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Sample records for temperature increase prevails

  1. Circadian clock of Drosophila montana is adapted to high variation in summer day lengths and temperatures prevailing at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, Hannele; Ala-Honkola, Outi; Kankare, Maaria; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2016-06-01

    Photoperiodic regulation of the circadian rhythms in insect locomotor activity has been studied in several species, but seasonal entrainment of these rhythms is still poorly understood. We have traced the entrainment of activity rhythm of northern Drosophila montana flies in a climate chamber mimicking the photoperiods and day and night temperatures that the flies encounter in northern Finland during the summer. The experiment was started by transferring freshly emerged females into the chamber in early and late summer conditions to obtain both non-diapausing and diapausing females for the studies. The locomotor activity of the females and daily changes in the expression levels of two core circadian clock genes, timeless and period, in their heads were measured at different times of summer. The study revealed several features in fly rhythmicity that are likely to help the flies to cope with high variation in the day length and temperature typical to northern summers. First, both the non-diapausing and the diapausing females showed evening activity, which decreased towards the short day length as observed in the autumn in nature. Second, timeless and period genes showed concordant daily oscillations and seasonal shifts in their expression level in both types of females. Contrary to Drosophila melanogaster, oscillation profiles of these genes were similar to each other in all conditions, including the extremely long days in early summer and the cool temperatures in late summer, and their peak expression levels were not locked to lights-off transition in any photoperiod. Third, the diapausing females were less active than the non-diapausing ones, in spite of their younger age. Overall, the study showed that D. montana clock functions well under long day conditions, and that both the photoperiod and the daily temperature cycles are important zeitgebers for seasonal changes in the circadian rhythm of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The PREVAIL Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Christopher P; Higano, Celestia S; Keane, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide, an oral androgen receptor inhibitor, significantly improved overall survival (OS) and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) versus placebo in the PREVAIL trial of men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To assess th...

  3. Will jumping snails prevail? Influence of near-future CO₂, temperature and hypoxia on respiratory performance in the tropical conch Gibberulus gibberulus gibbosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Watson, Sue-Ann; Munday, Philip L; Nilsson, Göran E

    2015-10-01

    Tropical coral reef organisms are predicted to be especially sensitive to ocean warming because many already live close to their upper thermal limit, and the expected rise in ocean CO2 is proposed to further reduce thermal tolerance. Little, however, is known about the thermal sensitivity of a diverse and abundant group of reef animals, the gastropods. The humpbacked conch (Gibberulus gibberulus gibbosus), inhabiting subtidal zones of the Great Barrier Reef, was chosen as a model because vigorous jumping, causing increased oxygen uptake (ṀO2 ), can be induced by exposure to odour from a predatory cone snail (Conus marmoreus). We investigated the effect of present-day ambient (417-454 µatm) and projected-future (955-987 µatm) PCO2 on resting (ṀO2 , rest) and maximum (ṀO2 , max) ṀO2 , as well as ṀO2 during hypoxia and critical oxygen tension (PO2 , crit), in snails kept at present-day ambient (28°C) or projected-future temperature (33°C). ṀO2 , rest and ṀO2 , max were measured both at the acclimation temperature and during an acute 5°C increase. Jumping caused a 4- to 6-fold increase in ṀO2 , and ṀO2 , max increased with temperature so that absolute aerobic scope was maintained even at 38°C, although factorial scope was reduced. The humpbacked conch has a high hypoxia tolerance with a PO2 , crit of 2.5 kPa at 28°C and 3.5 kPa at 33°C. There was no effect of elevated CO2 on respiratory performance at any temperature. Long-term temperature records and our field measurements suggest that habitat temperature rarely exceeds 32.6°C during the summer, indicating that these snails have aerobic capacity in excess of current and future needs. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Stomatal conductance increases with rising temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2017-08-03

    Stomatal conductance directly modifies plant water relations and photosynthesis. Many environmental factors affecting the stomatal conductance have been intensively studied but temperature has been largely neglected, even though it is one of the fastest changing environmental variables and it is rising due to climate change. In this study, we describe how stomata open when the temperature increases. Stomatal conductance increased by ca 40% in a broadleaf and a coniferous species, poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) when temperature was increased by 10 °C, from 30 °C to 40 °C at a constant vapor pressure deficit of 1 kPa. The mechanism of regulating stomatal conductance by temperature was, at least partly, independent of other known mechanisms linked to water status and carbon metabolism. Stomatal conductance increased with rising temperature despite the decrease in leaf water potential, increase in transpiration, increase in intercellular CO2 concentration and was decoupled from photosynthesis. Increase in xylem and mesophyll hydraulic conductance coming from lower water viscosity may to some degree explain temperature dependent opening of stomata. The direct stomatal response to temperature allows plants to benefit from increased evaporative cooling during the heat waves and from lower stomatal limitations to photosynthesis but they may be jeopardized by faster depletion of soil water.

  5. Can Cooler Heads Prevail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The significant correlation between dropping temperatures throughout the Pliocene and the concomitant explosive expansion of the Hominid brain has led a number of workers to postulate climate change drove human evolution. Our brain (that of Homo sapiens), comprises 1-2 percent of our body weight but consumes 20 -25 percent of the body's caloric intake. We are "hotheads". Brains are extremely sensitive to overheating but we are endowed with unparalleled thermal regulation, much of it given over to protecting the Central Nervous System (CNS). Will there be reversed trends with global warming? The human brain has been shrinking since the end of the Ice Ages, losing about 150cc over the past 10,000 years. Polar bear skulls have been downsizing as well. Almost all mass extinctions or evolutionary upheavals are attributed to global warming: e.g. the Permian/Triassic (P/T) event, i.e., "The Great Dying", 250 million years ago (~90% of all life forms wiped out); the Paleocene/ Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) 55 million years ago. They may be analogs for what might await us. Large creatures, whose body size inhibits cooling, melted away during the PETM. Horses, initially the size of dogs then, reduced to the size of cats. An unanticipated hazard for humans that may attend extreme global warming is dumbing down or needing to retreat to the Poles as did those creatures that survived the P/T event (some references: http://johnhawks.net/research/hawks-2011-brain-size-selection-holocene; Kandel, E. et al Principles of Neural Science 4th ed. New York (US): McGraw-Hill, 2000; Selective Brain Cooling in Early Hominids:phylogenetic and evolutionary implications, Reeser, H., reeser@flmnh.ufl.edu; How the body controls brain temperature; the temperature shielding effect of cerebral blood flow, Mingming Z. et al. J Appl Physiol. 2006 November; 101(5): 1481-1488; news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2014/03/140327-climate-change-shrinks-salamanders-global-warming-science/; Heat illness and

  6. Epistaxis: Prevailing Factors and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secchi, Myrian Marajó Dal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The epistaxis is one the most frequent otorhinolaryngologic emergencies in the medical practice. It is a benign affection, but the refractory cases require hospital admission. Objective: To evaluate prevailing factors in patients with epistaxis and treatment. Form of study: Retrospective study. Method: 60 patients with diagnosis of epistaxis were evaluated and they needed hospital admission between 2005 and 2006. Results: The main prevailing factors were: Systemic arterial hypertension 36% (n= 22, trauma 16% (n=10 and coagulopathy 5% (n=3. The treatment was the use of nasal splint: anterior 58% (n=35 and antero-posterior 27% (n=16, the electrocauterization of the identified bloody point 7% (n=4, endoscopic arterial bandage 8% (n=5 in severe epistaxis. For the patients with antero-posterior splint with recurrence of bleeding in the first 24 hours (five patients, after clinical stabilization, an arterial bandage was indicated by endoscopic means; four patients had systemic arterial hypertension and in one patient no prevailing factor was identified. Conclusion: The main associated prevailing factors were systemic arterial hypertension, trauma and coagulopathy. The treatment depends on the type, severity and cause of bleeding, initially the anterior and antero-posterior splint for bleeding control. The early endoscopic arterial bandage is indicated in patients with severe epistaxis and prevailing factors, and prolonged admission and morbidities associated with nasal splint should be avoided.

  7. 12 CFR 263.102 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 263.102 Section 263.102 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES... Prevailing party. Only an eligible applicant that prevailed on the merits of an adversary proceeding may...

  8. 12 CFR 308.173 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 308.173 Section 308.173 Banks....173 Prevailing party. (a) General rule. An eligible applicant who, following an adversary adjudication has gained victory on the merits in the proceeding is a “prevailing party”. An eligible applicant may...

  9. 12 CFR 747.603 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 747.603 Section 747.603 Banks... in NCUA Board Adjudications § 747.603 Prevailing party. An eligible applicant may be a “prevailing party” if the applicant wins an action after a full hearing or trial on the merits, if a settlement of...

  10. Seasonal differences in human responses to increasing temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitazawa, Sachie; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    to be sleepier. Heart rate slightly increased during exposure, and SpO2 and ETCO2 began to decrease while core temperature started to increase. Performance of Tsai-partington test and addition test improved during exposures due to learning though lesser in winter. Results show negative effects of the temperature......Experiments were conducted in late summer and winter with 80 young and elderly Danish subjects exposed for 3.5 hours in a climate chamber to the temperature increasing from 24°C to 35.2°C at a rate of 3.7K/h. Psychological and physiological measurements were performed during exposure and subjects...... with increasing temperature. Difficulty to concentrate increased with increased temperature and the self-estimated ability to perform work decreased; subjects reported being sleepier. Severity of headache and difficulty to concentrate was in winter slightly but systematically higher, subjects reporting also...

  11. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2017-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  12. Increased Stream Temperature in Response to Extreme Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystem temperature regulation is essential to the survival of riverine fish species restricted to limited water temperature ranges. Dissolved oxygen levels, similarly necessary to fish health, are decreased by rising temperatures, as warmer waters can hold less oxygen than colder waters. Climate change projections forecast increased precipitation intensities, a trend that has already been observed in the past decade. Though extreme events are becoming more common, the stream temperature response to high-intensity rainfall is not yet completely understood. Precipitation and stream temperature records from gages in the Upper Midwestern United States were analyzed to determine whether there exists a positive relationship between high-intensity rainfall and stream temperature response. This region was chosen for its already observed trends in increasing precipitation intensity, and rural gages were used in order to minimize the effect of impervious surfaces on runoff amounts and temperature. Days with recorded precipitation were divided by an intensity threshold and classified as either high-intensity or low-intensity days. While the effects of rain events on temperature are variable, increases in stream temperature in response to high-intensity rainfall were observed. For some basins, daily maximum rates of stream temperature increase were, on average, greater for higher intensity events. Similarly, the average daily stream temperature range was higher in streams on days of high-intensity precipitation, compared to days of low-intensity events. Understanding the effect of increasing precipitation intensity in conjunction with rising air temperatures will provide insight into the future of aquatic ecosystems and their adaptation to climate change.

  13. Predation life history responses to increased temperature variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barbosa

    Full Text Available The evolution of life history traits is regulated by energy expenditure, which is, in turn, governed by temperature. The forecasted increase in temperature variability is expected to impose greater stress to organisms, in turn influencing the balance of energy expenditure and consequently life history responses. Here we examine how increased temperature variability affects life history responses to predation. Individuals reared under constant temperatures responded to different levels of predation risk as appropriate: namely, by producing greater number of neonates of smaller sizes and reducing the time to first brood. In contrast, we detected no response to predation regime when temperature was more variable. In addition, population growth rate was slowest among individuals reared under variable temperatures. Increased temperature variability also affected the development of inducible defenses. The combined effects of failing to respond to predation risk, slower growth rate and the miss-match development of morphological defenses supports suggestions that increased variability in temperature poses a greater risk for species adaptation than that posed by a mean shift in temperature.

  14. Neutrophil elastase-mediated increase in airway temperature during inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Annika; Belaaouaj, Azzaq; Bissinger, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    Background How elevated temperature is generated during airway infections represents a hitherto unresolved physiological question. We hypothesized that innate immune defence mechanisms would increase luminal airway temperature during pulmonary infection. Methods We determined the temperature......, under anaerobic conditions at 38 °C vs 30 °C revealed increased virulence traits and characteristic cell wall changes. Conclusion Neutrophil elastase mediates increase in airway temperature, which may contribute to P. aeruginosa selection during the course of chronic infection in CF....... in the exhaled air of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To further test our hypothesis, a pouch inflammatory model using neutrophil elastase-deficient mice was employed. Next, the impact of temperature changes on the dominant CF pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth was tested by plating method and RNAseq. Results...

  15. Increasing influence of air temperature on upper Colorado River streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, temperature appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer temperatures that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of warm years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued warming temperatures will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.

  16. Increasing Temperature Extremes during the Recent Global Warming Hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. C.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Although the recent global warming hiatus has featured a slowdown in the annual, global mean surface air temperature trend, temperature extremes have exhibited contrasting changes, as both wintertime cold and summertime hot extremes have increased over Northern Hemisphere (NH) land from 2002-2014. To investigate the sources of NH temperature extreme variability, we use multiple linear regression analysis that includes as predictors the typical drivers of global-scale climate variability - tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST), volcanic aerosols, solar variability, and the linear time trend. This analysis suggests that natural forcings, including tropical SSTs and solar variations, have contributed to the recent increase in NH winter cold extremes. The magnitude of the recent increase in summer hot extremes is only captured after including an additional SST predictor for a pattern that resembles the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, which suggests the importance of Atlantic Ocean SSTs for recent increases in hot extremes. When the regression models are applied to local, grid point scales, they indicate the promise for substantial skill in seasonal predictions of extreme temperature over some NH regions. Overall, this work reveals important sources of natural variability in extreme temperature trends superimposed upon the long-term increase of hot extremes and decrease of cold extremes.

  17. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko

    2013-01-01

    and stratiform precipitation events by cloud observations. We find that for stratiform precipitation, extremes increase with temperature at approximately the Clausius-Clapeyron rate, without characteristic scales. In contrast, convective precipitation exhibits characteristic spatial and temporal scales, and its...... intensity in response to warming exceeds the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. We conclude that convective precipitation responds much more sensitively to temperature increases than stratiform precipitation, and increasingly dominates events of extreme precipitation.......Precipitation changes can affect society more directly than variations in most other meteorological observables, but precipitation is difficult to characterize because of fluctuations on nearly all temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the intensity of extreme precipitation rises markedly...

  18. Functional responses of North Atlantic fish eggs to increasing temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    -days and survival of fish eggs from 32 populations of 17 species in the North Atlantic to different temperatures in order to determine potential consequences of global warming for these species. The response of development time exhibited a similar decreasing trend with respect to temperature across species......Temperature increase associated with global climate change can be expected to directly influence the spawning success of fish species, with implications for abundance and distribution. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate and compare responses of development time, cumulative degree....... There was an overall decrease, across species, in an index of thermal requirement (cumulative degree-days) for egg development with increasing temperature. Within an empirically derived optimal thermal range for egg survival, the thermal requirement was more variable in species adapted to cold waters compared...

  19. Effect of increasing growth temperature on yeast fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of increasing growth temperature on yeast fermentation was studied at approximately 5 oC intervals over a range of 18 – 37 oC, using one strain each of ale, lager and wine yeast. The ale and wine yeasts grew at all the temperatures tested, but lager yeast failed to grow at 37 oC. All these strains gave lower ...

  20. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-13

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory 'easy' foraging environment and a 'hard' semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an 'easy' laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species.

  1. Cross-sectional area of the murine aorta linearly increases with increasing core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, A Colleen; Manders, Adam B; Cao, Amos A; Scheven, Ulrich M; Greve, Joan M

    2017-11-06

    The cardiovascular (CV) system plays a vital role in thermoregulation. To date, the response of core vasculature to increasing core temperature has not been adequately studied in vivo. Our objective was to non-invasively quantify the arterial response in murine models due to increases in body temperature, with a focus on core vessels of the torso and investigate whether responses were dependent on sex or age. Male and female, adult and aged mice were anaesthetised and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were acquired from the circle of Willis (CoW), heart, infrarenal aorta and peripheral arteries at core temperatures of 35, 36, 37 and 38 °C (±0.2 °C). Vessels in the CoW did not change. Ejection fraction decreased and cardiac output (CO) increased with increasing temperature in adult female mice. Cross-sectional area of the aorta increased significantly and linearly with temperature for all groups, but at a diminished rate for aged animals (p core temperature are biologically important because they may affect conductive and convective heat transfer. Leveraging non-invasive methodology to quantify sex and age dependent vascular responses due to increasing core temperature could be combined with bioheat modelling in order to improve understanding of thermoregulation.

  2. Temperature increases on the external root surface during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... the chip space of these instruments is greater than that of the WaveOne.[25] Although there were no statistically significant differences between the single file rotary systems found in this study, the WaveOne file caused higher temperature increases than the Reciproc file. We hypothesize that because the ...

  3. Enhanced Stability of a Protein with Increasing Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Joachim Møllesøe; Kristensen, Søren M; Led, Jens J

    2010-01-01

    unfolding, ¿C(p), increases the change in the Gibbs free energy, ¿G(unfold), and stabilizes the protein at high temperatures. A similar decrease in flexibility is found near other salt bridges in hGH and in Calmodulin and may be of general importance for the thermostability of proteins and, in particular...

  4. Temperature increases on the external root surface during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the highest temperature increases. However, there were no significant differences between the Reciproc and WaveOne files. Conclusions: The single file rotary systems used in this study may be recommended for clinical use. Key words: Infrared thermometer, one file systems, reciprocating motion, root canal preparation, ...

  5. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasconi, Serena; Gall, Andrea; Winter, Katharina; Kainz, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict that lake water temperatures will increase up to 4°C and rainfall events will become more intense and frequent by the end of this century. Concurrently, supply of humic substances from terrestrial runoff is expected to increase, resulting in darker watercolor (“brownification”) of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning. We tested the hypothesis that higher water temperature (+3°C) and brownification will, a) cause plankton community composition to shift toward small sized phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, and, b) extend the length of the growing season entailing higher phytoplankton production later in the season. We demonstrate that the 3°C increase of water temperature favored the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and small sized autotrophic picophytoplankton cells with significantly higher primary production during warmer fall periods. However, 3X darker water (effect of brownification) caused no significant changes in the plankton community composition or functioning relative to control conditions. Our findings reveal that increased temperature change plankton community structure by favoring smaller sized species proliferation (autotrophic phytoplankton and small size cladocerans), and increase primary productivity and community turnover. Finally, results of this multi-seasonal experiment suggest that warming by 3°C in aquatic ecosystems of low trophic state may cause planktonic food web functioning to become more dominated by fast growing, r-trait species (i.e., small sizes and rapid development). PMID:26461029

  6. Increase of ozone concentrations, its temperature sensitivity and the precursor factor in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 µg m−3 per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July–September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (1997–2010. While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R=0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx in Hong Kong is not statistically significant while NO2 of the PRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning

  7. Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia during High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Jönsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA. Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72. Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia

  8. Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia during High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Anna K.; Lövborg, Henrik; Lohr, Wolfgang; Ekman, Bertil; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA). Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR) with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72). Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia. PMID:28737683

  9. Differential SAGE analysis in Arabidopsis uncovers increased transcriptome complexity in response to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkin Isobel AP

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abiotic stress, including low temperature, limits the productivity and geographical distribution of plants, which has led to significant interest in understanding the complex processes that allow plants to adapt to such stresses. The wide range of physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that occur in plants exposed to low temperature require a robust global approach to studying the response. We have employed Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE to uncover changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana over a time course of low temperature stress. Results Five SAGE libraries were generated from A. thaliana leaf tissue collected at time points ranging from 30 minutes to one week of low temperature treatment (4°C. Over 240,000 high quality SAGE tags, corresponding to 16,629 annotated genes, provided a comprehensive survey of changes in the transcriptome in response to low temperature, from perception of the stress to acquisition of freezing tolerance. Interpretation of these data was facilitated by representing the SAGE data by gene identifier, allowing more robust statistical analysis, cross-platform comparisons and the identification of genes sharing common expression profiles. Simultaneous statistical calculations across all five libraries identified 920 low temperature responsive genes, only 24% of which overlapped with previous global expression analysis performed using microarrays, although similar functional categories were affected. Clustering of the differentially regulated genes facilitated the identification of novel loci correlated with the development of freezing tolerance. Analysis of their promoter sequences revealed subsets of genes that were independent of CBF and ABA regulation and could provide a mechanism for elucidating complementary signalling pathways. The SAGE data emphasised the complexity of the plant response, with alternate pre-mRNA processing events increasing at low temperatures

  10. Differential SAGE analysis in Arabidopsis uncovers increased transcriptome complexity in response to low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephen J; Parkin, Isobel A P

    2008-09-22

    Abiotic stress, including low temperature, limits the productivity and geographical distribution of plants, which has led to significant interest in understanding the complex processes that allow plants to adapt to such stresses. The wide range of physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that occur in plants exposed to low temperature require a robust global approach to studying the response. We have employed Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to uncover changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana over a time course of low temperature stress. Five SAGE libraries were generated from A. thaliana leaf tissue collected at time points ranging from 30 minutes to one week of low temperature treatment (4 degrees C). Over 240,000 high quality SAGE tags, corresponding to 16,629 annotated genes, provided a comprehensive survey of changes in the transcriptome in response to low temperature, from perception of the stress to acquisition of freezing tolerance. Interpretation of these data was facilitated by representing the SAGE data by gene identifier, allowing more robust statistical analysis, cross-platform comparisons and the identification of genes sharing common expression profiles. Simultaneous statistical calculations across all five libraries identified 920 low temperature responsive genes, only 24% of which overlapped with previous global expression analysis performed using microarrays, although similar functional categories were affected. Clustering of the differentially regulated genes facilitated the identification of novel loci correlated with the development of freezing tolerance. Analysis of their promoter sequences revealed subsets of genes that were independent of CBF and ABA regulation and could provide a mechanism for elucidating complementary signalling pathways. The SAGE data emphasised the complexity of the plant response, with alternate pre-mRNA processing events increasing at low temperatures and antisense transcription being

  11. Elevated increases in human-perceived temperature under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Yongqin David; Gan, Thian Yew; Lau, Ngar-Cheung

    2018-01-01

    Changes in air temperature (AT), humidity and wind speed (Wind) affect apparent temperature (AP), the human-perceived equivalent temperature1-3. Here we show that under climate warming, both reanalysis data sets and Global Climate Model simulations indicate that AP has increased faster than AT over land. The faster increase in AP has been especially significant over low latitudes and is expected to continue in the future. The global land average AP increased at 0.04 °C per decade faster than AT before 2005. This trend is projected to increase to 0.06 °C (0.03-0.09 °C; minimum and maximum of the ensemble members) per decade and 0.17 °C (0.12-0.25 °C) per decade under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario (RCP4.5) and RCP8.5, respectively, and reduce to 0.02 °C (0-0.03 °C) per decade under RCP2.6 over 2006-2100. The higher increment in AP in summer daytime is more remarkable than in winter night-time and is most prominent over low latitudes. The summertime increases in AT-based thermal discomfort are projected to balance the wintertime decreases in AT-based discomfort over low and middle latitudes, while the summertime increases in AP-based thermal discomfort are expected to outpace the wintertime decreases in AP-based thermal discomfort. Effective climate change mitigation efforts to achieve RCP2.6 can considerably alleviate the faster increase in AP.

  12. Large Increase of the Curie Temperature by Orbital Ordering Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoc, Aymeric; Mercey, Bernard; Simon, Charles; Grebille, Dominique; Prellier, Wilfrid; Lepetit, Marie-Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Using first principle calculations we showed that the Curie temperature of manganites thin films can be increased by far more than an order of magnitude by applying appropriate strains. Our main breakthrough is that the control of the orbital ordering responsible for the spectacular TC increase cannot be imposed by the substrate only. Indeed, the strains, first applied by the substrate, need to be maintained over the growth direction by the alternation of the manganite layers with another appropriate material. Following these theoretical findings, we synthesized such superlattices and verified our theoretical predictions.

  13. Increased costs to US pavement infrastructure from future temperature rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, B. Shane; Guido, Zack; Gudipudi, Padmini; Feinberg, Yarden

    2017-10-01

    Roadway design aims to maximize functionality, safety, and longevity. The materials used for construction, however, are often selected on the assumption of a stationary climate. Anthropogenic climate change may therefore result in rapid infrastructure failure and, consequently, increased maintenance costs, particularly for paved roads where temperature is a key determinant for material selection. Here, we examine the economic costs of projected temperature changes on asphalt roads across the contiguous United States using an ensemble of 19 global climate models forced with RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Over the past 20 years, stationary assumptions have resulted in incorrect material selection for 35% of 799 observed locations. With warming temperatures, maintaining the standard practice for material selection is estimated to add approximately US$13.6, US$19.0 and US$21.8 billion to pavement costs by 2010, 2040 and 2070 under RCP4.5, respectively, increasing to US$14.5, US$26.3 and US$35.8 for RCP8.5. These costs will disproportionately affect local municipalities that have fewer resources to mitigate impacts. Failing to update engineering standards of practice in light of climate change therefore significantly threatens pavement infrastructure in the United States.

  14. Increasing temperature exacerbated Classic Maya conflict over the long term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, W. Christopher; Campbell, David; Collard, Mark

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on conflict is an important but controversial topic. One issue that needs to be resolved is whether or not climate change exacerbates conflict over the long term. With this in mind, we investigated the relationship between climate change and conflict among Classic Maya polities over a period of several hundred years (363-888 CE). We compiled a list of conflicts recorded on dated monuments, and then located published temperature and rainfall records for the region. Subsequently, we used a recently developed time-series method to investigate the impact of the climatic variables on the frequency of conflict while controlling for trends in monument number. We found that there was a substantial increase in conflict in the approximately 500 years covered by the dataset. This increase could not be explained by change in the amount of rainfall. In contrast, the increase was strongly associated with an increase in summer temperature. These finding have implications not only for Classic Maya history but also for the debate about the likely effects of contemporary climate change.

  15. On extreme rainfall intensity increases with air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The water vapour holding capacity of air increases at about 7% per degree C according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This is one of the arguments why a warmer future atmosphere, being able to hold more moisture, will generate higher extreme precipitation intensities. However, several empirical studies have recently demonstrated an increase in extreme rain intensities with air temperature above CC rates, in the range 7-14% per degree C worldwide (called super-CC rates). This was observed especially for shorter duration rainfall, i.e. in hourly and finer resolution data (e.g. review in Westra et al., 2014). The super-CC rate was attributed to positive feedbacks between water vapour and the updraft dynamics in convective clouds and lateral supply (convergence) of moisture. In addition, mixing of storm types was shown to be potentially responsible for super-CC rates in empirical studies. Assuming that convective events are accompanied by lightning, we will show on a large rainfall dataset in Switzerland (30 year records of 10-min and 1-hr data from 59 stations) that while the average rate of increase in extreme rainfall intensity (95th percentile) is 6-7% in no-lightning events and 8-9% in lightning events, it is 11-13% per degree C when all events are combined (Molnar et al., 2015). These results are relevant for climate change studies which predict shifts in storm types in a warmer climate in some parts of the world. The observation that extreme rain intensity and air temperature are positively correlated has consequences for the stochastic modelling of rainfall. Most current stochastic models do not explicitly include a direct rain intensity-air temperature dependency beyond applying factors of change predicted by climate models to basic statistics of precipitation. Including this dependency explicitly in stochastic models will allow, for example in the nested modelling approach of Paschalis et al. (2014), the random cascade disaggregation routine to be

  16. Snow molds: A group of fungi that prevail under snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Snow molds are a group of fungi that attack dormant plants under snow. In this paper, their survival strategies are illustrated with regard to adaptation to the unique environment under snow. Snow molds consist of diverse taxonomic groups and are divided into obligate and facultative fungi. Obligate snow molds exclusively prevail during winter with or without snow, whereas facultative snow molds can thrive even in the growing season of plants. Snow molds grow at low temperatures in habitats where antagonists are practically absent, and host plants deteriorate due to inhibited photosynthesis under snow. These features characterize snow molds as opportunistic parasites. The environment under snow represents a habitat where resources available are limited. There are two contrasting strategies for resource utilization, i.e., individualisms and collectivism. Freeze tolerance is also critical for them to survive freezing temperatures, and several mechanisms are illustrated. Finally, strategies to cope with annual fluctuations in snow cover are discussed in terms of predictability of the habitat.

  17. Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC) Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...

  18. Increasing water temperature and disease risks in aquatic systems: Climate change increases the risk of some, but not all, diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Karvonen A.; Rintamäki P.; Jokela J.; Valtonen E. T.

    2010-01-01

    Global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. Essentially this could take place through a temperature driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. For example higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. Increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence o...

  19. Increasing Precision Of Temperature Sensors Of Liquid H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Fabik, Richard H.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial silicon-diode temperature sensors intended for use in boiling or nearly boiling liquid hydrogen at temperatures near 37 degrees R recalibrated to greater precision by method involving careful attention to details of design, operation, and computation. Method based on fundamental electrical and thermodynamic principles and good engineering practice, also applicable to recalibration of other temperature sensors intended for use in other boiling or nearly boiling liquids.

  20. Global increase in record-breaking monthly-mean temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Robinson, Alexander; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    The last decade has produced record-breaking heat waves in many parts of the world. At the same time, it was globally the warmest since sufficient measurements started in the 19th century. Here we show that, worldwide, the number of local record-breaking monthly temperature extremes is now on

  1. Increase in skin temperature after spinal anesthesia in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetzek-Zader, Martin; Hermanns, Henning; Freynhagen, Rainer; Lipfert, Peter; Stevens, Markus F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relatively stable hemodynamics during spinal anesthesia in infants have been attributed to a less active sympathetic nervous system in comparison with adults. Thus, the authors evaluated sympathetic block primarily by measurement of skin temperature and secondarily by

  2. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the

  3. Temperature Increase Enhances Aedes albopictus Competence to Transmit Dengue Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanzhuan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that has been an epidemic in China for many years. Aedes albopictus is the dominant Aedes mosquito species and the main vector of dengue in China. Epidemiologically, dengue mainly occurs in Guangdong Province; it does not occur or rarely occurs in other areas of mainland China. This distribution may be associated with climate, mosquito density, and other factors in different regions; however, the effect of temperature on the vector competence of Ae. albopictus for dengue viruses (DENV remains unclear. In this study, Ae. albopictus was orally infected with dengue virus 2 (DENV-2 and reared at constant temperatures (18, 23, 28, and 32°C and a fluctuating temperature (28–23–18°C. The infection status of the midguts, ovaries, and salivary glands of each mosquito was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days post-infection (dpi. DENV-2 RNA copies from positive tissues were quantified by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. At 18°C, DENV-2 proliferated slowly in the midgut of Ae. albopictus, and the virus could not spread to the salivary glands. At 23 and 28°C, DENV-2 was detected in the ovaries and salivary glands at 10 dpi. The rates of infection, dissemination, population transmission, and DENV-2 copies at 28°C were higher than those at 23°C at any time point. At 32°C, the extrinsic incubation period (EIP for DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus was only 5 dpi, and the vector competence was the highest among all the temperatures. Compared with 28°C, at 28–23–18°C, the positive rate and the amount of DENV-2 in the salivary glands were significantly lower. Therefore, temperature is an important factor affecting the vector competence of Ae. albopictus for DENV-2. Within the suitable temperature range, the replication of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus accelerated, and the EIP was shorter with a higher temperature. Our results provide a guide for vector control and an experimental basis for

  4. Field intercomparison of prevailing sonic anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauder, Matthias; Zeeman, Matthias J.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional sonic anemometers are the core component of eddy covariance systems, which are widely used for micrometeorological and ecological research. In order to characterize the measurement uncertainty of these instruments we present and analyse the results from a field intercomparison experiment of six commonly used sonic anemometer models from four major manufacturers. These models include Campbell CSAT3, Gill HS-50 and R3, METEK uSonic-3 Omni, R. M. Young 81000 and 81000RE. The experiment was conducted over a meadow at the TERENO/ICOS site DE-Fen in southern Germany over a period of 16 days in June of 2016 as part of the ScaleX campaign. The measurement height was 3 m for all sensors, which were separated by 9 m from each other, each on its own tripod, in order to limit contamination of the turbulence measurements by adjacent structures as much as possible. Moreover, the high-frequency data from all instruments were treated with the same post-processing algorithm. In this study, we compare the results for various turbulence statistics, which include mean horizontal wind speed, standard deviations of vertical wind velocity and sonic temperature, friction velocity, and the buoyancy flux. Quantitative measures of uncertainty, such as bias and comparability, are derived from these results. We find that biases are generally very small for all sensors and all computed variables, except for the sonic temperature measurements of the two Gill sonic anemometers (HS and R3), confirming a known transducer-temperature dependence of the sonic temperature measurement. The best overall agreement between the different instruments was found for the mean wind speed and the buoyancy flux.

  5. Field intercomparison of prevailing sonic anemometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mauder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional sonic anemometers are the core component of eddy covariance systems, which are widely used for micrometeorological and ecological research. In order to characterize the measurement uncertainty of these instruments we present and analyse the results from a field intercomparison experiment of six commonly used sonic anemometer models from four major manufacturers. These models include Campbell CSAT3, Gill HS-50 and R3, METEK uSonic-3 Omni, R. M. Young 81000 and 81000RE. The experiment was conducted over a meadow at the TERENO/ICOS site DE-Fen in southern Germany over a period of 16 days in June of 2016 as part of the ScaleX campaign. The measurement height was 3 m for all sensors, which were separated by 9 m from each other, each on its own tripod, in order to limit contamination of the turbulence measurements by adjacent structures as much as possible. Moreover, the high-frequency data from all instruments were treated with the same post-processing algorithm. In this study, we compare the results for various turbulence statistics, which include mean horizontal wind speed, standard deviations of vertical wind velocity and sonic temperature, friction velocity, and the buoyancy flux. Quantitative measures of uncertainty, such as bias and comparability, are derived from these results. We find that biases are generally very small for all sensors and all computed variables, except for the sonic temperature measurements of the two Gill sonic anemometers (HS and R3, confirming a known transducer-temperature dependence of the sonic temperature measurement. The best overall agreement between the different instruments was found for the mean wind speed and the buoyancy flux.

  6. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B; Lousada, José L; Gaspar, Maria J; Correia, Isabel E; David, Teresa S; Soares, Pedro M M; Cardoso, Rita M; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M; Gouveia, Célia M

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster's vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster's production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region.

  7. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution so.......C suggested an improvement of the perceived air quality, while no systematic effect on symptom intensity was observed. The overall indoor environment was evaluated equally acceptable at both temperatures due to local thermal discomfort at the low air temperature.......This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution...... source present at the low temperature. To maintain overall thermal neutrality, the low air temperature was partly compensated for by individually controlled radiant heating, and partly by allowing subjects to modify clothing insulation. A reduction of the air temperature from 23 deg.C to 18 deg...

  8. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing wage... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.10 Prevailing wage rates. (a) A.... Such data may be obtained by surveying comparable firms in the area that employ primarily nondisabled...

  9. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days),

  10. Design and rationale for the PREVAIL study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hirth, Asle

    2012-01-01

    :1 randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Individually fully automated tailored e-Health encouragements--SMS, Internet, and mobile applications--aimed at increasing physical activity are delivered to the participants in the intervention group once a week. The Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory...

  11. Body temperature increases during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Chuang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Body temperature transiently increased during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery. The increase in body temperature was associated with operation duration. The etiology is uncertain. Continuous body temperature monitoring and the application of both heating and cooling devices during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery should be mandatory.

  12. Response of fish to different simulated rates of water temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    We initiated this study to define the limits of effluent-temperature rate increases during reactor restart, which will help minimize fish kills. We constructed an apparatus for exposing fish to various temperature-increase regimens and conducted two experiments based on information from system tests and scoping runs. In the rate experiment, we acclimated the fish to 20{degree}C, and then raised the temperature to 40{degree}C at varying rates. Because scoping runs and literature suggested that acclimation temperature may affect temperature-related mortality, we conducted an acclimation experiment. We acclimated the fish to various temperatures, then raised the temperatures to 39--40{degree}C at a rate of 2{degree}C every 12 hours. Based on the analysis of the data, we recommend temperature-increase rates during reactor restart of 2.5{degree}C every nine hours if ambient water temperatures are over 20{degree}C. If water temperatures are at or below 20{degree}C, we recommend temperature-increase rates of 2.5{degree}C every 12 hours. No regulation of temperature is required after effluent temperatures reach 40{degree}C. We recommend further studies, including expanded testing with the simulation system and behavioral and bioenergetic investigations that may further refine acceptable rates of effluent-temperature increases.

  13. Increasing water temperature and disease risks in aquatic systems: climate change increases the risk of some, but not all, diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anssi; Rintamäki, Päivi; Jokela, Jukka; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2010-11-01

    Global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. Essentially, this could take place through a temperature-driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. For example, higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. Increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence of infection and more widespread epidemics. However, to date, general understanding of these relationships is limited due to scarcity of long-term empirical data. Here, we present one of the first long-term multi-pathogen data sets on the occurrence of pathogenic bacterial and parasitic infections in relation to increasing temperatures in aquatic systems. We analyse a time-series of disease dynamics on two fish farms in northern Finland from 1986 to 2006. We first demonstrate that the annual mean water temperature increased significantly on both farms over the study period and that the increase was most pronounced in the late summer (July-September). Second, we show that the prevalence of infection (i.e. proportion of fish tanks infected each year) increased with temperature. Interestingly, this pattern was observed in some of the diseases (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Flavobacterium columnare), whereas in the other diseases, the pattern was the opposite (Ichthyobodo necator) or absent (Chilodonella spp.). These results demonstrate the effect of increasing water temperature on aquatic disease dynamics, but also emphasise the importance of the biology of each disease, as well as the role of local conditions, in determining the direction and magnitude of these effects. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-Temperature Zone, Droplet-based Microreactor for Increased Temperature Control in Nanoparticle Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Erdem, E. Yegân

    2013-12-12

    Microreactors are an emerging technology for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The Multi-Temperature zone Microreactor (MTM) described in this work utilizes thermally isolated heated and cooled regions for the purpose of separating nucleation and growth processes as well as to provide a platform for a systematic study on the effect of reaction conditions on nanoparticle synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The effect of air velocity on heat stress at increased air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Wang, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Guoqiang

    to the temperature difference between the surfaces of animals and the surrounding air, and this temperature difference declines when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. Consequently it can it by expected that the effect of air velocity decreases at increased air temperature. The literature...... on different categories of farm animals to determine how the effect of air velocity depends on the air temperature. A new expression to calculate the chilling effect of increased air velocity was suggested. In addition to the parameters air velocity and air temperature this new expression included three......Increased air velocity is a frequently used method to reduce heat stress of farm animals housed in warm conditions. The main reason why the method works is that higher air velocity increases the convective heat release from the animals. Convective heat release from the animals is strongly related...

  16. Increased Temperatures Have Dramatic Effects on Growth and Grain Yield of Three Maize Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures under climate change are projected to have negative impacts on crop growth and production. These conclusions are not based on direct observations but on projected model results. A study conducted comparing normal seasonal temperatures (1980–2010 for Ames, IA, to a normal + 4°C environment with the same water vapor deficit evaluated the impacts of temperature on maize ( L. development and production. The rate of phenological development increased at higher temperatures; however, the relationship of leaf collar and leaf tip appearance to growing degree days was the same between temperature regimes. There was no effect on total leaf area or vegetative dry matter production, but grain yields decreased from 84 to 100% because of exposure to high nighttime temperatures and disruption of the pollination process as evidenced by the large reduction in kernels per ear. Projected increases in temperature will negatively affect grain production and threaten food security.

  17. Temperature increases from 55 to 75 C in a two-phase biogas reactor result in fundamental alterations within the bacterial and archaeal community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Antje [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik; Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technischen Umweltschutz; Nolte, Christine; Schoenberg, Mandy; Klocke, Michael [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik

    2012-10-15

    Agricultural biogas plants were operated in most cases below their optimal performance. An increase in the fermentation temperature and a spatial separation of hydrolysis/acetogenesis and methanogenesis are known strategies in improving and stabilizing biogas production. In this study, the dynamic variability of the bacterial and archaeal community was monitored within a two-phase leach bed biogas reactor supplied with rye silage and straw during a stepwise temperature increase from 55 to 75 C within the leach bed reactor (LBR), using TRFLP analyses. To identify the terminal restriction fragments that were obtained, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed. Above 65 C, the bacterial community structure changed from being Clostridiales-dominated toward being dominated by members of the Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, and Thermotogales orders. Simultaneously, several changes occurred, including a decrease in the total cell count, degradation rate, and biogas yield along with alterations in the intermediate production. A bioaugmentation with compost at 70 C led to slight improvements in the reactor performance; these did not persist at 75 C. However, the archaeal community within the downstream anaerobic filter reactor (AF), operated constantly at 55 C, altered by the temperature increase in the LBR. At an LBR temperature of 55 C, members of the Methanobacteriales order were prevalent in the AF, whereas at higher LBR temperatures Methanosarcinales prevailed. Altogether, the best performance of this two-phase reactor was achieved at an LBR temperature of below 65 C, which indicates that this temperature range has a favorable effect on the microbial community responsible for the production of biogas. (orig.)

  18. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  19. County-level analysis of the impact of temperature and population increases on California wildfire data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Schoenberg, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which the apparent increase in wildfire incidence and burn area in California from 1990 to 2006 is affected by population and temperature increases is examined. Using generalized linear models with random effects, we focus on the estimated impacts of increases in mean daily temperatures and populations in different counties on wildfire in those counties, after essentially controlling for the overall differences between counties in their overall mean temperatures and populations. We find that temperature increase appears to have a significant positive impact on both total burn area and number of observed wildfires. Population growth appears to have a much less pronounced impact on total burn area than do annual temperature increases, and population growth appears to be negatively correlated with the total number of observed wildfires. These effects are especially pronounced in the winter season and in Southern California counties.

  20. Temperature-induced increase in erbium electroluminescence of epitaxially grown Si:Er diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmagin, V.B. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shm@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Lyutov, A.V.; Remizov, D.Yu.; Kudryavtsev, K.E.; Stepikhova, M.V.; Krasilnik, Z.F. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    Electroluminescence (EL) at 1.54 {mu}m of reverse biased Si:Er diodes grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy has been investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 80-300 K. An erbium electroluminescence trend versus temperature is shown to be determined by the p-n junction breakdown mechanism: we observe the EL quenching in light emitting diodes (LEDs) exhibiting a tunnel p-n junction breakdown and EL increase with temperature in diodes exhibiting an avalanche one. LEDs exhibiting a mixed p-n junction breakdown show rather weak dependence of erbium EL on temperature. We connect the temperature-induced increase in erbium EL observed in the avalanche LEDs with increase in EL pumping efficiency due to improved p-n junction breakdown homogeneity at higher temperatures.

  1. Temperature is the evil twin: effects of increased temperature and ocean acidification on reproduction in a reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G M; Kroon, F J; Metcalfe, S; Mundayi, P L

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction in many organisms can be disrupted by changes to the physical environment, such as those predicted to occur during climate change. Marine organisms face the dual climate change threats of increasing temperature and ocean acidification, yet no studies have examined the potential interactive effects of these stressors on reproduction in marine fishes. We used a long-term experiment to test the interactive effects of increased temperature and CO2 on the reproductive performance of the anemonefish, Amphiprion melanopus. Adult breeding pairs were kept for 10 months at three temperatures (28.5°C [+0.0°C], 30.0°C [-1.5°C] and 31.5°C [+3.0°C]) cross-factored with three CO2 levels (a current-day control [417 µatm] and moderate [644 µatm] and high [1134 µatm]) treatments consistent with the range of CO2 projections for the year 2100. We recorded each egg clutch produced during the breeding season, the number of eggs laid per clutch, average egg size, fertilization success, survival to hatching, hatchling length, and yolk provisioning. Adult body condition, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index, and plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured at the end of the breeding season to determine the effect of prolonged exposure to increased temperature and elevated. CO2 on adults, and to examine potential physiological mechanisms for changes in reproduction. Temperature had by far the stronger influence on reproduction, with clear declines in reproduction occurring in the +1.5°C treatment and ceasing altogether in the +3.0°C treatment. In contrast, CO2 had a minimal effect on the majority of reproductive traits measured, but caused a decline in offspring quality in combination with elevated temperature. We detected no significant effect of temperature or Co2 on adult body condition or hepatosomatic index. Elevated temperature had a significant negative effect on plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations, suggesting that declines in reproduction with

  2. The relation between skin temperature increase and sensory block height in spinal anaesthesia using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, F G A M; Driessen, J J; Kadic, L; van Egmond, J; Booij, L H D J; Scheffer, G J

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of determining the extent of sympathetic blockade by skin temperature measurement with infrared thermography and relate the cranial extent of the temperature increase to that of the sensory block after spinal anaesthesia. Before and 5, 10 and 20 min after the administration of spinal anaesthesia, skin temperatures were measured with infrared thermography at the dermatomes T2-L3, in 12 male patients scheduled for lower limb surgery. The most cephalad dermatome at which sensory blockade occurred was related to the dermatome at which the largest temperature jump (corrected for baseline temperature) occurred. The baseline temperatures showed considerable variation across the dermatomes, being lower below T12 than at the thoracic dermatomes. The mean difference between the level of the cephalad skin temperature elevation front (mean 1.03 °C, SD 0.8 °C) and cranial sensory block height was 0.10 dermatomes (SD 1.16), correlation coefficient (0.88, P<0.001). The varying baseline temperatures across the trunk, the limited sympathetic block-induced increase in skin temperature at the trunk and the difficult control of influences from the surroundings partly obscured the extent of the skin temperature increase and its correlation to sensory block height. These factors have to be controlled to improve the use of infrared cameras as an easy bedside tool for predicting the cranial extent of (sympathetic blockade during) spinal anaesthesia.

  3. Rising air temperatures will increase intertidal mussel abundance in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin E.; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2017-01-01

    sites in 5 fjords. We also compared tolerance to sub-zero temperatures between seasons and latitudes. Since 1958, atmospheric temperatures have increased signifi- cantly in all fjords. Consequently, the number of days with temperatures below the lower lethal temperature, LT50 (−13°C), has decreased...... between climate warming and population structure and abundance of intertidal mussels along a latitudinal climate gradient in west Greenland. We analysed trends in air temperatures, collected seasonal temperature data from intertidal microhabitats, and quantified abundance, growth and age structure at 73...... by up to 57%, suggesting that constraint by low tempera- ture is weakening. Abundance declined >95% with increasing latitude from an average of 23.67 to 0.71 ind. 0.0625 m−2 in mid-intertidal habitats. However, no latitudinal differences in growth, aver- age size (6.3−9 cm), age (1.5−2.5 yr...

  4. Increasing temperature decreases the predatory effect of the intertidal shanny Lipophrys pholis on an amphipod prey

    KAUST Repository

    South, J.

    2017-11-15

    Interactions between Lipophrys pholis and its amphipod prey Echinogammarus marinus were used to investigate the effect of changing water temperatures, comparing current and predicted mean summer temperatures. Contrary to expectations, predator attack rates significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Handling times were significantly longer at 19° C than at 17 and 15° C and the maximum feeding estimate was significantly lower at 19° C than at 17° C. Functional-response type changed from a destabilizing type II to the more stabilizing type III with a temperature increase to 19° C. This suggests that a temperature increase can mediate refuge for prey at low densities. Predatory pressure by teleosts may be dampened by a large increase in temperature (here from 15 to 19° C), but a short-term and smaller temperature increase (to 17° C) may increase destabilizing resource consumption due to high maximum feeding rates; this has implications for the stability of important intertidal ecosystems during warming events.

  5. Temperature increase during orthodontic bonding with different curing units using an infrared camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakalli, Sertac; Demir, Abdullah; Selek, Murat; Tasdemir, Sakir

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of different curing units and light-tip tooth surface distances on the temperature increase generated during orthodontic bonding, using an infrared camera (IR) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Fifty-two freshly extracted human premolar teeth were used. Metallic orthodontic brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of the teeth and thermal records were taken using an IR camera and ANN. Brackets were cured with a light-emitting diode (LED) and high intensity halogen (HQTH). Teeth were divided into four groups according to the curing units (LED and HQTH) and curing distances (from tooth surface and 10 mm away from tooth surface). The results were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test. The ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests revealed that temperature changes were influenced by the type of light source and exposure times. All groups revealed significant differences between each other (p < 0.001). The highest surface temperature increase was gained from curing with a LED unit from the tooth surface (11.35°C ± 0.91°C). The lowest surface temperature increase was gained from curing with a HQTH unit 10 mm away from the tooth surface (2.57°C ± 0.6°C). The LED unit induced significantly higher temperature changes than did the HQTH. The temperature increase during orthodontic bonding was increased with long exposure time. A shorter light-tip tooth surface distance leads to greater increases in temperature.

  6. The relation between skin temperature increase and sensory block height in spinal anaesthesia using infrared thermography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Driessen, J.J.; Kadic, L.; Egmond, J. van; Booij, L.H.D.J.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of determining the extent of sympathetic blockade by skin temperature measurement with infrared thermography and relate the cranial extent of the temperature increase to that of the sensory block after spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: Before and 5,

  7. Diabetes incidence and glucose intolerance prevalence increase with higher outdoor temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw, Lisanne L; Aziz, N Ahmad; Tannemaat, Martijn R; Blauw, C Alexander; de Craen, Anton J; Pijl, Hanno; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Rising global temperatures might contribute to the current worldwide diabetes epidemic, as higher ambient temperature can negatively impact glucose metabolism via a reduction in brown adipose tissue activity. Therefore, we examined the association between outdoor temperature and diabetes incidence in the USA as well as the prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide. Research design and methods Using meta-regression, we determined the association between mean annual temperature and diabetes incidence during 1996–2009 for each US state separately. Subsequently, results were pooled in a meta-analysis. On a global scale, we performed a meta-regression analysis to assess the association between mean annual temperature and the prevalence of glucose intolerance. Results We demonstrated that, on average, per 1°C increase in temperature, age-adjusted diabetes incidence increased with 0.314 (95% CI 0.194 to 0.434) per 1000. Similarly, the worldwide prevalence of glucose intolerance increased by 0.170% (95% CI 0.107% to 0.234%) per 1°C rise in temperature. These associations persisted after adjustment for obesity. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the diabetes incidence rate in the USA and prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide increase with higher outdoor temperature. PMID:28405341

  8. Cardiac frequency compensation responses of adult blue crabs exposed to moderate temperature increases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.T.; Richardson, L.B.; Moore, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Cardiac frequency patterns of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun were used to evaluate potential thermal stress after exposure to 5/sup 0/C increases over a range of acclimation temperatures from 5/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/C. An acclimated rate-temperature curve (R-T curve), acute R-T curves of the stabilized rates at the increased temperatures and Q/sub 10/ temperature coefficients were used to assess the significance of the changes in rate frequency. The acclimated R-T curve showed that blue crabs go through a series of seasonal adaptation types characterized by a plateau of perfect adaptation for both cold and warm adapted organisms. Paradoxical adaptation occurred between the transition from cold to warm acclimation temperatures. The acute R-T curves showed that cardiac frequency was highly responsive to a 5/sup 0/C increase when the organisms were acclimated to low temperatures. The Q/sub 10/'s of the acute R-T curves at the warm acclimation temperatures approximated those values derived for the acclimated R-T curve. This suggests that the temperature increase had a negligible effect on the warm adapted crabs, that is, little or no thermal stress occurred.

  9. Changes in floral bouquets from compound-specific responses to increasing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Filella, Iolanda; Llusià, Joan; Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-12-01

    We addressed the potential effects of changes in ambient temperature on the profiles of volatile emissions from flowers and tested whether warming could induce significant quantitative and qualitative changes in floral emissions, which would potentially interfere with plant-pollinator chemical communication. We measured the temperature responses of floral emissions of various common species of Mediterranean plants using dynamic headspace sampling and used GC-MS to identify and quantify the emitted terpenes. Floral emissions increased with temperature to an optimum and thereafter decreased. The responses to temperature modeled here predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emission of 0.03-1.4-fold, depending on the species, in response to an increase of 1 °C in the mean global ambient temperature. Under the warmest projections that predict a maximum increase of 5 °C in the mean temperature of Mediterranean climates in the Northern Hemisphere by the end of the century, our models predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emissions of 0.34-9.1-fold, depending on the species. The species with the lowest emission rates had the highest relative increases in floral terpene emissions with temperature increases of 1-5 °C. The response of floral emissions to temperature differed among species and among different compounds within the species. Warming not only increased the rates of total emissions, but also changed the ratios among compounds that constituted the floral scents, i.e. increased the signal for pollinators, but also importantly altered the signal fidelity and probability of identification by pollinators, especially for specialists with a strong reliance on species-specific floral blends. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Effect of Drought on the Vulnerability of Leaves to Increasing Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, R.; Feeley, K.

    2016-12-01

    One predicted effect of global climate change is an increasing likelihood of drought combined with hotter temperatures. Hotter droughts are expected to increase tree mortality by increasing the vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which in turn negatively impacts net primary productivity and transpiration. However, the effects of higher temperatures on water stressed trees apart from this increase in VPD is unknown. Here we present results from ten South American tree species whose leaves were exposed to drought conditions and then to high temperatures. Tree branches were dried down over a period of days and leaves were harvested at intervals to measure percent water content and heat tolerance. Measurements were compared to control branches that were harvested but had their stems continuously submerged in water baths. The heat tolerance (CTmax) of watered vs. drought-stressed leaves was tested by exposing leaves to water baths of temperatures ranging from 32 - 54 °C and calculating the temperature at which leaf death occurred (Fv/Fm drought stressed have a CTmax between 8 and 20 °C lower than the CTmax of well-watered leaves. Hotter droughts, as predicted to occur more extensively and frequently under climate change, may impact trees through more than just increasing VPD; hotter droughts may also lead to increased leaf damage and death through increased temperature sensitivity of stressed leaves.

  11. Influence of increasing temperature and salinity on herbicide toxicity in estuarine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Danese, Loren E; Baird, Thomas D

    2013-07-01

    Ecological risk assessments are, in part, based on results of toxicity tests conducted under standard exposure conditions. Global climate change will have a wide range of effects on estuarine habitats, including potentially increasing water temperature and salinity, which may alter the risk assessment of estuarine pollutants. We examined the effects of increasing temperature and salinity on the toxicity of common herbicides (irgarol, diuron, atrazine, and ametryn) to the phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta. Static 96-h algal bioassays were conducted for each herbicide under four exposure scenarios: standard temperature and salinity (25°C, 20 ppt), standard temperature and elevated salinity (25°C, 40 ppt), elevated temperature and standard salinity (35°C, 20 ppt), and elevated temperature and elevated salinity (35°C, 40 ppt). The endpoints assessed were algal cell density at 96 h, growth rate, chlorophyll a content, lipid content, and starch content. Increasing exposure temperature reduced growth rate and 96-h cell density but increased the cellular chlorophyll and lipid concentrations of the control algae. Exposure condition did not alter starch content of control algae. Herbicides were found to decrease growth rate, 96 h cell density, and cellular chlorophyll and lipid concentrations, while starch concentrations increased with herbicide exposure. Herbicide effects under standard test conditions were then compared with those observed under elevated temperature and salinity. Herbicide effects on growth rate, cell density, and starch content were more pronounced under elevated salinity and temperature conditions. To encompass the natural variability in estuarine temperature and salinity, and to account for future changes in climate, toxicity tests should be conducted under a wider range of environmental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The effect of increased temperature and nitrogen deposition on decomposition in bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Limpens, J.; Berendse, F.

