Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loewe, W.E.
2001-07-31
A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.
Modelling of tandem cell temperature coefficients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedman, D.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
1996-05-01
This paper discusses the temperature dependence of the basic solar-cell operating parameters for a GaInP/GaAs series-connected two-terminal tandem cell. The effects of series resistance and of different incident solar spectra are also discussed.
Temperature and Coefficient of Restitution of a Table Tennis Ball
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoonyoung Chang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The coefficient of restitution (COR of a bouncing table tennis ball was measured at varying ball temperatures with a Motion Detector. It was found that there is a negative linear relationship between the COR and the temperature of the table tennis ball for temperatures ranging from 5 to 56 ̊C.
The HD+ dissociative recombination rate coefficient at low temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wolf A.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of the rotational temperature of the ions is considered for low-energy dissociative recombination (DR of HD+. Merged beams measurements with HD+ ions of a rotational temperature near 300 K are compared to multichannel quantum defect theory calculations. The thermal DR rate coefficient for a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution is derived from the merged-beams data and compared to theoretical results for a range of rotational temperatures. Good agreement is found for the theory with 300 K rotational temperature. For a low-temperature plasma environment where also the rotational temperature assumes 10 K, theory predicts a considerably higher thermal DR rate coefficient. The origin of this is traced to predicted resonant structures of the collision-energy dependent DR cross section at few-meV collision energies for the particular case of HD+ ions in the rotational ground state.
Estimation of high temperature metal-silicate partition coefficients
Jones, John H.; Capobianco, Christopher J.; Drake, Michael J.
1992-12-01
It has been known for some time that abundances of siderophile elements in the upper mantle of the Earth are far in excess of those expected from equilibrium between metal and silicate at low pressures and temperatures. Murthy (1991) has re-examined this excess of siderophile element problem by estimating liquid metal/liquid silicate partition coefficients reduces from their measured values at a lower temperature, implying that siderophile elements become much less siderophilic at high temperatures. Murthy then draws the important conclusion that metal/silicate equilibrium at high temperatures can account for the abundances of siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle. Of course, his conclusion is critically dependent on the small values of the partition coefficients he calculates. Because the numerical values of most experimentally-determined partition coefficients increase with increasing temperature at both constant oxygen fugacity and at constant redox buffer, we think it is important to try an alternative extrapolation for comparison. We have computed high temperature metal/silicate partition coefficients under a different set of assumptions and show that such long temperature extrapolations yield values which are critically dependent upon the presumed chemical behavior of the siderophile elements in the system.
The temperature variation of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in metal alloys
Danford, M. D.
1990-01-01
Hydrogen diffusion coefficients were measured as a function of temperature for a few metal alloys using an electrochemical evolution technique. Results from these measurements are compared to those obtained by the time-lag method. In all cases, diffusion coefficients obtained by the electrochemical method are larger than those by the time-lag method by an order of magnitude or more. These differences are attributed mainly to hydrogen trapping.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolu Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available As fuel temperature increases, both its viscosity and surface tension decrease, and this is helpful to improve fuel atomization and then better combustion and emission performances of engine. Based on the self-regulated temperature property of positive temperature coefficient material, this article used a positive temperature coefficient material as electric heating element to heat diesel fuel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine. A kind of BaTiO3-based positive temperature coefficient material, with the Curie temperature of 230°C and rated voltage of 24 V, was developed, and its micrograph and element compositions were also analyzed. By the fuel pipeline wrapped in six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, its resistivity–temperature and heating characteristics were tested on a fuel pump bench. The experiments showed that in this installation, the surface temperature of six positive temperature coefficient ceramics rose to the equilibrium temperature only for 100 s at rated voltage. In rated power supply for six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, the temperature of injection fuel improved for 21°C–27°C within 100 s, and then could keep constant. Using positive temperature coefficient material to heat diesel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine, the injection mass per cycle had little change, approximately 0.3%/°C. This study provides a beneficial reference for improving atomization of high-viscosity liquids by employing positive temperature coefficient material without any control methods.
Temperature dependence of electron impact ionization coefficient in bulk silicon
Ahmed, Mowfaq Jalil
2017-09-01
This work exhibits a modified procedure to compute the electron impact ionization coefficient of silicon for temperatures between 77 and 800K and electric fields ranging from 70 to 400 kV/cm. The ionization coefficients are computed from the electron momentum distribution function through solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). The arrangement is acquired by joining Legendre polynomial extension with BTE. The resulting BTE is solved by differences-differential method using MATLAB®. Six (X) equivalent ellipsoidal and non-parabolic valleys of the conduction band of silicon are taken into account. Concerning the scattering mechanisms, the interval acoustic scattering, non-polar optical scattering and II scattering are taken into consideration. This investigation showed that the ionization coefficients decrease with increasing temperature. The overall results are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical reported data predominantly at high electric fields.
Temperature Coefficients of the Refractive Index for Complex Hydrocarbon Mixtures
Wen, Qing; Shen, Jun; Gieleciak, Rafal; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Rohling, Jurandir H.; Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Baesso, Mauro L.
2014-05-01
Temperature coefficients of the refractive index () in the to temperature interval for hydrocarbon mixtures containing as many as 14 compounds were investigated in this work. The measured of the mixtures were compared with calculations based on the values for each compound and their concentrations. Differences of about 1 % between measured and calculated values were observed for all mixtures. The additivity of for these hydrocarbons enables preparation of surrogate fuels that are formulated to have properties like those of specific diesel fuels.
Estimating local heat transfer coefficients from thin wall temperature measurements
Gazizov, I. M.; Davletshin, I. A.; Paereliy, A. A.
2017-09-01
An approach to experimental estimation of local heat transfer coefficient on a plane wall has been described. The approach is based on measurements of heat-transfer fluid and wall temperatures during some certain time of wall cooling. The wall was a thin plate, a printed circuit board, made of composite epoxy material covered with a copper layer. The temperature field can be considered uniform across the plate thickness when heat transfer is moderate and thermal resistance of the plate in transversal direction is low. This significantly simplifies the heat balance written for the wall sections that is used to estimate the heat transfer coefficient. The copper layer on the plate etched to form a single strip acted as resistance thermometers that measured the local temperature of the wall.
Temperature Control of Autothermal Reformer System with Coefficient Diagram Method
Srisiriwat, N.; Wutthithanyawat, C.
2017-10-01
The objective of this paper is to design the autothermal reformer (ATR) temperature control by using a coefficient diagram method (CDM). The adiabatic temperature is a main controlled variable of the ATR which is a combination of endothermic and exothermic reactions. The simulation results of control parameters were calculated to maintain the ATR reaction temperature by manipulating air feed flow rate. In this work, two strategies of ATR temperature controller system with and without the feed temperature control of a preheater unit are compared to investigate the appropriate controller system when the change of surrounding temperature is considered as a key disturbance. The results showed that by using the CDM, the stability and robustness for controlling the ATR temperature system were considered to offer the proper control parameters and the designed temperature control of ATR system gave a good performance to maintain the controlled variables and reject the disturbance. Moreover, the ATR control system design with the feed temperature controller can compensate the surrounding temperature better than that without the feed temperature control.
Static pressure and temperature coefficients of laboratory standard microphones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Knud
1996-01-01
on an extended lumped parameter representation of the mechanical and acoustical elements of the microphone, assuming the velocity distribution of the diaphragm to follow the zero-order Bessel function. The extension involves the frequency dependency of the dynamic diaphragm mass and stiffness as well as a first......-order approximation of resonances in the back cavity. It was found that each of the coefficients, for a given type of microphone, can be expressed by a single function when the coefficients are normalized by their low-frequency value and the frequency axis normalized by the individual resonance frequency...... of the microphone. The static pressure and temperature coefficients were determined experimentally for about twenty samples of type BK 4160 and BK 4180 microphones. The results agree almost perfectly with the predictions for BK 4160, while some modifications of the lumped parameter values are called for to make...
Temperature and concentration dependences of the activity coefficients of electrolytes
Tikhonov, N. A.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.
2017-10-01
A model has been suggested that describes the interaction of hydrated ions in electrolytes and allows the calculation of the main physical effects. The model explains the character of the curves of the activity coefficients. Binary solutions of uni-univalent electrolytes at concentrations from zero to several moles per liter and at temperatures from zero to a few dozens of degrees were studied. The results of simulation were verified by comparing them with many literature data.
THE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF THE UREA DENATURATION OF EGG ALBUMIN.
Clark, J H
1945-07-20
Evidence is brought forward to show that at concentrations of urea high enough to split the egg albumin molecule the solubility changes produced by urea are profoundly modified. The degree of precipitation after dialysis is the net result of two changes produced by the urea: the first, normally spoken of as denaturation, which makes the protein insoluble in dilute solution and the second, a splitting of the molecule which makes it soluble. These two reactions may proceed independently and simultaneously or the second reaction may follow the first, taking place in the denatured molecule only. In view of the decrease in the opalescence with time, the latter process is more probable. Both of these reactions have positive temperature coefficients, but as the concentration of urea increases the second reaction is more affected by increase in temperature than the first, and consequently the resulting opalescence decreases rather than increases with temperature. This accounts for and explains reports of negative temperature coefficients of denaturation, when denaturation is measured by the amount of insoluble material found on dilution. The occurrence of these two reactions, one leading to an increase and the other to a decrease in the amount of insoluble protein, should be taken into account when denaturation changes in egg albumin with urea are studied.
Longitudinal spin Seebeck coefficient: heat flux vs. temperature difference method.
Sola, A; Bougiatioti, P; Kuepferling, M; Meier, D; Reiss, G; Pasquale, M; Kuschel, T; Basso, V
2017-04-25
The determination of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) coefficient is currently plagued by a large uncertainty due to the poor reproducibility of the experimental conditions used in its measurement. In this work we present a detailed analysis of two different methods used for the determination of the LSSE coefficient. We have performed LSSE experiments in different laboratories, by using different setups and employing both the temperature difference method and the heat flux method. We found that the lack of reproducibility can be mainly attributed to the thermal contact resistance between the sample and the thermal baths which generate the temperature gradient. Due to the variation of the thermal resistance, we found that the scaling of the LSSE voltage to the heat flux through the sample rather than to the temperature difference across the sample greatly reduces the uncertainty. The characteristics of a single YIG/Pt LSSE device obtained with two different setups was (1.143 ± 0.007) 10-7 Vm/W and (1.101 ± 0.015) 10-7 Vm/W with the heat flux method and (2.313 ± 0.017) 10-7 V/K and (4.956 ± 0.005) 10-7 V/K with the temperature difference method. This shows that systematic errors can be considerably reduced with the heat flux method.
Liu, Jun; Yin, Da-Chuan; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Wang, Xi-Kai; Xie, Si-Xiao; Lu, Qin-Qin; Liu, Yong-Ming
2011-01-01
Protein crystals usually grow at a preferable temperature which is however not known for a new protein. This paper reports a new approach for determination of favorable crystallization temperature, which can be adopted to facilitate the crystallization screening process. By taking advantage of the correlation between the temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient (B22) and the solubility of protein, we measured the temperature dependence of B22 to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility. Using information about solubility versus temperature, a preferred crystallization temperature can be proposed. If B22 is a positive function of the temperature, a lower crystallization temperature is recommended; if B22 shows opposite behavior with respect to the temperature, a higher crystallization temperature is preferred. Otherwise, any temperature in the tested range can be used. PMID:21479212
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qieni Lu
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We measure temperature dependence on Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal simultaneously in this work, based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI. And the spatial distribution of the field-induced refractive index change can also be visualized and estimated by numerically retrieving sequential phase maps of Mn:Fe:KTN crystal from recording digital holograms in different states. The refractive indices decrease with increasing temperature and quadratic polarized optical coefficient is insensitive to temperature. The experimental results suggest that the DHI method presented here is highly applicable in both visualizing the temporal and spatial behavior of the internal electric field and accurately measuring electro-optic coefficient for electrooptical media.
Static pressure and temperature coefficients of working standard microphones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Torras Rosell, Antoni
2016-01-01
for these coefficients which are used for calibration purposes. Working standard microphones are not exempt of these influences. However, manufacturers usually provide a low frequency value of the environmental coefficient. While in some applications the influence of this coefficient may be negligible, in others it may...... be a significant contribution to the uncertainty of the measurement. Determining the environmental coefficients of individual specimens of measurement microphones can be a straightforward though time-consuming procedure provided the appropriate facilities are available. An alternative is to determine them using...
T. W. Appelboom; G. M. Chescheir; R. W. Skaggs; J. W. Gilliam; Devendra M. Amatya
2006-01-01
Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers with the high costs of water quality monitoring. When modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks, denitrification within the sediments needs to be accounted for. Birgand et. al. developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment...
T.W. Appelboom; G.M. Chescheir; F. Birgand; R.W. Skaggs; J.W. Gilliam; D. Amatya
2010-01-01
Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers. Modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks requires quantifying the denitrification within the sediments in canals and streams. In a previous study, several of the authors developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment denitrification....
Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model
Han Li; Xinwei Deng; Dong-Yum Kim; Eric P. Smith
2014-01-01
Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature...
Determination of temperature coefficients of open-circuit voltage and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The power output of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells decreases by every 0C rise in temperature above the operating temperature. Typically, multi-crystalline silicon solar cells rated 45 Watts power output decreases by 63% while 70 Watts power output decreases by 48% for every 0C rise in operating temperature.
The static pressure and temperature coefficients of laboratory standard microphones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Knud
1999-01-01
The sensitivity of condenser measurement microphones depends on the environmental conditions due to the changes in the acoustic properties of the air enclosed between diaphragm and backelectrode and in the cavity behind the backelectrode. A theoretical investigation has been performed based...... on an extended lumped parameter representation of the mechanical and acoustic elements of the microphone. The extension involves the frequency dependency of the dynamic diaphragm mass and stiffness as well as a first-order approximation of resonances in the back cavity. It was found that each coefficient...
Noor, Ahmed K.; Burton, Scott
1992-01-01
An assessment is made of the accuracy of the critical-temperature sensitivity coefficients of multilayered plates predicted by different modeling approaches, based on two-dimensional shear-deformation theories. The sensitivity coefficients considered measure the sensitivity of the critical temperatures to variations in different lamination and material parameters of the plate. The standard of comparison is taken to be the sensitivity coefficients obtained by the three-dimensional theory of thermoelasticity. Numerical studies are presented showing the effects of variation in the geometric and lamination parameters of the plate on the accuracy of both the sensitivity coefficients and the critical temperatures predicted by the different modeling approaches.
Saito, H.; Saito, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.
2015-12-01
In our previous study, we have observed trace element concentrations in groundwater increased when groundwater temperature was increased with constant thermal loading using a 50-m long vertical heat exchanger installed at Saitama University, Japan. During the field experiment, 38 degree C fluid was circulated in the heat exchanger resulting 2.8 kW thermal loading over 295 days. Groundwater samples were collected regularly from 17-m and 40-m deep aquifers at four observation wells located 1, 2, 5, and 10 m, respectively, from the heat exchange well and were analyzed with ICP-MS. As a result, concentrations of some trace elements such as boron increased with temperature especially at the 17-m deep aquifer that is known as marine sediment. It has been also observed that the increased concentrations have decreased after the thermal loading was terminated indicating that this phenomenon may be reversible. Although the mechanism is not fully understood, changes in the liquid phase concentration should be associated with dissolution and/or desorption from the solid phase. We therefore attempt to model this phenomenon by introducing temperature dependence in equilibrium linear adsorption isotherms. We assumed that distribution coefficients decrease with temperature so that the liquid phase concentration of a given element becomes higher as the temperature increases under the condition that the total mass stays constant. A shape function was developed to model the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficient. By solving the mass balance equation between the liquid phase and the solid phase for a given element, a new term describing changes in the concentration was implemented in a source/sink term of a standard convection dispersion equation (CDE). The CDE was then solved under a constant ground water flow using FlexPDE. By calibrating parameters in the newly developed shape function, the changes in element concentrations observed were quite well predicted. The
Temperature dependence of transport coefficients of 'simple liquid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... (MD) simulations has been investigated. The study carried out at two densities, r* = 0.60 and r* = 0.95. Result shows erratic variations of the shear viscosity in the two lattices structures. KeyWords: Temperature effect, face centred, simple cubic, transport properties, simple liquid. [Global Jnl Pure & Appl. Sci. Vol.9(3) 2003: ...
Temperature-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients from ab initio Computations: Hydrogen in Nickel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
E Wimmer; W Wolf; J Sticht; P Saxe; C Geller; R Najafabadi; G Young
2006-03-16
The temperature-dependent mass diffusion coefficient is computed using transition state theory. Ab initio supercell phonon calculations of the entire system provide the attempt frequency, the activation enthalpy, and the activation entropy as a function of temperature. Effects due to thermal lattice expansion are included and found to be significant. Numerical results for the case of hydrogen in nickel demonstrate a strong temperature dependence of the migration enthalpy and entropy. Trapping in local minima along the diffusion path has a pronounced effect especially at low temperatures. The computed diffusion coefficients with and without trapping bracket the available experimental values over the entire temperature range between 0 and 1400 K.
HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data expressed as...
On the Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Absorption Coefficient of NH3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Aousgi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of pressure and temperature on the absorption coefficient of ammonia (NH3 gas self-perturbed and perturbed by nitrogen (N2 gas have been measured. We varied the gas pressure from 10 to 160 Torr and the temperature from 235 to 296 K in order to study the absorption coefficient at the center and the wings of lines in the ν4 band of NH3. These measurements were made using a high resolution (0.0038 cm-1 Bruker Fourier-transform spectrometer. These spectra have been analyzed using the method of multipressure technique permitting to succeed to an evolution of the absorption coefficient with the pressure and the quantum numbers J and K of the NH3 molecule. The results show that the absorption coefficient varies as a quadratic function of the pressure at the center of a given line. However, it has a linear evolution in the wings of the line. Moreover, the absorption coefficients are inversely proportional to temperature in the wings when NH3 lines are broadened by N2. The retrieved values of these coefficients were used to derive the temperature dependence of N2 broadening NH3 lines. The absorption coefficients were shown to fit closely the well-known exponential law.
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M. Živković
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Experimental investigations static coefficient of friction in lubricated conditions and pre-heating of the sample pin at high temperatures is discussed in this paper. The static coefficient of friction was measured in the sliding steel copper pins per cylinder of polyvinylchloride. Pins are previously heated in a special chamber from room temperature to a temperature of 800 oC with a step of 50 °C. Tribological changes in the surface layer of the pins caused by pre-heating the pins at high temperatures and cooling systems have very significantly influenced the increase in the coefficient of static friction. The results indicate the possibility of improving the friction characteristics of metal materials based on their thermal treatment at elevated temperatures.
Kočí, Václav; Kočí, Jan; Korecký, Tomáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert Č.
2015-04-01
The radiative heat transfer coefficient at high temperatures is determined using a combination of experimental measurement and computational modeling. In the experimental part, cement mortar specimen is heated in a laboratory furnace to 600°C and the temperature field inside is recorded using built-in K-type thermocouples connected to a data logger. The measured temperatures are then used as input parameters in the three dimensional computational modeling whose objective is to find the best correlation between the measured and calculated data via four free parameters, namely the thermal conductivity of the specimen, effective thermal conductivity of thermal insulation, and heat transfer coefficients at normal and high temperatures. The optimization procedure which is performed using the genetic algorithms provides the value of the high-temperature radiative heat transfer coefficient of 3.64 W/(m2K).
Determination of density of temperature coefficients for the Earth's atmosphere muons
Yanchukovskiy, Valeriy; Kuzmenko, Vasiliy
2015-06-01
When studying variations of cosmic ray intensity, by the use of muon telescopes located deep in the atmosphere it is necessary to take into account changes in atmospheric parameters, mainly pressure and temperature. The density distribution of temperature coefficients of the atmosphere muon intensity needs to be estimated from observations. To this purpose, the method of principal components regression and methods of projection to latent structures (PLS-1 and PLS-2). We used data of continuous recording of muons, as well as Novosibirsk 2004-2010 aerological data. As shown by comparing results, PLS-2 method allows us to estimate the density distribution of muon intensity temperature coefficients with minimal errors.
Characteristics of Thermal Coefficient of Fiber Bragg Grating for Temperature Measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Heonyoung; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Daehyun [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Donghoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)
2013-08-15
A fiber Bragg grating sensor is considered a smart sensor that shows outstanding performance in the field of structural health monitoring (Sham). It has a powerful advantage, especially that of multiplexing, which enables several parameters to be sensed at multiple points by using a single optical fiber line. Among several parameters, the thermal expansion coefficient and thermo-optic coefficient are required to measure temperature. In previous studies, these were considered constant variables. This study shows that two parameters vary with temperature and newly proposes a temperature function for these two parameters. Specifically, these two parameters were defined as a single variable, and then, it was experimentally verified that this variable is a function of temperature. Finally, it was shown that temperature from RT to 100 .deg. C was precisely measured by using the temperature function that was defined through the experiment.
Ilia Anisa, Nor; Azian, Noor; Sharizan, Mohd; Iwai, Yoshio
2014-04-01
6-gingerol and 6-shogaol are the main constituents as anti-inflammatory or bioactive compounds from zingiber officinale Roscoe. These bioactive compounds have been proven for inflammatory disease, antioxidatives and anticancer. The effect of temperature on diffusion coefficient for 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were studied in subcritical water extraction. The diffusion coefficient was determined by Fick's second law. By neglecting external mass transfer and solid particle in spherical form, a linear portion of Ln (1-(Ct/Co)) versus time was plotted in determining the diffusion coefficient. 6-gingerol obtained the higher yield at 130°C with diffusion coefficient of 8.582x10-11 m2/s whilst for 6-shogaol, the higher yield and diffusion coefficient at 170°C and 19.417 × 10-11 m2/s.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Fang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Aimed to insufficient heat transfer of heat exchanger, research the influence on the heat transfer coefficient impacted by velocity and heat transfer temperature difference of tube heat exchanger. According to the different heat transfer temperature difference and gas velocity，the experimental data were divided into group. Using the control variable method，the above two factors were analyzed separately. K一△T and k一:fitting curve were clone to obtain empirical function. The entire heat exchanger is as the study object，using numerical simulation methods，porous media，k一￡model，second order upwind mode，and pressure一velocity coupling with SIMPLE algorithm，the entire heat exchanger temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution were given. Finally the trend of the heat transfer coefficient effected by the above two factors was gotten.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nasirabadi, P. Shojaee; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H. [Process Modelling Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)
2016-06-08
Nowadays, many electronic systems are exposed to harsh conditions of relative humidity and temperature. Mass transport properties of electronic packaging materials are needed in order to investigate the influence of moisture and temperature on reliability of electronic devices. Polycarbonate (PC) is widely used in the electronics industry. Thus, in this work the water diffusion coefficient into PC is investigated. Furthermore, numerical methods used for estimation of the diffusion coefficient and their assumptions are discussed. 1D and 3D numerical solutions are compared and based on this, it is shown how the estimated value can be different depending on the choice of dimensionality in the model.
Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Vern G
1936-01-01
This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of baffles on the temperature distribution and the heat-transfer coefficient of finned cylinders. The tests were conducted in a 30-inch wind tunnel on electrically heated cylinders with fins of 0.25 and 0.31 inch pitch. The results of these tests showed that the use of integral baffles gave a reduction of 31.9 percent in the rear wall temperatures and an increase of 54.2 percent in the heat transfer coefficient as compared with a cylinder without baffles.
Temperature coefficients for in vivo RL and OSL dosimetry using Al2O3 : C
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, C.E.; Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Damkjaer, S.M.S.
2008-01-01
A radiotherapy dosimetry system based on radiolurninescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from small carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals attached to optical-fiber cables has been developed. To quantify the influence of temperature variations on clinical RL and OSL...... with both it-radiation temperature, stimulation temperature, and OSL integration time. Typically, the temperature coefficients are of the order of 0.2%/K, and these thermal effects are therefore large enough to be of importance for clinical measurements. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...
Low-Temperature Seebeck Coefficients for Polaron-Driven Thermoelectric Effect in Organic Polymers.
de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; da Silva Filho, Demétrio A; Roncaratti, Luiz F; Acioli, Paulo H; E Silva, Geraldo Magela
2016-07-14
We report the results of electronic structure coupled to molecular dynamics simulations on organic polymers subject to a temperature gradient at low-temperature regimes. The temperature gradient is introduced using a Langevin-type dynamics corrected for quantum effects, which are very important in these systems. Under this condition we were able to determine that in these no-impurity systems the Seebeck coefficient is in the range of 1-3 μV/K. These results are in good agreement with reported experimental results under the same low-temperature conditions.
AUTHOR|(CDS)2084596; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Bongiorno, M; Thiringer, T
2016-01-01
This work investigates the current sharing effect of a high power Soft Punch Through IGBT module in the Negative Temperature Coefficient region. The unbalanced current sharing between two of the substrates is demonstrated for different current and temperature levels and its impact on the thermal stressing of the device is evaluated. The results indicate that the current asymmetry does not lead to a significant thermal stressing unbalance between the substrates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Rubens C. da; Bitelli, Ulysses D.; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C., E-mail: rubensrcs@usp.br, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br, E-mail: credidiomura@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PNV/POLI/USP), SP (Brazil). Arquitetura Naval e Departamento de Engenharia Oceanica; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
The aim of this article is to present the procedure for the experimental estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor, a parameter that has an important role in the physics and the control operations of any reactor facility. At the experiment, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor went critical at the power of 1W (1% of its total power), and whose core configuration was 28 x 26 rectangular array of UO{sub 2} fuel rods, inside a light water (moderator) tank. In addition, there was a heavy water (D{sub 2}O) reflector installed in the West side of the core to obtain an adequate neutron reflection along the experiment. The moderator temperature was increased in steps of 4 °C, and the measurement of the mean moderator temperature was acquired using twelve calibrated thermocouples, placed around the reactor core. As a result, the mean value of -4.81 pcm/°C was obtained for such coefficient. The curves of ρ(T) (Reactivity x Temperature) and α{sup M}{sub T}(T)(Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity x Temperature) were developed using data from an experimental measurement of the integral reactivity curves through the Stable Period and Inverse Kinetics Methods, that was carried out at the reactor with the same core configuration. Such curves were compared and showed a very similar behavior between them. (author)
Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ericson, M. Nance
1999-01-01
A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature.
Ganbavale, G.; Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.
2015-01-01
This study presents a new, improved parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients in the AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) model applicable for aqueous as well as water-free organic solutions. For electrolyte-free organic and organic-water mixtures the AIOMFAC model uses a group-contribution approach based on UNIFAC (UNIversal quasi-chemical Functional-group Activity Coefficients). This group-contribution approach explicitly accounts for interactions among organic functional groups and between organic functional groups and water. The previous AIOMFAC version uses a simple parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients, aimed to be applicable in the temperature range from ~ 275 to ~ 400 K. With the goal to improve the description of a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend the AIOMFAC parameterisation for the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon to atmospherically relevant low temperatures. To this end we introduce a new parameterisation for the temperature dependence. The improved temperature dependence parameterisation is derived from classical thermodynamic theory by describing effects from changes in molar enthalpy and heat capacity of a multi-component system. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of aqueous organic and water-free organic mixtures from the literature are carefully assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database, covering a wide temperature range (~ 190 to ~ 440 K) for many of the functional group combinations considered. Different experimental data types and their processing for the estimation of AIOMFAC model parameters are discussed. The new AIOMFAC parameterisation for the temperature dependence of activity coefficients from low to high temperatures shows an overall improvement of 28% in
Červenka, Milan; Bednařík, Michal
2015-10-01
This work verifies the idea that in principle it is possible to reconstruct axial temperature distribution of fluid employing reflection or transmission of acoustic waves. It is assumed that the fluid is dissipationless and its density and speed of sound vary along the wave propagation direction because of the fluid temperature distribution. A numerical algorithm is proposed allowing for calculation of the temperature distribution on the basis of known frequency characteristics of reflection coefficient modulus. Functionality of the algorithm is illustrated on a few examples, its properties are discussed.
Path-integral calculation of the third virial coefficient of quantum gases at low temperatures.
Garberoglio, Giovanni; Harvey, Allan H
2011-04-07
We derive path-integral expressions for the second and third virial coefficients of monatomic quantum gases. Unlike previous work that considered only Boltzmann statistics, we include exchange effects (Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics). We use state-of-the-art pair and three-body potentials to calculate the third virial coefficient of (3)He and (4)He in the temperature range 2.6-24.5561 K. We obtain uncertainties smaller than those of the limited experimental data. Inclusion of exchange effects is necessary to obtain accurate results below about 7 K.
Cercignani, C.; Lampis, M.
The aim of this paper is to compute the slip and temperature jump coefficients for a rarefied gas having an arbitrary interaction with a solid surface by means of a variational technique. This problem was considered by Klinc and Kuscer (1972), using a variational principle for the integral version of the Boltzmann equation. In this paper a variational method is used for the integrodifferential version of the Boltzmann equation, proposed by Cercignani (1969). With the simplest trial functions, general formulas are obtained that look simpler than those proposed by Klinc and Kuscer, but reduce to the latter when all of the accommodation coefficients are equal. Numerical values compare favorably with existing numerical solutions.
High temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films
Adnane, L.; Dirisaglik, F.; Cywar, A.; Cil, K.; Zhu, Y.; Lam, C.; Anwar, A. F. M.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.
2017-09-01
High-temperature characterization of the thermoelectric properties of chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is critical for phase change memory devices, which utilize self-heating to quickly switch between amorphous and crystalline states and experience significant thermoelectric effects. In this work, the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient are measured simultaneously as a function of temperature, from room temperature to 600 °C, on 50 nm and 200 nm GST thin films deposited on silicon dioxide. Multiple heating and cooling cycles with increasingly maximum temperature allow temperature-dependent characterization of the material at each crystalline state; this is in contrast to continuous measurements which return the combined effects of the temperature dependence and changes in the material. The results show p-type conduction (S > 0), linear S(T), and a positive Thomson coefficient (dS/dT) up to melting temperature. The results also reveal an interesting linearity between dS/dT and the conduction activation energy for mixed amorphous-fcc GST, which can be used to estimate one parameter from the other. A percolation model, together with effective medium theory, is adopted to correlate the conductivity of the material with average grain sizes obtained from XRD measurements. XRD diffraction measurements show plane-dependent thermal expansion for the cubic and hexagonal phases.
Kong, Jing; Bo, Zheng; Yang, Huachao; Yang, Jinyuan; Shuai, Xiaorui; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa
2017-03-15
The behavior of ion diffusion in nano-confined spaces and its temperature dependence provide important fundamental information about electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) employing nano-sized active materials. In this work, the ion diffusion coefficients of NaCl electrolyte confined within neutral and charged graphene nanochannels at different temperatures are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that ions confined in neutral nanochannels diffuse faster (along the graphene surfaces) than those in bulk solution, which could be attributed to the relatively smaller concentration in confined spaces and the solvophobic nature of graphene surfaces. In charged nanochannels where the electrostatic interactions between counter-ions and charged channel surfaces govern the motion of ions, the diffusion coefficients are found to be lower than those in the neutral counterparts. The increase of temperature will lead to enhanced vibrant thermal motion of ions. Due to the significant role of ion-surface interactions, ion diffusion coefficients in nano-confined spaces are more stable, that is, insensitive to the temperature variation, than those in bulk solution. The electrical conductivity is further estimated using the Nernst-Einstein equation. The findings of the current work could provide basic data and information for research studies on the thermal effects of graphene-based EDLCs.
An apparatus for high temperature measurement of the resistivity and Hall coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Kasper Andersen; Toberer, Eric; Snyder, G Jeffrey
resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements are outlined. The VDP method is convenient for use in thermoelectrics research since it accepts sample geometries compatible with measurements of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity. This allows for the thermoelectric figure of merit to be measured......Two instruments implementing the van der Pauw (VDP) method for measuring the specific resistivity and Hall coefficient at high temperatures are described. Several features to minimize the measurement errors are proposed and some of the advantages compared with traditional six-probe combined...... using a single sample and without shaping the sample between measurement of individual properties. The technique is simple and can be used with samples showing a broad range of shapes and physical properties, from near insulators to metals. The two instruments are currently in use at Caltech...
Xu, Yingru; Nahrgang, Marlene; Bernhard, Jonah; Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen
2017-09-01
Heavy quarks (charm and bottom) have been considered as valuable probes of the QGP medium created in heavy-ion collisions. The interaction strength between heavy quarks and the medium, commonly characterized by their diffusion coefficients, is not directly measurable, but can be estimated by comparison between theoretical model calculations and experimental data on observables such as elliptic flow and nuclear modification factor. In this work, we conduct a data-driven model-to-data analysis to systematically and quantitatively study the evolution of heavy quarks in the QGP medium. We start by proposing a generalized ansatz for the heavy quark diffusion coefficient, then subsequently calibrate our model calculation to the experimental data utilizing a modern Bayesian analysis. We then are able to extract the functional form (with quantified uncertainties) of the transport coefficients. Our model can simultaneously describe the experimental data of D-meson RAA and v2 for different collision systems at both RHIC and LHC, utilizing our extracted diffusion coefficients. It is found that the heavy quark spatial diffusion coefficient has a non-trivial temperature dependence at low momentum and converges to the pQCD calculation in the intermediate/high momentum region. DE-FG02-05ER41367 (DOE).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Shinpyo [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-01-15
This paper describes a measuring apparatus that can be used to appraise the effectiveness of nanofluids as new heat transfer enhancing fluids. A couple of apparatuses using fine hot wires as sensors have been proposed for this purpose; however, they have a technical weakness related to the uncertain working conditions of the sensor. The present method used the convective heat transfer coefficient from a hot wire as an indication of the heat transfer effectiveness of the nanofluid, where the temperature of the wire remains constant during the experiment. The operating principle and experimental procedure are explained in detail, and the validity of the system is tested with pure base fluids. The effects of particle concentration, velocity, and temperature on the heat transfer coefficients of the nanofluids are discussed comprehensively using the experimental data for graphite nanolubrication oil.
Rudakov, A. M.; Sergievskii, V. V.; Nagovitsyna, O. A.
2017-12-01
A model that considers the contributions from hydration, ion association, and electrostatic interactions to the nonideality of 2‒1 electrolyte solutions is substantiated. The parameters of the model's equations are the mean ion hydration number, the spread of the distribution of hydrated ion stoichiometric coefficients in the standard state, and the number of association. The model is successfully used to describe literature experimental data on the concentration dependence of osmotic coefficients of aqueous CaCl2 solutions at temperatures ranging from 0 to 100°C. The modeling of the above systems shows that as the temperature rises, the hydration number falls slightly, the distribution of the hydration number broadens, and the ion paring of the salt rises by the first degree.
Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of two-temperature helium thermal plasmas
Guo, Xiaoxue; Murphy, Anthony B.; Li, Xingwen
2017-03-01
Helium thermal plasmas are in widespread use in arc welding and many other industrial applications. Simulation of these processes relies on accurate plasma property data, such as plasma composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients. Departures from LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) generally occur in some regions of helium plasmas. In this paper, properties are calculated allowing for different values of the electron temperature, T e, and heavy-species temperature, T h, at atmospheric pressure from 300 K to 30 000 K. The plasma composition is first calculated using the mass action law, and the two-temperature thermodynamic properties are then derived. The viscosity, diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the two-temperature helium thermal plasma are obtained using a recently-developed method that retains coupling between electrons and heavy species by including the electron-heavy-species collision term in the heavy-species Boltzmann equation. It is shown that the viscosity and the diffusion coefficients strongly depend on non-equilibrium ratio θ (θ ={{T}\\text{e}}/{{T}\\text{h}} ), through the plasma composition and the collision integrals. The electrical conductivity, which depends on the electron number density and ordinary diffusion coefficients, and the thermal conductivity have similar dependencies. The choice of definition of the Debye length is shown to affect the electrical conductivity significantly for θ > 1. By comparing with literature data, it is shown that the coupling between electrons and heavy species has a significant influence on the electrical conductivity, but not on the viscosity. Plasma properties are tabulated in the supplementary data.
Temperature-Dependent Rate Coefficients for the Reaction of CH2OO with Hydrogen Sulfide.
Smith, Mica C; Chao, Wen; Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim Jr-Min
2017-02-09
The reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO with hydrogen sulfide was measured with transient UV absorption spectroscopy in a temperature-controlled flow reactor, and bimolecular rate coefficients were obtained from 278 to 318 K and from 100 to 500 Torr. The average rate coefficient at 298 K and 100 Torr was (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 -13 cm 3 s -1 . The reaction was found to be independent of pressure and exhibited a weak negative temperature dependence. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of the temperature-dependent reaction rate coefficient at the QCISD(T)/CBS level are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The reaction of CH 2 OO with H 2 S is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the reaction with H 2 O monomer. Though rates of CH 2 OO scavenging by water vapor under atmospheric conditions are primarily controlled by the reaction with water dimer, the H 2 S loss pathway will be dominated by the reaction with monomer. The agreement between experiment and theory for the CH 2 OO + H 2 S reaction lends credence to theoretical descriptions of other Criegee intermediate reactions that cannot easily be probed experimentally.
Transport coefficients in high temperature gauge theories, 2. Beyond leading log
Arnold, Peter; Moore, Guy D.; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2003-05-01
Results are presented of a full leading-order evaluation of the shear viscosity, flavor diffusion constants,and electrical conductivity in high temperature QCD and QED. The presence of Coulomb logarithms associated with gauge interactions imply that the leading-order results for transport coefficients may themselves be expanded in an infinite series in powers of 1/log (1/g); the utility of this expansion is also examined. A next-to-leading-log approximation is found to approximate the full leading-order result quite well as long as the Debye mass is less than the temperature.
The effect of core configuration on temperature coefficient of reactivity in IRR-1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bettan, M.; Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.; Nagler, A. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)
1997-08-01
Experiments designed to measure the effect of coolant moderator temperature on core reactivity in an HEU swimming pool type reactor were performed. The moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity ({alpha}{sub {omega}}) was obtained and found to be different in two core loadings. The measured {alpha}{sub {omega}} of one core loading was {minus}13 pcm/{degrees}C at the temperature range of 23-30{degrees}C. This value of {alpha}{sub {omega}} is comparable to the data published by the IAEA. The {alpha}{sub {omega}} measured in the second core loading was found to be {minus}8 pcm/{degrees}C at the same temperature range. Another phenomenon considered in this study is core behavior during reactivity insertion transient. The results were compared to a core simulation using the Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants. It was found that in the second core loading factors other than the moderator temperature influence the core reactivity more than expected. These effects proved to be extremely dependent on core configuration and may in certain core loadings render the reactor`s reactivity coefficient undesirable.
Demars, B O L; Manson, J R
2013-01-01
The gas transfer velocity (K(L)) and related gas transfer coefficient (k(2) = K(L)A/V, with A, area and V, volume) at the air-water interface are critical parameters in all gas flux studies such as green house gas emission, whole stream metabolism or industrial processes. So far, there is no theoretical model able to provide accurate estimation of gas transfer in streams. Hence, reaeration is often estimated with empirical equations. The gas transfer velocity need then to be corrected with a temperature coefficient θ = 1.0241. Yet several studies have long reported variation in θ with temperature and 'turbulence' of water (i.e. θ is not a constant). Here we re-investigate thoroughly a key theoretical model (Dobbins model) in detail after discovering important discrepancies. We then compare it with other theoretical models derived from a wide range of hydraulic behaviours (rigid to free continuous surface water, wave and waterfalls with bubbles). The results of the Dobbins model were found to hold, at least theoretically in the light of recent advances in hydraulics, although the more comprehensive results in this study highlighted a higher degree of complexity in θ's behaviour. According to the Dobbins model, the temperature coefficient θ, could vary from 1.005 to 1.042 within a temperature range of 0-35 °C and wide range of gas transfer velocities, i.e. 'turbulence' condition (0.005 turbulence', and only modest variability in θ with change in temperature. However, the other theoretical models did not have the same temperature coefficient θ (with 1.000 turbulence and bubble mediated gas transfer velocities suggested a lower temperature dependence for bubble (1.013turbulence (1.023turbulence on the temperature dependence of gas transfer at the air-water interface has still to be clarified, although many models simulate different flow conditions which may explain some of the observed discrepancies. We suggest that the temperature dependence curves produced by
Heat transfer coefficient: Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System vs. water immersion.
English, M J; Hemmerling, T M
2008-07-01
To improve heat transfer, the Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (Medivance, Inc., Louisville, CO, USA) features an adhesive, water-conditioned, highly conductive hydrogel pad for intimate skin contact. This study measured and compared the heat transfer coefficient (h), i.e. heat transfer efficiency, of this pad (hPAD), in a heated model and in nine volunteers' thighs; and of 10 degrees C water (hWATER) in 33 head-out immersions by 11 volunteers. Volunteer studies had ethical approval and written informed consent. Calibrated heat flux transducers measured heat flux (W m-2). Temperature gradient (DeltaT) was measured between skin and pad or water temperatures. Temperature gradient was changed through the pad's water temperature controller or by skin cooling on immersion. The heat transfer coefficient is the slope of W m-2/DeltaT: its unit is W m-2 degrees C-1. Average with (95% CI) was: model, hPAD = 110.4 (107.8-113.1), R2 = 0.99, n = 45; volunteers, hPAD = 109.8 (95.5-124.1), R2 = 0.83, n = 51; and water immersion, hWATER = 107.1 (98.1-116), R2 = 0.86, n = 94. The heat transfer coefficient for the pad was the same in the model and volunteers, and equivalent to hWATER. Therefore, for the same DeltaT and heat transfer area, the Arctic Sun's heat transfer rate would equal water immersion. This has important implications for body cooling/rewarming rates.
Re-evaluation of SiC permeation coefficients at high temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, Yasushi, E-mail: yama3707@kansai-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai Univ., Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Murakami, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Hirosato; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Yonetsu, Daigo [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai Univ., Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Noborio, Kazuyuki [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Univ. of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto Univ., Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • The deuterium permeation coefficients of CVD-SiC at 600–950 °C were evaluated. • The wraparound flow was reduced to less than 1/100th of the permeation flow. • CVD-SiC materials are very effective as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. - Abstract: Since 2007, our group has studied the deuterium permeation and diffusion coefficients for SiC materials at temperatures above 600 °C as a means of evaluating the tritium inventory and permeation in fusion blankets. During such measurements, control and evaluation of the wraparound flow through the sample holder are important, and so the heated sample holder is enclosed by a glass tube and kept under vacuum during experimental trials. However, detailed studies regarding the required degree of vacuum based on model calculations have shown that the wraparound flow is much larger than expected, and so can affect measurements at high temperatures. We therefore modified the measurement apparatus based on calculations involving reduced pressure in the glass tube, and are now confident that the measurement error is only several percent, even at 950 °C. In this paper, recent experimental results obtained with a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC sample over the temperature range of 600–950 °C are presented, showing that the permeation coefficient for CVD-SiC is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than that for stainless steel (SS316) at 600 °C, and that at 950 °C, the coefficient for CVD-SiC is almost equal to that for SUS316 at 550 °C.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo Zerong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To study the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition, considering the heat transfer coefficient as the power function of temperature, mathematical thermal explosion steady state and unsteady-state model of finite cylindrical fireworks and crackers with complex shell structures are established based on two-dimensional steady state thermal explosion theory. The influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition are analyzed. When heat transfer coefficient is changing with temperature and in the condition of natural convection heat transfer, critical ambient temperature lessen, thermal explosion time to ignition shorten. If ambient temperature is close to critical ambient temperature, the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on time to ignition become large. For firework with inner barrel in example analysis, the critical ambient temperature of propellant is 463.88 K and the time to ignition is 4054.9s at 466 K, 0.26 K and 450.8s less than without considering the change of heat transfer coefficient respectively. The calculation results show that the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion time to ignition is greater in this example. Therefore, the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient should be considered into thermal safety evaluation of fireworks to reduce potential safety hazard.
