in systems biology dealing with a holistic understanding of biochemical systems and cellular signaling only recently a number of examples for the application of information theory have emerged. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Systems Biology of Microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... of the excitation signal. Although a gain in signal-to-noise ratio of about 20 dB is theoretically possible for the time-bandwidth product available in ultrasound, it is shown that the effects of transducer weighting and tissue attenuation reduce the maximum gain at 10 dB for robust compression with low sidelobes...... is described. Application of coded excitation in array imaging is evaluated through simulations in Field II. The low degree of the orthogonality among coded signals for ultrasound systems is first discussed, and the effect of mismatched filtering in the cross-correlation properties of the signals is evaluated...

  4. High resolution signal processing (United States)

    Tufts, Donald W.


    Motivated by the goal of efficient, effective, high-speed integrated-circuit realization, we have discovered an algorithm for high speed Fourier analysis called the Arithmetic Fourier Transform (AFT). It is based on the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion, a method that is well suited for integrated-circuit realization. The computation of the AFT can be carried out in parallel, pipelined channels, and the individual operations are very simple to execute and control. Except for a single scaling in each channel, all the operations are additions or subtractions. Thus, it can reduce the required power, volume, and cost. Also, analog switched-capacitor realizations of the AFT have been studied. We have also analyzed the performance of a broad and useful class of data adaptive signal estimation algorithms. This in turn has led to our proposed improvements in the methods. We have used perturbation analysis of the rank-reduced data matrix to calculate its statistical properties. The improvements made have been demonstrated by computer simulation as well as by comparison with the Cramer-Rao Bound.

  5. Unmixing binocular signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney R Lehky


    Full Text Available Incompatible images presented to the two eyes lead to perceptual oscillations in which one image at a time is visible. Early models portrayed this binocular rivalry as involving reciprocal inhibition between monocular representations of images, occurring at an early visual stage prior to binocular mixing. However, psychophysical experiments found conditions where rivalry could also occur at a higher, more abstract level of representation. In those cases, the rivalry was between image representations dissociated from eye-of-origin information, rather than between monocular representations from the two eyes. Moreover, neurophysiological recordings found the strongest rivalry correlate in inferotemporal cortex, a high-level, predominantly binocular visual area involved in object recognition, rather than early visual structures. An unresolved issue is how can the separate identities of the two images be maintained after binocular mixing in order for rivalry to be possible at higher levels? Here we demonstrate that after the two images are mixed, they can be unmixed at any subsequent stage using a physiologically plausible nonlinear signal-processing algorithm, non-negative matrix factorization, previously proposed for parsing object parts during object recognition. The possibility that unmixed left and right images can be regenerated at late stages within the visual system provides a mechanism for creating various binocular representations and interactions de novo in different cortical areas for different purposes, rather than inheriting then from early areas. This is a clear example how nonlinear algorithms can lead to highly non-intuitive behavior in neural information processing.

  6. An algebra for signal processing


    Thielemann, Henning


    Our paper presents an attempt to axiomatise signal processing. Our long-term goal is to formulate signal processing algorithms for an ideal world of exact computation and prove properties about them, then interpret these ideal formulations and apply them without change to real world discrete data. We give models of the axioms that are based on Gaussian functions, that allow for exact computations and automated tests of signal algorithm properties.

  7. Traffic Signals in School Zones


    Kevin S Lee; Bullock, Darcy M.


    Traffic signals are used to control the right of way at intersections. Strict engineering guidelines are published in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) that engineers use to determine if a traffic signal is “warranted”. The warrants provide consistent national balance between mobility, safety, efficiency, and costs. However, signalized intersections are often viewed by the general public as safer then unsignalized intersections. This belief is often heightened when there a...

  8. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem


    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  9. Synchronous Photodiode-Signal Sampler (United States)

    Primus, Howard K.


    Synchronous sampling circuit increases signal-to-noise ratio of measurements of chopped signal of known phase and frequency in presence of low-frequency or dc background noise. Used with linear array of photoelectric sensors for locating edge of metal plate. Multiplexing circuit cycles through 16 light-emitting-diode/photodiode pairs, under computer control. Synchronized with multiplexer so edge detector makes one background-subtracted signal measurement per emitter/detector pair in turn.

  10. Postsynaptic Signaling and Plasticity Mechanisms (United States)

    Sheng, Morgan; Jong Kim, Myung


    In excitatory synapses of the brain, specific receptors in the postsynaptic membrane lie ready to respond to the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate from the presynaptic terminal. Upon stimulation, these glutamate receptors activate multiple biochemical pathways that transduce signals into the postsynaptic neuron. Different kinds of synaptic activity elicit different patterns of postsynaptic signals that lead to short- or long-lasting strengthening or weakening of synaptic transmission. The complex molecular mechanisms that underlie postsynaptic signaling and plasticity are beginning to emerge.

  11. Virtual Vertical Aircraft Signal Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norling, William


    .... Advances in virtual environments may provide a cost effective solution to the current live helicopter operations method of training, provided technical issues associated with hand and wand signal...

  12. Pragmatic circuits signals and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William


    Pragmatic Circuits: Signals and Filters is built around the processing of signals. Topics include spectra, a short introduction to the Fourier series, design of filters, and the properties of the Fourier transform. The focus is on signals rather than power. But the treatment is still pragmatic. For example, the author accepts the work of Butterworth and uses his results to design filters in a fairly methodical fashion. This third of three volumes finishes with a look at spectra by showing how to get a spectrum even if a signal is not periodic. The Fourier transform provides a way of dealing wi

  13. Chapter 6: Temperature (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.


    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  14. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy


    -out by mass spectrometry-based proteomics has allowed exciting views on the very early events in signal transduction. Activation profiles of regulated phosphorylation sites on epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream signal transducers showed different kinetics within the first ten seconds...

  15. Introduction to Random Signals and Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Etten, Wim

    Random signals and noise are present in many engineering systems and networks. Signal processing techniques allow engineers to distinguish between useful signals in audio, video or communication equipment, and interference, which disturbs the desired signal. With a strong mathematical grounding,

  16. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus (United States)

    Chaplin, James E.


    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  17. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR


    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  18. Q-band studies of the ESR signal in tooth enamel (United States)

    Skinner, Anne R.; Dennis Chasteen, N.; Shao, Junlong; Blackwell, Bonnie A. B.


    Tooth enamel is one of the most promising materials for electron spin resonance (ESR) dating because the X-band signal is large, easy to measure, and extremely stable. The mean lifetime at ambient temperature has been measured greater than the age of the Earth! However, the X-band spectrum in fossil teeth is, in fact, a composite of two signals that can be resolved if the sample is examined in the Q-band region. The relative size of the two signals appears to be a function of degree of fossilization; older teeth have a better-defined second signal. A study of the dependence of these signals on radiation dose, microwave power, and temperature strongly suggests that both signals are located in the hydroxyapatite crystal structures. As such, then, the X-band spectrum, measured at moderate modulation amplitude, is suitable for determining the age of fossil teeth.

  19. Signal propagation in cortical networks: a digital signal processing approach. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisco Aparecido; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano


    This work reports a digital signal processing approach to representing and modeling transmission and combination of signals in cortical networks. The signal dynamics is modeled in terms of diffusion, which allows the information processing undergone between any pair of nodes to be fully characterized in terms of a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Diffusion without and with time decay are investigated. All filters underlying the cat and macaque cortical organization are found to be of low-pass nature, allowing the cortical signal processing to be summarized in terms of the respective cutoff frequencies (a high cutoff frequency meaning little alteration of signals through their intermixing). Several findings are reported and discussed, including the fact that the incorporation of temporal activity decay tends to provide more diversified cutoff frequencies. Different filtering intensity is observed for each community in those networks. In addition, the brain regions involved in object recognition tend to present the highest cutoff frequencies for both the cat and macaque networks.

  20. Cardiac arrhythmogenesis and temperature. (United States)

    Shah, Ujas; Bien, Harold; Entcheva, Emilia


    Fast processes in cardiac electrophysiology are often studied at temperatures lower than physiological. Extrapolation of values is based on widely accepted Q10 (Arrhenius) model of temperature dependence (ratio of kinetic properties for a 10 degrees C change in temperature). In this study, we set out to quantify the temperature dependence of essential parameters that define spatiotemporal behavior of cardiac excitation. Additionally, we examined temperature's effects on restitution dynamics. We employed fast fluorescence imaging with voltage-and calcium-sensitive dyes in neonatal rat cardiomyocyte sheets. Conduction velocity (CV), calcium transient duration (CTD), action potential duration (APD) and wavelength (W=CV*duration) change as functions of temperature were quantified. Using 24 degrees C as a reference point, we found a strong temperature-driven increase of CV (Q10=2.3) with smaller CTD and APD changes (Q10=1.33, 1.24, respectively). The spatial equivalents of voltage and calcium duration, wavelength, were slightly less sensitive to temperature with Q10=2.05 and 1.78, respectively, due to the opposing influences of decreasing duration with increased velocity. More importantly, we found that Q10 varies as a function of diastolic interval. Our results indicate the importance of examining temperature sensitivity across several frequencies. Armed with our results, experimentalists and modelers alike have a tool for reconciling different environmental conditions. In a broader sense, these data help better understand thermal influences on arrhythmia development or suppression such as during hibernation or cardiac surgery.

  1. Optically stimulated phosphorescence in orthoclase feldspar over the millisecond to second time scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina; Jain, Mayank


    ) from orthoclase feldspar covering over 8 orders of magnitude (50 ns to 7 s). A detailed characterisation of the slowly decaying signals (ms to s time scales) from feldspar is undertaken to obtain further insight into the role of re-trapping in both the IR stimulated luminescence (IRSL...

  2. Infrared stimulated luminescence dating of an Eemian (MIS 5e) site in Denmark using K-feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Huot, Sebastian; Murray, Andrew S.


    Infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating of K-feldspars may be an alternative to quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating when the quartz OSL signal is too close to saturation or when the quartz luminescence characteristics are unsuitable. In this paper, Eemian (MIS 5e) coastal...

  3. Red-IR stimulated luminescence in K-feldspar: Single or multiple trap origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Jain, Mayank; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    We investigate on the origins of the infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in 3 potassium feldspars based on IR-red spectroscopy (700–1050 nm) using a fiber-coupled tunable Ti:Sapphire laser, in combination with different thermal and optical (pre)treatments of the samples. We also...

  4. Optimization of laboratory illumination in optical dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Lindvold, Lars René


    of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and feldspar infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals by an incandescent light bulb and a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) through an ILFORD 902 filter are first derived. These predicted decay rates are then compared with those of three relevant light...

  5. Abscisic acid signaling: thermal stability shift assays as tool to analyze hormone perception and signal transduction. (United States)

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten


    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays important roles in growth and development. ABA is also the central regulator to protect plants against abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, and adverse temperatures, and ABA signaling is therefore a promising biotechnological target for the generation of crops with increased stress resistance. Recently, a core signal transduction pathway has been established, in which ABA receptors, type 2C protein phosphatases, and AMPK-related protein kinases control the regulation of transcription factors, ion channels, and enzymes. Here we use a simple protein thermal stability shift assay to independently validate key aspects of this pathway and to demonstrate the usefulness of this technique to detect and characterize very weak (Kd ≥ 50 µM) interactions between receptors and physiological and synthetic agonists, to determine and analyze protein-protein interactions, and to screen small molecule inhibitors.

  6. Abscisic acid signaling: thermal stability shift assays as tool to analyze hormone perception and signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Fen Soon

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant hormone that plays important roles in growth and development. ABA is also the central regulator to protect plants against abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, and adverse temperatures, and ABA signaling is therefore a promising biotechnological target for the generation of crops with increased stress resistance. Recently, a core signal transduction pathway has been established, in which ABA receptors, type 2C protein phosphatases, and AMPK-related protein kinases control the regulation of transcription factors, ion channels, and enzymes. Here we use a simple protein thermal stability shift assay to independently validate key aspects of this pathway and to demonstrate the usefulness of this technique to detect and characterize very weak (Kd ≥ 50 µM interactions between receptors and physiological and synthetic agonists, to determine and analyze protein-protein interactions, and to screen small molecule inhibitors.

  7. Estimating Temperature Fields from MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature Observations in a Sub-Arctic Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N. Williamson


    Full Text Available Spatially continuous satellite infrared temperature measurements are essential for understanding the consequences and drivers of change, at local and regional scales, especially in northern and alpine environments dominated by a complex cryosphere where in situ observations are scarce. We describe two methods for producing daily temperature fields using MODIS “clear-sky” day-time Land Surface Temperatures (LST. The Interpolated Curve Mean Daily Surface Temperature (ICM method, interpolates single daytime Terra LST values to daily means using the coincident diurnal air temperature curves. The second method calculates daily mean LST from daily maximum and minimum LST (MMM values from MODIS Aqua and Terra. These ICM and MMM models were compared to daily mean air temperatures recorded between April and October at seven locations in southwest Yukon, Canada, covering characteristic alpine land cover types (tundra, barren, glacier at elevations between 1,408 m and 2,319 m. Both methods for producing mean daily surface temperatures have advantages and disadvantages. ICM signals are strongly correlated with air temperature (R2 = 0.72 to 0.86, but have relatively large variability (RMSE = 4.09 to 4.90 K, while MMM values had a stronger correlation to air temperature (R2 = 0.90 and smaller variability (RMSE = 2.67 K. Finally, when comparing 8-day LST averages, aggregated from the MMM method, to air temperature, we found a high correlation (R2 = 0.84 with less variability (RMSE = 1.54 K. Where the trend was less steep and the y-intercept increased by 1.6 °C compared to the daily correlations. This effect is likely a consequence of LST temperature averages being differentially affected by cloud cover over warm and cold surfaces. We conclude that satellite infrared skin temperature (e.g., MODIS LST, which is often aggregated into multi-day composites to mitigate data reductions caused by cloud cover, changes in its relationship to air temperature


    performance at all times. The sun provides sufficient signal strength in these bands, and its subtended angle of 0.5 deg from the earth is small enough to...communications link the sun could be used as a signal source for calibration purposes. Characteristics of solar emission are reviewed briefly, and the methods of determining receiving system noise temperature are developed.

  9. Temperature monitoring of tissue preparation processes (United States)

    Altshuler, Gregory B.; Erofeev, Andrew V.; Prikhodko, Constantin V.; Matyzhev, Gregory O.; Gerasimov, Roman V.


    This paper represents a complex of investigations concerned with temperature dynamics of pulp chamber for various temporal and power parameters of YAG:Ho laser. Comparison of overheating values at various modes of water cooling system operation is performed. Method of pulp chamber temperature measuring based on temperature monitoring of a checking point of a tooth surface is advanced. Moreover, the results of a special sub-research concentrated on thermal feedback signal at tooth tissues under YAG:Nd laser radiation treatment are offered also. Finally, method of recognizing of any diverse tooth tissue types, such as:bone, dentine, enamel and gum against a thermal response is demonstrated within the limits of this research.