    2008-01-01

    Despite their low primary production, ombrotrophic peatlands have a considerable potential to store atmospheric carbon as a result of their extremely low litter decomposition rates. Projected changes in temperature and nitrogen (N) deposition may increase decomposition rates by their positive

  13. Phytoplankton responses to temperature increases are constrained by abiotic conditions and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striebel, Maren; Schabhüttl, Stefanie; Hodapp, Dorothee; Hingsamer, Peter; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    Effects of temperature changes on phytoplankton communities seem to be highly context-specific, but few studies have analyzed whether this context specificity depends on differences in the abiotic conditions or in species composition between studies. We present an experiment that allows disentangling the contribution of abiotic and biotic differences in shaping the response to two aspects of temperature change: permanent increase of mean temperature versus pulse disturbance in form of a heat wave. We used natural communities from six different sites of a floodplain system as well as artificially mixed communities from laboratory cultures and grew both, artificial and natural communities, in water from the six different floodplain lakes (sites). All 12 contexts (2 communities × 6 sites) were first exposed to three different temperature levels (12, 18, 24 °C, respectively) and afterward to temperature pulses (4 °C increase for 7 h day(-1)). Temperature-dependent changes in biomass and community composition depended on the initial composition of phytoplankton communities. Abiotic conditions had a major effect on biomass of phytoplankton communities exposed to different temperature conditions, however, the effect of biotic and abiotic conditions together was even more pronounced. Additionally, phytoplankton community responses to pulse temperature effects depended on the warming history. By disentangling abiotic and biotic effects, our study shows that temperature-dependent effects on phytoplankton communities depend on both, biotic and abiotic constraints.

  14. Production test PTA-002, increased graphite temperature limit -- B, C and D Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, A.

    1965-12-17

    The fundamental objective of the graphite temperature limit is to prevent excessive oxidation of the graphite moderator blocks with carbon dioxide and water vapor in the reactor atmosphere. Laboratory tests have shown that 10% uniform oxidation of graphite results in a loss in strength of approximately 50%. Production Test IP-725 was conducted at F Reactor for a period of six months at graphite temperatures approximately 50 and 100 C higher than the present graphite temperature limit of 650 C. The results from the F Reactor test suggest that an increase in the graphite temperature limit from 650 C to 700 C is technically feasible from the standpoint of oxidation of the graphite moderator with CO{sub 2}. Any significant additional increase was shown to lead to excessively high oxidation rates and is therefore not considered feasible. The objective of this test, therefore, is to extend the higher temperature investigations to B, C, and D Reactors. For the duration of this test, the graphite temperature limit will be increased from 650 C and 700 C, corresponding to an increase in the graphite stringer temperature limit from 735 C to 790 C. The test is expected to last for approximately six months but may be terminated early on any or all the reactors.

  15. Neurocognitive and somatic components of temperature increases during g-tummo meditation: legend and reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kozhevnikov

    Full Text Available Stories of g-tummo meditators mysteriously able to dry wet sheets wrapped around their naked bodies during a frigid Himalayan ceremony have intrigued scholars and laypersons alike for a century. Study 1 was conducted in remote monasteries of eastern Tibet with expert meditators performing g-tummo practices while their axillary temperature and electroencephalographic (EEG activity were measured. Study 2 was conducted with Western participants (a non-meditator control group instructed to use the somatic component of the g-tummo practice (vase breathing without utilization of meditative visualization. Reliable increases in axillary temperature from normal to slight or moderate fever zone (up to 38.3°C were observed among meditators only during the Forceful Breath type of g-tummo meditation accompanied by increases in alpha, beta, and gamma power. The magnitude of the temperature increases significantly correlated with the increases in alpha power during Forceful Breath meditation. The findings indicate that there are two factors affecting temperature increase. The first is the somatic component which causes thermogenesis, while the second is the neurocognitive component (meditative visualization that aids in sustaining temperature increases for longer periods. Without meditative visualization, both meditators and non-meditators were capable of using the Forceful Breath vase breathing only for a limited time, resulting in limited temperature increases in the range of normal body temperature. Overall, the results suggest that specific aspects of the g-tummo technique might help non-meditators learn how to regulate their body temperature, which has implications for improving health and regulating cognitive performance.

  16. Enhanced carbon overconsumption in response to increasing temperatures during a mesocosm experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taucher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are projected to lead to an increase in sea surface temperatures, potentially impacting marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling. Here we conducted an indoor mesocosm experiment with a natural plankton community taken from the Baltic Sea in summer. We induced a plankton bloom via nutrient addition and followed the dynamics of the different carbon and nitrogen pools for a period of one month at temperatures ranging from 9.5 °C to 17.5 °C, representing a range of ±4 °C relative to ambient temperature. The uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and the net build-up of both particulate (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC were all enhanced at higher temperatures and almost doubled over a temperature gradient of 8 °C. Furthermore, elemental ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C : N in both particulate and dissolved organic matter increased in response to higher temperatures, both reaching very high C : N ratios of > 30 at +4 °C. Altogether, these observations suggest a pronounced increase in excess carbon fixation in response to elevated temperatures. Most of these findings are contrary to results from similar experiments conducted with plankton populations sampled in spring, revealing large uncertainties in our knowledge of temperature sensitivities of key processes in marine carbon cycling. Since a major difference to previous mesocosm experiments was the dominant phytoplankton species, we hypothesize that species composition might play an important role in the response of biogeochemical cycling to increasing temperatures.

  17. Cold temperatures increase cold hardiness in the next generation Ophraella communa beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Shi Zhou

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, has been introduced to control the spread of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in China. We hypothesized that the beetle, to be able to track host-range expansion into colder climates, can phenotypically adapt to cold temperatures across generations. Therefore, we questioned whether parental experience of colder temperatures increases cold tolerance of the progeny. Specifically, we studied the demography, including development, fecundity, and survival, as well as physiological traits, including supercooling point (SCP, water content, and glycerol content of O. communa progeny whose parents were maintained at different temperature regimes. Overall, the entire immature stage decreased survival of about 0.2%-4.2% when parents experienced cold temperatures compared to control individuals obtained from parents raised at room temperature. However, intrinsic capacity for increase (r, net reproductive rate (R 0 and finite rate of increase (λ of progeny O. communa were maximum when parents experienced cold temperatures. Glycerol contents of both female and male in progeny was significantly higher when maternal and paternal adults were cold acclimated as compared to other treatments. This resulted in the supercooling point of the progeny adults being significantly lower compared to beetles emerging from parents that experienced room temperatures. These results suggest that cold hardiness of O. communa can be promoted by cold acclimation in previous generation, and it might counter-balance reduced survival in the next generation, especially when insects are tracking their host-plants into colder climates.

  18. Do hotter temperatures increase the incidence of self-harm hospitalisations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matt N; Hill, Stephen R; Spicer, John

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between air temperature and the incidence of suicide has been established in a number of previous studies. Interestingly, the relationship between geographical variation in temperature and suicide incidence has generally been found to be negative, while the relationship between temporal variation in temperature and suicide incidence has generally been found to be positive. It is less clear, however, how temperature relates to the incidence of self-harm. This topic is of particular importance given the presence of ongoing global warming. This study investigated the relationship between temperature and the incidence of self-harm resulting in hospitalisation in New Zealand. Self-harm hospitalisations by date and district for 1993-2009 were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Meteorological data was obtained from NIWA. Generalised linear mixed models were used to estimate the effects of three different components of variation in temperature: geographical, seasonal and irregular. Irregular (random) daily variation in temperature had a modest positive relationship with the incidence of acts of self-harm resulting in hospitalisation, with about 0.7% extra incidents for every 1 °C increase in temperature. However, there was no strong evidence for a positive effect of either seasonal or geographical variation in temperature. We conclude that temperature does appear to bear some relation to the incidence of self-harm, with irregular daily variation in temperature having a positive effect. However, inconsistencies in the effects of different components of variation in temperature make it challenging to accurately predict how global warming will influence the incidence of self-harm.

  19. [The relationship between the temperature increase caused by phacoemulsification and the damage to the corneal endothelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschschlüter, S; von Eicken, J; Wilhelm, U; Wilhelm, F; Werschnik, C; Schlüter, R; Koch, C; Höh, H

    2014-08-01

    Endothelial cell damage can be found after a phacoemulsification. The reason for this cell damage is not yet known. The temperature rise inside the anterior chamber during the emulsification of the lens is considered as a potential damage mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the temperature increase and the cell damage. This study was performed with 86 enucleated porcine eyes, which were divided into six groups A-F. Group A served as control group. Phacoemulsification was simulated in the groups B-E with different surgically relevant system settings. The temperature change was measured simultaneously with temperature sensors inside the anterior chamber. Inside the eyes of group F, the instruments were positioned and irrigation and aspiration were activated, but no ultrasound was applied. For all 86 corneas, the endothelial cell damage was quantified with a standardised evaluation protocol using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A potential correlation was checked between the observed cell damage and the measured temperature rise. The highest temperature increase in group E with an obstructed aspiration line and an output power setting of 50 % was 17.77 °C. The temperature increase in group D with an output power setting of 100 % and unblocked fluid flow was significantly lower (p = 0.006). The highest temperature increase in group D was 8.89 °C. In contrast, the cells in group D were rated with a significantly lower score value than the cells in group E (p < 0.001). No significant correlation between the temperature rise and the cell damage could be obtained in due consideration of all measured data. However, an increase of the output power setting was connected with a non-linear increase of the cell loss. The temperature rise was not the main reason for the endothelial cell damage in the performed experiments. Therefore, there seems to be no causal relationship between the temperature increase inside the

  20. Temperature rise and parasitic infection interact to increase the impact of an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Ciaran; Brenner, David; McIlwaine, Christopher; Lennon, Jack J; Dick, Jaimie T A; Lucy, Frances E; Christian, Keith A

    2017-04-01

    Invasive species often detrimentally impact native biota, e.g. through predation, but predicting such impacts is difficult due to multiple and perhaps interacting abiotic and biotic context dependencies. Higher mean and peak temperatures, together with parasites, might influence the impact of predatory invasive host species additively, synergistically or antagonistically. Here, we apply the comparative functional response methodology (relationship between resource consumption rate and resource supply) in one experiment and conduct a second scaled-up mesocosm experiment to assess any differential predatory impacts of the freshwater invasive amphipod Gammarus pulex, when uninfected and infected with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae, at three temperatures representative of current and future climate. Individual G. pulex showed Type II predatory functional responses. In both experiments, infection was associated with higher maximum feeding rates, which also increased with increasing temperatures. Additionally, infection interacted with higher temperatures to synergistically elevate functional responses and feeding rates. Parasitic infection also generally increased Q10 values. We thus suggest that the differential metabolic responses of the host and parasite to increasing temperatures drives the synergy between infection and temperature, elevating feeding rates and thus enhancing the ecological impact of the invader. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Postmortem Increase in Body Core Temperature: How Inaccurate We Can Be in Time Since Death Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtíšek, Tomáš; Kučerová, Štěpánka; Krajsa, Jan; Eren, Bülent; Vysočanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr

    2017-03-01

    Postmortem increase in body core temperature is a well-known phenomenon in forensic practice. Despite this, cases of reliably documented postmortem hyperthermia are rarely reported in the forensic literature, and it is still not clear how frequently postmortem hyperthermia occurs and in which cases we may it predict. In routine forensic practice, the standard course of body cooling is expected, and the prediction of normal body core temperature in the time of death is used for back-calculating the time of death by Henssge method. The unexpected rising in body core temperature may considerably misguide the estimation of time since death in the early postmortem period. We present a rare case of nonviolent death in the hospital with exactly recorded unusual elevation of body core temperature after death, although the body temperature shortly before the death was normal. In the presented case, the "standard" cooling of the body began up to 4 hours after death.

  2. Is the Economic Crisis Challenging the Prevailing Gender Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the current economic and financial crisis is challenging the prevailing gender-equality model in four European countries: Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. After situating the countries in relation to the underlying gender regime......-sensitive policy responses. These shortcomings are compounded by the observation that the downturn seems to be delaying progress on equality policies....

  3. Climate warming may increase aphids' dropping probabilities in response to high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2012-11-01

    Dropping off is considered an anti-predator behavior for aphids since previous studies have shown that it reduces the risk of predation. However, little attention is paid to dropping behavior triggered by other external stresses such as daytime high temperatures which are predicted to become more frequent in the context of climate warming. Here we defined a new parameter, drop-off temperature (DOT), to describe the critical temperature at which an aphid drops off its host plant when the ambient temperature increases gradually and slowly. Detailed studies were conducted to reveal effects of short-term acclimation (temperature, exposure time at high-temperature and starvation) on DOT of an aphid species, Sitobion avenae. Our objectives were to test if the aphids dropped off host plant to avoid high temperatures and how short-term acclimation affected the aphids' dropping behavior in response to heat stress. We suggest that dropping is a behavioral thermoregulation to avoid heat stress, since aphids started to move before they dropped off and the dropped aphids were still able to control their muscles prior to knockdown. The adults starved for 12 h had higher DOT values than those that were unstarved or starved for 6 h, and there was a trade-off between behavioral thermoregulation and energy acquisition. Higher temperatures and longer exposure times at high temperatures significantly lowered the aphids' DOT, suggested that the aphids avoid heat stress by dropping when exposed to high temperatures. Climate warming may therefore increase the aphids' dropping probabilities and consequently affect the aphids' individual development and population growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change and biological control: the consequences of increasing temperatures on host-parasitoid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael J; Zalucki, Myron P

    2017-04-01

    The relative thermal requirements and tolerances of hymenopteran parasitoids and their hosts were investigated based on published data. The optimal temperature (Topt) for development of parasitoids was significantly lower than that for their hosts. Given the limited plasticity of insect responses to high temperatures and the proximity of Topt to critical thermal maxima, this suggests that host-parasitoid interactions could be negatively affected by increasing global temperatures. A modelling study of the interactions between the diamondback moth and its parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum in Australia indicated that predicted temperature increases will have a greater negative impact on the distribution of the parasitoid than on its host and that they could lead to its exclusion from some agricultural regions where it is currently important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic and cellular stress responses of catfish, Horabagrus brachysoma (Günther) acclimated to increasing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Rishikesh S; Das, Tilak; Debnath, Dipesh; Yengkokpam, Sona; Baruah, Kartik; Tiwari, Lalchand R; Pal, Asim K

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the metabolic and cellular stress responses in an endemic catfish Horabagrus brachysoma acclimated to ambient (26°C), 31, 33 and 36°C for 30 days. After acclimation, fish were sampled to investigate changes in the levels of blood glucose, tissue glycogen and ascorbic acid, activities of enzymes involved in glycolysis (LDH), citric acid cycle (MDH), gluconeogenesis (FBPase and G6Pase), pentose phosphate pathway (G6PDH), protein metabolism (AST and ALT), phosphate metabolism (ACP and ALP) and energy metabolism (ATPase), and HSP70 levels in various tissues. Acclimation to higher temperatures (33 and 36°C) significantly increased activities of LDH, MDH, ALP, ACP, AST, ALT and ATPase and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the G6PDH enzyme activity and, tissue glycogen and ascorbic acid. Results indicated an overall increase in the carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism implying increased metabolic demands for maintaining homeostasis in fish acclimated to higher temperatures (33 and 36°C). We observed tissue specific response of HSP70 in H. brachysoma, with significant increase in gill and liver at 33 and 36°C, and in brain and muscle at 36°C, enabling cellular protection at higher acclimation temperatures. In conclusion, H. brachysoma adjusted metabolic and cellular responses to withstand increased temperatures, however, these responses suggest that the fish was under stress at 33°C or higher temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reproductive gene expression in a coral reef fish exposed to increasing temperature across generations

    KAUST Repository

    Veilleux, Heather D

    2017-12-07

    Reproduction in marine fish is generally tightly linked with water temperature. Consequently, when adults are exposed to projected future ocean temperatures, reproductive output of many species declines precipitously. Recent research has shown that in the common reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, step-wise exposure to higher temperatures over two generations (parents: +1.5°C, offspring: +3.0°C) can improve reproductive output in the F2 generation compared to F2 fish that have experienced the same high temperatures over two generations (F1 parents: +3.0°C, F2 offspring: +3.0°C). To investigate how a step-wise increase in temperature between generations improved reproductive capacity, we tested the expression of well-known teleost reproductive genes in the brain and gonads of F2 fish using quantitative reverse transcription PCR and compared it among control (+0.0°C for two generations), developmental (+3.0°C in second generation only), step (+1.5°C in first generation and +3.0°C in second generation), and transgenerational (+3.0°C for two generations) treatments. We found that levels of gonadotropin receptor gene expression (Fshr and Lhcgr) in the testes were reduced in developmental and transgenerational temperature treatments, but were similar to control levels in the step treatment. This suggests Fshr and Lhcgr may be involved in regulating male reproductive capacity in A. polyacanthus. In addition, lower Fshb expression in the brain of females in all temperature treatments compared to control, suggests that Fshb expression, which is involved in vitellogenesis, is sensitive to high temperatures. Our results help elucidate key genes that facilitate successful reproduction in reef fishes when they experience a gradual increase in temperature across generations consistent with the trajectory of climate change.

  7. Decline in temperature and humidity increases the occurrence of influenza in cold climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Both temperature and humidity may independently or jointly contribute to the risk of influenza infections. We examined the relations between the level and decrease of temperature, humidity and the risk of influenza A and B virus infections in a subarctic climate. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study among military conscripts (n = 892) seeking medical attention due to respiratory symptoms during their military training period and identified 66 influenza A and B cases by PCR or serology. Meteorological data such as measures of average and decline in ambient temperature and absolute humidity (AH) during the three preceding days of the onset (hazard period) and two reference periods, prior and after the onset were obtained. Results The average temperature preceding the influenza onset was −6.8 ± 5.6°C and AH 3.1 ± 1.3 g/m3. A decrease in both temperature and AH during the hazard period increased the occurrence of influenza so that a 1°C decrease in temperature and 0.5 g decrease per m3 in AH increased the estimated risk by 11% [OR 1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)] and 58% [OR 1.58 (1.28 to 1.96)], respectively. The occurrence of influenza infections was positively associated with both the average temperature [OR 1.10 per 1°C (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.19)] and AH [OR 1.25 per g/m3 (1.05 to 1.49)] during the hazard period prior to onset. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that a decrease rather than low temperature and humidity per se during the preceding three days increase the risk of influenza episodes in a cold climate. PMID:24678699

  8. Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Soong, Jenniffer L.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Dauwe, Steven; Fransen, Erik; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures can accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and release large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially inducing climate change feedbacks. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity and metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms in response to soil warming can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. Here, we present results of an incubation experiment using soils from a geothermal gradient in Iceland that have been subjected to different intensities of soil warming (+0, +1, +3, +5, +10 and +20 °C above ambient) over seven years. We hypothesized that 7 years of soil warming would led to a depletion of labile organic substrates, with a subsequent decrease of the "apparent" temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Associated to this C limitation and more sub-optimal conditions for microbial growth, we also hypothesized increased microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), which is associated with increases in the relative amount of C invested into catabolic pathways along the warming gradient. Soil respiration and basal respiration rates decreased with soil warming intensity, in parallel with a decline in soil C availability. Contrasting to our first hypothesis, we did not detect changes in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration with soil warming or on the availability of nutrients and of labile C substrates at the time of incubation. However, in agreement to our second hypothesis, microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass) increased at warmer temperatures, while the C retained in biomass decreased as substrate became limiting. Long-term (7 years) temperature increases thus triggered a change in the metabolic functioning of the soil microbial communities towards increasing energy costs for maintenance or resource acquisition, thereby lowering the capacity of C retention and stabilization of warmed soils. These results highlight the need

  9. Increased temperature variation poses a greater risk to species than climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, David A; DeLong, John P; Gilbert, Benjamin; Greig, Hamish S; Harley, Christopher D G; McCann, Kevin S; Savage, Van; Tunney, Tyler D; O'Connor, Mary I

    2014-03-22

    Increases in the frequency, severity and duration of temperature extremes are anticipated in the near future. Although recent work suggests that changes in temperature variation will have disproportionately greater effects on species than changes to the mean, much of climate change research in ecology has focused on the impacts of mean temperature change. Here, we couple fine-grained climate projections (2050-2059) to thermal performance data from 38 ectothermic invertebrate species and contrast projections with those of a simple model. We show that projections based on mean temperature change alone differ substantially from those incorporating changes to the variation, and to the mean and variation in concert. Although most species show increases in performance at greater mean temperatures, the effect of mean and variance change together yields a range of responses, with temperate species at greatest risk of performance declines. Our work highlights the importance of using fine-grained temporal data to incorporate the full extent of temperature variation when assessing and projecting performance.

  10. Increased temperature and entropy production in cancer: the role of anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Some cancers have been shown to have a higher temperature than surrounding normal tissue. This higher temperature is due to heat generated internally in the cancer. The higher temperature of cancer (compared to surrounding tissue) enables a thermodynamic analysis to be carried out. Here I show that there is increased entropy production in cancer compared with surrounding tissue. This is termed excess entropy production. The excess entropy production is expressed in terms of heat flow from the cancer to surrounding tissue and enzymic reactions in the cancer and surrounding tissue. The excess entropy production in cancer drives it away from the stationary state that is characterised by minimum entropy production. Treatments that reduce inflammation (and therefore temperature) should drive a cancer towards the stationary state. Anti-inflammatory agents, such as aspirin, other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and also thyroxine analogues have been shown (using various criteria) to reduce the progress of cancer.

  11. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The majority of experimental studies of the effects of population bottlenecks on fitness are performed under laboratory conditions, which do not account for the environmental complexity that populations face in nature. In this study, we test inbreeding depression in multiple replicates of inbred...... show inbreeding depression for egg-to-adult viability. The level of inbreeding depression is highly dependent on test temperature and is observed only at low and high temperatures. Inbreeding did not affect the developmental time or the sex ratio of emerging adults. However, temperature affected...... increases at stressful temperatures. Our results contribute to knowledge on the environmental dependency of inbreeding under different environmental conditions and emphasize that climate change may impact negatively on fitness through synergistic interactions with the genotype....

  12. Influence of increasing combustion temperature on the AMS 14C dating of modern crop phytoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinhui; Yang, Xue; Zheng, Yonggang

    2014-10-07

    Several attempts have been made to directly date phytoliths, but most (14)C results are not consistent with other independent chronologies. Due to the limited dataset, there is not a clear explanation for these discrepancies. Herein, we report the (14)C ages of phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) from contemporary rice and millet crops that were combusted at different temperatures to investigate the relationship between the combustion temperature and resulting (14)C age. Our results show that the (14)C age of PhytOC increases directly with combustion temperature (up to 1100°C) and results in age overestimations of hundreds of years. Considerably older ages are observed at higher temperatures, suggesting that it may be possible to distinguish between two fractions of organic carbon in phytoliths: labile and recalcitrant carbon. These findings challenge the assumption that PhytOC is homogeneous, an assumption made by those who have previously attempted to directly date phytoliths using (14)C.

  13. The effect of cold temperature on increased exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Min Tseng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations in the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been reported. However, the influence of air temperature and other meteorological factors on COPD exacerbation remains unclear. METHODS: National Health Insurance registry data from January 1, 1999 to December 1, 2009 and meteorological variables from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau for the same period were analyzed. A case-crossover study design was used to investigate the association between COPD exacerbation and meteorological variables. RESULTS: A total of 16,254 cases who suffered from COPD exacerbation were enrolled. We found that a 1°C decrease in air temperature was associated with a 0.8% increase in the exacerbation rate on event-days (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.015-1.138, p = 0.015. With a 5°C decrease in mean temperature, the cold temperature (28-day average temperature had a long-term effect on the exacerbation of COPD (odds ratio (OR, 1.106, 95% CI 1.063-1.152, p<0.001. In addition, elderly patients and those who did not receive inhaled medication tended to suffer an exacerbation when the mean temperature dropped 5°C. Higher barometric pressure, more hours of sunshine, and lower humidity were associated with an increase in COPD exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the effect of cold temperatures on the COPD exacerbation rate. Elderly patients and those without inhaled medicine before the exacerbation event were affected significantly by lower mean temperatures. A more comprehensive program to prevent cold stress in COPD patients may lead to a reduction in the exacerbations rate of COPD.

  14. Temperature increases on the external root surface during endodontic treatment using single file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkocak, I; Taşkan, M M; Gökt Rk, H; Aytac, F; Karaarslan, E Şirin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate increases in temperature on the external root surface during endodontic treatment with different rotary systems. Fifty human mandibular incisors with a single root canal were selected. All root canals were instrumented using a size 20 Hedstrom file, and the canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. The samples were randomly divided into the following three groups of 15 teeth: Group 1: The OneShape Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 2: The Reciproc Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 3: The WaveOne Endodontic File no.: 25. During the preparation, the temperature changes were measured in the middle third of the roots using a noncontact infrared thermometer. The temperature data were transferred from the thermometer to the computer and were observed graphically. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance at a significance level of 0.05. The increases in temperature caused by the OneShape file system were lower than those of the other files (P temperature increases. However, there were no significant differences between the Reciproc and WaveOne files. The single file rotary systems used in this study may be recommended for clinical use.

  15. Increasing oxygen radicals and water temperature select for toxic Microcystis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dziallas

    Full Text Available Pronounced rises in frequency of toxic cyanobacterial blooms are recently observed worldwide, particularly when temperatures increase. Different strains of cyanobacterial species vary in their potential to produce toxins but driving forces are still obscure. Our study examines effects of hydrogen peroxide on toxic and non-toxic (including a non-toxic mutant strains of M. aeruginosa. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide diminishes chlorophyll a content and growth of cyanobacteria and that this reduction is significantly lower for toxic than for non-toxic strains. This indicates that microcystins protect from detrimental effects of oxygen radicals. Incubation of toxic and non-toxic strains of M. aeruginosa with other bacteria or without (axenic at three temperatures (20, 26 and 32°C reveals a shift toward toxic strains at higher temperatures. In parallel to increases in abundance of toxic (i.e. toxin gene possessing strains and their actual toxin expression, concentrations of microcystins rise with temperature, when amounts of radicals are expected to be enhanced. Field samples from three continents support the influence of radicals and temperature on toxic potential of M. aeruginosa. Our results imply that global warming will significantly increase toxic potential and toxicity of cyanobacterial blooms which has strong implications for socio-economical assessments of global change.

  16. Increasing temperature reduces the coupling between available nitrogen and phosphorus in soils of Chinese grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Baumann, Frank; Song, Chao; Zhang, Mi; Shi, Yue; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Changes in climatic conditions along geographical gradients greatly affect soil nutrient cycling processes. Yet how climate regimes such as changes in temperature influence soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and their stoichiometry is not well understood. This study investigated the spatial pattern and variability of soil N and P availability as well as their coupling relationships at two soil layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm) along a 4000-km climate transect in two grassland biomes of China, the Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands and the Tibetan alpine grasslands. Our results found that in both grasslands, from cold to warm sites the amounts of soil total N, total P and available P all decreased. By contrast, the amount of available N was positively related to mean annual temperature in the Tibetan grasslands. Meanwhile, with increasing temperature ratio of available N to P significantly increased but the linear relationship between them was considerably reduced. Thus, increasing temperature may not only induce a stoichiometric shift but also loose the coupling between available N and P. This N-P decoupling under warmer conditions was more evident in the Tibetan alpine grasslands where P limitation might become more widespread relative to N as temperatures continue to rise.

  17. Simulation of the temperature increase in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2012-03-01

    As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. The temperature increase induced by a 60 kHz iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser (AMO Inc., Santa Ana, CA) in porcine cadaver iris was simulated using COMSOL (Comsol Inc., Burlington, MA) finite element software. Temperature increases up to 2.45 °C (corresponding to 2 μJ laser pulse energy and 24 second illumination) were observed in the porcine cadaver iris from the simulation with little variation in temperature profiles compared with specimens for the same laser energy illumination in experiment. : The commercial iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser operating with pulse energies at approximately the lower limit of the range evaluated in this study would be expected to result in a 1.23 °C temperature increase and, therefore, does not present a safety hazard to the iris.

  18. Douglas-fir seedlings exhibit metabolic responses to increased temperature and atmospheric drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Jansen

    Full Text Available In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i plant biomass, (ii carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought. Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions.

  19. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Increases on the Photosynthesis of Tropical Reef Calcified Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Pereira, Cristiano Macedo; Duarte, Gustavo; Horta, Paulo Antunes; E Castro, Clovis Barreira; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the

  20. Impact of drought and increasing temperatures on soil CO2 emissions in a Mediterranean shrubland (gariga)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dato, Giovanbattista Domenico; De Angelis, Paolo; Sirca, Costantino

    2010-01-01

    In arid and semiarid shrubland ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin, soil moisture is a key factor controlling biogeochemical cycles and the release of CO2 via soil respiration. This is influenced by increasing temperatures. We manipulated the microclimate in a Mediterranean shrubland to increase......) by covering the vegetation during the night (Warming treatment) and during rain events (Drought treatment). Soil CO2 effluxes were monitored in the treatments and compared to a control over a 3-year period. Along with soil respiration measurements, we recorded soil temperature at 5 cm depth by a soil...... on only three of 10 occasions during 2004. The variation of soil respiration with temperature and soil water content did not differ significantly among the treatments, but was affected by the season. The annual CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by the treatments. In the semi-arid Mediterranean...

  1. Crop growth and nitrogen turnover under increased temperatures and low autumn and winter light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    The rise in mean annual temperatures under the projected climate change will affect both soil organic matter turnover and cropping patterns in agriculture. Nitrogen (N) mineralization may be higher during autumn and winter and may increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Our study tested whether...... pots in November, December and February. Reference pots with bare soil were included. N mineralization clearly increased with higher temperatures with, respectively, 22% and 80% more N mineralized in bare soil at T+4 and T+8 than at T0 after 136 days. The ryegrass catch crop emptied the soil...... a soil cover of winter wheat or a ryegrass catch crop would be able to take up the extra N mineralized during autumn and winter under the low light conditions in Northern Europe, both at current average temperatures (T0) and at 4 °C (T+4) and 8 °C (T+8) above average. The crops were grown in pots...

  2. Magnesia-zircon brick: Evolution of microstructure, properties and performance with increasing sintering temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on phase components and densification, Magnesia-Zircon brick varies in appearance from white to veined and then brown with increasing sintering temperature. Properties including bulk density, apparent porosity and hot modulus of rupture as well as performance embodied with creep resistance and refractoriness continue to improve with sustaining enhancement of sintering temperature. Exceptionally, cold crushing strength first increases then decreases with rising sintering temperature and a peak exists at 1550oC. Microstructural evolution suffers zircon decomposition companying by silica escape, forsterite formation, matrix solidification and zirconia coagulation, until a zirconia/forsterite composites belt tightly coating on magnesia aggregates. Excessive coagulation of zirconia caused by oversintering probably results in microcracks formation and defects enlargement thereby degrades cold crushing strength.

  3. The Effect of Increased Temperature on Flowering Behaviour of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flowering in saffron requires a period of incubation at high temperatures for flower differentiation followed by a period of low temperatures for flower emergence. Global warming could adversely affect the flowering of saffron because of its high sensitivity to temperature. Flowering behaviour of saffron in response to rising temperature was studied in an experiment conducted in controlled environment. Corms with identical sizes were collected form green or fully withered field grown plants and sown in plastic pots. Pots were incubated in 25, 27 and 30 °C for 70, 90 and 120 days. By the end of each incubation period, pots incubated in 25, 27 and 30 °C were transferred to 17, 19 and 21 °C, respectively. Days to flowering, development rate and growth characteristics of saffron were measured in alternative temperature regimes of 25/17, 27/19 and 30/21 °C in combination with 3 incubation periods and in 3 replications. The results indicated that increasing incubation temperature up to 27 °C had no significant effects on saffron flowering behaviour however, no flower was appeared from corms incubated in 30°C. Increased duration of incubation period had adverse effects on flower emergence and corms incubated for 120 days were only flowered in 27/19 °C temperature regime. The optimal flowering response and the highest number of vegetative buds was obtained when 90 days incubation period at 27 °C was followed by a period for flower emergence at 17°C. Corms lifted from green or withered plants showed similar response to temperature regimes and incubation periods. However, in average duration of sowing to flowering was 5 days longer in corms lifted from green plants. Comparing the results of this research with daily temperature in the main saffron production areas of Khorasan provinces showed that increasing mean daily temperature by 2 °C during summer and autumn results in a considerable delay in flowering of saffron.

  4. Interactive effect of temperature and CO2 increase in Arctic phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eCoello-Camba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed in order to analyze the effects of the increase in water temperature and CO2 partial pressure expected for the end of this century in a present phytoplankton community inhabiting the Arctic Ocean. We analyzed both factors acting independently and together, to test possible interactions between them. The arctic planktonic community was incubated under 6 different treatments combining three experimental temperatures (1 ºC, 6 ºC and 10 ºC with two different CO2 levels of 380 ppm or 1000 ppm, at the UNIS installations in Longyearbyen (Svalbard, in summer 2010. Under warmer temperatures, a decrease in chlorophyll a concentration, biovolume and primary production was found, together with a shift in community structure towards a dominance of smaller cells (nano-sized. Effects of increased pCO2 were more modest, and although interactions were weak, our results suggest antagonistic interactive effects amongst increased temperature and CO2 levels, as elevated CO2 compensated partially the decrease in phytoplankton biomass induced by temperature in some groups. Interactions between the two stressors were generally weak, but elevated CO2 was observed to lead to a stepper decline in primary production with warming. Our results also suggest that future increases in water temperature and pCO2 would lead to a decrease in the community chl a concentration and biomass in the Arctic phytoplankton communities examined, leading to communities dominated by smaller nano-phytoplankton groups, with important consequences for the flow of carbon and food web dynamics.

  5. Screen level temperature increase due to higher atmospheric carbon dioxide in calm and windy nights revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; McNider, R.T.; Pielke sr., R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term surface observations over land have shown temperature increases during the last century, especially during nighttime. Observations analyzed by Parker [2004] show similar long-term trends for calm and windy conditions at night, and on basis of this it was suggested that the possible effect

  6. Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.; Reichart, G.J.; McNamara, N.P.; Benthien, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and

  7. Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: A mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winden, J.F. van; Reichart, G.-J.; McNamara, N.P.; Benthien, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and

  8. Effects of Temperature Rise and Increase in CO2 Concentration on Simulated Wheat Yields in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine

    1996-01-01

    A crop-growth-simulation model based on SUCROS87 was used to study effects of temperature rise and increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat yields in several regions in Europe. The model simulated potential and water-limited crop production (growth with ample supply of nutrients and in the

  9. The effects of the recent minimum temperature and water deficit increases on Pinus pinaster wood radial growth and density in southern Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Béatrice Kurz Besson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events.To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a P. pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011.We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster’s vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster’s production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region.

  10. Evidence of increasing drought severity caused by temperature rise in southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Serrano, Sergio M.; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Beguería, Santiago; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Sánchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; García-Ruiz, José María; Azorín-Molina, César; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Revuelto, Jesús; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Coelho, Fatima; Espejo,Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We use high quality climate data from ground meteorological stations in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and robust drought indices to confirm that drought severity has increased in the past five decades, as a consequence of greater atmospheric evaporative demand resulting from temperature rise. Increased drought severity is independent of the model used to quantify the reference evapotranspiration. We have also focused on drought impacts to droughtsensitive systems, such as river di...

  11. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  12. Synergistic interaction between UVB radiation and temperature increases susceptibility to parasitic infection in a fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Rebecca L; Reid, Stefanie; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2014-09-01

    Levels of UVB radiation (UVB) and mean temperatures have increased substantially over recent decades in many regions of the world. Both stressors independently can compromise immune function, disease resistance and fitness in fish. The impact of UVB can also be exacerbated by interactions with environmental temperatures. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that UVB and temperature act synergistically to influence patterns of energy consumption and susceptibility to disease. We exposed mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, to a factorial design of low and high UVB levels and low (18°C) and high (25°C) temperatures. The combination of high UVB and high temperature interacted synergistically to suppress metabolism and exacerbate infection intensity by the fish pathogen whitespot (Ichtyhophthirius multifiliis). Given the rapid changes in the thermal environment globally, the interaction between UVB and temperatures on energy use and disease resistance could pose significant problems for aquatic animal health in the context of both pre-existing and emerging diseases. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of non-equilibrium angle fluctuation on F1-ATPase kinetics induced by temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Yuji; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki; Li, Chun-Biu; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2018-01-17

    F 1 -ATPase (F 1 ) is an efficient rotary protein motor, whose reactivity is modulated by the rotary angle to utilize thermal fluctuation. In order to elucidate how its kinetics are affected by the change in the fluctuation, we have extended the reaction-diffusion formalism [R. Watanabe et al., Biophys. J., 2013, 105, 2385] applicable to a wider range of temperatures based on experimental data analysis of F 1 derived from thermophilic Bacillus under high ATP concentration conditions. Our simulation shows that the rotary angle distribution manifests a stronger non-equilibrium feature as the temperature increases, because ATP hydrolysis and P i release are more accelerated compared with the timescale of rotary angle relaxation. This effect causes the rate coefficient obtained from dwell time fitting to deviate from the Arrhenius relation in P i release, which has been assumed in the previous activation thermodynamic quantities estimation using linear Arrhenius fitting. Larger negative correlation is also found between hydrolysis and P i release waiting time in a catalytic dwell with the increase in temperature. This loss of independence between the two successive reactions at the catalytic dwell sheds doubt on the conventional dwell time fitting to obtain rate coefficients with a double exponential function at temperatures higher than 65 °C, which is close to the physiological temperature of the thermophilic Bacillus.

  14. High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX rainbow trout "Mal" population.

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    Karina Valdivia

    Full Text Available Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY. However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal. As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C, and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold at the highest temperature treatment (18°C. Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C. However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.

  15. The effect of increased temperature and altered precipitation on plants in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, T. M.; Reed, S.; Belnap, J.

    2011-12-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to strongly affect arid and semi-arid landscapes where plant communities are assumed to already experience high temperatures and low water availability. Here we investigated the effect of elevated temperature and altered precipitation regimes on plant physiology, community composition, phenology and growth on the Colorado Plateau. The ecosystem is dominated by the native perennial grasses Pleuraphis jamesii and Achnatherum hymenoides and the shrub Atriplex confertifolia and has well-formed biological soil crusts. The invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum is also present. In 2005, five blocks of four 2m by 2.5m plots were established, and within each block plots were randomly assigned to ambient or elevated temperature (soil surface temperature of +2°C above ambient) and ambient or elevated precipitation (1.5 mm precipitation pulses applied three times weekly during summer) in full-factorial. In 2009 the temperature treatment was increased to +4°C. Additionally, five new blocks were established with the plots randomly assigned ambient or elevated temperature (again, +2°C was used) and ambient or elevated precipitation (summertime large bi-weekly watering to counteract negative effects the lamps may have had on soil moisture) in full-factorial. Throughout 2010 and 2011 the phenological state of the dominate plant species was recorded weekly. At the end of May 2010 and 2011 biomass accumulation, reproductive output and vegetative cover were assessed. Additionally, diurnal foliar gas exchange, foliar fluorescence and xylem pressure potential were measured on the dominant plant species three times throughout the spring and summer of 2011. Elevated temperature had no effect on carbon fixation or foliar physiology of A. confertifolia or P. jamesii, though A. hymenoides carbon fixation was negatively affected by elevated temperature with the +4°C treatment causing a greater reduction in fixation than the +2°C treatment. The

  16. Evaluation of temperature increase with different amounts of magnetite in liver tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, I; Andrä, W; Bähring, R; Daum, A; Hergt, R; Kaiser, W A

    1997-11-01

    The biologic effects of magnetically induced heating effects using iron oxide, magnetite, were examined in vitro in liver tissue samples as a first step toward potential applications in cancer therapy. For the determination of the temperature profile around an iron oxide sample, a cylinder containing 170 mg of magnetite was constructed and placed into pureed liver tissue from pig, together with thermocouples of copper and constantan wires positioned at defined distances from it. Temperature measurements were performed during the exposure to an alternating magnetic field (frequency: 400 kHz; amplitude: approximately 6.5 kA/m) generated by a circular coil (90 mm of diameter). Moreover, variable amounts of magnetite (dissolved in approximately 0.2 mL physiologic saline) were injected directly into carrageenan gels. During the exposure to a magnetic field for 4 minutes the temperature increase was determined in the area of iron oxide deposition using a thermocouple. Additionally, variable amounts of magnetite were injected directly into isolated liver tissue samples (diameter: 20 mm; height: 30 mm) and exposed to a magnetic field for 2 minutes. The extent of the induced macroscopically visible tissue alterations (light brown colorations caused by heating) was examined by means of volume estimations. The degrees of cellular necrosis were investigated by histopathologic studies. The temperature profile around a magnetite cylinder revealed a significant decrease of temperature difference between the beginning and the end of heating, depending on increasing distance from the sample center. The extent of the temperature difference correlated with increasing heating time. No significant variations of temperature were observed at a distance of approximately 12 mm from the sample center. A good correlation (r = 0.98) between the injected amounts (31 to 200 mg) and the temperature increase since the start of heating (6.8-33.7 degrees C) in the area of iron oxide deposits was

  17. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

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    Soundarya Srirangan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0 into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis.

  18. Temperature Increase Reduces Global Yields of Major Crops in Four Independent Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuang; Liu, Bing; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Lobell, David B.; Huang, Yao; Huang, Mengtian; Yao, Yitong; Bassu, Simona; Ciais, Philippe; hide

    2017-01-01

    Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to maintaining global food supply, but different studies have yielded different results. Here, we investigated the impacts of temperature on yields of the four crops by compiling extensive published results from four analytical methods: global grid-based and local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments. Results from the different methods consistently showed negative temperature impacts on crop yield at the global scale, generally underpinned by similar impacts at country and site scales. Without CO2 fertilization, effective adaptation, and genetic improvement, each degree-Celsius increase in global mean temperature would, on average, reduce global yields of wheat by 6.0%, rice by 3.2%, maize by 7.4%, and soybean by 3.1%. Results are highly heterogeneous across crops and geographical areas, with some positive impact estimates. Multi-method analyses improved the confidence in assessments of future climate impacts on global major crops and suggest crop- and region-specific adaptation strategies to ensure food security for an increasing world population.

  19. The potential impacts of increasing temperatures on old-growth forest biomass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, M.; Muller-Landau, H. C.

    2012-04-01

    climates, the high maintenance cost lowers the ratio of GPP to maintenance cost, and makes it energetically impossible to support very large trunks. In continental temperate climates, warm summers and cold winters lower the GPP to maintenance cost ratio, and thus old-growth forest biomass. Our predictions explained 50% of global variation in old-growth forest biomass density in an independent dataset. In this paper, we use our previously fitted models of temperature effects on GPP and maintenance costs to project the impacts of increasing temperatures on old-growth forest biomass in humid climates. Model projections suggest that old-growth biomass per area of forest will increase significantly in temperate and boreal climates due to longer growing seasons, and decrease significantly in tropical climates due to the increasing energetic costs of temperatures above 30˚C. Field measurements have found, on average, increasing old-growth forest biomass worldwide, in agreement with our projections for temperate and boreal forests but contrary to our projections for tropical forests. Our projections do not consider the impacts of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and increasing nitrogen deposition, which are both likely to positively impact old-growth forest biomass, and may outweigh the negative impacts of temperature alone in tropical forests.

  20. Greater increases in temperature extremes in low versus high income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Nicholas; Alexander, Lisa; Green, Donna; Donat, Markus

    2017-03-01

    It is commonly expected that the world’s lowest income countries will face some of the worst impacts of global warming, despite contributing the least to greenhouse gas emissions. Using global atmospheric reanalyses we show that the world’s lowest income countries are already experiencing greater increases in the occurrence of temperature extremes compared to the highest income countries, and have been for over two decades. Not only are low income countries less able to support mitigation and adaptation efforts, but their typically equatorial location predisposes them to lower natural temperature variability and thus greater changes in the occurrence of temperature extremes with global warming. This aspect of global warming is well known but overlooked in current international climate policy agreements and we argue that it is an important factor in reducing inequity due to climate impacts.

  1. Does maternal exposure during pregnancy to higher ambient temperature increase the risk of hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Cakmak, Sedat; Demir, Demirhan Orsan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Yildiz, Yildiray; Horasanli, Kaya; Dalkilic, Ayhan

    2016-12-01

    The association between ambient temperature that the mother is exposed to during pregnancy and hypospadias has not been investigated by the studies, although the recent studies showed the correlation between some congenital malformations (congenital heart disease, neural tube defect, etc.) and ambient temperature. The aim was to investigate the relation between hypospadias and the ambient temperatures that the mother is exposed to during her pregnancy. The data of patients with hypospadias that had their gestational periods in Ankara and Istanbul regions, and had other urological treatments (circumcision, urinary tract infection, pyeloplasty, nephrolithotomy, etc.) between January 2000 and November 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The ambient temperature at 8-14 weeks of gestation was investigated for each patient by reviewing the data of the General Directorate of Meteorology, since this period was risky for development of hypospadias. The data including ambient temperature that the pregnant mother was exposed to, maternal age, parity, economical status, gestational age at birth, and birth weight were compared between two groups. The retrospective nature of the study may be a potential source for selection bias. The data of 1,709 children that had hypospadias repair and 4,946 children that had other urological treatments between 2000 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were no differences between the groups for maternal age, parity, economical status, gestational age at birth, and birth weight (Table). Analysis of exposed maximum and average ambient temperatures at 8-14 weeks of gestation revealed that July and August, hot periods in summer time, were more prevalent in the hypospadias group (p = 0.01). The average and maximum monthly ambient temperatures during summer increased the risk for hypospadias (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52; and OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.99-1.54, respectively. In this paper, we evaluated the relation between hypospadias and the

  2. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, upper Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Böhner, Jürgen; Lucarini, Valerio

    2017-05-01

    Largely depending on the meltwater from the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus Basin (UIB) contribute half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use, and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, this study assesses the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, diurnal temperature range and precipitation from 18 stations (1250-4500 m a.s.l.) for their overlapping period of record (1995-2012) and, separately, from six stations of their long-term record (1961-2012). For this, a Mann-Kendall test on serially independent time series is applied to detect the existence of a trend, while its true slope is estimated using the Sen's slope method. Further, locally identified climatic trends are statistically assessed for their spatial-scale significance within 10 identified subregions of the UIB, and the spatially (field-) significant climatic trends are then qualitatively compared with the trends in discharge out of corresponding subregions. Over the recent period (1995-2012), we find warming and drying of spring (field-significant in March) and increasing early melt season discharge from most of the subregions, likely due to a rapid snowmelt. In stark contrast, most of the subregions feature a field-significant cooling within the monsoon period (particularly in July and September), which coincides well with the main glacier melt season. Hence, a decreasing or weakly increasing discharge is observed from the corresponding subregions during mid- to late melt season (particularly in July). Such tendencies, being largely consistent with the long-term trends (1961-2012), most likely indicate dominance of the nival but suppression of the glacial melt regime, altering overall hydrology of the UIB in

  3. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, upper Indus Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Hasson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Largely depending on the meltwater from the Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus Basin (UIB contribute half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use, and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, this study assesses the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, diurnal temperature range and precipitation from 18 stations (1250–4500 m a.s.l. for their overlapping period of record (1995–2012 and, separately, from six stations of their long-term record (1961–2012. For this, a Mann–Kendall test on serially independent time series is applied to detect the existence of a trend, while its true slope is estimated using the Sen's slope method. Further, locally identified climatic trends are statistically assessed for their spatial-scale significance within 10 identified subregions of the UIB, and the spatially (field- significant climatic trends are then qualitatively compared with the trends in discharge out of corresponding subregions. Over the recent period (1995–2012, we find warming and drying of spring (field-significant in March and increasing early melt season discharge from most of the subregions, likely due to a rapid snowmelt. In stark contrast, most of the subregions feature a field-significant cooling within the monsoon period (particularly in July and September, which coincides well with the main glacier melt season. Hence, a decreasing or weakly increasing discharge is observed from the corresponding subregions during mid- to late melt season (particularly in July. Such tendencies, being largely consistent with the long-term trends (1961–2012, most likely indicate dominance of the nival but suppression of the glacial melt regime

  4. Cold temperature and low humidity are associated with increased occurrence of respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M; Juvonen, Raija; Jokelainen, Jari; Harju, Terttu H; Peitso, Ari; Bloigu, Aini; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, Sylvi; Leinonen, Maija; Hassi, Juhani

    2009-03-01

    The association between cold exposure and acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) has remained unclear. The study examined whether the development of RTIs is potentiated by cold exposure and lowered humidity in a northern population. A population study where diagnosed RTI episodes, outdoor temperature and humidity among conscripts (n=892) were analysed. Altogether 643 RTI episodes were diagnosed during the follow-up period. Five hundred and ninety-five episodes were upper (URTI) and 87 lower (LRTI) RTIs. The mean average daily temperature preceding any RTIs was -3.7+/-10.6; for URTI and LRTI they were -4.1+/-10.6 degrees C and -1.1+/-10.0 degrees C, respectively. Temperature was associated with common cold (p=0.017), pharyngitis (p=0.011) and LRTI (p=0.048). Absolute humidity was associated with URTI (pcold by 2.1% (p=0.004), for pharyngitis by 2.8% (p=0.019) and for LRTI by 2.1% (p=0.039). A decrease of 1g/m(-3) in absolute humidity increased the estimated risk for URTI by 10.0% (pcold. The temperature for the preceding 14 days also showed a linear decrease for any RTI, URTI or common cold. Absolute humidity decreased linearly during the preceding three days before the onset of common cold, and during the preceding 14 days for all RTIs, common cold and LRTI. Cold temperature and low humidity were associated with increased occurrence of RTIs, and a decrease in temperature and humidity preceded the onset of the infections.

  5. The Scaling of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise with Increasing Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. For this purpose the acoustic analogy of Morris and Miller is examined. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN at the peak intensity level at the sideline ( = 90 degrees) observer location is examined. Scaling terms are isolated from the acoustic analogy and the result is compared using a convergent nozzle with the experiments of Bridges and Brown and using a convergent-divergent nozzle with the experiments of Kuo, McLaughlin, and Morris at four nozzle pressure ratios in increments of total temperature ratios from one to four. The equivalent source within the framework of the acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green s function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for the accurate saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. This is a minor change to the source model relative to the previously developed models. The full development of the scaling term is shown. The sources and vector Green s function solver are informed by steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. These solutions are examined as a function of stagnation temperature at the first shock wave shear layer interaction. It is discovered that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet stagnation temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplification of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity

  6. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

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    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  7. Head and neck cooling decreases tympanic and skin temperature, but significantly increases blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Julia; Kollmar, Rainer; Cimpianu, Camelia-Lucia; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Moeller, Sebastian; Schwab, Stefan; Hilz, Max J

    2012-08-01

    Localized head and neck cooling might be suited to induce therapeutic hypothermia in acute brain injury such as stroke. Safety issues of head and neck cooling are undetermined and may include cardiovascular autonomic side effects that were identified in this study. Ten healthy men (age 35±13 years) underwent 120 minutes of combined head and neck cooling (Sovika, HVM Medical). Before and after onset of cooling, after 60 and 120 minutes, we determined rectal, tympanic, and forehead skin temperatures, RR intervals, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), laser-Doppler skin blood flow at the index finger and cheek, and spectral powers of mainly sympathetic low-frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and parasympathetic high-frequency (0.15-0.5 Hz) RR interval oscillations and sympathetic low-frequency oscillations of BP. We compared values before and during cooling using analysis of variance with post hoc analysis; (significance, Pskin temperature dropped by 5.5±2.2°C with cooling onset and by 12.4±3.2°C after 20 minutes. Tympanic temperature decreased by 4.7±0.7°C within 40 minutes, and rectal temperature by only 0.3±0.3°C after 120 minutes. Systolic and diastolic BP increased immediately on cooling onset and rose by 15.3±20.8 mm Hg and 16.5±13.4 mm Hg (P=0.004) after 120 minutes, whereas skin blood flow fell significantly during cooling. RR intervals and parasympathetic RR interval high-frequency powers increased with cooling onset and were significantly higher after 60 and 120 minutes than they were before cooling. Head and neck cooling prominently reduced tympanic temperature and thus might also induce intracerebral hypothermia; however, it did not significantly lower body core temperature. Profound skin temperature decrease induced sympathetically mediated peripheral vasoconstriction and prominent BP increases that are not offset by simultaneous parasympathetic heart rate slowing. Prominent peripheral vasoconstriction and BP increase must be considered as

  8. Monitoring of vulcanization process using measurement of electrical properties during linear increasing temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliga, E.; Bošák, O.; Koštial, P.; Dvořák, Z.; Kubliha, M.; Minárik, S.; Labaš, V.

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the possibilities of diagnostics of irreversible chemical reaction - vulcanization in case of laboratory prepared rubber mixture based on styrene - butadiene (SBR) using measurements of selected physical parameters. Our work is focused on the measurement of current rheologic parameters (torque at defined shear deformation) and selected electrical parameters (DC conductivity) during linear increasing temperature. The individual steps of vulcanization are well identified by means of measurements of rheologic parameters, while significantly affecting the value of the electrical conductivity. The value of the electrical conductivity increases with the increasing of rate of the crossbridging reactions during vulcanization. The rate of the heating affects both types of measurements. When the rate of the heating is increasing the temperature of the beginning of networking step of reactions and also the rate of vulcanization grow. The sensitivity of the both types of measurements allows a good mathematical description of the temperature dependence of the torque and the electric conductivity during the vulcanization of rubber mixtures based on SBR.

  9. Potential impact of increased temperature and CO2 on particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the Southeastern Bering Sea

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    Peter A. Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of elevated sea surface temperature (SST and pCO2 on algal community structure and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp concentrations in the southeastern Bering Sea was examined using a shipboard “Ecostat” continuous culture system. The ecostat system was used to mimic the conditions projected to exist in the world's oceans by the end of this century (i.e. elevated pCO2 (750 ppm and elevated SST (ambient + 4°C. Two experiments were conducted using natural phytoplankton assemblages from the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC central basin and from the middle domain of the southeastern continental shelf. At the HNLC site, the relative abundances of haptophytes and pelagophytes were higher and the relative abundance of diatoms lower under “greenhouse” conditions (i.e. combined 750 ppm CO2 and elevated temperature than control conditions (380 ppm CO2 and ambient temperature. This shift in algal community structure was accompanied by increases in DMSPp (2–3 fold, DMSPp:Chl a (2–3 fold and DMSP:PON (2 fold. At the continental shelf site, the changes in the relative abundances of haptophytes, pelagophytes and diatoms under “greenhouse” conditions were similar to those observed at the HNLC site, with 2.5 fold increases in DMSPp, 50–100% increases in DMSPp:Chl a and 1.8 fold increases in DMSP:PON. At both locations, changes in community structure and the DMSPp parameters were largely driven by increasing temperature. The observed changes were also consistent with the phytoplankton-DMS-albedo climate feedback mechanism proposed in the Charlson-Lovelock-Andreae-Warren (CLAW hypothesis.