Temperature dependence of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films and aging effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rossel, C., E-mail: rsl@zurich.ibm.com; Sousa, M.; Abel, S.; Caimi, D. [IBM Research—Zurich, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Suhm, A.; Abergel, J.; Le Rhun, G.; Defay, E. [CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France)
2014-01-21
We present a technique to measure the temperature dependence of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient e{sub 31,f} of thin films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), aluminum nitride, and BaTiO{sub 3} deposited on Si wafers. It is based on the collection of electric charges induced by the deflection of a Si cantilever coated with the piezoelectric film. The aim of this work is to assess the role of temperature in the decay of the remnant polarization of these materials, in particular, in optimized gradient-free PZT with composition PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}. It is found that in contrast to theoretical predictions, e{sub 31,f} decreases with temperature because of the dominance of relaxation effects. The observation of steps in the logarithmic aging decay law is reminiscent of memory effects seen in frustrated spin glasses.
Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.
2017-12-01
Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration (X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.
Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.
2018-02-01
Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration ( X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei-fan Wang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available As an advanced near-net shape technology, squeeze casting is an excellent method for producing high integrity castings. Numerical simulation is a very effective method to optimize squeeze casting process, and the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is an important boundary condition in numerical simulation. Therefore, the study of the IHTC is of great significance. In the present study, experiments were conducted and a “plate shape” aluminum alloy casting was cast in H13 steel die. In order to obtain accurate temperature readings inside the die, a special temperature sensor units (TSU was designed. Six 1 mm wide and 1 mm deep grooves were machined in the sensor unit for the placement of the thermocouples whose tips were welded to the end wall. Each groove was machined to terminate at a particular distance (1, 3, and 6 mm from the front end of the sensor unit. Based on the temperature measurements inside the die, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC at the metal-die interface was determined by applying an inverse approach. The acquired data were processed by a low pass filtering method based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The feature of the IHTC at the metal-die interface was discussed.
Adiabatic wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient influenced by separated supersonic flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leontiev Alexander
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Investigations of supersonic air flow around plane surface behind a rib perpendicular to the flow direction are performed. Research was carried out for free stream Mach number 2.25 and turbulent flow regime - Rex>2·107. Rib height was varied in range from 2 to 8 mm while boundary layer thickness at the nozzle exit section was about 6 mm. As a result adiabatic wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient are obtained for flow around plane surface behind a rib incontrast with the flow around plane surface without any disturbances.
A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors
Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily K.
2015-01-01
A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.
The effect of ambient temperature on the shoe-surface interface release coefficient.
Torg, J S; Stilwell, G; Rogers, K
1996-01-01
Previous studies of the shoe-surface interface correlated foot fixation with cleat length, configuration, and material composition as well as turf type and surface conditions. Our study examined the effect of temperature on the rotational torsion resistance of artificial turf football shoes. Five football shoe models, a flat-soled basketball-style turf shoe, a natural grass soccer-style shoe, and three multistudded turf shoes, were studied on dry Astro Turf at five temperatures (range, 52 degrees F to 110 degrees F). An assay device, a prosthetic foot mounted on a loaded stainless steel shaft, was used to determine the force necessary to release a shoe from the turf's surface. We used a torque wrench to apply a rotational force so that each shoe was pivoted counterclockwise through an arc of 60 degrees. Our results indicated that release coefficients differ within and among the shoe models at various turf temperatures. We also found that an increase in turf temperature, in combination with cleat characteristics, affects shoe-surface interface friction and potentially places the athlete's knee and ankle at risk of injury. Based on an established risk criterion, which correlated shoe-surface interface combinations in the laboratory with documented clinical occurrences, only the flat-soled basketball-style turf shoe could be designated "safe" or "probably safe" at all five temperatures.
Two-temperature transport coefficients of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi, E-mail: wuyic51@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Guo, Anxiang; Liu, Zirui [Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Shaanxi Electric Power Company, Xian (China)
2015-10-15
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is widely adopted in electric power industry, especially in high-voltage circuit breakers and gas-insulated switchgear. However, the use of SF{sub 6} is limited by its high liquidation temperature and high global warming potential. Recently, research shows SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} mixture, which shows environmental friendliness and good electrical properties, may be a feasible substitute for pure SF{sub 6}. This paper is devoted to the calculation of and transport coefficients of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} mixture under both LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) and non-LTE condition. The two–temperature mass action law was used to determine the composition. The transport coefficients were calculated by classical Chapman–Enskog method simplified by Devoto. The thermophysical properties are presented for electron temperatures of 300–40 000 K, ratios of electron to heavy species temperature of 1–10 and N{sub 2} mole fraction of 0%–100% at atmospheric pressure. The ionization processes under both LTE and non-LTE have been discussed. The results show that deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium significantly affect the properties of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasma, especially before the plasma is fully ionized. The different influence of N{sub 2} on properties for SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasma in and out of LTE has been found. The results will serve as reliable reference data for computational simulation of the behavior of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasmas.
Yoshida, Ken; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Nakahara, Masaru
2008-12-01
The self-diffusion coefficients D for water, benzene, and cyclohexane are determined by using the pulsed-field-gradient spin echo method in high-temperature conditions along the liquid branch of the coexistence curve: 30-350 °C (1.0-0.58 g cm-3), 30-250 °C (0.87-0.56 g cm-3), and 30-250 °C (0.77-0.48 g cm-3) for water, benzene, and cyclohexane, respectively. The temperature and density effects are separated and their origins are discussed by examining the diffusion data over a wide range of thermodynamic states. The temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient for water is larger than that for organic solvents due to the large contribution of the attractive hydrogen-bonding interaction in water. The density dependence is larger for organic solvents than for water. The difference is explained in terms of the van der Waals picture that the structure of nonpolar organic solvents is determined by the packing effect due to the repulsion or exclusion volumes. The dynamic solvation shell scheme [K. Yoshida et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 174509 (2007)] is applied for the molecular interpretation of the translational dynamics with the aid of molecular dynamics simulation. In water at high temperatures, the velocity relaxation is not completed before the relaxation of the solvation shell (mobile-shell type) as a result of the breakdown of the hydrogen-bonding network. In contrast, the velocity relaxation of benzene is rather confined within the solvation shell (in-shell type).
Supel’nyak, M. I.
2017-11-01
Features of calculation of temperature oscillations which are damped in a surface layer of a solid and which are having a small range in comparison with range of temperature of the fluid medium surrounding the solid at heat transfer coefficient changing in time under the periodic law are considered. For the specified case the equations for approximate definition of constant and oscillating components of temperature field of a solid are received. The possibility of use of appropriately chosen steady-state coefficient when calculating the temperature oscillations instead of unsteady heat-transfer coefficient is investigated. Dependence for definition of such equivalent constant heat-transfer coefficient is determined. With its help the research of temperature oscillations of solids with canonical form for some specific conditions of heat transfer is undertaken. Comparison of the obtained data with results of exact solutions of a problem of heat conductivity by which the limits to applicability of the offered approach are defined is carried out.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cui X.G.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available To decrease the temperature coefficients of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, the influencing factors on temperature coefficients, especially the reversible temperature coefficient β of intrinsic coercivity Hcj, were analyzed. The results showed that the absolute value of β decreased with increasing Hcj and also the ratio of microstructure parameter c to Neff, indicating that the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy field HA and c/Neff can effectively decrease the absolute value of β. On the basis of this analysis, a sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet with a low temperature coefficient of Hcj was fabricated through composition design, and the value of β was only -0.385%/ºC in the temperature interval of 20-150ºC.
Pishnamazi, A; Renema, R A; Paul, D C; Wenger, I I; Zuidhof, M J
2015-10-01
With increasing disparity between broiler breeder target weights and broiler growth potential, maintenance energy requirements have become a larger proportion of total broiler breeder energy intake. Because energy is partitioned to growth and egg production at a lower priority than maintenance, accurate prediction of maintenance energy requirements is important for practical broiler breeder feed allocation decisions. Environmental temperature affects the maintenance energy requirement by changing rate of heat loss to the environment. In the ME system, heat production (energy lost) is part of the maintenance requirement (ME). In the current study, a nonlinear mixed model was derived to predict ME partitioning of broiler breeder hens under varied temperature conditions. At 21 wk of age, 192 Ross 708 hens were individually caged within 6 controlled environmental chambers. From 25 to 41 wk, 4 temperature treatments (15°C, 19°C, 23°C, and 27°C) were randomly assigned to the chambers for 2-week periods. Half of the birds in each chamber were fed a high-energy (HE; 2,912 kcal/kg) diet, and half were fed a low-energy (LE; 2,790 kcal/kg) diet. The nonlinear mixed regression model included a normally distributed random term representing individual hen maintenance, a quadratic response to environmental temperature, and linear ADG and egg mass (EM) coefficients. The model assumed that energy requirements for BW gain and egg production were not influenced by environmental temperature because hens were homeothermic, and the cellular processes for associated biochemical processes occurred within a controlled narrow core body temperature range. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual ME (RME) were used to estimate efficiency. A quadratic effect of environmental temperature on broiler breeder MEm was predicted ( broiler breeders fed the HE diet.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Zhang, Guoqiang
2010-01-01
to investigate the surface concentration distribution and mass transfer coefficient at different temperatures and velocities for which the Reynolds number is from 1.36 × 104 to 5.43 × 104 (based on wind tunnel length). The surface concentration increases as velocity decreases and varies...... greatly along the airflow direction on the emission surface. The average mass transfer coefficient increases with higher velocity and turbulence intensity. However, the mass transfer coefficient estimated by CFD simulation is consistently larger than the calculated one by the method using dissociation...... constant and Henry's constant models. In addition, the results show that the liquid-air temperature difference has little impact on the simulated mass transfer coefficient by CFD modeling, whereas the mass transfer coefficient increases with higher liquid temperature using the other method under...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beirong Zheng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The detecting device based on mechanical mechanism is far from the measurement of internal combustion engine cylinder explosion and compression pressure. This pressure detection is under the environment of pulsed gas (over 500 times per one minute and mechanical impactive vibration. Piezoresistive detection with silicon on insulator (SOI strain gauges to pressure seems to be a good solution to meet such special applications. In this work, separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX wafer was used to fabricate the high temperature pressure sensor chip. For high accuracy and wide temperature range application, this paper also presents a novel pressure sensitivity temperature coefficient (TCS compensation method, using integrated constant current network. A quantitative compensation formula is introduced in mathematics. During experiments, the absolute value of the compensated TCS is easy to be 10 × 10−6/°C~100 × 10−6/°C by individual adjustment and calibration of each device’s temperature compensation. Therefore, the feasibility and practicability of this technology are tested. Again, the disadvantages are discussed after the research of the experiment data and the improvement methods are also given in the designing period. This technology exhibits the great potential practical value of internal combustion engine cylinder pressure with volume manufacturing.
Hayashi, Neisei; Suzuki, Kohei; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji
2017-09-01
We measured the temperature dependence of the polarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) spectrum using a highly nonlinear fiber. The temperature coefficient is 168 kHz/K, which is 1.7 times larger than that of small-core photonic crystal fibers. This result indicates that highly temperature-sensitive GAWBS-based sensing is feasible.
HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCT) at GES DISC
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data expressed as...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Wanheim, Tarras
1998-01-01
in the die insert. The die insert is divided into two halves where the thermocouples are welded to the end of milled grooves in the lower part. The temperature of the workpiece is measured by welding a thermocouple directly onto the free surface.All of the temperature measurements in the tool...... and the workpiece are compared with a number of FEM simulations computed with different heat transfer coefficients. The current heat transfer coefficient is determined from the simulations....
McGillen, Max; McMahon, Laura; Curchod, Basile; Shallcross, Dudley; Orr-Ewing, Andrew
2017-04-01
The reactions of Criegee biradicals have received much attention in recent years, yet few reactive systems have undergone direct experimental measurement, and fewer still have been measured as a function of temperature. In this study, absolute temperature-dependent rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of a suite of alcohols and sulphides with both formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) and acetone oxide ((CH3)2COO) are determined experimentally between 254 and 328 K using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for detecting Criegee biradicals. Major differences in reactivity and temperature dependence are observed both in terms of the functionality (between alcohols and sulphides) and also the degree of alkyl substitution about the Criegee biradical. This diverse behaviour represents a uniquely challenging problem for atmospheric chemistry since the atmosphere contains a large variety of both functionalized compounds and Criegee biradicals, leading to a formidable parameter space which may be impossible to cover experimentally. Notwithstanding, new experimental data such as these are vital for understanding the general behaviour of Criegee biradicals in the atmosphere.
Estimation of Temperature Conductivity Coefficient Impact upon Fatigue Damage of Material
Bibik, V.; Galeeva, A.
2015-09-01
In the paper we consider the peculiarities of adhesive wear of cutting tools. Simulation of heat flows in the cutting zone showed that, as thermal conduction and heat conductivity of tool material grow, the heat flows from the front and back surfaces to tool holder will increase and so, the temperature of the contact areas of the tool will lower. When estimating the adhesive wear rate of cemented-carbide tool under the cutting rates corresponding to the cutting temperature of up to 900 °C, it is necessary to take the fatigue character of adhesive wear into consideration. The process of accumulation and development of fatigue damage is associated with micro- and macroplastic flowing of material, which is determined by the processes of initiation, motion, generation, and elimination of line defects - dislocations. Density of dislocations grows with increase of the loading cycles amount and increase of load amplitude. Growth of dislocations density leads to loosening of material, formation of micro- and macrocracks. The heat capacity of material grows as the loosening continues. In the given paper the authors prove theoretically that temperature conductivity coefficient which is associated with heat capacity of material, decreases as fatigue wear grows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ščajev, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.scajev@ff.vu.lt
2017-04-01
Time-resolved induced absorption (IA) and light induced transient grating (LITG) techniques were applied for the investigation of nonequilibrium exciton-carrier diffusion and recombination processes in a high-purity CVD diamond. Injection range from 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} carrier density was achieved by combining one photon and two photon excitations. The measurements were performed in the 10–750 K temperature range. The LITG diffusion coefficient peaked at 44 cm{sup 2}/s value at room temperature under low injection conditions. At lower temperatures it transferred to much lower exciton diffusion coefficient. A strong decrease of diffusion coefficient under higher injection conditions was explained by exciton formation with a low diffusion coefficient and many body effects, as polyexciton and electron-hole droplet formation. High temperature phonon-limited diffusion coefficient was weakly injection dependent. Low excitation carrier lifetime was about 700 ns above 200 K. At lower temperatures, the decay time reduced by two orders of magnitude, which was explained by the formation of biexcitons. At lowest temperatures, an increase of the carrier recombination rate at high injection was attributed to Auger recombinations of polyexcitons and electron-hole droplets. While at high temperatures, the increase of the recombination rate with 490 meV activation energy was observed. The combination of IA and LITG measurements provided effective diffusion lengths in a 0.3–50 µm range, being strongly dependent on the excess carrier density and temperature.
Rate Coefficients of the Reaction of OH with Allene and Propyne at High Temperatures
Es-sebbar, Et-touhami
2016-09-28
Allene (H2C═C═CH2; a-C3H4) and propyne (CH3C≡CH; p-C3H4) are important species in various chemical environments. In combustion processes, the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a-C3H4 and p-C3H4 are critical in the overall fuel oxidation system. In this work, rate coefficients of OH radicals with allene (OH + H2C═C═CH2 → products) and propyne (OH + CH3C≡CH → products) were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 843–1352 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by rapid thermal decomposition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide ((CH3)3–CO–OH), and monitored by narrow line width laser absorption of the well-characterized R1(5) electronic transition of the OH A–X (0,0) electronic system near 306.7 nm. Results show that allene reacts faster with OH radicals than propyne over the temperature range of this study. Measured rate coefficients can be expressed in Arrhenius form as follows: kallene+OH(T) = 8.51(±0.03) × 10–22T3.05 exp(2215(±3)/T), T = 843–1352 K; kpropyne+OH(T) = 1.30(±0.07) × 10–21T3.01 exp(1140(±6)/T), T = 846–1335 K.
Temperature Dependence of the Seebeck Coefficient in Zinc Oxide Thin Films
Noori, Amirreza; Masoumi, Saeed; Hashemi, Najmeh
2017-12-01
Thermoelectric devices are reliable tools for converting waste heat into electricity as they last long, produce no noise or vibration, have no moving elements, and their light weight makes them suitable for the outer space usage. Materials with high thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) have the most important role in the fabrication of efficient thermoelectric devices. Metal oxide semiconductors, specially zinc oxide has recently received attention as a material suitable for sensor, optoelectronic and thermoelectric device applications because of their wide direct bandgap, chemical stability, high-energy radiation endurance, transparency and acceptable zT. Understanding the thermoelectric properties of the undoped ZnO thin films can help design better ZnO-based devices. Here, we report the results of our experimental work on the thermoelectric properties of the undoped polycrystalline ZnO thin films. These films are deposited on alumina substrates by thermal evaporation of zinc in vacuum followed by a controlled oxidation process in air carried out at the 350-500 °C temperature range. The experimental setup including gradient heaters, thermometry system and Seebeck voltage measurement equipment for high resistance samples is described. Seebeck voltage and electrical resistivity of the samples are measured at different conditions. The observed temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient is discussed.
Costa, Éderson D.'M.; Lemes, Nelson H. T.; Braga, João P.
2017-12-01
The long range potential of helium-helium interaction, which requires accurate ab initio calculation, due to the small value of the potential depth, approximately 11 K (9 . 5 × 10-4 eV = 0 . 091 kJ / mol) at 2.96 Å, will be obtained in this study by an alternative technique. This work presents a robust and consistent procedure that provides the long range potential directly from experimental data. However, it is difficult to obtain experimental data containing information regarding such a small potential depth. Thereby, sensitivity analysis will be used to circumvent this difficulty, from which viscosity data at lower temperatures (< 5 K) were chosen as appropriate data to be used to retrieve the potential function between 3 and 4 Å. The linear relationship between the potential energy function and the viscosity coefficient will be established under quantum assumptions and the Bose-Einstein statistics. The use of quantum theory is essential, since the temperatures are below 5 K. The potential obtained in this study describes the viscosity with an average error of 1.7% that is less than the experimental error (5%), with the results being similar to those obtained for recent ab initio potentials.
Inomata, Naoki; Ono, Takahito
2017-08-01
In this paper, the geometry dependence of the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCRF) is investigated and compared with a theoretical thermal stress change using Si mechanical microresonators. The used resonators have Y, T, I (conventional double-supported type) and arrow shapes, and in each shape the resonant frequency change of the resonator is measured in relation to changes in the amount of heat input to the resonator. The change trend in the experimental resonant frequency and the theoretical thermal stress in changing the temperature are consist. The TCRF in each resonator is Y: -653, T: -162, I: -417, and the arrow is 174 ppm/K. These absolute values are much higher than those of conventional cantilevered Si resonators (-34.9 ppm/K). In addition, the frequency fluctuations based on Allan deviation are experimentally evaluated considering the theoretical thermal fluctuation noise. It is considered that use of this technique to improve the TCRF of resonators by changing the geometry has the possibility of creating a sensor with highly sensitive thermal detection.
Chen, Jingwen; Harner, Tom; Ding, Guanghui; Quan, Xie; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Kettrup, Antonius
2004-10-01
Owing to the importance of octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) in describing the partition of organic pollutants from air to environmental organic phases, the paucity of KOA data at different environmental temperatures, and the difficulty or high expenditures involved in experimental determination, the development of predictive models for KOA is necessary. Approaches such as this are greatly needed to evaluate the environmental fate of the ever-increasing list of production chemicals. Partial least squares (PLS) regression with 18 molecular structural descriptors was used to develop predictive models based on directly measured KOA values of selected chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorine pesticides (OPs). An optimization procedure resulted in two temperature-dependent universal predictive models that explained at least 91 % of the variance of log KOA. Model 1 was the more general of the two models that could be used for all the persistent organic pollutant (POP) classes investigated. Although model 1 performed poorly for select OPs, this was attributed to wide variability in structural types within this subset of POPs and their diversity compared to the other POP classes that were investigated. The exclusion of the structurally complex OP subset resulted in a more precise model, model 5. Intermolecular dispersive interactions (induced dipole-induced dipole forces) between octanol and solute molecules play a decisive role in governing KOA and its temperature dependence. Further investigations are needed to better characterize the steric structures of the POPs under study, especially of OPs.
Lefler, W.; Baxter, A.; Mathews, D.
1987-12-01
The temperature dependence of the reactivity coefficient in a prismatic block Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design is examined and found to be large and negative. Temperature coefficient results obtained with the ENDF/B-V data library were almost the same as results obtained with the earlier versions of the ENDF/B data library usually used at GA Technologies Inc., in spite of a significant eigenvalue increase with the ENDF/B-V data. The effects of fuel burnup and arbitrarily assumed cross section variations were examined and tabulated.
Rajesh, S.; Murali, K. P.; Jantunen, H.; Ratheesh, R.
2011-11-01
High permittivity and low-loss ceramic fillers have been prepared by means of the solid state ceramic route. Ceramic-filled composites were prepared by the Sigma Mixing, Extrusion, Calendering, which was followed by the Hot pressing (SMECH) process. The microwave dielectric properties of the composites were studied using X-band waveguide cavity perturbation technique. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites was investigated in the 0-100 °C temperature range using a hot and cold chamber coupled with an impedance analyzer. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites showed strong dependence on the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the filler material. In the present study, a high-permittivity polymer/ceramic composite, having τεr ∼63 ppm/K, has been realized. This composite is suitable for outdoor wireless applications.
Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V; Zhang, Guoqiang
2010-04-01
This paper reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of ammonia mass transfer from an emission surface. The effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer are investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and by a mechanism modeling using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models based on the parameters measured in the experiments performed in a wind tunnel. The validated CFD model by experimental data is used to investigate the surface concentration distribution and mass transfer coefficient at different temperatures and velocities for which the Reynolds number is from 1.36 x 10(4) to 5.43 x 10(4) (based on wind tunnel length). The surface concentration increases as velocity decreases and varies greatly along the airflow direction on the emission surface. The average mass transfer coefficient increases with higher velocity and turbulence intensity. However, the mass transfer coefficient estimated by CFD simulation is consistently larger than the calculated one by the method using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models. In addition, the results show that the liquid-air temperature difference has little impact on the simulated mass transfer coefficient by CFD modeling, whereas the mass transfer coefficient increases with higher liquid temperature using the other method under the conditions that the liquid temperature is lower than the air temperature. Although there are differences of mass transfer coefficients between these two methods, the mass transfer coefficients determined by these two methods are significantly related.