  10. Signaling a Change of Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs


    introduced welfare state retrenchment measures. Social Democrats can win votes and join coalitions by shifting rightwards. In contrast, they can pursue policy objectives by shifting leftwards. To communicate these shifts, in other words, ‘changes of heart’, parties send signals to voters and other parties...... after having signalled ‘a change of heart’....

  11. Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials. (United States)

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja


    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can be of crucial importance for the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways have also been shown to be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials, effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future.

  12. Signals and systems with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Won Young; Song, Ik H; Cho, Yong S


    Covers some of the theoretical foundations and mathematical derivations that can be used in higher-level related subjects such as signal processing, communication, and control, minimizing the mathematical difficulty and computational burden. This book illustrates the usage of MATLAB and Simulink for signal and system analysis and design.

  13. Smoke Signal or Smoke Screen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergne, Jean-Philippe; Wernicke, Georg; Brenner, Steffen

    disapproval, whereas ambiguous signals represent a form of category straddling that attenuates disapproval. We find empirical support for this proposition in the context of CEO overcompensation in the U.S. (1995-2007) after examining two organizational signals that affect perceptions of economic fairness (i...

  14. Spatial regulation of Rap signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloerich, M.


    By cycling between an inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound state, small G-proteins of the Rap family act as molecular switches that relay upstream signals to diverse cellular processes. This GDP/GTP-cycle and consequently downstream signaling by Rap is under tight regulation by its GEFs and GAPs.

  15. Signals in Communication Engineering History (United States)

    Consonni, Denise; Silva, Magno T. M.


    This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark…

  16. Innate immune signaling in CLL. (United States)

    Maus, Marcela V


    In this issue of Blood, Wagner et al describe a complex signaling model that explains the mechanism of action of a long-known prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and integrates its function with the innate immune system and B-cell receptor signaling.

  17. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak


    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal epit...

  18. Spectral responses of gravel beaches to tidal signals (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.


    Tides have been recognized as a major driving forcing affecting coastal aquifer system, and deterministic modeling has been very effective in elucidating mechanisms caused by tides. However, such modeling does not lend itself to capture embedded information in the signal, and rather focuses on the primary processes. Here, using yearlong data sets measured at beaches in Alaska Prince William Sound, we performed spectral and correlation analyses to identify temporal behavior of pore-water pressure, temperature and salinity. We found that the response of the beach system was characterized by fluctuations of embedded diurnal, semidiurnal, terdiurnal and quarterdiurnal tidal components. Hydrodynamic dispersion of salinity and temperature, and the thermal conductivity greatly affected pore water signals. Spectral analyses revealed a faster dissipation of the semi-diurnal component with respect to the diurnal components. Correlation functions showed that salinity had a relatively short memory of the tidal signal when inland freshwater recharge was large. In contrast, the signature of the tidal signal on pore-water temperature persisted for longer times, up to a week. We also found that heterogeneity greatly affected beach response. The response varied from a simple linear mapping in the frequency domain to complete modulation and masking of the input frequencies.

  19. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Mitsutoshi, E-mail:; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan); Teng, Lei [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Clinical College of Harbin Medical University, Nangang, Harbin 150001 (China); Pyko, Ilya V.; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan)


    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies.

  20. Signal focusing through active transport (United States)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf


    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  1. Signal processing devices and networks (United States)

    Graveline, S. W.


    According to an axiom employed with respect to electronic warfare (EW) behavior, system effectiveness increases directly with the amount of information recovered from an intercepted signal. The evolution in EW signal processing capability has proceeded accordingly. After an initiation of EW systems as broadband receivers, the most significant advance was related to the development of digital instantaneous frequency measurement (DIFM) devices. The use of such devices provides significant improvements regarding signal identification and RF measurement to within a few MHz. An even more accurate processing device, the digital RF memory (DRFM), allows frequency characterization to within a few Hz. This invention was made in response to the need to process coherent pulse signals. Attention is given to the generic EW system, the modern EW system, and the generic receiver function for a modern EW system showing typical output signals.

  2. Signal processing for radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nakhostin, Mohammad


    This book provides a clear understanding of the principles of signal processing of radiation detectors. It puts great emphasis on the characteristics of pulses from various types of detectors and offers a full overview on the basic concepts required to understand detector signal processing systems and pulse processing techniques. Signal Processing for Radiation Detectors covers all of the important aspects of signal processing, including energy spectroscopy, timing measurements, position-sensing, pulse-shape discrimination, and radiation intensity measurement. The book encompasses a wide range of applications so that readers from different disciplines can benefit from all of the information. In addition, this resource: * Describes both analog and digital techniques of signal processing * Presents a complete compilation of digital pulse processing algorithms * Extrapolates content from more than 700 references covering classic papers as well as those of today * Demonstrates concepts with more than 340 origin...

  3. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  4. Dendroagricultural Signal in Algeria (United States)

    Touchan, R.; Kherchouche, D.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Oudjehih, B.; Touchane, H.; Slimani, S.; Meko, D. M.


    Dalila Kherchouche2, Kevin J. Anchukaitis3, Bachir Oudjehih2, Hayat Touchan4, Said Slimani5, and David M. Meko1Drought is one of the main natural factors in declining tree-ring growth and the production of agricultural crops in Algeria. Here we will address the variability of growing conditions for wheat in Algeria with climatic data and a tree-ring reconstruction of January-June precipitation from ten Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronologies. A regression-based reconstruction equation explains up to 74% of the variance of precipitation in the 1970-2011 calibration period and cross validates well. Classification of dry years by the 30% percentile of observed precipitation (131 mm) yields a maximum length of drought of five years (1877-1881) and increasing frequency of dry years in the late 20th and early 21stcenturies. A correlation-based sensitivity analysis shows a similar pattern of dependence of tree-growth and wheat production on monthly and seasonal precipitation, but contrasting patterns of dependence on temperature. The patterns are interpreted by reference to phenology, growth phases, and - for wheat agricultural practices. We apply these interpretations to understand possible impacts of climate variability on the agricultural productivity of past civilizations in the Mediterranean. 2Institute of Veterinary and Agronomy Sciences, The University Hadj-Lakhdar, Batna 05000, Algeria, and oudjehihbachir@yahoo.fr3University of Arizona, ENR2 Building, 1064 E Lowell Street, PO Box 210137, Tucson, AZ 85721-0137, kanchukaitis@email.arizona.edu4Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo-Syria, dr.htouchan@gmail.com5Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomy, The University Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou 15000, Algeria, slimanisaid@yahoo.fr1Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, The University of Arizona, 1215 E. Lowell St. Bldg. 45B, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA,

  5. Measuring body temperature. (United States)

    McCallum, Louise; Higgins, Dan

    Body temperature is one of the four main vital signs that must be monitored to ensure safe and effective care. Temperature measurement is recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence a part of the initial assessment in acute illness in adults (NICE, 2007) and by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines for post-operative management in adults (SIGN, 2004). Despite applying in all healthcare environments, wide variations exist on the methods and techniques used to measure body temperature. It is essential to use the most appropriate technique to ensure that temperature is measured accurately. Inaccurate results may influence diagnosis and treatment, lead to a failure to identify patient deterioration and compromise patient safety. This article explains the importance of temperature regulation and compares methods of its measurement.

  6. High temperature structural silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.


    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

  7. Acoustic signal propagation characterization of conduit networks (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Safeer

    Analysis of acoustic signal propagation in conduit networks has been an important area of research in acoustics. One major aspect of analyzing conduit networks as acoustic channels is that a propagating signal suffers frequency dependent attenuation due to thermo-viscous boundary layer effects and the presence of impedance mismatches such as side branches. The signal attenuation due to side branches is strongly influenced by their numbers and dimensions such as diameter and length. Newly developed applications for condition based monitoring of underground conduit networks involve measurement of acoustic signal attenuation through tests in the field. In many cases the exact installation layout of the field measurement location may not be accessible or actual installation may differ from the documented layout. The lack of exact knowledge of numbers and lengths of side branches, therefore, introduces uncertainty in the measurements of attenuation and contributes to the random variable error between measured results and those predicted from theoretical models. There are other random processes in and around conduit networks in the field that also affect the propagation of an acoustic signal. These random processes include but are not limited to the presence of strong temperature and humidity gradients within the conduits, blockages of variable sizes and types, effects of aging such as cracks, bends, sags and holes, ambient noise variations and presence of variable layer of water. It is reasonable to consider that the random processes contributing to the error in the measured attenuation are independent and arbitrarily distributed. The error, contributed by a large number of independent sources of arbitrary probability distributions, is best described by an approximately normal probability distribution in accordance with the central limit theorem. Using an analytical approach to model the attenuating effect of each of the random variable sources can be very complex and

  8. Fast, optically controlled Kerr phase shifter for digital signal processing. (United States)

    Li, R B; Deng, L; Hagley, E W; Payne, M G; Bienfang, J C; Levine, Z H


    We demonstrate an optically controlled Kerr phase shifter using a room-temperature 85Rb vapor operating in a Raman gain scheme. Phase shifts from zero to π relative to an unshifted reference wave are observed, and gated operations are demonstrated. We further demonstrate the versatile digital manipulation of encoded signal light with an encoded phase-control light field using an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Generalizations of this scheme should be capable of full manipulation of a digitized signal field at high speed, opening the door to future applications.

  9. Some dynamics of signaling games. (United States)

    Huttegger, Simon; Skyrms, Brian; Tarrès, Pierre; Wagner, Elliott


    Information transfer is a basic feature of life that includes signaling within and between organisms. Owing to its interactive nature, signaling can be investigated by using game theory. Game theoretic models of signaling have a long tradition in biology, economics, and philosophy. For a long time the analyses of these games has mostly relied on using static equilibrium concepts such as Pareto optimal Nash equilibria or evolutionarily stable strategies. More recently signaling games of various types have been investigated with the help of game dynamics, which includes dynamical models of evolution and individual learning. A dynamical analysis leads to more nuanced conclusions as to the outcomes of signaling interactions. Here we explore different kinds of signaling games that range from interactions without conflicts of interest between the players to interactions where their interests are seriously misaligned. We consider these games within the context of evolutionary dynamics (both infinite and finite population models) and learning dynamics (reinforcement learning). Some results are specific features of a particular dynamical model, whereas others turn out to be quite robust across different models. This suggests that there are certain qualitative aspects that are common to many real-world signaling interactions.

  10. Quorum Quenching Revisited—From Signal Decays to Signalling Confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan


    Full Text Available In a polymicrobial community, while some bacteria are communicating with neighboring cells (quorum sensing, others are interrupting the communication (quorum quenching, thus creating a constant arms race between intercellular communication. In the past decade, numerous quorum quenching enzymes have been found and initially thought to inactivate the signalling molecules. Though this is widely accepted, the actual roles of these quorum quenching enzymes are now being uncovered. Recent evidence extends the role of quorum quenching to detoxification or metabolism of signalling molecules as food and energy source; this includes “signalling confusion”, a term coined in this paper to refer to the phenomenon of non-destructive modification of signalling molecules. While quorum quenching has been explored as a novel anti-infective therapy targeting, quorum sensing evidence begins to show the development of resistance against quorum quenching.

  11. About thermometers and temperature (United States)

    Baldovin, M.; Puglisi, A.; Sarracino, A.; Vulpiani, A.


    We discuss a class of mechanical models of thermometers and their minimal requirements to determine the temperature for systems out of the common scope of thermometry. In particular we consider: (1) anharmonic chains with long time of thermalization, such as the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model; (2) systems with long-range interactions where the equivalence of ensembles does not always hold; (3) systems featuring absolute negative temperatures. We show that for all the three classes of systems a mechanical thermometer model can be designed: a temporal average of a suitable mechanical observable of the thermometer is sufficient to get an estimate of the system’s temperature. Several interesting lessons are learnt from our numerical study: (1) the long thermalization times in FPU-like systems do not affect the thermometer, which is not coupled to normal modes but to a group of microscopic degrees of freedom; (2) a thermometer coupled to a long-range system measures its microcanonical temperature, even at values of the total energy where its canonical temperature would be very different; (3) a thermometer to read absolute negative temperatures must have a bounded total energy (as the system), otherwise it heavily perturbs the system changing the sign of its temperature. Our study shows that in order to also work in a correct way in ‘non standard’ cases, the proper model of thermometer must have a special functional form, e.g. the kinetic part cannot be quadratic.

  12. Control of supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, H.; Nielsen, T.S.; Soegaard, H.T.


    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  13. Microsystem for signal processing applications (United States)

    Frankenstein, B.; Froehlich, K.-J.; Hentschel, D.; Reppe, G.


    Acoustic monitoring of technological processes requires methods that eliminate noise as much as possible. Sensor-near signal evaluation can contribute substantially. Frequently, a further necessity exists to integrate the measuring technique in the monitored structure. The solution described contains components for analog preprocessing of acoustic signals, their digitization, algorithms for data reduction, and digital communication. The core component is a digital signal processor (DSP). Digital signal processors perform the algorithms necessary for filtering, down sampling, FFT computation and correlation of spectral components particularly effective. A compact, sensor-near signal processing structure was realized. It meets the Match-X standard, which as specified by the German Association for Mechanical and Plant Engineering (VDMA) for development of micro-technical modules, which can be combined to applicaiton specific systems. The solution is based on AL2O3 ceramic components including different signal processing modules as ADC, as well as memory and power supply. An arbitrary waveform generator has been developed and combined with a power amplifier for piezoelectric transducers in a special module. A further module interfaces to these transducers. It contains a multi-channel preamplifier, some high-pass filters for analog signal processing and an ADC-driver. A Bluetooth communication chip for wireless data transmission and a DiscOnChip module are under construction. As a first application, the combustion behavior of safety-relevant contacts is monitored. A special waveform up to 5MHz is produced and sent to the monitored object. The resulting signal form is evaluated with special algorithms, which extract significant parameters of the signal, and transmitted via CAN-bus.

  14. Advanced optical signal processing of broadband parallel data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Hu, Hao; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian


    Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration.......Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration....

  15. On Possibility of Detonation Products Temperature Measurements of Emulsion Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrov V. V.


    Full Text Available The new view on the structure of the radiance signal recorded by optical pyrometer and the preliminary results of brightness detonation temperature of the emulsion explosive are presented. The structure of an optical signal observed is typical for the heterogeneous explosives. First, there is the short temperature spike to 2500 ÷ 3300 K connecting with a formation of “hot spots” assembly that fire the matrix capable of exothermal reaction. Then the relaxation of radiance to equilibrium level is observed that corresponds to brightness temperature 1840 ÷ 2260 K of explosion products at detonation pressure 1 ÷ 11 GPa. Experimental results are compared with the calculations of other authors. The detonation temperature of the investigated explosive is measured for the first time.