  10. Photoprotective responses in a brown macroalgae Cystoseira tamariscifolia to increases in CO2 and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Plá, Paula S M; Martínez, Brezo; Korbee, Nathalie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Figueroa, Félix L

    2017-09-01

    Global warming and ocean acidification are increasingly affecting coastal ecosystems, with impacts that vary regionally depending upon local biogeography. Ocean acidification drives shifts in seaweed community dominance that depend on interactions with other factors such as light and nutrients. In this study, we investigated the photophysiological responses in the brown macroalgae species Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss with important structural role in the coastal Mediterranean communities. These algae were collected in the Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park in ultraoligotrophic waters (algae exposed under high irradiance and less nutrient conditions) vs. those collected in the La Araña beach in oligotrophic waters (algae exposed at middle nutrient and irradiance conditions) in the Mediterranean Sea. They were incubated in mesocosms, under two levels of CO2; ambient (400-500 ppm) and high CO2 (1200-1300 ppm), combined with two temperatures (ambient temperature; 20 °C and ambient temperature + 4 °C; 24 °C) and the same nutrient conditions of the waters of the origin of macroalgae. Thalli from two sites on the Spanish Mediterranean coast were significantly affected by increases in pCO2 and temperature. The carotenoids (fucoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-carotene) contents were higher in algae from oligotrophic than that from ultraoligotrophic water, i.e., algae collected under higher nutrient conditions respect to less conditions, increase photoprotective pigments content. Thalli from both locations upregulated photosynthesis (as Fv/Fm) at increased pCO2 levels. Our study shows that ongoing ocean acidification and warming can increase photoprotection and photosynthesis in intertidal macroalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher temperature variability increases the impact of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and shifts interspecific interactions in tadpole mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Phineas T; Richardson, Jean ML; Govindarajulu, Purnima; Anholt, Bradley R

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to the decline and extinction of numerous amphibian species. Multiple studies have observed links between climatic factors and amphibian declines apparently caused by Bd. Using outdoor experimental mesocosms, we tested the response of red-legged frog (Rana aurora) tadpoles to increased variation in temperature, a component of climate linked to amphibian declines, and Bd exposure. We included tadpoles of a sympatric competitor species, Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla), in a fully factorial design to test the effects of Bd and temperature on interspecific interactions. We found that higher variation in temperature had numerous effects in mesocosms, including interacting with Bd presence to decrease the condition of R. aurora, shifting the relative performance of competing P. regilla and R. aurora, and accelerating the development of P. regilla relative to R. aurora. Our results demonstrate that increased variation in temperature can affect amphibians in multiple ways that will be contingent on ecological context, including the presence of Bd and competing species. PMID:23145331

  12. Increasing temperature causes flowering onset time changes of alpine ginger Roscoea in the Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmalingam Mohandass

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent herbarium-based phenology assessments of many plant species have found significant responses to global climate change over the previous century. In this study, we investigate how the flowering phenology of three alpine ginger Roscoea species responses to climate change over the century from 1913 to 2011, by comparing between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. According to the observations, flowering onset of the three alpine ginger species occurred either 22 days earlier or was delayed by 8–30 days when comparing the mean peak flowering date between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. It is likely that this significant change in flowering onset is due to increased annual minimum and maximum temperatures and mean annual temperature by about 0.053°C per year. Our results also show that flowering time changes occurred due to an increasing winter–spring minimum temperature and monsoon minimum temperature, suggesting that these Roscoea species respond greatly to climate warming resulting in changes on flowering times.

  13. Proteome response of fish under multiple stress exposure: Effects of pesticide mixtures and temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandar, Allison; Laffaille, Pascal; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Viala, Didier; Molette, Caroline; Jean, Séverine

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic systems can be subjected to multiple stressors, including pollutant cocktails and elevated temperature. Evaluating the combined effects of these stressors on organisms is a great challenge in environmental sciences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the molecular stress response of an aquatic fish species subjected to individual and combined pesticide mixtures and increased temperatures. For that, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were acclimated to two different temperatures (22 and 32°C) for 15 days. They were then exposed for 96h to a cocktail of herbicides and fungicides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin and tebuconazole) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations of 8.4μgL-1 and 42μgL-1) at these two temperatures (22 and 32°C). The molecular response in liver was assessed by 2D-proteomics. Identified proteins were integrated using pathway enrichment analysis software to determine the biological functions involved in the individual or combined stress responses and to predict the potential deleterious outcomes. The pesticide mixtures elicited pathways involved in cellular stress response, carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolisms, methionine cycle, cellular functions, cell structure and death control, with concentration- and temperature-dependent profiles of response. We found that combined temperature increase and pesticide exposure affected the cellular stress response: the effects of oxidative stress were more marked and there was a deregulation of the cell cycle via apoptosis inhibition. Moreover a decrease in the formation of glucose by liver and in ketogenic activity was observed in this multi-stress condition. The decrease in both pathways could reflect a shift from a metabolic compensation strategy to a conservation state. Taken together, our results showed (1) that environmental cocktails of herbicides and fungicides induced important changes

  14. Effects of increased temperature and CO{sub 2} on soil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogner, G.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. The Norwegian Forest Research Institute has studied the effects of increased CO{sub 2} and temperature on forest soil, soil leachate and plants in an open top chamber experiment. The purpose was to analyze the changes in soil parameters and the leaching of elements. Nitrate and aluminium received special attention. The growth of Norway spruce and birch was followed, and its impact on the soil parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the temperature increase of the soil and consequently an increased turnover of soil organic matter had the major effect on the quality of soil leachates. CO{sub 2} was less important. Leaching of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was high from control lysimeters with moss cover. Lysimeters with birch hardly leached NO{sub 3}{sup -} at all. Spruce is in an intermediate position. Increased leaching of Al{sup n+} is found for moss lysimeters. Leachates from birch lysimeters have high concentrations of Al{sup n+} only at the end of the growth seasons. Plant growth is to some extent increased by the CO{sub 2} treatment. Birch grew well in all lysimeters and all treatments, spruce developed clear symptoms of stress. This result does not fit with the increased availability of nutrients in soil solution

  15. Survival and population size of a resident bird species are declining as temperature increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santisteban, Leonard; Benkman, Craig W; Fetz, Trevor; Smith, Julie W

    2012-03-01

    1. A large number of migratory bird species appear to be declining as the result of climate change, but whether resident bird species have or will be adversely affected by climate change is less clear. We focus on the South Hills crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex), which is endemic to about 70 km(2) of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) forest in southern Idaho, USA. 2. Our results indicate that the South Hills crossbill has declined by over 60% between 2003 and 2008, and that decreasing adult survival drives this population decline. 3. We evaluated the relative support for multiple hypotheses linking crossbill survival to climate, an ectoparasitic mite (scaly-leg mites Knemidokoptes jamaicensis), and the recent emergence of West Nile virus. Changes in adult apparent survival rate were closely associated with average spring and annual temperatures, and with high temperatures (≥32 °C) during summer, which have increased during the last decade. In contrast, there was little evidence that scaly-leg mites or West Nile virus contributed to recent declines in adult survival. 4. The most probable mechanism causing the decline in adult survival and population size is a decrease in the availability of their primary food resource, seeds in serotinous pine cones. Cone production has declined with increasing annual temperatures, and these cones appear to be prematurely opening owing to increasingly hot summer conditions releasing their seeds and reducing the carrying capacity for crossbills later in the year. 5. In light of regional climate change forecasts, which include an increase in both annual temperature and hot days (>32 °C), and the likely disappearance of lodgepole pine from southern Idaho by the end of this century, additional research is needed to determine how to maintain lodgepole pine forests and their supply of seeds to conserve one of the few bird species endemic to the continental United States. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of

  16. Increasing temperature cuts back crop yields in Hungary over the last 90 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinke, Zsolt; Lövei, Gábor L

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of climatic regime has an undeniable impact on plant production, but we rarely have long enough date series to examine the unfolding of such effects. The clarification of the relationship between crop plants and climate has a near-immediate importance due to the impending human-made global change. This study investigated the relationship between temperature, precipitation, drought intensity and the yields of four major cereals in Hungary between 1921 and 2010. The analysis of 30-year segments indicated a monotonously increasing negative impact of temperature on crop yields. A 1°C temperature increase reduced the yield of the four main cereals by 9.6%-14.8% in 1981-2010, which revealed the vulnerability of Eastern European crop farming to recent climate change. Climate accounted for 17%-39% of yield variability over the past 90 years, but this figure reached 33%-67% between 1981 and 2010. Our analysis supports the claim that the mid-20th century green revolution improved yields "at the mercy of the weather": during this period, the impact of increasing fertilization and mechanisation coincided with climatic conditions that were more favourable than today. Crop yields in Eastern Europe have been stagnating or decreasing since the mid-1980s. Although usually attributed to the large socio-economic changes sweeping the region, our analysis indicates that a warming climate is at least partially responsible for this trend. Such a robust impact of increasing temperatures on crop yields also constitutes an obvious warning for this core grain-growing region of the world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Increases in external cause mortality due to high and low temperatures: evidence from northeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Åström, Daniel Oudin

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between temperature and mortality is well established but has seldom been investigated in terms of external causes. In some Eastern European countries, external cause mortality is substantial. Deaths owing to external causes are the third largest cause of mortality in Estonia, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Death rates owing to external causes may reflect behavioural changes among a population. The aim for the current study was to investigate if there is any association between temperature and external cause mortality, in Estonia. We collected daily information on deaths from external causes (ICD-10 diagnosis codes V00-Y99) and maximum temperatures over the period 1997-2013. The relationship between daily maximum temperature and mortality was investigated using Poisson regression, combined with a distributed lag non-linear model considering lag times of up to 10 days. We found significantly higher mortality owing to external causes on hot (the same and previous day) and cold days (with a lag of 1-3 days). The cumulative relative risks for heat (an increase in temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.34) and for cold (a decrease from the 25th to 1st percentile) 1.19 (1.03-1.38). Deaths due to external causes might reflect changes in behaviour among a population during periods of extreme hot and cold temperatures and should therefore be investigated further, because such deaths have a severe impact on public health, especially in Eastern Europe where external mortality rates are high.

  18. Cooler temperatures destabilize RNA interference and increase susceptibility of disease vector mosquitoes to viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach N Adelman

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is the subject of extensive debate. The transmission of mosquito-borne viral diseases is particularly complex, with climatic variables directly affecting many parameters associated with the prevalence of disease vectors. While evidence shows that warmer temperatures often decrease the extrinsic incubation period of an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus, exposure to cooler temperatures often predisposes disease vector mosquitoes to higher infection rates. RNA interference (RNAi pathways are essential to antiviral immunity in the mosquito; however, few experiments have explored the effects of temperature on the RNAi machinery.We utilized transgenic "sensor" strains of Aedes aegypti to examine the role of temperature on RNA silencing. These "sensor" strains express EGFP only when RNAi is inhibited; for example, after knockdown of the effector proteins Dicer-2 (DCR-2 or Argonaute-2 (AGO-2. We observed an increase in EGFP expression in transgenic sensor mosquitoes reared at 18°C as compared with 28°C. Changes in expression were dependent on the presence of an inverted repeat with homology to a portion of the EGFP sequence, as transgenic strains lacking this sequence, the double stranded RNA (dsRNA trigger for RNAi, showed no change in EGFP expression when reared at 18°C. Sequencing small RNAs in sensor mosquitoes reared at low temperature revealed normal processing of dsRNA substrates, suggesting the observed deficiency in RNAi occurs downstream of DCR-2. Rearing at cooler temperatures also predisposed mosquitoes to higher levels of infection with both chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.This data suggest that microclimates, such as those present in mosquito breeding sites, as well as more general climactic variables may influence the dynamics of mosquito-borne viral diseases by affecting the antiviral immunity of disease vectors.

  19. Intrapulpal Temperature Increase During Er:YAG Laser-Aided Debonding of Ceramic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilanci, Hilal; Yildirim, Zeynep Beyza; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber while using a newly introduced application of Er:YAG laser to debond ceramic brackets in a study model with a pulpal circulation with and without thermocycled samples. An esthetic alternative to stainless steel brackets, ceramic brackets have been proposed. However, because of their low fracture resistance and high bond strengths, ceramic brackets can cause a problem when they are being removed using conventional techniques. Experimental Groups A and B were established for samples with or without thermocycling. The same 20 maxillary central incisor and 20 premolar teeth were used in both groups. Pulpal blood microcirculation was simulated using an apparatus described in a previous study. Monocrystalline brackets were bonded by using Transbond XT. In Group A, brackets were debonded using the Er:YAG laser (600 mJ, 2 Hz, long pulse, and no air or water spray) after being stored in distilled water for 24 h. In Group B, brackets were debonded using the same laser system as that used in Group A after being stored in distilled water for 24 h and then thermocycled for a total of 5000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C. The laser irradiation duration and intrapulpal temperature changes were measured. In Group B, the intrapulpal temperature increase of the central incisors was significantly higher than that of the premolar teeth. In the central incisor and premolar teeth groups, there were no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between laser irradiation duration and temperature increase (p laser is an effective method for debonding the monocrystalline ceramic brackets. This method can be used safely under the consideration of intrapulpal temperature changes.

  20. Decadal increase in seagrass biomass and temperature at the CARICOMP site in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. López-Calderón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP was launched in 1993 to study regional long-term interactions between land and sea, taking standardized measurements of productivity and biomass of mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses. Since 1999 continuous measurements of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum parameters as well as environmental data have been recorded in Caribbean Panama. Replicate stations were selected near the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Bocas del Toro. Sediment cores and quadrants were placed there to estimate biomass and productivity, respectively. Mean values for productivity, standing crop, turnover rate, total dry biomass, and Leaf Area Index were 1.74gDW/m²/d, 66.6gDW/m², 2.62%/d, 1 481 gDW/m², and 4.65, respectively. Total dry biomass (shoots, rhizomes and roots and LAI of T. testudinum increased significantly during the study period. Mean values for total rainfall, Secchi disk depth, sea surface temperature, and salinity were 3 498mm, 8.24m, 28.79°C, and 32.26psu, respectively. Sea surface temperature was the only environmental variable with a statistically significant change, increasing from 1999 to 2010. Correlation between sea surface temperature and T. testudinum parameters (total biomass and LAI were both positive and significant. Human population has increased dramatically over the last ten years in Bocas del Toro region, increasing pressure (deforestation, runoff, wastewater over coastal ecosystems (seagrasses, mangroves, coral reefs. Change in the abundance of T. testudinum may be linked to ocean warming, as a consequence to satisfy plant’s metabolic requirements, although other local factors need to be analyzed (reduced grazing and increased eutrophication. A further warming of the ocean could have a negative effect on T. testudinum population, increasing respiratory demands and microbial metabolism.

  1. Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Andrews, Timothy; Boucher, Olivier; Faluvegi, Gregory; Iversen, Trond; Kasoar, Matthew; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Kirkevâg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Olivié, Dirk; Richardson, Thomas; Shawki, Dilshad; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W m-2, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24 (0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m-2 based on five of the models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W m-2 for the same five models), which dampen the total surface temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models, while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per W m-2—about 20% lower than the response to a doubling of CO2. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.

  2. Uniform distribution of skin-temperature increase after different regional-anesthesia techniques of the lower extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werdehausen, Robert; Braun, Sebastian; Hermanns, Henning; Freynhagen, Rainer; Lipfert, Peter; Stevens, Markus F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Skin-temperature increase is a reliable but late indicator of success during regional-anesthesia techniques. The goal of this study is to determine the distribution of skin-temperature changes during different regional techniques. Does skin temperature increase in the

  3. Light availability and temperature, not increased CO2, will structure future meadows of Posidonia oceanica

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.

    2017-02-15

    We evaluated the photosynthetic performance of Posidonia oceanica during short-term laboratory exposures to ambient and elevated temperatures (24–25°C and 29–30°C) warming and pCO2 (380, 750 and 1000ppm pCO2) under normal and low light conditions (200 and 40μmol photons m−2s−1 respectively). Plant growth was measured at the low light regime and showed a negative response to warming. Light was a critical factor for photosynthetic performance, although we found no evidence of compensation of photosynthetic quantum efficiency in high light. Relative Electron Rate Transport (rETRmax) was higher in plants incubated in high light, but not affected by pCO2 or temperature. The saturation irradiance (Ik) was negatively affected by temperature. We conclude that elevated CO2 does not enhance photosynthetic activity and growth, in the short term for P. oceanica, while temperature has a direct negative effect on growth. Low light availability also negatively affected photosynthetic performance during the short experimental period examined here. Therefore increasing concentrations of CO2 may not compensate for predicted future conditions of warmer water and higher turbidity for seagrass meadows.

  4. Heightened fire probability in Indonesia in non-drought conditions: the effect of increasing temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Kátia; Verchot, Louis; Baethgen, Walter; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel; Martius, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    In Indonesia, drought driven fires occur typically during the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation. This was the case of the events of 1997 and 2015 that resulted in months-long hazardous atmospheric pollution levels in Equatorial Asia and record greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, anomalously active fire seasons have also been observed in non-drought years. In this work, we investigated the impact of temperature on fires and found that when the July-October (JASO) period is anomalously dry, the sensitivity of fires to temperature is modest. In contrast, under normal-to-wet conditions, fire probability increases sharply when JASO is anomalously warm. This describes a regime in which an active fire season is not limited to drought years. Greater susceptibility to fires in response to a warmer environment finds support in the high evapotranspiration rates observed in normal-to-wet and warm conditions in Indonesia. We also find that fire probability in wet JASOs would be considerably less sensitive to temperature were not for the added effect of recent positive trends. Near-term regional climate projections reveal that, despite negligible changes in precipitation, a continuing warming trend will heighten fire probability over the next few decades especially in non-drought years. Mild fire seasons currently observed in association with wet conditions and cool temperatures will become rare events in Indonesia.

  5. Students’ Perceived Heat-Health Symptoms Increased with Warmer Classroom Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalin Bidassey-Manilal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252 aged ~14–18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%, had low concentration (96.8% and felt sleepy (94.1% during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ≥32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed.

  6. Students' Perceived Heat-Health Symptoms Increased with Warmer Classroom Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidassey-Manilal, Shalin; Wright, Caradee Y; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Albers, Patricia N; Garland, Rebecca M; Matooane, Mamopeli

    2016-06-07

    Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252) aged ~14-18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%), had low concentration (96.8%) and felt sleepy (94.1%) during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ≥32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed.

  7. Skin temperature increase mediated by wearable, long duration, low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Matthew D.; Huang, Wenyi; Ghanem, Angi; Guo, Yuan; Lewis, George K.

    2017-03-01

    One of the safety concerns with the delivery of therapeutic ultrasound is overheating of the transducer-skin interface due to poor or improper coupling. The objective of this research was to define a model that could be used to calculate the heating in the skin as a result of a novel, wearable long-duration ultrasound device. This model was used to determine that the maximum heating in the skin remained below the minimum threshold necessary to cause thermal injury over multiple hours of use. In addition to this model data, a human clinical study used wire thermocouples on the skin surface to measure heating characteristics during treatment with the sustained ultrasound system. Parametric analysis of the model determined that the maximum temperature increase is at the surface of the skin ranged from 40-41.8° C when perfusion was taken into account. The clinical data agreed well with the model predictions. The average steady state temperature observed across all 44 subjects was 40°C. The maximum temperature observed was less than 44° C, which is clinically safe for over 5 hours of human skin contact. The resultant clinical temperature data paired well with the model data suggesting the model can be used for future transducer and ultrasound system design simulation. As a result, the device was validated for thermal safety for typical users and use conditions.

  8. Pulp temperature increase during photo-activated disinfection (PAD) of periodontal pockets: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazami, H; Zeinoun, Toni; Bou Saba, S; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Limme, M; Geerts, S; Lamy, M; Nammour, S

    2010-09-01

    The capacity of photo-sensitizers, used in combination with laser light to kill micro-organisms has been demonstrated in different studies. Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) has been introduced in periodontology as an aid for disinfection of periodontal pockets. The aim of this study is to verify the harm for dental vitality of the use of PAD in periodontal pockets. Root canals of 24 freshly extracted human teeth where prepared using profiles up to a size of ISO #50 and filled with thermo-conductor paste. A silicon-based false gum was made in which a periodontal pocket was created and filled with photo-sensitizer phenothiazine chloride (phenothiazine-5-ium, 3.7-bis (dimethylamino)-, chloride). The external root surface was irradiated during 60 s with a 660-nm diode laser (output power: 20 mW; power density: 0.090 W/cm(2); Energy density: 5.46 J/cm(2)) using a periodontal tip with a diameter of 1 mm and a length of 7 mm. Temperatures were recorded inside the root canal using a thermocouple. Measurements were recorded every second, starting at 10 s before lasering, during the irradiation and were continued for 150 s after the end of irradiation, and six measurements were done per tooth. An average temperature increase of 0.48 +/- 0.11 degrees C was recorded. Our results demonstrated that pulp temperature increase was lower than 3 degrees C, which is considered to be harmless for pulp injury. Regarding pulp temperature increase, the use of PAD for disinfection of periodontal pockets can be considered as a safe procedure for dental vitality.

  9. Women with more severe degrees of temporomandibular disorder exhibit an increase in temperature over the temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Vieira Dibai-Filho

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: FAI score was associated with skin temperature over the TMJ, as determined by infrared thermography, in this sample. Women with more severe TMD demonstrated a bilateral increase in skin temperature.

  10. Modeling of river bed deformation composed of frozen sediments with increasing environmental temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Debolskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of river flow and of the temperature rise on the deformation of the coastal slopes composed of permafrost with the inclusion of ice layer. The method of investigation is the laboratory and mathematical modeling. The laboratory experiments have shown that an increase in water and air temperature changes in a laboratory analogue of permafrost causes deformation of the channel even without wave action, i.e. at steady-state flow and non-erosive water flow velocity. The previously developed model of the bed deformation was improved to account for long-term changes of soil structure with increasing temperature. The three-dimensional mathematical model of coastal slopes thermoerosion of the rivers flowing in permafrost regions, and its verification was based on the results of laboratory experiments conducted in the hydraulic tray. Analysis of the results of mathematical and laboratory modeling showed that bed deformation of the rivers flowing in the permafrost zone, significantly different from the deformation of channels composed of soils not susceptible to the influence of the phase transition «water-ice», and can occur even under the non-erosive velocity of the water flow.

  11. Low temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, P L; Wilkinson, C; Franssen, H M; Balk, P A; van der Plas, L H; Weisbeek, P J; Douwe de Boer, A

    2000-03-01

    Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is a bulbous plant species that requires a period of low temperature for proper growth and flowering. The mechanism of sensing the low temperature period is unknown. The study presented in this paper shows that the essential developmental change in tulip bulbs during cold treatment is an increase in sensitivity to the phytohormone auxin. This is demonstrated using a model system consisting of isolated internodes grown on tissue culture medium containing different combinations of the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. Using mathematical modelling, equations taken from the field of enzyme kinetics were fitted through the data. By doing so it became apparent that longer periods of low temperature resulted in an increased maximum response at a lower auxin concentration. Besides the cold treatment, gibberellin also enhances the response to auxin in the internodes in this in vitro system. A working model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, gibberellin action and auxin sensitivity is put forward. Possible analogies with other cold-requiring processes such as vernalization and stratification, and the interaction of auxin and gibberellin in the stalk elongation process in other plant species are discussed.

  12. Increases in both acute and chronic temperature potentiate tocotrienol concentrations in wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim; Traber, Maret; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-09-01

    Biosynthesis of tocols (vitamin E isoforms) is linked to response to temperature in plants. 'Evolution Canyon', an ecogeographical microcosm extending over an average of 200 meters (range 100-400) wide area in the Carmel Mountains of northern Israel, has been suggested as a model for studying global warming. Both domestic (Hordeum vulgare) and wild (Hordeum spontaneum) barley compared with wheat, oat, corn, rice, and rye show high tocotrienol/tocopherol ratios. Therefore, we hypothesized that tocol distribution might change in response to global warming. α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol concentrations were measured in wild barley (H. spontaneum) seeds harvested from the xeric (African) and mesic (European) slopes of Evolution Canyon over a six-year period from 2005-2011. Additionally, we examined seeds from areas contiguous to and distant from the part of the Canyon severely burned during the Carmel Fire of December 2010. Increased α-tocotrienol (p<0.01) was correlated with 1) temperature increases, 2) to the hotter 'African' slope in contrast to the cooler 'European' slope, and 3) to propinquity to the fire. The study illustrates the role of α-tocotrienol in both chronic and acute temperature adaptation in wild barley and suggests future research into thermoregulatory mechanisms in plants. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. A climatic chamber experiment to test the short term effect of increasing temperature on branched GDGT distribution in Sphagnum peat

    OpenAIRE

    Huguet, Arnaud; Francez, Andre-Jean; Jusselme, My Dung; Fosse, Céline; Derenne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br GDGTs) are membrane lipids produced by unknown Bacteria and are being increasingly used as temperature proxies. Nevertheless, the direct effect of temperature on br GDGT distributions has been rarely evaluated. In this study, the impact of increasing temperature on br GDGT distributions and the speed of adaptation of br GDGT source microorganisms to temperature change were investigated by analysing br GDGTs in Sphagnum...

  14. Addition of methionine and low cultivation temperatures increase palmitoleic acid production by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisaka, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Uemura, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid (POA) has recently gained attention for its health benefits and as a potential resource for industrial feedstock. This study focused on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a high POA content but low lipid content, for POA production. We created an oleaginous S. cerevisiae as a dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1p lacking the N-terminal 29 amino acids (Dga1∆Np). This was performed to further increase POA content in the oleaginous S. cerevisiae through optimization of culture conditions and genetic modifications. We found that high concentrations of methionine (2.0 g/l) increased POA production in a concentration-dependent way, while other amino acids such as cysteine, glycine, and glutamine showed no effect. It was not clear if the effect of methionine was mediated through S-adenosylmethionine, mainly because its addition did not increase POA content as did the addition of methionine. We increased POA content up to 55% by incubation of the dga1 transformant in a medium containing 2 g/l methionine at lower than normal temperatures ranging from 20 to 25 °C. Cultivation at such temperatures increased dry cell weight, but did not affect the lipid content, thereby increasing total POA production. The effects of methionine and low temperatures (20-25 °C) on POA content were more apparent in the strains overexpressing Dga1∆Np than those harboring empty vectors, which was consistent with the observation that POA was enriched in triacylglycerol. Overexpression of Ole1p, the enzyme responsible for POA production, did not increase POA content of the dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1∆Np, but increased that of the wild-type strain overexpressing Dga1∆Np. The results suggested that genomic Ole1p in the dga1 mutant was active enough to achieve the optimal POA production under these conditions. Finally, the POA production by the S. cerevisiae transformant was increased 2.5-fold, which demonstrates that oleaginous S. cerevisiae is a potential source

  15. Elevated temperature increases carbon and nitrogen fluxes between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria through physical attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Weber, Peter K; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Mayali, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    Quantifying the contribution of marine microorganisms to carbon and nitrogen cycles and their response to predicted ocean warming is one of the main challenges of microbial oceanography. Here we present a single-cell NanoSIMS isotope analysis to quantify C and N uptake by free-living and attached phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria, and their response to short-term experimental warming of 4 °C. Elevated temperature increased total C fixation by over 50%, a small but significant fraction of which was transferred to heterotrophs within 12 h. Cell-to-cell attachment doubled the secondary C uptake by heterotrophic bacteria and increased secondary N incorporation by autotrophs by 68%. Warming also increased the abundance of phytoplankton with attached heterotrophs by 80%, and promoted C transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria by 17% and N transfer from bacteria to phytoplankton by 50%. Our results indicate that phytoplankton-bacteria attachment provides an ecological advantage for nutrient incorporation, suggesting a mutualistic relationship that appears to be enhanced by temperature increases.

  16. Elevated temperature increases carbon and nitrogen fluxes between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria through physical attachment

    KAUST Repository

    Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor

    2016-12-06

    Quantifying the contribution of marine microorganisms to carbon and nitrogen cycles and their response to predicted ocean warming is one of the main challenges of microbial oceanography. Here we present a single-cell NanoSIMS isotope analysis to quantify C and N uptake by free-living and attached phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria, and their response to short-term experimental warming of 4 °C. Elevated temperature increased total C fixation by over 50%, a small but significant fraction of which was transferred to heterotrophs within 12 h. Cell-to-cell attachment doubled the secondary C uptake by heterotrophic bacteria and increased secondary N incorporation by autotrophs by 68%. Warming also increased the abundance of phytoplankton with attached heterotrophs by 80%, and promoted C transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria by 17% and N transfer from bacteria to phytoplankton by 50%. Our results indicate that phytoplankton-bacteria attachment provides an ecological advantage for nutrient incorporation, suggesting a mutualistic relationship that appears to be enhanced by temperature increases.

  17. Spatiotemporal variability of increasing temperature impacts on grassland vegetation along an elevation transect in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedrist, Georg; Obojes, Nikolaus; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Tasser, Erich; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    Different manipulative approaches have been developed to study and quantify impacts of temperature increase on grassland ecosystems. Many of them share the problem of unwanted effects on the surrounding microclimatic conditions. Transplantation of grassland mesocosms along elevation gradients can be a realistic alternative, although with some restrictions. Here we present 3 years of data from a double-transplant-experiment, were 70*70*20cm grassland turves were transplanted at two elevations from 2000m to 1500m a.s.l. and from 1500m to 1000m a.s.l. respectively, along an inner-alpine elevation gradient in the Vinschgau Valley (South Tyrol, I). All donor and receiving sites are comparable regarding land use (meadows), soil conditions or exposition and are located within a few km's distance ensuring comparable weather conditions apart from the intended air temperature (0.54°K/100m) and annual precipitation (20mm/100m) lapse rate. Phytodiversity and above ground net primary production (ANPP) of the transplanted mesocosms were assessed and compared with locally transplanted monoliths of the respective donor site. Furthermore, growth dynamics was continuously observed throughout the vegetation season with a non-destructive method based on measurement of light (photosynthetic active radiation) extinction within the canopy. After 3 years no significant changes in absolute species numbers has been detected at all, whereas slight variations have been observed regarding species composition. Those shifts could be differentiated both to transplantation artifacts and effects of the elevated temperature. Total aboveground phytomass, unsurprisingly, showed higher values on transplanted (lower) mesocosms, however: data from single cuts and growth rate analysis reveal differing effects between the two transplantation steps as well as over the course of the vegetation period. Transplanted plots from 2000m to 1500m showed continuously higher productivity from spring to autumn

  18. First evidence of immunomodulation in bivalves under seawater acidification and increased temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Matozzo

    Full Text Available Water acidification, temperature increases and changes in seawater salinity are predicted to occur in the near future. In such a global climate change (GCC scenario, there is growing concern for the health status of both wild and farmed organisms. Bivalve molluscs, an important component of coastal marine ecosystems, are at risk. At the immunological level, the ability of an organism to maintain its immunosurveillance unaltered under adverse environmental conditions may enhance its survival capability. To our knowledge, only a few studies have investigated the effects of changing environmental parameters (as predicted in a GCC scenario on the immune responses of bivalves. In the present study, the effects of both decreased pH values and increased temperature on the important immune parameters of two bivalve species were evaluated for the first time. The clam Chamelea gallina and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, widespread along the coast of the Northwestern Adriatic Sea, were chosen as model organisms. Bivalves were exposed for 7 days to three pH values (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 at two temperatures (22 and 28°C. Three independent experiments were carried out at salinities of 28, 34 and 40 PSU. The total haemocyte count, Neutral Red uptake, haemolymph lysozyme activity and total protein levels were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that tested experimental conditions affected significantly most of the immune parameters measured in bivalves, even if the variation pattern of haemocyte responses was not always linear. Between the two species, C. gallina appeared more vulnerable to changing pH and temperature than M. galloprovincialis. Overall, this study demonstrated that climate changes can strongly affect haemocyte functionality in bivalves. However, further studies are needed to clarify better the mechanisms of action of changing environmental parameters, both individually and in combination, on bivalve haemocytes.

  19. Future Changes in Heat Stress over East Asia Resulting from Different Target Temperature Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Min; Min, Seung-Ki

    2017-04-01

    In assessing the impact of global warming, it is very important to understand the change in comprehensive heat stress as a function of several variables, rather than only temperature. Furthermore, in order to assess and implement the target temperature goals of the 2015 Paris Agreement, it is essential to have effective and scientifically valid information to predict and measure regional impact. In this study, the future changes in summer heat stress over East Asia were examined based on the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using CMIP5 multimodel simulations (historical and RCP scenario simulations), and differences in heat stress changes were assessed between 1.5-degree and 2-degree warmer worlds. Future boreal summer heat stress of land regions over East Asia, in excess of the 50-year return value, shows a rapid and nonlinear increase from the 2000s, and it is expected that severe heat stress will occur in the overall East Asia region by the 2040s. In particular, extreme heat stress events were found to occur much more frequently than summer mean intensity of heat stress. Comparisons of the increase in heat stress between 1.5-degree and 2-degree warmer worlds indicated a 20% decrease in the area experiencing severe heat stress over East Asia, and relatively large benefits (i.e. less frequent and less severe heat stress) were found in the southeastern China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan compared to other regions. Further, the equilibrium scenarios showed a larger increase in heat stress over East Asia than the transient scenarios, particularly in case of the 1.5-degree warmer world, which was found due to warmer water in the northwestern North Pacific in the equilibrium scenarios.

  20. Ocean acidification and temperature increase impact mussel shell shape and thickness: problematic for protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Vittert, Liberty; Bowman, Adrian; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Phoenix, Vernon R; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification threatens organisms that produce calcium carbonate shells by potentially generating an under-saturated carbonate environment. Resultant reduced calcification and growth, and subsequent dissolution of exoskeletons, would raise concerns over the ability of the shell to provide protection for the marine organism under ocean acidification and increased temperatures. We examined the impact of combined ocean acidification and temperature increase on shell formation of the economically important edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Shell growth and thickness along with a shell thickness index and shape analysis were determined. The ability of M. edulis to produce a functional protective shell after 9 months of experimental culture under ocean acidification and increasing temperatures (380, 550, 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2, and 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2 + 2°C) was assessed. Mussel shells grown under ocean acidification conditions displayed significant reductions in shell aragonite thickness, shell thickness index, and changes to shell shape (750, 1000 μatm pCO 2) compared to those shells grown under ambient conditions (380 μatm pCO 2). Ocean acidification resulted in rounder, flatter mussel shells with thinner aragonite layers likely to be more vulnerable to fracture under changing environments and predation. The changes in shape presented here could present a compensatory mechanism to enhance protection against predators and changing environments under ocean acidification when mussels are unable to grow thicker shells. Here, we present the first assessment of mussel shell shape to determine implications for functional protection under ocean acidification.

  1. The Photovoltaic Heat Island Effect: Larger solar power plants increase local temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, N.; Minor, R. L.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2016-12-01

    While photovoltaic (PV) renewable energy production has surged, concerns remain about whether or not PV power plants induce a "heat island" (PVHI) effect, much like the increase in ambient temperatures relative to wildlands generates an Urban Heat Island effect in cities. Transitions to PV plants likely alter the way that incoming energy is reflected back to the atmosphere or absorbed, stored, and reradiated as latent or sensible heat because PV plants change the albedo, vegetation, and structure of the terrain. Prior synthetic work on the PVHI has been mostly theoretical or simulated models, and past empirical work has been limited in scope to a single biome. Thus, there are large uncertainties surrounding the potential for a PHVI effect, so we examined the PVHI in empirical and experimental terms. We found temperatures over a PV plant were regularly 3-4oC warmer than wildlands at night, which is in direct contrast to modeling studies suggesting PV systems should decrease ambient temperatures. Deducing the underlying cause and scale of the PVHI effect and identifying mitigation strategies are key in supporting decision-making regarding PV development, particularly in semiarid landscapes, which are among the most likely for large-scale PV installations.

  2. LED lighting increases the ecological impact of light pollution irrespective of color temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, S M; Bader, M K-F

    Recognition of the extent and magnitude of night-time light pollution impacts on natural ecosystems is increasing, with pervasive effects observed in both nocturnal and diurnal species. Municipal and industrial lighting is on the cusp of a step change where energy-efficient lighting technology is driving a shift from “yellow” high-pressure sodium vapor lamps (HPS) to new “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We hypothesized that white LEDs would be more attractive and thus have greater ecological impacts than HPS due to the peak UV-green-blue visual sensitivity of nocturnal invertebrates. Our results support this hypothesis; on average LED light traps captured 48% more insects than were captured with light traps fitted with HPS lamps, and this effect was dependent on air temperature (significant light × air temperature interaction). We found no evidence that manipulating the color temperature of white LEDs would minimize the ecological impacts of the adoption of white LED lights. As such, large-scale adoption of energy-efficient white LED lighting for municipal and industrial use may exacerbate ecological impacts and potentially amplify phytosanitary pest infestations. Our findings highlight the urgent need for collaborative research between ecologists and electrical engineers to ensure that future developments in LED technology minimize their potential ecological effects.

  3. Types of Cancers Prevailing in Pakistan and their Management Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Ayesha; Majeed, Imtiaz; Khurshid, Azhar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is basically a class of disorder marked by uncontrolled proliferation of cells which have the potential to interfere with different systems of body like digestive, central nervous and circulatory systems by releasing hormones. Tumors that reside only in a specified location and show restricted growth are commonly characterized as benign tumors. When tumor cells grow and effectively spread to other body parts and potentially invade and damage healthy tissues they show various degrees of malignancy. Cancer may be caused by different factors like gene mutations, carcinogens and some medical factors that harm the immune system of the body. Symptoms of cancer are relatively varied and classified according to location, progression pattern and size of tumors as well. Different diagnostic tests are used for evaluation that depends on the type of cancer. Cancer management and chemo protocols also depend on the progression and site where it develops. Cancers like breast, lung, liver, colorectal, prostate, head and neck carcinoma are most commonly diagnosed in Pakistan. This review briefly describes the three most common cancers prevailing in Pakistan and their management evaluation.

  4. Increased ambient air temperature alters the severity of soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Sinclair, Kat; Hallin, Ingrid; Doerr, Stefan; Urbanek, Emilia; Quinn, Gerry; Matthews, Peter; Dudley, Ed; Francis, Lewis; Gazze, S. Andrea; Whalley, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Soil repellency, the inability of soils to wet readily, has detrimental environmental impacts such as increased runoff, erosion and flooding, reduced biomass production, inefficient use of irrigation water and preferential leaching of pollutants. Its impacts may exacerbate (summer) flood risks associated with more extreme drought and precipitation events. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that transitions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic soil particle surface characteristics, in conjunction with soil structural properties, strongly influence the hydrological behaviour of UK soils under current and predicted UK climatic conditions. We have addressed the hypothesis by applying different ambient air temperatures under controlled conditions to simulate the effect of predicted UK climatic conditions on the wettability of soils prone to develop repellency at different severities. Three UK silt-loam soils under permanent vegetation were selected for controlled soil perturbation studies. The soils were chosen based on the severity of hydrophobicity that can be achieved in the field: severe to extreme (Cefn Bryn, Gower, Wales), intermediate to severe (National Botanical Garden, Wales), and subcritical (Park Grass, Rothamsted Research near London). The latter is already highly characterised so was also used as a control. Soils were fully saturated with water and then allowed to dry out gradually upon exposure to controlled laboratory conditions. Soils were allowed to adapt for a few hours to a new temperature prior to initiation of the controlled experiments. Soil wettability was determined at highly regular intervals by measuring water droplet penetration times. Samples were collected at four time points: fully wettable, just prior to and after the critical soil moisture concentrations (CSC), and upon reaching air dryness (to constant weight), for further (ultra)metaproteomic and nanomechanical studies to allow integration of bulk soil characterisations with

  5. Evidence of increasing drought severity caused by temperature rise in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Lopez-Moreno, Juan-I.; Beguería, Santiago; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; García-Ruiz, José M.; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Revuelto, Jesús; Trigo, Ricardo; Coelho, Fatima; Espejo, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    We use high quality climate data from ground meteorological stations in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and robust drought indices to confirm that drought severity has increased in the past five decades, as a consequence of greater atmospheric evaporative demand resulting from temperature rise. Increased drought severity is independent of the model used to quantify the reference evapotranspiration. We have also focused on drought impacts to drought-sensitive systems, such as river discharge, by analyzing streamflow data for 287 rivers in the IP, and found that hydrological drought frequency and severity have also increased in the past five decades in natural, regulated and highly regulated basins. Recent positive trend in the atmospheric water demand has had a direct influence on the temporal evolution of streamflows, clearly identified during the warm season, in which higher evapotranspiration rates are recorded. This pattern of increase in evaporative demand and greater drought severity is probably applicable to other semiarid regions of the world, including other Mediterranean areas, the Sahel, southern Australia and South Africa, and can be expected to increasingly compromise water supplies and cause political, social and economic tensions among regions in the near future.

  6. Measurement of SAR-induced temperature increase in a phantom and in vivo with comparison to numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sukhoon; Ryu, Yeun-Chul; Carluccio, Giuseppe; Sica, Christopher T; Collins, Christopher M

    2014-05-01

    To compare numerically simulated and experimentally measured temperature increase due to specific energy absorption rate from radiofrequency fields. Temperature increase induced in both a phantom and in the human forearm when driving an adjacent circular surface coil was mapped using the proton resonance frequency shift technique of magnetic resonance thermography. The phantom and forearm were also modeled from magnetic resonance image data, and both specific energy absorption rate and temperature change as induced by the same coil were simulated numerically. The simulated and measured temperature increase distributions were generally in good agreement for the phantom. The relative distributions for the human forearm were very similar, with the simulations giving maximum temperature increase about 25% higher than measured. Although a number of parameters and uncertainties are involved, it should be possible to use numerical simulations to produce reasonably accurate and conservative estimates of temperature distribution to ensure safety in magnetic resonance imaging. R01 EB006563 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High environmental temperature increases glucose requirement in the developing chicken embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Molenaar

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions during the perinatal period influence metabolic and developmental processes in mammals and avian species, which could impact pre- and postnatal survival and development. The current study investigated the effect of eggshell temperature (EST on glucose metabolism in broiler chicken embryos. Broiler eggs were incubated at a high (38.9°C or normal (37.8°C EST from day 10.5 of incubation onward and were injected with a bolus of [U-(13C]glucose in the chorio-allantoic fluid at day 17.5 of incubation. After [U-(13C]glucose administration, (13C enrichment was determined in intermediate pools and end-products of glucose metabolism. Oxidation of labeled glucose occurred for approximately 3 days after injection. Glucose oxidation was higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment from day 17.6 until 17.8 of incubation. The overall recovery of (13CO2 tended to be 4.7% higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment. An increase in EST (38.9°C vs 37.8°C increased (13C enrichment in plasma lactate at day 17.8 of incubation and (13C in hepatic glycogen at day 18.8 of incubation. Furthermore, high compared to normal EST resulted in a lower yolk-free body mass at day 20.9 (-2.74 g and 21.7 (-3.81 g of incubation, a lower hepatic glycogen concentration at day 18.2 (-4.37 mg/g and 18.8 (-4.59 mg/g of incubation, and a higher plasma uric acid concentration (+2.8 mg/mL/+43% at day 21.6 of incubation. These results indicate that the glucose oxidation pattern is relatively slow, but the intensity increased consistently with an increase in developmental stage of the embryo. High environmental temperatures in the perinatal period of chicken embryos increased glucose oxidation and decreased hepatic glycogen prior to the hatching process. This may limit glucose availability for successful hatching and could impact body development, probably by increased gluconeogenesis from glucogenic amino acids to allow anaerobic glycolysis.

  8. The Effect of Increased Temperatures and Ultraviolet Radiation on Dissolved Oxygen in Ecosystems Primarily Comprised of "Euglena"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased levels of UV radiation and temperatures from global warming have a significant impact on dissolved oxygen (DO) output from the alga, "Euglena," which affects other organisms in the ecosystem. The original hypothesis stated that if temperature was increased along with exposure time to…

  9. Charging conditions research to increase the initial projected velocity at different initial charge temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, Aleksandr; Burkin, Viktor; Kasimov, Vladimir; Samorokova, Nina; Zykova, Angelica; Diachkovskii, Alexei

    2017-11-01

    The problems of the defense industry occupy the most important place in the constantly developing modern world. The daily development of defense technology does not stop, nor do studies on internal ballistics. The scientists of the whole world are faced with the task of managing the main characteristics of a ballistic experiment. The main characteristics of the ballistic experiment are the maximum pressure in the combustion chamber Pmax and the projected velocity at the time of barrel leaving UM. During the work the combustion law of the new high-energy fuel was determined in a ballistic experiment for different initial temperatures. This combustion law was used for a parametric study of depending Pmax and UM from a powder charge mass and a traveling charge was carried out. The optimal conditions for loading were obtained for improving the initial velocity at pressures up to 600 MPa for different initial temperatures. In this paper, one of the most promising schemes of throwing is considered, as well as a method for increasing the muzzle velocity of a projected element to 3317 m/s.

  10. Increasing ocean temperatures reduce activity patterns of a large commercially important coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J L; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Hoey, A S; Pratchett, M S

    2014-04-01

    Large-bodied fish are critical for sustaining coral reef fisheries, but little is known about the vulnerability of these fish to global warming. This study examined the effects of elevated temperatures on the movement and activity patterns of the common coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), which is an important fishery species in tropical Australia and throughout the Indo West-Pacific. Adult fish were collected from two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (23°S and 14°S) and maintained at one of four temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 °C). Following >4 weeks acclimation, the spontaneous swimming speeds and activity patterns of individuals were recorded over a period of 12 days. At 24-27 °C, spontaneous swimming speeds of common coral trout were 0.43-0.45 body lengths per second (bls(-1)), but dropped sharply to 0.29 bls(-1) at 30 °C and 0.25 bls(-1) at 33 °C. Concurrently, individuals spent 9.3-10.6% of their time resting motionless on the bottom at 24-27 °C, but this behaviour increased to 14.0% at 30 °C and 20.0% of the time at 33 °C (mean ± SE). The impact of temperature was greatest for smaller individuals (55 cm TL) were first affected by 30 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Importantly, there was some indication that populations can adapt to elevated temperature if presented with adequate time, as the high-latitude population decreased significantly in swimming speeds at both 30 °C and 33 °C, while the low-latitude population only showed significant reductions at 33 °C. Given that movement and activity patterns of large mobile species are directly related to prey encounter rates, ability to capture prey and avoid predators, any reductions in activity patterns are likely to reduce overall foraging and energy intake, limit the energy available for growth and reproduction, and affect the fitness and survival of individuals and populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R S; Popp, P J; Fahey, D W; Marcy, T P; Herman, R L; Weinstock, E M; Baumgardner, D G; Garrett, T J; Rosenlof, K H; Thompson, T L; Bui, P T; Ridley, B A; Wofsy, S C; Toon, O B; Tolbert, M A; Kärcher, B; Peter, Th; Hudson, P K; Weinheimer, A J; Heymsfield, A J

    2004-01-23

    In situ measurements of the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and of nitric acid (HNO3) were made in both natural and contrail cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere. At temperatures lower than 202 kelvin, RHi values show a sharp increase to average values of over 130% in both cloud types. These enhanced RHi values are attributed to the presence of a new class of HNO3-containing ice particles (Delta-ice). We propose that surface HNO3 molecules prevent the ice/vapor system from reaching equilibrium by a mechanism similar to that of freezing point depression by antifreeze proteins. Delta-ice represents a new link between global climate and natural and anthropogenic nitrogen oxide emissions. Including Delta-ice in climate models will alter simulated cirrus properties and the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor.

  12. Temperature and Snowfall in Western Queen Maud Land Increasing Faster Than Climate Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, B.; McConnell, J. R.; Neumann, T. A.; Reijmer, C. H.; Chellman, N.; Sigl, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.

    2018-02-01

    East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) mass balance is largely driven by snowfall. Recently, increased snowfall in Queen Maud Land led to years of EAIS mass gain. It is difficult to determine whether these years of enhanced snowfall are anomalous or part of a longer-term trend, reducing our ability to assess the mitigating impact of snowfall on sea level rise. We determine that the recent snowfall increases in western Queen Maud Land (QML) are part of a long-term trend (+5.2 ± 3.7% decade-1) and are unprecedented over the past two millennia. Warming between 1998 and 2016 is significant and rapid (+1.1 ± 0.7°C decade-1). Using these observations, we determine that the current accumulation and temperature increases in QML from an ensemble of global climate simulations are too low, which suggests that projections of the QML contribution to sea level rise are potentially overestimated with a reduced mitigating impact of enhanced snowfall in a warming world.

  13. A two-fold increase of carbon cycle sensitivity to tropical temperature variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Myneni, Ranga B; Cox, Peter; Heimann, Martin; Miller, John; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hui; Chen, Anping

    2014-02-13

    Earth system models project that the tropical land carbon sink will decrease in size in response to an increase in warming and drought during this century, probably causing a positive climate feedback. But available data are too limited at present to test the predicted changes in the tropical carbon balance in response to climate change. Long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide data provide a global record that integrates the interannual variability of the global carbon balance. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that most of this variability originates in the terrestrial biosphere. In particular, the year-to-year variations in the atmospheric carbon dioxide growth rate (CGR) are thought to be the result of fluctuations in the carbon fluxes of tropical land areas. Recently, the response of CGR to tropical climate interannual variability was used to put a constraint on the sensitivity of tropical land carbon to climate change. Here we use the long-term CGR record from Mauna Loa and the South Pole to show that the sensitivity of CGR to tropical temperature interannual variability has increased by a factor of 1.9 ± 0.3 in the past five decades. We find that this sensitivity was greater when tropical land regions experienced drier conditions. This suggests that the sensitivity of CGR to interannual temperature variations is regulated by moisture conditions, even though the direct correlation between CGR and tropical precipitation is weak. We also find that present terrestrial carbon cycle models do not capture the observed enhancement in CGR sensitivity in the past five decades. More realistic model predictions of future carbon cycle and climate feedbacks require a better understanding of the processes driving the response of tropical ecosystems to drought and warming.

  14. Diabetes incidence and glucose intolerance prevalence increase with higher outdoor temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Blauw, Lisanne L; Aziz, N Ahmad; Tannemaat, Martijn R; Blauw, C Alexander; de Craen, Anton J; Pijl, Hanno; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Rising global temperatures might contribute to the current worldwide diabetes epidemic, as higher ambient temperature can negatively impact glucose metabolism via a reduction in brown adipose tissue activity. Therefore, we examined the association between outdoor temperature and diabetes incidence in the USA as well as the prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide. Research design and methods Using meta-regression, we determined the association between mean annual temperature and ...

  15. Growth of Cyanobacterium aponinum influenced by increasing salt concentrations and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckelmann, Dominik; Bleeke, Franziska; Bergmann, Peter; Klöck, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    The increasing requirement of food neutral biofuels demands the detection of alternative sources. The use of non-arable land and waste water streams is widely discussed in this regard. A Cyanobacterium was isolated on the area of a possible algae production side near a water treatment plant in the arid desert region al-Wusta. It was identified as Cyanobacterium aponinum PB1 and is a possible lipid source. To determine its suitability of a production process using this organism, a set of laboratory experiments were performed. Its growth behavior was examined in regard to high temperatures and increasing NaCl concentrations. A productivity of 0.1 g L-1 per day was measured at an alga density below 0.75 g L-1. C. aponinum PB1 showed no sign of altered growth behavior in media containing 70 g L-1 NaCl or less. Detection of a negative effect of NaCl on the growth using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation chlorophyll fluorescence analysis was not more sensitive than optical density measurement.

  16. The causes of increasing world poverty and inequality; or, why the Matthew effect prevails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Robert Hunter

    2005-01-01

    This article challenges the liberal (or "neoliberal") argument that free trade in goods and services (including financial services) makes for better overall economic performance at the level of the world economy and the level of national economies. Liberal champions infer that those who oppose the liberal prescriptions either fail to understand the theory or seek to protect vested interests, and hence regional bodies such as the European Commission and international bodies such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund should properly push the liberal agenda under the banner of "the general interest." The author presents theoretical and empirical grounds on which to challenge the argument. He shows that Henry George's enigma--the association of poverty with progress--is still with us, and relates its persistence to the way that the positive feedback of the Matthew effect--"to him that hath shall be given"--dominates the negative feedback of neo-classical diminishing returns.

  17. [Increase in skin surface temperature in spinal anesthesia. Predictive value for probability of surgical tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penno, A; Arumugam, M; Antweiler, G; Laubert, T; Habermann, J; Bruch, H-P

    2012-09-01

    Spinal anesthesia causes sympathetic blockade which leads to changes in the local temperature of the skin surface due to hyperemia. These changes in skin temperature were used in a newly developed method for estimating the level of analgesia. A total of 11 patients who were scheduled for surgical procedures of the lower extremities with symmetrical spinal anesthesia were included in the clinical study. By means of an electronic digital multi-channel body temperature measurement device with eight high precision temperature sensors placed on defined dermatomes, patient skin temperature was continuously measured at 2 s intervals and documented before, during and for 45 min after spinal anesthesia. Simultaneously, a neurological pin-prick test was carried on at regular intervals every 2 min on the defined dermatomes to calculate the correlation between the effects of analgesia and corresponding changes in skin temperature. The analyzed correlations showed that there is a minimum of 1.05°C temperature difference before and after spinal anesthesia especially on the lower extremities (foot, knee, inguinal) of patient dermatomes. The collected data of varying temperature differences were systematically evaluated using statistical software which led to a deeper understanding of the interdependency between temperature differences at different dermatomes. These interdependencies of temperature differences were used to develop a systematic analgesia level measurement algorithm. The algorithm calculates the skin temperature differences at specified dermatomes to find the accurate level of analgesia and also to find the forward and reverse progresses of analgesia. The developed mathematical method shows that it is possible to predict the level of analgesia up to an accuracy of 95% after spinal anesthesia. Therefore, it can be concluded that systematic processing of skin temperature data, collected at defined dermatomes can be used as a promising parameter for predicting

  18. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton: e0140449

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serena Rasconi; Andrea Gall; Katharina Winter; Martin J Kainz

    2015-01-01

    ...") of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning...

  19. Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Klein

    Full Text Available Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century. The projected effects of ocean warming on krill biomass were strongest in the northern Scotia Sea, with a ≥40% decline in the mass of individual krill. Projections also suggest a 25% chance that krill biomass will fall below an established depletion threshold (75% of its unimpacted level, with consequent risks for some predator populations, especially penguins. Average penguin abundance declined by up to 30% of its unimpacted level, with up to a 50% chance of falling below the depletion threshold. Simulated krill fishing at currently permitted harvest rates further increased risks for depletion, and stopping fishing offset the increased risks associated with ocean warming in our model to some extent. These results varied by location and species group. Risk reductions at smaller spatial scales also differed from those at the regional level, which suggests that some predator populations may be more vulnerable than others to future changes in krill biomass. However, impacts on predators did not always map directly to those for krill. Our findings indicate the importance of identifying vulnerable marine populations and targeting protection measures at appropriate spatial scales, and the potential for spatially-structured management to avoid aggravating risks associated with rising ocean temperatures. This may help balance tradeoffs among marine ecosystem services in an

  20. Turning up the heat: increasing temperature and coral bleaching at the high latitude coral reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdo, David A; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Evans, Scott N

    2012-01-01

    .... A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos...