Nishiyama, Yoshio; Terazima, Masahide; Kimura, Yoshifumi
2009-04-16
The diffusion coefficients of diiodide anion radical, I(2)(-), in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were determined by the transient grating (TG) method using the photochemical reaction of iodide. The diffusion coefficients we obtained were larger in RTILs than the theoretical predictions by the Stokes-Einstein relation, whereas both values are similar in conventional solvents. By comparison with the diffusion coefficients of neutral molecules, it was suggested that the Coulomb interaction between I(2)(-) and constituent ions of RTILs strongly affects the diffusion coefficients. The bimolecular reaction rates between I(2)(-) were calculated by the Debye-Smoluchowski equation using the experimentally determined diffusion coefficients. These calculated reaction rate were much smaller than the experimentally determined rates (Takahashi, K.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 4807), indicating the charge screening effect of RTILs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Wanheim, Tarras
1998-01-01
from the surface. The thermocouples are welded to the end of grooves milled in a small plug, Which is pressed into a hold in the punch nose. All the temperature measurements in the tool and the workpiece are compared with a number of FEM simulations computed with different heat transfer coefficients....... The current heat transfer coefficient is determined as the one resulting in the best agreement between measurements and the simulations....
Wrinkle-stabilized metal-graphene hybrid fibers with zero temperature coefficient of resistance.
Fang, Bo; Xi, Jiabin; Liu, Yingjun; Guo, Fan; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Weiwei; Guo, Daoyou; Li, Peigang; Gao, Chao
2017-08-24
The interfacial adhesion between graphene and metals is poor, as metals tend to generate superlubricity on smooth graphene surface. This problem renders the free assembly of graphene and metals to be a big challenge, and therefore, some desired conducting properties (e.g., stable metal-like conductivities in air, lightweight yet flexible conductors, and ultralow temperature coefficient of resistance, TCR) likely being realized by integrating the merits of graphene and metals remains at a theoretical level. This work proposes a wrinkle-stabilized approach to address the poor adhesion between graphene surface and metals. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests and theoretical analysis by Scharifker-Hills models demonstrate that multiscale wrinkles effectively induce nucleation of metal particles, locking in metal nuclei and guiding the continuous growth of metal islands in an instantaneous model on rough graphene surface. The universality and practicability of the wrinkle-stabilized approach is verified by our investigation through the electrodeposition of nine kinds of metals on graphene fibers (GF). The strong interface bonding permits metal-graphene hybrid fibers to show metal-level conductivities (up to 2.2 × 107 S m-1, a record high value for GF in air), reliable weatherability and favorable flexibility. Due to the negative TCR of graphene and positive TCR of metals, the TCR of Cu- and Au-coated GFs reaches zero at a wide temperature range (15 K-300 K). For this layered model, the quantitative analysis by classical theories demonstrates the suitable thickness ratio of graphene layer and metal layer to achieve zero TCR to be 0.2, agreeing well with our experimental results. This wrinkle-stabilized approach and our theoretical analysis of zero-TCR behavior of the graphene-metal system are conducive to the design of high-performance conducting materials based on graphene and metals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das Gupta, S.
1977-01-01
The subcooled compressibility of liquid sodium was directly measured up to 200 atm between 900 K and 1867 K, utilizing a new multi-property apparatus which was previously tested with water. The experimental data were correlated by a 6-term equation with a standard deviation of 9.2 percent. The equation can be used to estimate the subcooled compressibilities and densities of liquid sodium up to 2300 K and 500 ata. The thermal expansion of liquid sodium was also measured along the isobars 1 ata, 28.9 ata and 69 ata. Densities within 1 percent of those obtained from the compressibilities were obtained. The above compressibility data were used to calculate the thermal pressure coefficient of saturated liquid sodium. Also, Bhise and Bonilla's correlations for the vapor pressure and the saturated liquid density of sodium were improved by including more data in the analysis. The critical temperature and density were thus reestimated as 2508.7 K and 0.2141 g/cc. Furthermore, a new correlation was developed to determine the heat of vaporization of sodium up to the critical point, which was then used to estimate the internal energy and the entropy of vaporization and the saturated vapor density of sodium up to the critical point.
Wang, Conan K.; Northfield, Susan E.; Colless, Barbara; Chaousis, Stephanie; Hamernig, Ingrid; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Nielsen, Daniel S.; Schroeder, Christina I.; Liras, Spiros; Price, David A.; Fairlie, David P.; Craik, David J.
2014-01-01
Enhancing the oral bioavailability of peptide drug leads is a major challenge in drug design. As such, methods to address this challenge are highly sought after by the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we propose a strategy to identify appropriate amides for N-methylation using temperature coefficients measured by NMR to identify exposed amides in cyclic peptides. N-methylation effectively caps these amides, modifying the overall solvation properties of the peptides and making them more membrane permeable. The approach for identifying sites for N-methylation is a rapid alternative to the elucidation of 3D structures of peptide drug leads, which has been a commonly used structure-guided approach in the past. Five leucine-rich peptide scaffolds are reported with selectively designed N-methylated derivatives. In vitro membrane permeability was assessed by parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and Caco-2 assay. The most promising N-methylated peptide was then tested in vivo. Here we report a novel peptide (15), which displayed an oral bioavailability of 33% in a rat model, thus validating the design approach. We show that this approach can also be used to explain the notable increase in oral bioavailability of a somatostatin analog. PMID:25416591
Cho, Seungchan; Kikuchi, Keiko; Lee, Eunkyung; Choi, Moonhee; Jo, Ilguk; Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Kawasaki, Akira
2017-11-02
In order to explore the possibility of using carbon nanotube (CNT) to introduce and control the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of metal matrix composite, relatively thick and short multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) were introduced in the metal matrix with in-situ formation of chromium carbide (Cr7C3) at the CNT/copper (Cu) interface. We demonstrate that incompatible properties such as electrical conductivity and TCR can be achieved simultaneously by introducing MWCNTs in the Cu matrix, with control of the interfacial resistivity using the MWCNT/Cr7C3-Cu system. High electrical conductivity of 94.66 IACS and low TCR of 1,451 10(-6) °C(-1) are achieved in the 5 vol.% MWCNT-CuCr composite. In-situ formation of Cr7C3 nanostructures at the MWCNT/Cu interface by reaction of diffused Cr atoms and amorphous carbon of MWCNTs would assist in improving the electrical properties of the MWCNT-CuCr composites.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. V. Shumanova
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relevance of herring brine salting at subzero temperatures, taking into account the positive dynamics of its catching, its reserves, a favorable cooling effect on the suppression of microorganizms activity, improvement of product quality and increasing of storage time are indicated in this paper. Changes in such a significant characteristics as the diffusion coefficient in the process of salting at subzero temperatures were studied. Method of photon correlation spectroscopy, based on the Rayleigh scattering of radiation from the substance was used for the study. The experimental diffusion coefficient dependences on the depth of penetration of the salt in brine, skin and meat of herring at temperatures ranging from -16 ° C to -6 ° C were obtained. They are of wave-like nature. The dependence of the diffusion coefficients on subzero temperature ranging from -18 ° C to 0 ° C, and having a harmonic form was also obtained in the work. The resulting temperature gradient is a source of perturbations, giving rise to thermoconvective waves. According to the theoretical research of Academician A.V. Lykov and chemical processes occurring at the border (skin of phase separation using the basic equation of thermochemistry - Gibbs law, mechanism of thermoconvective waves influencing the diffusion coefficient is explained. A relation between the diffusion coefficients with the size of the diffusing particles, having hyperbolic character in the temperature range from -18 ° C to 0 ° C in the in brine, skin and meat of herring was determined . The possibility of acceleration of salting by means of mechanical impact on the object under study (in particular sound or ultrasound was expressed. The destruction of the diffusing particles, representing the union of Na+ and Cl- with water molecules, increases the diffusion coefficient.
Wang, Xia; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang
2011-11-01
As a self-regulating heating device, positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater was employed for hot embossing and thermal bonding of poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chip because it supplied constant-temperature heating without electrical control circuits. To emboss a channel plate, a piece of poly(methyl methacrylate) plate was sandwiched between a template and a microscopic glass slide on a positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater. All the assembled components were pressed between two elastic press heads of a spring-driven press while a voltage was applied to the heater for 10 min. Subsequently, the embossed poly(methyl methacrylate) plate bearing negative relief of channel networks was bonded with a piece of poly(methyl methacrylate) cover sheet to obtain a complete microchip using a positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater and a spring-driven press. High quality microfluidic chips fabricated by using the novel embossing/bonding device were successfully applied in the electrophoretic separation of three cations. Positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater indicates great promise for the low-cost production of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips and should find wide applications in the fabrication of other thermoplastic polymer microfluidic devices.
Dean, D. C.; Goldstein, J. I.
1984-01-01
The interdiffusion coefficient of FeNi in fcc taenite (gamma) of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-0.2 P alloys was measured as a function of temperature between 600 and 900 C. This temperature range is directly applicable to the nucleation and growth of the Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites and metal regions of stony and stony-iron meteorites. Diffusion couples were made from FeNi or FeNiP alloys which ensured that the couples were in the taenite phase at the diffusion temperature. The presence or absence of grain boundary diffusion was determined by measuring the Ni profile normal to the existing grain boundaries with the AEM. Ignoring any variation of interdiffusion coefficient with composition, the measured data was plotted versus the reciprocal of the diffusion temperature. The FeNi data generally follow the extrapolated Goldstein, et al. (1965) data from high temperatures. The FeNiP data indicates that small additions of P (0.2 wt%) cause a 3 to 10 fold increase in the FeNi interdifussion coefficient increasing with decreasing temperature. This increase is about the same as that predicted by Narayan and Goldstein (1983) at the Widmanstatten growth temperature.
Zero temperature coefficient of resistivity induced by photovoltaic effect in Y Ba2Cu3O6.96 ceramics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available I-V characteristics of YBCO-Ag system under blue laser (λ = 450 nm illumination were studied from 100 to 300 K and obvious photovoltaic effects were observed. All the I-V curves in the temperature range intersect at a point in the first quadrant while the laser points to the cathode electrode, indicating a zero temperature coefficient of resistivity. This implies that the outputting voltage keeps constant in a broad temperature range when a critical bias current is assigned. The intersection points of different laser intensities fall in a straight line, the slope of which (Rc is independent of temperature and laser intensity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. D. Pataraya
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Non-linear α-ω; dynamo waves existing in an incompressible medium with the turbulence dissipative coefficients depending on temperature are studied in this paper. We investigate of α-ω solar non-linear dynamo waves when only the first harmonics of magnetic induction components are included. If we ignore the second harmonics in the non-linear equation, the turbulent magnetic diffusion coefficient increases together with the temperature, the coefficient of turbulent viscosity decreases, and for an interval of time the value of dynamo number is greater than 1. In these conditions a stationary solution of the non-linear equation for the dynamo wave's amplitude exists; meaning that the magnetic field is sufficiently excited. The amplitude of the dynamo waves oscillates and becomes stationary. Using these results we can explain the existence of Maunder's minimum.
Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.
2009-01-01
The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."
H. Li; X. Deng; Andy Dolloff; E. P. Smith
2015-01-01
A novel clustering method for bivariate functional data is proposed to group streams based on their waterâair temperature relationship. A distance measure is developed for bivariate curves by using a time-varying coefficient model and a weighting scheme. This distance is also adjusted by spatial correlation of streams via the variogram. Therefore, the proposed...
Data-driven analysis of the temperature dependence of the heavy-quark transport coefficient
Xu, Yingru; Cao, Shanshan; Nahrgang, Marlene; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.
2017-08-01
By applying a Bayesian model-to-data comparison, our improved Langevin transport model simultaneously describes the D-meson nuclear modification factor RAA and elliptic flow v2 in heavy-ion collisions at both RHIC and LHC energies on an event-by-event basis. We extract the diffusion coefficients of charm quarks in a quark-gluon plasma medium and find the resulting spatial diffusion coefficient Ds is compatible with lattice QCD calculations.
Shehzad, Khurram; Xu, Yang; Gao, Chao; Li, Hanying; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hasan, Tawfique; Luo, Jack; Duan, Xiangfeng
2017-03-01
Polymer dielectrics offer key advantages over their ceramic counterparts such as flexibility, scalability, low cost, and high breakdown voltages. However, a major drawback that limits more widespread application of polymer dielectrics is their temperature-dependent dielectric properties. Achieving dielectric constants with low/zero-temperature coefficient (L/0TC) over a broad temperature range is essential for applications in diverse technologies. Here, we report a hybrid filler strategy to produce polymer composites with an ultrawide L/0TC window of dielectric constant, as well as a significantly enhanced dielectric value, maximum energy storage density, thermal conductivity, and stability. By creating a series of percolative polymer composites, we demonstrated hybrid carbon filler based composites can exhibit a zero-temperature coefficient window of 200 °C (from -50 to 150 °C), the widest 0TC window for all polymer composite dielectrics reported to date. We further show the electric and dielectric temperature coefficient of the composites is highly stable against stretching and bending, even under AC electric field with frequency up to 1 MHz. We envision that our method will push the functional limits of polymer dielectrics for flexible electronics in extreme conditions such as in hybrid vehicles, aerospace, power electronics, and oil/gas exploration.
Dhyne, Miguël; Joubert, Pierre; Populaire, Jean-Claude; Blanquet, Ghislain; Lepère, Muriel
2014-09-01
In this paper, we present the Xe-broadening coefficients of 18 rovibrational lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C212H2 (near 1330 cm-1) determined at five temperatures, ranging from 173.2 K to 298.2 K. The measurement of these coefficients was realized with a tunable diode-laser spectrometer. A low temperature cell was coupled with the spectrometer in order to determine their temperature dependence. The line parameters were obtained by fitting the experimental profiles by the Voigt lineshape and the Rautian and the Galatry models, which take into account the collisional narrowing. The results were compared with previous experimental data reporting for other vibrational bands and agree with them. This indicates that they are insensitive to vibrational excitation.
Copolovici, Lucian O; Niinemets, Ulo
2005-12-01
To model the emission dynamics and changes in fractional composition of monoterpenoids from plant leaves, temperature dependencies of equilibrium coefficients must be known. Henry's law constants (H(pc), Pa m3 mol(-1) and octanol/water partition coefficients (K(OW), mol mol(-1)) were determined for 10 important plant monoterpenes at physiological temperature ranges (25-50 degrees C for H(pc) and 20-50 degrees C for K(OW)). A standard EPICS procedure was established to determine H(pc) and a shake flask method was used for the measurements of K(OW). The enthalpy of volatilization (deltaH(vol)) varied from 18.0 to 44.3 kJ mol(-1) among the monoterpenes, corresponding to a range of temperature-dependent increase in H(pc) between 1.3- and 1.8-fold per 10 degrees C rise in temperature. The enthalpy of water-octanol phase change varied from -11.0 to -23.8 kJ mol(-1), corresponding to a decrease of K(OW) between 1.15- and 1.32-fold per 10 degrees C increase in temperature. Correlations among physico-chemical characteristics of a wide range of monoterpenes were analyzed to seek the ways of derivation of H(pc) and K(OW) values from other monoterpene physico-chemical characteristics. H(pc) was strongly correlated with monoterpene saturated vapor pressure (P(v)), and for lipophilic monoterpenes, deltaH(vol) scaled positively with the enthalpy of vaporization that characterizes the temperature dependence of P(v) Thus, P(v) versus temperature relations may be employed to derive the temperature relations of H(pc) for these monoterpenes. These data collectively indicate that monoterpene differences in H(pc) and K(OW) temperature relations can importantly modify monoterpene emissions from and deposition on plant leaves.
Ziolkowski, Pawel; Stiewe, Christian; de Boor, Johannes; Druschke, Ines; Zabrocki, Knud; Edler, Frank; Haupt, Sebastian; König, Jan; Mueller, Eckhard
2017-01-01
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) convert heat to electrical energy by means of the Seebeck effect. The Seebeck coefficient is a central thermoelectric material property, measuring the magnitude of the thermovoltage generated in response to a temperature difference across a thermoelectric material. Precise determination of the Seebeck coefficient provides the basis for reliable performance assessment in materials development in the field of thermoelectrics. For several reasons, measurement uncertainties of up to 14% can often be observed in interlaboratory comparisons of temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient or in error analyses on currently employed instruments. This is still too high for an industrial benchmark and insufficient for many scientific investigations and technological developments. The TESt (thermoelectric standardization) project was launched in 2011, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), to reduce measurement uncertainties, engineer traceable and precise thermoelectric measurement techniques for materials and TEGs, and develop reference materials (RMs) for temperature-dependent determination of the Seebeck coefficient. We report herein the successful development and qualification of cobalt-doped β-iron disilicide ( β-Fe0.95Co0.05Si2) as a RM for high-temperature thermoelectric metrology. A brief survey on technological processes for manufacturing and machining of samples is presented. Focus is placed on metrological qualification of the iron disilicide, results of an international round-robin test, and final certification as a reference material in accordance with ISO-Guide 35 and the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the national metrology institute of Germany.
Siewert, C. E.
2003-06-01
A polynomial expansion procedure and an analytical discrete-ordinates method are used to evaluate the viscous-slip coefficient, the thermal-slip coefficient, and the temperature-jump coefficient as defined by a rigorous version of the linearized Boltzmann equation for rigid-sphere interactions and the Cercignani-Lampis boundary condition.
Korposh, S.; Wong, R.; James, S.; Tatam, R.
2013-05-01
The response of optical fibre long period gratings (LPGs), fabricated with precise control of the grating period to operate at or near the phase matching turning point (PMTP), to temperature was studied. The effect of the grating period on sensor performance was studied. The sensitivity of the LPG operating at the phase matching turning point to temperature was 0.99 nm/°C for 111.5 μm grating period that is ca. 7 times higher than that of an LPG operating far from turning point. The possibility of using LPG sensors to determine the thermo-optic coefficient of the surrounding material was explored.
Positive temperature coefficient of photovoltaic efficiency in solar cells based on InGaN/GaN MQWs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Zhaoying; Zheng, Xiantong; Li, Zhilong; Wang, Ping; Rong, Xin; Wang, Tao; Yang, Xuelin; Xu, Fujun; Qin, Zhixin; Ge, Weikun [State Key Laboratory of Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shen, Bo; Wang, Xinqiang, E-mail: wangshi@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)
2016-08-08
We report a 23.4% improvement of conversion efficiency in solar cells based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by using a patterned sapphire substrate in the fabrication process. The efficiency enhancement is due to the improvement of the crystalline quality, as proven by the reduction of the threading dislocation density. More importantly, the better crystalline quality leads to a positive photovoltaic efficiency temperature coefficient up to 423 K, which shows the property and advantage of wide gap semiconductors like InGaN, signifying the potential of III-nitride based solar cells for high temperature and concentrating solar power applications.
Fleshman, Allison M; Forsythe, Grant E; Petrowsky, Matt; Frech, Roger
2016-09-22
The location of the hydroxyl group in monohydroxy alcohols greatly affects the temperature dependence of the liquid structure due to hydrogen bonding. Temperature-dependent self-diffusion coefficients, fluidity (the inverse of viscosity), dielectric constant, and density have been measured for several 1-alcohols and 3-alcohols with varying alkyl chain lengths. The data are modeled using the compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF). The CAF follows a modified transition state theory using an Arrhenius-like expression to describe the transport property, which consists of a Boltzmann factor containing an energy of activation, Ea, and an exponential prefactor containing the temperature-dependent solution dielectric constant, εs(T). Both 1- and 3-alcohols show the Ea of diffusion coefficients (approximately 43 kJ mol(-1)) is higher than the Ea of fluidity (approximately 35 kJ mol(-1)). The temperature dependence of the exponential prefactor in these associated liquids is explained using the dielectric constant and the Kirkwood-Frölich correlation factor, gk. It is argued that the dielectric constant must be used to account for the additional temperature dependence due to variations in the liquid structure (e.g., hydrogen bonding) for the CAF to accurately model the transport property.
Negative temperature coefficient of the action of DDT in a sense organ
Bercken, J. van den; Akkermans, L.M.A.
1972-01-01
DDT induced repetitive spontaneuos activity inthe afferent nerve fibers of the lateral-line organ of the clawed toad, Xenopus laevis. The action of DDT increased markedly with lowered temperature. This temperature-effect was easily reversible. The results demonstrate that DDT has a definite negative
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Li Benkai
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy
Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan
2014-08-01
Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation: Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h-1, were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h-1/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h-1/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2016-01-01
Nowadays, many electronic systems are exposed to harsh conditions of relative humidity and temperature. Masstransport properties of electronic packaging materials are needed in order to investigate the influence of moisture andtemperature on reliability of electronic devices. Polycarbonate (PC...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajneesh Kumar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The reflection of plane waves at the free surface of thermally conducting micropolar elastic medium with two temperatures is studied. The theory of thermoelasticity with and without energy dissipation is used to investigate the problem. The expressions for amplitudes ratios of reflected waves at different angles of incident wave are obtained. Dissipation of energy and two-temperature effects on these amplitude ratios with angle of incidence are depicted graphically. Some special and particular cases are also deduced.
Crow, W. T.; Kustas, W. P.
2003-12-01
Recent advances in land data assimilation have yielded data assimilation techniques designed to solve the surface energy balance based on remote observations of surface radiometric temperature and a simple prognostic equation for surface temperature. These approaches have a number of potential advantages over existing diagnostic models, including the ability to make energy flux predictions between satellite overpass times, more physically realistic representations of ground heat flux, and reduced requirements for ancillary parameter estimation. Of particular interest is the variational approach presented by Caparrini et al. (Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2003) which uses a force-restore equation for surface temperature as a constraint for the simultaneous estimation of both evaporative fraction and bulk heat transfer coefficients from sequences of surface radiometric temperature observations. Using eddy correlation flux tower data and analogous energy balance results obtained from the diagnostic Two-Source Model (TSM), this presentation will examine the performance of the Caparrini et al. algorithm over a range of vegetative and hydrologic conditions in the southern United States. Results identify circumstances under which the simultaneous - and unambiguous - retrieval of both surface evaporation fraction and heat transfer coefficients is possible and clarify parameter interpretation issues associated with the single-source geometry of the variational approach. Inter-comparison with the TSM model illustrates circumstances under which the increased parameter complexity of the TSM model is justified by its more accurate two-source representation of thermal emission from partial vegetation canopies. Potential improvements to current variational data assimilation techniques will also be discussed.