  16. Statistical theory of signal detection

    CERN Document Server

    Helstrom, Carl Wilhelm; Costrell, L; Kandiah, K


    Statistical Theory of Signal Detection, Second Edition provides an elementary introduction to the theory of statistical testing of hypotheses that is related to the detection of signals in radar and communications technology. This book presents a comprehensive survey of digital communication systems. Organized into 11 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the theory of signal detection and the typical detection problem. This text then examines the goals of the detection system, which are defined through an analogy with the testing of statistical hypotheses. Other chapters consider

  17. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab


    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  18. GA signalling and cross-talk with other signalling pathways. (United States)

    Lor, Vai S; Olszewski, Neil E


    Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones that regulate growth and development. DELLA proteins repress GA responses. GA binding to its receptor triggers a series of events that culminate in the destruction of DELLA proteins by the 26S proteasome, which removes the repression of GA signalling. DELLA proteins are transcription co-activators that induce the expression of genes which encode products that inhibit GA responses. In addition to repressing GA responses, DELLA proteins influence the activity of other signalling pathways and serve as a central hub from which other pathways influence GA signalling. In this role, DELLA proteins bind to and inhibit proteins, including transcription factors that act in the signalling pathways of other hormones and light. The binding of these proteins to DELLA proteins also inhibits DELLA activity. GA signalling is subject to homoeostatic regulation through GA-induced repression of GA biosynthesis gene expression, and increased production of the GA receptor and enzymes that catabolize bioactive GAs. This review also discusses the nature of mutant DELLA alleles that are used to produce high-yielding 'Green Revolution' cereal varieties, and highlights important gaps in our knowledge of GA signalling. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  19. Temperature estimation with ultrasound (United States)

    Daniels, Matthew

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma is the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States. In addition, the survival rate after one year is approximately zero without treatment. In many instances, patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma may not be suitable candidates for the primary treatment options, i.e. surgical resection or liver transplantation. This has led to the development of minimally invasive therapies focused on destroying hepatocelluar by thermal or chemical methods. The focus of this dissertation is on the development of ultrasound-based image-guided monitoring options for minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation. Ultrasound-based temperature imaging relies on relating the gradient of locally estimated tissue displacements to a temperature change. First, a realistic Finite Element Analysis/ultrasound simulation of ablation was developed. This allowed evaluation of the ability of ultrasound-based temperature estimation algorithms to track temperatures for three different ablation scenarios in the liver. It was found that 2-Dimensional block matching and a 6 second time step was able to accurately track the temperature over a 12 minute ablation procedure. Next, a tissue-mimicking phantom was constructed to determine the accuracy of the temperature estimation method by comparing estimated temperatures to that measured using invasive fiber-optic temperature probes. The 2-Dimensional block matching was able to track the temperature accurately over the entire 8 minute heating procedure in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Finally, two separate in-vivo experiments were performed. The first experiment examined the ability of our algorithm to track frame-to-frame displacements when external motion due to respiration and the cardiac cycle were considered. It was determined that a frame rate between 13 frames per second and 33 frames per second was sufficient to track frame-to-frame displacements between respiratory cycles. The second experiment examined

  20. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... input to the cell then hydrogen is produced giving syngas. This syngas can then be further reacted to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Operating at high temperature gives much higher efficiencies than can be achieved with low temperature electrolysis. Current state of the art SOECs utilise a dense...

  1. Signal processing with free software practical experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, François


    An ideal resource for students, industrial engineers, and researchers, Signal Processing with Free Software Practical Experiments presents practical experiments in signal processing using free software. The text introduces elementary signals through elementary waveform, signal storage files and elementary operations on signals and then presents the first tools to signal analysis such as temporal and frequency characteristics leading to Time-frequency analysis. Non-parametric spectral analysis is also discussed as well as signal processing through sampling, resampling, quantification, an

  2. Acoustic Emission Signal Processing Technique to Characterize Reactor In-Pile Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Magdy Samy Tawfik; James A Smith


    Existing and developing advanced sensor technologies and instrumentation will allow non-intrusive in-pile measurement of temperature, extension, and fission gases when coupled with advanced signal processing algorithms. The transmitted measured sensor signals from inside to the outside of containment structure are corrupted by noise and are attenuated, thereby reducing the signal strength and signal-to-noise ratio. Identification and extraction of actual signal (representative of an in-pile phenomenon) is a challenging and complicated process. In this paper, empirical mode decomposition technique is proposed to reconstruct actual sensor signal by partially combining intrinsic mode functions. Reconstructed signal corresponds to phenomena and/or failure modes occurring inside the reactor. In addition, it allows accurate non-intrusive monitoring and trending of in-pile phenomena.

  3. The characterization of NMR signal for blood pressure monitoring system and its testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Murdaka Eka Jati


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A blood monitoring system based on NMR method has been designed on constructed. This set-up of equipment used magnetic permanent, radio frequency (RF, receiver coil (RC, function generator (FG, amplifier which included the filter, as well as the oscilloscope digital storage. The background of this research was based on the sensitivity of NMR signal. The signal must be separated from signals background. This method was done by adjusting the frequency on FG, which was connected to radio frequency (RF coil, on empty sample. Subsequently, NMR signal was received by RC, and that signal could be shown on oscilloscope at resonance condition. The true frequency on NMR signal was Larmor frequency, and the other was background. The two variables of this experiment were the position of RF coil and the location temperature (20 up to 30oC. In conclusion, the resonance frequency of NMR signal (as Larmor frequency was 4.7 MHz (at static magnetic field of 1,600 gauss and it could be separated from background signals (3.4 and 6.2 MHz, and that signal was almost constant to room temperature. The equipment was used for sample testing. It gave systole/diastole data of 110/70 mmHg (on sphygmomanometer that was similar to 17/9 mV (on NMR signal. ABSTRAK Telah dikembangkan alat pemantauan tekanan darah berdasar prinsip NMR.

  4. Signal development in irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuz, Marko


    This work provides a detailed study of signal formation in silicon detectors, with the emphasis on detectors with high concentration of irradiation induced defects in the lattice. These defects give rise to deep energy levels in the band gap. As a consequence, the current induced by charge motion in silicon detectors is signifcantly altered. Within the framework of the study a new experimental method, Charge correction method, based on transient current technique (TCT) was proposed for determination of effective electron and hole trapping times in irradiated silicon detectors. Effective carrier trapping times were determined in numerous silicon pad detectors irradiated with neutrons, pions and protons. Studied detectors were fabricated on oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon wafers with different bulk resistivities. Measured effective carrier trapping times were found to be inversely proportional to fuence and increase with temperature. No dependence on silicon resistivity and oxygen concentration was observ...

  5. Temperature compensated current sensor using reference magnetic field (United States)

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane


    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and self-calibration of a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. A reference magnetic field generated within the current sensor housing is detected by a separate but identical magnetic field sensor and is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  6. High temperature measurements in irradiated environment using Raman fiber optics distributed temperature sensing (United States)

    Lecomte, Pierre; Blairon, Sylvain; Boldo, Didier; Taillade, Frédéric; Caussanel, Matthieu; Beauvois, Gwendal; Duval, Hervé; Grieu, Stéphane; Laffont, Guillaume; Lainé, Frédéric; Carrel, Frédéric


    Optical fiber temperature sensors using Raman effect are a promising technology for temperature mapping of nuclear power plant pipes. These pipes are exposed to high temperature (350 °C) and gamma radiations, which is a harsh environment for standard telecom fibers. Therefore metal coated fibers are to be used to perform measurement over 300 °C. Temperature variations can affect the attenuation of the metallic coated fiber before irradiation. The latter induces an extra attenuation, due to light absorption along the fiber by radiation-induced defects. The recombination of these defects can be strongly accelerated by the high temperature value. As backscattered Raman signal is weak it is important to test optical fibers under irradiation to observe how it gets attenuated. Different experiments are described in this conference paper: two in situ irradiation campaigns with different dose rates at, both ambient and high temperature. We observe that the tested off-the-shelf metallic coated fibers have a high attenuation under irradiation. We also noticed the fact that thermal annealing plays a massive role in the +300 °C temperature range.

  7. Operating temperature measuring method for SnO2 gas-sensing materials using infra-red sensor (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Sun, Yongquan; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Jing


    Operating temperature was crucial for SnO2 gas sensor considering the serious impacts on sensors' selectivity and reliability. While, it was difficult to measure this operating temperature because the size of the sensitive body was small, as well as its heat capacity. In this paper, the temperature signal was acquired by the non-contact infrared temperature sensor and processed by the signal conditioning circuit and single-chip, and then the measured temperature were displayed by the single-chip. The method of subsection calibration was adopted to improve the accuracy of temperature measurement. Finally, the uncertainty of system measurement was estimated.

  8. High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardo, M P


    I review recent results on QCD at high temperature on a lattice. Steady progress with staggered fermions and Wilson type fermions allow a quantitative description of hot QCD whose accuracy in many cases parallels that of zero temperature studies. Simulations with chiral quarks are coming of age, and togheter with theoretical developments trigger interesting developments in the analysis of the critical region. Issues related with the universality class of the chiral transition and the fate of the axial symmetry are discussed in the light of new numerical and analytical results. Transport coefficients and analysis of bottomonium spectra compare well with results of heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Model field theories, lattice simulations and high temperature systematic expansions help building a coherent picture of the high temperature phase of QCD. The (strongly coupled) Quark Gluon Plasma is heavily investigated, and asserts its role as an inspiring theoretical laboratory.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The author discusses quarkonium spectral functions at finite temperature reconstructed using the Maximum Entropy Method. The author shows in particular that the J/{psi} survives in the deconfined phase up to 1.5T{sub c}.

  10. Surface Temperature Data Analysis (United States)

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto


    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  11. Anisotropic Unruh temperatures (United States)

    Arias, Raúl E.; Casini, Horacio; Huerta, Marina; Pontello, Diego


    The relative entropy between very high-energy localized excitations and the vacuum, where both states are reduced to a spatial region, gives place to a precise definition of a local temperature produced by vacuum entanglement across the boundary. This generalizes the Unruh temperature of the Rindler wedge to arbitrary regions. The local temperatures can be read off from the short distance leading have a universal geometric expression that follows by solving a particular eikonal type equation in Euclidean space. This equation generalizes to any dimension the holomorphic property that holds in two dimensions. For regions of arbitrary shapes the local temperatures at a point are direction dependent. We compute their explicit expression for the geometry of a wall or strip.

  12. Sediment Temperature, 2015 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data table contains summary data for temperature time series in near-surface sediments in high and low tidal marsh at 7 sites during 2015. These data support...

  13. Temperatures of exploding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfling, V.; Schwarz, C.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Fritz, S.; Gross, C.; Kleinevoss, U.; Kunze, W.D; Lynen, U.; Mahi, M.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Odeh, T.; Schnittker, M.; Trautmann, W.; Woerner, A.; Xi, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Bassini, R.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.; Petruzzelli, F. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Fisiche]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Gaff, S.J.; Kunde, G.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Imme, G.; Maddalena, V.; Nociforo, C.; Raciti, G.; Riccobene, G.; Romano, F.P.; Saija, A.; Sfienti, C.; Verde, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Moehlenkamp, T.; Seidel, W. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany); Ocker, B.; Schuettauf, A. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Pochodzalla, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland)


    Breakup temperatures in central collisions of {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au at bombarding energies E/A=50 to 200 MeV were determined with two methods. Isotope temperatures, deduced from double ratios of hydrogen, helium, and lithium isotopic yields, increase monotonically with bombarding energy from 5 MeV to 12 MeV, in qualitative agreement with a scenario of chemical freeze-out after adiabatic expansion. Excited-state temperatures, derived from yield ratios of states in {sup 4}He, {sup 5,6}Li, and {sup 8}Be, are about 5 MeV, independent of the projectile energy, and seem to reflect the internal temperature of fragments at their final separation from the system. (orig.)

  14. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.


    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  15. Dynamic time warping for temperature compensation in structural health monitoring (United States)

    Douglass, Alexander; Harley, Joel B.


    Guided wave structural health monitoring uses ultrasonic waves to identify changes in structures. To identify these changes, most guided wave methods require a pristine baseline measurement with which other measurements are compared. Damage signatures arise when there is a deviation between the baseline and the recorded measurement. However, temperature significantly complicates this analysis by creating misalignment between the baseline and measurements. This leads to false alarms of damage and significantly reduces the reliability of these systems. Several methods have been created to account for these temperature perturbations. Yet, most of these compensation methods fail in harsh, highly variable temperature conditions or require a prohibitive amount of prior data. In this paper, we use an algorithm known as dynamic time warping to compensate for temperature in these harsh conditions. We demonstrate that dynamic time warping is able to account for temperature variations whereas the more traditional baseline signal stretch method is unable to resolve damage under high temperature fluctuations.

  16. Invariants of DNA genomic signals (United States)

    Cristea, Paul Dan A.


    For large scale analysis purposes, the conversion of genomic sequences into digital signals opens the possibility to use powerful signal processing methods for handling genomic information. The study of complex genomic signals reveals large scale features, maintained over the scale of whole chromosomes, that would be difficult to find by using only the symbolic representation. Based on genomic signal methods and on statistical techniques, the paper defines parameters of DNA sequences which are invariant to transformations induced by SNPs, splicing or crossover. Re-orienting concatenated coding regions in the same direction, regularities shared by the genomic material in all exons are revealed, pointing towards the hypothesis of a regular ancestral structure from which the current chromosome structures have evolved. This property is not found in non-nuclear genomic material, e.g., plasmids.

  17. Signal transforms in dynamic measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Layer, Edward


    This book is devoted to the analysis of measurement signals which requires specific mathematical operations like Convolution, Deconvolution, Laplace, Fourier, Hilbert, Wavelet or Z transform which are all presented in the present book. The different problems refer to the modulation of signals, filtration of disturbance as well as to the orthogonal signals and their use in digital form for the measurement of current, voltage, power and frequency are also widely discussed. All the topics covered in this book are presented in detail and illustrated by means of examples in MathCad and LabVIEW. This book provides a useful source for researchers, scientists and engineers who in their daily work are required to deal with problems of measurement and signal processing and can also be helpful to undergraduate students of electrical engineering.    

  18. Apoptotic signaling in mouse odontogenesis. (United States)

    Matalova, Eva; Svandova, Eva; Tucker, Abigail S


    Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odontogenesis, concentrating on the mouse, which is often used as a model organism for human dentistry. Apoptosis accompanies the entire development of the tooth and corresponding remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. It is most evident in its role in the elimination of signaling centers within developing teeth, removal of vestigal tooth germs, and in odontoblast and ameloblast organization during tooth mineralization. Dental apoptosis is caspase dependent and proceeds via mitochondrial mediated cell death with possible amplification by Fas-FasL signaling modulated by Bcl-2 family members.