  1. Microclimatic temperatures increase the potential for vector-borne disease transmission in the Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    We quantified the difference between the meteorological temperature recorded by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) weather stations and the actual microclimatic temperatures at two or three different heights at six potential insect habitats. We then compared the impact of the hourly temper...

  2. Tunneling Performance Increases at Lower Temperatures for Solenopsis invicta (Buren but not for Nylanderia fulva (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Bentley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nylanderia fulva (Mayr, the tawny crazy ant, is an invasive pest established in Florida and several other Gulf Coast states. In their invasive ranges in the Southeastern USA, large N. fulva populations have reduced species abundance, even displacing another invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren. In North Florida, N. fulva populations survive winter temperatures that reach below freezing for extended periods. However, the shallow littoral debris used by N. fulva for nest construction offers little insulation to brood and reproductives when exposed to freezing temperatures. Field populations of N. fulva in North Florida were observed tunneling below ground, a previously undescribed behavior. Other invasive ants exhibit similar subterranean tunneling behavior as a means of thermoregulation. To test the hypothesis that N. fulva has the capacity to construct subterranean tunnels across a range of ecologically relevant temperatures, tunneling performance for N. fulva and S. invicta, another invasive ant that tunnels extensively, were compared at four temperatures (15.0, 18.0, 20.0, and 22.0 °C. Overall, N. fulva tunneled significantly less than S. invicta. Nylanderia fulva tunneled furthest at warmer temperatures whereas S. invicta tunneled furthest at cooler temperatures. However, N. fulva constructed subterranean tunnels at all temperatures evaluated. These data support the hypothesis that N. fulva is capable of tunneling in temperatures as low as 15.0 °C, confirming that this ant can also perform a behavior that is used by other ants for cold avoidance.

  3. Molecular-based mechanisms of Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension: questioning the prevailing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W; Dominiczak, Anna F; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Morris, R Curtis

    2015-05-01

    This critical review directly challenges the prevailing theory that a transient increase in cardiac output caused by genetically mediated increases in activity of the ENaC in the aldosterone sensitive distal nephron, or of the NCC in the distal convoluted tubule, accounts entirely for the hemodynamic initiation of all Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Figure 1). The prevailing theory of how genetic mutations enable salt to hemodynamically initiate Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension in humans (Figure 1) depends on the results of salt-loading studies of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in nongenetic models of hypertension that lack appropriate normal controls. The theory is inconsistent with the results of studies that include measurements of the initial hemodynamic changes induced by salt loading in normal, salt-resistant controls. The present analysis, which takes into account the results of salt-loading studies that include the requisite normal controls, indicates that mutation-induced increases in the renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC that lead to transient increases in cardiac output will generally not be sufficient to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP that characterizes Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Table). The present analysis also raises questions about whether mutation-dependent increases in renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC are even necessary to account for increased risk for salt-dependent hypertension in most patients with such mutations. We propose that for the genetic alterations underlying Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP, they must often cause vasodysfunction, ie, an inability to normally vasodilate and decrease systemic vascular resistance in response to increases in salt intake within dietary ranges typically observed in most modern societies. A subnormal ability to vasodilate in

  4. Generation of sclerosant foams by mechanical methods increases the foam temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lulu; Wong, Kaichung; Connor, David; Fakhim, Babak; Behnia, Masud; Parsi, Kurosh

    2017-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of agitation on foam temperature. Methods Sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol were used. Prior to foam generation, the sclerosant and all constituent equipment were cooled to 4-25℃ and compared with cooling the sclerosant only. Foam was generated using a modified Tessari method. During foam agitation, the temperature change was measured using a thermocouple for 120 s. Results Pre-cooling all the constituent equipment resulted in a cooler foam in comparison with only cooling the sclerosant. A starting temperature of 4℃ produced average foam temperatures of 12.5 and 13.2℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. It was also found that only cooling the liquid sclerosant provided minimal cooling to the final foam temperature, with the temperature 20 and 20.5℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. Conclusion The foam generation process has a noticeable impact on final foam temperature and needs to be taken into consideration when creating foam.

  5. Method of Hydrogenous Fuel Usage to Increase the Efficiency in Tandem Diverse Temperature Oxidation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimation energy efficiency, the collation data of thermodynamic calculations and data on material balance for an assessment of electric and thermal components in considered ways to use convention products, performance enhancement in the tandem system containing the high-temperature fuel cell and the low-temperature fuel cell with full heat regeneration for hydrogenous fuel (CH4. The overall effective efficiency (ηΣef. making full use of the recovered heat considered tandem system depends on the efficiency of its constituent fuel cells. The overall effective efficiency of the tandem installation including the fuel converter, separating system, high-temperature oxidation system, and hydrogen disposal system in case of fuel use in the low-temperature fuel cell, is higher than for each of the fuel cell elements separately.

  6. Increasing soil temperature in a northern hardwood forest: effects on elemental dynamics and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. McHale; Myron J. Mitchell; Dudley J. Raynal; Francis P. Bowles

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effects of elevated soil temperatures on a forest ecosystem, heating cables were buried at a depth of 5 cm within the forest floor of a northern hardwood forest at the Huntington Wildlife Forest (Adirondack Mountains, New York). Temperature was elevated 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5?C above ambient, during May - September in both 1993 and 1994. Various aspects of...

  7. Assorted interactions of amino acids prevailing in aqueous vitamin C solutions probed by physicochemical and ab-initio contrivances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Koyeli; Roy, Milan Chandra; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular interaction prevailing in tyrosine and tryptophan in aqueous solution of vitamin C have been probed by thermophysical properties. The apparent molar volume (ϕV), viscosity B-coefficient, molal refraction (RM) of tyrosine and tryptophan have been studied in aqueous vitamin C solutions at diverse temperatures via Masson equation which deduced solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively. Spectroscopic study along with physicochemical and computational techniques provides lots of interesting and highly significant insights of the model biological systems. The overall results established strong solute-solvent interactions between studied amino acids and vitamin C mixture in the ternary solutions.

  8. Near-infrared evidence for a sudden temperature increase in Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehner, Andrea; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Whitelock, Patricia; Nagayama, Takahiro; Feast, Michael; van Wyk, Francois; de Wit, Willem-Jan

    2014-04-01

    Aims: Eta Car's ultra-violet, optical, and X-ray light curves and its spectrum suggest a physical change in its stellar wind over the last decade. It has been proposed that the mass-loss rate has decreased by a factor of about 2 over the last 15 years. We complement these recent results by investigating the past evolution and the current state of η Car in the near-infrared (IR). Methods: We present JHKL photometry of η Car obtained at SAAO Sutherland from 2004-2013 with the Mk II photometer at the 0.75 m telescope and JHKs photometry with SIRIUS at the 1.4 m IRSF telescope from 2012-2013. The near-IR light curves since 1972 are analyzed. Results: The long-term brightening trends in η Car's JHKL light curves were discontinuous around the 1998 periastron passage. After 1998, the star shows excess emission above the extrapolated trend from earlier dates, especially in J and H, and the blueward, cyclical progression in its near-IR colors is accelerated. The near-IR color evolution is strongly correlated with the periastron passages. After correcting for the secular trend we find that the color evolution matches an apparent increase in blackbody temperature of an optically thick near-IR emitting plasma component from about 3500 K to 6000 K over the last 20 years. Conclusions: We suggest that the changing near-IR emission may be caused by variability in optically thick bremsstrahlung emission. Periastron passages play an important role in the observed excess near-IR emission after 1998 and the long-term color evolution. We thus propose the hypothesis that angular momentum transfer (via tidal acceleration) during periastron passages leads to sudden changes in η Car's atmosphere resulting in a long-term decrease in the mass-loss rate. Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A14

  9. Increased expression of Escherichia coli polynucleotide phosphorylase at low temperatures is linked to a decrease in the efficiency of autocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, N; Jarrige, A C; Robert-Le Meur, M; Portier, C

    2001-07-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) synthesis is translationally autocontrolled via an RNase III-dependent mechanism, which results in a tight correlation between protein level and messenger stability. In cells grown at 18 degrees C, the amount of PNPase is twice that found in cells grown at 30 degrees C. To investigate whether this effect was transcriptional or posttranscriptional, the expression of a set of pnp-lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions was analyzed in cells grown at different temperatures. In the absence of PNPase, there was no increase in pnp-lacZ expression, indicating that the increase in pnp expression occurs at a posttranscriptional level. Other experiments clearly show that increased pnp expression at low temperature is only observed under conditions in which the autocontrol mechanism of PNPase is functional. At low temperature, the destabilizing effect of PNPase on its own mRNA is less efficient, leading to a decrease in repression and an increase in the expression level.

  10. Effect of increasing temperatures on the distribution of spruce beetle in Engelmann spruce forests of the Interior West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Barbara J. Bentz; James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2013-01-01

    The spruce beetle (Dendoctronus rufipennis) is a pervasive bark beetle indigenous to spruce (Picea spp.) forests of North America. In the last two decades outbreaks of spruce beetle have increased in severity and extent. Increasing temperatures have been implicated as they directly control beetle populations, potentially inciting endemic populations to build to...

  11. Effect of the rate of temperature increase on water quality during heating in electromagnetic- and gas-heated pans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Ken

    2004-04-01

    More rapid increases in the pH value and hardness during electromagnetic heating of a pan of water were observed than when the pan was heated by LNG or LPG. The water quality changed universally in several tap water samples across Japan. This quality change was closely correlated with the rate of temperature increase, irrespective of heating by electromagnetic induction, LNG or LPG.

  12. The potential effects of climate-change-associated temperature increases on the metabolic rate of a small Afrotropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindy J; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2015-05-15

    Studies have only recently begun to underline the importance of including data on the physiological flexibility of a species when modelling its vulnerability to extinction from climate change. We investigated the effects of a 4°C increase in ambient temperature (Ta), similar to that predicted for southern Africa by the year 2080, on certain physiological variables of a 10-12 g passerine bird endemic to southern Africa, the Cape white-eye Zosterops virens. There was no significant difference in resting metabolism, body mass and intraperitoneal body temperature between birds housed indoors at 4°C above outside ambient temperature and those housed indoors at outside ambient temperature. We conclude that the physiological flexibility of Cape white-eyes will aid them in coping with the 4°C increase predicted for their range by 2080. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Multi-sensor esophageal temperature probe used during radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation is associated with increased intraluminal temperature detection and increased risk of esophageal injury compared to single-sensor probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brett J; Contreras-Valdes, Fernando M; Heist, E Kevin; Barrett, Conor D; Danik, Stephan B; Ruskin, Jeremy N; Mansour, Moussa

    2013-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation in the posterior left atrium has risk of thermal injury to the adjacent esophagus. Increased intraluminal esophageal temperature has been correlated with risk of esophageal injury. The objective of this study was to compare esophageal temperature monitoring (ETM) using a multi-sensor temperature probe with 12 sensors to a single-sensor probe during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared the detection of intraluminal esophageal temperature rises in 543 patients undergoing RF ablation for AF with ETM. Esophageal endoscopy (EGD) was performed on all patients with maximum esophageal temperature ≥ 39°C. Esophageal lesions were classified by severity as mild or severe ulcerations. Four hundred fifty-five patients underwent RF ablation with single-sensor ETM and 88 patients with multi-sensor ETM. Thirty-nine percent of patients with single-sensor versus 75% with multi-sensor ETM reached a maximum detected esophageal temperature ≥ 39°C (P temperature ≥ 39°C by single-sensor versus 46% of patients with multi-sensor ETM (P = 0.021). Thirty-nine percent of patients with lesions in the single-sensor probe group had severe ulcerations compared to 33% of patients in the multi-sensor probe group (P = 0.641). Intraluminal esophageal temperature ≥ 39°C is detected more frequently by the multi-sensor temperature probe versus the single-sensor probe, with more frequent esophageal injury and with comparable severity of injury. Despite detecting esophageal temperature rises in more patients, the multi-sensor probe may not have any measurable benefit compared to a single-sensor probe. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D

    2010-05-07

    Predictions about the ecological consequences of oceanic uptake of CO(2) have been preoccupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks the direct effects of CO(2) on non-calcareous taxa, particularly those that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts. We used two experiments to investigate whether increased CO(2) could exacerbate kelp loss by facilitating non-calcareous algae that, we hypothesized, (i) inhibit the recovery of kelp forests on an urbanized coast, and (ii) form more extensive covers and greater biomass under moderate future CO(2) and associated temperature increases. Our experimental removal of turfs from a phase-shifted system (i.e. kelp- to turf-dominated) revealed that the number of kelp recruits increased, thereby indicating that turfs can inhibit kelp recruitment. Future CO(2) and temperature interacted synergistically to have a positive effect on the abundance of algal turfs, whereby they had twice the biomass and occupied over four times more available space than under current conditions. We suggest that the current preoccupation with the negative effects of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers overlooks potentially profound effects of increasing CO(2) and temperature on non-calcifying organisms.

  15. Measurements of extreme orientation-dependent temperature increase around an irradiated gold nanorod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Bendix, Pól Martin; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2012-01-01

    as nanoscopic heat transducers, it is essential to know how the photothermal efficiency depends on parameters like size and shape. Here we present the measurements of the temperature profile around single irradiated gold nanorods and nanospheres placed on a biologically relevant matrix, a lipid bilayer. [1......] We developed a novel assay based on molecular partitioning between two coexisting phases, the gel and fluid phase, within the bilayer. [2, 3] This assay allows for a direct measurement of local temperature gradients, an assay which does not necessitate any pre-assumptions about...

  16. Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi2Ta2O9:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dengfeng; Wang, Xusheng; Xu, Chaonan; Yao, Xi; Lin, Jian; Sun, Tiantuo

    2012-05-01

    Er3+ doped CaBi2Ta2O9 (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er3+ doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er3+ concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from 4S3/2 and 4F9/2 to 4I15/2, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

  17. Students’ perceived heat-health symptoms increased with warmer classroom temperatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bidassey-Manilal, S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ¥32 C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor...

  18. Increased core body temperature in astronauts during long-duration space missions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahn, A. C.; Werner, A.; Opatz, O.; Maggioni, M. A.; Steinach, M.; von Ahlefeld, V. W.; Moore, A.; Crucian, B. E.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Schlabs, T.; Mendt, S.; Trippel, T.; Koralewski, E.; Koch, J.; Chouker, A.; Reitz, Guenther; Shang, P.; Rocker, L.; Kirsch, K. A.; Gunga, H-C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 16180. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : core body temperature * astonauts' CBT * spaceflights Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  19. Sterilization by high hydrostatic pressure : increasing efficiency and product quality by improved temperature control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, de W.B.C.; Schepdael, van L.J.M.M.; Moezelaar, R.; Berg, van den R.W.

    2003-01-01

    A product being pressurized will heat up due to compressive heating. Due to heat transfer, products close to the vessel wall will cool down, a process which may result in a non-homogeneous product temperature profile in radial direction. If the proper technological features are implemented these

  20. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori D. Bothwell; Paul C. Selmants; Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton

    2014-01-01

    Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivityof leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical...

  1. Maintaining warm, trusting relationships with brands: increased temperature perceptions after thinking of communal brands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans IJzerman

    Full Text Available Classical theories on interpersonal relations have long suggested that social interactions are influenced by sensation, such as the experience of warmth. Past empirical work now confirms that perceived differences in temperature impact how people form thoughts about relationships. The present work first integrates our knowledge database on brand research with this idea of "grounded social cognition". It then leverages a large sample (total N = 2,552 toward elucidating links between estimates of temperature and positive versus negative evaluations of communal brands. In five studies, the authors have found that thinking about positively (vs. negatively perceived communal brands leads to heightened temperature estimates. A meta-analysis of the five studies shows a small but consistent effect in this noisy environment, r = .11, 95% CI, .05, .18. Exploratory analyses in Studies 1a and b further suggest that temperature perceptions mediate the (significant relationship between perceived communality and willingness to purchase from the brand. The authors discuss implications for theory and practice and consider the effects from a Social Baseline Perspective.

  2. Traditional values prevail as education and contraception enter rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of demographer Sajeda Amin, who examines the impact of large-scale social changes on family dynamics and living arrangements in two rural villages in Bangladesh. Amin focused on changes in dowry, education, living arrangements, and landlessness in 1991, 1995, and 1996. Education had the strongest impact on delaying marriage and childbearing and a weak impact on the adoption of contraception or desire for more children. Social changes did not effect traditional living arrangements. Dowry to the husband has replaced bride price, which is cash or valuables given to the wife's family. This shift is attributed to a marriage squeeze where the numbers of women outnumber men. Instead of shifting the age at marriage between girls and men, these communities continued to undervalue women and shifted the pricing system onto the girls' families. The dowry system has led to parents seeking grooms within the extended family, which custom dictates as worthy of a lower dowry, or within the village. The dowry system also leads to abuses, such as the prospects of multiple dowries through divorce. Amin's research finds that Bangladeshi girls benefit from advanced schooling through the delay in marriage and childbearing. Delays in marriage and childbearing have an immediate impact on population growth. However, the increased educational advancement for girls must include increased work opportunities. By combining education with work, the impact becomes long lasting and the economic benefits will encourage increased enrollment. Education serves an important role in defining women as valuable resources that can be a household asset rather than a liability.

  3. Cold working room temperature increased moderate/severe qualitative work stressor risk in Air Traffic Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Astuti

    2012-07-01

    work load stressor among the ATCs.Methods:  This  cross-sectional  study  was  conducted  in November  2008  at  Soekarno-Hatta  International Airport. Subjects consisted of active ATCs with a minimum of six months total working tenure. The study used standard diagnostic as well as home stressor questionnaire surveys. All questionnaires were filled in by the participants.Results: Subjects were aged 27–55 years, consisted of 112 ATCs who had moderate and 13 (9.6% ATCs who had slight QLWS. Those who felt than did not feel the working room temperature was not too cold had 11-fold moderate/severe QLWS [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 10.63: 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.79-65.59]. Those who had than did not have moderate/severe role ambiguity stressor had 8.2-fold risk of moderate/severe QLWS (ORa = 8.23: 95% CI = 1.13-59.90. Those who had than did not have moderate/severe personal responsibility stressor had 6,6-fold risk for moderate/severe QLWS (ORa = 6.64: 95% CI = 1.13-38.85. In terms of the career development stressor, those who had it than did not have it had a 3.7-fold risk for moderate/severe QLWS (ORa = 3,67: 95% CI = 0.88-15.35; P = 0.075.Conclusion:  Those who felt the room temperature was too cold, moderate/severe role ambiguity, personal responsibility, as well as career development stressor were at increased risk for moderate/severe QLWS. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:58-65. 

  4. Increasing thermal drying temperature of biosolids reduced nitrogen mineralisation and soil N2O emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, Sean; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood. This will be o......Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood....... This will be of importance for the value of the biosolids when used to fertilise crops. We sourced AD biosolids from a Danish waste water treatment plant (WWTP) and dried it in the laboratory at 70, 130, 190 or 250 °C to >95 % dry matter content. Also, we sourced biosolids from the WWTP dried using its in-house thermal...

  5. First-step mutations for adaptation at elevated temperature increase capsid stability in a virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Hao Lee

    Full Text Available The relationship between mutation, protein stability and protein function plays a central role in molecular evolution. Mutations tend to be destabilizing, including those that would confer novel functions such as host-switching or antibiotic resistance. Elevated temperature may play an important role in preadapting a protein for such novel functions by selecting for stabilizing mutations. In this study, we test the stability change conferred by single mutations that arise in a G4-like bacteriophage adapting to elevated temperature. The vast majority of these mutations map to interfaces between viral coat proteins, suggesting they affect protein-protein interactions. We assess their effects by estimating thermodynamic stability using molecular dynamic simulations and measuring kinetic stability using experimental decay assays. The results indicate that most, though not all, of the observed mutations are stabilizing.

  6. First-step mutations for adaptation at elevated temperature increase capsid stability in a virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuo Hao; Miller, Craig R; Nagel, Anna C; Wichman, Holly A; Joyce, Paul; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between mutation, protein stability and protein function plays a central role in molecular evolution. Mutations tend to be destabilizing, including those that would confer novel functions such as host-switching or antibiotic resistance. Elevated temperature may play an important role in preadapting a protein for such novel functions by selecting for stabilizing mutations. In this study, we test the stability change conferred by single mutations that arise in a G4-like bacteriophage adapting to elevated temperature. The vast majority of these mutations map to interfaces between viral coat proteins, suggesting they affect protein-protein interactions. We assess their effects by estimating thermodynamic stability using molecular dynamic simulations and measuring kinetic stability using experimental decay assays. The results indicate that most, though not all, of the observed mutations are stabilizing.

  7. Temperature Increase during Different Post Space Preparation Systems: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari Moghadam, Kiumars; Shahab, Shahriar; Shirvani, Soghra; Kazemi, Ali

    2011-01-01

     INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate external root surface temperature rise during post space preparation using LA Axxess bur, Beefill pack System, and Peeso Reamer drill. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The distal canals of forty-five extracted human permanent mandibular first molars were instrumented in crown-apical manner and obturated with lateral condensation technique. Teeth were then randomly divided into three groups according to post space preparation technique including: ...

  8. Temperature Increase during Different Post Space Preparation Systems: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari Moghadam, Kiumars; Shahab, Shahriar; Shirvani, Soghra; Kazemi, Ali

    2011-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate external root surface temperature rise during post space preparation using LA Axxess bur, Beefill pack System, and Peeso Reamer drill. The distal canals of forty-five extracted human permanent mandibular first molars were instrumented in crown-apical manner and obturated with lateral condensation technique. Teeth were then randomly divided into three groups according to post space preparation technique including: group 1. LA Axxess bur (Sybronendo Co., CA, USA), group 2 Beefill pack System (VD W Co., Munich, Germany) and group 3 Peeso Reamer drill (Mani Co., Tochigi-ken, Japan). Temperature was measured by means of digital thermometer MT-405 (Comercio Co., Sao Paulo, Brazil) which was installed on the root surfaces. Data was collected and submitted to one-way ANOVA and Post hoc analysis. Root surface temperatures were found to be significantly higher (7.3±2.7 vs. 4.3±2.1 and 4±2.4,) in samples of Beefill pack System compared with the two other groups (Ppost space preparation may be potentially hazardous for periodontal tissues.

  9. Leidenfrost temperature increase for impacting droplets on carbon-nanofiber surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Hrudya; Tran, Tuan; van Houselt, Arie; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Droplets impacting on a superheated surface can either exhibit a contact boiling regime, in which they make direct contact with the surface and boil violently, or a film boiling regime, in which they remain separated from the surface by their own vapor. The transition from the contact to the film boiling regime depends not only on the temperature of the surface and kinetic energy of the droplet, but also on the size of the structures fabricated on the surface. Here we experimentally show that surfaces covered with carbon-nanofibers delay the transition to film boiling to much higher temperature compared to smooth surfaces. We present physical arguments showing that, because of the small scale of the carbon fibers, they are cooled by the vapor flow just before the liquid impact, thus permitting contact boiling up to much higher temperatures than on smooth surfaces. We also show that, as long as the impact is in the film boiling regime, the spreading factor of impacting droplets follows the same $\\We^{3/10}$ sc...

  10. Turning up the heat: increasing temperature and coral bleaching at the high latitude coral reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, David A; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Evans, Scott N

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs face increasing pressures particularly when on the edge of their distributions. The Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Abrolhos) are the southernmost coral reef system in the Indian Ocean, and one of the highest latitude reefs in the world. These reefs have a unique mix of tropical and temperate marine fauna and flora and support 184 species of coral, dominated by Acropora species. A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos. We examined long term trends in the marine climate at the Abrolhos using historical sea surface temperature data (HadISST data set) from 1900-2011. In addition in situ water temperature data for the Abrolhos (from data loggers installed in 2008, across four island groups) were used to determine temperature exposure profiles. Coupled with the results of coral cover surveys conducted annually since 2007; we calculated bleaching thresholds for monitoring sites across the four Abrolhos groups. In situ temperature data revealed maximum daily water temperatures reached 29.54°C in March 2011 which is 4.2°C above mean maximum daily temperatures (2008-2010). The level of bleaching varied across sites with an average of ∼12% of corals bleached. Mortality was high, with a mean ∼50% following the 2011 bleaching event. Prior to 2011, summer temperatures reached a mean (across all monitoring sites) of 25.1°C for 2.5 days. However, in 2011 temperatures reached a mean of 28.1°C for 3.3 days. Longer term trends (1900-2011) showed mean annual sea surface temperatures increase by 0.01°C per annum. Long-term temperature data along with short-term peaks in 2011, outline the potential for corals to be exposed to more frequent bleaching risk with consequences for this high latitude coral reef system at the edge of its distribution.

  11. Ion fluxes of Metynnis hypsauchen, a teleost from the Rio Negro, Amazon, exposed to an increase of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. BALDISSEROTTO

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on an increase of temperature on the net ion fluxes on Metynnis hypsauchen, a teleost species from the Rio Negro. Fish were collected in the Anavilhanas archipelago, Rio Negro, Amazon. After 24 h adaptation fish were placed in individual chambers served with a steady flow of recirculated water. Na+ and Cl- fluxes were determined at 26 and 33ºC. After 18 h in the chambers, fish presented an influx of Na+ and Cl-, and the temperature raise to 33ºC led to an efflux of both ions, which remained even after 6 h in this temperature. Six hours were not enough to promote a significant reduction of net ion effluxes, but certainly the fluxes would be in net balance after a longer period of time, since this species can be exposed to this temperature in its natural environment.

  12. 76 FR 12769 - Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee; Cancellation of Upcoming Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Madeline Gonzalez, 202-606-2838; e- mail pay-performance[email protected] ; or FAX: (202) 606-4264. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Sheldon Friedman, Chairman, Federal Prevailing Rate...

  13. 75 FR 34182 - Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee; Cancellation of Upcoming Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Madeline Gonzalez, 202-606-2838; e- mail pay-performance[email protected] ; or FAX: (202) 606-4264. Sheldon Friedman, Chairman, Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee, U.S. Office of...

  14. Experimentally increased temperature and hypoxia affect stability of social hierarchy and metabolism of the Amazonian cichlid Apistogramma agassizii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Campos, Derek Felipe; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to understand how changes in temperature and oxygen could influence social behaviour and aerobic metabolism of the Amazonian dwarf cichlid Apistogramma agassizii. Social hierarchies were established over a period of 96h by observing the social interactions, feeding behaviour and shelter use in groups of four males. In the experimental environment, temperature was increased to 29°C in the high-temperature treatment, and oxygen lowered to 1.0mg·L(-1)O2 in the hypoxia treatment. Fish were maintained at this condition for 96h. The control was maintained at 26°C and 6.6mg·L(-1)O2. After the experimental exposure, metabolism was measured as routine metabolic rate (RMR) and electron transport system (ETS) activity. There was a reduction in hierarchy stability at high-temperature. Aggression changed after environmental changes. Dominant and subdominant fish at high temperatures increased their biting, compared with control-dominant. In contrast, hypoxia-dominant fish decreased their aggressive acts compared with all other fish. Shelter use decreased in control and hypoxic dominant fish. Dominant fish from undisturbed environments eat more than their subordinates. There was a decrease of RMR in fish exposed to the hypoxic environment when compared with control or high-temperature fish, independent of social position. Control-dominant fish had higher RMR than their subordinates. ETS activity increased in fish exposed to high temperatures; however, there was no effect on social rank. Our study reinforces the importance of environmental changes for the maintenance of hierarchies and their characteristics and highlights that most of the changes occur in the dominant position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex reversal of red tilapia using 17α-methyltestosterone-enriched feed and increased temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safira Qisthina Ayuningtyas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth rate between male and female red tilapia Oreochromis sp. is different. Generally, the male red tilapia grows faster than the female. Furthermore, the maturation process of red tilapia is relatively fast which causes slower growth rate. One of solutions to this problem is by rearing all male population or mono-sex culture. The method used in this study was commercial feed enrichment with 17α-methyltestosterone at different dosages and water temperature manipulation. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of commercial feed enrichment with different dosages of 17α-methyltestosterone and water temperature manipulation on success rate of sex reversal of red tilapia into all male population. This research consisted of different temperature treatments (with and without water heating and 17α- methyltestosterone dosages (0, 10, 20 mg/kg of commercial feed. The best dosage of 17α-methyltestosterone was 20 mg/kg of commercial feed with male to female sex ratio of 86.31%, daily growth rate of 8.18%, and feed conversion ratio of 1.53. In this study, the best treatment to produce the male seeds was the 17α-methyltestosterone treatment. Keywords: 17α-methyltestosterone, sex reversal, red tilapia, temperature  ABSTRAK Ikan nila merah Oreochromis sp. memiliki laju pertumbuhan yang berbeda antara ikan jantan dan betina. Umumnya ikan nila merah jantan lebih cepat tumbuh dibandingkan betinanya. Selain itu, ikan nila memiliki sifat cepat matang gonad dan mudah memijah sehingga akan menghambat pertumbuhan ikan. Salah satu cara untuk mengurangi masalah yang terjadi yakni dengan memelihara populasi ikan nila merah tunggal kelamin atau monoseks jantan. Metode yang dilakukan adalah pemberian hormon 17α-metiltestosteron dengan dosis berbeda melalui pakan buatan dan peningkatan suhu air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dosis hormon 17α-metiltestosteron melalui pakan buatan dan peningkatan suhu air

  16. Leveraging U.S. Geo-Strategic Positional Advantage to Prevail in a Mercantile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY LEVERAGING U.S. GEO-STRATEGIC POSITIONAL ADVANTAGE TO PREVAIL IN A MERCANTILE WORLD by Jeremey D. Turner, Lt...United States to prevail among competitors. Strategy ends consistent with U.S. interests and a mercantile environment are a well-defended homeland...policies also imply a movement away from free trade and toward mercantilism . China is actively pursuing strategies to maximize the export of finished

  17. Kinetics of temperature increase during tomato processing modulate the bioaccessibility of lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D; Van Stratum, E; Degrou, A; Renard, C M G C

    2012-12-15

    The nutritional benefit of bioactive metabolites depends on their bioavailability, i.e. the proportion that leaves the food matrix, and crosses the enteral barrier to reach their cellular target. The present study focused on lycopene, the major and bioactive tomato carotenoid, the bioavailability of which is known to be enhanced in cooked products. To better understand how processing may facilitate lycopene release, we assessed whether hot-break (HB) or cold-break (CB) treatments influence the tomato lycopene bioaccessibility. HB and CB are used in the tomato industry to modulate texture of purees through endogenous cell-wall lytic enzymes activity. HB and CB processes were mimicked through microwave heating, leading to a differentiated temperature rise in the product. The HB and CB models led to the expected differences, i.e. more viscous puree for HB with low methanol. The ability of the tomato matrix to release lycopene was measured as the extractability of lycopene to oil under standardized mixing conditions. We expected that CB treatment, by enhancing cell-wall degradation, would lead to enhanced lycopene bioaccessibility. The opposite was observed: oil contained three times less lycopene when mixed by CB (around 0.3 μgml(-1); similar to results obtained with fresh purees) than when mixed by HB (around 0.9 μgml(-1)), although HB caused more lycopene degradation. Kinetics studies indicated that the quick rise of temperature at the beginning of HB treatment was a key parameter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of increased temperature in boll period on fiber yield and quality of cotton and its physiological mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Ying; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Dai, Yan-Jiao; Qiang, Zhi-Ying; Chen, Bing-Lin; Wang, You-Hua

    2013-12-01

    To study the effect of temperature increase in boll period (13-Jul. to 24-Aug. ) on cotton yield and fiber quality under the global warming background, a pot experiment with cotton cultivar Simian 3 was carried out in half-open-top greenhouse in Pailou experiment station (32 degrees 02' N, 118 degrees 50' E) of Nanjing Agricultural University in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that when the temperature was increased by 2-3 degrees C (with an average daily temperature of 31.1 to 35.2 degrees C), the biomass declined by 10%, while the cotton yield declined by 30%-40%. The fiber quality also changed significantly with the relative indices responding differently. The micronaire value and fiber strength increased, the fiber length reduced while the fiber uniformity and elongation rate changed little. The plant photosynthesis capability, the biomass accumulation and the ability of carbohydrates transferring to sink organs all deceased. The soluble amino acids, soluble sugar, sucrose and C/N decreased significantly, while the starch content increased significantly. The allocation in vegetative organs was increased while that in reproductive organs was reduced, which in turn declined the economical index. The lower fruit branches were affected little under increased temperature condition while the middle, upper and top branches were affected greatly. The results indicated that, under the 2-3 degrees C warmer condition, the cotton plants experienced the high temperature stress, both the photosynthesis ability and the carbohydrates transportation from source to sink were decreased, leading to the decline of cotton yield.

  19. Adaptation of root growth to increased ambient temperature requires auxin and ethylene coordination in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Qionghui; Wei, Shaodong; Zhou, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    -naphthaleneacetic acid, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). AUX1, PIN1, and PIN2 are involved in the ckrc1-1 root gravity response under increased AT. Furthermore, CKRC1-dependent auxin biosynthesis was critical for maintaining PIN1, PIN2, and AUX1 expression at elevated temperatures. Ethylene was also involved...

  20. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure.

  1. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.

  2. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Hyperthermia, PO Box 5201, NL-3008 AE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N, E-mail: j.bakker@erasmusmc.nl [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS) (Switzerland)

    2011-08-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR{sub wb}) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T{sub body,incr}) under 1 deg. C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR{sub 10g}) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T{sub incr,max}) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T{sub incr,max} in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 deg. C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T{sub incr,max} as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T{sub incr,max} for specified durations of exposure.

  3. Women with more severe degrees of temporomandibular disorder exhibit an increase in temperature over the temporomandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Costa, Ana Cláudia de Souza; Packer, Amanda Carine; de Castro, Ester Moreira; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to correlate the degree of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) severity and skin temperatures over the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. This blind cross-sectional study involved 60 women aged 18-40 years. The volunteers were allocated to groups based on Fonseca anamnestic index (FAI) score: no TMD, mild TMD, moderate TMD, and severe TMD (n = 15 each). All volunteers underwent infrared thermography for the determination of skin temperatures over the TMJ, masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine the normality of the data. The Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's test, was used for comparisons among groups according to TMD severity. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the strength of associations among variables. Weak, positive, significant associations were found between FAI score and skin temperatures over the left TMJ (rs = 0.195, p = 0.009) and right TMJ (rs = 0.238, p = 0.001). Temperatures over the right and left TMJ were significantly higher in groups with more severe TMD (p < 0.05). FAI score was associated with skin temperature over the TMJ, as determined by infrared thermography, in this sample. Women with more severe TMD demonstrated a bilateral increase in skin temperature.

  4. Measurements of extreme orientation-dependent temperature increase around an irradiated gold nanorod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Bendix, Pól Martin; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2012-01-01

    When irradiated at its resonance frequency, a metallic nanoparticle efficiently converts the absorbed energy into heat which is locally dissipated. This effect can be used in photothermal treatments, e.g., of cancer cells. However, to fully exploit the functionality of metallic nanoparticles...... as nanoscopic heat transducers, it is essential to know how the photothermal efficiency depends on parameters like size and shape. Here we present the measurements of the temperature profile around single irradiated gold nanorods and nanospheres placed on a biologically relevant matrix, a lipid bilayer. [1...... of light by the nanorod and the corresponding dissipated heat strongly depends on the orientation of the nanorod with respect to the polarization. Finally, by comparing to spherical gold nanoparticles, we demonstrate how a change in shape, from spherical to rod like, leads to a dramatic enhancement...

  5. Increased temperature causes different carbon and nitrogen processing patterns in two common intertidal foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wukovits

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Benthic foraminifera are highly abundant heterotrophic protists in marine sediments, but future environmental changes will challenge the tolerance limits of intertidal species. Metabolic rates and physiological processes in foraminifera are strongly dependent on environmental temperatures. Temperature-related stress could therefore impact foraminiferal food source processing efficiency and might result in altered nutrient fluxes through the intertidal food web. In this study, we performed a laboratory feeding experiment on Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica, two dominant foraminiferal species of the German Wadden Sea/Friedrichskoog, to test the effect of temperature on phytodetritus retention. The specimens were fed with 13C and 15N labelled freeze-dried Dunaliella tertiolecta (green algae at the start of the experiment and were incubated at 20, 25 and 30 °C respectively. Dual labelling was applied to observe potential temperature effects on the relation of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen retention. Samples were taken over a period of 2 weeks. Foraminiferal cytoplasm was isotopically analysed to investigate differences in carbon and nitrogen uptake derived from the food source. Both species showed a positive response to the provided food source, but carbon uptake rates of A. tepida were 10-fold higher compared to those of H. germanica. Increased temperatures had a far stronger impact on the carbon uptake of H. germanica than on A. tepida. A distinct increase in the levels of phytodetrital-derived nitrogen (compared to more steady carbon levels could be observed over the course of the experiment in both species. The results suggest that higher temperatures have a significant negative effect on the carbon exploitation of H. germanica. For A. tepida, higher carbon uptake rates and the enhanced tolerance range for higher temperatures could outline an advantage in warmer periods if the main food source consists of chlorophyte phytodetritus

  6. Increased temperature causes different carbon and nitrogen processing patterns in two common intertidal foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukovits, Julia; Enge, Annekatrin Julie; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Heinz, Petra

    2017-06-01

    Benthic foraminifera are highly abundant heterotrophic protists in marine sediments, but future environmental changes will challenge the tolerance limits of intertidal species. Metabolic rates and physiological processes in foraminifera are strongly dependent on environmental temperatures. Temperature-related stress could therefore impact foraminiferal food source processing efficiency and might result in altered nutrient fluxes through the intertidal food web. In this study, we performed a laboratory feeding experiment on Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica, two dominant foraminiferal species of the German Wadden Sea/Friedrichskoog, to test the effect of temperature on phytodetritus retention. The specimens were fed with 13C and 15N labelled freeze-dried Dunaliella tertiolecta (green algae) at the start of the experiment and were incubated at 20, 25 and 30 °C respectively. Dual labelling was applied to observe potential temperature effects on the relation of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen retention. Samples were taken over a period of 2 weeks. Foraminiferal cytoplasm was isotopically analysed to investigate differences in carbon and nitrogen uptake derived from the food source. Both species showed a positive response to the provided food source, but carbon uptake rates of A. tepida were 10-fold higher compared to those of H. germanica. Increased temperatures had a far stronger impact on the carbon uptake of H. germanica than on A. tepida. A distinct increase in the levels of phytodetrital-derived nitrogen (compared to more steady carbon levels) could be observed over the course of the experiment in both species. The results suggest that higher temperatures have a significant negative effect on the carbon exploitation of H. germanica. For A. tepida, higher carbon uptake rates and the enhanced tolerance range for higher temperatures could outline an advantage in warmer periods if the main food source consists of chlorophyte phytodetritus. These conditions are

  7. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO1 Gene Demonstrates Genetic Linkage to Increased Fermentation Rate at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Deed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Low fermentation temperatures are of importance to food and beverage industries working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the identification of genes demonstrating a positive impact on fermentation kinetics is of significant interest. A set of 121 mapped F1 progeny, derived from a cross between haploid strains BY4716 (a derivative of the laboratory yeast S288C and wine yeast RM11-1a, were fermented in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc grape juice at 12.5°. Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax at low temperature. Independent deletions of two candidate genes within the region, FLO1 and SWH1, were constructed in the parental strains (with S288C representing BY4716. Fermentation of wild-type and deletion strains at 12.5 and 25° confirmed that the genetic linkage to Vmax corresponds to the S288C version of the FLO1 allele, as the absence of this allele reduced Vmax by ∼50% at 12.5°, but not at 25°. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA between S288C and RM11-1a FLO1 alleles did not confirm the prediction that the S288C version of FLO1 was promoting more rapid fermentation in the opposing strain background, suggesting that the positive effect on Vmax derived from S288C FLO1 may only provide an advantage in haploids, or is dependent on strain-specific cis or trans effects. This research adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of FLO1 in providing stress tolerance to S. cerevisiae during fermentation.

  9. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1974-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated ASTM Jet-A fuel to determine the effect of increased fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperature ranged from ambient to 700 K. The NOx emission index increased at a rate of 6 percent per 100 K increase in fuel temperature.

  10. Evaluation of operational numerical weather predictions in relation to the prevailing synoptic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Karacostas, Theodore; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Kartsios, Stergios; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    The Thessaly plain, which is located in central Greece, has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The aim of DAPHNE project (http://www.daphne-meteo.gr) is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification in convective clouds. This problem is reinforced by the increase of population and the water demand for irrigation, especially during the warm period of the year. The nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), is utilized for research and operational purposes of DAPHNE project. The WRF output fields are employed by the partners in order to provide high-resolution meteorological guidance and plan the project's operations. The model domains cover: i) Europe, the Mediterranean sea and northern Africa, ii) Greece and iii) the wider region of Thessaly (at selected periods), at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km, respectively, using 2-way telescoping nesting. The aim of this research work is to investigate the model performance in relation to the prevailing upper-air synoptic circulation. The statistical evaluation of the high-resolution operational forecasts of near-surface and upper air fields is performed at a selected period of the operational phase of the project using surface observations, gridded fields and weather radar data. The verification is based on gridded, point and object oriented techniques. The 10 upper-air circulation types, which describe the prevailing conditions over Greece, are employed in the synoptic classification. This methodology allows the identification of model errors that occur and/or are maximized at specific synoptic conditions and may otherwise be obscured in aggregate statistics. Preliminary analysis indicates that the largest errors are associated with cyclonic conditions. Acknowledgments This research work of Daphne project (11SYN_8_1088) is co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund

  11. Increase of ascorbic acid content and nutritional quality in spinach leaves during physiological acclimation to low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Simona; Moscatello, Stefano; Famiani, Franco; Battistelli, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of acclimation to 10 degrees C on the leaf content of ascorbic and oxalic acids, was investigated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). At 10 degrees C the content of ascorbic acid in leaves increased and after 7 days it was about 41% higher than in plants remaining under a 25 degrees C/20 degrees C day/night temperature regime. In contrast, the content of oxalate, remained unchanged. Transfer to 10 degrees C increased the ascorbic but not the oxalic acid content of the leaf intercellular washing fluid (IWF). Oxalate oxidase (OXO EC 1.2.3.4) activity was not detected in extracts of leaf blades. Therefore, oxalic acid degradation via OXO was not involved in the control of its content. Our results show that low temperature acclimation increases nutritional quality of spinach leaves via a physiological rise of ascorbic acid that does not feed-forward on the content of oxalic acid.

  12. Response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from different thermal environments to increased water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhollem, Joshua J; Suski, Cory D; Wahl, David H

    2015-08-01

    Due to concerns of global climate change, additional research is needed to quantify the thermal tolerance of species, and how organisms are able to adapt to changes in thermal regime. We quantified the thermal tolerance and thermal stress response of a temperate sportfish from two different thermal environments. One group of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabited thermally enhanced reservoirs (used for power plant cooling), with water temperatures typically 2-5°C warmer than nearby reservoirs. We tested fish for chronic thermal maxima and reaction to an 8°C heat shock using three common physiological indices of stress. We observed no evidence of differences between groups in thermal maxima. We observed no differences in thermal maxima between fish from artificially warmed and natural systems. Our results disagree with research, suggesting differences due to adaptation to different thermal environments. We speculate that behavioral modifications, lack of adequate time for genetic divergence, or the robust genetic plasticity of largemouth bass explain the lack of difference between treatment groups.

  13. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  14. The Effect of Season-Long Temperature Increases on Rice Cultivars Grown in the Central and Southern Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is challenged by the asymmetric increases in day and night temperatures. Efforts are required to improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on rice production. To this end, 2-year experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of mid-season rice growth in the central and southern regions of China to elevated temperatures. Four replicates of four widely planted indica rice cultivars (Huanghuazhan: HHZ; Shanyou63: SY63; Yangliangyou6: YLY6; Liangyoupeijiu: LYPJ were subjected to four elevated-temperature treatments (control: ambient temperature; NW: night-time warming; DW: daytime warming; AW: all-day warming generated by an open-top hot-blast system under field conditions. This apparatus causes an ~2°C increase in the rice canopy temperature. Of all the elevated-temperature treatments, AW was the most devastating treatment for all rice cultivars, negatively affecting nearly all of investigated parameters, including grain yield and its components, dry matter accumulation, biomass, and harvest index (HI. The AW treatment decreased the grain yield by 11–35% and 43–78% in 2015 and 2016, respectively. No significant reduction in the grain yield was observed in the DW and NW treatments in 2015. However, the grain yield was decreased in DW and NW treatments by 20–52% and 18–55%, respectively, in 2016. Furthermore, the temperature-driven degradation of pollen viability, the number of pollen grains adhering to the stigma and pollen germination on the stigma caused spikelet sterility and thereby decreased the grain yield. The YLY6 and SY63 cultivars performed better than the HHZ and LYPJ cultivars with respect to grain yield and its components in all elevated-temperature treatments in both years. However, 42.97 and 61.01% reductions still occurred for the SY63 and YLY6 cultivars, respectively, in the AW treatment in 2016. The above results suggested that the elevated temperature may cause a noteworthy reduction in

  15. A Variationally Formulated Problem of the Stationary Heat Conduction in a Plate with Radiation Reduction Factor Increased under Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equipment uses heat-shielding and structural materials that, when exposed, absorb radiation both on the surface and in the volume. In a variety of technical devices, absorption processes of penetrating radiation of materials and structural elements are typical for a number of process steps and operating conditions. Absorption of radiation penetrating into material volume may significantly affect the temperature state and runability of construction made of such material.The process of material-absobed penetrating radiation is associated with transition of the electromagnetic wave energy into the excitation energy of this material microparticles that, after all, leads to increasing internal energy and temperature growth. With radiation passing through the layer of material its flow density and hence energy of penetrating radiation decreases exponentially with increasing distance from the exposed layer surface. This law was experimentally established by the French physicist P. Bouguer and bears his name. In general, a certain fraction of this energy is radiated and dissipated in the material volume, and the rest is absorbed. A mathematical model describing these processes is an equation of the radiative energy transfer.In mathematical modeling of thermomechanical processes there is a need to consider the effect of penetrating radiation on the temperature state of materials and construction elements. The P. Bouguer law is used also when the volume radiation and scattering of penetrating radiation in the material can be neglected, but it is necessary to take into account its absorption. In this case, a negative indicator of the exponential function is represented by the product of the distance from the irradiated surface and integral or some average absorption factor that is constant for a given material and spectral distribution of penetrating radiation. However, with increasing power of radiation passing through the material layer there is a

  16. Analysis of temperature increase in swine gingiva after exposure to a Polywave(®) LED light curing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucoski, Cristiane; Zarpellon, Driellen Christine; Dos Santos, Fabio Andre; Lipinski, Leandro Cavalcante; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Rueggeberg, Frederick Allen; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the temperature increase in swine gingival temperature after exposure to light emitted by a Polywave(®) LED light curing unit (LCU, Bluephase 20i, Ivoclar Vivadent). After local Ethics Committee approval (protocol 711/2015), 40 pigs were subjected to general anesthesia and the LCU tip was placed 5mm from the buccal gingival tissue (GT) close to lower lateral incisors. A thermocouple probe (Thermes WFI, Physitemp) was inserted into the gingival sulcus before and immediately after exposure to light. Real-time temperature (°C) was measured after the following exposure modes were applied: High Power (20s-H, 40s-H, and 60s-H) or Turbo mode (5s-T), either with or without the presence of rubber dam (RD) interposed between the LCU tip and GT (n=10). The presence of gingival lesions after the exposures was also evaluated. Peak temperature (°C) and the temperature increase during exposure over that of the pre-exposure baseline value (ΔT) data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc test (α=5%). A binary logistic regression analysis determined the risk of gingival lesion development. Without RD, no significant difference in ΔT was observed among 20s-H, 40s-H, and 60s-H groups, which showed the highest temperature values, while the 5s-T exposure showed the lowest ΔT, regardless of RD. RD reduced ΔT only for the 20s-H group (p=0.004). Gingival lesions were predominantly observed using 40s-H, with RD, and 60s-H, with and without RD. Exposure to a LCU light might be harmful to swine gingiva only when high radiant exposure values are delivered, regardless of the use of RD. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H; O' Dowd, Colin

    2017-06-29

    The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth's energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future

  18. [Effects of air temperature increase and precipitation change on grain yield and quality of spring wheat in semiarid area of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-ling; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Run-yuan; Gan, Yan-tai; Niu, Jun-yi; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Fu-nian; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    In order to predict effects of climate changing on growth, quality and grain yields of spring wheat, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of air temperature increases (0 °C, 1.0 °C, 2.0° C and 3.0°) and precipitation variations (decrease 20%, unchanging and increase 20%) on grain yields, quality, diseases and insect pests of spring wheat at the Dingxi Arid Meteorology and Ecological Environment Experimental Station of the Institute of Arid Meteorology of China Meteorological Administration (35°35' N ,104°37' E). The results showed that effects of precipitation variations on kernel numbers of spring wheat were not significant when temperature increased by less than 2.0° C , but was significant when temperature increased by 3.0° C. Temperature increase enhanced kernel numbers, while temperature decrease reduced kernel numbers. The negative effect of temperature on thousand-kernel mass of spring wheat increased with increasing air temperature. The sterile spikelet of spring wheat response to air temperature was quadratic under all precipitation regimes. Compared with control ( no temperature increase), the decreases of grain yield of spring wheat when air temperature increased by 1.0°C, 2.0°C and 3.0°C under each of the three precipitation conditions (decrease 20%, no changing and increase 20%) were 12.1%, 24.7% and 42.7%, 8.4%, 15.1% and 21.8%, and 9.0%, 15.5% and 22.2%, respectively. The starch content of spring wheat decreased and the protein content increased with increasing air temperature. The number of aphids increased when air temperature increased by 2.0°C , but decreased when air temperature increased by 3.0°CT. The infection rates of rust disease increased with increasing air temperature.

  19. Reproductive efficiency of a Mediterranean endemic zooxanthellate coral decreases with increasing temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Airi

    Full Text Available Investments at the organismal level towards reproduction and growth are often used as indicators of health. Understanding how such energy allocation varies with environmental conditions may, therefore, aid in predicting possible responses to global climatic change in the near future. For example, variations in seawater temperature may alter the physiological functioning, behavior, reproductive output and demographic traits (e.g., productivity of marine organisms, leading to shifts in the structure, spatial range, and abundance of populations. This study investigated variations in reproductive output associated with local seawater temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient on the western Italian coast, in the zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral, Balanophyllia europaea. Reproductive potential varied significantly among sites, where B. europaea individuals from the warmest site experienced loss of oocytes during gametogenesis. Most of the early oocytes from warmest sites did not reach maturity, possibly due to inhibition of metabolic processes at high temperatures, causing B. europaea to reabsorb the oocytes and utilize them as energy for other vital functions. In a progressively warming Mediterranean, the efficiency of the energy invested in reproduction could be considerably reduced in this species, thereby affecting vital processes. Given the projected increase in seawater temperature as a consequence of global climate change, the present study adds evidence to the threats posed by high temperatures to the survival of B. europaea in the next decades.

  20. Increased Expression of Escherichia coli Polynucleotide Phosphorylase at Low Temperatures Is Linked to a Decrease in the Efficiency of Autocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, N.; Jarrige, A.-C.; Robert-Le Meur, M.; Portier, C.

    2001-01-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) synthesis is translationally autocontrolled via an RNase III-dependent mechanism, which results in a tight correlation between protein level and messenger stability. In cells grown at 18°C, the amount of PNPase is twice that found in cells grown at 30°C. To investigate whether this effect was transcriptional or posttranscriptional, the expression of a set of pnp-lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions was analyzed in cells grown at different temperatures. In the absence of PNPase, there was no increase in pnp-lacZ expression, indicating that the increase in pnp expression occurs at a posttranscriptional level. Other experiments clearly show that increased pnp expression at low temperature is only observed under conditions in which the autocontrol mechanism of PNPase is functional. At low temperature, the destabilizing effect of PNPase on its own mRNA is less efficient, leading to a decrease in repression and an increase in the expression level. PMID:11395447

  1. Adaptation of Lactococcus lactis to high growth temperature leads to a dramatic increase in acidification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Hellgren, Lars

    2015-01-01

    to affect thermal tolerance. Of the mutations with more pronounced effects, two affected expression of single proteins (chaperone; riboflavin transporter), two had pleiotropic effects (RNA polymerase) which changed the gene expression profile, and one resulted in a change in the coding sequence of CDP......-diglyceride synthase. A large deletion containing 10 genes was also found to affect thermal tolerance significantly. With this study we demonstrate a simple approach to obtain non-GMO derivatives of the important L. lactis that possess properties desirable by the industry, e.g. thermal robustness and increased rate...

  2. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  3. Optimization of temperature and time for drying and carbonization to increase calorific value of coconut shell using Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabbikhah, Saptoadi, H.; Subarmono, Wibisono, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Fossil fuel still dominates the needs of energy in Indonesia for the past few years. The increasing scarcity of oil and gas from non-renewable materials results in an energy crisis. This condition turns to be a serious problem for society which demands immediate solution. One effort which can be taken to overcome this problem is the utilization and processing of biomass as renewable energy by means of carbonization. Thus, it can be used as qualified raw material for production of briquette. In this research, coconut shell is used as carbonized waste. The research aims at improving the quality of coconut shell as the material for making briquettes as cheap and eco-friendly renewable energy. At the end, it is expected to decrease dependence on oil and gas. The research variables are drying temperature and time, carbonization time and temperature. The dependent variable is calorific value of the coconut shell. The method used in this research is Taguchi Method. The result of the research shows thus variables, have a significant contribution on the increase of coconut shell's calorific value. It is proven that the higher thus variables are higher calorific value. Before carbonization, the average calorific value of coconut shell reaches 4,667 call/g, and a significant increase is notable after the carbonization. The optimization is parameter setting of A2B3C3D3, which means that the drying temperature is 105 °C, the drying time is 24 hours, the carbonization temperature is 650 °C and carbonization time is 120 minutes. The average calorific value is approximately 7,744 cal/g. Therefore, the increase of the coconut shell's calorific value after the carbonization is 3,077 cal/g or approximately 60 %. The charcoal of carbonized coconut shell has met the requirement of SNI, thus it can be used as raw material in making briquette which can eventually be used as cheap and environmental friendly fuel.

  4. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslé, Sébastien; Matthews, Kathleen R; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two "resting" meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita). In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey), leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw), which have been in a "resting" state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change.

  5. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Nusslé

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two "resting" meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita. In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey, leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw, which have been in a "resting" state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change.