Adnane, L.; Williams, N.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A.
2015-10-01
We have developed an automated setup for simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient S(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) of thin film samples from room temperature to ˜650 °C. S and ρ are extracted from current-voltage (I-V) measurements obtained using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and temperature measurements obtained using commercial thermocouples. The slope and the x-axis intercept of the I-V characteristics represent the sample conductance G and the Seebeck voltage, respectively. The measured G(T) can be scaled to ρ(T) by the geometry factor obtained from the room temperature resistivity measurement of the film. The setup uses resistive or inductive heating to control the temperature and temperature gradient on the sample. Inductive heating is achieved with steel plates that surround the test area and a water cooled copper pipe coil underneath that generates an AC magnetic field. The measurements can be performed using resistive heating only or inductive heating only, or a combination of both depending on the desired heating ranges. Inductive heating provides a more uniform heating of the test area, does not require contacts to the sample holder, can be used up to the Curie temperature of the particular magnetic material, and the temperature gradients can be adjusted by the relative positions of the coil and sample. Example results obtained for low doped single-crystal silicon with inductive heating only and with resistive heating only are presented.
Hong, Jingbo; Jing, Qingqing; Yao, Lishan
2013-01-01
The protein amide (1)H(N) chemical shift temperature coefficient can be determined with high accuracy by recording spectra at different temperatures, but the physical mechanism responsible for this temperature dependence is not well understood. In this work, we find that this coefficient strongly correlates with the temperature coefficient of the through-hydrogen-bond coupling, (3h)J(NC'), based on NMR measurements of protein GB3. Parallel tempering molecular dynamics simulation suggests that the hydrogen bond distance variation at different temperatures/replicas is largely responsible for the (1)H(N) chemical shift temperature dependence, from which an empirical equation is proposed to predict the hydrogen bond thermal expansion coefficient, revealing responses of individual hydrogen bonds to temperature changes. Different expansion patterns have been observed for various networks formed by β strands.
Tang, Du; Delpo, Courtney; Blackmon, Odella; Ashbaugh, Henry S
2018-01-07
While molecular-scale hydrophobic interactions are readily evaluable from molecular simulations, it is challenging to compare these predictions against experiment as a result of the sparing solubility of purely non-polar species. Recent theoretical and simulation advances have enabled the determination of second osmotic virial coefficients for solutes in aqueous solution, providing an alternate route for experimental validation. Here we report simulation predictions for the second osmotic virial coefficients for methane and ethane as well as those for their alcohol counterparts, methanol and ethanol, in water over a broad temperature range. The results for the alcohols quantitatively agree with available experimental results, providing support for simulation predictions for molecular-scale hydrophobic interactions.
Kuzuu, Nobu; Sato, Naoya; Arakawa, Yu; Horikoshi, Hideharu; Horii, Naohiro
2017-11-01
The hydroxyl concentration and temperature dependences of the diffusion coefficients of hydroxyl groups in vitreous silica were investigated by analyzing the change in the hydroxyl concentration distribution caused by heat treatment around the binding interface between silica glass plates with different hydroxyl concentrations. We confirmed experimentally that the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the hydroxyl concentration, which had been predicted theoretically, and obtained the empirical formula D(c OH) = [(4.9 ± 1.0) × 10‑14 m2/s·wt ppm] × exp[‑(8.1 ± 0.3) × 103 K/T] c OH with the hydroxyl concentration c OH and the absolute temperature T, which is valid at least in the temperature range of 850–1200 °C. Using the values calculated using this formula, we can reproduce the hydroxyl concentration profile after diffusion from a silica glass surface induced by heating in a water vapor atmosphere in the literature, which supports the validity of the empirical formula obtained in this study. The relationship between the effective diffusion coefficient in the literature and our result is discussed.
Reza, Joel; Trejo, Arturo
2004-08-01
The water solubility of 9,10-dihydroanthracene was experimentally determined between 278.12 and 313.17 K. Determinations were carried out by an experimental procedure developed in our laboratory, which is a modification of the dynamic coupled column liquid chromatographic technique. The uncertainty of the experimental determinations ranged from +/- 0.50% to +/- 3.10%. These data, as well as the water solubility data of other five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) previously studied, were used to calculate the temperature dependence of the infinite dilution activity coefficient of 9,10-dihydroanthracene, anthracene, pyrene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, m-terphenyl, and guaiazulene in water. Molar excess enthalpies and entropies at infinite dilution, at 298.15 K, were also derived. The temperature dependence of the infinite dilution activity coefficients was used, together with literature values of the vapor pressures of supercooled liquid PAHs (p(B)(sc)), to estimate their Henry's law constants (HLC). Only HLC for anthracene, pyrene, and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene were calculated, since no p(B)(sc) data were available in the literature for 9,10-dihydroanthracene, m-terphenyl, and guaiazulene. From the observed temperature dependence of the Henry's law constants the enthalpy and entropy of the phase change from the dissolved phase to the gas phase were also derived for anthracene, pyrene, and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene.
Himanshu Shekhar
2009-01-01
Burning rate of a solid rocket propellant depends on pressure and temperature. Conventional strand burner and Crawford bomb test on propellant strands was conducted to assess these dependent parameters. However, behaviour of propellant in rocket motor is different from its behaviour in strand form. To overcome this anomaly, data from static evaluation of rocket motor was directly used for assessment of these burningrate controlling parameters. The conventional empirical power law (r=aoexp[p{T...
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Hadi Mirgolbabaee
2015-02-01
Results are presented for the dimensionless temperature distribution and fin efficiency for different values of the problem parameters which for the purpose of comparison, obtained equation were calculated with mentioned methods. It was found the proposed solution is very accurate, efficient, and convenient for the discussed problem, furthermore convergence problems for solving nonlinear equations by using AGM appear small so the results demonstrate that the AGM could be applied through other methods in nonlinear problems with high nonlinearity.
Temperature-related changes in respiration and Q10 coefficient of Guava
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Bron Ilana Urbano
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a tropical fruit that presents fast post-harvest ripening; therefore it is a very perishable product. Inappropriate storage temperature and retail practices can accelerate fruit quality loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory activity (RA, the ethylene production (EP and Q10 of guava fruit at different storage temperatures. 'Paluma' guava fruits were harvested at maturity stage 1 (dark-green skin and stored at either 1, 11, 21, 31 or 41ºC; RA and EP were determined after 12, 36, 84 and 156 h of storage. RA and EP rates at 1 and 11ºC were the lowest - 0.16 and 0.43 mmol CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 0.003 and 0.019 µmol C2H4 kg-1 h-1, respectively. When guavas were stored at 21ºC, a gradual increase occurred in RA and EP, reaching 2.24 mmol CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 0.20 µmol C2H4 kg-1 h-1, after 156 h of storage. The highest RA and EP were recorded for guavas stored at 31ºC. In spite of high RA, guavas stored at 41ºC presented EP similar to guavas stored at 11ºC, an indicator of heat-stress injury. Considering the 1-11ºC range, the mean Q10 value was around 3.0; the Q10 value almost duplicated at 11-21ºC range (5.9. At 21-31ºC and 31-41ºC, Q10 was 1.5 and 0.8, respectively. Knowing Q10, respiratory variation and ripening behavior in response to different temperatures, fruit storage and retail conditions can be optimized to reduce quality losses.
Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Weizong; Yan, Joseph D.; Qi, Haiyang; Geng, Jinyue; Wu, Yaowu
2017-10-01
Ablation-controlled plasmas have been used in a range of technical applications where local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is often violated near the wall due to the strong cooling effect caused by the ablation of wall materials. The thermodynamic and transport properties of ablated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vapor, which determine the flowing plasma behavior in such applications, are calculated based on a two-temperature model at atmospheric pressure. To our knowledge, no data for PTFE have been reported in the literature. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are numerically determined using the two-temperature Saha equation and the Guldberg-Waage equation according to van de Sanden et al’s derivation. The transport coefficients, including viscosity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, are calculated with the most recent collision interaction potentials using Devoto’s electron and heavy-particle decoupling approach but expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the frame of the Chapman-Enskog method. Results are computed for different degrees of thermal non-equilibrium, i.e. the ratio of electron to heavy-particle temperatures, from 1 to 10, with electron temperature ranging from 300 to 40 000 K. Plasma transport properties in the LTE state obtained from the present work are compared with existing published results and the causes for the discrepancy analyzed. The two-temperature plasma properties calculated in the present work enable the modeling of wall ablation-controlled plasma processes.
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Pinheiro Cleber
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the current shortcomings of radiofrequency (RF tumor ablation is its limited performance in regions close to large blood vessels, resulting in high recurrence rates at these locations. Computer models have been used to determine tissue temperatures during tumor ablation procedures. To simulate large vessels, either constant wall temperature or constant convective heat transfer coefficient (h have been assumed at the vessel surface to simulate convection. However, the actual distribution of the temperature on the vessel wall is non-uniform and time-varying, and this feature makes the convective coefficient variable. Methods This paper presents a realistic time-varying model in which h is a function of the temperature distribution at the vessel wall. The finite-element method (FEM was employed in order to model RF hepatic ablation. Two geometrical configurations were investigated. The RF electrode was placed at distances of 1 and 5 mm from a large vessel (10 mm diameter. Results When the ablation procedure takes longer than 1–2 min, the attained coagulation zone obtained with both time-varying h and constant h does not differ significantly. However, for short duration ablation (5–10 s and when the electrode is 1 mm away from the vessel, the use of constant h can lead to errors as high as 20% in the estimation of the coagulation zone. Conclusion For tumor ablation procedures typically lasting at least 5 min, this study shows that modeling the heat sink effect of large vessels by applying constant h as a boundary condition will yield precise results while reducing computational complexity. However, for other thermal therapies with shorter treatment using a time-varying h may be necessary.
Reilly, J.; Abdel-Jaber, H.; Yarnold, M.; Glisic, B.
2017-04-01
Structural Health Monitoring aims to characterize the performance of a structure from a combination of recorded sensor data and analytic techniques. Many methods are concerned with quantifying the elastic response of the structure, treating temperature changes as noise in the analysis. While these elastic profiles do demonstrate a portion of structural behavior, thermal loads on a structure can induce comparable strains to elastic loads. Understanding this relationship between the temperature of the structure and the resultant strain and displacement can provide in depth knowledge of the structural condition. A necessary parameter for this form of analysis is the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). The CTE of a material relates the amount of expansion or contraction a material undergoes per degree change in temperature, and can be determined from temperature-strain relationship given that the thermal strain can be isolated. Many times with concrete, the actual amount of expansion with temperature in situ varies from the given values for the CTE due to thermally generated elastic strain, which complicates evaluation of the CTE. To accurately characterize the relationship between temperature and strain on a structure, the actual thermal behavior of the structure needs to be analyzed. This rate can vary for different parts of a structure, depending on boundary conditions. In a case of unrestrained structures, the strain in the structure should be linearly related to the temperature change. Thermal gradients in a structure can affect this relationship, as they induce curvature and deplanations in the cross section. This paper proposes a method that addresses these challenges in evaluating the CTE.
The impact of fuel temperature reactivity coefficient on loss of reactivity control accident
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, J. H.; Ryu, E. H.; Song, Y. M.; Jung, J. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-10-15
Nuclear reactors experience small power fluctuations or anticipated operational transients during even normal power operation. During normal operation, the reactivity is mainly controlled by liquid zone controllers, adjuster rods, mechanical control absorbers, and moderator poison. Even when the reactor power is increased abruptly and largely from an accident and when reactor control systems cannot be actuated quickly due to a fast transient, the reactor should be controlled and stabilized by its inherent safety parameter, such as a negative PCR (Power Coefficient of Reactivity) feedback. A PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor), it is well designed for the reactor to have a negative PCR so that the reactor can be safely shut down or stabilized whenever an abrupt reactivity insertion into the reactor core occurs or the reactor power is abruptly increased. However, it is known that a CANDU reactor has a small amount of PCR, as either negative or positive, because of the different design basis and safety concepts from a PWR. CNSC's regulatory and safety regime has stated that; The PCR of CANDU reactors does not pose a significant risk. Consistent with Canadian nuclear safety requirements, nuclear power plants must have an appropriate combination of inherent and engineered safety features incorporated into the design of the reactor safety and control systems. A reactor design that has a PCR is quite acceptable provided that the reactor is stable against power fluctuations, and that the probability and consequences of any potential accidents that would be aggravated by a positive reactivity feedback are maintained within CNSCprescribed limits. Recently, it was issued licensing the refurbished Wolsong unit 1 in Korea to be operated continuously after its design lifetime in which the calculated PCR was shown to have a small positive value by applying the recent physics code systems, which are composed of WIMS IST, DRAGON IST, and RFSP IST. These code systems were
See, Erich; Kochergin, Vladimir; Neely, Lauren; Zayetnikov, Madrakhim; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Robinson, Hans
2012-02-01
The α-phase of zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) has the remarkable property that its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is negative over its entire range of thermal stability (0-1050K), and through this range it has a nearly constant negative CTE. When ZrW2O8 nanoparticles are mixed into a polymer resin, the resulting composite has a reduced CTE when compared with that of the pure polymer. However, previous research on such composites has occurred only near room temperature. We show that at cryogenic temperatures, it is possible to make ZrW2O8/resin nanocomposites with negative CTE. By coating a fiber-optic Bragg grating with such a composite, we were able to create an all-optical temperature sensor without the use of metals, which would be of particular use in superconducting RF cavities. The sensor has sensitivity down to at least 2 K, six times lower than previous fiber-optic temperature sensors.
Otsuka, Mioko; Homma, Ryoei; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro
2017-05-01
Temperature dependence measurements of resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient were performed using individual bismuth nanowires of 345-nm and 594-nm diameters encased in a quartz template. Each nanowire was confirmed as a single crystal by Laue measurement, and an advanced mean free path model was utilized to explain both temperature dependencies. The model successfully explains the dependence over 100 K, which occurs because the carrier mobility is restricted by boundary scattering at the nanowire surface considering the crystal orientation along the wire length direction, band structure, and isotropic Fermi surface. However, it is difficult to determine the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the low-temperature region, in which a much higher temperature coefficient is indicated, especially at temperatures lower than 50 K. Although we calculated the temperature dependence of the resistivity with the influence of p-type contamination in the nanowire because a positive Seebeck coefficient at low temperatures was observed, an explanation of the resistivity in the low-temperature region has not been developed. Therefore, a hypothesis was introduced in which the hole mobility was not restricted in the nanowire, and the hole mobility was estimated by the mobility ratio from the Seebeck coefficient, the measured resistivity, and the electron mobility using the model. Lastly, the temperature dependence of the resistivity can be explained over the entire temperature region. This result suggests that the scattering mechanism between holes and electrons in the nanowire differs and depends on the crystal orientation in the low-temperature region.
Shitzer, Avraham
2006-03-01
The wind-chill index (WCI), developed in Antarctica in the 1940s and recently updated by the weather services in the USA and Canada, expresses the enhancement of heat loss in cold climates from exposed body parts, e.g., face, due to wind. The index provides a simple and practical means for assessing the thermal effects of wind on humans outdoors. It is also used for indicating weather conditions that may pose adverse risks of freezing at subfreezing environmental temperatures. Values of the WCI depend on a number of parameters, i.e, temperatures, physical properties of the air, wind speed, etc., and on insolation and evaporation. This paper focuses on the effects of various empirical correlations used in the literature for calculating the convective heat transfer coefficients between humans and their environment. Insolation and evaporation are not included in the presentation. Large differences in calculated values among these correlations are demonstrated and quantified. Steady-state wind-chill-equivalent temperatures (WCETs) are estimated by a simple, one-dimensional heat-conducting hollow-cylindrical model using these empirical correlations. Partial comparison of these values with the published “new” WCETs is presented. The variability of the estimated WCETs, due to different correlations employed to calculate them, is clearly demonstrated. The results of this study clearly suggest the need for establishing a “gold standard” for estimating convective heat exchange between exposed body elements and the cold and windy environment. This should be done prior to the introduction and adoption of further modifications to WCETs and indices. Correlations to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients between exposed body parts of humans in windy and cold environments influence the WCETs and need to be standardized.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Scotta, Juan Pablo; Noguere, Gilles; Bernard, David; Damian, Jose Ignacio Marquez; Santamarina, Alain
2016-01-01
The contribution of the thermal scattering law of hydrogen in light water to isothermal temperature reactivity coefficients for UOX and MOX lattices was studied in the frame of the MISTRAL critical...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
He, Zeming; Ma, J.; Qu, Yuanfang
2009-01-01
Low room-temperature resistivity positive temperature coefficient (PTC) Cr/(Ba0.85Pb0.15)TiO3 composites were produced via a reducing sintering and a subsequent oxidation treatment. The effects of metallic content and processing conditions on materials resistivity–temperature properties were...... discussed. Using these special processes, the prepared composite with 20 wt% Cr possessed low room-temperature resistivity (2.96 Ω cm at 25 °C) and exhibited PTC effect (resistivity jump of 10), which is considered as a promising candidate for over-current protector when working at low voltage. The grain......-boundary potential barrier of the prepared PTC composite was evaluated based on the Heywang model and the experimental data. The potential barrier was from 0.00 to 0.11 V in the temperature range of 180–270 °C, which is believed to be the first reported intrinsic parameter for PTC composite, determined from...
Mirić, Jasmina; Simonović, Ilija; Petrović, Zoran Lj.; White, Ronald D.; Dujko, Saša
2017-11-01
In this work we propose a complete and consistent set of cross sections for electron scattering in mercury vapor. The set is validated through a series of comparisons between swarm data calculated using a multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo simulations, and the available experimental data. Other sets of cross sections for electron scattering in mercury vapor were also used as input in our numerical codes with the aim of testing their completeness, consistency and accuracy. The calculated swarm parameters are compared with measurements in order to assess the quality of the cross sections in providing data for plasma modeling. In particular, we discuss the dependence of transport coefficients on the pressure and temperature of mercury vapor, and the occurrence of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in the limit of lower values of E/N. We have shown that the phenomenon of NDC is induced by the presence of mercury dimers and that can be controlled by varying either pressure or temperature of mercury vapor. The effective inelastic cross section for mercury dimers is estimated for a range of pressures and temperatures. It is shown that the measured and calculated drift velocities agree very well only if the effective inelastic cross section for mercury dimers and thermal motion of mercury atoms are carefully considered and implemented in numerical calculations. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demaziere, C
2000-07-01
The Moderator Temperature Coefficient of reactivity (MTC) plays an important role in the feedback mechanism and thus in the inherent stability of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). Due to the inaccuracy of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques, many power utilities nowadays only measure the zero-power MTC since its determination is relatively straightforward and accurate. For the at-power MTC determination during the remaining fuel cycle, core calculations are assumed to be reliable enough. Nevertheless, these calculations were never benchmarked and most importantly, the use of high burnup fuel might induce a slightly positive MTC at Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) due to the high initial boron concentration. Even if in such a case the Doppler effect would still insure a negative reactivity feedback, monitoring the MTC throughout the cycle could become crucial. In this respect, not only the sign of the MTC is of importance, but also its magnitude. Consequently, developing a method that would permit monitoring the MTC during the fuel cycle is of great interest. One of the main disadvantages of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques is that the reactor has to be perturbed in order to induce a change of the moderator temperature. The modification of other parameters that can only be estimated by core calculation represents also a severe drawback of these methods, both for their precision and their reliability. A measurement performed at Ringhals-4 by using the so-called boron dilution method revealed that the uncertainty associated to the MTC estimation could even be much larger than previously expected due to the calculated reactivity corrections. These corrections are very sensitive to the input parameters chosen for the core simulation, and slight mis-estimations of these have large reactivity effects. It is known that if the reactivity noise and the moderator temperature noise could be measured, the MTC could be determined without disturbing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sivaraja Subramania Pillai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k- ε model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sivaraja Subramania Pillai
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.
Petrov, D. A.
2017-09-01
Using the stochastic approach, we analyze the effect of fluctuations of the linear feedback coefficient in a simple zero-dimensional energy balance climate model on the frequency spectrum of averaged temperature. An expression is obtained for the model spectrum in the weak noise approximation. Its features are investigated in two cases: when the frequency spectrum of the feedback coefficient is a constant (white noise) and when the spectrum contains one resonant frequency and has a Lorentz form. We consider the issue whether the feedback coefficient fluctuations can be an independent mechanism for a qualitative change in the spectrum of the climate system.
Niu, X.; Fardi, H.
2012-04-01
4H-SiC NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is studied systematically by performing two-dimensional numerical simulations. Several design issues are discussed. Depending on the doping concentration of the base and the carrier lifetimes, both positive and negative temperature coefficients in the common emitter current gain could exist in 4H-SiC NPN BJTs with aluminium-doped base. The temperature coefficients of the current gain at different base doping concentrations and different carrier lifetimes have been determined. A high base doping concentration can reduce the requirement for the carrier lifetime in order to obtain negative temperature coefficient in current gain. Device simulations are performed to evaluate the carrier lifetimes by fitting the measured output IC -VCE curves. An excellent fitting is obtained and the base electron lifetime and the emitter hole lifetime are extracted to be about 22 and 5.7 ns, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaogang Wu
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was established to analyze the thermal behavior of the electric bus battery system under the operation conditions of the driving cycles of the Harbin city electric buses. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient of the battery and the ambient temperature was investigated. The relationship between the temperature rise (Tr, the number of cycles (c, and the heat transfer coefficient (h under three Harbin bus cycles have been investigated at 30 °C, because it can provide a basis for the design of the battery thermal management system. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient that meets the requirements of the battery thermal management system is the cubic power function of the ambient temperature. Therefore, if the ambient temperature is 30 °C, the heat transfer coefficient should be at least 12 W/m2K in the regular bus lines, 22 W/m2K in the bus rapid transit lines, and 32 W/m2K in the suburban lines.