  19. Subcellular Organization of GPCR Signaling. (United States)

    Eichel, Kelsie; von Zastrow, Mark


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large and diverse class of signal-transducing receptors that undergo dynamic and isoform-specific membrane trafficking. GPCRs thus have an inherent potential to initiate or regulate signaling reactions from multiple membrane locations. This review discusses emerging insights into the subcellular organization of GPCR function in mammalian cells, focusing on signaling transduced by heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestins. We summarize recent evidence indicating that GPCR-mediated activation of G proteins occurs not only from the plasma membrane (PM) but also from endosomes and Golgi membranes and that β-arrestin-dependent signaling can be transduced from the PM by β-arrestin trafficking to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) after dissociation from a ligand-activated GPCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Sidorkina


    Full Text Available The likelihood ratio of the pulse signal with unknown time position while detecting and detecting the signal with unknown frequency, are considered. Is shown that an FFT algorithm should be performed while detecting the signal with unknown frequency, the maximum value of all spectral samples should be found and compared to the detection threshold. Upon detection of a pulse signal with unknown time position a fast convolution algorithm should be performed, the maximum value of all the spectral inverse FFT samples should be found and compared to the detection threshold. The effectiveness of this algorithm is determined by the sampling distribution of the maximum values of random variables distributed according to Rayleigh.

  1. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  2. Confinement at Finite Temperature (United States)

    Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Marco


    We show the flux tubes produced by static quark-antiquark, quark-quark and quark-gluon charges at finite temperature. The sources are placed on the lattice with fundamental and adjoint Polyakov loops. We compute the squared strengths of the chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields above and below the critical temperature. Our results are for pure gauge SU(3) gauge theory, they are invariant and all computations are done with GPUs using CUDA.

  3. Portable Body Temperature Conditioner (United States)


    patients become hypothermic after severe injury due to environmental exposure during transport. These patients also have decreased thermoregulation due to...based on the load demand to conserve power consumption 4 Requires glycol solution to prevent H20 freezing at cold ambient temperatures 3. Product...three days. To encompass the range of the temperature to be used during the Patient Simulation testing (15oC – 40oC); cold (15oC), neutral (25oC

  4. Galileo Signal Generation. Simulation Analysis


    Canalda Pedrós, Roger


    Projecte realitzat eb col.laboració amb el Department of Computer and Electronic Engineering. University of Limerick This work presents the navigation signals and their allocation in the radio frequency band used in the new European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS): Galileo. All signals are described mathematically and then simulated using Matlab language (in transmission). Results are shown thus proving the theory provided by the European Space Agency document: “Open Service Sign...

  5. Simulation Of Cell Signaling Communications


    Huertas González, Daniel


    Simulation of cell signaling communications using the Omnet ++ Simulation Framework and molecular dynamics algorithms. [ANGLÈS] Cells, whether they be unicellular organisms or belong to a multicellular organism, are able to encode and transmit information to each other by means of signaling molecules and the diffusion processes in the extracellular fluid. The aim of this project is to develop an Event Driven Molecular Dynamics (EDMD) simulator using the Omnet++ Simulation Framework in orde...

  6. Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter. (United States)

    Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos


    White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sentiment analysis for PTSD signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Vadim; Sapounas, Demetrios


    This book describes a computational framework for real-time detection of psychological signals related to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in online text-based posts, including blogs and web forums. Further, it explores how emerging computational techniques such as sentiment mining can be used in real-time to identify posts that contain PTSD-related signals, flag those posts, and bring them to the attention of psychologists, thus providing an automated flag and referral capability.

  8. Signal Synthesizer and Method Therefor


    Pace, Phillip E.; Surratt, Robert E.; Yeo, Siew-Yam


    Patent A method and system for signal processing, especially useful as a signal repeater, i.e. for simulating the characteristic echo signature of a preselected target. The system has a digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) and associated circuitry, including digital tapped delay lines, and a modulator in each delay line to impose both amplitude and frequency modulation in each line. Use of digital semiconductor technology increases the bandwidth and sensitivity of ...

  9. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deprettere, Ed; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo


    Handbook of Signal Processing Systems is organized in three parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools, describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies. This handbook is an essential tool for professionals in many fields and researchers of all levels.

  10. Universal vocal signals of emotion


    Sauter, D.; Eisner, F; Ekman, P.; Scott, S


    Emotional signals allow for the sharing of important information with conspecifics, for example to warn them of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. Although much is known about facial expressions of emotion, less research has focused on affect in the voice. We compare British listeners to individuals from remote Namibian villages who have had no exposure to Western culture, and examine recognition ...

  11. Temperature in the throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Kaviani


    Full Text Available We study the temperature of extended objects in string theory. Rotating probe D-branes admit horizons and temperatures a la Unruh effect. We find that the induced metrics on slow rotating probe D1-branes in holographic string solutions including warped Calabi–Yau throats have distinct thermal horizons with characteristic Hawking temperatures even if there is no black hole in the bulk Calabi–Yau. Taking the UV/IR limits of the solution, we show that the world volume black hole nucleation depends on the deformation and the warping of the throat. We find that world volume horizons and temperatures of expected features form not in the regular confining IR region but in the singular nonconfining UV solution. In the conformal limit of the UV, we find horizons and temperatures similar to those on rotating probes in the AdS throat found in the literature. In this case, we also find that activating a background gauge field form the U(1 R-symmetry modifies the induced metric with its temperature describing two different classes of black hole solutions.

  12. Temperature in the throat (United States)

    Kaviani, Dariush; Mosaffa, Amir Esmaeil


    We study the temperature of extended objects in string theory. Rotating probe D-branes admit horizons and temperatures a la Unruh effect. We find that the induced metrics on slow rotating probe D1-branes in holographic string solutions including warped Calabi-Yau throats have distinct thermal horizons with characteristic Hawking temperatures even if there is no black hole in the bulk Calabi-Yau. Taking the UV/IR limits of the solution, we show that the world volume black hole nucleation depends on the deformation and the warping of the throat. We find that world volume horizons and temperatures of expected features form not in the regular confining IR region but in the singular nonconfining UV solution. In the conformal limit of the UV, we find horizons and temperatures similar to those on rotating probes in the AdS throat found in the literature. In this case, we also find that activating a background gauge field form the U (1) R-symmetry modifies the induced metric with its temperature describing two different classes of black hole solutions.

  13. Microminiature temperature-compensated magnetoelastic strain gauge (United States)

    Arms, Steven W.; Townsend, Christopher P.


    Our objective was to demonstrate a microminiature magnetoelastic strain gauge that provides both strain and temperature signals without additional sensors. Iron based magnetoelastic materials were embedded within superelastic nickel/titanium (NiTi) tubing. NiTi stress was transferred to the ferrite, causing a permeability change sensed by a tiny coil. The coil/bridge was excited (70 KHz AC), synchronously demodulated, and amplified to produce a voltage output proportional to coil/ferrite impedance. A DC voltage was also applied and separately conditioned to provide an output proportional to coil resistance; this signal was used to provide thermal compensation. Controlled strains were applied and 6 Hz cyclic outputs recorded simultaneously from the magnetoelastic strain gauge and conventional foil strain gauges. The magnetoelastic strain gauge tracked the foil gauge with minimal hysteresis and good linearity over 600 microstrain; repeatability was approximately 1.5 microstrain. The magnetoelastic strain gauge's gauge factor was computed from delta inductance/original inductance under static strain conditions. Temperatures of 25-140 deg C resulted in an uncompensated shift of 15 microstrain/deg C, and compensated shift of 1.0 microstrain/deg C. A sensitive micro-magnetoelastic strain gauge was demonstrated using the same sensor to detect stress and temperature with no moving parts, high gauge factor, and good thermal stability.

  14. Time of emergence of climate signals (United States)

    Hawkins, E.; Sutton, R.


    The time at which the signal of climate change emerges from the noise of natural climate variability (Time of Emergence, ToE) is a key variable for climate predictions and risk assessments. Here we present a methodology for estimating ToE for individual climate models, and use it to make maps of ToE for surface air temperature (SAT) based on the CMIP3 global climate models. Consistent with previous studies we show that the median ToE occurs several decades sooner in low latitudes, particularly in boreal summer, than in mid-latitudes. We also show that the median ToE in the Arctic occurs sooner in boreal winter than in boreal summer. A key new aspect of our study is that we quantify the uncertainty in ToE that arises not only from inter-model differences in the magnitude of the climate change signal, but also from large differences in the simulation of natural climate variability. The uncertainty in ToE is at least 30 years in the regions examined, and as much as 60 years in some regions. Alternative emissions scenarios lead to changes in both the median ToE (by a decade or more) and its uncertainty. The SRES B1 scenario is associated with a very large uncertainty in ToE in some regions. Our findings have important implications for climate modelling and climate policy which we discuss.

  15. Hedgehog Signaling in Endochondral Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Ohba


    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays crucial roles in the patterning and morphogenesis of various organs within the bodies of vertebrates and insects. Endochondral ossification is one of the notable developmental events in which Hh signaling acts as a master regulator. Among three Hh proteins in mammals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh is known to work as a major Hh input that induces biological impact of Hh signaling on the endochondral ossification. Ihh is expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes of developing endochondral bones. Genetic studies so far have demonstrated that the Ihh-mediated activation of Hh signaling synchronizes chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during endochondral ossification by regulating the following processes: (1 chondrocyte differentiation; (2 chondrocyte proliferation; and (3 specification of bone-forming osteoblasts. Ihh not only forms a negative feedback loop with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP to maintain the growth plate length, but also directly promotes chondrocyte propagation. Ihh input is required for the specification of progenitors into osteoblast precursors. The combinatorial approaches of genome-wide analyses and mouse genetics will facilitate understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the roles of Hh signaling in endochondral ossification, providing genome-level evidence of the potential of Hh signaling for the treatment of skeletal disorders.

  16. Insulin Signaling and Heart Failure (United States)

    Riehle, Christian; Abel, E. Dale


    Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin resistant states such as type 2 diabetes and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead (FOXO) transcriptional signaling or glucose transport which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed. PMID:27034277

  17. Wnt signaling during cochlear development. (United States)

    Munnamalai, Vidhya; Fekete, Donna M


    Wnt signaling is a hallmark of all embryonic development with multiple roles at multiple developmental time points. Wnt signaling is also important in the development of several organs, one of which is the inner ear, where it participates in otic specification, the formation of vestibular structures, and the development of the cochlea. In particular, we focus on Wnt signaling in the auditory organ, the cochlea. Attempting to dissect the multiple Wnt signaling pathways in the mammalian cochlea is a challenging task due to limited expression data, particularly at proliferating stages. To offer predictions about Wnt activity, we compare cochlear development with that of other biological systems such as Xenopus retina, brain, cancer cells and osteoblasts. Wnts are likely to regulate development through crosstalk with other signaling pathways, particularly Notch and FGF, leading to changes in the expression of Sox2 and proneural (pro-hair cell) genes. In this review we have consolidated the known signaling pathways in the cochlea with known developmental roles of Wnts from other systems to generate a potential timeline of cochlear development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolites in vertebrate Hedgehog signaling. (United States)

    Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Strand, Martin Frank; Krauss, Stefan; Wilson, Steven Ray


    The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is critical in embryonic development, stem cell biology, tissue homeostasis, chemoattraction and synapse formation. Irregular HH signaling is associated with a number of disease conditions including congenital disorders and cancer. In particular, deregulation of HH signaling has been linked to skin, brain, lung, colon and pancreatic cancers. Key mediators of the HH signaling pathway are the 12-pass membrane protein Patched (PTC), the 7-pass membrane protein Smoothened (SMO) and the GLI transcription factors. PTC shares homology with the RND family of small-molecule transporters and it has been proposed that it interferes with SMO through metabolites. Although a conclusive picture is lacking, substantial efforts are made to identify and understand natural metabolites/sterols, including cholesterol, vitamin D3, oxysterols and glucocorticoides, that may be affected by, or influence the HH signaling cascade at the level of PTC and SMO. In this review we will elaborate the role of metabolites in HH signaling with a focus on oxysterols, and discuss advancements in modern analytical approaches in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism. (United States)

    Sawal, Humaira Aziz; Asghar, Kashif; Bureik, Matthias; Jalal, Nasir


    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells) that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to pursue this field of science.

  20. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine, which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  1. 33 CFR 117.15 - Signals. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signals. 117.15 Section 117.15... REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.15 Signals. (a) General. (1) The operator of each vessel requesting a drawbridge to open shall signal the drawtender and the drawtender shall acknowledge that signal. The signal...

  2. Investigation of OSL signals from very deep traps in unfired and fired quartz samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece); Kiyak, N.G. [ISIK University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, 34980 Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); Polymeris, G.S. [ISIK University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, 34980 Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); Cultural and Educational Technology Institute - R.C. Athena/Archaeometry Laboratory, Xanthi (Greece); Pagonis, V., E-mail: vpagonis@mcdaniel.ed [McDaniel College, Physics Department, Westminster, MD 21157 (United States)


    This paper presents an attempt to isolate experimentally optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals which may originate from very deep traps (VDT) in quartz samples. As VDT we consider those traps which are responsible for TL glow peaks with a peak maximum temperature above a TL readout temperature of 500 deg. C. The basic experimental procedure used to isolate OSL signals from VDT is heating the quartz samples to 500 deg. C immediately before measuring the OSL signal. The study was carried out on eight quartz samples of very different origins; it is found that all eight samples exhibit OSL signals from VDT, and for a wide region of OSL stimulation temperatures. The OSL signal from VDT depends strongly on the type of quartz sample studied and on whether the sample was fired at high temperatures or not. The behavior of the OSL signal from VDT as a function of the stimulation temperature is found to be very different in fired and unfired samples. The thermal activation energy E for the OSL signals from VDT is obtained in both fired and unfired samples. The OSL signal from VDT in quartz samples fired at 800 deg. C for 1 h is very high, and the OSL curves consist of three well-defined components and a fourth slow component which is rather poorly resolved. The dose response of these components is obtained using a computerized deconvolution procedure for the dose region 0.5-300 Gy. The results are of importance for dating of ancient fired ceramics, since OSL signals from VDT could potentially extend appreciably the equivalent dose region toward both lower and higher values.

  3. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform. (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P


    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  4. Optical temperature sensing on flexible polymer foils (United States)

    Sherman, Stanislav; Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Schmidt, Thomas; Gleissner, Uwe; Zappe, Hans


    In contrast to established semiconductor waveguide-based or glass fiber-based integrated optical sensors, polymerbased optical systems offer tunable material properties, such as refractive index or viscosity, and thus provide additional degrees of freedom for sensor design and fabrication. Of particular interest in sensing applications are fully-integrated optical waveguide-based temperature sensors. These typically rely on Bragg gratings which induce a periodic refractive index variation in the waveguide so that a resonant wavelength of the structure is reflected.1,2 With broad-band excitation, a dip in the spectral output of the waveguide is thus generated at a precisely-defined wavelength. This resonant wavelength depends on the refractive index of the waveguide and the grating period, yet both of these quantities are temperature dependent by means of the thermo-optic effect (change in refractive index with temperature) and thermal expansion (change of the grating period with temperature). We show the design and fabrication of polymer waveguide-integrated temperature sensors based on Bragggratings, fabricated by replication technology on flexible PMMA foil substrates. The 175 μm thick foil serves as lower cladding for a polymeric waveguide fabricated from a custom-made UV-crosslinkable co-monomer composition. The fabrication of the grating structure includes a second replication step into a separate PMMA-foil. The dimensions of the Bragg-gratings are determined by simulations to set the bias point into the near infrared wavelength range, which allows Si-based detectors to be used. We present design considerations and performance data for the developed structures. The resulting sensor's signal is linear to temperature changes and shows a sensitivity of -306 nm/K, allowing high resolution temperature measurements.