  6. Increases in external cause mortality due to high and low temperatures: evidence from northeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Åström, Daniel Oudin

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between temperature and mortality is well established but has seldom been investigated in terms of external causes. In some Eastern European countries, external cause mortality is substantial. Deaths owing to external causes are the third largest cause of mortality in Estonia, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Death rates owing to external causes may reflect behavioural changes among a population. The aim for the current study was to investigate if there is any association between temperature and external cause mortality, in Estonia. We collected daily information on deaths from external causes (ICD-10 diagnosis codes V00-Y99) and maximum temperatures over the period 1997-2013. The relationship between daily maximum temperature and mortality was investigated using Poisson regression, combined with a distributed lag non-linear model considering lag times of up to 10 days. We found significantly higher mortality owing to external causes on hot (the same and previous day) and cold days (with a lag of 1-3 days). The cumulative relative risks for heat (an increase in temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.34) and for cold (a decrease from the 25th to 1st percentile) 1.19 (1.03-1.38). Deaths due to external causes might reflect changes in behaviour among a population during periods of extreme hot and cold temperatures and should therefore be investigated further, because such deaths have a severe impact on public health, especially in Eastern Europe where external mortality rates are high.

  7. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Tiago S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC. Results The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI, respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%, including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. Conclusions The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen’s transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with

  8. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days) impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC). Results The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI), respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%), including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. Conclusions The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen’s transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with pIC at 10°C vs. 16

  9. A Review of Measures against Increasing Temperature and Climate Change for the Safeguard of Workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Kumar Dehury

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe heat causes various health related problems among the workers in India. Working under hot and humid environment damages health of workers especially the agriculture labourers, construction workers, rickshaw pullers, venders, brick kiln workers and daily wage labourers. High humidity and high temperature can leads to heat stress even in 38°C temperature. The damage might be temporary, like heat related injuries to permanent like, critical heat stroke. Sometimes, it leads to occupational hazards which is irreversible in nature. Despite these serious issues, there is minimal preparation which exposes the workers to serious conditions. This paper evaluates various consequences of climate change and increasing temperature on the workers. Various databases like PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar have been enquired to bring evidences across industry and places. The effects of heat and temperature were thematically arranged to understand the seriousness of the issues. Suggestions and way forwards are also discussed for the solution for workers and sustainability of various sectors depending on labourers working under the heat of sun. The paper suggests the requirement of creating a heat combating environment by coordinating among various government departments and agencies for the welfare of the workers. The industrial workers have to be provided with sufficient measures by various industries as per the governing laws. The agriculture and brick kiln workers have to work in mild heat and with sufficient protection to avoid consequences. The government need to monitor the unorganised sectors for protection of workers by law enforcing organs.

  10. Association between the increase in brain temperature and physical performance at different exercise intensities and protocols in a temperate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Kunstetter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that brain temperature (Tbrain provides a more sensitive index than other core body temperatures in determining physical performance. However, no study has addressed whether the association between performance and increases in Tbrain in a temperate environment is dependent upon exercise intensity, and this was the primary aim of the present study. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to constant exercise at three different speeds (18, 21, and 24 m/min until the onset of volitional fatigue. Tbrain was continuously measured by a thermistor inserted through a brain guide cannula. Exercise induced a speed-dependent increase in Tbrain, with the fastest speed associated with a higher rate of Tbrain increase. Rats subjected to constant exercise had similar Tbrain values at the time of fatigue, although a pronounced individual variability was observed (38.7-41.7°C. There were negative correlations between the rate of Tbrain increase and performance for all speeds that were studied. These results indicate that performance during constant exercise is negatively associated with the increase in Tbrain, particularly with its rate of increase. We then investigated how an incremental-speed protocol affected the association between the increase in Tbrain and performance. At volitional fatigue, Tbrain was lower during incremental exercise compared with the Tbrain resulting from constant exercise (39.3±0.3 vs 40.3±0.1°C; P<0.05, and no association between the rate of Tbrain increase and performance was observed. These findings suggest that the influence of Tbrain on performance under temperate conditions is dependent on exercise protocol.

  11. Association between the increase in brain temperature and physical performance at different exercise intensities and protocols in a temperate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstetter, A C; Wanner, S P; Madeira, L G; Wilke, C F; Rodrigues, L O C; Lima, N R V

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that brain temperature (T brain) provides a more sensitive index than other core body temperatures in determining physical performance. However, no study has addressed whether the association between performance and increases in T brain in a temperate environment is dependent upon exercise intensity, and this was the primary aim of the present study. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to constant exercise at three different speeds (18, 21, and 24 m/min) until the onset of volitional fatigue. T brain was continuously measured by a thermistor inserted through a brain guide cannula. Exercise induced a speed-dependent increase in T brain, with the fastest speed associated with a higher rate of T brain increase. Rats subjected to constant exercise had similar T brain values at the time of fatigue, although a pronounced individual variability was observed (38.7-41.7°C). There were negative correlations between the rate of T brain increase and performance for all speeds that were studied. These results indicate that performance during constant exercise is negatively associated with the increase in T brain, particularly with its rate of increase. We then investigated how an incremental-speed protocol affected the association between the increase in T brain and performance. At volitional fatigue, T brain was lower during incremental exercise compared with the T brain resulting from constant exercise (39.3 ± 0.3 vs 40.3 ± 0.1°C; Pbrain increase and performance was observed. These findings suggest that the influence of T brain on performance under temperate conditions is dependent on exercise protocol.

  12. Temperature regulation of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes increases latitudinally as a breach between bottom-up and top-down controls

    KAUST Repository

    Moran, Xose Anxelu G.

    2017-04-19

    Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4000 m depth). Temperature control was approached by the apparent activation energy in eV (ranging from 0.46 to 3.41), bottom-up control by the slope of the log-log relationship between biomass and production rate (ranging from -0.12 to 1.09) and top-down control by an index that considers the relative abundances of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viruses (ranging from 0.82 to 4.83). We conclude that temperature becomes dominant (i.e. activation energy >1.5 eV) within a narrow window of intermediate values of bottom-up (0.3-0.6) and top-down 0.8-1.2) controls. A pervasive latitudinal pattern of decreasing temperature regulation towards the Equator, regardless of the oceanic basin, suggests that the impact of global warming on marine microbes and their biogeochemical function will be more intense at higher latitudes. Our analysis predicts that 1°C ocean warming will result in increased biomass of heterotrophic prokaryoplankton only in waters with <26°C of mean annual surface temperature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature regulation of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes increases latitudinally as a breach between bottom-up and top-down controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Gasol, Josep M; Pernice, Massimo C; Mangot, Jean-François; Massana, Ramon; Lara, Elena; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M

    2017-09-01

    Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4,000 m depth). Temperature control was approached by the apparent activation energy in eV (ranging from 0.46 to 3.41), bottom-up control by the slope of the log-log relationship between biomass and production rate (ranging from -0.12 to 1.09) and top-down control by an index that considers the relative abundances of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viruses (ranging from 0.82 to 4.83). We conclude that temperature becomes dominant (i.e. activation energy >1.5 eV) within a narrow window of intermediate values of bottom-up (0.3-0.6) and top-down 0.8-1.2) controls. A pervasive latitudinal pattern of decreasing temperature regulation towards the Equator, regardless of the oceanic basin, suggests that the impact of global warming on marine microbes and their biogeochemical function will be more intense at higher latitudes. Our analysis predicts that 1°C ocean warming will result in increased biomass of heterotrophic prokaryoplankton only in waters with <26°C of mean annual surface temperature. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Speeding Up Microevolution: The Effects of Increasing Temperature on Selection and Genetic Variance in a Wild Bird Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Arild; Visser, Marcel E.; Kruuk, Loeske E. B.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of genetic variance underlying a phenotypic trait and the strength of selection acting on that trait are two key parameters that determine any evolutionary response to selection. Despite substantial evidence that, in natural populations, both parameters may vary across environmental conditions, very little is known about the extent to which they may covary in response to environmental heterogeneity. Here we show that, in a wild population of great tits (Parus major), the strength of the directional selection gradients on timing of breeding increased with increasing spring temperatures, and that genotype-by-environment interactions also predicted an increase in additive genetic variance, and heritability, of timing of breeding with increasing spring temperature. Consequently, we therefore tested for an association between the annual selection gradients and levels of additive genetic variance expressed each year; this association was positive, but non-significant. However, there was a significant positive association between the annual selection differentials and the corresponding heritability. Such associations could potentially speed up the rate of micro-evolution and offer a largely ignored mechanism by which natural populations may adapt to environmental changes. PMID:21408101

  15. C. albicans increases cell wall mannoprotein, but not mannan, in response to blood, serum and cultivation at physiological temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Michael; Greene, Rachel R; Noss, Ilka; Lowman, Douglas W; Williams, David L

    2011-09-01

    The cell wall of Candida albicans is central to the yeasts ability to withstand osmotic challenge, to adhere to host cells, to interact with the innate immune system and ultimately to the virulence of the organism. Little is known about the effect of culture conditions on the cell wall structure and composition of C. albicans. We examined the effect of different media and culture temperatures on the molecular weight (Mw), polymer distribution and composition of cell wall mannan and mannoprotein complex. Strain SC5314 was inoculated from frozen stock onto yeast peptone dextrose (YPD), blood or 5% serum agar media at 30 or 37°C prior to mannan/mannoprotein extraction. Cultivation of the yeast in blood or serum at physiologic temperature resulted in an additive effect on Mw, however, cultivation media had the greatest impact on Mw. Mannan from a yeast grown on blood or serum at 30°C showed a 38.9 and 28.6% increase in Mw, when compared with mannan from YPD-grown yeast at 30°C. Mannan from the yeast pregrown on blood or serum at 37°C showed increased Mw (8.8 and 26.3%) when compared with YPD mannan at 37°C. The changes in Mw over the entire polymer distribution were due to an increase in the amount of mannoprotein (23.8-100%) and a decrease in cell wall mannan (5.7-17.3%). We conclude that C. albicans alters the composition of its cell wall, and thus its phenotype, in response to cultivation in blood, serum and/or physiologic temperature by increasing the amount of the mannoprotein and decreasing the amount of the mannan in the cell wall.

  16. INCREASES IN CORE TEMPERATURE COUNTERBALANCE EFFECTS OF HEMOCONCENTRATION ON BLOOD VISCOSITY DURING PROLONGED EXERCISE IN THE HEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J.; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W.; Williams, Alexander T.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and post-exercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration and hyperthermia, as well as determine their combined effects, on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% rH), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (37.11 ± 0.35 °C to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), hemoconcentration (hematocrit = 43.6 ± 3.6% to 45.6 ± 3.5%), and dehydration (Δbody weight = −3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced hemoconcentration significantly (P viscosity by 9% (3.97 to 4.30 cP at 300 s−1) while exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (3.97 to 3.70 cP at 300 s−1). However, when both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s−1). The effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity, and increased red blood cell aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased RBC deformability (e.g., RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. PMID:26682653

  17. Photochemical responses of three marine phytoplankton species exposed to ultraviolet radiation and increased temperature: role of photoprotective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halac, S R; Villafañe, V E; Gonçalves, R J; Helbling, E W

    2014-12-01

    We carried out experiments using long-term (5-7 days) exposure of marine phytoplankton species to solar radiation, in order to assess the joint effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature on the photochemical responses and photoprotective mechanisms. In the experiments, carried out at Atlantic coast of Patagonia (43°18.7'S; 65°2.5'W) in spring-summer 2011, we used three species as model organisms: the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans, the chlorophyte Dunaliella salina and the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana. They were exposed under: (1) two radiation quality treatments (by using different filters): P (PAR, >400 nm) and PAB (PAR+UV-A+UV-B, >280 nm); (2) two radiation intensities (100% and 50%) and (3) two experimental temperatures: 18 °C and 23 °C during summer and 15 °C and 20 °C in spring experiments, simulating a 5 °C increase under a scenario of climate change. In addition, short-term (4h) artificial radiation exposure experiments were implemented to study vertical migration of cells pre- and non-acclimated to solar radiation. We observed species-specific responses: P. micans displayed a better photochemical performance and a lower inhibition induced by UVR than D. salina and I. galbana. In accordance, P. micans was the only species that showed a synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds (UVACs) during the experiment. On the other hand, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was activated in D. salina at noon throughout the exposure, while I. galbana did not show a regular NPQ pattern. This mechanism was almost absent in P. micans. Regarding vertical migration, I. galbana showed the most pronounced displacement to deepest layers since the first two hours of exposure in pre- and non-acclimated cells, while only non-acclimated D. salina cells moved to depth at the end of the experiment. Finally, temperature partially counteracted solar radiation inhibition in D. salina and I. galbana, whereas no effect was observed upon P. micans. In particular, significant

  18. Towards better understanding of the response of Sphagnum peatland to increased temperature and reduced precipitation in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Radoslaw; Basińska, Anna; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Gąbka, Maciej; Hoffmann, Mathias; Józefczyk, Damian; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Leśny, Jacek; Łuców, Dominika; Moni, Christophe; Reczuga, Monika; Samson, Mateusz; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Stróżecki, Marcin; Urbaniak, Marek; Zielińska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Janusz

    2017-04-01

    With respect to climate change peatlands are highly vulnerable ecosystems. Especially a potential drying in future might result in a major carbon source and release to the atmosphere. We carried out a field climate manipulation experiment at Rzecin peatland in western Poland to assess how increased temperature and reduced precipitation may impact carbon balance, vegetation, microbes and water chemistry of the Sphagnum peatland. Here, we present results of measurements conducted in two contrasting years (417 mm and 678 mm of precipitation in very dry 2015 and wet 2016, respectively). The experimental design consists of four treatments, each one replicated three times (control, CO; simulated warming, W; prolonged drought, D and warming & drought, W+D). Increased temperatures (T) during the year were achieved by infrared heaters (400W × 4 per site, approx. 60 Wṡm-2 addition of LW radiation). Precipitation was reduced using an automatic curtain, covering the site during nighttime hours of the growth seasons. The manipulation experiment was successful during both years, increasing the air (30 cm height) and soil temperature (5 cm depth, sites W and D) by up to 0.2 oC and 1.0 oC, respectively. Precipitation was reduced to 37 % during both years. At W+D site the peat temperature was nearly two times higher than on W site indicating the impact of drought on T increase. To study the C exchange we developed an automatic mobile platform for measuring CO2/CH4/H2O fluxes (LGR) as well as 13CO2 and 13CH4 fluxes (PICARRO CRDS G2201-i). Measurements were performed, using dynamic ecosystem chambers (for NEE and Reco) and combined with simultaneous measurements of surface spectral properties. Flux calculation and gap filling was done according to Hoffmann et al. 2015. Methane emissions were significantly higher on manipulated plots than on CO (25 gCṡm-2yr-1) during both years, but only in the very dry 2015, CH4 fluxes were the highest on W+D site (33 gC gCṡm-2yr-1). Besides

  19. Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or

  20. 77 FR 28471 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Montgomery, PA, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... 3206-AM62 Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Montgomery, PA, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal... the Montgomery, Pennsylvania, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine Chester, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties, PA, to the Burlington, NJ, NAF wage area and...

  1. 77 FR 63205 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Montgomery, Pennsylvania, as a Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... RIN 3206-AM62 Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Montgomery, Pennsylvania, as a Nonappropriated.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing a final rule to abolish the Montgomery, Pennsylvania, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine Chester, Montgomery...

  2. 76 FR 53045 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Monmouth, NJ, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... 3206-AM49 Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Monmouth, NJ, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Area AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Interim rule with request for... Monmouth, New Jersey, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine Monmouth...

  3. Potential impacts of topography and prevailing wind direction on future precipitation changes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunematsu, N.; Dairaku, K.; Hirano, J.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate future changes in summertime precipitation amounts over the Japanese islands and their relations to the topographical heights, this study analyzed 20 km horizontal grid-spacing regional climate model downscalings of MIROC3.2-hires 20C3M and SRES-A1B scenario data for the periods of 1981-2000 and 2081-2100. Results indicate the remarkable increases in June-July-August mean daily precipitation in the west and south sides (windward sides) of the mountainous regions, especially in western Japan where heavy rainfall is frequently observed in the recent climate. The remarkable increases in summertime precipitation are likely to occur not only in high altitude areas but also at low altitudes. The occurrence frequencies of precipitation greater than 100 mm/day would also increase in such areas. The intensification of southwesterly moist air flows in the lower troposphere is considered to be one of the main causes of those precipitation changes because the intensified southwesterly moist air flows impinging on the western and southern slopes of the mountains can generate stronger upslope flows and well-developed clouds, leading to increased precipitation. Also, the results show that future precipitation changes in the lee sides of the mountainous regions (e.g., the Tokyo metropolitan area) would be comparatively small. These results indicate large influences of topography and prevailing wind direction on future precipitation changes. Acknowledgments: This study was conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan. We thank the regional climate modeling groups (MRI

  4. A study of cement additive from varied heating temperature of coconut shell charcoal to increase cement strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyidah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study introduces an organic wasted material, which hopefully can be another solution besides other expensive chemical-based additives. The study intends to investigate the effect heating temperature on charcoal powder, which is originated from the coconut-shell waste material, related to its ability in enhancing cement strength. Six samples with different additive concentration should be prepared before initiating the strength test. the strength test principally follows the bi-axial loading test procedure, where each sample will be burdened by a certain amount of the load force until failure condition was reached. The recorded pressure where the failure occurs will be treated as maximum load, which is needed for determining compressive strength and shear-bond-strength values. Those parameters should be in refer to respectable standard in the oil and gas industry. Results from the strength test clearly indicate that higher heating temperature yields to a cement with a high strength. The optimal heating temperature has reached for a sample with 700°C charcoal powder. It is a potential opportunity in increasing the economic value of the waste material.

  5. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Rinaldi, Kévin; Briki, Walid; Hue, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions. Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol) beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature) (28.7°C±0. 5°C), Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C) or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C). Trial time, core temperature (Tco), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) were assessed. Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol. A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone). Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE) between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  6. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Tran Trong

    Full Text Available A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions.Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature (28.7°C±0. 5°C, Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C. Trial time, core temperature (Tco, heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal sensation (TS and thermal comfort (TC were assessed.Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol.A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone. Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  7. Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration: A key uncertainty in the carbon cycle‐climate feedback

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lombardozzi, Danica L; Bonan, Gordon B; Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Fisher, Rosie A

    2015-01-01

    Earth System Models typically use static responses to temperature to calculate photosynthesis and respiration, but experimental evidence suggests that many plants acclimate to prevailing temperatures...

  8. Increase in leaf temperature opens stomata and decouples net photosynthesis from stomatal conductance in Pinus taeda and Populus deltoides x nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles W; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2017-03-01

    The effect of temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) and corresponding gas exchange parameters was studied in two tree species with contrasting leaf anatomy and ecophysiology-a broadleaf angiosperm, Populus deltoides x nigra (poplar), and a needle-leaf gymnosperm, Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Experiments were conducted in growth chambers across a leaf temperature range of 19-48°C. Manipulations of temperature were done in well-watered and drought soil conditions and under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) air CO2 concentrations. Increases in leaf temperature caused stomatal opening at both ambient and elevated [CO2]. The gs increased by 42% in poplar and by 40% in loblolly pine when leaf temperature increased from 30°C to 40°C at a vapour pressure difference of 1 kPa. Stomatal limitation to photosynthesis decreased in elevated temperature in loblolly pine but not in poplar. The ratio of net photosynthesis to gs depended on leaf temperature, especially at high temperatures. Evaporative cooling of transpiring leaves resulted in reductions in leaf temperature up to 9°C in well-watered poplar but only 1°C in drought-stressed poplar and in loblolly pine. As global mean temperatures rise and temperature extremes become more frequent and severe, understanding the effect of temperature on gs, and modelling that relationship, will become increasingly important. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Introduction of low-temperature swirl technology of burning as a way of increase in ecological of low power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchenko, A. A.; Paramonov, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    Work is devoted to the solution of problems of energy efficiency increase in low power boilers at combustion of solid fuel. The technological method of nitrogen oxides decomposition on a surface of carbon particles with education environmentally friendly carbonic acid and molecular nitrogen is considered during the work of a low-temperature swirl fire chamber. Based on the analysis of physical and chemical processes of a fuel chemically connected energy transition into thermal, using the diffusive and kinetic theory of burning modern approaches the technique, mathematical model and the settlement program for assessment of plant ecological indicators when using a new method are developed. Alternative calculations of furnace process are carried out, quantitative assessment of nitrogen oxides emissions level of the reconstructed boiler is executed. The results of modeling and experimental data have approved that the organization of swirl burning increases overall performance of a fire chamber and considerably reduces emissions of nitrogen oxides.

  10. Theoretical comparison of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers used to increase solar pond's temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W; Best, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Mathematical models of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers operating with the water/Carrol{sup T}M mixture were developed to simulate the performance of these systems coupled to a solar pond in order to increase the temperature of the useful heat produced by solar ponds. The results showed that the single-stage and the double absorption heat transformer are the most promising configuration to be coupled to solar ponds. With single-stage heat transformers it is possible to increase solar pond's temperature until 50 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of about 0.48 and with double absorption heat transformers until 100 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of 0.33. [Spanish] Se desarrollaron modelos matematicos de una sola etapa y transformadores avanzados de absorcion de calor operando con la mezcla agua/Carrol{sup T}M para simular el rendimiento de estos sistemas acoplados a un estanque solar con el objeto de aumentar la temperatura del calor util producido por los estanques solares. Los resultados mostraron que la etapa sencilla y el transformador de calor de absorcion doble son la configuracion mas prometedora para ser acoplado a estanques solares. Con los transformadores de calor de una sola etapa es posible aumentar la temperatura del estanque solar hasta 50 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de alrededor de 0.48 y con transformadores de calor de doble absorcion hasta 100 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de 0.33.

  11. Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Coumarins from Fruits of Heracleum leskowii with Application of Solvents with Different Polarity under Increasing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins are nowadays an important group of organic compounds from natural sources that are useful in a number of fields. Because they possess different pharmacological properties, finding the proper extraction conditions for their separation from plant matrices is a very important step. In this report Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE under different temperature conditions and with different types of extraction solvents were tested. As a matrix, fruits of Heracleum leskowii have been used. A simple reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC coupled with a photodiode array detector (DAD has been developed for separation and quantitative analysis of the main coumarins. Umbelliferone, xanthotoxin, angelicin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, imperatorin and isoimperatorin were investigated. Bergapten and imperatorin were dominant in almost all extracts in the range of 9.92 ± 0.02–20.93 ± 0.06 and 12.19 ± 0.98–19.07 ± 0.03 mg/100 g, respectively. Dichloromethane and methanol were chosen as the most proper suitable solvents for extraction of coumarins. By increasing the temperature the amount of extracted coumarins increases in petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts.

  12. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and temperature increase on Escherichia coli spp. and pectin methyl esterase inactivation in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E F; González-M, G; Klotz, B; Rodrigo, D

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment combined with moderate processing temperatures (25 ℃-50 ℃) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157: H7 (ATCC 700728), E. coli K12 (ATCC 23716), and pectin methyl esterase in orange juice, using pressures of 250 to 500 MPa with times ranging between 1 and 30 min. Loss of viability of E. coli O157:H7 increased significantly as pressure and treatment time increased, achieving a 6.5 log cycle reduction at 400 MPa for 3 min at 25 ℃ of treatment. With regard to the inactivation of pectin methyl esterase, the greatest reduction obtained was 90.05 ± 0.01% at 50 ℃ and 500 MPa of pressure for 15 min; therefore, the pectin methyl esterase enzyme was highly resistant to the treatments by high hydrostatic pressure. The results obtained in this study showed a synergistic effect between the high pressure and moderate temperatures in inactivating E. coli cells. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Increased temperature and altered summer precipitation have differential effects on biological soil crusts in a dryland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Carney, Travis D.; Housman, David C.; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common and ecologically important members of dryland ecosystems worldwide, where they stabilize soil surfaces and contribute newly fixed C and N to soils. To test the impacts of predicted climate change scenarios on biocrusts in a dryland ecosystem, the effects of a 2–3 °C increase in soil temperature and an increased frequency of smaller summer precipitation events were examined in a large, replicated field study conducted in the cold desert of the Colorado Plateau, USA. Surface soil biomass (DNA concentration), photosynthetically active cyanobacterial biomass (chlorophyll a concentration), cyanobacterial abundance (quantitative PCR assay), and bacterial community composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing) were monitored seasonally over 2 years. Soil microbial biomass and bacterial community composition were highly stratified between the 0–2 cm depth biocrusts and 5–10 cm depth soil beneath the biocrusts. The increase in temperature did not have a detectable effect on any of the measured parameters over 2 years. However, after the second summer of altered summer precipitation pattern, significant declines occurred in the surface soil biomass (avg. DNA concentration declined 38%), photosynthetic cyanobacterial biomass (avg. chlorophyll a concentration declined 78%), cyanobacterial abundance (avg. gene copies g−1 soil declined 95%), and proportion of Cyanobacteria in the biocrust bacterial community (avg. representation in sequence libraries declined 85%). Biocrusts are important contributors to soil stability, soil C and N stores, and plant performance, and the loss or reduction of biocrusts under an altered precipitation pattern associated with climate change could contribute significantly to lower soil fertility and increased erosion and dust production in dryland ecosystems at a regional scale.

  14. Abstract of report on increasing the oil yield in low temperature carbonization by the addition of catalyst and superheated steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-04-29

    In a letter dated February 2, 1943, Hydro-works Poelitz stated that in practical operation, as well as in the laboratory, an increased oil yield in low-temperature carbonization had been obtained by the simultaneous addition of superheated steam and sulfur. Other experiments with the same objective were later performed at Gelsenberg, Scholven, and Ludwigshafen. The laboratory experimental results and operating experimental results were discussed in this report. Poelitz found that it could increase its yield from 71.5% to 79.3% by the addition of 1.2% sulfur and an increase in the steam from 150 kg/hr to 320 kg/hr when carbonizing centrifuge residue from coal and, at the time, increased the throughput in the ball kiln from 3.5 to 3.8 tons/hr. Some properties of the heavy oils were given. The use of these results in mass production depended on two factors. The first was the extent to which the quantity of steam could be increased without too great an increase in the dust content of the precooler oil. The second factor was the economy of increased steam consumption and the cost of catalysts. Most of the beneficial effect of the additions seemed to be due to the steam, but the catalyst added some effect to that of the steam; without the use of steam, catalyst alone seemed to have essentially no effect. Replacement of part of the sulfur in the catalyst by small amounts of sodium sulfide and soda seemed to give the same effect as the sulfur alone, and the alkaline addition seemed to have the additional benefit of preventing the kiln residue from becoming plastic.

  15. Optimalization of silicon extraction from husk ashes by excessive magnesium addition on increasing rate of temperature reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintha, I.; Dahrul, M.; Ismawati, S. S.; Kurniati, M.; Irmansyah; Irzaman

    2017-05-01

    The Silicon can be extracted from rice husk ash by reducing silica with magnesium. In this study the use of Magnesium and Silica was 49:60 with various rate of increase in the reduction temperature (1 °C/minutes, 3 °C/minutes, and 5°C/minutes). It was done in order to obtain silicon with a higher purity than previous studies. The results of EDX showed that the purity silicon with the increase rate of 1 °C/minutes and 5 °C/minutes were 1.78% and 29.39%, respectively. Then, silicon was not formed by increasing rate of 3 °C/minutes. Moreover, XRD results of the samples by using the increase rate of 1 °C/minutes and 5 °C/minutes showed that the pattern correspond to Silicon while the sample with increase rate of 3 °C/min corresponds to Silica. The FTIR spectra indicate the presence of stretching vibration an harmonic for functional groups of Si-O-Si with spring constant for the increase rate of 1 °C/minutes, 3 °C/minutes, and 5 °C/minutes respectively were 977.23 N/m, 1003 N/m, and 982.3 N/m. FTIR result was consistent with EDX and XRD result proving by the existence of Si-O-Si functional group which showed the purity silicon produced was not optimum and presence of OH-functional group indicate that sample contained water

  16. Heat flow evolution of the Earth from paleomantle temperatures: Evidence for increasing heat loss since ∼2.5 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier

    2017-08-01

    Earth currently loses two to five times as much heat through its surface as it is internally produced by radioactivity. This proportion cannot be extrapolated into the past, because it would imply high interior temperatures and catastrophic melting of the planet in ancient times. The heat loss evolution of the Earth cannot therefore be described by a constant heat flow decreasing. This is consistent with previous work finding that the mantle heated up until ∼2.5-3.0 Ga and then progressively cooled down. The present work derives a first-order heat loss evolution of the Earth by comparing the evolution of the total heat content of the silicate Earth (as described by mantle potential temperatures deduced from the melting conditions of ancient non-arc basalts) with the total radioactive heat production. The results show that the heat flow was declining, and the mantle heating-up, until ∼2.5 Ga, but that after this time the heat flow has been slowly (but constantly) increasing, and the mantle cooling-down, until the present-day. The change in heat loss trend is roughly coeval with other major geological, geochemical and environmental changes, and could indicate the starting of the modern-style of plate tectonics. This work provides therefore the first quantitative evidence of change in terrestrial heat loss regime, and suggests that substantial variations in the internal heat budget occurred during Earth's history.

  17. Monitoring of temperature increase and tissue vaporization during laser interstitial thermotherapy of ex vivo swine liver by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, E; Saccomandi, P; Giurazza, F; Del Vescovo, R; Mortato, L; Martino, M; Panzera, F; Di Matteo, F M; Beomonte Zobel, B; Silvestri, S

    2013-01-01

    Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique used to thermally destroy tumour cells. Being based on hyperthermia, LITT outcome depends on the temperature distribution inside the tissue. Recently, CT scan thermometry, based on the dependence of the CT number (HU) on tissue temperature (T) has been introduced during LITT; it is an attractive approach to monitor T because it overcomes the concerns related to the invasiveness. We performed LITT on nine ex vivo swine livers at three different laser powers, (P=1.5 W, P=3 W, P=5 W) with a constant treatment time t=200 s; HU is averaged on two ellipsoidal regions of interest (ROI) of 0.2 cm2, placed at two distances from the applicator (d=3.6 mm and d=8.7 mm); a reference ROI was placed away from the applicator (d=30 mm). The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to evaluate the effect of the T increase in terms of HU variation in ex vivo swine livers undergoing LITT; and 2) to estimate the P value for tissue vaporization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study focused on the HU variation in swine livers undergoing LITT at different P. The reported findings could be useful to assess the effect of LITT on the liver in terms of both T changes and tissue vaporization, with the aim to obtain an effective therapy.

  18. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes...

  19. Temperature-dependent dynamic control of the TCA cycle increases volumetric productivity of itaconic acid production by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Björn-Johannes; Bettenbrock, Katja; Klamt, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Based on the recently constructed Escherichia coli itaconic acid production strain ita23, we aimed to improve the productivity by applying a two-stage process strategy with decoupled production of biomass and itaconic acid. We constructed a strain ita32 (MG1655 ΔaceA Δpta ΔpykF ΔpykA pCadCs), which, in contrast to ita23, has an active tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and a fast growth rate of 0.52 hr-1 at 37°C, thus representing an ideal phenotype for the first stage, the growth phase. Subsequently we implemented a synthetic genetic control allowing the downregulation of the TCA cycle and thus the switch from growth to itaconic acid production in the second stage. The promoter of the isocitrate dehydrogenase was replaced by the Lambda promoter (pR ) and its expression was controlled by the temperature-sensitive repressor CI857 which is active at lower temperatures (30°C). With glucose as substrate, the respective strain ita36A grew with a fast growth rate at 37°C and switched to production of itaconic acid at 28°C. To study the impact of the process strategy on productivity, we performed one-stage and two-stage bioreactor cultivations. The two-stage process enabled fast formation of biomass resulting in improved peak productivity of 0.86 g/L/hr (+48%) and volumetric productivity of 0.39 g/L/hr (+22%) in comparison to the one-stage process. With our dynamic production strain, we also resolved the glutamate auxotrophy of ita23 and increased the itaconic acid titer to 47 g/L. The temperature-dependent activation of gene expression by the Lambda promoters (pR /pL ) has been frequently used to improve protein or, in a few cases, metabolite production in two-stage processes. Here we demonstrate that the system can be as well used in the opposite direction to selectively knock-down an essential gene (icd) in E. coli to design a two-stage process for improved volumetric productivity. The control by temperature avoids expensive inducers and has the potential

  20. Stress-induced Curie temperature increase in the Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} invar alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorria, Pedro; Martinez-Blanco, David; Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Boada, Roberto; Chaboy, Jesus [ICMA and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro [LGIT, University of Grenoble and CNRS, Maison des Geosciences, Grenoble (France); Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Garbarino, Gaston; Castro, German R.; Mezouar, Mohamed [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France); Smith, Ronald I. [ISIS Facility, RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Alonso, J.I.G. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo (Spain); Hernando, Antonio [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Structural and magnetic changes on invar Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} alloy (T{sub C}=500 K) produced by mechanical milling followed by heating up to 1073 K, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization measurements, X-ray diffraction under high pressures and X-ray absorption at both Fe and Ni K-edges. We argue that the strain induced in the Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} material after this treatment mainly affects the Fe sites due to the magnetovolume coupling, the most notorious feature being the increase of the Curie temperature ({delta}T{sub C}=70 K). (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Increasing aridity, temperature and soil pH induce soil C-N-P imbalance in grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Feng; Shi, Xin-Rong; Han, Feng-Peng; Yuan, Zhi-You

    2016-01-01

    Due to the different degrees of controls exerted by biological and geochemical processes, climate changes are suggested to uncouple biogeochemical C, N and P cycles, influencing biomass accumulation, decomposition and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the possible extent of such disruption in grassland ecosystems remains unclear, especially in China’s steppes which have undergone rapid climate changes with increasing drought and warming predicted moving forward in these dryland ecosystems. Here, we assess how soil C-N-P stoichiometry is affected by climatic change along a 3500-km temperate climate transect in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results reveal that the soil from more arid and warmer sites are associated with lower soil organic C, total N and P. The ratios of both soil C:P and N:P decrease, but soil C:N increases with increasing aridity and temperature, indicating the predicted decreases in precipitation and warming for most of the temperate grassland region could lead to a soil C-N-P decoupling that may reduce plant growth and production in arid ecosystems. Soil pH, mainly reflecting long-term climate change in our sites, also contributes to the changing soil C-N-P stoichiometry, indicating the collective influences of climate and soil type on the shape of soil C-N-P balance.

  2. Changes in Greenland Outlet Glacier Systems Synchronous With Increasing Summer Sea Surface Temperatures Over the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, M.; Milliman, T.; Truffer, M.; Joughin, I.; Motyka, R.; Amundson, J.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of satellite-derived (AVHRR and MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) time series around Greenland show large-scale patterns of increase that are synchronous with changes in glacier termini and flow speed. In particular, the warming of summer SST in the last half of the 1990s is observed in the south of Greenland and in Disko Bay, coincident with the patterns of glacier acceleration (Rignot and Kanagaratnam. Science 2006) and, in Disko Bay, with the initial changes observed in the configuration and flow of Jakobshavns Isbrae (Joughin et al., Nature, 2004, and Luckman and Murray, GRL, 2005). The warming is observed to spread to the north along both coasts of Greenland, and be particularly pronounced on the NW coast during the first half of the present decade, also matching the patterns of glacier acceleration reported by Rignot and Kanagaratnam and others. Local reports from Disko Bay, and sea ice extent maps from satellite imagery, indicate that winter freezing of the coastal ocean has shown a dramatic decrease over the interval of change, and open water is much more common. Local changes in SST appear to coincide with changes in outlet glacier systems on a nearly annual basis, suggesting that the connection between ocean and inland ice is quite responsive to changes, whether warming or cooling. In a number of areas, maximum summer sea surface temperatures, as measured by satellite thermal IR data, have increased by four degrees C over the last 15 years, representing a significant change in the melting potential of near surface waters.

  3. High-temperature hydrogenation of pure and silver-decorated titanate nanotubes to increase their solar absorbance for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plodinec, Milivoj [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-1002 Zagreb (Croatia); Gajović, Andreja, E-mail: gajovic@irb.hr [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-1002 Zagreb (Croatia); Jakša, Gregor; Žagar, Kristina; Čeh, Miran [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-04-05

    Graphical abstract: The aim of the work is to study how annealing in a reducing atmosphere of titanate nanotubes (TiNT) and Ag decorated titanate nanotubes (TiNT@Ag) influenced on their structure, morphology, phase transitions, UV–ViS-NIR absorbance and photocatalytic activity. An increase of photocatalytic activity after a heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere was observed in the TiNT and TiNT@Ag. We found that the hydrogenated TiNT@Ag samples (TiNT@Ag-HA) had a two-times higher photodegradation impact on the caffeine than the TiNT samples, which is a consequence of the increased absorption of visible light and the synergetic effects between the silver and the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles that increase the efficiency of the formation of electron–hole pairs and the charge transfer to the surface of the nanoparticles. -- Highlights: • Titanate nanotubes with and without Ag nanoparticles were hydrogenated at 550 °C. • TiO{sub 2} nanostructures obtained by hydrogenation have core–shell structure. • Hydrogenated samples show absorption in the visible spectral region. • Hydrogenated Ag decorated sample show stronger absorption in visible than in UV. • Photocatalytic efficiency is improved by hydrogenation and by Ag nanoparticles. -- Abstract: Titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) and silver-decorated titanate nanotubes (TiNTs@Ag) were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. In the decorated nanotubes the silver particles were obtained by the photoreduction of AgNO{sub 3} under UV light. Pure and Ag-decorated nanotubes were high-temperature heat treated at 550 °C in a hydrogen atmosphere and the “core–shell”-structured TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were formed. For the structural characterization of all the titanate nanostructures we used conventional and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The Ag-decorated titanate nanostructures were additionally studied by X-ray photo

  4. Evidence that higher [CO2] increases tree growth sensitivity to temperature: a comparison of modern and paleo oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Michael C. Stambaugh; J. Renée Brooks; Frederick C. Meinzer; Barbara Lachenbruch; Richard P. Guyette

    2017-01-01

    To test tree growth-sensitivity to temperature under different ambient CO2 concentrations, we determined stem radial growth rates as they relate to variation in temperature during the last deglacial period, and compare these to modern tree growth rates as they relate to spatial variation in temperature across the modern species distributional...

  5. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...

  6. Features of performance of concrete and reinforced concrete structures of industrial facilities operated under impact of increased and high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomin Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Normative base of Ukraine has moved to European standards. The process of harmonization with the Eurocodes was completed, new national normative documents of DBN and DSTU were developed and put into effect. At the same time it was turned out that the big section “Concrete and reinforced concrete structures intended for work in conditions of increased and high temperatures” is absent in the Eurocodes. By order of the Ministry of Regional Development, Construction and Housing and Communal Services of Ukraine, the development of a normative act is provided for the replacement of SNiP 2.03.04-84 with DBN with a change in status. Heat-resistant concretes in the elements of thermal aggregates are used in the iron and steel industry (blast furnaces, air heaters, coke batteries, etc., non-ferrous metallurgy (graphite furnaces, fluidized bed furnaces, etc., oil refining and petrochemical industry (tubular furnaces, vertical sectional furnaces, etc., in the industry of building materials, and in various sectors of industry. These norms and rules apply to the design of concrete and reinforced concrete structures designed to operate under conditions of systematic exposure to increased (50 to 200 °C inclusive and high (above 200 °C process temperatures.

  7. Increasing parameter certainty and data utility through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed temperature and solute model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bandaragoda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To support the goal of distributed hydrologic and instream model predictions based on physical processes, we explore multi-dimensional parameterization determined by a broad set of observations. We present a systematic approach to using various data types at spatially distributed locations to decrease parameter bounds sampled within calibration algorithms that ultimately provide information regarding the extent of individual processes represented within the model structure. Through the use of a simulation matrix, parameter sets are first locally optimized by fitting the respective data at one or two locations and then the best results are selected to resolve which parameter sets perform best at all locations, or globally. This approach is illustrated using the Two-Zone Temperature and Solute (TZTS model for a case study in the Virgin River, Utah, USA, where temperature and solute tracer data were collected at multiple locations and zones within the river that represent the fate and transport of both heat and solute through the study reach. The result was a narrowed parameter space and increased parameter certainty which, based on our results, would not have been as successful if only single objective algorithms were used. We also found that the global optimum is best defined by multiple spatially distributed local optima, which supports the hypothesis that there is a discrete and narrowly bounded parameter range that represents the processes controlling the dominant hydrologic responses. Further, we illustrate that the optimization process itself can be used to determine which observed responses and locations are most useful for estimating the parameters that result in a global fit to guide future data collection efforts.

  8. Increase the threshold voltage of high voltage GaN transistors by low temperature atomic hydrogen treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erofeev, E. V., E-mail: erofeev@micran.ru [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Research Institute of Electrical-Communication Systems (Russian Federation); Fedin, I. V.; Kutkov, I. V. [Research and Production Company “Micran” (Russian Federation); Yuryev, Yu. N. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on AlGaN/GaN epitaxial heterostructures are a promising element base for the fabrication of high voltage electronic devices of the next generation. This is caused by both the high mobility of charge carriers in the transistor channel and the high electric strength of the material, which makes it possible to attain high breakdown voltages. For use in high-power switches, normally off-mode GaN transistors operating under enhancement conditions are required. To fabricate normally off GaN transistors, one most frequently uses a subgate region based on magnesium-doped p-GaN. However, optimization of the p-GaN epitaxial-layer thickness and the doping level makes it possible to attain a threshold voltage of GaN transistors close to V{sub th} = +2 V. In this study, it is shown that the use of low temperature treatment in an atomic hydrogen flow for the p-GaN-based subgate region before the deposition of gate-metallization layers makes it possible to increase the transistor threshold voltage to V{sub th} = +3.5 V. The effects under observation can be caused by the formation of a dipole layer on the p-GaN surface induced by the effect of atomic hydrogen. The heat treatment of hydrogen-treated GaN transistors in a nitrogen environment at a temperature of T = 250°C for 12 h reveals no degradation of the transistor’s electrical parameters, which can be caused by the formation of a thermally stable dipole layer at the metal/p-GaN interface as a result of hydrogenation.

  9. Growth performance and gut health parameters of finishing broilers supplemented with plant extracts and exposed to daily increased temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbarian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three plant extracts, i.e. lemon peel extract (LPE, orange peel extract (OPE and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO, on the performance and gut health parameters of broilers exposed to high temperature was investigated. A total of 336 unsexed Ross 308 broilers were distributed to seven dietary treatments, a control diet and six diets containing 200 or 400 mg kg-1 feed of one of the three products between d 25-38 (12 chicks per pen, four replicates. To induce chronic heat stress, the temperature was increased to 34°C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from d 28 until d 38. At d 38, four animals per pen were sampled for morphological characteristics (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and microbial counts (ileo-cecal contents. Plant extracts did not affect the bird performance. The bursa weight of the control birds was lower (p<0.05 comparing to those fed 400 mg kg-1 OPE and 200 and 400 mg kg-1 CXEO diets. Feeding 400 mg kg-1 of LPE decreased the duodenal villus:crypt ratio compared to control and 200 mg kg-1 OPE fed birds. Plant extracts did not have effect on ileal histo-morphology. Feeding with 400 mg kg-1 of LPE and CXEO caused a decrease in coliform counts in ileum and feeding of 400 mg kg-1 CXEO diet decreased coliform counts in caecum compared to control birds (p<0.05. These results elucidate that CXEO, OPE and LPE might modify some microbial and intestinal traits, but without beneficial effect on performance of broilers under heat stress.

  10. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-08-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate 'realized' thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the 'fundamental' norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing 'thermal safety margins'. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. © 2013 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  12. Effects of increasing air temperature on leaf phenology and photosynthetic characteristics in cool-temperate deciduous canopy trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, H.; Nagao, A.; Saitoh, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Influences of global warming have been observed or predicted in deciduous forest ecosystems in temperate regions. One of the remarkable changes can be hound in phenology, i.e., seasonality of canopy. Timing and growth rate of leaf expansion (morphological and physiological development), timing and rate of leaf senescence, and timing of leaf fall, and resulting length of photosynthetically active period, are the phenological events that have been focused over wide range of research from single leaf measurements at long-term research sites to satellite remote sensing at continental scales. These phenological changes under global warming have been predicted to influence carbon sequestration as a balance of photosynthesis and respiration. However, we still lack ecophysiological evidence and understandings on such phenological changes, to ask (1) do the phenological changes occur in both leaf morphology and physiology?, (2) does the leaf photosynthetic capacity change by warming?, and (3) do different tree species inhabiting in the same forest respond in a same way?In order to examine these questions, we conducted an open-warming experiments on foliage of matured canopy trees in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in central Japan. Warming treatment was made by open-top canopy chambers with 1.5m W x 2m L x 1.8m H. The chamber was made of transparent acrylic boards and vinyl sheet. Three sunlit branches (1-2m) of Quercus crispula (16m height) and one sunlit branch (1m) of Betula ermanii (18m height) were examined at 15m above ground, since 2011 for Quercus and 2013 for Betula. The chambers increased mean daytime air temperature by about 1.5 degreeC.Artificial warming led earlier leaf expansion by about 3 days in Quercus during 2013-2015 and 2 days in Betula, and delayed leaf fall by 2-7 days and 2-3 days in Quercus and Betula, respectively. Quercus leaves showed clear influence of warming: higher seasonal growth, higher capacity and slower senescence of leaf

  13. Dissimilar responses of larch stands in northern Siberia to increasing temperatures-a field and simulation based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Mareike; Kruse, Stefan; Epp, Laura S; Kolmogorov, Alexei; Nikolaev, Anatoly N; Heinrich, Ingo; Jeltsch, Florian; Pestryakova, Lyudmila A; Zibulski, Romy; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-09-01

    Arctic and alpine treelines worldwide differ in their reactions to climate change. A northward advance of or densification within the treeline ecotone will likely influence climate-vegetation feedback mechanisms. In our study, which was conducted in the Taimyr Depression in the North Siberian Lowlands, w present a combined field- and model-based approach helping us to better understand the population processes involved in the responses of the whole treeline ecotone, spanning from closed forest to single-tree tundra, to climate warming. Using information on stand structure, tree age, and seed quality and quantity from seven sites, we investigate effects of intra-specific competition and seed availability on the specific impact of recent climate warming on larch stands. Field data show that tree density is highest in the forest-tundra, and average tree size decreases from closed forest to single-tree tundra. Age-structure analyses indicate that the trees in the closed forest and forest-tundra have been present for at least ~240 yr. At all sites except the most southerly ones, past establishment is positively correlated with regional temperature increase. In the single-tree tundra, however, a change in growth form from krummholz to erect trees, beginning ~130 yr ago, rather than establishment date has been recorded. Seed mass decreases from south to north, while seed quantity increases. Simulations with LAVESI (Larix Vegetation Simulator) further suggest that relative density changes strongly in response to a warming signal in the forest-tundra while intra-specific competition limits densification in the closed forest and seed limitation hinders densification in the single-tree tundra. We find striking differences in strength and timing of responses to recent climate warming. While forest-tundra stands recently densified, recruitment is almost non-existent at the southern and northern end of the ecotone due to autecological processes. Palaeo-treelines may therefore

  14. Additive effects of enhanced ambient ultraviolet B radiation and increased temperature on immune function, growth and physiological condition of juvenile (parr) Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Ilmari E; Salo, Harri M; Markkula, Eveliina; Rikalainen, Kaisa; Arts, Michael T; Browman, Howard I

    2011-01-01

    Climate change models predict increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation levels due to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. In order to study the impact of these two environmental stressors acting simultaneously on the physiology of fish, Atlantic salmon parr were exposed, for 8 weeks in outdoor tanks, to different combinations of UVB radiation (depleted and enhanced) and temperature (standard rearing temperature of 14 °C or 19 °C). The immune function (plasma IgM, lysozyme activity and complement bacteriolytic activity), growth (body weight) and physiological condition (haematocrit and plasma protein concentration) of the fish were determined. Increased UVB level, regardless of water temperature, had a negative effect on immune function parameters, growth and physiological condition. Higher temperature increased plasma IgM concentration but had a negative effect on complement bacteriolytic activity under both spectral treatments. Increased temperature, irrespective of UVB level, increased fish growth but negatively affected haematocrit and plasma protein. Exposing the fish to enhanced UVB at elevated temperature increased plasma IgM concentration and slightly improved growth. However, complement activity and physiological condition parameters decreased more than when the fish were exposed to each stressor separately. The changes were mainly additive; no interactive or synergistic effects were observed. The negative impact of multiple stressors on immune function, together with predicted increases in pathogen load in warmer waters resulting from global climate change, suggest an increased risk to diseases in fishes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat does not affect nonheme iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    cysteine and thereby affect iron absorption. Twenty-one women (25 +/- 3 y) were served a basic meal without meat and two other meals consisting of the basic meal plus 75 g of pork meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120degreesC. The meals were extrinsically labeled with Fe-55 or Fe-59. Iron absorption was determined......The effect of increasing cooking temperatures of meat on nonheme iron absorption from a composite meal was investigated. Cysteine-containing peptides may have a role in the iron absorption enhancing effect of muscle proteins. Heat treatment can change the content of sulfhydryl groups produced from...... from measurements of wholebody Fe-59 retention and the activity of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood samples. Nonheme iron absorptions were 0.9 (0.5-4.0)% (P = 0.06), 0.7 (0.4-3.9)% (P = 0.1) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1)% (P meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120degreesC, respectively, was added to the basic...

  16. Synergistic effects of temperature extremes, hypoxia, and increases in CO2 on marine animals: From Earth history to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    PöRtner, Hans O.; Langenbuch, Martina; Michaelidis, Basile

    2005-09-01

    Currently rising CO2 levels in atmosphere and marine surface waters as well as projected scenarios of CO2 disposal in the ocean emphasize that CO2 sensitivities need to be investigated in aquatic organisms, especially in animals which may well be the most sensitive. Moreover, to understand causes and effects, we need to identify the physiological processes that are sensitive to CO2 beyond the current emphasis on calcification. Few animals may be acutely sensitive to moderate CO2 increases, but subtle changes due to long-term exposure may already have started to be felt in a wide range of species. CO2 effects identified in invertebrate fauna from habitats characterized by oscillating CO2 levels include depressed metabolic rates and reduced ion exchange and protein synthesis rates. These result in shifts in metabolic equilibria and slowed growth. Long-term moderate hypercapnia has been observed to produce enhanced mortality with as yet unidentified cause and effect relationships. During future climate change, simultaneous shifts in temperature, CO2, and hypoxia levels will enhance sensitivity to environmental extremes relative to a change in just one of these variables. Some interactions between these variables result from joint effects on the same physiological mechanisms. Such interactions need to be considered in terms of future increases in atmospheric CO2 and its uptake by the ocean as well as in terms of currently proposed mitigation scenarios. These include purposeful injection of CO2 in the deep ocean or Fe fertilization of the surface ocean, which reduces subsurface O2 levels. The resulting ecosystem shifts could develop progressively, rather than beyond specific thresholds, such that effects parallel CO2 oscillations. It is unsure to what extent and how quickly species may adapt to permanently elevated CO2 levels by microevolutionary compensatory processes.

  17. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R.; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account. PMID:27736913

  18. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Zyryanov, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter—ozone production probability (\\gamma_{O_{3}}) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse \\gamma_{O_{3}} data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models—the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model—was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the

  19. Turning up the Heat: Increasing Temperature and Coral Bleaching at the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands: e43878

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David A Abdo; Lynda M Bellchambers; Scott N Evans

    2012-01-01

    .... A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos...

  20. Evidence that higher CO2 increases tree growth sensitivity to temperature: a comparison of modern and paleo oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: To test the growth-sensitivity to temperature under different ambient CO2 concentrations, we determined paleo tree growth rates as they relate to variation in temperature during the last deglacial period, and compare these to modern tree growth rates as they relate to spatia...

  1. Increasing synchrony of high temperature and low flow in western North American streams: Double trouble for coldwater biota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Arismendi; Mohammad Safeeq; Sherri L. Johnson; Jason B Dunham; Roy. Haggerty

    2013-01-01

    Flow and temperature are strongly linked environmental factors driving ecosystem processes in streams. Stream temperature maxima (Tmax_w) and stream flow minima (Qmin) can create periods of stress for aquatic organisms. In mountainous areas, such as western North America, recent shifts toward an earlier spring peak flow and...

  2. Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum daily

  3. Increasing growth temperature reduces the stimulatory effect of elevated CO[sub 2] on photosynthesis or biomass in two perennial species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, L.H.; Bunce, J.A. (Climate Stress Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States))

    1994-01-01

    We examined how anticipated changes in CO[sub 2] concentration and temperature interacted to alter plant growth, harvest characteristics and photosynthesis in two cold-adapted herbaceous perennials, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Arc) and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L. cv. Potomac). Plants were grown at two Co[sub 2] concentraions (362 [ambient] and 717 [elevated] [mu]mol mol[sup -1] CO[sub 2]) and four constant day/night temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 deg. C in controlled environmental chambers. Elevated CO[sub 2] significantly increased total plant biomass and protein over a wide range of temperatures in both species. Stimulation of photosynthetic rate, however, was eliminated at the highest growth temperature in M. sativa and relative stimuation of plant biomass and protein at high CO[sub 2] declined as temperatue increased in both species. Lack of a synergistic effect between temperatuer and CO[sub 2] was unexpected since elevated CO[sub 2] reduces the amount of carbon lost via photorespiration and photorespiration increases with temperature. Differences between anticipated stimulatory effects of CO[sub 2] and temperature and whole plant single and leaf measurements are discussed. Data from this study suggest that stimulatory effects of atmospheric CO-2 on growth and photosynthesis may decline with anticipated increases in global temperature, limiting the degree of carbon storge in these two perennial species. (au) (27 refs.)

  4. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Pseudoroegneria spicata: response of stomatal density, leaf area and biomass to changes in water supply and increased temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lauchlan H; Greenall, Amber; Carlyle, Cameron; Turkington, Roy; Friedman, Cynthia Ross

    2009-03-01

    Changes in rainfall and temperature brought about through climate change may affect plant species distribution and community composition of grasslands. The primary objective of this study was to test how manipulation of water and temperature would influence the plasticity of stomatal density and leaf area of bluebunch wheatgrass, Pseudoroegneria spicata. It was hypothesized that: (1) an increased water supply will increase biomass and leaf area and decrease stomatal density, while a reduced water supply will cause the opposite effect; (2) an increase in temperature will reduce biomass and leaf area and increase stomatal density; and (3) the combinations of water and temperature treatments can be aligned along a stress gradient and that stomatal density will be highest at high stress. Methods The three water supply treatments were (1) ambient, (2) increased approx. 30% more than ambient through weekly watering and (3) decreased approx. 30 % less than ambient by rain shades. The two temperature treatments were (1) ambient and (2) increased approx. 1-3 degrees C by using open-top chambers. At the end of the second experimental growing season, above-ground biomass was harvested, oven-dried and weighed, tillers from bluebunch wheatgrass plants sampled, and the abaxial stomatal density and leaf area of tillers were measured. The first hypothesis was partially supported--reducing water supply increased stomatal density, but increasing water supply reduced leaf area. The second hypothesis was rejected. Finally, the third hypothesis could not be fully supported--rather than a linear response there appears to be a parabolic stomatal density response to stress. Overall, the abaxial stomatal density and leaf area of bluebunch wheatgrass were plastic in their response to water and temperature manipulations. Although bluebunch wheatgrass has the potential to adapt to changing climate, the grass is limited in its ability to respond to a combination of reduced water and increased

  5. Speed ratio but cabin temperature positively correlated with increased heart rates among professional drivers during car races

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanagida, Ryo; Takahashi, Kiichi; Miura, Masaru; Nomura, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yojiro; Aoki, Ken; Iwasaki, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The present study measures heart rate (HR) on a number of professional race-car drivers during actual car races through annual seasons to test hypotheses that faster relative speed and higher cabin temperature would induce higher...