Boussin, C.; Regalia, L.; Plateaux, J. J.; Hamdouni, A.; Lutz, B. L.; de Bergh, C.; Barbe, A.
1998-09-01
We have measured broadening and shift coefficients for ro-vibrational lines of the nu_ {2} and 3nu_ {2} bands of CH3D, with the most abundant gases in planetary atmospheres (i.e. H2 and He for the giant planets and in the case of Titan, N2) as the foreign buffer gases, using a multispectral fitting technique developed by the Reims group. The spectra of the nu_ {2} band, near 5 microns, were recorded under high resolution and two temperatures (295 and 197K) using a FTS at the G.S.M.A. Reims laboratory. Those of the 3nu_ {2} band, near 1.6 microns, were recorded also under high resolution but only at room temperature with the FTS at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Broadening and shift coefficients were determined for lines of nu_ {2} up to J=20 in the P-branch and up to J=19 in the R-branch. For 3nu_ {2}, measurements were made up to J=14 in the P-branch and up to J=12 in the R-branch. In addition, for nu_ {2}, the temperature dependences of many of these coefficients were derived. Comparisons of the room temperature coefficients for the two bands show strong similarities in both their magnitudes and dependences with J and K. These similarities suggest that the temperature dependence determined for nu_ {2} can be used for 3nu_ {2}.
Tkatch, V. I.; Svyrydova, K. A.; Vasiliev, S. V.; Kovalenko, O. V.
2017-08-01
Using the results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry, an analysis has been carried out of the initial stages of the eutectic and primary mechanisms of crystallization of a series of metallic glasses based on Fe and Al with the established temperature dependences of the effective diffusion coefficients. Analytical relationships, which relate the volume density of crystallites formed in the glasses at the temperatures of the onset of crystallization with the values of the effective diffusion coefficients at these temperatures have been proposed. It has been established that, in the glasses, the crystallization of which begins at the lower boundary of the threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients ( 10-20 m2/s), structures are formed with the volume density of crystallites on the order of 1023-1024 m-3 and, at the upper boundary (10-18 m2/s), of the order of 1018 and 1020 m-3 in the glasses that are crystallized via the eutectic and primary mechanisms, respectively. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental estimates indicates that the threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients are the main factors that determine the structure of glasses at the initial stages of crystallization.
Nakanishi, Koichi; Kogure, Akinori; Deuchi, Keiji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi
2015-01-01
We previously developed a method for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms by measuring the transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion of a cell changes. Here, we performed heat resistance measurements using a scanning probe microscope with a nano thermal analysis system. The microorganisms studied included six strains of the genus Bacillus or related genera, one strain each of the thermophilic obligate anaerobic bacterial genera Thermoanaerobacter and Moorella, two strains of heat-resistant mold, two strains of non-sporulating bacteria, and one strain of yeast. Both vegetative cells and spores were evaluated. The transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion due to heating changed from a positive value to a negative value correlated strongly with the heat resistance of the microorganism as estimated from the D value. The microorganisms with greater heat resistance exhibited higher transition temperatures. There was also a strong negative correlation between the coefficient of linear expansion and heat resistance in bacteria and yeast, such that microorganisms with greater heat resistance showed lower coefficients of linear expansion. These findings suggest that our method could be useful for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms.
Erradi, L; Chakir, E
2001-01-01
This paper presents, the analysis of discrepancies between calculation and experiments in the prediction of isothermal moderator temperature coefficient of a set of lattice experiments, using WIMSD4, WIMSD5B and APOLLO1 lattice codes. In this analysis we have used the original cross sections libraries (CEA-86 library for APOLLO1 and both of 1981 and 1986 libraries for WIMS) and the updated ones based on JEF2.2 data for APOLLO code and both of ENDF/B6 and JEF2.2 data for WIMS code. We have also analysed the numerical benchmark proposed by Mosteller to evaluate the accuracy in predicting Doppler coefficient in light water type lattices. This study on Doppler coefficient was performed using, in addition to APOLLO and WIMS codes, the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B for which a new library based on ENDF/B6 nuclear data file, have been processed using the NJOY system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, Babita; Kapoor, A.; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi [Department of Environmental Technology and Urban Planning, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya-466-8555 (Japan); Umeno, Masayoshi [Department of Electronic Engineering,Chubu University, Matsumoto 1200, Kasugai-shi, 487-8501 (Japan)
2003-09-15
Amorphous carbon (a-C) is a potential material for the development of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cell. We report the study of the influence of light soaking up to 100h on n-C/p-Si heterojunction solar cell. It is observed that the deterioration in the fill factor and the efficiency are significantly smaller as compared to that observed in a-Si:H solar cell. Variations in the temperature coefficients of the I-V characteristics subjected to light degradation and recovery has also been investigated. A good correlation between change in the temperature coefficient and the degradation/recovery state of cell's conversion efficiency has been observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Dulitz
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Rate coefficients (k5 for the title reaction were obtained using pulsed laser photolytic generation of OH coupled to its detection by laser-induced fluorescence (PLP–LIF. More than 80 determinations of k5 were carried out in nitrogen or air bath gas at various temperatures and pressures. The accuracy of the rate coefficients obtained was enhanced by in situ measurement of the concentrations of both HNO3 reactant and NO2 impurity. The rate coefficients show both temperature and pressure dependence with a rapid increase in k5 at low temperatures. The pressure dependence was weak at room temperature but increased significantly at low temperatures. The entire data set was combined with selected literature values of k5 and parameterised using a combination of pressure-dependent and -independent terms to give an expression that covers the relevant pressure and temperature range for the atmosphere. A global model, using the new parameterisation for k5 rather than those presently accepted, indicated small but significant latitude- and altitude-dependent changes in the HNO3 ∕ NOx ratio of between −6 and +6 %. Effective HNO3 absorption cross sections (184.95 and 213.86 nm, units of cm2 molecule−1 were obtained as part of this work: σ213.86 = 4.52−0.12+0.23 × 10−19 and σ184.95 = 1.61−0.04+0.08 × 10−17.
Uysal, Fatih; Kilinc, Enes; Kurt, Huseyin; Celik, Erdal; Dugenci, Muharrem; Sagiroglu, Selami
2017-08-01
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) convert heat into electrical energy. These energy-conversion systems do not involve any moving parts and are made of thermoelectric (TE) elements connected electrically in a series and thermally in parallel; however, they are currently not suitable for use in regular operations due to their low efficiency levels. In order to produce high-efficiency TEGs, there is a need for highly heat-resistant thermoelectric materials (TEMs) with an improved figure of merit ( ZT). Production and test methods used for TEMs today are highly expensive. This study attempts to estimate the Seebeck coefficient of TEMs by using the values of existing materials in the literature. The estimation is made within an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the amount of doping and production methods. Results of the estimations show that the Seebeck coefficient can approximate the real values with an average accuracy of 94.4%. In addition, ANN has detected that any change in production methods is followed by a change in the Seebeck coefficient.
Werfelli, Ghofran; Halvick, Philippe; Honvault, Pascal; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Stoecklin, Thierry
2015-09-21
The observed abundances of the methylidyne cation, CH(+), in diffuse molecular clouds can be two orders of magnitude higher than the prediction of the standard gas-phase models which, in turn, predict rather well the abundances of neutral CH. It is therefore necessary to investigate all the possible formation and destruction processes of CH(+) in the interstellar medium with the most abundant species H, H2, and e(-). In this work, we address the destruction process of CH(+) by hydrogen abstraction. We report a new calculation of the low temperature rate coefficients for the abstraction reaction, using accurate time-independent quantum scattering and a new high-level ab initio global potential energy surface including a realistic model of the long-range interaction between the reactants H and CH(+). The calculated thermal rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental data in the range 50 K-800 K. However, at lower temperatures, the experimental rate coefficient takes exceedingly small values which are not reproduced by the calculated rate coefficient. Instead, the latter rate coefficient is close to the one given by the Langevin capture model, as expected for a reaction involving an ion and a neutral species. Several recent theoretical works have reported a seemingly good agreement with the experiment below 50 K, but an analysis of these works show that they are based on potential energy surfaces with incorrect long-range behavior. The experimental results were explained by a loss of reactivity of the lowest rotational states of the reactant; however, the quantum scattering calculations show the opposite, namely, a reactivity enhancement with rotational excitation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laleh Bahadori
Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the density, dynamic viscosity and ionic conductivity of several deep eutectic solvents (DESs containing ammonium-based salts and hydrogen bond donvnors (polyol type are investigated. The temperature-dependent electrolyte viscosity as a function of molar conductivity is correlated by means of Walden's rule. The oxidation of ferrocene (Fc/Fc+ and reduction of cobaltocenium (Cc+/Cc at different temperatures are studied by cyclic voltammetry and potential-step chronoamperometry in DESs. For most DESs, chronoamperometric transients are demonstrated to fit an Arrhenius-type relation to give activation energies for the diffusion of redox couples at different temperatures. The temperature dependence of the measured conductivities of DES1 and DES2 are better correlated with the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The kinetics of the Fc/Fc+ and Cc+/Cc electrochemical systems have been investigated over a temperature range from 298 to 338 K. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant is then calculated at different temperatures by means of a logarithmic analysis. The glycerol-based DES (DES5 appears suitable for further testing in electrochemical energy storage devices.
Xu, Yingru; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.; Nahrgang, Marlene; Cao, Shanshan
2018-01-01
By applying a Bayesian model-to-data analysis, we estimate the temperature and momentum dependence of the heavy quark diffusion coefficient in an improved Langevin framework. The posterior range of the diffusion coefficient is obtained by performing a Markov chain Monte Carlo random walk and calibrating on the experimental data of D -meson RAA and v2 in three different collision systems at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collidaer (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. The spatial diffusion coefficient is found to be consistent with lattice QCD calculations and comparable with other models' estimation. We demonstrate the capability of our improved Langevin model to simultaneously describe the RAA and v2 at both RHIC and the LHC energies, as well as the higher order flow coefficient such as D meson v3. We show that by applying a Bayesian analysis, we are able to quantitatively and systematically study the heavy flavor dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.
Al-Maaitah, A. F.; Sandouqa, A. S.; Joudeh, B. R.; Ghassib, H. B.
2017-11-01
The quantum second virial coefficient Bq of 3He↑ gas is determined in the temperature range 0.001-4 K from the Beth-Uhlenbeck formula. The corresponding phase shifts are calculated from the Lippmann-Schwinger equation using a highly-accurate matrix-inversion technique. A positive Bq corresponds to an overall repulsive interaction; whereas a negative Bq represents an overall attractive interaction. It is found that in the low-energy limit, Bq tends to increase with increasing spin polarization. The compressibility Z is evaluated as another measure of nonideality of the system. Z becomes most significant at low temperatures and increases with polarization. From the pressure-temperature (P-T) behavior of 3He↑ at low T, it is deduced that P decreases with increasing T below 8 mK.
Corsepius, Nicholas C.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Warnaar, Deborah L.
2007-01-01
A laboratory exercise was developed by using variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine [alpha] for MgO (periclase)and was tested in the Applied Physical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Laboratories at James Madison University. The experiment which was originally designed to provide undergraduate students with a…
Harrison, Edward; Alamir, Mohammed; Alzahrani, Naif; Asmatulu, Ramazan
2017-04-01
High temperature applications of materials have been increasing for various industrial applications, such as automobile brakes, clutches and thrust pads. The big portion of these materials are made out of the polymeric materials with various reinforcements. In the present study, high temperature polymeric materials were incorporated with SiC whiskers and chopped carbon fibers at 0, 5, 10 and 20wt.% and molded into desired size and shape prior to the curing process. These inclusions were selected because of their high mechanical strengths and thermal conductivity values to easily dissipate the frictional heat energy and sustain more external loads. The method of testing involves a metal ramp with an adjustable incline to find the coefficients of static and kinetic frictions by recording time and the angle of movement at various temperatures (e.g., -10°C and 50°C). The test results indicated that increasing the inclusions made drastic improvements on the coefficients of static and kinetic frictions. The undergraduate students were involved in the project and observed all the details of the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. This study will be useful for the future trainings of the undergraduate engineering students on the composite, automobile and other manufacturing industries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erradi, L.; Chetaine, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Groupe de Physique des Reacteurs, Rabat Maroc (Morocco); Chakir, E.; Kharchaf, A. [Faculte des sciences de Kenitra, Dept. de physique (Morocco); Elbardouni, T. [Faculte des Sciences de Tetouan, Dept. de Physique (Morocco); Elkhoukhi, T. [CNESTEN, Rabat (Morocco)
2005-07-01
In a previous work, we have analysed the main French experiments available on the reactivity temperature coefficient (RTC): CREOLE and MISTRAL experiments. In these experiments, the RTC has been measured in both UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} PWR type lattices. Our calculations, using APOLLO2 code with CEA93 library based on JEF2.2 evaluation, have shown that the calculation error in UO{sub 2} lattices is less than 1 pcm/C degrees which is considered as the target accuracy. On the other hand the calculation error in the MOX lattices is more significant in both low and high temperature ranges: an average error of -2 {+-} 0.5 pcm/C degrees is observed in low temperatures and an error of +3 {+-} 2 pcm/C degrees is obtained for temperatures higher than 250 C degrees. In the present work, we analysed additional experimental benchmarks on the RTC of UO{sub 2} and MOX light water moderated lattices. To analyze these benchmarks and with the aim of minimizing uncertainties related to modelling of the experimental set up, we chose the Monte Carlo method which has the advantage of taking into account in the most exact manner the geometry of the experimental configurations. This analysis shows for the UO{sub 2} lattices, a maximum experiment-calculation deviation of about 0,7 pcm/C degrees, which is below the target accuracy for this type of lattices. For the KAMINI experiment, which relates to the measurement of the RTC in a light water moderated lattice using U-233 as fuel our analysis shows that the ENDF/B6 library gives the best result, with an experiment-calculation deviation of the order of -0,16 pcm/C degrees. The analysis of the benchmarks using MOX fuel made it possible to highlight a discrepancy between experiment and calculation on the RTC of about -0.7 pcm/C degrees (for a range of temperatures going from 20 to 248 C degrees) and -1,2 pcm/C degrees (for a range of temperatures going from 20 to 80 C degrees). This result, in particular the tendency which has the
Ben Yaghlene, H; Leguerinel, I; Hamdi, M; Mafart, P
2009-07-31
In this study, predictive microbiology and food engineering were combined in order to develop a new analytical model predicting the bacterial growth under dynamic temperature conditions. The proposed model associates a simplified primary bacterial growth model without lag, the secondary Ratkowsky "square root" model and a simplified two-parameter heat transfer model regarding an infinite slab. The model takes into consideration the product thickness, its thermal properties, the ambient air temperature, the convective heat transfer coefficient and the growth parameters of the micro organism of concern. For the validation of the overall model, five different combinations of ambient air temperature (ranging from 8 degrees C to 12 degrees C), product thickness (ranging from 1 cm to 6 cm) and convective heat transfer coefficient (ranging from 8 W/(m(2) K) to 60 W/(m(2) K)) were tested during a cooling procedure. Moreover, three different ambient air temperature scenarios assuming alternated cooling and heating stages, drawn from real refrigerated food processes, were tested. General agreement between predicted and observed bacterial growth was obtained and less than 5% of the experimental data fell outside the 95% confidence bands estimated by the bootstrap percentile method, at all the tested conditions. Accordingly, the overall model was successfully validated for isothermal and dynamic refrigeration cycles allowing for temperature dynamic changes at the centre and at the surface of the product. The major impact of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the product thickness on bacterial growth during the product cooling was demonstrated. For instance, the time needed for the same level of bacterial growth to be reached at the product's half thickness was estimated to be 5 and 16.5 h at low and high convection level, respectively. Moreover, simulation results demonstrated that the predicted bacterial growth at the air ambient temperature cannot be assumed to be
Émond, Nicolas; Hendaoui, Ali; Chaker, Mohamed
2015-10-01
Materials that exhibit semiconductor-to-metal phase transition (SMT) are commonly used as sensing layers for the fabrication of uncooled microbolometers. The development of highly responsive microbolometers would benefit from using a sensing material that possesses a large thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) close to room temperature and a resistivity low enough to compromise between noise reduction and high TCR, while it should also satisfies the requirements of current CMOS technology. Moreover, a TCR that remains constant when the IR camera surrounding temperature varies would contribute to achieve reliable temperature measurements without additional corrections steps for TCR temperature dependence. In this paper, the characteristics of the SMT occurring in undoped and tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide thin films deposited on LaAlO3 (100) substrates are investigated. They are further exploited to fabricate a WxV1-xO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2.5) multilayer structure exhibiting a bottom-up gradient of tungsten content. This MLS displays a combination of properties that is promising for application to uncooled microbolometer, such as a large TCR of -10.4%/ °C and low resistivity values ranging from 0.012 to 0.10 Ω-cm over the temperature range 22 °C-42 °C.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Wang, Cong, E-mail: congwang@buaa.edu.cn [Center for Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wu, Hui; Huang, Qingzhen [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States)
2016-01-25
The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.
Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Wu, Hui; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Qingzhen; Wang, Cong
2016-01-01
The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn3+xNi1-xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn3+xNi1-xN from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.
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Scotta Juan Pablo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The contribution of the thermal scattering law of hydrogen in light water to isothermal temperature reactivity coefficients for UOX and MOX lattices was studied in the frame of the MISTRAL critical experiments carried out in the zero power reactor EOLE of CEA Cadarache (France. The interpretation of the core residual reactivity measured between 6 °C to 80 °C (by step of 5 °C was performed with the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI4®. The nuclear data from the JEFF-3.1.1 library were used in the calculations. Three different thermal scattering laws of hydrogen in light water were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the MISTRAL calculations. The thermal scattering laws of interest were firstly those recommended in JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 and also that recently produced at the atomic center of Bariloche (CAB, Argentina with molecular dynamic simulations. The present work indicates that the calculation-to-experimpental bias is −0.4 ± 0.3 pcm/°C in the UOX core and −1.0 ± 0.3 pcm/°C in the MOX cores, when the JEFF-3.1.1 library is used. An improvement is observed over the whole temperature range with the CAB model. The calculation-to-experimpental bias vanishes for the UOX core (−0.02 pcm/°C and becomes close to −0.7 pcm/°C for the MOX cores. The magnitude of these bias have to be connected to the typical value of the temperature reactivity coefficient that ranges from −5 pcm/°C at Begining Of Cycle (BOC up to −50 pcm/°C at End Of Cycle (EOC, in PWR conditions.
Lin, J. C.; Tong, P.; Lin, S.; Wang, B. S.; Song, W. H.; Sun, Y. P.
2014-12-01
The antiperovskite intermetallic compounds AgN1-xCxMn3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) have been synthesized. As x increases, the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) above room temperature decreases monotonically and finally changes the sign from positive to negative above x = 0.1. Meanwhile, the temperature range is gradually broadened. For x = 0.07, TCR is ˜3.1 ppm/K between 280 K and 375 K. Both the resistivity and its slope are insensitive to the external magnetic field, indicating an insignificant contribution from magnetic scattering or short-range magnetic ordering to the observed low-TCR. As manifested by the Hall effect, the charge carrier density in the paramagnetic state for x = 0.15 is reduced by an order of magnitude in comparison with that for x = 0. The reduction of carrier density and the enhancive disorders when x increases was proposed to be responsible for the decrease in TCR and its sign switch.
Lu, Rongtao; Kamal, Rayyan; Wu, Judy Z
2011-07-01
The 1/f noise and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are investigated in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film bolometers since both affect the bolometer detectivity directly. A comparison is made between the MWCNT film bolometers and their single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) counterparts. The intrinsic noise level in the former has been found at least two orders of magnitude lower than that in the latter, which outweighs the moderately lower TCR absolute values in the former and results in higher bolometer detectivity in MWCNT bolometers. Interestingly, reduced noise and enhanced TCR can be obtained by improving the inter-tube coupling using thermal annealing in both SWCNT and MWCNT films, suggesting much higher detectivity may be achieved via engineering the inter-tube coupling.
Demyk, K.; Meny, C.; Leroux, H.; Depecker, C.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Nayral, C.; Ojo, W.-S.; Delpech, F.
2017-10-01
Context. To model the cold dust emission observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, in dense molecular clouds or in cold clumps that could eventually form new stars, it is mandatory to know the physical and spectroscopic properties of this dust and to understand its emission. Aims: This work is a continuation of previous studies aiming at providing astronomers with spectroscopic data of realistic cosmic dust analogues for the interpretation of observations. The aim of the present work is to extend the range of studied analogues to iron-rich silicate dust analogues. Methods: Ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues were produced by a sol-gel method with a mean composition close to Mg1-xFexSiO3 with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4. Part of each sample was annealed at 500 °C for two hours in a reducing atmosphere to modify the oxidation state of iron. We have measured the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of these eight ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues in the spectral domain 30-1000 μm for grain temperature in the range 10-300 K and at room temperature in the 5-40 μm range. Results: The MAC of ferromagnesium samples behaves in the same way as the MAC of pure Mg-rich amorphous silicate samples. In the 30-300 K range, the MAC increases with increasing grain temperature whereas in the range 10-30 K, we do not see any change of the MAC. The MAC cannot be described by a single power law in λ- β. The MAC of the samples does not show any clear trend with the iron content. However the annealing process has, on average, an effect on the MAC that we explain by the evolution of the structure of the samples induced by the processing. The MAC of all the samples is much higher than the MAC calculated by dust models. Conclusions: The complex behavior of the MAC of amorphous silicates with wavelength and temperature is observed whatever the exact silicate composition (Mg vs. Fe amount). It is a universal characteristic of amorphous materials, and therefore of
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Felmetsger, Valery V. [Tegal Corporation, 51 Daggett Drive, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)
2010-01-15
Technological solutions for producing nanoscale cermet resistor films with sheet resistances above 1000 {Omega}/{open_square} and low temperature coefficients of resistance (TCR) have been investigated. 2-40 nm thick cermet films were sputter deposited from CrSi{sub 2}-Cr-SiC targets by a dual cathode dc S-gun magnetron. In addition to studying film resistance versus temperature, the nanofilm structural features and composition were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. This study has revealed that all cermet resistor films deposited at ambient and elevated temperatures were amorphous. The atomic ratio of Si to Cr in these films was about 2 to 1. The film TCR displayed a significant increase when the deposited film thickness was reduced below 2.5 nm. An optimized sputter process consisting of wafer degassing, cermet film deposition at elevated temperature with rf substrate bias, and a double annealing in vacuum, consisting of in situ annealing following the film sputtering and an additional annealing following the exposure of the wafers to air, has been found to be very effective for the film thermal stabilization and for fine tuning the film TCR. Cermet films with thicknesses in the range of 2.5-4 nm deposited using this technique had sheet resistances ranging from 1800 to 1200 {Omega}/{open_square} and TCR values from -50 ppm/ deg. C to near zero, respectively. A possible mechanism responsible for the high efficiency of annealing the cermet films in vacuum (after preliminary exposure to air), resulting in resistance stabilization and TCR reduction, is also discussed.