  5. Ambient temperature response establishes ELF3 as a required component of the core Arabidopsis circadian clock. (United States)

    Thines, Bryan; Harmon, Frank G


    Circadian clocks synchronize internal processes with environmental cycles to ensure optimal timing of biological events on daily and seasonal time scales. External light and temperature cues set the core molecular oscillator to local conditions. In Arabidopsis, EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) is thought to act as an evening-specific repressor of light signals to the clock, thus serving a zeitnehmer function. Circadian rhythms were examined in completely dark-grown, or etiolated, null elf3-1 seedlings, with the clock entrained by thermocycles, to evaluate whether the elf3 mutant phenotype was light-dependent. Circadian rhythms were absent from etiolated elf3-1 seedlings after exposure to temperature cycles, and this mutant failed to exhibit classic indicators of entrainment by temperature cues, consistent with global clock dysfunction or strong perturbation of temperature signaling in this background. Warm temperature pulses failed to elicit acute induction of temperature-responsive genes in elf3-1. In fact, warm temperature-responsive genes remained in a constitutively "ON" state because of clock dysfunction and, therefore, were insensitive to temperature signals in the normal time of day-specific manner. These results show ELF3 is broadly required for circadian clock function regardless of light conditions, where ELF3 activity is needed by the core oscillator to allow progression from day to night during either light or temperature entrainment. Furthermore, robust circadian rhythms appear to be a prerequisite for etiolated seedlings to respond correctly to temperature signals.

  6. AlliedSignal solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.; Barr, K.; Kelly, P.; Montgomery, K. [AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)


    AlliedSignal has been developing high-performance, lightweight solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for a broad spectrum of electric power generation applications. This technology is well suited for use in a variety of power systems, ranging from commercial cogeneration to military mobile power sources. The AlliedSignal SOFC is based on stacking high-performance thin-electrolyte cells with lightweight metallic interconnect assemblies to form a compact structure. The fuel cell can be operated at reduced temperatures (600{degrees} to 800{degrees}C). SOFC stacks based on this design has the potential of producing 1 kW/kg and 1 ML. This paper summarizes the technical status of the design, manufacture, and operation of AlliedSignal SOFCs.

  7. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawal HA


    Full Text Available Humaira Aziz Sawal,1 Kashif Asghar,2 Matthias Bureik,3 Nasir Jalal4 1Healthcare Biotechnology Department, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, 2Basic Sciences Research, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Health Science Platform, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; 4Health Science Platform, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China Abstract: The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to

  8. Temperature measurement: Thermocouples (United States)


    This Data Item is available as part of the ESDU Sub-series on Heat Transfer. Background information and practical guidance on designing temperature measuring systems using thermocouples is provided. The nominal temperature range covered is -200 degrees C to 2000 degrees C but the comments apply, in general terms, to all thermocouple systems. The information is aimed at the user who wishes to design and install a practical thermocouple system using improved techniques that will allow temperatures to be measured within known tolerances. The selection, preparation, and installation of thermocouples, the use of compensating or extension cables, methods of referencing to a known temperature and measurement system are considered. The requirements for reliable systems operating to commercial tolerances are also described. Various factors that might impair the accuracy and stability of thermocouples are identified together with methods of reducing their effect. A check list for the design of a thermocouple system is given and a flow chart procedure for selecting appropriate thermocouple materials is provided as well. The employment of the techniques described will ensure that the temperature of the measuring junction is within known tolerances.

  9. Temperature Data Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, David


    Groundwater temperature is sensitive to the competing processes of heat flow from below the advective transport of heat by groundwater flow. Because groundwater temperature is sensitive to conductive and advective processes, groundwater temperature may be utilized as a tracer to further constrain the uncertainty of predictions of advective radionuclide transport models constructed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Since heat transport, geochemical, and hydrologic models for a given area must all be consistent, uncertainty can be reduced by devaluing the weight of those models that do not match estimated heat flow. The objective of this study was to identify the quantity and quality of available heat flow data at the NTS. One-hundred-forty-five temperature logs from 63 boreholes were examined. Thirteen were found to have temperature profiles suitable for the determination of heat flow values from one or more intervals within the boreholes. If sufficient spatially distributed heat flow values are obtained, a heat transport model coupled to a hydrologic model may be used to reduce the uncertainty of a nonisothermal hydrologic model of the NTS.

  10. Circuit for Communication over DC Power Line Using High Temperature Electronics (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor)


    A high temperature communications circuit includes a power conductor for concurrently conducting electrical energy for powering circuit components and transmitting a modulated data signal, and a demodulator for demodulating the data signal and generating a serial bit stream based on the data signal. The demodulator includes an absolute value amplifier for conditionally inverting or conditionally passing a signal applied to the absolute value amplifier. The absolute value amplifier utilizes no diodes to control the conditional inversion or passing of the signal applied to the absolute value amplifier.

  11. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab


    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.



  13. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)


    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  14. Mathematical model for classification of EEG signals (United States)

    Ortiz, Victor H.; Tapia, Juan J.


    A mathematical model to filter and classify brain signals from a brain machine interface is developed. The mathematical model classifies the signals from the different lobes of the brain to differentiate the signals: alpha, beta, gamma and theta, besides the signals from vision, speech, and orientation. The model to develop further eliminates noise signals that occur in the process of signal acquisition. This mathematical model can be used on different platforms interfaces for rehabilitation of physically handicapped persons.

  15. Applied signal processing concepts, circuits, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdy, Nadder


    Introduction What are Signals? Signal parameters Why Signal processing? Analog vs. Digital Signal processing Practical Signal processing Systems Analog Signal Processing Amplitude Shaping Frequency Spectrum Shaping Phase Errors Correction Waveform Generation Analog Filter Design Describing Equations Design Procedures Filter Specifications Approximations to the Ideal Response Realization Practical RC-Filters Design Switched Capacitor Filter Realization Design examples Data Converters Introduction A typical DSP System Specifications of Data Converters Sampling Samp

  16. Optical time-lens signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    This paper describes the use of optical time lenses for optical signal processing of advanced optical data signals. Examples given include 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist channel serial-to-parallel conversion and spectral magnification of OFDM signals.......This paper describes the use of optical time lenses for optical signal processing of advanced optical data signals. Examples given include 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist channel serial-to-parallel conversion and spectral magnification of OFDM signals....

  17. Biomedical signal and image processing. (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro


    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  18. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al


    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other. PMID:27853180

  19. Calcium signaling in taste cells. (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F


    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurements of Dielectric Properties of Mars Analog Soils with Variable Temperature and Moisture Content (United States)

    Cereti, A.; Mellon, M. T.; Sizemore, H. G.; Phillips, R. J.


    We performed impedance spectroscopy of various martian analog soils, with varying temperature and moisture content, to investigate how the complex dielectric permittivity depends on these factors, as this parameter can strongly affect radar signals propagation.

  1. Elevated temperature deformation analysis (United States)

    Nelson, J. M.

    The paper demonstrates a novel nondestructive test and data analysis technique for quantitative measurement of circumferentially varying flexural moduli of 2D involute carbon-carbon tag rings containing localized wrinkles and dry plies at room and rocket nozzle operating temperatures. Room temperature computed tomography (CT) deformation tests were performed on 11 carbon-carbon rings selected from the cylinders and cones fabricated under the NDE data application program and two plexiglass rings fabricated under this program. This testing and analysis technique is found to have primary application in validation of analytical models for carbon-carbon performance modeling. Both effects of defects assumptions, the effects of high temperature environments, and failure-related models can be validated effectively. The testing and analysis process can be interwoven in a manner that increases the engineering understanding of the material behavior and permits rapid resolution of analysis questions. Specific recommendations for the development and implementation of this technique are provided.

  2. Do `negative' temperatures exist? (United States)

    Lavenda, B. H.


    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  3. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.


    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  4. Application of Morlet wavelet in the extraction of Brillouin scattering signal envelope (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Huang, Cha-xiang; Zhou, Li


    The Brillouin scattering light signal is a wideband signal containing a lot of phase noises and amplitude noises. And the envelope of the Brillouin scattering signal will include some characteristics due to the influences of temperature and strain change on the sensing fiber. In order to obtain the useful temperature and strain change information, the amplitude demodulation of the noise signal should be conducted, and at the same time, it is necessary to effectively suppress the signal noise. In this paper, Morlet wavelet has been used to do the envelope detection since it has band-pass filtering function and signal demodulation function provided by the orthogonal characteristic between real part and imaginary part. Moreover, the Morlet wavelet function has the characteristic of time-frequency analysis, and it can analyze envelope of the signal and extract characteristic of the signal in the whole frequency range by changing the scale factor and translation factor. Meanwhile, it can also suppress the signal noise effectively. The simulation model has been built to verify the validity of envelope demodulation principle by Morlet wavelet algorithm. Theory analysis and experiment show the algorithm is reasonable and efficient.

  5. A Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures and high radiation are not met with the current solutions. Chronos Technology...

  6. Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking (United States)

    Chang, Zenghu [Manhattan, KS; Yun, Chenxia [Manhattan, KS; Chen, Shouyuan [Manhattan, KS; Wang, He [Manhattan, KS; Chini, Michael [Manhattan, KS


    A feedback control module for stabilizing a carrier-envelope phase of an output of a laser oscillator system comprises a first photodetector, a second photodetector, a phase stabilizer, an optical modulator, and a thermal control element. The first photodetector may generate a first feedback signal corresponding to a first portion of a laser beam from an oscillator. The second photodetector may generate a second feedback signal corresponding to a second portion of the laser beam filtered by a low-pass filter. The phase stabilizer may divide the frequency of the first feedback signal by a factor and generate an error signal corresponding to the difference between the frequency-divided first feedback signal and the second feedback signal. The optical modulator may modulate the laser beam within the oscillator corresponding to the error signal. The thermal control unit may change the temperature of the oscillator corresponding to a signal operable to control the optical modulator.

  7. Fiber optic temperature sensor (United States)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor)


    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  8. Fluorescent temperature sensor (United States)

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM


    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  9. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Serotonin Signaling. (United States)

    Holloway, Terrell; González-Maeso, Javier


    Histone modifications and DNA methylation represent central dynamic and reversible processes that regulate gene expression and contribute to cellular phenotypes. These epigenetic marks have been shown to play fundamental roles in a diverse set of signaling and behavioral outcomes. Serotonin is a monoamine that regulates numerous physiological responses including those in the central nervous system. The cardinal signal transduction mechanisms via serotonin and its receptors are well established, but fundamental questions regarding complex interactions between the serotonin system and heritable epigenetic modifications that exert control on gene function remain a topic of intense research and debate. This review focuses on recent advances and contributions to our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms of serotonin receptor-dependent signaling, with focus on psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression.

  10. The Welfare Cost of Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang


    Full Text Available Might the resource costliness of making signals credible be low or negligible? Using a job market as an example, we build a signaling model to determine the extent to which a transfer from an applicant might replace a resource cost as an equilibrium method of achieving signal credibility. Should a firm’s announcement of hiring for an open position be believed, the firm has an incentive to use a properly-calibrated fee to implement a separating equilibrium. The result is robust to institutional changes, outside options, many firms or many applicants and applicant risk aversion, though a sufficiently risk-averse applicant who is sufficiently likely to be a high type may lead to a preference for a pooling equilibrium.

  11. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard


    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...... signaling plays a fundamental role during development. Recent findings have shown that Notch signaling is dysregulated, and contributes to the malignant potential of these tumors. Growing evidence point towards an important role for cancer stem cells in the initiation and maintenance of glioma...... and medulloblastoma. In this chapter we will cover the present findings of Notch signaling in human glioma and medulloblastoma and try to create an overall picture of its relevance in the pathogenesis of these tumors....

  12. Hedgehog signaling in the stomach. (United States)

    Konstantinou, Daniel; Bertaux-Skeirik, Nina; Zavros, Yana


    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays a key part in controlling embryonic development, but in the adult stomach governs important cellular events such as epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, gastric disease, and regeneration. In particular, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been well studied for its role in gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Shh is secreted from the gastric parietal cells and contributes to the regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury, or the development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection. Dysregulation of the Shh signaling pathway leads to the disruption of gastric differentiation, loss of gastric acid secretion and the development of cancer. In this chapter, we will review the most recent findings that reveal the role of Shh as a regulator of gastric physiology, regeneration, and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Dynamics of Costly Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott O. Wagner


    Full Text Available Costly signaling is a mechanism through which the honesty of signals can be secured in equilibrium, even in interactions where communicators have conflicting interests. This paper explores the dynamics of one such signaling game: Spence’s model of education. It is found that separating equilibria are unlikely to emerge under either the replicator or best response dynamics, but that partially communicative mixed equilibria are quite important dynamically. These mixtures are Lyapunov stable in the replicator dynamic and asymptotically stable in the best response dynamic. Moreover, they have large basins of attraction, in fact larger than those of either pooling or separating equilibria. This suggests that these mixtures may play significant, and underappreciated, roles in the explanation of the emergence and stability of information transfer.

  14. Development of Signal Processing Blocks (United States)

    James, Xavier; Voinov, Alexey


    Experiments executed on the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, has proved the hypothesis of the existence of an `island of stability' of super heavy nuclei. It is a highly sensitive detection system that uses the method of ``active correlations'' which allows rare events of the decay of super heavy nuclei to be detected in almost background-free conditions. The role of the signal processing block is to distribute an event signal to the rest of the data acquisition components within the trigger system. In doing so, it will synchronize the rest of the data acquisition signal blocks when an alpha particle recoil appears in the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator detector. This helps to limit the amount of background interference as the DGFRS undergoes an experiment with a targeted heavy nucleus to receive coherent and succinct results. Joint Institute of Nuclear Research and NSF Grant Number PHY 1713816.

  15. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.


    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  16. Flagellar activation of epithelial signaling. (United States)

    Prince, Alice


    Mucosal epithelial cells are an important component of the innate immune system forming a physical and immunologic barrier to inhaled bacteria. As polarized cells with tight junctions, the immunologic signaling functions of airway epithelial cells differ from those of professional immune cells. While many bacterial gene products activate airway mucosal cells, flagella are especially immunostimulatory. The motility function provided by flagella is essential for the initial stages of respiratory infection associated with opportunists such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Apically presented toll-like receptor 5 responds specifically to bacterial flagellin transducing a number of epithelial proinflammatory signaling cascades, including the induction of Ca2+ fluxes; activation of NF-kappaB, IL-8, and matrilysin; and mucin expression. The complexities of flagella and flagellin structures, how these bacterial components initiate host signaling and their potential as a vaccine target are reviewed.