  6. A study of cement additive from varied heating temperature of coconut shell charcoal to increase cement strength

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mursyidah; Novrianti; Adi Novriansyah; Teguh Prasetya Utama

    2017-01-01

    .... The study intends to investigate the effect heating temperature on charcoal powder, which is originated from the coconut-shell waste material, related to its ability in enhancing cement strength...

  7. Effects of increasing temperature alone and combined with copper exposure on biochemical and physiological parameters in the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Mussismilia harttii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Juliana da Silva; Marangoni, Laura Fernandes de Barros; Marques, Joseane Aparecida; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-09-01

    Effects of increasing temperature alone and in combination with exposure to dissolved copper (Cu) were evaluated in the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Mussismilia harttii using a marine mesocosm system. Endpoints analyzed included parameters involved in metabolism [maximum photosynthetic capacity of zooxanthellae (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll a and ATP concentrations], calcification [carbonic anhydrase (CA) and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity], and oxidative status [antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. Coral polyps were collected, acclimated and exposed to three increasing temperature conditions [25.0±0.1°C (control; average temperature of local seawater), 26.6±0.1°C and 27.3±0.1°C] using a marine mesocosm system. They were tested alone and in combination with four environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved Cu in seawater [2.9±0.7 (control; average concentration in local seawater), 3.8±0.8, 5.4±0.9 and 8.6±0.3μg/L] for 4, 8 and 12days. Fv/Fm reduced over the experimental period with increasing temperature. Combination of increasing temperature with Cu exposure enhanced this effect. CA and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities increased up to 8days of exposure, but recovered back after 12days of experiment. Short-term exposure to increasing temperature or long-term exposure to the combination of stressors reduced LPO, suggesting the occurrence of a remodeling process in the lipid composition of biological membranes. ACAP, ATP and chlorophyll a were not significantly affected by the stressors. These findings indicate that increasing temperature combined with exposure to dissolved Cu increase susceptibility to bleaching and reduce growth in the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral M. harttii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary rescue and local adaptation under different rates of temperature increase: a combined analysis of changes in phenotype expression and genotype frequency in Paramecium microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Joshua; Gougat-Barbera, Claire; Krenek, Sascha; Kaltz, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Evolutionary rescue (ER) occurs when populations, which have declined due to rapid environmental change, recover through genetic adaptation. The success of this process and the evolutionary trajectory of the population strongly depend on the rate of environmental change. Here we investigated how different rates of temperature increase (from 23 to 32 °C) affect population persistence and evolutionary change in experimental microcosms of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum. Consistent with theory on ER, we found that those populations experiencing the slowest rate of temperature increase were the least likely to become extinct and tended to be the best adapted to the new temperature environment. All high-temperature populations were more tolerant to severe heat stress (35, 37 °C), indicating a common mechanism of heat protection. High-temperature populations also had superior growth rates at optimum temperatures, leading to the absence of a pattern of local adaptation to control (23 °C) and high-temperature (32 °C) environments. However, high-temperature populations had reduced growth at low temperatures (5-9 °C), causing a shift in the temperature niche. In part, the observed evolutionary change can be explained by selection from standing variation. Using mitochondrial markers, we found complete divergence between control and high-temperature populations in the frequencies of six initial founder genotypes. Our results confirm basic predictions of ER and illustrate how adaptation to an extreme local environment can produce positive as well as negative correlated responses to selection over the entire range of the ecological niche. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Temperature stress in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a test for adaptation to soil temperature in three isolates of Funneliformis mosseae from different climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra E. Gavito

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may impose stimulations or constraints on the mycorrhizal symbiosis by increasing and fluctuating temperatures. We conducted a study to compare the soil temperature response curves (6, 12, 18, and 24 oC of three isolates of Funneliformis mosseae from different regions and climates (Finland, Denmark, Spain, to test if the isolates from cold environments were able to grow better at lower temperatures and the isolates from warmer environments grew better at higher temperatures. The results provided clear evidence suggesting no adaptation to soil temperature in these AMF isolates. All isolates showed reduced development and very little external mycelium growth at 6 and 12 oC, and similar increased development with increasing soil temperature.  These results suggest that AMF have a narrow window to develop in cold regions where temperatures below 15 oC prevail.

  10. The Effect of Increasing Sn Content on High-Temperature Mechanical Deformation of an Mg-3%Cu-1%Ca Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S.E. Antipas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chill casting of magnesium alloy samples with secondary alloying elements of Cu, Ca and Sn at % w.t. concentrations in the range 1–5, 0.1–5 and 0.1–3 respectively, gave rise to appreciably enhanced resistance to high-temperature creep, while maintaining good heat conductivity. The latter was considered to be driven by Cu and Mg-Cu intermetallics while it was clear that Sn mediated the high-temperature performance, mainly via networks of Mg2Sn and MgCaSn precipitates along the Mg matrix grain boundaries. It was postulated that Sn formed intermetallics by preferential substitution of Ca atoms and, thus, did not degrade the heat conductivity by retaining Cu. The % w.t. stoichiometry with the optimum combination of heat conductivity and resistance to high-temperature creep was found to be Mg-3Cu-1Ca-0.1Sn.

  11. El suicidio: Una conducta antisocial que prevalece/Suicide: An antisocial behavior that prevails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro De León Palomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the country and the State and the books of the register of deaths by cause violent of the Regional Unit of Expert Services of the Attorney General of Justice, which has its headquarters in Reynosa; developed a theoretical framework on the impact of the conduct in society and the means to prevent it, The data obtained we revealed the continued presence of this conduct year-on-year, 23.554 cases appearing in Mexico and 819 in Tamaulipas in the period from 2006 to 2010; in Reynosa, Tamaulipas were presented 278 suicides in the period 1999 to 2008. The results show us a conduct stable in numbers, but without excessive overflows that prevails year-on-year, suicide, and the attempt of the same should be viewed as a social problem and not detract from the importance that it deserves a conduct of these dimensions, that is no more than a reflection of the situation in which are the means of social control toward the preservation of life itself.

  12. Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Dengfeng [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Chaonan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Er{sup 3+} doped CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er{sup 3+} doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

  13. Interactive effects of near-future temperature increase and ocean acidification on physiology and gonad development in adult Pacific sea urchin, Echinometra sp . A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, S.; Liddy, M.; Nguyen, H. D.; Byrne, M.

    2014-09-01

    Increased atmospheric CO2 will have a twofold impact on future marine ecosystems, increasing global sea surface temperatures and uptake of CO2 (Ocean Acidification). Many experiments focus on the investigation of one of these stressors, but under realistic future climate predictions, these stressors may have interactive effects on individuals. Here, we investigate the effect of warming and acidification in combination. We test for interactive effects of potential near-future (2100) temperature (+2 to 3 °C) and pCO2 (~860-940 μAtm) levels on the physiology of the tropical echinoid Echinometra sp . A. The greatest reduction in growth was under simultaneous temperature and pH/ pCO2 stress (marginally significant temperature × pH/ pCO2 interaction). This was mirrored by the physiological data, with highest metabolic activity (measured as respiration and ammonium excretion) occurring at the increased temperature and pCO2 treatment, although this was not significant for excretion. The perivisceral coelomic fluid pH was ~7.5-7.6, as typical for echinoids, and showed no significant changes between treatments. Indicative of active calcification, internal magnesium and calcium concentrations were reduced compared to the external medium, but were not different between treatments. Gonad weight was lower at the higher temperature, and this difference was more distinct and statistically significant for males. The condition of the gonads assessed by histology declined in increased temperature and low pH treatments. The Echinometra grew in all treatments indicating active calcification of their magnesium calcite tests even as carbonate mineral saturation decreased. Our results indicate that the interactive temperature and pH effects are more important for adult echinoids than individual stressors. Although adult specimens grow and survive in near-future conditions, higher energy demands may influence gonad development and thus population maintenance.

  14. Do rising temperatures always increase forest productivity? Interacting effects of temperature, precipitation, cloudiness and soil texture on tree species growth and competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Brian R. Miranda; Arjan M.G. De Bruijn; Brian R. Sturtevant; Mark E. Kubiske

    2017-01-01

    Forest landscape models (FLM) are increasingly used to project the effects of climate change on forested landscapes, yet most use phenomenological approaches with untested assumptions about future forest dynamics. We used a FLM that relies on first principles to mechanistically simulate growth (LANDIS-II with PnET-Succession) to systematically explore how landscapes...

  15. Does the growth response of woody plants to elevated CO2 increase with temperature? A model-oriented meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Sofia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Mercado, Lina M; Zaehle, Sönke

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics of the Rubisco enzyme implies that, at the level of a chloroplast, the response of photosynthesis to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca ) will increase with increasing air temperature. Vegetation models incorporating this interaction predict that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to elevated CO2 (eCa ) will increase with rising temperature and will be substantially larger in warm tropical forests than in cold boreal forests. We tested these model predictions against evidence from eCa experiments by carrying out two meta-analyses. Firstly, we tested for an interaction effect on growth responses in factorial eCa  × temperature experiments. This analysis showed a positive, but nonsignificant interaction effect (95% CI for above-ground biomass response = -0.8, 18.0%) between eCa and temperature. Secondly, we tested field-based eCa experiments on woody plants across the globe for a relationship between the eCa effect on plant biomass and mean annual temperature (MAT). This second analysis showed a positive but nonsignificant correlation between the eCa response and MAT. The magnitude of the interactions between CO2 and temperature found in both meta-analyses were consistent with model predictions, even though both analyses gave nonsignificant results. Thus, we conclude that it is not possible to distinguish between the competing hypotheses of no interaction vs. an interaction based on Rubisco kinetics from the available experimental database. Experiments in a wider range of temperature zones are required. Until such experimental data are available, model predictions should aim to incorporate uncertainty about this interaction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression at increased temperature for excess sludge dewatering: influence of operating conditions and the process energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2014-11-15

    Dewatering is very important for excess sludge treatment and disposal. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression is a novel technology, in which a conventional pressure dewatering is combined with hydrothermal effect to realize an improved liquid/solids separation with low energy consumption. In this study, the process was performed by way of that the excess sludge was hydrothermally treated first and then the mechanical expression was employed immediately at increased temperature in two separate cells respectively. The results demonstrated that the mechanical expression employed at increased temperature showed a significant advantage than that at room temperature, given a further reduction of 19-47% of the moisture content. The dewatering process at room temperature was mostly depended on the effect of mechanical expression. Hydrothermal process, more importantly than mechanical effect at increased temperatures, seemed to govern the extent to which the dewatering process occurred. The dewatering began to show a positive effect when the temperature was exceeded the threshold temperature (between 120 and 150 °C). The residence time of 30 min promoted a substantial conversion in the sludge surface properties. After dewatering at temperatures of 180-210 °C, the moisture content decreased from 52 to 20% and the corresponding total water removal as filtrate was between 81 and 93%. It was observed that the moisture content of filter cake correlated with surface charge (Rp = -0.93, p < 0.05) and relative hydrophobicity (Rp = -0.99, p < 0.05). The calculated energy balance suggested that no additional external energy input is needed to support the dewatering process for excess sludge. The dewatering process needs an obviously lower energy input compared to thermal drying and electro-dewatering to produce a higher solids content cake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of increased atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration during crop growth on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangyu; Wu, Yanping; Cai, Min; Mu, Chunlong; Luo, Weihong; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of increased atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration during crop growth on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of wheat straw. The field experiment was carried out from November 2012 to June 2013 at Changshu (31°32'93″N, 120°41'88″E) agro-ecological experimental station. A total of three treatments were set. The concentration of CO2 was increased to 500 μmol/mol in the first treatment (CO2 group). The temperature was increased by 2 °C in the second treatment (TEM group) and the concentration of CO2 and temperature were both increased in the third treatment (CO2 + TEM group). The mean temperature and concentration of CO2 in control group were 10.5 °C and 413 μmol/mol. At harvesting, the wheat straws were collected and analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Results showed that dry matter was significantly increased in all three treatments. Ether extracts and neutral detergent fiber were significantly increased in TEM and CO2 + TEM groups. Crude protein was significantly decreased in CO2 + TEM group. In vitro digestibility analysis of wheat straw revealed that gas production was significantly decreased in CO2 and CO2 + TEM groups. Methane production was significantly decreased in TEM and CO2 + TEM groups. Ammonia nitrogen and microbial crude protein were significantly decreased in all three treatments. Total volatile fatty acids were significantly decreased in CO2 and CO2 + TEM groups. In conclusion, the chemical composition of the wheat straw was affected by temperature and CO2 and the in vitro digestibility of wheat straw was reduced, especially in the combined treatment of temperature and CO2.

  18. Women with more severe degrees of temporomandibular disorder exhibit an increase in temperature over the temporomandibular joint

    OpenAIRE

    Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Costa, Ana Cláudia de Souza; Packer, Amanda Carine; de Castro, Ester Moreira; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the present study was to correlate the degree of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) severity and skin temperatures over the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Materials and methods: This blind cross-sectional study involved 60 women aged 18–40 years. The volunteers were allocated to groups based on Fonseca anamnestic index (FAI) score: no TMD, mild TMD, moderate TMD, and severe TMD (n = 15 each). All volunteers underwent infrared t...

  19. Environmental factors prevail over dispersal constraints in determining the distribution and assembly of Trichoptera species in mountain lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendoza, Guillermo; Ventura, Marc; Catalan, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    Aiming to elucidate whether large-scale dispersal factors or environmental species sorting prevail in determining patterns of Trichoptera species composition in mountain lakes, we analyzed the distribution and assembly of the most common Trichoptera (Plectrocnemia laetabilis, Polycentropus flavomaculatus, Drusus rectus, Annitella pyrenaea, and Mystacides azurea) in the mountain lakes of the Pyrenees (Spain, France, Andorra) based on a survey of 82 lakes covering the geographical and environmental extremes of the lake district. Spatial autocorrelation in species composition was determined using Moran's eigenvector maps (MEM). Redundancy analysis (RDA) was applied to explore the influence of MEM variables and in-lake, and catchment environmental variables on Trichoptera assemblages. Variance partitioning analysis (partial RDA) revealed the fraction of species composition variation that could be attributed uniquely to either environmental variability or MEM variables. Finally, the distribution of individual species was analyzed in relation to specific environmental factors using binomial generalized linear models (GLM). Trichoptera assemblages showed spatial structure. However, the most relevant environmental variables in the RDA (i.e., temperature and woody vegetation in-lake catchments) were also related with spatial variables (i.e., altitude and longitude). Partial RDA revealed that the fraction of variation in species composition that was uniquely explained by environmental variability was larger than that uniquely explained by MEM variables. GLM results showed that the distribution of species with longitudinal bias is related to specific environmental factors with geographical trend. The environmental dependence found agrees with the particular traits of each species. We conclude that Trichoptera species distribution and composition in the lakes of the Pyrenees are governed predominantly by local environmental factors, rather than by dispersal constraints. For

  20. Intrapulpal Temperature Increases Caused by 445-nm Diode Laser-Assisted Debonding of Self-Ligating Ceramic Brackets During Simulated Pulpal Fluid Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Steffen; Wenzler, Johannes; Hellak, Andreas; Schauseil, Michael; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike; Braun, Andreas

    2018-01-03

    This study investigated temperature increases in dental pulp resulting from laser-assisted debonding of ceramic brackets using a 445-nm diode laser. Eighteen ceramic brackets were bonded in standardized manner to 18 caries-free human third molars. Pulpal fluid circulation was simulated by pumping distilled water at 37°C through the pulp chamber. The brackets were irradiated with a 445-nm diode laser. Temperatures were measured using a thermal camera at points P1 (center of the pulp) and P2 (in the hard dental tissue) at the baseline (T0), at the start and end of laser application (T1 and T2), and the maximum during the sequence (Tmax). Significant differences in the temperatures measured at P1 and P2 were observed among T0, T1, T2, and Tmax. Significant increases in temperature were noted at points P1 and P2, between T1 and T2, T1 and Tmax, and T2 and Tmax. The maximum P2 values were significantly higher than at P1. The maximum temperature increase measured in the pulp was 2.23°C, lower than the critical threshold of 5.5°C. On the basis of the laser settings used, there is no risk to the vitality of dental pulp during laser-assisted debonding of ceramic brackets with a 445-nm diode laser.

  1. A method for increasing the homogeneity of the temperature distribution during magnetic fluid hyperthermia with a Fe-Cr-Nb-B alloy in the presence of blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yundong [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116 (China); Flesch, Rodolfo C.C. [Departamento de Automação e Sistemas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Jin, Tao, E-mail: jintly@fzu.edu.cn [College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The effects of blood vessels on temperature field distribution are investigated. • The critical thermal energy of hyperthermia is computed by the Finite Element Analysis. • A treatment method is proposed by using the MNPs with low Curie temperature. • The cooling effects due to the blood flow can be controlled. - Abstract: Magnetic hyperthermia ablates tumor cells by absorbing the thermal energy from magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) under an external alternating magnetic field. The blood vessels (BVs) within tumor region can generally reduce treatment effectiveness due to the cooling effect of blood flow. This paper aims to investigate the cooling effect of BVs on the temperature field of malignant tumor regions using a complex geometric model and numerical simulation. For deriving the model, the Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow is combined with Pennes bio-heat transfer equation for human tissue. The effects on treatment temperature caused by two different BV distributions inside a mammary tumor are analyzed through numerical simulation under different conditions of flow rate considering a Fe-Cr-Nb-B alloy, which has low Curie temperature ranging from 42 °C to 45 °C. Numerical results show that the multi-vessel system has more obvious cooling effects than the single vessel one on the temperature field distribution for hyperthermia. Besides, simulation results show that the temperature field within tumor area can also be influenced by the velocity and diameter of BVs. To minimize the cooling effect, this article proposes a treatment method based on the increase of the thermal energy provided to MNPs associated with the adoption of low Curie temperature particles recently reported in literature. Results demonstrate that this approach noticeably improves the uniformity of the temperature field, and shortens the treatment time in a Fe-Cr-Nb-B system, thus reducing the side effects to the patient.

  2. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-11-14

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment. It is widely accepted that superior performers are endowed with a high genetic potential actualised through hard and prodigious effort. Heritability studies using the twin model have provided the basis to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to complex human traits and have paved the way to the detection of specific genes for elite sport performance. Yet, the heritability for most phenotypes essential to elite human performance is above 50% but below 100%, meaning that the environment is also important. Furthermore, individual differences can potentially also be explained not only by the impact of DNA sequence variation on biology and behaviour, but also by the effects of epigenetic changes which affect phenotype by modifying gene expression. Despite this complexity, the overwhelming and accumulating evidence, amounted through experimental research spanning almost two centuries, tips the balance in favour of nature in the "nature" and "nurture" debate. In other words, truly elite-level athletes are built - but only from those born with innate ability.

  3. Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    Full Text Available An updated empirical climatic zonally averaged prevailing wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (70-110 km, extending from 80°N to 80°S is presented. The model is constructed from the fitting of monthly mean winds from meteor radar and MF radar measurements at more than 40 stations, well distributed over the globe. The height-latitude contour plots of monthly mean zonal and meridional winds for all months of the year, and of annual mean wind, amplitudes and phases of annual and semiannual harmonics of wind variations are analyzed to reveal the main features of the seasonal variation of the global wind structures in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Some results of comparison between the ground-based wind models and the space-based models are presented. It is shown that, with the exception of annual mean systematic bias between the zonal winds provided by the ground-based and space-based models, a good agreement between the models is observed. The possible origin of this bias is discussed.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (general circulation; middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics

  4. Prevailing clinical practices regarding screening for retinopathy of prematurity among pediatricians in India: A pilot survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dileep Patwardhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the prevailing practices for proper screening and referral scheme among Indian pediatricians for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Materials and Methods: Pediatricians registered with Indian Academy of Pediatrics from six states of India were selected randomly and were telephonically interviewed in accordance with a preformed questionnaire which comprised of questions regarding demographic factors, number of premature children seen per month, awareness and referral scheme to ophthalmologist; responses thus obtained were analyzed. Results: Hundred percent knowledge about ROP and need for screening in premature babies was observed among the respondents. However, only 135 (58% pediatricians always referred for ROP screening, 19 (8% referred only sometimes and 80 (34% did not refer at all. Consistent referral protocols taking into account all plausible risk factors for ROP were followed by only 25% of those who always referred. Major deterrent in ROP screening was perceived as non-availability of trained ophthalmologists. Conclusions: Only 14.5% of total pediatricians contacted were following international recommendations for ROP referral. Screening for ROP remains dismal as observed in this pilot survey as a consequence of non-availability of trained ophthalmologists as well as inconsistent screening guidelines.

  5. Disassortative mating prevails in style-dimorphic Narcissus papyraceus despite low reciprocity and compatibility of morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Porcar, Violeta I; Meagher, Thomas R; Arroyo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Evolution to reduce inbreeding can favor disassortative (intermorph) over assortative (intramorph) mating in hermaphroditic sexually polymorphic plant species. Heterostyly enhances disassortative pollination through reciprocal placement of stigmas and anthers of morphs and appropriate pollinators. Stylar dimorphism in which there is not reciprocal anther placement may compromise disassortative mating, particularly when there is not intramorph incompatibility. Variable rates of disassortative mating along with differential female fecundity or siring success among floral morphs could lead to variation in morph ratio. We investigated mating patterns, female fecundity, and siring success of style-length morphs in Narcissus papyraceus, a self-incompatible but morph-compatible species with dimorphic (long- and short-styled) and monomorphic (long-styled) populations in central and north regions of its range, respectively. We established experimental populations in both regions and exposed them to ambient pollinators. Using paternity analysis, we found similar siring success of morphs and high disassortative mating in most populations. Female fecundity of morphs was similar in all populations. Although these results could not completely explain the loss of dimorphism in the species' northern range, they provided evidence for the evolutionary stability of stylar dimorphism in N. papyraceus in at least some populations. Our findings support the hypothesis that prevailing intermorph mating is key for the maintenance of stylar dimorphism. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Effect of temperature increase from 55 to 65 degrees C on performance and microbial population dynamics of an anaerobic reactor treating cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Mladenovska, Zuzana

    2001-01-01

    The effect of a temperature increase from 55 to 65 degreesC on process performance and microbial population dynamics were investigated in thermophilic, lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors. The reactors had a working volume of 3 l and were fed with cattle manure at an organic loading rat...

  7. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Brix, Hans; Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger

    2013-01-01

    Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two different temperature regimes. To reveal phenotypic divergence at the manipulated [CO2] and temperature conditions, a full-factorial natural selection regime was established in a phytotron environment over the range of four generations. It is demonstrated that a directional response to selection at elevated [CO2] led to higher quantities of reproductive output over the range of investigated generations independent of the applied temperature regime. The increase in seed yield caused an increase in aboveground biomass. This suggests quantitative changes in the functions of carbon sequestration of plants subjected to increased levels of CO2 over the generational range investigated. The results of this study suggest that phenotypic divergence of plants selected under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration may drive the future functions of plant productivity to be different from projections that do not incorporate selection responses of plants. This study accentuates the importance of phenotypic responses across multiple generations in relation to our understanding of biogeochemical dynamics of future ecosystems. Furthermore, the positive selection response of reproductive output under increased [CO2] may ameliorate depressions in plant reproductive fitness caused by higher temperatures in situations where both factors co-occur. PMID:23762504

  8. C3 and C4 plant responses to increased temperatures and altered monsoonal precipitation in a cool desert on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Dryland ecosystems represent >40 % of the terrestrial landscape and support over two billion people; consequently, it is vital to understand how drylands will respond to climatic change. However, while arid and semiarid ecosystems commonly experience extremely hot and dry conditions, our understanding of how further temperature increases or altered precipitation will affect dryland plant communities remains poor. To address this question, we assessed plant physiology and growth at a long-term (7-year) climate experiment on the Colorado Plateau, USA, where the community is a mix of shallow-rooted C3 and C4 grasses and deep-rooted C4 shrubs. The experiment maintained elevated-temperature treatments (+2 or +4 °C) in combination with altered summer monsoonal precipitation (+small frequent precipitation events or +large infrequent events). Increased temperature negatively affected photosynthesis and growth of the C3 and C4 grasses, but effects varied in their timing: +4 °C treatments negatively affected the C3 grass early in the growing season of both years, while the negative effects of temperature on the C4 grass were seen in the +2 and +4 °C treatments, but only during the late growing season of the drier year. Increased summer precipitation did not affect photosynthesis or biomass for any species, either in the year the precipitation was applied or the following year. Although previous research suggests dryland plants, and C4 grasses in particular, may respond positively to elevated temperature, our findings from a cool desert show marked declines in C3 and C4 photosynthesis and growth, with temperature effects dependent on the degree of warming and growing-season precipitation.

  9. Increased [CO2] does not compensate for negative effects on yield caused by higher temperature and [O3] in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    in existing genotypes is vital. In this study, the responses in yield and biomass production of four different cultivars of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were tested under five different combinations of increased [CO2] (700 ppm), temperature (+5 °C) and [O3] (+40 ppb). Especially the multifactor treatments....... Our results suggest that future breeding of B. napus should be based on old cultivars, since more modern varieties seem to have lower potentials to respond to CO2 and thus counteract the detrimental effects of yield reducing environmental factors such as temperature and O3....

  10. Water disinfection with ozone, copper and silver ions, and temperature increase to control Legionella: seven years of experience in a university teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, D S; Carrara, Ph; Zanetti, G; Francioli, P

    2005-05-01

    The efficacy of ozonation, copper-silver ionization and increased temperature in controlling Legionella spp. in the hot water distribution networks of a university hospital was evaluated. Two separate water distribution networks were studied; network 1 which supplies the surgical intensive care units, and network 2 which supplies the medical intensive care units and the emergency room. Network 1 has been disinfected by ozonation since 1995, and network 2 has been disinfected by ionisation since 1999. The hot water temperature was increased from 50 to 65 degrees C in 1998 and 2000 in networks 1 and 2, respectively. Water samples and swabs of the water outlets were cultured for Legionella spp. between four and six times each year, providing data before and after implementation of the disinfection procedures. There was no significant difference in the proportion of samples positive for Legionella spp. after ozonation in network 1 or after ionization in network 2. In both networks, there was a significant reduction in legionella isolates after increasing the hot water temperature to 65 degrees C. Maintaining the hot water temperature above 50 degrees C throughout both networks proved to be the most effective control measure in our hospital.

  11. Monthly mean climatology of the prevailing winds and tides in the arctic mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portnyagin, Y.I.; Solovjova, T.V.; Makarov, N.A.; Merzlyakov, E.G. [Inst. for Experimental Meteorology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Manson, A.H.; Meek, C.E. [ISAS, Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Hocking, W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Mitchell, N.; Pancheva, D. [Univ. of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W. [Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, Kuehlungsborn (Germany); Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K. [Communication Research Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Forbes, J.M.; Palo, S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Hall, C. [Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Nozawa, S. [Univ. of Nagoya (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The arctic MLT wind regime parameters measured at the ground-based network of MF and meteor radar stations (Andenes 69 N, Tromsoe 70 N, Esrange 68 N, Dixon 73.5 N, Poker flat 65 N and resolute bay 75 N) are discussed and compared with those observed in the midlatitudes. The network of the ground-based MF and meteor radars for measuring winds in the arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere provides an excellent opportunity for study of the main global dynamical structures in this height region and their dependence from longitude. Preliminary estimates of the differences between the measured winds and tides from the different radar types, situated 125-273 km apart (Tromsoe, Andenes and Esrange), are provided. Despite some differences arising from using different types of radars it is possible to study the dynamical wind structures. It is revealed that most of the observed dynamical structures are persistent from year to year, thus permitting the analysis of the arctic MLT dynamics in a climatological sense. The seasonal behaviour of the zonally averaged wind parameters is, to some extent, similar to that observed at the moderate latitudes. However, the strength of the winds (except the prevailing meridional wind and the diurnal tide amplitudes) in the arctic MLT region is, in general, less than that detected at the moderate latitudes, decreasing toward the pole. There are also some features in the vertical structure and seasonal variations of the arctic MLT winds which are different from the expectations of the well-known empirical wind models CIRA-86 and HWM-93. The tidal phases show a very definite longitudinal dependence that permits the determination of the corresponding zonal wave numbers. It is shown that the migrating tides play an important role in the dynamics of the arctic MLT region. However, there are clear indications with the presence in some months of non-migrating tidal modes of significant appreciable amplitude. (orig.)

  12. Prevailing attitudes towards cancer: a multicultural survey in a tertiary outpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Kae Jack; Mohamad Zam, Nor Azhari; Cheng, Christopher W S

    2013-10-01

    Cultural influences affect attitudes towards cancer screening, diagnosis, treatment and palliation. The objective of this study is to survey the prevailing attitudes towards cancer in a multicultural tertiary outpatient setting. This is a cross-sectional study of 300 respondents visiting the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Urology Centre over a period of 1 month. A questionnaire was developed assessing responses to various facets of cancer management and administered in English, Chinese or Malay to every 10th person visiting the centre. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Of 300 respondents, 57% were Chinese, 17% Malay, 19% Indian, and 7% others. Mean age was 54.3 years. Most respondents were male (68%) and had up to secondary education (56%). Most Chinese were Taoist/Buddhist (42%) or Christian/ Catholic (36%) while Indians were largely Hindu (47%) or Muslim (27%). Thirty-seven percent of respondents had ever participated in cancer screening. Eighty-nine percent of respondents wanted to be the first to know if they had cancer, and 76% found it unacceptable if the diagnosis of cancer was withheld from them. These were irrespective of race, religion or other factors. Forty percent of respondents believed that being diagnosed with cancer was a matter of fate. Sixty percent of respondents would undergo treatment with 50% chance of cure, even if it involved major surgery and adjuvant therapy. Eighty-one percent believed in efficacy of at least 1 form of alternative treatment. Seventy-one percent of respondents preferred to die at home and this was most marked among Malay respondents (90.4%). This better understanding of patient attitudes will allow us to help patients balance wishes for autonomy versus family involvement in dealing with cancer. This will help us achieve a more holistic and patient-centred approach to cancer care.

  13. Additive effects prevail: The response of biota to multiple stressors in an intensively monitored watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieswein, Alexander; Hering, Daniel; Feld, Christian K

    2017-09-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are impacted by a range of stressors arising from diverse human-caused land and water uses. Identifying the relative importance of single stressors and understanding how multiple stressors interact and jointly affect biology is crucial for River Basin Management. This study addressed multiple human-induced stressors and their effects on the aquatic flora and fauna based on data from standard WFD monitoring schemes. For altogether 1095 sites within a mountainous catchment, we used 12 stressor variables covering three different stressor groups: riparian land use, physical habitat quality and nutrient enrichment. Twenty-one biological metrics calculated from taxa lists of three organism groups (fish, benthic invertebrates and aquatic macrophytes) served as response variables. Stressor and response variables were subjected to Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) analysis to identify stressor hierarchy and stressor interactions and subsequently to Generalised Linear Regression Modelling (GLM) to quantify the stressors standardised effect size. Our results show that riverine habitat degradation was the dominant stressor group for the river fauna, notably the bed physical habitat structure. Overall, the explained variation in benthic invertebrate metrics was higher than it was in fish and macrophyte metrics. In particular, general integrative (aggregate) metrics such as % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa performed better than ecological traits (e.g. % feeding types). Overall, additive stressor effects dominated, while significant and meaningful stressor interactions were generally rare and weak. We concluded that given the type of stressor and ecological response variables addressed in this study, river basin managers do not need to bother much about complex stressor interactions, but can focus on the prevailing stressors according to the hierarchy identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Temperature and mean sea level in South Sea of Korea are increasing concurrently due to the intensification of Tsushima Warm Current ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Yoo, H.; Kim, K.; Lee, H.

    2012-12-01

    Sea surface temperature of Southern Sea of Korea (SSK) during 2000~2009 is estimated to increase 1~1.9°C using the bimonthly CTD measurements by KHOA (Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration). The increased amount at Busan region (east side of SSK) is 1.5°C, slightly lower than 1.7°C at Yeosu and northern Jeju Isalnd regions (west side of SSK). Moseulpo and Seongsanpo regions of Jeju Island have 1.9°C and 1.2°C, respectively. The increase rate at depth of 50 m is smaller. In the regions of Busan, Yeosu, and northern Jeju Isalnd, it is 1.2°C, and Seongsanpo and Moseulpo regions have 1.1°C, and 1.5°C, respectively. Although the increase rate is generally lower when the data length is longer, the water temperature increase in the whole water column is attributed to the intensification of the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC), whose salinity and temperature are high. The intensified TWC is inferred to have pushed up the coastal thermal front of SSK to the landward direction. Probably, this onshore movement of the coastal thermal front results in the distinctively rapid sea level rise around Jeju Isalnd and along the coastal areas of the SSK. In comparison with 40 years-long tide records, we need longer CTD data to ensure whether the concurrent rapid increase in temperature and mean sea level is due to the TWC intensification.

  15. Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Limpens, J.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic, low intensity herbivory by invertebrates, termed background herbivory, has been understudied in tundra, yet its impacts are likely to increase in a warmer Arctic. The magnitude of these changes is however hard to predict as we know little about the drivers of current levels of invertebrate

  16. In-situ changes in the elastic wave velocity of rock with increasing temperature using high-resolution coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Baud, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Rock undergoes fluctuations in temperature in various settings in Earth's crust, including areas of volcanic or geothermal activity, or industrial environments such as hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoirs. Changes in temperature can cause thermal stresses that can result in the formation of microcracks, which affect the mechanical, physical, and transport properties of rocks. Of the affected physical properties, the elastic wave velocity of rock is particularly sensitive to microcracking. Monitoring the evolution of elastic wave velocity during the thermal stressing of rock therefore provides valuable insight into thermal cracking processes. One monitoring technique is Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), which infers high-resolution changes in the medium from changes in multiple-scattered elastic waves. We have designed a new experimental setup to perform CWI whilst cyclically heating and cooling samples of granite (cylinders of 20 mm diameter and 40 mm length). In our setup, the samples are held between two pistons within a tube furnace and are heated and cooled at a rate of 1 °C/min to temperatures of up to 300 °C. Two high temperature piezo-transducers are each in contact with an opposing face of the rock sample. The servo-controlled uniaxial press compensates for the thermal expansion and contraction of the pistons and the sample, keeping the coupling between the transducers and the sample, and the axial force acting on the sample, constant throughout. Our setup is designed for simultaneous acoustic emission monitoring (AE is commonly used as a proxy for microcracking), and so we can follow thermal microcracking precisely by combining the AE and CWI techniques. We find that during the first heating/cooling cycle, the onset of thermal microcracking occurs at a relatively low temperature of around 65 °C. The CWI shows that elastic wave velocity decreases with increasing temperature and increases during cooling. Upon cooling, back to room temperature, there is an

  17. Ice ingestion with a long rest interval increases the endurance exercise capacity and reduces the core temperature in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Takashi; Iribe, Yuka; Ogaki, Tetsuro

    2017-01-05

    The timing in which ice before exercise should be ingested plays an important role in optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion before exercise on cycling capacity, and thermoregulation has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of length of time after ice ingestion on endurance exercise capacity in the heat. Seven males ingested 1.25 g kg body mass-1 of ice (0.5 °C) or cold water (4 °C) every 5 min, six times. Under three separate conditions after ice or water ingestion ([1] taking 20 min rest after ice ingestion, [2] taking 5 min rest after ice ingestion, and [3] taking 5 min rest after cold water ingestion), seven physically active male cyclists exercised at 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion in the heat (35 °C, 30% relative humidity). Participants cycled significantly longer following both ice ingestion with a long rest interval (46.0 ± 7.7 min) and that with a short rest interval (38.7 ± 5.7 min) than cold water ingestion (32.3 ± 3.2 min; both p Heat storage under condition of ice ingestion with a long rest interval during the pre-exercise period was significantly lower than that observed with a short rest interval (-4.98 ± 2.50 W m-2; p heat, which is suggested to be driven by a reduced rectal temperature and heat storage before the start of exercise.

  18. Use of Temperature, Humidity, and Slaughter Condemnation Data to Predict Increases in Transport Losses in Three Classes of Swine and Resulting Foregone Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erik; Remmenga, Marta; Hagerman, Amy D; Akkina, Judy E

    2017-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) conducts weekly surveillance of slaughter condemnation rates to provide early warning for emerging diseases and to monitor health trends in swine. Swine deaths in-transit are an animal welfare concern and represent lost revenue for the swine industry. This retrospective observational study used ambient temperature and humidity data from weather stations near United States slaughter plants collected from 2010 to 2015 to predict the incidence and risk of death among swine in-transit and just prior to slaughter. The risk of death for market swine at a heat index (HI), which combines the effects of temperature and humidity, indicating moderately hot weather conditions between 85 and 92°F was 1.37 times greater than that of the baseline temperature range of 54-79°F. The risk of death for cull sows at an HI between 85 and 92°F was 1.93 times greater than that of average temperatures ranging from 54 to 79°F. Roaster swine (weigh slaughter establishments to provide additional information for analysts investigating signals (noteworthy increases above baseline) for "dead" condemnations. This study suggests that current mitigation measures are often not sufficient to prevent swine deaths due to ambient temperature extremes.

  19. Noninvasive detection of increased carotid artery temperature in patients with coronary artery disease predicts major cardiovascular events at one year: Results from a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Benetos, Georgios; Koutagiar, Iosif; Barampoutis, Nikolaos; Mitropoulou, Fotini; Davlouros, Periklis; Sfikakis, Petros P; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Siores, Elias; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2017-07-01

    Limited prospective data have been reported regarding the impact of carotid inflammation on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Microwave radiometry (MWR) is a noninvasive, simple method that has been used for evaluation of carotid artery temperature which, when increased, predicts 'inflamed' plaques with vulnerable characteristics. We prospectively tested the hypothesis that increased carotid artery temperature predicts future cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients with CAD. Consecutive patients from 3 centers, with documented CAD by coronary angiography, were studied. In both carotid arteries, common carotid intima-media thickness and plaque thickness were evaluated by ultrasound. Temperature difference (ΔT), measured by MWR, was considered as the maximal temperature along the carotid artery minus the minimum; ΔT ≥0.90 °C was assigned as high. Major cardiovascular events (MACE, death, stroke, myocardial infarction or revascularization) were recorded during the following year. In total, 250 patients were studied; of them 40 patients (16%) had high ΔT values in both carotid arteries. MACEs occurred in 30% of patients having bilateral high ΔT versus 3.8% in the remaining patients (p<0.001). Bilateral high ΔT was independently associated with increased one-year MACE rate (HR = 6.32, 95% CI 2.42-16.53, p<0.001, by multivariate cox regression hazard model). The addition of ΔT information on a baseline model based on cardiovascular risk factors and extent of CAD significantly increased the prognostic value of the model (c-statistic increase 0.744 to 0.845, p dif  = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: Carotid inflammation, detected by MWR, has an incremental prognostic value in patients with documented CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 19521 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Austin, TX and Waco, TX, Appropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... 3206-AM50 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Austin, TX and Waco, TX, Appropriated Fund... of the Austin, TX, and Waco, TX, appropriated fund Federal Wage System (FWS) wage areas. The final rule redefines Burleson and Lampasas Counties, TX, from the Austin wage area to the Waco wage area...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC will...

  2. Chemosynthetic activity prevails in deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, A.; Sujith, P.P.; Mourya, B.S.; Biche, S.U.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    It is hypothesized that in the deep-sea, under psychrophilic, barophilic and oligotrophic conditions, microbial community of Central Indian Basin (CIB) sediments could be chemosynthetic. In the dark, at near ambient temperature, 4 + or –2 degrees C...

  3. The impact of decreases in air temperature and increases in ozone on markers of endothelial function in individuals having type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzinger, Stefanie; Breitner, Susanne; Neas, Lucas; Cascio, Wayne; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Hinderliter, Alan; Peters, Annette; Devlin, Robert B; Schneider, Alexandra

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have reported an association between air pollution and endothelial dysfunction, especially in individuals having diabetes. However, very few studies have examined the impact of air temperature on endothelial function. The objective of this analysis was to investigate short-term effects of temperature and ozone on endothelial function in individuals having diabetes. Moreover, we investigated interactive effects between air temperature and air pollution on markers of endothelial function. Between November 2004 and December 2005 flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation (NTGMD) and several blood markers representing endothelial function were measured using brachial artery ultrasound on four consecutive days in 22 individuals with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Chapel Hill, North Carolina (USA). Daily measurements of meteorological parameters, ozone and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) were obtained from fixed monitoring sites. We used additive mixed-models adjusting for time trend, day of the week, relative humidity and barometric pressure to assess temperature and ozone associations with endothelial function. A 1 °C decrease in the 24-h temperature average was associated with a decrease in mean FMD on the same day (-2.2% (95%-confidence interval:[-4.7;0.3%])) and with a delay of one and four days. A temperature decrement also led to an immediate (-1.7%[-3.3;-0.04]) decrease in NTGMD. Moreover, we observed an immediate (-14.6%[-26.3;-2.9%]) and a one day delayed (-13.5%[-27.0; 0.04%]) decrease in FMD in association with a 0.01 ppm increase in the maximum 8-h moving average of ozone. Temperature effects on FMD strengthened when PM2.5 and ozone concentrations were high. The associations were similar during winter and summer. We detected an association between temperature decreases and ozone increases on endothelial dysfunction in individuals having diabetes. We conclude that endothelial dysfunction

  4. Interactive effects of increased temperature, pCO2and the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel on the fitness and breeding of the amphipod Gammarus locusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P G; Loganimoce, E M; Neuparth, T; Rocha, M J; Rocha, E; Arenas, F

    2017-10-25

    Given the lack of knowledge regarding climate change-chemical exposure interactions, it is vital to evaluate how these two drivers jointly impact aquatic species. Thus, for the first time, we aimed at investigating the combined effects of increased temperature, pCO 2 and the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel on survival, growth, consumption rate and reproduction of the amphipod Gammarus locusta. For that, a full factorial design manipulating temperature [ambient temperature and warming (+4 °C)], pCO 2 [normocapnia and hypercapnia (Δ pH 0.5 units)] and the progestin levonorgestrel (LNG: L1 - 10 ngLL -1 and L2 - 1000 ngLL -1 , control - no progestin and solvent control - vehicle ethanol (0.01%)) was implemented for 21 days. G. locusta was strongly negatively affected by warming, experiencing higher mortality rates (50-80%) than in any other treatments. Instead, growth rates were significantly affected by interactions of LNG with temperature and pCO 2 . It was observed, in the short-term (7d) that under ambient temperature (18 °C) and hypercapnic conditions (pH 7.6), the LNG presence promoted the amphipod's growth, while in the medium-term (21d) this response was not observed. Relative consumption rates (RCRs), during the first week were higher than in the third week. Furthermore, in the first week, RCRs were negatively affected by higher temperature while in the third week, RCRs were negatively affected by acidification. Furthermore, it was observed a negative effect of higher temperature and acidification on G. locusta fecundity, contrarily to LNG. Concluding, the impact of increased temperature and pCO 2 was clearly more adverse for the species than exposure to the synthetic progestin, however, some interactions between the progestin and the climate factors were observed. Thus, in a future scenario of global change, the presence of LNG (and other progestins alike) may modulate to a certain level the effects of climate drivers (and vice-versa) on the

  5. Implications of Climate-enforced Temperature Increases on Freshwater Pico- and Nanoplankton Populations Studied in Artificial Ponds During 16 Months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, K.; Andersen, Nethe; Søndergaard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Global warming scenarios foresee increases in air temperatures of 3-5 °C in Northern European regions within the next 70 years. To evaluate the potential effects of global warming on shallow eutrophic lakes, a flow-through experiment combining three temperature scenarios and two nutrient levels...... important than the nutrient effect. The results furthermore reveal that warming and nutrients in combination set off complex interactions. In consequence, global warming may possibly have pronounced effects on aquatic ecosystems if accompanied by increased nutrient loading....... was conducted in 24 outdoor mesocosms. Eight mesocosms were unheated and acted as controls, while sixteen were heated - eight according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) climate scenario A2 down-scaled to regional level (2.5-4.4 °C, depending on season) and eight according to scenario A2...

  6. Monthly mean climatology of the prevailing winds and tides in the Arctic mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnyagin, Y.; Solovjova, T.; Makarov, N.; Merzlyakov, E.; Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Hocking, W.; Mitchell, N.; Pancheva, D.; Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.; Forbes, J.; Palo, S.; Hall, C.; Nozawa, S.

    2004-10-01

    The Arctic MLT wind regime parameters measured at the ground-based network of MF and meteor radar stations (Andenes 69° N, Tromsø 70° N, Esrange 68° N, Dixon 73.5° N, Poker Flat 65° N and Resolute Bay 75° N) are discussed and compared with those observed in the mid-latitudes. The network of the ground-based MF and meteor radars for measuring winds in the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere provides an excellent opportunity for study of the main global dynamical structures in this height region and their dependence from longitude. Preliminary estimates of the differences between the measured winds and tides from the different radar types, situated 125-273km apart (Tromsø, Andenes and Esrange), are provided. Despite some differences arising from using different types of radars it is possible to study the dynamical wind structures. It is revealed that most of the observed dynamical structures are persistent from year to year, thus permitting the analysis of the Arctic MLT dynamics in a climatological sense. The seasonal behaviour of the zonally averaged wind parameters is, to some extent, similar to that observed at the moderate latitudes. However, the strength of the winds (except the prevailing meridional wind and the diurnal tide amplitudes) in the Arctic MLT region is, in general, less than that detected at the moderate latitudes, decreasing toward the pole. There are also some features in the vertical structure and seasonal variations of the Arctic MLT winds which are different from the expectations of the well-known empirical wind models CIRA-86 and HWM-93. The tidal phases show a very definite longitudinal dependence that permits the determination of the corresponding zonal wave numbers. It is shown that the migrating tides play an important role in the dynamics of the Arctic MLT region. However, there are clear indications with the presence in some months of non-migrating tidal modes of significant appreciable amplitude.

  7. Monthly mean climatology of the prevailing winds and tides in the Arctic mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic MLT wind regime parameters measured at the ground-based network of MF and meteor radar stations (Andenes 69° N, Tromsø 70° N, Esrange 68° N, Dixon 73.5° N, Poker Flat 65° N and Resolute Bay 75° N are discussed and compared with those observed in the mid-latitudes. The network of the ground-based MF and meteor radars for measuring winds in the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere provides an excellent opportunity for study of the main global dynamical structures in this height region and their dependence from longitude. Preliminary estimates of the differences between the measured winds and tides from the different radar types, situated 125-273km apart (Tromsø, Andenes and Esrange, are provided. Despite some differences arising from using different types of radars it is possible to study the dynamical wind structures. It is revealed that most of the observed dynamical structures are persistent from year to year, thus permitting the analysis of the Arctic MLT dynamics in a climatological sense. The seasonal behaviour of the zonally averaged wind parameters is, to some extent, similar to that observed at the moderate latitudes. However, the strength of the winds (except the prevailing meridional wind and the diurnal tide amplitudes in the Arctic MLT region is, in general, less than that detected at the moderate latitudes, decreasing toward the pole. There are also some features in the vertical structure and seasonal variations of the Arctic MLT winds which are different from the expectations of the well-known empirical wind models CIRA-86 and HWM-93. The tidal phases show a very definite longitudinal dependence that permits the determination of the corresponding zonal wave numbers. It is shown that the migrating tides play an important role in the dynamics of the Arctic MLT region. However, there are clear indications with the presence in some months of non-migrating tidal modes of significant appreciable amplitude.

  8. Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Luis N; Semenova, Tatiana A; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-02-01

    Arctic regions are experiencing the greatest rates of climate warming on the planet and marked changes have already been observed in terrestrial arctic ecosystems. While most studies have focused on the effects of warming on arctic vegetation and nutrient cycling, little is known about how belowground communities, such as fungi root-associated, respond to warming. Here, we investigate how long-term summer warming affects ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. We used Ion Torrent sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region to compare ECM fungal communities in plots with and without long-term experimental warming in both dry and moist tussock tundra. Cortinarius was the most OTU-rich genus in the moist tundra, while the most diverse genus in the dry tundra was Tomentella. On the diversity level, in the moist tundra we found significant differences in community composition, and a sharp decrease in the richness of ECM fungi due to warming. On the functional level, our results indicate that warming induces shifts in the extramatrical properties of the communities, where the species with medium-distance exploration type seem to be favored with potential implications for the mobilization of different nutrient pools in the soil. In the dry tundra, neither community richness nor community composition was significantly altered by warming, similar to what had been observed in ECM host plants. There was, however, a marginally significant increase in OTUs identified as ECM fungi with the medium-distance exploration type in the warmed plots. Linking our findings of decreasing richness with previous results of increasing ECM fungal biomass suggests that certain ECM species are favored by warming and may become more abundant, while many other species may go locally extinct due to direct or indirect effects of warming. Such compositional shifts in the community might affect nutrient cycling and soil organic C storage. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change

  9. Adaptation to low body temperature influences pulmonary surfactant composition thereby increasing fluidity while maintaining appropriately ordered membrane structure and surface activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-07-01

    The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from

  10. Low air temperature increases the risk of oesophageal variceal bleeding: a population and hospital-based case-crossover study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Yung-Tai; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Su, Chien-Wei; Huang, Wei-Ming; Yang, Tsung-Chieh; Li, Szu-Yuan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Hou, Ming-Chih

    2016-06-01

    Studies concerning seasonal variations and the impact of air temperature on oesophageal variceal bleeding have yielded conflicting results. We aimed to explore the impact of air temperature on the occurrence of variceal bleeding. A case-crossover study design was employed, and two cohorts were used, including the NHI-EVB cohort from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2010, and the VGH-EVB cohort from the Taipei Veterans General Hospital, from 4 May 2002 to 31 December 2010. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 2542 cases from the NHI-EVB cohort and 220 cases from the VGH-EVB cohort were analysed. Our analysis showed that low air temperature (LAT) increased the risk of variceal bleeding regardless of age, sex, decompensated cirrhosis, Child-Pugh classification, aetiology of liver disease and concomitant hepatocellular carcinoma; the lag effect was also observed. The ORs per 5°C decrease in daily mean air temperature were 1.144 (95% CI, 1.060-1.235) for the NHI-EVB cohort and 1.307 (95% CI: 1.031-1.658) for the VGH-EVB cohort. Oesophageal variceal bleeding in patients with small varices, end-stage liver disease score ≧15 or those using non-selective beta blockers was not influenced by air temperature. Patients have higher risk of oesophageal variceal bleeding at low air temperature regardless of age, sex, aetiology of cirrhosis, Child-Pugh classification, decompensated cirrhosis and concomitant hepatocellular carcinoma and can be protected by use non-selective beta blockers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Photosynthesis and Rubisco kinetics in spring wheat and meadow fescue under conditions of simulated climate change with elevated CO2 and increased temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv.Polkkaand meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Hudson cv. Kalevicwere grown in ambient and elevated (700 µl l -1 carbon dioxide concentration both at present ambient temperatures and at temperatures 3°C higher than at present simulating a future climate.The CO2 concentrations were elevated in large (3 m in diameteropen top chambers and the temperatures in a greenhouse built over the experimental field.The photosynthetic rate of both wheat and meadow fescue was 31 –37%higher in elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 than in ambient CO 2 (aCO2 throughout the growing season.The enhancement in wheat photosynthesis in eCO2 declined 10 –13 days before yellow ripeness,at which point the rate of photosynthesis in both CO 2 treatments declined.The stomatal conductance of wheat and meadow fescue was 23–36% lower in eCO2 than in aCO2 .The amount and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco in wheat were lower under conditions of eCO2 ,except at elevated temperatures in 1993 when there was a clear yield increase.There was no clear change in the amount and activity of Rubisco in meadow fescue under eCO2 at either elevated or ambient temperature.This suggests that adaptation to elevated CO2 at biochemical level occurs only when there is insufficient sink for photosynthetic products.While the sink size of wheat can be increased only by introducing new,more productive genotypes,the sink size of meadow fescue can be regulated by fitting the cutting schedule to growth.;

  12. The influence of cavitation damage upon high temperature creep under stationary and non-stationary loading conditions. Part III: Creep at steady increasing load and true stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boček, M.; Hoffmann, M.

    1984-11-01

    In this paper for ideally plastic materials the influence of high temperature cavitation damage upon creep at steady increasing loads is investigated. The damage function A(t) enters a constitutive equation for plastíc flow through an effective stress σ e. For given loading conditions the latter is derived from the solution of Hart's tensile test equation. In the present paper the case of time linear increase in load ( F = constant) and in true stress ( /.s = constant) is investigated. The creep equations for cavitating as well as for non-cavitating materials are derived and the volume change during creep at /.F = constant are calculated.