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Miyazaki, Kenichi, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp; Suzuki, Megumi; Wado, Hiroyuki [DENSO Corporation, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); Shibuya, Keisuke, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp; Sawa, Akihito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8562 (Japan)
2015-08-07
The introduction of a TiO{sub 2} buffer layer significantly improved the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), a measure of the sharpness of the metal–insulator transition, for films of VO{sub 2} grown on SiO{sub 2}/Si (100) substrates at growth temperatures below 670 K. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements revealed that polycrystalline VO{sub 2} films were formed on the TiO{sub 2}-buffered substrates at low temperatures below 600 K, whereas amorphous films were formed at these temperatures on SiO{sub 2}/Si (100) substrates without a TiO{sub 2} buffer layer. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that the TiO{sub 2} buffer layer enhanced the grain growth of VO{sub 2} films at low growth temperatures. The VO{sub 2} films grown at 600 K on TiO{sub 2}-buffered substrates showed a large TCR of more than 80%/K as a result of the improved crystallinity and grain size of the VO{sub 2} films. Our results provide an effective approach toward the integration of VO{sub 2}-based devices onto Si platforms at process temperatures below 670 K.
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Gorbunov A.D.
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Existing solutions of radiant and convective heating (cooling body problems at the initial stage at unsteady heat transfer coefficients and temperatures are rather cumbersome. The purpose of this work is getting simpler dependencies. Decisions are based on the analysis of relations between the cause (heat flow and the effect (surface temperature in the initial period of heating. Two simple and effective engineering methods of calculation of unsteady temperature fields, and axial thermal stresses at the initial stage of heating (cooling of body of canonical form for both convection and radiation heat transfer at variable ambient temperature and environmental factors have been developed. Some of the solutions are generic in nature, which allows significantly reducing the number of variables and thus using the graphical method of problem solving. The formulas for calculating the bulk and central temperature in the initial stage are provided; other researchers of nonlinear heat conduction problems did not usually do this. It has been found that the axial thermal stresses are determined entirely by the heat flow on the surface. The adequacy of the developed techniques is based on five cases of calculation of heating (cooling plates under various conditions of its thermal loading. It is shown that the error in determining the surface temperature does not exceed 6%, and that the developed method can be used up to Fourier numbers Fo<0.4
Dillon, Terry J.; Dulitz, Katrin; Groß, Christoph B. M.; Crowley, John N.
2017-12-01
Pulsed laser methods for OH generation and detection were used to study atmospheric degradation reactions for three important biogenic gases: OH + isoprene (Reaction R1), OH +α-pinene (Reaction R2) and OH + Δ-3-carene (Reaction R3). Gas-phase rate coefficients were characterized by non-Arrhenius kinetics for all three reactions. For (R1), k1 (241-356 K) = (1.93±0.08) × 10-11exp{(466±12)/T} cm3 molecule-1 s-1 was determined, with a room temperature value of k1 (297 K) = (9.3±0.4) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, independent of bath-gas pressure (5-200 Torr) and composition (M = N2 or air). Accuracy and precision were enhanced by online optical monitoring of isoprene, with absolute concentrations obtained via an absorption cross section, σisoprene = (1.28±0.06) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at λ = 184.95 nm, determined in this work. These results indicate that significant discrepancies between previous absolute and relative-rate determinations of k1 result in part from σ values used to derive the isoprene concentration in high-precision absolute determinations.Similar methods were used to determine rate coefficients (in 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) for (R2)-(R3): k2 (238-357 K) = (1.83±0.04) × exp{(330±6)/T} and k3 (235-357 K) = (2.48±0.14) × exp{(357±17)/T}. This is the first temperature-dependent dataset for (R3) and enables the calculation of reliable atmospheric lifetimes with respect to OH removal for e.g. boreal forest springtime conditions. Room temperature values of k2 (296 K) = (5.4±0.2) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and k3 (297 K) = (8.1±0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were independent of bath-gas pressure (7-200 Torr, N2 or air) and in good agreement with previously reported values. In the course of this work, 184.95 nm absorption cross sections were determined: σ = (1.54±0.08) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 for α-pinene and (2.40±0.12) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 for Δ-3-carene.
Francisco, Ana Paula; Harner, Tom; Eng, Anita
2017-05-01
Polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients (KPUF-air) for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 10 alkyl-substituted PAHs, 4 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dibenzothiophene were measured as a function of temperature over the range 5 °C-35 °C, using a generator column approach. Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPUF-air, kJ/mol) were determined from the slopes of log KPUF-air versus 1000/T (K), and have an average value of 81.2 ± 7.03 kJ/mol. The log KPUF-air values at 22 °C ranged from 4.99 to 7.25. A relationship for log KPUF-air versus log KOA was shown to agree with a previous relationship based on only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and derived from long-term indoor uptake study experiments. The results also confirm that the existing KOA-based model for predicting log KPUF-air values is accurate. This new information is important in the derivation of uptake profiles and effective air sampling volumes for PUF disk samplers so that results can be reported in units of concentration in air. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Kenichi Miyazaki
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We investigated the effects of chromium (Cr and niobium (Nb co-doping on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR and the thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2 films. We determined the TCR and thermal-hysteresis-width diagram of the V1−x−yCrxNbyO2 films by electrical-transport measurements and we found that the doping conditions x ≳ y and x + y ≥ 0.1 are appropriate for simultaneously realizing a large TCR value and an absence of thermal hysteresis in the films. By using these findings, we developed a V0.90Cr0.06Nb0.04O2 film grown on a TiO2-buffered SiO2/Si substrate that showed practically no thermal hysteresis while retaining a large TCR of 11.9%/K. This study has potential applications in the development of VO2-based uncooled bolometers.
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Miyazaki, Kenichi, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp [Denso Corporation, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Shibuya, Keisuke, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp; Sawa, Akihito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Suzuki, Megumi; Sakai, Kenichi [Denso Corporation, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); Fujita, Jun-ichi [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)
2016-05-15
We investigated the effects of chromium (Cr) and niobium (Nb) co-doping on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films. We determined the TCR and thermal-hysteresis-width diagram of the V{sub 1−x−y}Cr{sub x}Nb{sub y}O{sub 2} films by electrical-transport measurements and we found that the doping conditions x ≳ y and x + y ≥ 0.1 are appropriate for simultaneously realizing a large TCR value and an absence of thermal hysteresis in the films. By using these findings, we developed a V{sub 0.90}Cr{sub 0.06}Nb{sub 0.04}O{sub 2} film grown on a TiO{sub 2}-buffered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate that showed practically no thermal hysteresis while retaining a large TCR of 11.9%/K. This study has potential applications in the development of VO{sub 2}-based uncooled bolometers.
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Marsden, B.J. [AEA Technology Plc, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Arai, Taketoshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute JAERI, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); McLachlan, N. [Nuclear Electric Ltd, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)
1998-09-01
Changes in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in nuclear graphite are important because they are related to dimensional change and the thermal stressing of graphite moderated reactor graphite components. The CTE of nuclear graphite can be modified by fast neutron irradiation, stress and creep strain. Various theories exist which relate the CTE of the individual graphite crystallite to the CTE of the polycrystalline graphite through a structure factor. This structure factor is a function of the graphite crystal orientation and the accommodation available due to local crystal porosity. The porosity can be taken up by raising the temperature of the graphite, which causes the lattice `c` spacing to expand, or by fast neutron irradiation induced crystal dimensional changes. It is also proposed that this porosity can be taken up by stressing unirradiated graphite, although there appears to be some evidence from Japan that the anisotropy of graphite is also altered by pre-stress. Annealing of creep strain specimens has shown that not all of irradiation induced creep strain is responsible for modifying CTE. 12 refs.
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Lei, Yonglin, E-mail: leiyonglin@163.com [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: linxy@swust.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Liao, Huiwei, E-mail: liaohw@swust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)
2017-06-15
The effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions was studied. Structural and physical characterization of all the samples was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric (TG). The results revealed that the interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content, the grain size decreased with increasing Ni content, the substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral sites by Fe{sup 2+} increased with increasing Fe content. And increase of iron could improve Ni-Fe-Mn-O high temperature stability. The low-temperature thermal removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 83.8%, 75.2%, 78.5% and 60.3% at 2400 min, respectively. And the microwave combining with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 96.5%,93.8%, 98.7% and 98% at 6.0 min, respectively. These results indicated that the Ni-Fe-Mn-O ceramics with appropriate increase of iron were useful for industrial applications on degrading organic pollute. - Highlights: • The relationship of composition and catalytic properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O was proposed. • The interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content. • The grain size decreased with increasing Ni content. • The substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral site by Fe{sup 2+} with increasing Fe content.
2003-01-01
Many critical gas turbine engine components are currently made from Ni-base superalloys that are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC). The TBC consists of a ZrO2-based top coat and a bond coat that is used to enhance the bonding between the superalloy substrate and the top coat. MCrAlY alloys (CoCrAlY and NiCrAlY) are currently used as bond coats and are chosen for their very good oxidation resistance. TBC life is frequently limited by the oxidation resistance of the bond coat, along with a thermal expansion mismatch between the metallic bond coat and the ceramic top coat. The aim of this investigation at the NASA Glenn Research Center was to develop a new longer life, higher temperature bond coat by improving both the oxidation resistance and the thermal expansion characteristics of the bond coat. Nickel aluminide (NiAl) has excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and can sustain a protective Al2O3 scale to longer times and higher temperatures in comparison to MCrAlY alloys. Cryomilling of NiAl results in aluminum nitride (AlN) formation that reduces the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the alloy and enhances creep strength. Thus, additions of cryomilled NiAl-AlN to CoCrAlY were examined as a potential bond coat. In this work, the composite alloy was investigated as a stand-alone substrate to demonstrate its feasibility prior to actual use as a coating. About 85 percent of prealloyed NiAl and 15 percent of standard commercial CoCrAlY alloys were mixed and cryomilled in an attritor with stainless steel balls used as grinding media. The milling was carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The milled powder was consolidated by hot extrusion or by hot isostatic pressing. From the consolidated material, oxidation coupons, four-point bend, CTE, and tensile specimens were machined. The CTE measurements were made between room temperature and 1000 C in an argon atmosphere. It is shown that the CTE of the NiAl-AlN-CoCrAlY composite bond coat
Xu, Shihe; Kropscott, Bruce
2014-12-01
Partitioning equilibria and their temperature dependence of chemicals between different environmental media are important in determining the fate, transport, and distribution of contaminants. Unfortunately, internally consistent air/water (K(AW)), 1-octanol/air (K(OA)), and 1-octanol/water (K(OW)) partition coefficients, as well as information on their temperature dependence, are scarce for organosilicon compounds because of the reactivity of these compounds in water and octanol and their extreme partition coefficients. A newly published 3-phase equilibrium method was evaluated for simultaneous determination of the temperature dependence of (K(OW), K(OA), and K(AW)) of 5 volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS) and trimethylsilanol (TMS) in a temperature range from 4 °C to 35 °C. The measured partition coefficients at the different temperatures for any given compound, and the enthalpy and entropy changes for the corresponding partition processes, were all internally consistent, suggesting that the 3-phase equilibrium method is suitable for this type of measurement. Compared with common environmental contaminants reported in the literature, VMS have enthalpy and entropy relationships similar to those of alkanes for air/water partitioning and similar to those of polyfluorinated compounds for octanol/air partitioning, but more like those for benzoates and phenolic compounds for octanol/water partitioning. The temperature dependence of the partition coefficients of TMS is different from those of VMS and is more like that of alcohols, phenols, and sulfonamides. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Yanagisawa, T.; Koyanagi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Takahisa, K.; Kojima, T. [electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)
1996-10-27
Pursuant to the measuring of temperature dependency of the characteristics such as conversion efficiency, during the process of degradation in a-Si solar cells due to light and electric current and the process of recovery by annealing, this paper describes changes in temperature coefficients, correlation between the characteristic parameters and the degradation, and the results of the examination of their characteristics. The conversion efficiency {mu} degraded approximately by 45% of the initial value each by the irradiation under a light intensity with 3 SUN accelerated and by the infusion of current at 20mA/cm{sup 2}; and then, the efficiency recovered to 70-75% of the degradation by subsequent annealing. In addition, in the temperature dependency at 80{degree}C against at 20{degree}C, Isc slightly increased while Vcc greatly decreased. This slight increase in Isc was mainly due to the decrease in the width of the forbidden band, while the decrease in Vcc was due to the increase in the reverse saturation current. The temperature dependency of {mu}N was negative, becoming small in accordance with the degradation. The temperature dependency of FF/FFO was negative initially both in light and current, but it decreased with the degradation and turned to positive. The temperature coefficients of I-V parameters reversibly changed corresponding to the degradation and recovery of these parameters and stayed in a good correlation. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Ng, Maggie; Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M
2013-03-15
The minimum energy path (MEP) of the reaction, CF(3)CHFCF(3) + H → transition state (TS) → CF(3)CFCF(3) + H(2), has been computed at different ab initio levels and with density functional theory (DFT) using different functionals. The computed B3LYP/6-31++G**, BH&HLYP/cc-pVDZ, BMK/6-31++G**, M05/6-31+G**, M05-2X/6-31+G**, UMP2/6-31++G**, PUMP2/6-31++G**//UMP2/6-31++G**, RCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ//UMP2/6-31++G**, RCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ(spd,sp)//UMP2//6-31++G**, RCCSD(T)/CBS//M05/6-31+G**, and RCCSD(T)/CBS//UMP2/6-31++G** MEPs, and associated gradients and Hessians, were used in reaction rate coefficient calculations based on the transition state theory (TST). Reaction rate coefficients were computed between 300 and 1500 K at various levels of TST, which include conventional TST, canonical variational TST (CVT) and improved CVT (ICVT), and with different tunneling corrections, namely, Wigner, zero-curvature, and small-curvature (SCT). The computed rate coefficients obtained at different ab initio, DFT and TST levels are compared with experimental values available in the 1000-1200 K temperature range. Based on the rate coefficients computed at the ICVT/SCT level, the highest TST level used in this study, the BH&HLYP functional performs best among all the functionals used, while the RCCSD(T)/CBS//MP2/6-31++G** level is the best among all the ab initio levels used. Comparing computed reaction rate coefficients obtained at different levels of theory shows that, the computed barrier height has the strongest effect on the computed reaction rate coefficients as expected. Variational effects on the computed rate coefficients are found to be negligibly small. Although tunneling effects are relatively small at high temperatures (~1500 K), SCT corrections are significant at low temperatures (~300 K), and both barrier heights and the magnitudes of the imaginary frequencies affect SCT corrections. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Osczevski, Randall J.
2014-08-01
Ben Shabat et al. (Int J Biometeorol 56(4):639-51, 2013) present revised charts for wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCET) and facial skin temperatures (FST) that differ significantly from currently accepted charts. They credit these differences to their more sophisticated calculation model and to the human-based equation that it used for finding the convective heat transfer coefficient (Ben Shabat and Shitzer, Int J Biometeorol 56:639-651, 2012). Because a version of the simple model that was used to create the current charts accurately reproduces their results when it uses the human-based equation, the differences that they found must be entirely due to this equation. In deriving it, Ben Shabat and Shitzer assumed that all of the heat transfer from the surface of their cylindrical model was due to forced convection alone. Because several modes of heat transfer were occurring in the human experiments they were attempting to simulate, notably radiation, their coefficients are actually total external heat transfer coefficients, not purely convective ones, as the calculation models assume. Data from the one human experiment that used heat flux sensors supports this conclusion and exposes the hazard of using a numerical model with several adjustable parameters that cannot be measured. Because the human-based equation is faulty, the values in the proposed charts are not correct. The equation that Ben Shabat et al. (Int J Biometeorol 56(4):639-51, 2013) propose to calculate WCET should not be used.
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Wellig, B.; Kegel, B.; Meier, M.
2006-07-01
The seasonal performance factor (SPF) of chilled water systems (CWS) is closely related to the temperature lift, i.e. the difference between the temperature of the heat source and the heat sink. In many applications in building services engineering, a temperature lift of 10-20 K is in principle sufficient. However, the potential for highly efficient refrigerating systems is not fully exploited as standard chillers are designed for lifts of 30-60 K. The exergy analysis of typical CWS shows that the external exergy losses are greater than the exergy losses of the chiller. The second-law (or exergetic) efficiency is usually far below 10%. It is therefore important to avoid unnecessarily high temperature lifts. Measurements on refrigeration systems in two office buildings have shown that even in state-of-the-art CWS, considerable energy savings (up to 50%) can be achieved by persistent use of small temperature lifts. However, SPF-values around 5-6 can hardly be exceeded in systems with electric driven chillers. SPFs higher than 10 or even above 20 can only be reached with optimized free cooling processes. Basic decisions, which ultimately lead to CWS with unnecessarily high temperature lifts, are taken in the early project stages. Therefore, this study presents guidelines for the design and operation of CWS with small temperature lifts. The implementation of these simple measures will lead to a considerable reduction of energy consumption and operating costs. (author)
Flyckt, V. M. M.; Raaymakers, B. W.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.
2006-10-01
Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest.
Zhong, Linlin; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua; Wu, Junhui; Han, Guiquan; Han, Guohui; Lu, Yanhui; Yang, Aijun; Wu, Yi
2017-07-01
C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO) which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2) theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat) and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity), while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linlin Zhong
2017-07-01
Full Text Available C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2 theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity, while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tripathi, Rahul; Awana, V P S; Agarwal, S K; Kishan, H [National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Panwar, Neeraj [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi-110016 (India); Bhalla, G L [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-1100007 (India); Habermier, H U, E-mail: awana@mail.nplindia.ernet.i [Max Planck Institut fur Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse-70569, Stuttgart (Germany)
2009-09-07
In this paper we report an enhanced temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) close to room temperature in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3-x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} + Ag{sub y} (x = 0.10, 0.15 and 0 {<=} y {<=} 1.0) (LCBMO + Ag) composite manganites. The observed enhancement of TCR is attributed to the grain growth and opening of new conducting channels in the composites. Ag addition has also been found to enhance intragranular magnetoresistance. Intergranular MR, however, is seen to decrease with Ag addition. The enhanced TCR and MR at/near room temperature open up the possibility of the use of such materials as infrared bolometric and magnetic field sensors, respectively.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Regueira Muñiz, Teresa; Varzandeh, Farhad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2017-01-01
Isobaric heat capacity of six n-alkanes, i.e. n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane, was determined with a Calvet type differential heat-flux calorimeter at 0.1 and 10 MPa in a broad temperature range. The measured isobaric heat capacity data were combined...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cobas Acosta R.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We report the magnetocaloric effects and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR of La0.85Ag0.15MnO3 epitaxial thin films grown on single-crystal substrates of LaAlO3 (001 and SrTiO3 (001 using the chemical solution approach of polymer-assisted deposition (PAD. The film thicknesses are in the range 30-35 nm. Magnetocaloric effects, with entropy changes of -2.14 J/kg.K, in the case of the LaAlO3 substrate and -2.72 J/kg.K for the SrTiO3 substrate, (corresponding to a magnetic field variation of 2T were obtained at room temperature. The refrigeration capacity at this field variation reached large values of 125 J/kg and 216 J/kg, indicating that these films prepared by PAD have the potential for microcooling applications. The temperature coefficient of resistance has been calculated from the resistivity measurements. A maximum TCR value of 3.01 % K-1 was obtained at 309 K, which shows that these films also have potential as uncooled thermometers for bolometric applications.
Wang, D.; Yates, S. R.; Gan, J.; Knuteson, J. A.
Atmospheric emission of methyl bromide (MeBr) and its potential alternative chemicals such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and propargyl bromide (PrBr) can contribute to air pollution and ozone depletion (for MeBr). One of the main sources of these chemicals is from agricultural soil fumigation. To understand the volatilization dynamics, emission of MeBr, 1,3-D, and PrBr through a polyethylene-based high-barrier film (HBF) and a virtually impermeable film (VIF) was measured using an air flow and sampling system that produced >90% mass balance. The experiment was conducted outdoors and was subjected to ambient daily temperature variations. The HBF film was found to be very permeable to 1,3-D and PrBr, but somewhat less permeable to MeBr. The VIF film was very impermeable to 1,3-D, PrBr, or MeBr. Measured volatilization flux, in general, exhibited strong diurnal variations which were controlled by film temperature. Unlike the HBF film, a time lag (˜12 h) was observed between high-temperatures and high-emission flux values for the VIF film. An impermeable film may be used as an effective means of controlling the atmospheric emission of MeBr and its alternative chemicals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siddiqua, Poppy; O' Leary, Stephen K., E-mail: stephen.oleary@ubc.ca [School of Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada)
2016-09-07
Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within bulk zinc-blende gallium nitride. In particular, we examine how the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within this material changes in response to variations in the crystal temperature, the doping concentration, and the non-parabolicity coefficient associated with the lowest energy conduction band valley. These results are then contrasted with those corresponding to a number of other compound semiconductors of interest.