  17. Endocannabinoid signaling in female reproduction. (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K


    Marijuana is a preparation of the flower, as well as the leaves and seeds, of the plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for thousands of years due to its psychoactive effects including euphoria, sedation, and analgesia. Although it has been suspected for decades that marijuana has adverse effects on female fertility, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has advanced studies if cannabinoid signaling. Since then, numerous studies have been published on cannabinoid signaling in female reproductive events, including preimplantation embryo development, oviductal embryo transport, embryo implantation, placentation, and parturition. This review focuses on various aspects of endocannabinoid signaling in female fertility.

  18. Signals, systems, transforms, and digital signal processing with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Corinthios, Michael


    Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsIntroductionContinuous-Time SignalsPeriodic FunctionsUnit Step FunctionGraphical Representation of FunctionsEven and Odd Parts of a FunctionDirac-Delta ImpulseBasic Properties of the Dirac-Delta ImpulseOther Important Properties of the ImpulseContinuous-Time SystemsCausality, StabilityExamples of Electrical Continuous-Time SystemsMechanical SystemsTransfer Function and Frequency ResponseConvolution and CorrelationA Right-Sided and a Left-Sided FunctionConvolution with an Impulse and Its DerivativesAdditional Convolution PropertiesCorrelation FunctionProperties of the Correlation FunctionGraphical InterpretationCorrelation of Periodic FunctionsAverage, Energy and Power of Continuous-Time SignalsDiscrete-Time SignalsPeriodicityDifference EquationsEven/Odd DecompositionAverage Value, Energy and Power SequencesCausality, StabilityProblemsAnswers to Selected ProblemsFourier Series ExpansionTrigonometric Fourier SeriesExponential Fourier SeriesExponential versus ...

  19. Nimbus-7 SMMR Antenna Temperatures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SMMR Antenna Temperatures (Nimbus-7) data set consists of antenna temperatures from passive microwave radiometers aboard NOAA's Nimbus-7 satellite. The...

  20. Genomic Signals of Reoriented ORFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dan Cristea


    Full Text Available Complex representation of nucleotides is used to convert DNA sequences into complex digital genomic signals. The analysis of the cumulated phase and unwrapped phase of DNA genomic signals reveals large-scale features of eukaryote and prokaryote chromosomes that result from statistical regularities of base and base-pair distributions along DNA strands. By reorienting the chromosome coding regions, a “hidden” linear variation of the cumulated phase has been revealed, along with the conspicuous almost linear variation of the unwrapped phase. A model of chromosome longitudinal structure is inferred on these bases.

  1. Superluminal Signaling and Time Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Shan Gao


    Recently, time machine becomes a hot topic in the physics community[1-7]. But it is still unclear whether or not time machine does exist. In this short paper, we will analyze the possible relation between superluminal signaling and time machine. It will be shown that the realization of superluminal signaling will exclude the existence of time machine, or vice versa. Furthermore, we denote that the usual proof for the possible existence of time machine may fail due to ignoring the limitation of relativity.

  2. Subgraph detection using graph signals

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar


    In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.

  3. Chaotic signals in digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Eisencraft, Marcio; Suyama, Ricardo


    Chaotic Signals in Digital Communications combines fundamental background knowledge with state-of-the-art methods for using chaotic signals and systems in digital communications. The book builds a bridge between theoretical works and practical implementation to help researchers attain consistent performance in realistic environments. It shows the possible shortcomings of the chaos-based communication systems proposed in the literature, particularly when they are subjected to non-ideal conditions. It also presents a toolbox of techniques for researchers working to actually implement such system

  4. Signal processing for remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, CH


    Written by leaders in the field, Signal Processing for Remote Sensing explores the data acquisitions segment of remote sensing. Each chapter presents a major research result or the most up to date development of a topic. The book includes a chapter by Dr. Norden Huang, inventor of the Huang-Hilbert transform who, along with and Dr. Steven Long discusses the application of the transform to remote sensing problems. It also contains a chapter by Dr. Enders A. Robinson, who has made major contributions to seismic signal processing for over half a century, on the basic problem of constructing seism

  5. PSpice for digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul


    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  6. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K


    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  7. Phosphoinositide signaling in somatosensory neurons (United States)

    Rohacs, Tibor


    Somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG) are responsible for detecting thermal and tactile stimuli. They are also the primary neurons mediating pain and itch. A large number of cell surface receptors in these neurons couple to phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes leading to the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and the generation of downstream signaling molecules. These neurons also express many different ion channels, several of which are regulated by phosphoinositides. This review will summarize the knowledge on phosphoinositide signaling in these neurons, with special focus on effects on sensory and other ion channels. PMID:26724974

  8. Basis for recording seismoacoustic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornowski, J.; Sokolowski, H.; Wasko, A.


    Accuracy is evaluated of the PRS-4a seismic detection system developed and manufactured by the EMAG Center for forecasting rock burst hazards in underground coal mines. The system consists of seismic detectors, preamplifiers, amplifiers, cables and receivers. The PRS-4a accurately records seismic signals within a range of 400-1000 Hz. The measuring range of the system is 200 to 1700 Hz but intensive attenuation occurs at both ends of frequency range; excessive amplification is a cause of signal distortion within the range 1200 to 1400 Hz. Test results are shown in 6 diagrams.

  9. Arabidopsis monothiol glutaredoxin, AtGRXS17, is critical for temperature-dependent postembryonic growth and development via modulating auxin response (United States)

    Global environmental temperature changes threaten innumerable plant species. Although various signaling networks regulate plant responses to temperature fluctuations, the mechanisms unifying these diverse processes are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that an Arabidopsis monothiol glutaredoxin,...

  10. Adaptive ultrasound temperature imaging for monitoring radiofrequency ablation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Da Liu

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA has been widely used as an alternative treatment modality for liver tumors. Monitoring the temperature distribution in the tissue during RFA is required to assess the thermal dosage. Ultrasound temperature imaging based on the detection of echo time shifts has received the most attention in the past decade. The coefficient k, connecting the temperature change and the echo time shift, is a medium-dependent parameter used to describe the confounding effects of changes in the speed of sound and thermal expansion as temperature increases. The current algorithm of temperature estimate based on echo time shift detection typically uses a constant k, resulting in estimation errors when ablation temperatures are higher than 50°C. This study proposes an adaptive-k algorithm that enables the automatic adjustment of the coefficient k during ultrasound temperature monitoring of RFA. To verify the proposed algorithm, RFA experiments on in vitro porcine liver samples (total n = 15 were performed using ablation powers of 10, 15, and 20 W. During RFA, a clinical ultrasound system equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear transducer was used to collect backscattered signals for ultrasound temperature imaging using the constant- and adaptive-k algorithms. Concurrently, an infrared imaging system and thermocouples were used to measure surface temperature distribution of the sample and internal ablation temperatures for comparisons with ultrasound estimates. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed adaptive-k method improved the performance in visualizing the temperature distribution. In particular, the estimation errors were also reduced even when the temperature of the tissue is higher than 50°C. The proposed adaptive-k ultrasound temperature imaging strategy has potential to serve as a thermal dosage evaluation tool for monitoring high-temperature RFA.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    [1] C.A.K. Gouvˆea, F. Wypych, S.G. Moraes, N. Dur´an, P. Peralta-Zamora, Semiconductor- assisted photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution, Chemosphere. 427(2000) 40. [2] D.C Look, Equation of state for the study of temperature dependence of volume thermal expansion of nanomaterials, Mater.

  12. Life at High Temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 15, 2005 ... or more in the vicinity of geothermal vents in the deep sea and the plant Tidestromia oblongifolia (Amaranthaceae) found in Death. Valley in California, where the hottest temperature on earth ever recorded during 43 consecutive days in 1917 was >48 °C. (Guinness Book of W orId Records, 1999).

  13. High temperature superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario-Franco, M.A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas


    The perovskite structure is the basis of all known high-temperature superconducting materials. Many of the most successful (highest T{sub c}) materials are based on mercury and thallium phases but, due to the high toxicity of the component compounds effort has been invested in the substitution of these elements with silver. Progress is reviewed. (orig.)

  14. Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer (United States)

    Chamoun, Mirvette


    The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

  15. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar


    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  16. High temperature superconductivity: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, K.S.; Coffey, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Meltzer, D.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA)); Pines, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Schrieffer, J.R. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)) (eds.)


    This book is the result of a symposium at Los Alamos in 1989 on High Temperature Superconductivity. The topics covered include: phenomenology, quantum spin liquids, spin space fluctuations in the insulating and metallic phases, normal state properties, and numerical studies and simulations. (JF)

  17. Low Temperature Plasma Medicine (United States)

    Graves, David


    Ionized gas plasmas near room temperature are used in a remarkable number of technological applications mainly because they are extraordinarily efficient at exploiting electrical power for useful chemical and material transformations near room temperature. In this tutorial address, I will focus on the newest area of low temperature ionized gas plasmas (LTP), in this case operating under atmospheric pressure conditions, in which the temperature-sensitive material is living tissue. LTP research directed towards biomedical applications such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that LTP readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. I will review the evidence suggesting that RONS generated by plasmas are responsible for their observed therapeutic effects. Other possible bio-active mechanisms include electric fields, charges and photons. It is common in LTP applications that synergies between different mechanisms can play a role and I will review the evidence for synergies in plasma biomedicine. Finally, I will address the challenges and opportunities for plasma physicists to enter this novel, multidisciplinary field.

  18. Temperature responsive cooling apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weker, M.L.; Stearns, R.M.


    A temperature responsive cooling apparatus is described for an air conditioner or refrigeration system in operative association with a reservoir of fluid, the air conditioner or refrigeration system having an air cooled coil and means for producing a current of air for cooling the coil, the temperature responsive cooling apparatus comprising: (a) means for transferring the fluid from the reservoir to the air conditioner temperature responsive cooling apparatus, (b) a fluid control device activated by the current of air for cooling the coil; (c) a temperature activated, nonelectrical device for terminating and initiating the flow of fluid therethrough in an intermittent fashion for enhancing the operability of the compressor associated with the refrigeration system and for reducing the quantity of fluid required to cool the coil of the refrigeration system, (d) a fluid treatment device for preventing, reducing or mitigating the deposition of nonevaporative components on the air cooled coil, and (e) means for dispersing the fluid to the air cooled coil from the fluid control device for cooling the coil and increasing the efficiency of the air conditioner thereby reducing the cost of operating and maintaining the air conditioner without damaging the air conditioner and without the deposition of nonevaporative components thereupon.

  19. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert


    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  20. Life at High Temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. Life at High Temperatures. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 23-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  1. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.


    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  2. Temperature differential detection device (United States)

    Girling, P.M.


    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  3. Temperature crossovers in cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubukov, Andrey V. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pines, David; Stojkovic, Branko P. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)


    We study the temperature crossovers seen in the magnetic and transport properties of cuprates using a nearly antiferromagnetic Fermi-liquid model (NAFLM). We distinguish between underdoped and overdoped systems on the basis of their low-frequency magnetic behaviour and so classify the optimally doped cuprates as a special case of the underdoped cuprates. For the overdoped cuprates, we find, in agreement with earlier work, mean-field z=2 behaviour of the magnetic variables associated with the fact that the damping rate of their spin fluctuations is essentially independent of temperature, while the resistivity exhibits a crossover from Fermi-liquid behaviour at low temperature to linear-in-T behaviour above a certain temperature T{sub o}. We demonstrate that above T{sub o} the proximity of the quasiparticle Fermi surface to the magnetic Brillouin zone boundary brings about the measured linear-in-T resistivity. For the underdoped cuprates we argue that the sequence of crossovers identified by Barzykin and Pines in the low-frequency magnetic behaviour (from mean-field z=2 behaviour at high temperatures, T>T{sub cr}, to non-universal z=1 scaling behaviour at intermediate temperatures, T{sub *}temperature-dependent spin damping and ends at T{sub *} where the Fermi surface has lost pieces near corners of the magnetic Brillouin zone. For T{sub *}

  4. Couleurs, etoiles, temperatures. (United States)

    Spite, F.

    The eye is able to distinguish very tiny color differences of contiguous objects (at high light level, cones vision), but it is not a reliable colorimeter. Hot objects (a heated iron rod) emits some red light, a hotter object would provide a yellow-orange light (the filament of a bulb) and a still hotter one a white or even bluish light : this may be at reverse of common life codes, where "red" means hot water and/or danger, and "blue" cool water or cool air. Stars are a good illustration of the link between temperatures and colors. A heated iron rod has a temperature of about 800 K. Let us recall that K is a temperature unit (Kelvin) such that the Kelvin temperature is the Celsius temperature +273).The so called red stars (or cool stars) have temperature around 3000 K, higher than "white-hot iron". The Sun has a still higher temperature (5800 K) and its color is white : the solar light is by definition the "white light", and includes violet, blue, green, yellow, orange and red colors in balanced proportions (the maximum in the yellow-green). It is often said that the Sun is a yellow star. Admittedly, a brief glimpse at the Sun (take care ! never more than a VERY brief glimpse !) provides a perception of yellow light, but such a vision, with the eye overwhelmed by a fierce light, is not able to provide a good evaluation of the solar color : prefer a white sheet of paper illuminated by the Sun at noon and conclude that "the Sun is a white star". It is sometimes asked why red, white and bluish stars are seen in the sky, but no green stars : the solar light has its maximum intensity in the green, but such a dominant green light, equilibrated by some blue and some red light, is what we call "white", so that stars similar to the Sun, with a maximum in the green, are seen as white stars. Faint stars (rods vision of the eye) are also seen as white stars. Spots on the Sun (never look at the Sun ! let us say spots on "projected images of the Sun") appear as black spots

  5. A new design of signal processing system for TDI infrared focal plane array (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Wei, Zhiyong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Xu; Zhang, WenYu; Li, Tao


    In this paper, according to the characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array output signal, a novel signal processing system based on AC coupling technology is proposed. Firstly, the output signal characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array are analyzed. Secondly, the signal processing system based on AC-coupled technology is introduced. The designed system is consist of high pass filter circuit, signal conditioning circuit, differential input analog to digital converting circuit and digital data processing circuit. Thirdly, the designed system is simulated and tested. Simulation and test results show that the novel design idea of signal processing circuit is reasonable and feasible. Compared with the traditional design, the system has the characteristics of high common mode noise rejection, low temperature drift and low power consumption.

  6. Fiber optic, Fabry-Perot high temperature sensor (United States)

    James, K.; Quick, B.