  13. Increasing the incubation temperature between embryonic day 7 and 10 has no influence on the growth and slaughter characteristics as well as meat quality of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C; Wecke, C; Liebert, F; Wicke, M

    2010-05-01

    Avian embryogenesis can be manipulated by alteration of the temperature during incubation of the brooding egg. Investigations in turkeys showed that a higher temperature during early embryogenesis positively affects the myogenesis accompanied with a higher muscle fibre number (MFN). The aim of this study was to transfer this result to broiler and to investigate if an alteration of the temperature also affects the meat quality after slaughter of the birds. Therefore brooding eggs of the Cobb 500 broiler genetic were either incubated at 37.5°C during the whole incubation period (at normal temperature (NT)), or at 38.5°C during embryonic day (ED) 7 to 10 (at high temperature (HT)). After hatch the chicks were sexed and reared up to an age of 36 days in an experimental stable. Growth and feed conversion properties were determined during this period. After slaughter different meat quality characteristics as well as the muscle microstructure were analysed. The hatch rate and chick weight did not differ between the broiler of the NT and HT group. After 36 days the final body weights and the cumulative feed conversion rates were not different in the NT and HT groups. No differing results were obtained with regard to the slaughter, breast and leg weights of the NT and HT animals. Considering the gender of the animals no differences in the slaughter characteristics could be determined although the carcass and breast weights of the HT cocks were tendentially higher. The muscle fibre areas and MFNs in the breast muscles of the NT and HT cocks did not differ significantly and were in the range of the HT hens. Only the NT hens had significantly larger muscle fibres and less MFN than the other animals. With regard to the meat quality characteristics no clear differences of the pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and colour (L*a*b*) values were found. The L*a*b* values in the investigated breast muscles of all broilers usually increased during ageing. The increase of the incubation

  14. Application of shortwave diathermy to lower limb increases arterial blood flow velocity and skin temperature in women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Natanael Teixeira Alves De; Guirro, Elaine Caldeira De Oliveira; Calió, João Guilherme; Queluz, Mariane Cristina De; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto De Jesus

    Shortwave diathermy (SWD) and microwave diathermy (MWD) are frequently used by physical therapists to treat musculoskeletal conditions. The therapeutic benefits are usually associated with an increase in tissue temperature; however, there is no consensus on the changes in blood flow. 1) To evaluate the behavior of temperature and arterial blood flow after the application of SWD and MWD to the lower limb of healthy women aged 18-30 and 2) to assess whether changes in limb positioning can influence SWD response. Among the subjects analyzed, 40 women were eligible to participate in the trial and were randomly allocated to the SWD group or the MWD group. Each group received 20min of diathermy. After receiving the interventions, all patients crossed over to the other group, but the devices were detuned (sham). SWD was applied to the posterior compartment of the thigh and leg, with the knee in 0° and 90° of flexion, and the MWD applied to the posterior thigh. Skin temperature evaluation (digital infrared thermography) and assessment of blood flow velocity (Doppler ultrasound) were performed immediately before and 10 and 20min after the application. Arterial blood flow increased after SWD diathermy (vs. Sham), but not after MWD diathermy. SWD promoted skin heating at the end of therapy in all areas analyzed, remaining above baseline even 20min after the end of the application. MWD diathermy promoted skin heating in the posterior thigh, reflecting a rise in the temperature of the popliteal fossa area that remained for 10min after the end of the application. The increase in arterial blood flow velocity depends on the size of the heating area, since it was only observed in the application of the SWD. However, after 20min of application, the position of the lower leg did not affect the heating. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-term effects of increased temperature and lowered pH on a temperate grazer-seaweed interaction (Littorina obtusata/Ascophyllum nodosum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Patricia G.; Grilo, Tiago F.; Dionísio, Gisela; Aurélio, Maria; Lopes, Ana R.; Pereira, Ricardo; Pacheco, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2017-10-01

    There has been a significant increase in the literature regarding the effects of warming and acidification on the marine ecosystem. To our knowledge, there is very little information on the potential effects of both combined stressors on marine grazer-seaweed interactions. Here, we evaluated, for the first time several phenotypic responses (e.g periwinkle survival, condition index, consumption rates, seaweed photosynthetic activity and oxidative stress) of the temperate periwinkle Littorina obtusata (grazer) and the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (prey) to such climate change-related variables, for 15 days. Increased temperature (22 °C, pH 8.0) elicited a significant lethal effect on the periwinkle within a short-term period (mortality rate > 90%). Acidification condition (18 °C, pH 7.6) was the one that showed lower mortality rates (≈20%), reflected by lower impact on periwinkle fitness and consumption rates. Under a scenario of increased temperature and lowered pH the antioxidant defences of L. obtusata seemed to be supressed increasing the risk of peroxidative damage. The seaweed evidenced signs of cellular damage under such conditions. These results suggest that: i) lower pH per se seems to benefit the interaction between grazer and seaweed while, ii) a combined scenario of increased temperature and lowered pH may be negative for the interaction, due to the unbalance between periwinkle mortality rates and consumption rates. But most importantly, since grazing often plays an important role on structuring natural communities, such predator-prey disturbances can elicit cascading effects on the remaining community structure and functioning of the temperate rocky-shore ecosystems.

  16. Spatial and temporal changes in leaf coloring date of Acer palmatum and Ginkgo biloba in response to temperature increases in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Kyun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Su-Jong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Jinwon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding shifts in autumn phenology associated with climate changes is critical for preserving forest ecosystems. This study examines the changes in the leaf coloring date (LCD) of two temperate deciduous tree species, Acer palmatum (Acer) and Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), in response to surface air temperature (Ts) changes at 54 stations of South Korea for the period 1989-2007. The variations of Acer and Ginkgo in South Korea are very similar: they show the same mean LCD of 295th day of the year and delays of about 0.45 days year-1 during the observation period. The delaying trend is closely correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.77) with increases in Ts in mid-autumn by 2.8 days °C-1. It is noted that the LCD delaying and temperature sensitivity (days °C-1) for both tree species show negligible dependences on latitudes and elevations. Given the significant LCD-Ts relation, we project LCD changes for 2016-35 and 2046-65 using a process-based model forced by temperature from climate model simulation. The projections indicate that the mean LCD would be further delayed by 3.2 (3.7) days in 2016-35 (2046-65) due to mid-autumn Ts increases. This study suggests that the mid-autumn warming is largely responsible for the observed LCD changes in South Korea and will intensify the delaying trends in the future.

  17. The defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase in a temperature-sensitive prs-2 mutant of Escherichia coli is compensated by increased enzyme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D A; Switzer, R L; Hove-Jensen, B

    1996-02-01

    An Escherichia coli strain which is temperature-sensitive for growth due to a mutation (prs-2) causing a defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase has been characterized. The temperature-sensitive mutation was mapped to a 276 bp HindIII-BssHII DNA fragment located within the open reading frame specifying the PRPP synthase polypeptide. Cloning and sequencing of the mutant allele revealed two mutations. One, a G --> A transition, located in the ninth codon, was responsible for the temperature-conditional phenotype and resulted in a serine residue at this position. The wild-type codon at this position specified a glycine residue that is conserved among PRPP synthases across a broad phylogenetic range. Cells harbouring the glycine-to-serine alteration specified by a plasmid contained approximately 50% of the PRPP synthase activity of cells harbouring a plasmid-borne wild-type allele, both grown at 25 degrees C. The mutant enzyme had nearly normal heat stability, as long as it was synthesized at 25 degrees C. In contrast, there was hardly any PRPP synthase activity or anti-PRPP synthase antibody cross-reactive material present in cells harbouring the glycine to serine alteration following temperature shift to 42 degrees C. The other mutation was a C --> T transition located 39 bp upstream of the G --> A mutation, i.e. outside the coding sequence and close to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Cells harbouring only the C --> T mutation in a plasmid contained approximately three times as much PRPP synthase activity as a strain harbouring a plasmid-borne wild-type prs allele. In cells harbouring both mutations, the C --> T mutation appeared to compensate for the G --> A mutation by increasing the amount of a partially defective enzyme at the permissive temperature.

  18. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    different temperature regimes. To reveal phenotypic divergence at the manipulated [CO2] and temperature conditions, a full-factorial natural selection regime was established in a phytotron environment over the range of four generations. It is demonstrated that a directional response to selection at elevated......Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two...... subjected to increased levels of CO2 over the generational range investigated. The results of this study suggest that phenotypic divergence of plants selected under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration may drive the future functions of plant productivity to be different from projections that do...

  19. The potential effects of concurrent increases in temperature, CO sub 2 and O sub 3 on net photosynthesis, as mediated by rubisCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology)

    1992-07-01

    At the leaf level, under light saturating and light limiting conditions, it is shown that elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration not only alters the scale of the response of carbon gain to rising temperature, but can alter the direction of response. These points bring into serious question the value of any predictions of plant production which ignore not only the direct effect Of C0{sub 2} on carbon gain, but also the basic interactions of temperature, C0{sub 2} and 0{sub 3}. Whilst many factors may potentially diminish the enhancement of lightsaturated leaf photosynthetic rates with increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, no mechanism has so far been identified which could remove the parallel stimulation of light-limited photosynthesis.

  20. The potential effects of concurrent increases in temperature, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on net photosynthesis, as mediated by rubisCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1992-07-01

    At the leaf level, under light saturating and light limiting conditions, it is shown that elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration not only alters the scale of the response of carbon gain to rising temperature, but can alter the direction of response. These points bring into serious question the value of any predictions of plant production which ignore not only the direct effect Of C0{sub 2} on carbon gain, but also the basic interactions of temperature, C0{sub 2} and 0{sub 3}. Whilst many factors may potentially diminish the enhancement of lightsaturated leaf photosynthetic rates with increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, no mechanism has so far been identified which could remove the parallel stimulation of light-limited photosynthesis.

  1. [Effects of plastic mulch on soil moisture and temperature and limiting factors to yield increase for dryland spring maize in the North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Yao; Zhang, Li-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Jian-Ming; Fan, Feng-Cui; Shi, Yu-Fang

    2014-11-01

    Four treatments, including ridge tillage with plastic mulch (RP), ridge tillage without mulch (RB), flat tillage with plastic mulch (FP) and flat tillage without mulch (FB), were carried out to examine the tillage type and mulch on the effects of soil moisture and temperature, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of dry land spring maize in the North China. Results showed that the average soil temperature was increased by 1-3 °C and the accumulated soil temperature was increased by 155.2-280.9 °C from sowing to tasseling by plastic mulch, and the growing duration was extended by 5.9-10.7 d. The water conservation effect of plastic mulch was significant from sowing to the seedling establishment, with WUE being increased by 81.6%-136.4% under mulch as compared with that without mulch. From the seedling to jointing stage, which coincided with the dry period in the region, soil water utilization by the maize under mulch could reach the depth of 80-100 cm, and its WUE was about 17.0%-21.6% lower than the maize without mulch, since the latter was affected by dry stress. With the coming of rainy season around the trumpeting stage, soil water in each treatment was replenished and maintained at relative high level up to harvest. Yield of maize was increased by 9.5% under RP as compared with RB. However, yield was reduced by 5.0% under FP, due to the plastic film under flat tillage prevented the infiltration of rainfall and waterlogging occurred. No significant difference in yield was found between RB and FB. Higher yield of spring maize was limited because of the mismatching in water supply and demand characterized by soil water shortage before the rainy season and abundant soil water storage after the rainy season.

  2. Expansion of oil palm and other cash crops causes an increase of the land surface temperature in the Jambi province in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton R.; le Maire, Guerric; June, Tania; Meijide, Ana; Roupsard, Olivier; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia is currently one of the regions with the highest transformation rate of land surface worldwide related to the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops replacing forests on large scales. Land cover changes, which modify land surface properties, have a direct effect on the land surface temperature (LST), a key driver for many ecological functions. Despite the large historic land transformation in Indonesia toward oil palm and other cash crops and governmental plans for future expansion, this is the first study so far to quantify the impacts of land transformation on the LST in Indonesia. We analyze LST from the thermal band of a Landsat image and produce a high-resolution surface temperature map (30 m) for the lowlands of the Jambi province in Sumatra (Indonesia), a region which suffered large land transformation towards oil palm and other cash crops over the past decades. The comparison of LST, albedo, normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and evapotranspiration (ET) between seven different land cover types (forest, urban areas, clear-cut land, young and mature oil palm plantations, acacia and rubber plantations) shows that forests have lower surface temperatures than the other land cover types, indicating a local warming effect after forest conversion. LST differences were up to 10.1 ± 2.6 °C (mean ± SD) between forest and clear-cut land. The differences in surface temperatures are explained by an evaporative cooling effect, which offsets the albedo warming effect. Our analysis of the LST trend of the past 16 years based on MODIS data shows that the average daytime surface temperature in the Jambi province increased by 1.05 °C, which followed the trend of observed land cover changes and exceeded the effects of climate warming. This study provides evidence that the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops leads to changes in biophysical variables, warming the land surface and thus enhancing the increase of the air

  3. Expansion of oil palm and other cash crops causes an increase of the land surface temperature in the Jambi province in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sabajo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is currently one of the regions with the highest transformation rate of land surface worldwide related to the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops replacing forests on large scales. Land cover changes, which modify land surface properties, have a direct effect on the land surface temperature (LST, a key driver for many ecological functions. Despite the large historic land transformation in Indonesia toward oil palm and other cash crops and governmental plans for future expansion, this is the first study so far to quantify the impacts of land transformation on the LST in Indonesia. We analyze LST from the thermal band of a Landsat image and produce a high-resolution surface temperature map (30 m for the lowlands of the Jambi province in Sumatra (Indonesia, a region which suffered large land transformation towards oil palm and other cash crops over the past decades. The comparison of LST, albedo, normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI and evapotranspiration (ET between seven different land cover types (forest, urban areas, clear-cut land, young and mature oil palm plantations, acacia and rubber plantations shows that forests have lower surface temperatures than the other land cover types, indicating a local warming effect after forest conversion. LST differences were up to 10.1 ± 2.6 °C (mean ± SD between forest and clear-cut land. The differences in surface temperatures are explained by an evaporative cooling effect, which offsets the albedo warming effect. Our analysis of the LST trend of the past 16 years based on MODIS data shows that the average daytime surface temperature in the Jambi province increased by 1.05 °C, which followed the trend of observed land cover changes and exceeded the effects of climate warming. This study provides evidence that the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops leads to changes in biophysical variables, warming the land surface and thus

  4. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M

    2000-01-01

    -ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....

  5. Differences in consumer perspectives how sustainable food consumption is perceived and signalled in the prevailing consumer culture : among Generation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Happonen, Ville

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates Generation Y sustainable food consumers in the prevailing consumer culture and their differences in signalling and perceiving sustainability. The reasons why they engaged to a sustainable diet and the possible conflicts around it were also studied. Relevant contexts around consumer culture, possessions, identities and Generation Y regarding sustainable food consumption were presented as the theoretical framework. The focus was on Generation Y consumers in order to...

  6. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2, prolonged summer drought and temperature increase on N2O and CH4 fluxes in a temperate heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Ambus, Per; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2011-01-01

    In temperate regions, climate change is predicted to increase annual mean temperature and intensify the duration and frequency of summer droughts, which together with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, may affect the exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) between...... terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. We report results from the CLIMAITE experiment, where the effects of these three climate change parameters were investigated solely and in all combinations in a temperate heathland. Field measurements of N2O and CH4 fluxes took place 1–2 years after the climate...

  7. Trout density and health in a stream with variable water temperatures and trace element concentrations: does a cold-water source attract trout to increased metal exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.D.; Farag, A.M.; Hogstr, C.; MacConnell, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    A history of hard-rock mining has resulted in elevated concentrations of heavy metals in Prickly Pear Creek (MT. USA). Remediation has improved water quality; however, dissolved zinc and cadmium concentrations still exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria. Physical habitat, salmonid density, fish health, and water quality were assessed, and metal concentrations in fish tissues, biofilm, and macroinvertebrates were determined to evaluate the existing condition in the watershed. Cadmium, zinc, and lead concentrations in fish tissues, biofilm, and invertebrates were significantly greater than those at the upstream reference site and an experimental site farther downstream of the confluence. Fish densities were greatest, and habitat quality for trout was better, downstream of the confluence, where water temperatures were relatively cool (16??C). Measures of fish health (tissue metal residues, histology, metallothionein concentrations, and necropsies), however, indicate that the health of trout at this site was negatively affected. Trout were in colder but more contaminated water and were subjected to increased trace element exposures and associated health effects. Maximum water temperatures in Prickly Pear Creek were significantly lower directly below Spring Creek (16??C) compared to those at an experimental site 10 km downstream (26??C). Trout will avoid dissolved metals at concentrations below those measured in Prickly Pear Creek; however, our results suggest that the preference of trout to use cool water temperatures may supersede behaviors to avoid heavy metals. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  8. Elevated water temperature increases the levels of reo-like virus and selected innate immunity genes in hemocytes and hepatopancreas of adult female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J Sook; Pitula, J S; Schott, E; Alvarez, J V; Maurer, L; Lycett, K A

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal changes in water temperature directly affect the aquatic ecosystem. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay has been adapted to seasonal changes of the environmental conditions. In this, the animals halt their physiological process of the growth and reproduction during colder months while they resume these processes as water temperatures increase. We aimed to understand the effect of the elevated temperatures on a disease progression of reo-like virus (CsRLV) and innate immunity of adult female C. sapidus. Following a rise in water temperature from 10 to 23 °C, CsRLV levels in infected crabs rose significantly in hemocytes and multiple organs. However, in hemocytes, the elevated temperature had no effect on the levels of three innate immune genes: Cas-ecCuZnSOD-2, CasPPO and CasLpR three carbohydrate metabolic genes: CasTPS, CasGlyP; and CasTreh and the total hemocyte counts (THC). Interestingly, the hemocytes of CsRLV infected animals exposed to 23 °C for 10 days had significantly elevated levels of Cas-ecCuZnSOD-2 and CasTPS, compared to those of the uninfected ones also exposed to the same condition and compared to hatchery-raised females kept at 23 °C. Despite the lack of changes in THC, the types of hemocytes from the animals with high CsRLV levels differed from those of uninfected ones and from hatchery animals kept at 23 °C: CsRLV-infected crabs had hemocytes of smaller size with less cytosolic complexity than uninfected crabs. It therefore appears that the change in temperature influences rapid replication of CsRLV in all internal tissues examined. This implies that CsRLV may have broad tissue tropism. Interestingly, the digestive tract (mid- and hindgut) contains significantly higher levels of CsRLV than hemocytes while hepatopancreas and ovary have lower levels than hemocytes. Innate immune responses differ by tissue: midgut and hepatopancreas with upregulated Cas-ecCuZnSOD-2 similar to that found in hemocytes. By

  9. Effects of warming on uptake and translocation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li-Qiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has received growing attentions about its potential threats to human in recent, however little is known about its effects on transfer of heavy metals in agro-ecosystem, especially for Cd in rice. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate Cd/Cu translocation in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI). The results showed that warming gradually decreased soil porewater pH and increased water-soluble Cd/Cu concentration, reduced formation of iron plaque on root surface, and thus significantly increased total uptake of Cd/Cu by rice. Subsequently, warming significantly promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, and increased Cd distribution percentage in shoot, while Cu was not significantly affected. Enhanced Cd uptake and translocation synergistically resulted in higher rice grain contamination with increasing concentration from 0.27 to 0.65 and 0.14-0.40 mg kg(-1) for Indica and Japonica rice, respectively. However increase of Cu in brown grain was only attributed to its uptake enhancement under warming. Our study provides a new understanding about the food production insecurity of heavy metal contaminated soil under the future global warming. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of increase in temperature and open water on transmigration and access to health care by the Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavski, Philippe; Zubov, Leonid; Chen, Herman; Ceccato, Pietro; Pekel, Jean-Francois; Weedon, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The indigenous Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia annually migrate several hundred kilometers between summer and winter pastures. In the warming climate, ice-rich permafrost and glaciers are being significantly reduced and will eventually disappear from parts of the Arctic. The emergent changes in hydrological cycles have already led to substantial increases in open water that stays unfrozen for longer periods of time. This environmental change has been reported to compromise the nomadic Nenets' traditional way of life because the presence of new water in the tundra reduces the Nenets' ability to travel by foot, sled, or motor vehicle from the summer transitory tundra campsites in order to access healthcare centers in villages. New water can also impede their access to family and community at other herder camps and in the villages. Although regional and global models predicting hydrologic changes due to climate changes exist, the spatial resolution of these models is too coarse for studying how increases in open water affect health and livelihoods. To anticipate the full health impact of hydrologic changes, the current gap between globally forecasted scenarios and locally forecasted hydrologic scenarios needs to be bridged. We studied the effects of the autumn temperature anomalies and increases in open water on health care access and transmigration of reindeer herders on the Kanin Peninsula. Correlational and time series analyses were completed. The study population consisted of 370 full-time, nomadic reindeer herders. We utilized clinical visit records, studied surface temperature anomalies during autumn migrations, and used remotely sensed imagery to detect water bodies. Spearman correlation was used to measure the relationship between temperature anomalies and the annual arrival of the herders at the Nes clinic for preventive and primary care. Piecewise regression was used to model change in mean autumnal temperature anomalies over time. We also created

  11. Effects of increase in temperature and open water on transmigration and access to health care by the Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Amstislavski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . The indigenous Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia annually migrate several hundred kilometers between summer and winter pastures. In the warming climate, ice-rich permafrost and glaciers are being significantly reduced and will eventually disappear from parts of the Arctic. The emergent changes in hydrological cycles have already led to substantial increases in open water that stays unfrozen for longer periods of time. This environmental change has been reported to compromise the nomadic Nenets’ traditional way of life because the presence of new water in the tundra reduces the Nenets’ ability to travel by foot, sled, or motor vehicle from the summer transitory tundra campsites in order to access healthcare centers in villages. New water can also impede their access to family and community at other herder camps and in the villages. Although regional and global models predicting hydrologic changes due to climate changes exist, the spatial resolution of these models is too coarse for studying how increases in open water affect health and livelihoods. To anticipate the full health impact of hydrologic changes, the current gap between globally forecasted scenarios and locally forecasted hydrologic scenarios needs to be bridged. Objectives . We studied the effects of the autumn temperature anomalies and increases in open water on health care access and transmigration of reindeer herders on the Kanin Peninsula. Design . Correlational and time series analyses were completed. Methods . The study population consisted of 370 full-time, nomadic reindeer herders. We utilized clinical visit records, studied surface temperature anomalies during autumn migrations, and used remotely sensed imagery to detect water bodies. Spearman correlation was used to measure the relationship between temperature anomalies and the annual arrival of the herders at the Nes clinic for preventive and primary care. Piecewise regression was used to model

  12. Effects of increase in temperature and open water on transmigration and access to health care by the Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavski, Philippe; Zubov, Leonid; Chen, Herman; Ceccato, Pietro; Pekel, Jean-Francois; Weedon, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background The indigenous Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia annually migrate several hundred kilometers between summer and winter pastures. In the warming climate, ice-rich permafrost and glaciers are being significantly reduced and will eventually disappear from parts of the Arctic. The emergent changes in hydrological cycles have already led to substantial increases in open water that stays unfrozen for longer periods of time. This environmental change has been reported to compromise the nomadic Nenets’ traditional way of life because the presence of new water in the tundra reduces the Nenets’ ability to travel by foot, sled, or motor vehicle from the summer transitory tundra campsites in order to access healthcare centers in villages. New water can also impede their access to family and community at other herder camps and in the villages. Although regional and global models predicting hydrologic changes due to climate changes exist, the spatial resolution of these models is too coarse for studying how increases in open water affect health and livelihoods. To anticipate the full health impact of hydrologic changes, the current gap between globally forecasted scenarios and locally forecasted hydrologic scenarios needs to be bridged. Objectives We studied the effects of the autumn temperature anomalies and increases in open water on health care access and transmigration of reindeer herders on the Kanin Peninsula. Design Correlational and time series analyses were completed. Methods The study population consisted of 370 full-time, nomadic reindeer herders. We utilized clinical visit records, studied surface temperature anomalies during autumn migrations, and used remotely sensed imagery to detect water bodies. Spearman correlation was used to measure the relationship between temperature anomalies and the annual arrival of the herders at the Nes clinic for preventive and primary care. Piecewise regression was used to model change in mean autumnal

  13. Concurrent Increases and Decreases in Local Stability and Conformational Heterogeneity in Cu, Zn Superoxide Dismutase Variants Revealed by Temperature-Dependence of Amide Chemical Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colleen M; Rumfeldt, Jessica A; Broom, Helen R; Sekhar, Ashok; Kay, Lewis E; Meiering, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-08

    The chemical shifts of backbone amide protons in proteins are sensitive reporters of local structural stability and conformational heterogeneity, which can be determined from their readily measured linear and nonlinear temperature-dependences, respectively. Here we report analyses of amide proton temperature-dependences for native dimeric Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (holo pWT SOD1) and structurally diverse mutant SOD1s associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Holo pWT SOD1 loses structure with temperature first at its periphery and, while having extremely high global stability, nevertheless exhibits extensive conformational heterogeneity, with ∼1 in 5 residues showing evidence for population of low energy alternative states. The holo G93A and E100G ALS mutants have moderately decreased global stability, whereas V148I is slightly stabilized. Comparison of the holo mutants as well as the marginally stable immature monomeric unmetalated and disulfide-reduced (apo(2SH)) pWT with holo pWT shows that changes in the local structural stability of individual amides vary greatly, with average changes corresponding to differences in global protein stability measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Mutants also exhibit altered conformational heterogeneity compared to pWT. Strikingly, substantial increases as well as decreases in local stability and conformational heterogeneity occur, in particular upon maturation and for G93A. Thus, the temperature-dependence of amide shifts for SOD1 variants is a rich source of information on the location and extent of perturbation of structure upon covalent changes and ligand binding. The implications for potential mechanisms of toxic misfolding of SOD1 in disease and for general aspects of protein energetics, including entropy-enthalpy compensation, are discussed.

  14. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  15. Increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens in the Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 mutant is EDS1 and PAD4-dependent and modulated by environmental temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryke Carstens

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 (cir1 mutant displays salicylic acid (SA-dependent constitutive expression of defence genes and enhanced resistance to biotrophic pathogens. To further characterise the role of CIR1 in plant immunity we conducted epistasis analyses with two key components of the SA-signalling branch of the defence network, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4. We demonstrate that the constitutive defence phenotypes of cir1 require both EDS1 and PAD4, indicating that CIR1 lies upstream of the EDS1-PAD4 regulatory node in the immune signalling network. In light of this finding we examined EDS1 expression in cir1 and observed increased protein, but not mRNA levels in this mutant, suggesting that CIR1 might act as a negative regulator of EDS1 via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Finally, as environmental temperature is known to influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions, we analysed cir1 plants grown at 18, 22 or 25°C. We found that susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 is modulated by temperature in cir1. Greatest resistance to this pathogen (relative to PR-1:LUC control plants was observed at 18°C, while at 25°C no difference in susceptibility between cir1 and control plants was apparent. The increase in resistance to Pst DC3000 at 18°C correlated with a stunted growth phenotype, suggesting that activation of defence responses may be enhanced at lower temperatures in the cir1 mutant.

  16. Response of biological soil crust diazotrophs to season, altered summer precipitation, and year-round increased temperature in an arid grassland of the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Chris M.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Carney, Travis D.; Johnson, Shannon L.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts), which supply significant amounts of fixed nitrogen into terrestrial ecosystems worldwide (~33Tg y-1), are likely to respond to changes in temperature and precipitation associated with climate change. Using nifH gene-based surveys, we explored variation in the diazotrophic community of biocrusts of the Colorado Plateau, USA in response to season (autumn vs. spring), as well as field manipulations that increased the frequency of small volume precipitation events and year-round soil temperature. Abundance of nifH genes in biocrusts ranged from 3×106 to 1×8 g-1 soil, and nifH from heterocystous cyanobacteria closely related to Scytonema hyalinum, Spirirestis rafaelensis, and Nostoc commune comprised >98% of the total. Although there was no apparent seasonal effect on total nifH gene abundance in the biocrusts, T-RFLP analysis revealed a strong seasonal pattern in nifH composition. Spirirestis nifH abundance was estimated to oscillate 1 to >2 orders of magnitude between autumn (low) and spring (high). A year-round increase of soil temperature (2–3°C) had little effect on the diazotroph community structure over 2 years. Altered summer precipitation had little impact on diazotroph community structure over the first 1.5years of the study, when natural background patterns across years and seasons superseded any treatment effects. However, after the second summer of treatments, nifH abundance was 2.6-fold lower in biocrusts receiving altered precipitation. Heterocystous cyanobacteria were apparently more resilient to altered precipitation than other cyanobacteria. The results demonstrate that diazotrophic community composition of biocrusts in this semi-arid grassland undergoes strong seasonal shifts and that the abundance of its dominant members decreased in response to more frequent, small volume precipitation events.

  17. Increased photocatalytic activity of NiO and ZnO in photodegradation of a model drug aqueous solution: Effect of coupling, supporting, particles size and calcination temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derikvandi, Hadis [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan, Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza, E-mail: arnezamzadeh@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan, Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razi Chemistry Research Center (RCRC), Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Increased photoactivity of hybridized/supported NiO-ZnO whit respect to monocomponent one. • Strong dependence of photocatalytic activity of NiO-ZnO to calcination temperature. • Calcination temperature varied the crystallite forms of the semiconductors. • Red shifts in band gaps of the supported coupled semiconductors whit respect to monocomponent one. - Abstract: Mechanically ball-mill prepared clinoptilolite nanoparticles (NC) were used for increasing photocatalytic activity of NiO and ZnO as alone and binary systems. The semiconductors were supported onto the zeolite during calcination of Ni(II)-Zn(II)-exchanged NC at different calcinations temperatures. XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX, X-ray mapping, DRS, TEM and BET techniques were used for characterization of the samples. The calcined catalysts at 400 °C for 4 h showed the best photocatalytic activity for metronidazole (MNZ) in aqueous solution. The mole ratio of ZnO/NiO affected the photodegradation efficiency because activity of the coupled catalysts depends to the both e/h production and electron scavenging processes. In the used system, NiO acted as e/h production source and ZnO as an electron sink. Red shifts in band gaps of the supported coupled semiconductors was observed whit respect to monocomponent one, confirming formation of nanoparticles of the semiconductors onto the zeolitic bed. The best activities were obtained for the NiO{sub 1.3}–ZnO{sub 1.5}/NC (NZ-NC) and NiO{sub 0.7}–ZnO{sub 4.3}/NC (NZ{sub 3}-NC) catalysts at pH 3, 1.2 g L{sup −1} of the catalysts and 1 g L{sup −1} of MNZ.

  18. Response of biological soil crust diazotrophs to season, altered summer precipitation and year-round increased temperature in an arid grassland of the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M Yeager

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (biocrusts, which supply significant amounts of fixed nitrogen into terrestrial ecosystems worldwide (~33 Tg y-1, are likely to respond to changes in temperature and precipitation associated with climate change. Using nifH gene-based surveys, we explored variation in the diazotrophic community of biocrusts of the Colorado Plateau, USA in response to season (autumn vs. spring, as well as field manipulations that increased the frequency of small-volume precipitation events and year-round soil temperature. Abundance of nifH genes in biocrusts ranged from 3x106 – 1x108 g-1 soil, and nifH from heterocystous cyanobacteria closely related to Scytonema hyalinum, Spirirestis rafaelensis, and Nostoc commune comprised > 98% of the total. Although there was no apparent seasonal effect on total nifH gene abundance in the biocrusts, T-RFLP analysis revealed a strong seasonal pattern in nifH composition. Spirirestis nifH abundance was estimated to oscillate 1 to >2 orders of magnitude between autumn (low and spring (high. A year-round increase of soil temperature (2 − 3 °C had little effect on the diazotroph community structure over 2 years. Altered summer precipitation had little impact on diazotroph community structure over the first 1.5 years of the study, when natural background patterns across years and seasons superseded any treatment effects. However, after the second summer of treatments, nifH abundance was 2.6 fold lower in biocrusts receiving altered precipitation. Heterocystous cyanobacteria were apparently more resilient to altered precipitation than other cyanobacteria. The results demonstrate that diazotrophic community composition of biocrusts in this semi-arid grassland undergoes strong seasonal shifts and that the abundance of its dominant members decreased in response to more frequent, small-volume precipitation events.

  19. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: influence of cattle genotype (Bos indicus vs. Bos taurus) on oocyte and preimplantation embryo resistance to increased temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Lopes, F F; Lima, R S; Satrapa, R A; Barros, C M

    2013-03-01

    High environmental temperatures during the hot months of the year reduce reproductive performance in cattle. Summer heat stress depression in fertility is a multifactorial problem; however, there is evidence that the bovine germinal vesicle and maturing oocyte, as well as the early embryo, are major targets of the deleterious effects of heat stress. Such adverse effects are less pronounced in heat-tolerant breeds (Bos indicus) than heat-sensitive breeds (Bos taurus). This genetic variation results from the greater thermoregulatory ability and cellular thermoresistance of heat-tolerant breeds. Heat-induced oocyte cellular damage occurs in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Heat shock has been shown to reduce oocyte nuclear maturation, induce apoptosis, compromise oocyte cytoskeleton, and impair oocyte mitochondrial function and developmental competence. However, the oocyte cytoplasm is more susceptible to heat shock than the nucleus. This effect is greater for Bos taurus than Bos indicus oocytes. The detrimental effects of heat shock are also critical during the first cleavage divisions when most of the embryonic genome is inactive; however, the bovine embryo becomes more resistant to increased temperature as it proceeds through development. Several studies demonstrated that Bos indicus embryos are more thermotolerant than Bos taurus embryos. Adaptive changes involved in acquisition of thermotolerance are likely derived from changes in gene expression and (or) activity of biochemical molecules that control cellular functions against stress. Recently, molecules such as IGF-I and caspase inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk have been shown to exert a thermoprotective role, rescuing heat-induced oocyte and embryo cellular damage and developmental competence. Therefore, cattle genotype and thermoprotective molecules can be considered as an alternative to modulate the effects of increased temperature in reproductive function.

  20. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, upper Indus basin

    CERN Document Server

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    We analyze trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures (Tx, Tn, and Tavg, respectively), diurnal temperature range (DTR) and precipitation from 18 stations (1250-4500 m asl) for their overlapping period of record (1995-2012), and separately, from six stations of their long term record (1961-2012). We apply Mann-Kendall test on serially independent time series to assess existence of a trend while true slope is estimated using Sen s slope method. Further, we statistically assess the spatial scale (field) significance of local climatic trends within ten identified sub-regions of UIB and analyze whether the spatially significant (field significant) climatic trends qualitatively agree with a trend in discharge out of corresponding sub-region. Over the recent period (1995-2012), we find a well agreed and mostly field significant cooling (warming) during monsoon season i.e. July-October (March-May and November), which is higher in magnitude relative to long term trends (1961-2012). We also find ... The observed...

  1. The Potential Impact of CO2 and Air Temperature Increases on Krummholz's Transformation into Arborescent Form in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Im, S. T.; Ranson, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    Trees in the southern Siberian Mountains forest-tundra ecotone have considerably increased their radial and apical growth increments during the last few decades. This leads to the widespread vertical transformation of mat and prostrate krummholz forms of larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb) and Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour). An analysis of the radial growth increments showed that these transformations began in the mid-1980s. Larch showed a greater resistance to the harsh alpine environment and attained a vertical growth form in areas where Siberian pine is still krummholz. Upper larch treeline is about 10 m higher than Siberian pine treeline. Observed apical and radial growth increment increases were correlated with CO2 concentration (r = 0.83-0.87), summer temperatures (r = 0.55-0.64), and "cold period" (i.e. September-May) air temperatures (r = 0.36-0.37). Positive correlation between growth increments and winter precipitation was attributed to snow cover protection for trees during wintertime.

  2. Reconstructing the prevailing meteorological and optical environment during the time of the Titanic disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sukanta; Nunalee, Christopher G.; He, Ping; Fiorino, Steven T.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we reconstruct the meteorological and optical environment during the time of Titanic's disaster utilizing a state-of-the-art meteorological model, a ray-tracing code, and a unique public-domain dataset called the Twentieth Century Global Reanalysis. With high fidelity, our simulation captured the occurrence of an unusually high Arctic pressure system over the disaster site with calm wind. It also reproduced the movement of a polar cold front through the region bringing a rapid drop in air temperature. The simulated results also suggest that unusual meteorological conditions persisted several hours prior to the Titanic disaster which contributed to super-refraction and intermittent optical turbulence. However, according to the simulations, such anomalous conditions were not present at the time of the collision of Titanic with an iceberg.

  3. Polymer combination increased both physical stability and oral absorption of solid dispersions containing a low glass transition temperature drug: physicochemical characterization and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Atsushi; Sakai, Toshiro; Sako, Kazuhiro; Maitani, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was establishing a solid dispersion formulation containing a low glass transition temperature (T(g)) and poorly water-soluble drug. Drug/polymer blends with differing physicochemical stabilities and oral absorption were prepared from copolyvidone (PVP-VA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) by a hot melt extrusion. HPMC drastically increased the drug oral absorption property, while PVP-VA or PVP stabilized solid dispersions during storage by increasing the T(g) in proportion to polymer concentration. Experimental T(g) values corresponded closely with theoretical T(g) values; indeed, the T(g) values of solid dispersion with HPMC did not increase significantly compared to the T(g) value for the drug alone. A solid dispersion formulation incorporating two different polymers-HPMC and either PVP-VA or PVP-maintained increased T(g), physicochemical stability, solubility, and bioavailability of the solid dispresions owing to each polymer. These findings suggested that both oral absorption and physicochemical stability of low-T(g) drug will be improved using less amount of solid dispersion of combined two polymers than polymer alone.

  4. Increased temperature, but not acidification, enhances fertilization and development in a tropical urchin: potential for adaptation to a tropicalized eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Shawna A; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Khatkar, Mehar S; Poore, Alistair G B; Byrne, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To predict the effects of global change on marine populations, it is important to measure the effects of climate stressors on performance and potential for adaptation. Adaptation depends on heritable genetic variance for stress tolerance being present in populations. We determined the effects of near-future ocean conditions on fertilization success of the sea urchin Pseudoboletia indiana. In 16 multiple dam-sire crosses, we quantified genetic variation in tolerance of warming (+3°C) and acidification (−0.3 to 0.5 pH units) at the gastrulation stage. Ocean acidification decreased fertilization across all dam-sire combinations with effects of pH significantly differing among the pairings. Decreased pH reduced the percentage of normal gastrulae with negative effects alleviated by increased temperature. Significant sire by environment interactions indicated the presence of heritable variation in tolerance of stressors at gastrulation and thus the potential for selection of resistant genotypes, which may enhance population persistence. A low genetic correlation indicated that genotypes that performed well at gastrulation in low pH did not necessarily perform well at higher temperatures. Furthermore, performance at fertilization was not necessarily a good predictor of performance at the later stage of gastrulation. Southern range edge populations of Pseudoboletia indiana may benefit from future warming with potential for extension of their distribution in south-east Australia. PMID:25558283

  5. Effects of Milling Atmosphere and Increasing Sintering Temperature on the Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline Ni0.36Zn0.64Fe2O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Hajalilou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Ni0.36Zn0.64Fe2O4 was synthesized by milling a powder mixture of Zn, NiO, and Fe2O3 in a high-energy ball mill for 30 h under three different atmospheres of air, argon, and oxygen. After sintering the 30 h milled samples at 500°C, the XRD patterns suggested the formation of a single phase of Ni-Zn ferrite. The XRD results indicated the average crystallite sizes to be 15, 14, and 16 nm, respectively, for the 30 h milled samples in air, argon, and oxygen atmospheres sintered at 500°C. From the FeSEM micrographs, the average grain sizes of the mentioned samples were 83, 75, and 105 nm, respectively, which grew to 284, 243, and 302 nm after sintering to 900°C. A density of all the samples increased while a porosity decreased by elevating sintering temperature. The parallel evolution of changes in magnetic properties, due to microstructural variations with changes in the milling atmosphere and sintering temperature in the rage of 500–900°C with 100°C increments, is also studied in this work.

  6. Types of analysis of trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the types of analysis of Trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry. Descriptive research was performed, with quantitative and qualitative approach, using a multiple case study. Data were collected through interviews with the controller of the companies. In the four basic culture types suggested by Trompenaars (1994, it is concluded that there isn´t a pure kind, but there is a strong presence of family culture among the companies surveyed in dimensions relationship between employees, attitude in relation to the ways of change, forms of motivation and reward

  7. Global changes and animal phenotypic responses: melanin-based plumage redness of scops owls increased with temperature and rainfall during the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Paolo; Rubolini, Diego; Sacchi, Roberto; Fasola, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    The ecological effects of global climate changes include shifts of species' distribution and changes in migration strategies and phenotype. Colour polymorphism, which can be envisaged as a species' evolutionary response to alternating conditions or to a wide range of habitats, may be affected by climate changes as well. The scops owl (Otus scops) shows two main colour morphs, dark- and pale-reddish, as well as intermediate morphs. We investigated temporal trends in an index of plumage colour of Italian scops owls from museum collections (1870–2007). We found a significant increase in plumage redness over the last century, which was correlated with an increase in temperature and rainfall of the years before specimen collection. However, the temporal increase in plumage redness persisted after controlling for climatic variables, suggesting that other environmental factors could be involved. Our study indicates that ongoing climate changes might have either shifted the selective balance between colour morphs, or differentially affected migration and movement patterns of colour morphs. PMID:19411274

  8. Prevailing practices, attitudes & awareness regarding micronutrients among health professionals in Telangana

    OpenAIRE

    Aleem Mohammad; G Nagaiah; Akshay S; Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Micronutrients play a very important role in both promoting health and curing disease by health professionals. They play a central part in metabolism and in the maintenance of tissue function. It is important that doctors and other health professionals are aware of the evidence for the nutritional essentiality of these substances, and for the situations where an increased intake may lead to clinical benefit. Objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge of health professionals micronut...

  9. Direct splash dispersal prevails over indirect and subsequent spread during rains in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting yams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Laurent; Guyader, Sébastien; Pétro, Dalila; Salles, Michèle; Bussière, François

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogens have evolved many dispersal mechanisms, using biotic or abiotic vectors or a combination of the two. Rain splash dispersal is known from a variety of fungi, and can be an efficient driver of crop epidemics, with infectious strains propagating rapidly among often genetically homogenous neighboring plants. Splashing is nevertheless a local dispersal process and spores taking the droplet ride seldom move farther than a few decimeters. In this study, we assessed rain splash dispersal of conidia of the yam anthracnose agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, in an experimental setting using a rain simulator, with emphasis on the impact of soil contamination (i.e., effect of re-splashing events). Spores dispersed up to 50 cm from yam leaf inoculum sources, though with an exponential decrease with increasing distance. While few spores were dispersed via re-splash from spore-contaminated soil, the proportion deposited via this mechanism increased with increasing distance from the initial source. We found no soil contamination carryover from previous rains, suggesting that contamination via re-splashing from contaminated soils mainly occurred within single rains. We conclude that most dispersal occurs from direct splashing, with a weaker contribution of indirect dispersal via re-splash.

  10. Direct splash dispersal prevails over indirect and subsequent spread during rains in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting yams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Penet

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens have evolved many dispersal mechanisms, using biotic or abiotic vectors or a combination of the two. Rain splash dispersal is known from a variety of fungi, and can be an efficient driver of crop epidemics, with infectious strains propagating rapidly among often genetically homogenous neighboring plants. Splashing is nevertheless a local dispersal process and spores taking the droplet ride seldom move farther than a few decimeters. In this study, we assessed rain splash dispersal of conidia of the yam anthracnose agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, in an experimental setting using a rain simulator, with emphasis on the impact of soil contamination (i.e., effect of re-splashing events. Spores dispersed up to 50 cm from yam leaf inoculum sources, though with an exponential decrease with increasing distance. While few spores were dispersed via re-splash from spore-contaminated soil, the proportion deposited via this mechanism increased with increasing distance from the initial source. We found no soil contamination carryover from previous rains, suggesting that contamination via re-splashing from contaminated soils mainly occurred within single rains. We conclude that most dispersal occurs from direct splashing, with a weaker contribution of indirect dispersal via re-splash.

  11. Drought increases heat tolerance of leaf respiration in Eucalyptus globulus saplings grown under both ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Paul P. G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Ayub, Gohar; Duan, Honglang; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Ellsworth, David S.; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Evans, John R.; Tissue, David T.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in increasing atmospheric [CO2], rising growth temperature (T), and greater frequency/severity of drought, with each factor having the potential to alter the respiratory metabolism of leaves. Here, the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], sustained warming, and drought on leaf dark respiration (R dark), and the short-term T response of R dark were examined in Eucalyptus globulus. Comparisons were made using seedlings grown under different [CO2], T, and drought treatments. Using high resolution T–response curves of R dark measured over the 15–65 °C range, it was found that elevated [CO2], elevated growth T, and drought had little effect on rates of R dark measured at T drought on T response of R dark. However, drought increased R dark at high leaf T typical of heatwave events (35–45 °C), and increased the measuring T at which maximal rates of R dark occurred (T max) by 8 °C (from 52 °C in well-watered plants to 60 °C in drought-treated plants). Leaf starch and soluble sugars decreased under drought and elevated growth T, respectively, but no effect was found under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased the Q 10 of R dark (i.e. proportional rise in R dark per 10 °C) over the 15–35 °C range, while drought increased Q 10 values between 35 °C and 45 °C. Collectively, the study highlights the dynamic nature of the T dependence of R dark in plants experiencing future climate change scenarios, particularly with respect to drought and elevated [CO2]. PMID:25205579

  12. The contributions of the cerebellum in sensorimotor control: what are the prevailing opinions which will guide forthcoming studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn

    2013-06-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in developing models of cerebellar function in sensorimotor control, the exact nature of the basic operations performed by the cerebellum remain elusive. Several major theories have emerged these last decades. According to the hypothesis of Marr and Albus, the climbing fiber input carries an error signal weakening the strength of a subset of parallel fibers/Purkinje neurons synapses in the cerebellar cortex. Cerebellar circuits would gain the control of movement through trial and error. The hypothesis of internal models emulating movements is currently highly cited. There is a general agreement that (1) the central nervous system has to cope with an intrinsic time delay of sensory feedback related to motor activities and (2) estimations of future motor states are essential to perform fast and accurate movements. According to this second theory, cerebellar dysmetria, one of the cardinal cerebellar deficits, would result from a distorted predictive control. A third popular theory relates to the inverse models that would be stored in the cerebellum. Acquisition of a motor act would require forward models, and the acquisition process itself would generate an inverse model to allow an unconscious coordinated movement. Recently, an international panel of experts from various disciplines discussed the prevailing opinions in a consensus statement and tried to extract their clinical relevance in terms of pathogenesis of the clinical symptoms. Although a consensus is still not reached, the prevailing opinions provide a sound framework to conduct novel studies and try to discover the secrets of cerebellar circuits.

  13. Trichloroethylene adsorption by pine needle biochars produced at various pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Vithanage, Meththika; Zhang, Ming; Cho, Ju Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-09-01

    In this study, pine needles were converted to biochar (BC) at different pyrolysis temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 °C to sorb trichloroethylene (TCE), and the changes in BC properties with each temperature were evaluated. Pyrolysis temperature showed a pronounced effect on BC properties. Decreases in molar H/C and O/C ratios resulted from removing O- and H-containing functional groups with increasing temperature, and produced high aromaticity and low polarity BCs. BCs produced at higher temperature showed greater TCE removal efficiency from water due to their high surface area, micro-porosity, and carbonized extent. The performance of various BCs for TCE removal was assessed by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models, among which the Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models best described TCE adsorption onto various BCs, indicating prevailing sorption mechanism as pore-filling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Did Wet conditions prevail in the Zambezi catchment during Younger Dryas and Heinrich events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lubbe, J.; Tjallingii, R.; Brummer, G.-J.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the late Quaternary, Africa experienced dramatic changes in precipitation due to latitudinal shifts of the African rainfall belt. The Zambezi River drains a considerable part of southeast Africa that is now situated at the southern extent of the rainfall belt. A mixture of Zambezi sediments and marine carbonates (mainly foraminifera and coccolithophores) has accumulated on the continental slope of Mozambique, off the Zambezi River mouth. These marine deposits document changes in Zambezi sediment discharge, which can potentially be related to rainfall. The relative contribution of Zambezi sediments can be represented by detailed Ti/Ca XRF core scanning. Here, we present records of the relative contribution of terrigenous sediments in combination with lithogenic grain-size properties from piston cores, across a SW-NE depth transect. The spatial distribution of these records allows us to identify reduced/enhanced Zambezi discharge and changes in Zambezi sediment distribution during the late Quaternary. All cores on this transect show a distinct reduction in the accumulation of terrigenous sediments (up to ~ 9 ka BP) due to the northward transport of fluvial muds after the last deglacial shelf flooding. However, the detailed Ti/Ca records show, particularly in the deeper cores away from the Zambezi River mouth, a distinct increase of terrigenous sediments during both the Younger Dryas and Heinrich 1. Lithogenic grain-size distributions during Heinrich 1 suggest that increasing amounts of fluvial mud were deposited. The deep water records of the Zambezi slope support wetter conditions during typical northern hemisphere cold spells, suggesting a more southern limit of the African rainfall belt. These data have been generated within the EU Marie Curie GATEWAYS project.

  15. Dental occlusion in a split Amazon indigenous population: genetics prevails over environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normando, David; Faber, Jorge; Guerreiro, João Farias; Quintão, Cátia Cardoso Abdo

    2011-01-01

    Studies examining human and nonhuman primates have supported the hypothesis that the recent increase in the occurrence of misalignment of teeth and/or incorrect relation of dental arches, named dental malocclusion, is mainly attributed to the availability of a more processed diet and the reduced need for powerful masticatory action. For the first time on live human populations, genetic and tooth wear influences on occlusal variation were examined in a split indigenous population. The Arara-Iriri people are descendants of a single couple expelled from a larger village. In the resultant village, expansion occurred through the mating of close relatives, resulting in marked genetic cohesion with substantial genetic differences. Dental malocclusion, tooth wear and inbreeding coefficient were evaluated. The sample examined was composed of 176 individuals from both villages. Prevalence Ratio and descriptive differences in the outcomes frequency for each developmental stage of the dentition were considered. Statistical differences between the villages were examined using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact statistic. Tooth wear and the inbreeding coefficient (F) between the villages was tested with Mann-Whitney statistics. All the statistics were performed using two-tailed distribution at p≤0.05. The coefficient inbreeding (F) confirmed the frequent incestuous unions among the Arara-Iriri indigenous group. Despite the tooth wear similarities, we found a striking difference in occlusal patterns between the two Arara villages. In the original village, dental malocclusion was present in about one third of the population; whilst in the resultant village, the occurrence was almost doubled. Furthermore, the morphological characteristics of malocclusion were strongly different between the groups. Our findings downplay the widespread influence of tooth wear, a direct evidence of what an individual ate in the past, on occlusal variation of living human populations. They also

  16. Lack of improved outcomes with increased use of targeted temperature management following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Dustin G; Vinson, David R; Hung, Yun-Yi; Anderson, Erik S; Escobar, Gabriel J; Carr, Brendan G; Abella, Benjamin S; Ballard, Dustin W

    2014-11-01

    To assess whether increased use of targeted temperature management (TTM) within an integrated healthcare delivery system resulted in improved rates of good neurologic outcome at hospital discharge (Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 or 2). Retrospective cohort study of patients with OHCA admitted to 21 medical centers between January 2007 and December 2012. A standardized TTM protocol and educational program were introduced throughout the system in early 2009. Comatose patients eligible for treatment with TTM were included. Adjusted odds of good neurologic outcome at hospital discharge and survival to hospital discharge were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1119 patients were admitted post-OHCA with coma, 59.1% (661 of 1119) of which were eligible for TTM. The percentage of patients treated with TTM markedly increased during the study period: 10.5% in the years preceding (2007-2008) vs. 85.1% in the years following (2011-2012) implementation of the practice improvement initiative. However, unadjusted in-hospital survival (37.3% vs. 39.0%, p=0.77) and good neurologic outcome at hospital discharge (26.3% vs. 26.6%, p=1.0) did not change. The adjusted odds of survival to hospital discharge (AOR 1.0, 95% CI 0.85-1.17) or a good neurologic outcome (AOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.79-1.11) were likewise non-significant. Despite a marked increase in TTM rates across hospitals in an integrated delivery system, there was no appreciable change in the crude or adjusted odds of in-hospital survival or good neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge among eligible post-arrest patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A low body temperature on arrival at hospital following out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest is associated with increased mortality in the TTM-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovdenes, Jan; Røysland, Kjetil; Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of temperature on arrival to hospital after out-of-hospital-cardiac arrest (OHCA) with the primary outcome of mortality, in the targeted temperature management (TTM) trial. METHODS: The TTM trial randomized 939 patients to TTM at 33 or 36°C for 24h. Patients were...... categorized according to their recorded body temperature on arrival and also categorized to groups of patients being actively cooled or passively rewarmed. RESULTS: OHCA patients having a temperature ≤34.0°C on arrival at hospital had a significantly higher mortality compared to the OHCA patients...... with a higher temperature on arrival. A low body temperature on arrival was associated with a longer time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and duration of transport time to hospital. Patients who were actively cooled or passively rewarmed during the first 4h had similar mortality. In a multivariate...

  18. Scientific misconduct: three forms that directly harm others as the modus operandi of Mill's tyranny of the prevailing opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

    2014-03-01

    Scientific misconduct is usually assumed to be self-serving. This paper, however, proposes to distinguish between two types of scientific misconduct: 'type one scientific misconduct' is self-serving and leads to falsely positive conclusions about one's own work, while 'type two scientific misconduct' is other-harming and leads to falsely negative conclusions about someone else's work. The focus is then on the latter type, and three known issues are identified as specific forms of such scientific misconduct: biased quality assessment, smear, and officially condoning scientific misconduct. These concern the improper ways how challenges of the prevailing opinion are thwarted in the modern world. The central issue is pseudoskepticism: uttering negative conclusions about someone else's work that are downright false. It is argued that this may be an emotional response, rather than a calculated strategic action. Recommendations for educative and punitive measures are given to prevent and to deal with these three forms of scientific misconduct.

  19. Interactions with successional stage and nutrient status determines the life-form-specific effects of increased soil temperature on boreal forest floor vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwall, Per-Ola; Skoglund, Jerry; Linder, Sune

    2015-01-01

    The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes and plays a key role for the global carbon balance and climate. The forest floor vegetation has a strong influence on the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the forests and is sensitive to changes in temperature conditions and nutrient availability. Additionally, the effects of climate warming on forest floor vegetation have been suggested to be moderated by the tree layer. Data on the effects of soil warming on forest floor vegetation from the boreal forest are, however, very scarce. We studied the effects on the forest floor vegetation in a long-term (18 years) soil warming and fertilization experiment in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden. During the first 9 years, warming favored early successional species such as grasses and forbs at the expense of dwarf shrubs and bryophytes in unfertilized stands, while the effects were smaller after fertilization. Hence, warming led to significant changes in species composition and an increase in species richness in the open canopy nutrient limited forest. After another 9 years of warming and increasing tree canopy closure, most of the initial effects had ceased, indicating an interaction between forest succession and warming. The only remaining effect of warming was on the abundance of bryophytes, which contrary to the initial phase was strongly favored by warming. We propose that the suggested moderating effects of the tree layer are specific to plant life-form and conclude that the successional phase of the forest may have a considerable impact on the effects of climate change on forest floor vegetation and its feedback effects on the carbon and nitrogen cycles, and thus on the climate. PMID:25750720

  20. Interactions with successional stage and nutrient status determines the life-form-specific effects of increased soil temperature on boreal forest floor vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwall, Per-Ola; Skoglund, Jerry; Linder, Sune

    2015-02-01

    The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes and plays a key role for the global carbon balance and climate. The forest floor vegetation has a strong influence on the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the forests and is sensitive to changes in temperature conditions and nutrient availability. Additionally, the effects of climate warming on forest floor vegetation have been suggested to be moderated by the tree layer. Data on the effects of soil warming on forest floor vegetation from the boreal forest are, however, very scarce. We studied the effects on the forest floor vegetation in a long-term (18 years) soil warming and fertilization experiment in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden. During the first 9 years, warming favored early successional species such as grasses and forbs at the expense of dwarf shrubs and bryophytes in unfertilized stands, while the effects were smaller after fertilization. Hence, warming led to significant changes in species composition and an increase in species richness in the open canopy nutrient limited forest. After another 9 years of warming and increasing tree canopy closure, most of the initial effects had ceased, indicating an interaction between forest succession and warming. The only remaining effect of warming was on the abundance of bryophytes, which contrary to the initial phase was strongly favored by warming. We propose that the suggested moderating effects of the tree layer are specific to plant life-form and conclude that the successional phase of the forest may have a considerable impact on the effects of climate change on forest floor vegetation and its feedback effects on the carbon and nitrogen cycles, and thus on the climate.