    A digital, fiber optic temperature sensor using a variable Fabry-Perot cavity as the sensor element was analyzed, designed, fabricated, and tested. The fiber transmitted cavity reflection spectra is dispersed then converted from an optical signal to electrical information by a charged coupled device (CCD). A microprocessor-based color demodulation system converts the wavelength information to temperature. This general sensor concept not only utilizes an all-optical means of parameter sensing and transmitting, but also exploits microprocessor technology for automated control, calibration, and enhanced performance. The complete temperature sensor system was evaluated in the laboratory. Results show that the Fabry-Perot temperature sensor has good resolution (0.5% of full seale), high accuracy, and potential high temperature ( 1000 C) applications.

  7. Temperature measurement of plasma-facing surfaces in tokamaks by active pyrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorova, V.; Semerok, A.; Farcage, D.; Weulersse, J.M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCP/LILM, Bat. 467, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thro, P.Y., E-mail: pierre-yves.thro@cea.f [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCP/LILM, Bat. 467, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gauthier, E.; Roche, H.; Loarer, Th.; Grisolia, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, DSM/ IRFM/SIPP, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)


    This paper discusses feasibility and tests of a new method for in situ temperature measurement of tokamak plasma-facing metallic surfaces under plasma presence. In such conditions, the other temperature-measurement methods are not applicable due to the perturbing thermal radiation reflected by the walls. Our approach overcomes this limitation by looking with two pyrometers to the measured surface while thermally perturbed. Because of the thermal perturbation each pyrometer records a signal modulation. The temperature, deduced by the ratio between the two signal modulations is dependent neither on the environmental reflecting fluxes nor on the surface emissivity. Originally, the measured temperature is linked to the signals ratio via the experimental set-up parameters. Here, we proposed an alternative way to deduce it from the pyrometers calibration data only. With this method we obtained temperature measurements with accuracy better than 90%.

  8. Estimation of bare soil surface temperature from air temperature and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil surface temperature has critical influence on climate, agricultural and hydrological activities since it serves as a good indicator of the energy budget of the earth's surface. Two empirical models for estimating soil surface temperature from air temperature and soil depth temperature were developed. The coefficient of ...

  9. Signal correlations in biomass combustion. An information theoretic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruusunen, M.


    Increasing environmental and economic awareness are driving the development of combustion technologies to efficient biomass use and clean burning. To accomplish these goals, quantitative information about combustion variables is needed. However, for small-scale combustion units the existing monitoring methods are often expensive or complex. This study aimed to quantify correlations between flue gas temperatures and combustion variables, namely typical emission components, heat output, and efficiency. For this, data acquired from four small-scale combustion units and a large circulating fluidised bed boiler was studied. The fuel range varied from wood logs, wood chips, and wood pellets to biomass residue. Original signals and a defined set of their mathematical transformations were applied to data analysis. In order to evaluate the strength of the correlations, a multivariate distance measure based on information theory was derived. The analysis further assessed time-varying signal correlations and relative time delays. Ranking of the analysis results was based on the distance measure. The uniformity of the correlations in the different data sets was studied by comparing the 10-quantiles of the measured signal. The method was validated with two benchmark data sets. The flue gas temperatures and the combustion variables measured carried similar information. The strongest correlations were mainly linear with the transformed signal combinations and explicable by the combustion theory. Remarkably, the results showed uniformity of the correlations across the data sets with several signal transformations. This was also indicated by simulations using a linear model with constant structure to monitor carbon dioxide in flue gas. Acceptable performance was observed according to three validation criteria used to quantify modelling error in each data set. In general, the findings demonstrate that the presented signal transformations enable real-time approximation of the studied

  10. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server


    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  11. Multi-scale Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Nonlinear and Nonstationary Teleconnection Signals and Artificial Neural Network Models (United States)

    Global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies can affect terrestrial precipitation via ocean-atmosphere interaction known as climate teleconnection. Non-stationary and non-linear characteristics of the ocean-atmosphere system make the identification of the teleconnection signals...

  12. The temporal requirements for insulin signaling during development in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Shingleton


    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that the insulin-signaling pathway controls body and organ size in Drosophila, and most metazoans, by signaling nutritional conditions to the growing organs. The temporal requirements for insulin signaling during development are, however, unknown. Using a temperature-sensitive insulin receptor (Inr mutation in Drosophila, we show that the developmental requirements for Inr activity are organ specific and vary in time. Early in development, before larvae reach the "critical size" (the size at which they commit to metamorphosis and can complete development without further feeding, Inr activity influences total development time but not final body and organ size. After critical size, Inr activity no longer affects total development time but does influence final body and organ size. Final body size is affected by Inr activity from critical size until pupariation, whereas final organ size is sensitive to Inr activity from critical size until early pupal development. In addition, different organs show different sensitivities to changes in Inr activity for different periods of development, implicating the insulin pathway in the control of organ allometry. The reduction in Inr activity is accompanied by a two-fold increase in free-sugar levels, similar to the effect of reduced insulin signaling in mammals. Finally, we find that varying the magnitude of Inr activity has different effects on cell size and cell number in the fly wing, providing a potential linkage between the mode of action of insulin signaling and the distinct downstream controls of cell size and number. We present a model that incorporates the effects of the insulin-signaling pathway into the Drosophila life cycle. We hypothesize that the insulin-signaling pathway controls such diverse effects as total developmental time, total body size and organ size through its effects on the rate of cell growth, and proliferation in different organs.

  13. VLSI mixed signal processing system (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.


    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  14. Noisy signaling: theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.


    We investigate a noisy signaling game, in which nature adds random noise to the message chosen. Theoretically, with an unfavorable prior the separating equilibrium vanishes for low noise. It reappears for intermediate and high noise, where messages increase with noise. A pooling equilibrium always

  15. Purinergic signaling in schistosomal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lucia Martins Silva


    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by blood fluke worms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. Health metrics indicate that the disease is related to an elevated number of years lost-to-disability and years lost-to-life. Schistosomiasis is an intravascular disease that is related to a Th1 and Th2 immune response polarization, and the degree of polarization affects the outcome of the disease. The purinergic system is composed of adenosine and nucleotides acting as key messenger molecules. Moreover, nucleotide-transforming enzymes and cell-surface purinergic receptors are obligatory partners of this purinergic signaling. In mammalian cells, purinergic signaling modulates innate immune responses and inflammation among other functions; conversely purinergic signaling may also be modulated by inflammatory mediators. Moreover, schistosomes also express some enzymes of the purinergic system, and it is possible that worms modulate host purinergic signaling. Current data obtained in murine models of schistosomiasis support the notion that the host purinergic system is altered by the disease. The dysfunction of adenosine receptors, metabotropic P2Y and ionotropic P2X7 receptors, and NTPDases likely contributes to disease morbidity. Keywords: Purinergic receptor, NTPDases, Schistosomiasis, Macrophages, Endothelial cell, Inflammation

  16. Mathematical Modelling Plant Signalling Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.


    During the last two decades, molecular genetic studies and the completion of the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome have increased knowledge of hormonal regulation in plants. These signal transduction pathways act in concert through gene regulatory and signalling networks whose main components have begun to be elucidated. Our understanding of the resulting cellular processes is hindered by the complex, and sometimes counter-intuitive, dynamics of the networks, which may be interconnected through feedback controls and cross-regulation. Mathematical modelling provides a valuable tool to investigate such dynamics and to perform in silico experiments that may not be easily carried out in a laboratory. In this article, we firstly review general methods for modelling gene and signalling networks and their application in plants. We then describe specific models of hormonal perception and cross-talk in plants. This mathematical analysis of sub-cellular molecular mechanisms paves the way for more comprehensive modelling studies of hormonal transport and signalling in a multi-scale setting. © EDP Sciences, 2013.

  17. The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sams, Thomas; Baker, Ysobel; Hodgkinson, James


    , we pres-ent the discovery and elucidation of PQS signaling froma historical perspective, and also outline some of the out-standing research questions that still need to be addressed.Finally, we show how a better understanding of the bio-chemistry underpinning this pathway is leading to the devel...

  18. Velocimetry signal synthesis with fringen.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H., III


    An important part of velocimetry analysis is the recovery of a known velocity history from simulated data signals. The fringen program synthesizes VISAR and PDV signals, given a specified velocity history, using exact formulations for the optical signal. Time-dependent light conditions, non-ideal measurement conditions, and various diagnostic limitations (noise, etc.) may be incorporated into the simulated signals. This report describes the fringen program, which performs forward VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) and PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry, also known as heterodyne velocimetry) analysis. Nearly all effects that might occur in VISAR/PDV measurement of a single velocity can be modeled by fringen. The program operates in MATLAB, either within a graphical interface or as a user-callable function. The current stable version of fringen is 0.3, which was released in October 2010. The following sections describe the operation and use of fringen. Section 2 gives a brief overview of VISAR and PDV synthesis. Section 3 illustrates the graphical and console interface of fringen. Section 4 presents several example uses of the program. Section 5 summarizes program capabilities and discusses potential future work.

  19. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo


    The Handbook is organized in four parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools; and the fourth part describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies.

  20. Biophysical Aspects of Transmembrane Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovich, Sandor


    Transmembrane signaling is one of the most significant cell biological events in the life and death of cells in general and lymphocytes in particular. Until recently biochemists and biophysicists were not accustomed to thinking of these processes from the side of a high number of complex biochemical events and an equally high number of physical changes at molecular and cellular levels at the same time. Both types of researchers were convinced that their findings are the most decisive, having higher importance than the findings of the other scientist population. Both casts were wrong. Life, even at cellular level, has a number of interacting physical and biochemical mechanisms, which finally build up the creation of an "excited" cell that will respond to particular signals from the outer or inner world. This book handles both aspects of the signalling events, and in some cases tries to unify our concepts and help understand the signals that govern the life and death of our cells. Not only the understanding, bu...

  1. computer based speech signal processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An alternative tool for research in phonetics: computer based speech signal processing. EE Williams, RC Okoro, Z Lipcsey. Abstract. No abstract available. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African ...

  2. Loco signaling pathway in longevity. (United States)

    Lin, Yuh-Ru; Parikh, Hardik; Park, Yongkyu


    Despite the various roles of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein in the G protein signaling pathway that have been defined, the function of RGS has not been characterized in longevity signaling pathways. We found that reduced expression of Loco, a Drosophila RGS protein, resulted in a longer lifespan of flies with stronger resistance to stress, higher MnSOD activity and increased fat content. In contrast, overexpression of the loco gene shortened the fly lifespan significantly, lowered stress resistance and reduced fat content, also indicating that the RGS domain containing GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity is related to the regulation of longevity. Interestingly, expressional changes of yeast RGS2 and rat RGS14, homologs to the fly Loco, also affected oxidative stress resistance and longevity in the respective species. It is known that Loco inactivates inhibitory Gαi•GTP protein to reduce activity of adenylate cyclase (AC) and RGS14 interacts with activated H-Ras and Raf-1 kinases, which subsequently inhibits ERK phosphorylation. We propose that Loco/RGS14 protein may regulate stress resistance and longevity as an activator in AC-cAMP-PKA pathway and/or as a molecular scaffold that sequesters active Ras and Raf from Ras•GTP-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Consistently, our data showed that downregulation of Loco significantly diminishes cAMP amounts and increases p-ERK levels with higher resistance to the oxidative stress.

  3. Error signals driving locomotor adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo


    anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...

  4. Cell signaling in root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.


    Cell signaling has recently been shown to be of major importance in cell specification during Arabidopsis root development. In the ground tissue, cues of unknown molecular nature convey positional information and two genes provide an interesting link between asymmetric cell division and the

  5. Queen signaling in social wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom


    saxonica, queens emit reliable chemical cues of their true fertility and that these putative queen signals decrease as the colony develops and worker reproduction increases. Moreover, these putative pheromones of D. saxonica show significant conservation with those of Vespula vulgaris and other Vespinae...

  6. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik


    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature...... junctional coupling, potassium signaling gives rise to considerable changes of the cellular response to external stimuli....

  7. BPSK Demodulation Using Digital Signal Processing (United States)

    Garcia, Thomas R.


    A digital communications signal is a sinusoidal waveform that is modified by a binary (digital) information signal. The sinusoidal waveform is called the carrier. The carrier may be modified in amplitude, frequency, phase, or a combination of these. In this project a binary phase shift keyed (BPSK) signal is the communication signal. In a BPSK signal the phase of the carrier is set to one of two states, 180 degrees apart, by a binary (i.e., 1 or 0) information signal. A digital signal is a sampled version of a "real world" time continuous signal. The digital signal is generated by sampling the continuous signal at discrete points in time. The rate at which the signal is sampled is called the sampling rate (f(s)). The device that performs this operation is called an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter or a digitizer. The digital signal is composed of the sequence of individual values of the sampled BPSK signal. Digital signal processing (DSP) is the modification of the digital signal by mathematical operations. A device that performs this processing is called a digital signal processor. After processing, the digital signal may then be converted back to an analog signal using a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter. The goal of this project is to develop a system that will recover the digital information from a BPSK signal using DSP techniques. The project is broken down into the following steps: (1) Development of the algorithms required to demodulate the BPSK signal; (2) Simulation of the system; and (3) Implementation a BPSK receiver using digital signal processing hardware.

  8. Estimates of Small Signal/Noise Ratios (United States)

    Howard, L. D.


    Signal/Noise Ratio Meter measures ratio of signal power to noise power in input that contains both signal and noise. Signal and noise first filtered and normalized in analog circuitry, then digitized and sampled. Performance of SNR meter determined by statistical algorithm chosen for analysis of samples.

  9. Predicting Secretory Proteins with SignalP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik


    SignalP is the currently most widely used program for prediction of signal peptides from amino acid sequences. Proteins with signal peptides are targeted to the secretory pathway, but are not necessarily secreted. After a brief introduction to the biology of signal peptides and the history...

  10. Consistent Signal Reconstruction and Convex Coding


    Moonen, Marc; De Moor, Bart; Thao, Nguyen Truong; Vetterli, Martin


    The field of signal processing has known tremendous progress with the development of digital signal processing. The first foundation of digital signal processing is due to Shannon's sampling theorem which shows that any bandlimited analog signal can...

  11. Cloning and superluminal signaling£

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is possible, we can then have (usable) superluminal signaling [8]. The basic principle behind no exact cloning is the principle of no-signaling (i.e., no superluminal signaling). Allowing no-signaling, Gisin [7] has reproduced the 1. 2 optimal universal symmetric cloning machine of Buzek and Hillery [2] for qubits. We shall ...

  12. Purinergic signaling in kidney disease. (United States)

    Menzies, Robert I; Tam, Frederick W; Unwin, Robert J; Bailey, Matthew A


    Nucleotides are key subunits for nucleic acids and provide energy for intracellular metabolism. They can also be released from cells to act physiologically as extracellular messengers or pathologically as danger signals. Extracellular nucleotides stimulate membrane receptors in the P2 and P1 family. P2X are ATP-activated cation channels; P2Y and P1 are G-protein coupled receptors activated by ATP, ADP, UTP, and UDP in the case of P2 or adenosine for P1. Renal P2 receptors influence both vascular contractility and tubular function. Renal cells also express ectonucleotidases that rapidly hydrolyze extracellular nucleotides. These enzymes integrate this multireceptor purinergic-signaling complex by determining the nucleotide milieu to titrate receptor activation. Purinergic signaling also regulates immune cell function by modulating the synthesis and release of various cytokines such as IL1-β and IL-18 as part of inflammasome activation. Abnormal or excessive stimulation of this intricate paracrine system can be pro- or anti-inflammatory, and is also linked to necrosis and apoptosis. Kidney tissue injury causes a localized increase in ATP concentration, and sustained activation of P2 receptors can lead to renal glomerular, tubular, and vascular cell damage. Purinergic receptors also regulate the activity and proliferation of fibroblasts, promoting both inflammation and fibrosis in chronic disease. In this short review we summarize some of the recent findings related to purinergic signaling in the kidney. We focus predominantly on the P2X7 receptor, discussing why antagonists have so far disappointed in clinical trials and how advances in our understanding of purinergic signaling might help to reposition these compounds as potential treatments for renal disease. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature Measurement and Monitoring Devices (United States)


    feasibility based on potential usefulness in clinical medicine ’ias explored. All information herein wasn obtained from literature rrv’iew only. No...measurements, applications for temperature measuring devices, and description of several modern body temperature monitoring devices (techniques). Finally...gynecology, drug therapy, and ophthalmology. TEMPERATURE SENSING DEVICES Hippocrates is believed to be the first person Lo associate body temperature as

  14. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J


    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  15. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom


    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  16. Core Outlet Temperature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    It is a known fact that the power conversion plant efficiency increases with elevation of the heat addition temperature. The higher efficiency means better utilization of the available resources such that higher output in terms of electricity production can be achieved for the same size and power of the reactor core or, alternatively, a lower power core could be used to produce the same electrical output. Since any nuclear power plant, such as the Advanced Burner Reactor, is ultimately built to produce electricity, a higher electrical output is always desirable. However, the benefits of the higher efficiency and electricity production usually come at a price. Both the benefits and the disadvantages of higher reactor outlet temperatures are analyzed in this work.

  17. High temperature future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinkopf, K. [Solar Energy Research and Education Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)


    During the past few years, there have been dramatic accomplishments and success of high temperature solar thermal systems and significant development of these systems. High temperature technologies, about 500 F and higher, such as dish engines, troughs, central receiver power towers and solar process heat systems, have been tested, demonstrated and used in an array of applications, including many cost-effective utility bulk power production and demand side supply projects in the United States. Large systems provide power and hot water to prisons, schools, nursing homes and other institutions. Joint ventures with industry, utility projects, laboratory design assistance and other activities are building a solid industry of US solar thermal systems ready for use today.

  18. The temperature hydration kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Oroian


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydration kinetics of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris in water at different temperatures (25, 32.5, 40, 55, 70 and 80 °C for assessing the adequacy of models for describing the absorption phenomena during soaking. The diffusion coefficient values were calculated using Fick’s model for spherical and hemispherical geometries and the values were in the range of 10−6 m2/s. The experimental data were fitted to Peleg, Sigmoidal, Weibull and Exponential models. The models adequacy was determined using regression coefficients (R2, root mean square error (RMSE and reduced chi-square (χ2. The Peleg model is the suitable one for predicting the experimental data. Temperature had a positive and significant effect on the water absorption capacities and absorption was an endothermic process.

  19. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.


    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  20. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert


    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU......) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU, DTU....

  1. Digital Signal Treatment in Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schilcher, T


    Digital Signal Processing has grown dramatically over the last five years. The evolution of digital logic and processors has opened up the use of digital signal processing in domains, which were reserved to analog signal processing. In this discussion session we would like to review digital signal treatment for beam diagnostics application. Emphasis shall be put on the following subjects: Digital Signal Processing for: image processing BPMs current monitors beam loss monitors feedback systems others

  2. New method for analysis of nonstationary signals


    Stepien, Robert A


    Background Analysis of signals by means of symbolic methods consists in calculating a measure of signal complexity, for example informational entropy or Lempel-Ziv algorithmic complexity. For construction of these entropic measures one uses distributions of symbols representing the analyzed signal. Results We introduce a new signal characteristic named sequential spectrum that is suitable for analysis of the wide group of signals, including biosignals. The paper contains a brief review of ana...

  3. Signal-to-Signal Ratio Independent Speaker Identification for Co-channel Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeidi, Rahim; Mowlaee, Pejman; Kinnunen, Tomi


    In this paper, we consider speaker identification for the co-channel scenario in which speech mixture from speakers is recorded by one microphone only. The goal is to identify both of the speakers from their mixed signal. High recognition accuracies have already been reported when an accurately...

  4. Fuel Temperature Fluctuations During Storage (United States)

    Levitin, R. E.; Zemenkov, Yu D.


    When oil and petroleum products are stored, their temperature significantly impacts how their properties change. The paper covers the problem of determining temperature fluctuations of hydrocarbons during storage. It provides results of the authors’ investigations of the stored product temperature variations relative to the ambient temperature. Closeness and correlation coefficients between these values are given. Temperature variations equations for oil and petroleum products stored in tanks are deduced.

  5. An internal reference model-based PRF temperature mapping method with Cramer-Rao lower bound noise performance analysis. (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Pan, Xinyi; Ying, Kui; Zhang, Qiang; An, Jing; Weng, Dehe; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng


    The conventional phase difference method for MR thermometry suffers from disturbances caused by the presence of lipid protons, motion-induced error, and field drift. A signal model is presented with multi-echo gradient echo (GRE) sequence using a fat signal as an internal reference to overcome these problems. The internal reference signal model is fit to the water and fat signals by the extended Prony algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to estimate the chemical shifts between water and fat which contain temperature information. A noise analysis of the signal model was conducted using the Cramer-Rao lower bound to evaluate the noise performance of various algorithms, the effects of imaging parameters, and the influence of the water:fat signal ratio in a sample on the temperature estimate. Comparison of the calculated temperature map and thermocouple temperature measurements shows that the maximum temperature estimation error is 0.614 degrees C, with a standard deviation of 0.06 degrees C, confirming the feasibility of this model-based temperature mapping method. The influence of sample water:fat signal ratio on the accuracy of the temperature estimate is evaluated in a water-fat mixed phantom experiment with an optimal ratio of approximately 0.66:1. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Signal processing for smart cards (United States)

    Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Samyde, David


    In 1998, Paul Kocher showed that when a smart card computes cryptographic algorithms, for signatures or encryption, its consumption or its radiations leak information. The keys or the secrets hidden in the card can then be recovered using a differential measurement based on the intercorrelation function. A lot of silicon manufacturers use desynchronization countermeasures to defeat power analysis. In this article we detail a new resynchronization technic. This method can be used to facilitate the use of a neural network to do the code recognition. It becomes possible to reverse engineer a software code automatically. Using data and clock separation methods, we show how to optimize the synchronization using signal processing. Then we compare these methods with watermarking methods for 1D and 2D signal. The very last watermarking detection improvements can be applied to signal processing for smart cards with very few modifications. Bayesian processing is one of the best ways to do Differential Power Analysis, and it is possible to extract a PIN code from a smart card in very few samples. So this article shows the need to continue to set up effective countermeasures for cryptographic processors. Although the idea to use advanced signal processing operators has been commonly known for a long time, no publication explains that results can be obtained. The main idea of differential measurement is to use the cross-correlation of two random variables and to repeat consumption measurements on the processor to be analyzed. We use two processors clocked at the same external frequency and computing the same data. The applications of our design are numerous. Two measurements provide the inputs of a central operator. With the most accurate operator we can improve the signal noise ratio, re-synchronize the acquisition clock with the internal one, or remove jitter. The analysis based on consumption or electromagnetic measurements can be improved using our structure. At first sight

  7. TRPA1 mediates sensation of the rate of temperature change in Drosophila larvae. (United States)

    Luo, Junjie; Shen, Wei L; Montell, Craig


    Avoidance of noxious ambient heat is crucial for survival. A well-known phenomenon is that animals are sensitive to the rate of temperature change. However, the cellular and molecular underpinnings through which animals sense and respond much more vigorously to fast temperature changes are unknown. Using Drosophila larvae, we found that nociceptive rolling behavior was triggered at lower temperatures and at higher frequencies when the temperature increased rapidly. We identified neurons in the brain that were sensitive to the speed of the temperature increase rather than just to the absolute temperature. These cellular and behavioral responses depended on the TRPA1 channel, whose activity responded to the rate of temperature increase. We propose that larvae use low-threshold sensors in the brain to monitor rapid temperature increases as a protective alert signal to trigger rolling behaviors, allowing fast escape before the temperature of the brain rises to dangerous levels.

  8. Calcium signaling in plant cells in microgravity (United States)

    Kordyum, E.

    Changes in the intracellular Ca 2 + concentration in altered gravity (microgravity and clinostating) evidence that Ca2 + signaling can play a fundamental role in biological effects of microgravity. Calcium as a second messenger is known to play a crucial role in stimulus - response coupling for many plant cellular signaling pathways. Its messenger functions are realized by transient changes in the cytosolic ion concentration induced by a variety of internal and external stimuli such as light, hormones, temperature, anoxia, salinity, and gravity. Although the first data on the changes in the calcium balance in plant cells under the influence of altered gravity have appeared in eighties, a review highlighting the performed research and the possible significance of such Ca 2 + changes in the structural and metabolic rearrangements of plant cells in altered gravity is still lacking. In this paper, an attempt was made to summarize the available experimental results and to consider some hypotheses in this field of research. It is proposed to distinguish between cell gravisensing and cell graviperception; the former is related to cell structure and metabolism stability in the gravitational field and their changes in microgravity (cells not specialized to gravity perception), the latter is related to active use of a gravitational stimulus by cells presumably specialized to gravity perception for realization of normal space orientation, growth, and vital activity (gravitropism, gravitaxis) in plants. The main experimental data concerning both redistribution of free Ca 2 + ions in plant cell organelles and the cell wall, and an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration under the influence of altered gravity are presented. Based on the gravitational decompensation hypothesis, the consequence of events occurring in gravis ensing cells not specialized to gravity perception under altered gravity are considered in the following order: changes in the cytoplasmic membrane

  9. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones ( The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  10. Coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering for distributed temperature sensing using a Brillouin laser (United States)

    Lecoeuche, V.; Webb, David J.; Pannell, Christopher N.; Jackson, David A.


    Distributed temperature sensors based on Brillouin scattering are attractive because they offer very large sensing length. The intensity of spontaneous Brillouin scattering is directly proportional to the temperature of the fiber, and permits a measurement independent of the strain applied to it. We report on a novel system to detect this signal, incorporating a mode-locked Brillouin fiber ring laser.

  11. Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor using reference magnetic field (United States)

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane


    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and self-calibration of a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. A reference magnetic field generated within the current sensor housing is detected by the magnetic field sensors and is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  12. Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor using reference current (United States)

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul [Seminole, FL; Brubaker, Michael Allen [Loveland, CO; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane [Seminole, FL


    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and self-calibration of a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. A reference electrical current carried by a conductor positioned within the sensing window of the current sensor is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  13. One centimeter spatial resolution temperature measurements in a nuclear reactor using Rayleigh scatter in optical fiber (United States)

    Sang, A. K.; Gifford, D. K.; Dickerson, B. D.; Fielder, B. F.; Froggatt, M. E.


    We present the use of swept wavelength interferometry for distributed fiber-optic temperature measurements in a Nuclear Reactor. The sensors consisted of 2 m segments of commercially available, single mode optical fibers. The interrogation technique is based on measuring the spectral shift of the intrinsic Rayleigh backscatter signal along the optical fiber and converting the spectral shift to temperature.

  14. On the Frequency Correction in Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Glass Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, J.C.; Allan, D.C.


    Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is based on conventional DSC but with a sinusoidally modulated temperature path. Simulations of TMDSC signals were performed for Corning EAGLE XG® glass over a wide range of modulation frequencies. Our results reveal that the frequency...

  15. Insights into glass transition and relaxation behavior using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, J.C.; Allan, D.C.

    Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is based on conventional DSC but with a sinusoidally modulated temperature path. Our simulations of TMDSC signals prove that the frequency correction of non-reversing heat flow can give a master curve within a certain range of freque...

  16. Neutron and gamma radiation tests of the Analog Devices TMP37 temperature sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Mockett, P M; Twomey, M S


    The Analog Devices TMP37 temperature sensor is used to monitor the temperature gradients in the US ATLAS End Cap Muon Chambers. It was chosen because of its stability, linearity, high output signal, and especially the low self-heating. We have irradiated samples of these sensors with neutrons and gamma rays. The results of these measurements are presented.

  17. Cellular semiotics and signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio


    Semiosis, the processes of production, communication and interpretation of signs - coding and de-coding - takes place within and between organisms. The term "endosemiosis" refers to the processes of interpretation and sign transmission inside an organism (as opposed to "exosemiosis", which refers...... to the processes of sign interpretation and transmission between organisms of the same or different species). In Biosemiotics it is customary to recognise the cell as the most elementary integration unit for semiosis. Therefore intra and intercellular communication constitute the departure point for the study...... considering semiotic logic in order to construct our understanding of living phenomena. Given the central integrating role of signal transduction in physiological and ecological studies, this chapter outlines its semiotic implications. The multi-modality and modularity of signal molecules and relative...

  18. Signal processing of anthropometric data (United States)

    Zimmermann, W. J.


    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  19. Cancer, signal transduction and nanotechnology. (United States)

    Sengupta, Poulomi; Basu, Sudipta; Sengupta, Shiladitya


    Understanding the mechanisms underlying different cellular signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer are leading to the identification of novel drug targets as well as novel drug candidates. Multiple targeted therapeutics that modulate aberrant molecular pathways have already reached the clinic. However, targeted therapeutics can exert mechanism-driven side effects as a result of the implication of the molecular target in normal physiological functions besides tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that targeted therapeutics can be optimized by merging them with nanotechnology, which offers the potential for preferential targeting to the tumor, resulting in increased intratumoral concentrations of the active agent with reduced distribution to other parts of the body. This review will address some of the emerging concepts that integrate these two disciplines to engineer novel nanovectors that target different signaling pathways.

  20. Tile Calorimeter Muon Trigger Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S; Usai, G L


    The Tile Calorimeter contributes to the first level trigger with the fast analog signal coming from the trigger summing boards, so-called analog adder. The adders provide two kinds of output: the total energy sum in a trigger tower and the signal from the respective cell of the last radial calorimeter layer, which can be used for identifying muons, thus making the muon first level trigger more robust. This note reviews the adder specifications and laboratory tests, whereas the main focus is put on the data analysis from the testbeam periods in~2001. Several improvements achieved by tuning the read-out are described. Using the testbeam results, the ability to identify muons in the last radial Tilecal layer is discussed. The experimental results obtained at the testbeams are completed with the Monte Carlo simulations.