  1. The defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase in a temperature-sensitive prs-2 mutant of Escherichia coli is compensated by increased enzyme synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, David A.; Switzer, Robert L.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain which is temperature-sensitive for growth due to a mutation (prs-2) causing a defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase has been characterized. The temperature-sensitive mutation was mapped to a 276 bp HindIII-BssHII DNA fragment located within the open readi...

  2. When politics prevails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven mor...... significant in defining the terrain of the debate than lobby group influence where a cross section of United Kingdom (UK) lobby groups are either actively or passively in favour of remaining within the EU ahead of the referendum....

  3. Islam: Stereotypes Still Prevail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasing, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Explores and criticizes the negative image of Islamic culture often fostered by Western media. Briefly considers the career, contributions, and example of Yusuf Islam (the former Cat Stevens). Includes a list of common misconceptions about Islam followed by corrective information. (MJP)

  4. Where the signs prevail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo Scavino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show in our paper that through his semiotic theory, Barthes developed a theory of subjectivity and society continued with the anti-utilitarian tradition of the Collège de Sociologie where George Bataille, Carl Einstein or Michel Leiris had favored the mythical and ritual dimension of collective life.

  5. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Pseudoroegneria spicata: response of stomatal density, leaf area and biomass to changes in water supply and increased temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauchlan H. Fraser; Amber Greenall; Cameron Carlyle; Roy Turkington; Cynthia Ross Friedman

    .... The primary objective of this study was to test how manipulation of water and temperature would influence the plasticity of stomatal density and leaf area of bluebunch wheatgrass, Pseudoroegneria spicata...

  6. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism. We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (Pn) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall. In general, Pn was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean Pn values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement. Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  7. Few apparent short-term effects of elevated soil temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation on the abundance and taxonomic diversity of desert soil micro- and meso-fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Housman, D.C.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent hydration and drying of soils in arid systems can accelerate desert carbon and nitrogen mobilization due to respiration, microbial death, and release of intracellular solutes. Because desert microinvertebrates can mediate nutrient cycling, and the autotrophic components of crusts are known to be sensitive to rapid desiccation due to elevated temperatures after wetting events, we studied whether altered soil temperature and frequency of summer precipitation can also affect the composition of food web consumer functional groups. We conducted a two-year field study with experimentally-elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation in the Colorado Plateau desert, measuring the change in abundance of nematodes, protozoans, and microarthropods. We hypothesized that microfauna would be more adversely affected by the combination of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than either effect alone, as found previously for phototrophic crust biota. Microfauna experienced normal seasonal fluctuations in abundance, but the effect of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation was statistically non-significant for most microfaunal groups, except amoebae. The seasonal increase in abundance of amoebae was reduced with combined elevated temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation compared to either treatment alone, but comparable with control (untreated) plots. Based on our findings, we suggest that desert soil microfauna are relatively more tolerant to increases in ambient temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than the autotrophic components of biological soil crust at the surface.

  8. The nature of supply side effects on electricity prices: the impact of water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, Alexander; Dupont, D.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the impact of water temperatures on electricity prices observed in Europe in summer 2003 has prevailed for years. We trace its source to technological and regulatory constraints and draw lessons for modelling.

  9. Increases in the longevity of desiccation-phase developing rice seeds: response to high-temperature drying depends on harvest moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, K J; Hay, F R; Ellis, R H

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the drying conditions routinely used by genebanks may not be optimal for subsequent seed longevity. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of hot-air drying and low-temperature drying on subsequent seed longevity for 20 diverse rice accessions and to consider how factors related to seed production history might influence the results. Seeds of rice, Oryza sativa, were produced according to normal regeneration procedures at IRRI. They were harvested at different times [harvest date and days after anthesis (DAA), once for each accession] and dried either in a drying room (DR; 15 % relative humidity, 15 °C) or in a flat-bed heated-air batch dryer (BD; 45 °C, 8 h d(-1)) for up to six daily cycles followed by drying in the DR. Relative longevity was assessed by storage at 10·9 % moisture content and 45 °C. Initial drying in the BD resulted in significantly greater longevity compared with the DR for 14 accessions (seed lots): the period of time for viability to fall to 50 % for seeds dried in the BD as a percentage of that for seeds dried throughout in the DR varied between 1.3 and 372·2 % for these accessions. The seed lots that responded the most were those that were harvested earlier in the season and at higher moisture content. Drying in the BD did not reduce subsequent longevity compared with DR drying for any of the remaining accessions. Seeds harvested at a moisture content where, according to the moisture desorption isotherm, they could still be metabolically active (>16·2 %) may be in the first stage of the post-mass maturity, desiccation phase of seed development and thus able to increase longevity in response to hot-air drying. The genebank standards regarding seed drying for rice and, perhaps, for other tropical species should therefore be reconsidered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  10. Growing different Lactuca genotypes aeroponically within a tropical greenhouse – Cool rootzone temperatures decreased rootzone ethylene concentrations and increased shoot growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Wei CHOONG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperate crops cannot grow well in the tropics without rootzone cooling. As cooling increased production costs, this experiment aimed to study the growth of various Lactuca genotypes and propose possible ways of reducing these costs, without compromising productivity. A recombinant inbred line (RIL of lettuce and its parental lines (L. serriola and L. sativa ‘Salinas’ were grown aeroponically in a tropical greenhouse under 24 C cool (C or warm fluctuating 30-36 C ambient (A rootzone temperature (RZT. Their roots were misted with Netherlands standard nutrient solution for 1 min, at intervals of either 5 min (A5, C5 or 10 min (A10, C10 in attempting to reduce electricity consumption and production costs. Lower mortality and higher productivity were observed in all genotypes when grown in C-RZT. Higher shoot fresh weight was observed under C5 than C10, for the RIL and L. serriola. Since ‘Salinas’ had similar shoot fresh weight at both C-RZ treatments, this may indicate it is more sensitive to RZT than water availability. Under A-RZ treatments, higher carotenoid content, with correspondingly higher nonphotochemical quenching, was observed in A10 for the RIL and ‘Salinas’. Further, total chlorophyll content was also highest at this RZ treatment for the RIL though photochemical quenching was contrastingly the lowest. Cumulatively, productivity was compromised at A10 as the RIL seemed to prioritize photoprotection over efficiency in photosynthesis, under conditions of higher RZT and lower water availability. Generally, higher RZ ethylene concentrations accumulated in A10 and C10 than A5 and C5, respectively – probably due to spray frequency exerting a greater effect on RZ ethylene accumulation than RZT. In the C5 RZ treatment, lowest RZ ethylene concentration corresponded with highest shoot fresh weight. As such, further research on ethylene (insensitivity and water use efficiency could be conducted to identify Lactuca cultivars

  11. Rapid replacement of prevailing genotype of human respiratory syncytial virus by genotype ON1 in Beijing, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guanglin; Zhu, Runan; Deng, Jie; Zhao, Linqing; Sun, Yu; Wang, Fang; Qian, Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common viral pathogen causing lower respiratory infections in infants and young children worldwide. HRSV ON1 genotype in subgroup A with a characteristic of a 72 nucleotide duplication in the second highly variable region of attachment glycoprotein gene, has been reported in some countries since it was first detected in clinical samples collected in Canada in 2010. In this study, 557 HRSV antigen-positive nasopharyngeal aspirates were randomly selected during 2012/2013 to 2013/2014 HRSV seasons in Beijing for subgroup typing and for ON1 genotype screening by using a PCR based method developed for easily identifying genotype ON1 out of strains of subtype A. It was found that subgroup B was dominant in the 2012/2013 season and sudden shift of subgroup dominance from B to A and rapid replacement of previously prevailing NA1 genotype by ON1 genotype occurred in the 2013/2014 season. Reversible amino acid replacement in the G protein gene was found in a new branch of ON1 genotype. The evolutionary rate of the 351 global ON1 sequences was estimated to 7.34 × 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year (95% highest probability density intervals, HPD, 5.71 × 10(-3) to 9.04 × 10(-3)), with the time of most recent common ancestor dating back to June 2009. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Will the New Gnosticism prevail? Remarks on Synthetic Biology, Nanotechnologies and Genetic Manipulation facing the Century of the Big Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Riechmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological utopianism seduces many people, from the very origins of Western modernity –remember Francis Bacon’s island of Bensalem in his New Atlantis–, with the temptation of complete mastery over nature (which includes human immortality. Today, the prevailing mentality in the West, which tends to become a universal worldview, has much in common with the beliefs of the ancient Gnostics. According to this mindset, science and technology can allow the human mind to escape the limitations that characterize its natural state, releasing the anchor to biological stuff and escaping the human condition. In short, we would become gods –gods thought of as Immortal Super-Engineers. We must resist these destructive illusions and delusions, which means: technical rationality has to make his own critique of utopian reason (in the sense of Franz Hinkelammert. Without this self-criticism, a judicious use of techniques and technologies will be out of reach –and they do have an enormous potential for improving the human condition–, while avoiding –if it were still possible– the exterminist, nihilistic and suicidal drift of industrial civilization.

  13. Modulation of Metabolism and Switching to Biofilm Prevail over Exopolysaccharide Production in the Response of Rhizobium alamii to Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schue, Mathieu; Fekete, Agnes; Ortet, Philippe; Brutesco, Catherine; Heulin, Thierry; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Achouak, Wafa; Santaella, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd2+) affect microbial metabolic processes. Consequently, bacteria adapt by adjusting their cellular machinery. We have investigated the dose-dependent growth effects of Cd2+ on Rhizobium alamii, an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacterium that forms a biofilm on plant roots. Adsorption isotherms show that the EPS of R. alamii binds cadmium in competition with calcium. A metabonomics approach based on ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry has showed that cadmium alters mainly the bacterial metabolism in pathways implying sugars, purine, phosphate, calcium signalling and cell respiration. We determined the influence of EPS on the bacterium response to cadmium, using a mutant of R. alamii impaired in EPS production (MSΔGT). Cadmium dose-dependent effects on the bacterial growth were not significantly different between the R. alamii wild type (wt) and MSΔGT strains. Although cadmium did not modify the quantity of EPS isolated from R. alamii, it triggered the formation of biofilm vs planktonic cells, both by R. alamii wt and by MSΔGT. Thus, it appears that cadmium toxicity could be managed by switching to a biofilm way of life, rather than producing EPS. We conclude that modulations of the bacterial metabolism and switching to biofilms prevails in the adaptation of R. alamii to cadmium. These results are original with regard to the conventional role attributed to EPS in a biofilm matrix, and the bacterial response to cadmium. PMID:22096497

  14. Compensation of decreased ion energy by increased hydrogen dilution in plasma deposition of thin film silicon solar cells at low substrate temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.D.; de Jong, M.M.; Rath, J.K.; Brinza, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Goedheer, W.J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Gorbachev, Y.E.; Orlov, K.E.; Khilkevitch, E.M.; Smirnov, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to deposit thin film silicon solar cells on plastics and papers, the deposition process needs to be adapted for low deposition temperatures. In a very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) process, both the gas phase and the surface processes are affected by

  15. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to monitor high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes...... in the NPQ determined the PSII operating efficiency, with no major change in the fraction of open PSII centres (qL) (indicating a QA redox state). We conclude that 1) chrysanthemum plants cope with excess irradiance by non-radiative dissipation or a reversible stress response, with the effect on the Pn...

  16. Modeling temperature inversion in southeastern Yellow Sea during winter 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ig-Chan; Moon, Jae-Hong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Hong, Ji-Seok; Pang, Sung-Jun

    2017-05-01

    A significant temperature inversion with temperature differences larger than 3°C was observed in the southeastern Yellow Sea (YS) during February 2016. By analyzing in situ hydrographic profiles and results from a regional ocean model for the YS, this study examines the spatiotemporal evolution of the temperature inversion and its connection with wind-induced currents in winter. Observations reveal that in winter, when the northwesterly wind prevails over the YS, the temperature inversion occurs largely at the frontal zone southwest of Korea where warm/saline water of a Kuroshio origin meets cold/fresh coastal water. Our model successfully captures the temperature inversion observed in the winter of 2016 and suggests a close relation between northwesterly wind bursts and the occurrence of the large inversion. In this respect, the strong northwesterly wind drove cold coastal water southward in the upper layer via Ekman transport, which pushed the water mass southward and increased the sea level slope in the frontal zone in southeastern YS. The intensified sea level slope propagated northward away from the frontal zone as a shelf wave, causing a northward upwind flow response along the YS trough in the lower layer, thereby resulting in the large temperature inversion. Diagnostic analysis of the momentum balance shows that the westward pressure gradient, which developed with shelf wave propagation along the YS trough, was balanced with the Coriolis force in accordance with the northward upwind current in and around the inversion area.

  17. Heart rate and respiratory rate influence on heart rate variability repeatability: effects of the correction for the prevailing heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sławomir Gąsior

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV is associated with average heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RespRate, alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate.Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations seven days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences – every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001, i.e. by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent.

  18. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of community and hospital acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains prevailing in Shenyang, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dan Sun

    curtail the spread of those MRSA and MSSA clones prevailing both in hospital and the community.

  19. Application of thermohydraulic dispatcher in low temperature district heating systems for decreasing heat carrier transportation energy cost and increasing reliability of heat supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorovsky, Y. V.; Romanov, D. O.; Sennikov, V. V.; Sultanguzin, I. A.; Malenkov, A. S.; Zhigulina, E. V.; Lulaev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Low pressure district heating systems have low breakdown rate and allow decreasing heat carrier transportation energy cost by means of avoiding throttling of available water head. One of the basic elements of such systems is thermohydraulic dispatcher (THD) which separates primary circuit and secondary circuit (or circuits) that allows avoiding mutual hydraulic influence of circuits on each other and reducing water heads of network pumps. Analysis of perspective ways of using thermohydraulic dispatcher (THD) in low temperature district heating systems is made in this paper. Principal scheme and mathematical model of low pressure and temperature district heating system based on CHP generation with THD are considered. The main advantages of such systems are pointed out.

  20. On the interaction of water-soluble binders and nano silicon particles: alternative binder towards increased cycling stability at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamor, S; Schröder, M; Brunklaus, G; Niehoff, P; Berkemeier, F; Schappacher, F M; Winter, M

    2015-02-28

    Silicon based composites are among the most promising negative electrodes for lithium ion battery applications due to their high theoretical capacities. One major drawback of silicon based anodes are their large volume changes during lithiation and delithiation. Although many efforts have been made in view of new binder materials and improved electrolytes, the resulting battery cell suffers from severe capacity fading at ambient or elevated temperatures, respectively. The strong reactivity with the electrolyte is considered to be responsible for the reduced cycle life at elevated temperatures. In this work we introduce silicon composite anodes with a novel composition based on a gellan gum binder material that show an improved cycling performance at ambient temperature and at 60 °C. To elucidate the influence of the binder material, we investigated the structure of the silicon based composite anodes in order to understand the nature of the interaction of the gellan gum based binder polymers with the silicon particles in comparison with a common CMC binder. Also the influence of the choice of binder on the interactions at the interface between electrode surface and electrolyte were studied. A combination of powerful techniques including solid state NMR, TEM and EELS, XPS as well as FTIR were applied.

  1. MODEL MATEMATIS KENAIKAN SUHU PADA BUTIRAN SELAMA PENGEPRESAN PADA PEMBUATAN TABLET EFFERVESCEN BUAH MARKISA (Mathematical Modeling of Temperature Increasing in the Particles during Compression on Processing of the Passion Fruit Effervescent Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar Ansar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was proposing mathematical models to predict the temperature increasing in the spherical form particles during compression on processing of the passion fruit effervescent tablet. The materials used in this research were passion fruit granule. The data of temperature increase on the materials during compression was recorded by the thermocouple. Result of the research was showed the temperature increase will be distributed by conduction to all position in the particle that can predict with the diffusion equation for dimensions three spherical coordinate. The temperature at the particle surface where friction among the contact points of the particle occurred was higher than Tg of materials of the effervescent tablet component. The particles temperature average increase during compression is 33.03oC. Keywords: mathematical models, temperature increase, effervescent tablet, and fassion fruit.   ABSTRAK   Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membuat model matematis untuk memprediksi kenaikan suhu pada butiran yang dianggap berbentuk bola selama pengepresan pada pembuatan tablet effervescen buah markisa. Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah granula markisa. Data kenaikan suhu pada bahan selama pengepresan diukur dengan termokopel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kenaikan suhu di permukaan butiran terdistribusi secara konduksi ke seluruh bagian butiran yang dapat didekati dengan persamaan difusivitas panas koordinat bola 3 dimensi. Suhu di permukaan butiran tempat terjadinya gesekan antar titik singgung butiran jauh lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan suhu Tg bahan komponen penyusun tablet effervescen. Kenaikan rerata suhu butiran selama pengepresan adalah 33,03oC.   Kata kunci: model matematis, distribusi suhu, tablet effervescen, dan buah markisa

  2. From Mythology to History: The Transformation of the Symbols (Dragon, Giant, Authorized Person Or Logical Change of the Prevailing Anthropomorphic Forms [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Simeonova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Bulgarian culture the similarity between the dragon, the giant and the king, as a ruler set by God, is based on the notions of origin, relationship and similar functions. All these circumstances are analyzed in details in the present paper: in the core is the logical change in the prevailing anthropomorphic forms.

  3. Influence of prevailing disturbances on soil biology and biochemistry of montane habitats at Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India during wet and dry seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, Anoop; Rai, J.P.N.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prevailing disturbances in montane habitats of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) was studied on soil microbial population, biomass, soil respiration and enzyme activities during wet and dry seasons. The physico-chemical characteristics of soils exhibited conspicuous variation in t...

  4. Prevailing of sensitive blood driving to AIDS/HIV. Provincial Blood Bank of Sancti Spíritus. 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Quesada Concepción

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of blood transfusions are one of the ways of transmitting the immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS/HIV; it constitutes warriness from the epidemiological point of view. A descriptive research was done with the objective of determining the prevailing of sensitive blood driving AIDS/HIV in the Provincial Blood Bank from Sancti Spíritus from January 1 st , 2007 to December 31 st, 2008. The sample was conformed by 312 donants with positive diagnosis to AIDS/HIV. Some variables were used such as prevailing, age, sex, race, home town. The scores of higher prevailing to AIDS/HIV were shown by the male sex (4,42, the 26-33 year old group (1,55; it prevailing volunteer blood driving (81,0 % , and Sancti Spíritus municipality gave more cases (27,5% .Just because sensibility to tests based on antibody, that is why it is important the constant checking of all processes that guarantee blood driving to be sired.

  5. [Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Saxony-Anhalt: identification of areas of increased risk of infestation and association of the infestation probability with the average annual maximum temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Nicolai; Schliephake, Annette; Ewert, Benno

    2005-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2004 1341 Red Foxes from 611 locations were examined parasitologically for Echinococcus multilocularis at the State Office of Consumer Protection Saxony-Anhalt. Examination was carried out in parallel to rabies monitoring. A period-prevalence of 9.2% of infestation was found. Employing a Scan Statistic a large area in the southwest of the federal state and two smaller areas of increased risk with respect to infestation with Echinococcus multilocularis were identified. The hypothesis of a negative association of the probability of infestation with the average annual maximum temperature of the location where the foxes were shot was supported by logistic regression analysis. A decreased probability of inactivation of Echinococcus multilocularis-oncospheres through heat and desiccation in areas of lower average annual maximum temperature seems to be likely.Thus, the infection pressure increases with reduced temperatures.

  6. Establishment of a mouse model stably replicating and expressing hepatitis B virus genotype C prevailed in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue YANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To establish a mouse model stably replicating and expressing hepatitis B virus genotype C (HBV-C prevailed in China. Methods  The recombinant adeno-associated virus rAAV8-1.3HBV-C (adr serotype was transduced into the human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells in vitro, and the expression of HBsAg and HBeAg in the cell culture supernatant was determined by ELISA. High expression recombinant virus rAAV8-1.3HBV-C was screened and injected via the tail vein into eight C57BL/6 mice (aged 6-8 weeks as the experimental group; meanwhile the previously reported rAAV8-1.3HBV-D (ayw serotype was injected into seven C57BL/6 mice as the control group. HBV DNA load, HBsAg and HBeAg levels in sera were assayed at weeks 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post viral injections. Mice were sacrificed 9 weeks post injection and Hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the pathological changes, and HBsAg and HBcAg expressions in the liver tissue. Results  The supernatant HBsAg and HBeAg were detectable in the HuH7 cells 72h after transduction in vitro. The fluorescence quantitative PCR results of the HBV DNA load in serum at week 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 post viral injection suggested stable in vivo replication of HBV DNA in mice. The serum expression of HBeAg was stable while the serum expression of HBsAg fluctuated. No obvious inflammatory cell infiltration or abnormal structure of liver tissue was observed, while HBsAg and HBcAg expression in the liver tissue were detected for both groups. Conclusion  By in vivo transduction with the recombinant virus rAAV8-1.3HBV-C, a mouse model that stably expressed and replicated HBV-C has been successfully established. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.10.01

  7. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies on the complexation of trivalent curium with inorganic ligands at increased temperatures; Spektroskopische und thermodynamische Untersuchungen zur Komplexierung von trivalentem Curium mit anorganischen Liganden bei erhoehten Temperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerencak, Andrej

    2010-05-11

    The subject of the present investigation is the complexation of trivalent actinides at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work is to broaden the comprehension of the geochemical processes relevant for the migration of radionuclides in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository. Depending on the disposed nuclear waste, the temperature in the direct vicinity of a nuclear waste repository may reach up to 200 C. The result is a distinct change of the geochemistry of the actinides. Many of these processes have already been studied in detail at room temperature. Yet, data at elevated temperature are rare. However, a comprehensive long term safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository requires the precise thermodynamic description of the relevant geochemical processes at room as well as at elevated temperatures. The present work is focused on the investigation of the complexation of trivalent curium (Cm(III)) with different inorganic ligands at elevated temperatures. Due to its outstanding spectroscopic properties, Cm(III) is chosen as a representative for trivalent actinides. The studied ligand systems are nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}), fluoride (F{sup -}), sulphate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}). The main analytical method employed is the ''time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy'' (TRLFS). The experiments with nitrate, sulphate and chloride were carried out in a custom-built high temperature cell, enabling spectroscopic studies at temperatures up to 200 C. The Cm(III)-fluoride-system was studied in a cuvette (quartz glass) in the temperature range from 20 to 90 C. Supplementary structural studies were performed using EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) spectroscopy and supported by quantum chemical calculations at DFT (Density Functional Theory) level. The results of the TRLFS studies show a general shift of the chemical equilibrium towards the complexed species with increasing temperature. For instance

  8. Effects of an experimental increase of temperature and drought on the photosynthetic performance of two ericaceous shrub species along a north-south European gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorens, L.; Penuelas, J.; Beier, C.

    2004-01-01

    Plant ecophysiological changes in response to climatic change may be different in northern and southern European countries because different abiotic factors constrain plant physiological activity. We studied the effects of experimental warming and drought on the photosynthetic performance of two...... ericaceous shrubs (Erica multiflora and Calluna vulgaris) along a European gradient of temperature and precipitation (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). At each site, a passive warming treatment was applied during the night throughout the whole year, whereas the drought treatment excluded rain events...... with the geographical gradient in water availability. Accordingly, there was a strong correlation between net photosynthetic rates and the accumulated rainfall over the growing season. Droughted plants showed lower leaf gas exchange rates than control plants in the four sites. Interestingly, although leaf...

  9. P and N in soils of Schleswig-Holstein reflecting increasing air temperatures; Im Spiegel des Klimawandels. Phosphor und Stickstoff in Boeden Schleswig-Holsteins bei steigenden Lufttemperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinker, Andreas; Deunert, Frauke [DigSyLand - Inst. fuer Digitale Systemanalyse und Landschaftsdiagnose, Husby (Germany); Schroeder, Winfried [Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie, Hochschule Vechta (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The ecological effects of the global climate change differ regionally. Due to the ecological significance of soils in terrestrial ecosystems the aim of this study on behalf of the State Agency for Nature and Environment of Schleswig-Holstein was to calculate the output of nitrogen and phosphate from soils in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) given the current and predicted air temperatures. Ecosystem research and environmental epidemiology should be coordinated much closer. This research must be attended by a professional documentation of research and monitoring results by use of metadata-based and GIS-based networking of local databases. The approach of the investigation presented should be applied to representative ecoregions of Germany. To reach this, modelling areas will be selected in terms of an ecological land classification and extensive data sets from meteorological and phenological monitoring networks. Additionally, the approach will be extended by the predictive mapping of vector-associated diseases. (orig.)

  10. The impact of a moderate chronic temperature increase on spleen immune-relevant gene transcription depends on whether Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are stimulated with bacterial versus viral antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tiago S; Gamperl, A Kurt; Nash, Gord; Booman, Marije; Barat, Ashoktaru; Rise, Matthew L

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to elevated temperature is an inherent feature of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) sea-cage culture in some regions (e.g., Newfoundland) and may also become an increasingly prevalent challenge for wild fish populations because of accelerated climate change. Therefore, understanding how elevated temperatures impacts the immune response of this commercially important species may help to reduce the potential negative impacts of such challenges. Previously, we investigated the impacts of moderately elevated temperature on the antiviral responses of Atlantic cod (Hori et al. 2012) and reported that elevated temperature modulated the spleen transcriptome response to polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC, a viral mimic). Herein, we report a complementary microarray study that investigated the impact of the same elevated temperature regime on the Atlantic cod spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal (IP) injection of formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida (ASAL). Fish were held at two different temperatures (10 °C and 16 °C) prior to immune stimulation and sampled 6 and 24 h post-injection (HPI). In this experiment, we identified 711 and 666 nonredundant ASAL-responsive genes at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. These included several known antibacterial genes, including hepcidin, cathelicidin, ferritin heavy subunit, and interleukin 8. However, we only identified 15 differentially expressed genes at 6HPI and 2 at 24HPI (FDR 1%) when comparing ASAL-injected fish held at 10 °C versus 16 °C. In contrast, the same comparisons with pIC-injected fish yielded 290 and 339 differentially expressed genes (FDR 1%) at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. These results suggest that moderately elevated temperature has a lesser effect on the Atlantic cod spleen transcriptome response to ASAL (i.e., the antibacterial response) than to pIC (i.e., antiviral response). Thus, the impacts of high temperatures on the cod's immune response may be pathogen dependent.

  11. Tolerance of citrus plants to the combination of high temperatures and drought is associated to the increase in transpiration modulated by a reduction in abscisic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Rivero, Rosa M; Martínez, Vicente; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2016-04-27

    In natural environments, several adverse environmental conditions occur simultaneously constituting a unique stress factor. In this work, physiological parameters and the hormonal regulation of Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes, in response to the combined action of high temperatures and water deprivation were studied. The objective was to characterize particular responses to the stress combination. Experiments indicated that Carrizo citrange is more tolerant to the stress combination than Cleopatra mandarin. Furthermore, an experimental design spanning 24 h stress duration, heat stress applied alone induced higher stomatal conductance and transpiration in both genotypes whereas combined water deprivation partially counteracted this response. Comparing both genotypes, Carrizo citrange showed higher phostosystem-II efficiency and lower oxidative damage than Cleopatra mandarin. Hormonal profiling in leaves revealed that salicylic acid (SA) accumulated in response to individual stresses but to a higher extent in samples subjected to the combination of heat and drought (showing an additive response). SA accumulation correlated with the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related gene 2 (CsPR2), as a downstream response. On the contrary, abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation was higher in water-stressed plants followed by that observed in plants under stress combination. ABA signaling in these plants was confirmed by the expression of responsive to ABA-related gene 18 (CsRAB18). Modulation of ABA levels was likely carried out by the induction of 9-neoxanthin cis-epoxicarotenoid dioxygenase (CsNCED) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CsCYP707A) while conversion to ABA-glycosyl ester (ABAGE) was a less prominent process despite the strong induction of ABA O-glycosyl transferase (CsAOG). Cleopatra mandarin is more susceptible to the combination of high temperatures and water deprivation than Carrizo citrange. This is likely a result of a higher transpiration rate in

  12. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  13. Looking Beyond the Old Water Paradox: Does New Water Dominate Quick Hydrographs where Surface Flowpaths Prevail? - A Meta-Analysis of Field Evidence from Small, Forested Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthold, F. K.; Woods, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The old water paradox describes the rapid mobilization of previously stored water via subsurface flowpaths during a storm event. Old water is usually stored in the subsurface storages. Thus, old water should dominate storm runoff where subsurface flowpaths prevail if mixing with new water is limited. The argumentum e contrario from this understanding raises the following hypothesis: storm hydrographs of catchments with prevailing near surface flowpaths are dominated by new water. We test this hypothesis using data from the scientific literature. The three runoff characteristics hydrograph response (quick or slow), flowpath (surface or subsurface) and time source (old or new water) serve as basis for a conceptual framework of catchment classification where each possible combination of the three characteristics represents a distinct stormflow generation conceptual model. Small forested research catchments for which conceptual models were developed based on field studies were reviewed and assigned to this classification system. Of the 42 reviewed catchments, 30 provide a complete set of the three characteristics resulting in one of the 8 conceptual models. Four catchments support our hypothesis, however, a larger field support exists for subsurface than for surface flowpath dominated sites. Hence, the resulting theory that hydrographs are dominated by new water where surface flowpaths prevail remains highly uncertain. Two explanations exist for the imbalance of field support between the two flowpath classes: 1) the selection of sites in past field studies was mainly to explain quick hydrograph response in subsurface flowpaths dominated catchments; 2) sites with prevailing subsurface flowpaths are more common in nature. We conclude that field studies at sites covering a broader range of characteristics are necessary to understand stormflow generation. The collection of catchments also allows us to test how the three runoff characteristics relate to climate, soils and

  14. Responses of enchytraeids to increased temperature, drought and atmospheric CO2: Results of an eight-year field experiment in dry heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Schmelz, Rüdiger M.; Carrera, Noela

    2015-01-01

    In a long-term field trial we investigated the responses of enchytraeids to simulated future climatic conditions predicted for Denmark. At a semi-natural Danish heathland site we exposed 9.1 m2 plots to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (510 ppm), extended summer drought and passive night...... in spring 2013, perhaps indicating that warming stimulates fragmentation (reproduction) rates at this time of the year. Increased drought in MayeJune 2012 did not have lasting effects on abundance or biomass 3 months after the termination of drought treatment. However, comparison with earlier assessments...... of enchytraeids in the CLIMAITE experiment shows that the severity of drought and the time elapsed since the last drought is the best predictor of the biovolume (or biomass) of enchytraeids. Moreover, species richness was significantly impacted by the average soil water content experienced by enchytraeids during...

  15. Low temperature (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; de Jong, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous silicon films have been made by HWCVD at a very low substrate temperature of ≤ 100 °C (in a dynamic substrate heating mode) without artificial substrate cooling, through a substantial increase of the filament–substrate distance ( 80 mm) and using one straight tantalum filament. The

  16. Strategies to increase the stability of intermediate moisture foods towards Zygosaccharomyces rouxii: the effect of temperature, ethanol, pH and water activity, with or without the influence of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, A; Marvig, C L; Daelman, J; Xhaferi, R; Nielsen, D S; Devlieghere, F

    2015-02-01

    Intermediate moisture foods (IMF) are in general microbiologically stable products. However, due to health concerns consumer demands are increasingly forcing producers to lower the fat, sugar and preservatives content, which impede the stability of the IMF products. One of the strategies to counteract these problems is the storage of IMF products at lower temperatures. Thorough knowledge on growth/no growth boundaries of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in IMF products, also at different storage temperatures is an important tool for ensuring microbiologically stability. In this study, growth/no growth models for Z. rouxii, developed by Vermeulen et al. (2012) were further extended by incorporating the factor temperature. Three different data sets were build: (i) without organic acids, (ii) with acetic acid (10,000 ppm on product basis) and (iii) with sorbic acid (1500 ppm on product basis). For each of these data sets three different growth/no growth models were developed after 30, 60 and 90 days. The results show that the influence of temperature is only significant in the lower temperature range (8-15 °C). Also, the effect of pH is negligible (pH 5.0-6.2) unless organic acids are present. More specific, acetic acid had only an additive effect to ethanol and aw at low pH, whereas sorbic acid had also an additive effect at the higher pH values. For incubation periods longer than 30 days the growth/no growth boundary remained stable but enlarged gradually between day 60 and 90, except for the lower temperature range (<12 °C) where the boundary shifts to more stringent environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of photopolymerization temperature increases in internal and external positions of composite and tooth cavities in real time: Incremental fillings of microhybrid composite vs. bulk filling of bulk fill composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryan Jin-Young; Son, Sung-Ae; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, In-Bog; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated temperature increases in the composite and pulpal side of dentin from incremental and bulk fillings in composite restorations. Class-1 cavities (5 mm × 4 mm × 3 mm) were prepared in ten extracted third molars, filled with composite, and restored with two separate horizontal layers of Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) in the incremental group or a single layer of SureFil SDR Flow (Dentsply) in the bulk-fill group (n=5). After placing the specimens in a 36.5°C water bath, temperatures were measured with eight thermocouples at the bottom center (BC), middle center (MC), top center (TC), bottom corner (BE), middle corner (ME), and top corner (TE) of the cavity, at the pulpal side of the dentin within the pulp chamber (PD), and in the curing light (CL) tip during light curing at 750 mW/cm(2) for 20s and then analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's HSD tests (α=0.01). Maximum temperatures ranged from 39.0°C (PD 1st increment) to 60.0°C (MC 1st increment) in the incremental group and from 42.0°C (PD) to 74.9°C (TC) in the bulk-fill group. In the incremental group, temperatures were similar between the 1st and 2nd increments, except at MC and BC. Bulk-fill group exhibited a greater increase in temperature during composite restoration. Regardless of the filling technique, more heat was generated at the center than at the corner and at the top than at the bottom of the composite. PD temperatures increased by 3.1°C and 5.5°C in the incremental group and bulk-fill group, respectively. Although bulk fillings save clinical chair time, clinicians should be aware of the greater heat that is generated with increasing amounts of composites during polymerization, which can jeopardize the pulpal health, especially when a large and deep cavity is being restored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevailing vitamin D status influences mitochondrial and glycolytic bioenergetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Calton

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Inadequate vitamin D status adversely influenced bioenergetic parameters of PBMCs obtained from adults, in a pattern consistent with increased oxidative metabolism and activation of these cells.

  19. Reconnoitering the effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and surface energy balance using MODIS and SEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alkhaier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of observing shallow groundwater depth and areal extent using satellite measurements can support groundwater models and vast irrigation systems management. Moreover, these measurements can help to include the effect of shallow groundwater on surface energy balance within land surface models and climate studies, which broadens the methods that yield more reliable and informative results. To examine the capacity of MODIS in detecting the effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and the surface energy balance in an area within Al-Balikh River basin in northern Syria, we studied the interrelationship between in-situ measured water table depths and land surface temperatures measured by MODIS. We, also, used the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS to calculate surface energy fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation, and inspected their relationships with water table depths. We found out that the daytime temperature increased while the nighttime temperature decreased when the depth of the water table increased. And, when the water table depth increased, net radiation, latent and ground heat fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation decreased, while sensible heat flux increased. This concords with the findings of a companion paper (Alkhaier et al., 2012. The observed clear relationships were the result of meeting both conditions that were concluded in the companion paper, i.e. high potential evaporation and big contrast in day-night temperature. Moreover, the prevailing conditions in this study area helped SEBS to yield accurate estimates. Under bare soil conditions and under the prevailing weather conditions, we conclude that MODIS is suitable for detecting the effect of shallow groundwater because it has proper imaging times and adequate sensor accuracy; nevertheless, its coarse spatial resolution is disadvantageous.

  20. Common dolphins in the Alboran Sea: Facing a reduction in their suitable habitat due to an increase in Sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, A.; Vázquez, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    The short-beaked common dolphin Mediterranean subpopulation appears to have suffered a steep decline over recent decades and was listed in 2003 as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Alboran Sea is the last region in the Mediterranean where it is still abundant. In this study, we relate features of this species' ecology to climate change, focusing on distribution and density. This work used a two decades-long dataset on the common dolphin in the Alboran Sea and a time series of environmental changes. Once established, these relationships were used in conjunction with some simulated scenarios of environmental change to predict the potential effects of further change on these species over the next 100 years. Two approaches were used: 1) projection from a regression line from local variation, and 2) a HadCM3 climate model with time-varying anthropogenic effects. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the relationship between density of the animals with SST and other environmental covariates. Results from both approaches were very similar. The predictions of density from the regression line fell within the ranges from the HadCM3 climate model, the first being based on local and locally, point to point, differentiated information, which lead us to consider the first approach as the best for this area. At the small spatial scale of the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Vera, an increase in SST will potentially yield a reduction in suitable habitat for common dolphins, with a progressive reduction in density from east to west.

  1. Spatial variability of near-surface temperature over the coastal mountains in southern Chile (38°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio; Garreaud, René

    2017-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the near-surface air temperature over a coastal mountain range in southern Chile [Nahuelbuta Mountains (NM), 38°S, maximum height 1300-m ASL] is investigated using in situ measurements, satellite-derived land-surface temperature, and simulations during the austral winter of 2011. Based on a few selected but representative cases, we found that under rainy conditions—either at day or night—temperature decreases with height close to the moist adiabatic lapse rate ( 6.5 °C/km). Likewise, the temperature tends to follow the dry adiabat ( 9.8 °C/km) during daytime under dry- and clear-skies conditions. During clear-skies nights, the temperature also decreases with height over the southeastern side of NM, but it often increases (at about 8 °C/km) over the northwestern side of the mountains. This temperature inversion extends up to about 700-m ASL leading to an average temperature contrast of about 7 °C between the northwestern and southeastern sides of Nahuelbuta by the end of dry nights. These dawns also feature substantial temperature differences (>10 °C) among closely located stations at a same altitude. High-resolution numerical simulations suggest that upstream blocking of the prevailing SE flow, hydrostatic mountain waves, and strong downslope winds is responsible for such distinctive nocturnal temperature distribution.

  2. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  3. Recent climate change in Japan – spatial and temporal characteristics of trends of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schaefer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper temperature series of Japan were statistically analysed in order to answer the question whether recent climate change can be proved for Japan; the results were compared and discussed with the global trends. The observations in Japan started for some stations in the 1870s, 59 stations are available since 1901, 136 stations since 1959. Modern statistical methods were applied, such as: Gaussian binominal low-pass filter (30 yr, trend analysis (linear regression model including the trend-to-noise-ratio as measure of significance and the non-parametric, non-linear trend test according to MANN (MANN's Q. According to the results of the analyses, climate change in Japan is clearly shown for temperature over the 100 yr (1901–2000: Annual mean temperatures increased at all stations from 0.35 (Hakodate to 2.95°C (Tokyo. The magnitude of climate change is illustrated to increase over the recent period 1976–2000. Seasonally, the strongest warming trends were observed for winter temperatures and also increasing temperature trends prevailed in summer, with the exception of slightly decreasing trends at only four stations.

  4. The Chronobra identifies prevailing mammary vascularity as a candidate variable in breast cancer post-operative outcome prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Hugh W; George, David; Sothern, Robert B; Griffiths, Keith

    2013-12-01

    We previously described a menstrual heat cycle of the breast in four groups of women (healthy, family history of breast cancer, benign breast disease, 'cancer-associated') who wore a thermometric brassiere (Chronobra). We now ask if 'breast minus oral temperature', indicating 'breast-associated vascularity', could be associated with breast cancer cell vascular access around different aspects of the menstrual cycle rhythm and survival. Thirty-six pre-menopausal breast cancer patients (average age: 38.97 y) were enrolled consecutively over 15 y and followed for more than 22 y after surgery in order to compare survival and peri-operative vascularity. Each subject wore the Chronobra, which provides an internal bioassay of the vascularity of both breasts, including the operated breast, during 1 h each evening at home for one menstrual cycle, and collected saliva for "free" progesterone to confirm pre-menopausal status and ovulation. Sixty-five healthy age-matched pre-menopausal women served as controls. Both oral and breast temperatures revealed menstrual cycle oscillations, rising just before ovulation until menses onset. Breast-adjusted vascularity also showed menstrual cycle oscillations, with levels differing significantly between the 3 groups during the luteal phase only. At the end of the follow-up span, 18 post-operative breast cancer patients had died from "disseminated" breast cancer and 18 were alive and well. Median follow-up time was 22.6 y for survivors, 6.2 y for non-survivors, and 21.0 y for controls (3 died from diseases unrelated to breast cancer). Based on 'during luteal-phase breast-adjusted vascularity', breast cancer survivors (mean ± SD: -1.65 ± 0.23°C) were significantly hypo-vascular (i.e., -0.23°C cooler) compared with controls (-1.42 ± 0.09°C), while non-survivors (-1.25 ± 0.12°C) were highly significantly hyper-vascular compared with survivors (+0.41°C warmer) and controls (+0.23°C warmer). This suggests that in pre-menopausal breast

  5. Heterogeneity prevails: the state of clinical trial data management in Europe - results of a survey of ECRIN centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Ohmann, Christian; Yang, Qin

    2010-01-01

    The use of Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS) has become essential in clinical trials to handle the increasing amount of data that must be collected and analyzed. With a CDMS trial data are captured at investigator sites with "electronic Case Report Forms". Although more and more of these el......The use of Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS) has become essential in clinical trials to handle the increasing amount of data that must be collected and analyzed. With a CDMS trial data are captured at investigator sites with "electronic Case Report Forms". Although more and more...... of these electronic data management systems are used in academic research centres an overview of CDMS products and of available data management and quality management resources for academic clinical trials in Europe is missing....

  6. Predictive habitat modelling as a tool to assess the change in distribution and extent of an OSPAR priority habitat under an increased ocean temperature scenario: consequences for marine protected area networks and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S G Gormley

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of an OSPAR priority habitat under current baseline ocean temperatures; to illustrate the prospect for habitat loss under a changing ocean temperature scenario; and to demonstrate the potential application of predictive habitat mapping in "future-proofing" conservation and biodiversity management. Maxent modelling and GIS environmental envelope analysis of the biogenic bed forming species, Modiolus modiolus was carried out. The Maxent model was tested and validated using 75%/25% training/test occurrence records and validated against two sampling biases (the whole study area and a 20km buffer. The model was compared to the envelope analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Area Under the curve; AUC was evaluated. The performance of the Maxent model was rated as 'good' to 'excellent' on all replicated runs and low variation in the runs was recorded from the AUC values. The extent of "most suitable", "less suitable" and "unsuitable" habitat was calculated for the baseline year (2009 and the projected increased ocean temperature scenarios (2030, 2050, 2080 and 2100. A loss of 100% of "most suitable" habitat was reported by 2080. Maintaining a suitable level of protection of marine habitats/species of conservation importance may require management of the decline and migration rather than maintenance of present extent. Methods applied in this study provide the initial application of a plausible "conservation management tool".

  7. Predictive habitat modelling as a tool to assess the change in distribution and extent of an OSPAR priority habitat under an increased ocean temperature scenario: consequences for marine protected area networks and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Kate S G; Porter, Joanne S; Bell, Michael C; Hull, Angela D; Sanderson, William G

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of an OSPAR priority habitat under current baseline ocean temperatures; to illustrate the prospect for habitat loss under a changing ocean temperature scenario; and to demonstrate the potential application of predictive habitat mapping in "future-proofing" conservation and biodiversity management. Maxent modelling and GIS environmental envelope analysis of the biogenic bed forming species, Modiolus modiolus was carried out. The Maxent model was tested and validated using 75%/25% training/test occurrence records and validated against two sampling biases (the whole study area and a 20km buffer). The model was compared to the envelope analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Area Under the curve; AUC) was evaluated. The performance of the Maxent model was rated as 'good' to 'excellent' on all replicated runs and low variation in the runs was recorded from the AUC values. The extent of "most suitable", "less suitable" and "unsuitable" habitat was calculated for the baseline year (2009) and the projected increased ocean temperature scenarios (2030, 2050, 2080 and 2100). A loss of 100% of "most suitable" habitat was reported by 2080. Maintaining a suitable level of protection of marine habitats/species of conservation importance may require management of the decline and migration rather than maintenance of present extent. Methods applied in this study provide the initial application of a plausible "conservation management tool".

  8. Small millet farmers increase yields through participatory varietal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Several of the preferred varieties of small millet. (including research station and local varieties), offer between 15% and 20% increased yields, compared to prevailing varieties, and are well adapted to local environments (Figure 1). Multiplication and adoption of these higher yielding varieties means increased productivity.

  9. Acidity Of Rain And Relationship With the Atmospheric Conditions Prevailing In the Town of The Candelaria - Bogotá D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Leonardo López Jiménez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was developed in order to establish the facts about the acidity of rain in the town of La Candelaria and to study further the relationship of this phenomenon with the atmospheric conditions prevailing in this sector of the city of Bogota D.C. At the start of the study it was necessary to design and install a network of sampling stations at strategic sites in the locality; selected according to specific criteria. The taking and handling of the samples, in the morning and at the end of the afternoon, followed the previously developed protocols to identify the time of harvesting rainwater and the methodology for laboratory analysis. In all cases the pH value was taken on-site and the analysis of nitrates and sulfates of each sample were conducted in the Laboratory of Environmental Engineering at La Salle University. The process of collecting and analyzing samples was accompanied by permanent monitoring of the atmospheric conditions prevailing in the locality. As a result of the investigation we were able to establish the level of acidity of rainfall and its temporary space in the town of La Candelaria. The results were used to determine further the close relationship between weather conditions and acid precipitation in this area of the city.

  10. Establishment of a normal-derived estrogen receptor-positive cell line comparable to the prevailing human breast cancer subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkinson, Branden Michael; Klitgaard, Marie Christine; Petersen, Ole William

    2017-01-01

    Understanding human cancer increasingly relies on insight gained from subtype specific comparisons between malignant and non-malignant cells. The most frequent subtype in breast cancer is the luminal. By far the most frequently used model for luminal breast cancer is the iconic estrogen receptor......-positive (ERpos) MCF7 cell line. However, luminal specific comparisons have suffered from the lack of a relevant non-malignant counterpart. Our previous work has shown that transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) inhibition suffices to propagate prospectively isolated ERpos human breast luminal cells from...... propose that iHBECERpos may serve to shed light on hitherto unappreciated differences in ER regulation and function between normal breast and breast cancer....

  11. Generational distribution of a Candida glabrata population: Resilient old cells prevail, while younger cells dominate in the vulnerable host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Bouklas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other yeasts, the human pathogen Candida glabrata ages when it undergoes asymmetric, finite cell divisions, which determines its replicative lifespan. We sought to investigate if and how aging changes resilience of C. glabrata populations in the host environment. Our data demonstrate that old C. glabrata are more resistant to hydrogen peroxide and neutrophil killing, whereas young cells adhere better to epithelial cell layers. Consequently, virulence of old compared to younger C. glabrata cells is enhanced in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Electron microscopy images of old C. glabrata cells indicate a marked increase in cell wall thickness. Comparison of transcriptomes of old and young C. glabrata cells reveals differential regulation of ergosterol and Hog pathway associated genes as well as adhesion proteins, and suggests that aging is accompanied by remodeling of the fungal cell wall. Biochemical analysis supports this conclusion as older cells exhibit a qualitatively different lipid composition, leading to the observed increased emergence of fluconazole resistance when grown in the presence of fluconazole selection pressure. Older C. glabrata cells accumulate during murine and human infection, which is statistically unlikely without very strong selection. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that neutrophils constitute the predominant selection pressure in vivo. When we altered experimentally the selection pressure by antibody-mediated removal of neutrophils, we observed a significantly younger pathogen population in mice. Mathematical modeling confirmed that differential selection of older cells is sufficient to cause the observed demographic shift in the fungal population. Hence our data support the concept that pathogenesis is affected by the generational age distribution of the infecting C. glabrata population in a host. We conclude that replicative aging constitutes an emerging trait, which is selected by the host and

  12. Heterogeneity prevails: the state of clinical trial data management in Europe - results of a survey of ECRIN centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Ohmann, Christian; Yang, Qin; Salas, Nader; Lauritsen, Jens; Gueyffier, Francois; Leizorovicz, Alan; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Wittenberg, Michael; Voko, Zoltán; Gaynor, Siobhan; Cooney, Margaret; Doran, Peter; Maggioni, Aldo; Lorimer, Andrea; Torres, Ferràn; McPherson, Gladys; Charwill, Jim; Hellström, Mats; Lejeune, Stéphane

    2010-07-21

    The use of Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS) has become essential in clinical trials to handle the increasing amount of data that must be collected and analyzed. With a CDMS trial data are captured at investigator sites with "electronic Case Report Forms". Although more and more of these electronic data management systems are used in academic research centres an overview of CDMS products and of available data management and quality management resources for academic clinical trials in Europe is missing. The ECRIN (European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network) data management working group conducted a two-part standardized survey on data management, software tools, and quality management for clinical trials. The questionnaires were answered by nearly 80 centres/units (with an overall response rate of 47% and 43%) from 12 European countries and EORTC. Our survey shows that about 90% of centres have a CDMS in routine use. Of these CDMS nearly 50% are commercial systems; Open Source solutions don't play a major role. In general, solutions used for clinical data management are very heterogeneous: 20 different commercial CDMS products (7 Open Source solutions) in addition to 17/18 proprietary systems are in use. The most widely employed CDMS products are MACRO and Capture System, followed by solutions that are used in at least 3 centres: eResearch Network, CleanWeb, GCP Base and SAS. Although quality management systems for data management are in place in most centres/units, there exist some deficits in the area of system validation. Because the considerable heterogeneity of data management software solutions may be a hindrance to cooperation based on trial data exchange, standards like CDISC (Clinical Data Interchange Standard Consortium) should be implemented more widely. In a heterogeneous environment the use of data standards can simplify data exchange, increase the quality of data and prepare centres for new developments (e.g. the use of EHR for clinical

  13. Heterogeneity prevails: the state of clinical trial data management in Europe - results of a survey of ECRIN centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS has become essential in clinical trials to handle the increasing amount of data that must be collected and analyzed. With a CDMS trial data are captured at investigator sites with "electronic Case Report Forms". Although more and more of these electronic data management systems are used in academic research centres an overview of CDMS products and of available data management and quality management resources for academic clinical trials in Europe is missing. Methods The ECRIN (European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network data management working group conducted a two-part standardized survey on data management, software tools, and quality management for clinical trials. The questionnaires were answered by nearly 80 centres/units (with an overall response rate of 47% and 43% from 12 European countries and EORTC. Results Our survey shows that about 90% of centres have a CDMS in routine use. Of these CDMS nearly 50% are commercial systems; Open Source solutions don't play a major role. In general, solutions used for clinical data management are very heterogeneous: 20 different commercial CDMS products (7 Open Source solutions in addition to 17/18 proprietary systems are in use. The most widely employed CDMS products are MACRO™ and Capture System™, followed by solutions that are used in at least 3 centres: eResearch Network™, CleanWeb™, GCP Base™ and SAS™. Although quality management systems for data management are in place in most centres/units, there exist some deficits in the area of system validation. Conclusions Because the considerable heterogeneity of data management software solutions may be a hindrance to cooperation based on trial data exchange, standards like CDISC (Clinical Data Interchange Standard Consortium should be implemented more widely. In a heterogeneous environment the use of data standards can simplify data exchange, increase the quality of

  14. New Insights of Graphite Anode Stability in Rechargeable Batteries: Li-Ion Coordination Structures Prevail over Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2018-01-04

    Graphite anodes are not stable in most noncarbonate solvents (e.g., ether, sulfoxide, sulfone) upon Li ion intercalation, known as an urgent issue in present Li ions and next-generation Li–S and Li–O2 batteries for storage of Li ions within the anode for safety features. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is commonly believed to be decisive for stabilizing the graphite anode. However, here we find that the solvation structure of the Li ions, determined by the electrolyte composition including lithium salts, solvents, and additives, plays a more dominant role than SEI in graphite anode stability. The Li ion intercalation desired for battery operation competes with the undesired Li+–solvent co-insertion, leading to graphite exfoliation. The increase in organic lithium salt LiN(SO2CF3)2 concentration or, more effectively, the addition of LiNO3 lowers the interaction strength between Li+ and solvents, suppressing the graphite exfoliation caused by Li+–solvent co-insertion. Our findings refresh the knowledge of the well-known SEI for graphite stability in metal ion batteries and also provide new guidelines for electrolyte systems to achieve reliable and safe Li–S full batteries.

  15. Multiscale measurements on temperature-dependent deformation of a textured magnesium alloy with synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L.; Bie, B. X.; Li, Q. H.; Sun, T.; Fezzaa, K.; Gong, X. L.; Luo, S. N.

    2017-06-01

    In situ synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction are used to investigate deformation of a rolled magnesium alloy under uniaxial compression at room and elevated temperatures along two different directions. The loading axis (LA) is either perpendicular or parallel to the normal direction, and these two cases are referred to as LA⊥ and LAk loading, respectively. Multiscale measurements including stressestrain curves (macroscale), strain fields (mesoscale), and diffraction patterns (microscale) are obtained simultaneously. Due to initial texture, f1012g extension twinning is predominant in the LA⊥ loading, while dislocation motion prevails in the LAk loading. With increasing temperature, fewer f1012g extension twins are activated in the LA⊥ samples, giving rise to reduced strain homogenization, while pyramidal slip becomes readily activated, leading to more homogeneous deformation for the LAk loading. The difference in the strain hardening rates is attributed to that in strain field homogenization for these two loading directions

  16. Prevailing Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Physicians in Terminal Cancer Care Changed After the Enactment of the Natural Death Act: 15 Years' Follow-up Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsien-Liang; Yao, Chien-An; Hu, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Chen, Chih-Dao; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Yen-Chun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan

    2017-12-06

    Advance directive laws have influences on ethical dilemmas encountered by physicians caring for terminal cancer patients. To identify the prevailing ethical dilemmas among terminal care physicians 15 years after the Natural Death Act was enacted in Taiwan. This study is a cross-sectional survey from April 2014 to February 2015 using the clustering sampling method and a well-structured questionnaire. Targeted participants included physicians at oncology and related wards or palliative care units where terminal cancer care may be provided in Taiwan. Among the 500 physicians surveyed, 383 responded (response rate 76.6%) and 346 valid questionnaires were included in the final analysis (effective response rate 69.2%). The most frequently identified ethical dilemma was "place of care," followed by "use of antimicrobial agents" and "artificial nutrition and hydration." The dilemma of "truth telling," which ranked first in the 2005-2006 survey, now ranked at the fourth place. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender and knowledge of palliative care were negatively correlated with the extent of dilemmas regarding issues of "life and death." The prevailing ethical dilemmas have changed in Taiwan 15 years after the enactment of the Natural Death Act, supporting that some previous strategies had worked. Our results suggest that education on the core values of palliative care, improvement of community-based hospice care program, and creating treatment guidelines with prognostication may resolve the current dilemmas. This type of survey should be adapted by individual countries to guide policy decisions on end-of-life care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies to increase the stability of intermediate moisture foods towards Zygosaccharomyces rouxii: The effect of temperature, ethanol, pH and water activity, with or without the influence of organic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, A.; Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Daelman, J.

    2015-01-01

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