Guo, JunJiang; Xu, JiaQi; Li, ZeRong; Tan, NingXin; Li, XiangYuan
2015-04-02
The potential energy surface (PES) for reaction C2H4 + HO2 was examined by using the quantum chemical methods. All rates were determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 composite method combined with conventional transition state theory(TST), variational transition-state theory (VTST) and Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus/master-equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The geometries optimization and the vibrational frequency analysis of reactants, transition states, and products were performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level. The composite CBS-QB3 method was applied for energy calculations. The major product channel of reaction C2H4 + HO2 is the formation C2H4O2H via an OH(···)π complex with 3.7 kcal/mol binding energy which exhibits negative-temperature dependence. We further investigated the reactions related to this complex, which were ignored in previous studies. Thermochemical properties of the species involved in the reactions were determined using the CBS-QB3 method, and enthalpies of formation of species were compared with literature values. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with those available from literature and given in modified Arrhenius equation form, which are serviceable in combustion modeling of hydrocarbons. Finally, in order to illustrate the effect for low-temperature ignition of our new rate constants, we have implemented them into the existing mechanisms, which can predict ethylene ignition in a shock tube with better performance.
Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus
2012-01-10
Flight safety in all weather conditions demands exact and reliable determination of flight-critical air parameters. Air speed, temperature, density, and pressure are essential for aircraft control. Conventional air data systems can be impacted by probe failure caused by mechanical damage from hail, volcanic ash, and icing. While optical air speed measurement methods have been discussed elsewhere, in this paper, a new concept for optically measuring the air temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter is presented, being independent on assumptions on the atmospheric state and eliminating the drawbacks of conventional aircraft probes by providing a different measurement principle. The concept is based on a laser emitting laser pulses into the atmosphere through a window and detecting the signals backscattered from a fixed region just outside the disturbed area of the fuselage flows. With four receiver channels, different spectral portions of the backscattered light are extracted. The measurement principle of air temperature and density is based on extracting two signals out of the rotational Raman (RR) backscatter signal of air molecules. For measuring the water vapor mixing ratio-and thus the density of the moist air-a water vapor Raman channel is included. The fourth channel serves to detect the elastic backscatter signal, which is essential for extending the measurements into clouds. This channel contributes to the detection of aerosols, which is interesting for developing a future volcanic ash warning system for aircraft. Detailed and realistic optimization and performance calculations have been performed based on the parameters of a first prototype of such a measurement system. The impact and correction of systematic error sources, such as solar background at daytime and elastic signal cross talk appearing in optically dense clouds, have been investigated. The results of the simulations show the high potential of the proposed system for
Ng, Maggie; Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M
2015-03-21
The reaction between atomic chlorine (Cl) and methyl nitrate (CH3ONO2) is significant in the atmosphere, as Cl is a key oxidant, especially in the marine boundary layer, and alkyl nitrates are important nitrogen-containing organic compounds, which are temporary reservoirs of the reactive nitrogen oxides NO, NO2 and NO3 (NOx). Four reaction channels HCl + CH2ONO2, CH3OCl + NO2, CH3Cl + NO3 and CH3O + ClNO2 were considered. The major channel is found to be the H abstraction channel, to give the products HCl + CH2ONO2. For all channels, geometry optimization and frequency calculations were carried out at the M06-2X/6-31+G** level, while relative electronic energies were improved to the UCCSD(T*)-F12/CBS level. The reaction barrier (ΔE(‡)0K) and reaction enthalpy (ΔH(RX)298K) of the H abstraction channel were computed to be 0.61 and -2.30 kcal mol(-1), respectively, at the UCCSD(T*)-F12/CBS//M06-2X/6-31+G** level. Reaction barriers (ΔE(‡)0K) for the other channels are more positive and these pathways do not contribute to the overall reaction rate coefficient in the temperature range considered (200-400 K). Rate coefficients were calculated for the H-abstraction channel at various levels of variational transition state theory (VTST) including tunnelling. Recommended ICVT/SCT rate coefficients in the temperature range 200-400 K are presented for the first time for this reaction. The values obtained in the 200-300 K region are particularly important as they will be valuable for atmospheric modelling calculations involving reactions with methyl nitrate. The implications of the results to atmospheric chemistry are discussed. Also, the enthalpies of formation, ΔHf,298K, of CH3ONO2 and CH2ONO2 were computed to be -29.7 and 19.3 kcal mol(-1), respectively, at the UCCSD(T*)-F12/CBS level.
Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 3. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for certain starlike functions. MD FIROZ ALI A ... Keywords. Univalent; starlike; meromorphic functions; subordination; coefficient bounds; inverse coefficient bounds ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phong, P.T., E-mail: ptphong.nh@khanhhoa.edu.vn [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Dongguk University, 707 Suckjang-dong, Gyeongju-Si, Gyeonbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Nha Trang Pedagogic College, 01 Nguyen Chanh Street, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa (Viet Nam); Nguyen, L.H. [Nha Trang Pedagogic College, 01 Nguyen Chanh Street, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa (Viet Nam); Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Manh, D.H.; Phuc, N.X. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lee, I.-J. [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Dongguk University, 707 Suckjang-dong, Gyeongju-Si, Gyeonbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-09-15
The temperature dependent resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance of Ag doped La{sub 0.7−x}Ag{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} polycrystalline pellets (x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) are investigated. Ag substitution enhances the conductivity of this system. The Curie temperature also increases from 260 to 283 K with increasing Ag content. Using phase-coexistence transport model and phase separation model, we calculated the resistivity as a function of temperature and the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) behavior. Comparing the calculated maximum TCR, we found that it is related to activation energy, transition temperature, and disorder in doped manganites. The relationship between the proposed TCR behavior and the transport parameters can suggest conditions improving TCR{sub max} of doped manganites for the use of the bolometric infrared detectors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Artym, R.; Kliem, M. (Energetisches Inst., Moscow (USSR))
1991-10-01
The second virial coefficient B(T) of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) has been calculated at temperatures over the range 1 K to 3000 K using the Woolley potential function. The potential constants {epsilon}/k = 28,79 K, r{sub m} = 0,34473 nm, e{sub 1} = 0,01 have been determined from the B(T)-data of Michels et al. (1959). The calculated second virial coefficients B(T) agree very well with the available experimental data over the whole temperature range from 13 K to 3000 K. A new method of calculating second virial coefficients has been suggested for low temperatures based on the representation of (y-y{sub 0})/(x-x{sub 0}) vs x by a straight line (x = T{sup 1/2}, y = T{sup 5/4} B). (orig.).
Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle
2005-10-01
A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.
Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Silverman
1979-01-01
Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) version 6 Level-3 data product consists of daily, 2 degree zonal Fourier coefficients, of vertical profiles of...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) version 6 Level-3 data product consists of daily, 2 degree zonal Fourier coefficients, of vertical profiles of...
Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO
Fox, J. L.
1994-01-01
Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO right arrow N2 + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900 to 1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch (1992), and at the low temperatures (100 to 200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox (1993). Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation (DeMore et al., 1992) is accurate at 300 K, we derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. We find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-600/T)cu cm/s.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Lanfredi
2008-12-01
Full Text Available O comportamento elétrico da cerâmica densa de α-Fe2O3, sintetizada pelo método Pechini, foi investigado por espectroscopia de impedância na faixa de freqüência de 5 Hz a 13 MHz. As medidas foram realizadas entre 298 K e 623 K ao ar. A evolução da resistividade do grão com a temperatura mostra um comportamento característico de termistor com coeficiente de temperatura negativo. A condutividade do grão em função da temperatura obedece a lei de Arrhenius com energia de ativação aparente 0,66 eV. A permissividade dielétrica em função da freqüência mostra uma dispersão em freqüências menores que 10 kHz, a qual aumenta com o aumento da temperatura. De forma similar, o parâmetro tangente de perdas (tg δ exibe uma forte dispersão a baixa freqüência e alta temperatura, em torno de 573 K. Uma diminuição na magnitude das perdas ocorre na região de altas freqüências, acima de 10(4 Hz. Um mecanismo de condução do tipo hopping é discutido.The electrical behavior of α-Fe2O3 dense ceramic, synthesized by Pechini method, was investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 5 Hz to 13 MHz. Electrical measurements were carried out from 298 K to 623 K in air. The evolution of the resistivity as a function of temperature shows a thermistor behavior with negative temperature coefficient. The grain conductivity as a function of temperature follows the Arrhenius law exhibiting an apparent activation energy for the electrical conduction process equal to 0.66 eV. The dielectric permittivity as a function of frequency and temperature shows a dispersion phenomenon at frequencies lower than 10 kHz, which increase with temperature increasing. The tangent loss tan δ shows a strong dispersion at low frequency and high temperature, around 573 K. A decrease of the loss magnitude occurs at frequencies > 10(4 Hz. A conduction mechanism of the hopping type is discussed.
On the Kendall Correlation Coefficient
Stepanov, Alexei
2015-01-01
In the present paper, we first discuss the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. In continuous case, we define the Kendall rank correlation coefficient in terms of the concomitants of order statistics, find the expected value of the Kendall rank correlation coefficient and show that the later is free of n. We also prove that in continuous case the Kendall correlation coefficient converges in probability to its expected value. We then propose to consider the expected value of the Kendall rank ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryu, Si Ok [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kuan Soo [Dept. of Chemistry, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Soon Muk [Science Applications International Corp oration, 3000 Aerospace Park way, Brook Park, Ohio (United States)
2017-02-15
Rate coefficients of the title reactions, R1 (CH{sub 4} + O{sub 2} → HO{sub 2}+CH{sub 3}) and R{sub 2} (HCO+O{sub 2} → HO{sub 2} + CO) were obtained over T = 1610 ⁓ 1810 K and T = 200 ⁓ 1760 K, respectively, and at ρ = 7.1 μmol/cm{sup 3}. A lean CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/Ar mixture (0.1% CH{sub 4}, ϕ = 0.02) was heated behind reflected shock waves and the temporal OH absorption profiles were measured using a laser absorption spectroscopy. Reaction rate coefficients were elucidated by matching the experimental profiles via optimization of k1 and k2 values in the reaction simulation. The rate coefficient expressions derived are k{sub 1} = 1.46 × 10{sup 14} exp (−26 210 K/T) cm{sup 3}/mol/s, T = 1610 ⁓ 1810 K and k{sub 2} = 1.9 × 10{sup 12} T{sup 0.1{sup 6}} exp (−245 K/T) cm{sup 3}/mol/s, T = 200 ⁓ 1760 K.
Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2014-01-01
into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods......Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a specimen and non-uniform intensity in the test chamber. In this study, several methods that convert Sabine absorption coefficients...
Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.
Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.
1973-01-01
A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.
Rate Coefficient Determination in Charge Transfer Reactions
Nathalie Vaeck; MichÃƒÂ¨le Desouter-Lecomte; Ezinvi BaloÃƒÂ¯tcha; Marie-Christine Bacchus-Montabonel
2002-01-01
Abstract: The development of experimental ion-trap techniques provides the opportunity to compare directly theoretical rate coefficients to experimental data in the low-temperature regime. In the present work, we consider the ion-atom collisional systems, N2+, O2+, Si3+ and Si4+ on a He target, in order to examine the present status of the agreement between theory and experiment.
Rate Coefficient Determination in Charge Transfer Reactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nathalie Vaeck
2002-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The development of experimental ion-trap techniques provides the opportunity to compare directly theoretical rate coefficients to experimental data in the low-temperature regime. In the present work, we consider the ion-atom collisional systems, N2+, O2+, Si3+ and Si4+ on a He target, in order to examine the present status of the agreement between theory and experiment.
Stochastic Modelling of the Diffusion Coefficient for Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thoft-Christensen, Palle
In the paper, a new stochastic modelling of the diffusion coefficient D is presented. The modelling is based on physical understanding of the diffusion process and on some recent experimental results. The diffusion coefficients D is strongly dependent on the w/c ratio and the temperature....
Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients
Bojanov, Borislav
2009-09-01
We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Measuring of heat transfer coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria
Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...
Graph characterization via Ihara coefficients.
Ren, Peng; Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R
2011-02-01
The novel contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we demonstrate how to characterize unweighted graphs in a permutation-invariant manner using the polynomial coefficients from the Ihara zeta function, i.e., the Ihara coefficients. Second, we generalize the definition of the Ihara coefficients to edge-weighted graphs. For an unweighted graph, the Ihara zeta function is the reciprocal of a quasi characteristic polynomial of the adjacency matrix of the associated oriented line graph. Since the Ihara zeta function has poles that give rise to infinities, the most convenient numerically stable representation is to work with the coefficients of the quasi characteristic polynomial. Moreover, the polynomial coefficients are invariant to vertex order permutations and also convey information concerning the cycle structure of the graph. To generalize the representation to edge-weighted graphs, we make use of the reduced Bartholdi zeta function. We prove that the computation of the Ihara coefficients for unweighted graphs is a special case of our proposed method for unit edge weights. We also present a spectral analysis of the Ihara coefficients and indicate their advantages over other graph spectral methods. We apply the proposed graph characterization method to capturing graph-class structure and clustering graphs. Experimental results reveal that the Ihara coefficients are more effective than methods based on Laplacian spectra.
Modeling Local Hygrothermal Interaction: Local surface transfer coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten
2009-01-01
Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in building components assume uniform boundary conditions, both for the temperature and relative humidity of the air in an indoor space as well as for the heat and moisture surface transfer coefficients. In order to obtain a reliable...... and moisture transfer coefficients. The research showed that the developed model gives good agreement with the local convective surface transfer coefficients predicted from CFD. The main advantage of the presented (sub)zonal airflow model is that the computational effort is relatively small, while...... the predictions of the local surface transfer coefficients are relatively accurate....
An analytical Seebeck coefficient model for disordered organic semiconductors
Shi, Xuewen; Lu, Nianduan; Xu, Guangwei; Cao, Jinchen; Han, Zhiheng; Yang, Guanhua; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming
2017-10-01
An analytical Seebeck coefficient model for disordered organic semiconductors based on hopping transport and percolation theory is proposed here. This model demonstrates the relationships between Seebeck coefficient and temperature, carrier concentration as well as disorder degree of materials. As compared with experimental data, the simulated results show a convincing coincidence with experimental results. Moreover, the effect from doping is addressed. The calculation results show that the Seebeck coefficient will decrease with increasing doping ratio, after passing a minimum value then a sharp increase of Seebeck coefficient appears.
Frictional coefficients of structural materials in AC superconducting coils
Sekine, N.; Takao, T.; Shoji, T.; Toyama, H.; Kashiwazaki, K.; Sugasawa, N.; Nakamura, K.; Kashima, T.; Yamanaka, A.; Takeo, M.; Sato, S.
2001-05-01
Dyneema ® and glass fiber reinforced plastics (DGFRPs) expand when they are cooled down to cryogenic temperature. Therefore, they may have applications as structural materials in superconducting magnets to increase stability against abrupt motion of superconductors in the magnets. To obtain the mechanical properties of DGFRPs, we measured coefficients of friction on surfaces of DGFRPs under various experimental conditions at three temperatures, four different forces, and two types of DGFRPs. In all of the experimental conditions, the measured coefficients of friction were quite low. The range of measured coefficients was 0.07-0.14.
Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Struchtrup, Henning, E-mail: struchtr@uvic.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2 (Canada)
2013-11-15
A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.
Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient
Struchtrup, Henning
2013-11-01
A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.
Stochastic modeling of the diffusion coefficient for concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thoft-Christensen, Palle
. A deterministic relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the w/c ratio and the temperature is used for the stochastic modelling. The w/c ratio and the temperature are modelled by log-normally and normally distributed stochastic variables, respectively. It is then shown by Monte Carlo simulation...... that the diffusion coefficient D may be modelled by a normally distributed stochastic variable. The sensitivities of D with regard to the mean values and the standard deviations are evaluated.......In the paper, a new stochastic modelling of the diffusion coefficient D is presented. The modelling is based on a physical understanding of the diffusion process and on some recent experimental results. The diffusion coefficient D is strongly dependent on the w/c ratio and the temperature...
Negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene measured by Raman spectroscopy.
Yoon, Duhee; Son, Young-Woo; Cheong, Hyeonsik
2011-08-10
The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of single-layer graphene is estimated with temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K. It is found to be strongly dependent on temperature but remains negative in the whole temperature range with a room temperature value of (-8.0 ± 0.7) × 10(-6) K(-1). The strain caused by the TEC mismatch between graphene and the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the physical properties of graphene, and hence its effect must be accounted for in the interpretation of experimental data taken at cryogenic or elevated temperatures.
Recursive calculation of Hansen coefficients
Branham, Richard L., Jr.
1990-06-01
Hansen coefficients are used in expansions of the elliptic motion. Three methods for calculating the coefficients are studied: Tisserand's method, the Von Zeipel-Andoyer (VZA) method with explicit representation of the polynomials required to compute the Hansen coefficients, and the VZA method with the values of the polynomials calculated recursively. The VZA method with explicit polynomials is by far the most rapid, but the tabulation of the polynomials only extends to 12th order in powers of the eccentricity, and unless one has access to the polynomials in machine-readable form their entry is laborious and error-prone. The recursive calculation of the VZA polynomials, needed to compute the Hansen coefficients, while slower, is faster than the calculation of the Hansen coefficients by Tisserand's method, up to 10th order in the eccentricity and is still relatively efficient for higher orders. The main advantages of the recursive calculation are the simplicity of the program and one's being able to extend the expansions to any order of eccentricity with ease. Because FORTRAN does not implement recursive procedures, this paper used C for all of the calculations. The most important conclusion is recursion's genuine usefulness in scientific computing.
Huang, Yunwei; Long, Mujun; Liu, Peng; Chen, Dengfu; Chen, Huabiao; Gui, Lintao; Liu, Tao; Yu, Sheng
2017-10-01
To quantitatively study the effects of partition coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and solidification paths on solute microsegregation, an analytical model was developed combined with the calculation of thermodynamic software FactSage. This model, applied with variational partition coefficients and temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients, is based on the Voller-Beckermann model and is extended to take into account the effects of multiple components and the peritectic phase transformation using FactSage. The predictions agree well with a range of measured data and the results of other numerical solutions. As the results indicate, the partition coefficients of solutes are functions of temperature and phase fraction during the solidification process, and the solute microsegregation increases significantly with decreasing partition coefficients. The calculations of solute microsegregation ratio ( C L/ C 0) in the interdendritic region are related to solidification paths. The microsegregation ratios of P and S increase as the initial C concentration increases, while they reduce with increasing initial C contents for solutes C and Si. Parameter sensitivity analysis was performed, and the results indicate that the solute microsegregation shows larger variation with partition coefficients and solidification paths than diffusion coefficients.
Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1 an(−λ, f )zn for z ∈ D. (1.4). One of the well-known extremal problems in the theory of univalent functions is to esti- mate the modulus of the Taylor coefficients an(−λ, f ) given by (1.4). This problem has been extensively studied in the literature ...
Algebraic polynomials with random coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Farahmand
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an asymptotic value for the mathematical expected number of points of inflections of a random polynomial of the form a0(ω+a1(ω(n11/2x+a2(ω(n21/2x2+…an(ω(nn1/2xn when n is large. The coefficients {aj(w}j=0n, w∈Ω are assumed to be a sequence of independent normally distributed random variables with means zero and variance one, each defined on a fixed probability space (A,Ω,Pr. A special case of dependent coefficients is also studied.
Harmonic functions with varying coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacek Dziok
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.
System to Measure Thermal Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficient for Thermoelectrics
Kim, Hyun-Jung; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Nagavalli, Anita
2012-01-01
The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at elevated temperatures. This has led to the implementation of nonstandardized practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. The major objective of the procedure described is for the simultaneous measurement of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity within a given temperature range. These thermoelectric measurements must be precise, accurate, and reproducible to ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data. The custom-built thermal characterization system described in this NASA-TM is specifically designed to measure the inplane thermal diffusivity, and the Seebeck coefficient for materials in the ranging from 73 K through 373 K.
Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.
Oaks, Jeffrey A
2017-06-01
Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.
Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Travelling wave-like solutions of the Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation with vari- able coefficients are studied using the ... exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. Some of the most impor- tant methods are the ... In general, there is no standard method for solving nonlinear. PDEs and more so for PDEs in 2+1 ...
(Non)-renormalization of the chiral vortical effect coefficient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golkar, Siavash; Son, Dam T. [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2015-02-26
We show using diagramtic arguments that in some (but not all) cases, the temperature dependent part of the chiral vortical effect coefficient is independent of the coupling constant. An interpretation of this result in terms of quantization in the effective 3 dimensional Chern-Simons theory is also given. In the language of 3D, dimensionally reduced theory, the value of the chiral vortical coefficient is related to the formula ∑{sub n=1}{sup ∞}n=−1/12. We also show that in the presence of dynamical gauge fields, the CVE coefficient is not protected from renormalization, even in the large N limit.
Negative Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Graphene Measured by Raman Spectroscopy
Yoon, Duhee; Son, Young-Woo; Cheong, Heonsik
2011-01-01
The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of single-layer graphene is estimated with temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K. It is found to be strongly dependent on temperature but remains negative in the whole temperature range, with a room temperature value of -8.0x10^{-6} K^{-1}. The strain caused by the TEC mismatch between graphene and the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the physical properties of graphene, and hence its effect...
On the low-field Hall coefficient of graphite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Esquinazi
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We have measured the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Hall coefficient (RH in three, several micrometer long multigraphene samples of thickness between ∼9 to ∼30 nm in the temperature range 0.1 to 200 K and up to 0.2 T field. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistance of two of the samples indicates the contribution from embedded interfaces running parallel to the graphene layers. At low enough temperatures and fields RH is positive in all samples, showing a crossover to negative values at high enough fields and/or temperatures in samples with interfaces contribution. The overall results are compatible with the reported superconducting behavior of embedded interfaces in the graphite structure and indicate that the negative low magnetic field Hall coefficient is not intrinsic of the ideal graphite structure.
Robust correlation coefficient based on Qn estimator
Zakaria, Nur Amira; Abdullah, Suhaida; Ahad, Nor Aishah
2017-11-01
This paper presents a new robust correlation coefficient called Qn correlation coefficient. This coefficient is developed as an alternative for classical correlation coefficient as the performance of classical correlation coefficient is nasty under contamination data. This study applied robust scale estimator called Qn because this estimator have high breakdown point. Simulation studies are carried out in determining the performances of the new robust correlation coefficient. Clean and contamination data are generated in assessing the performance of these coefficient. The performances of the Qn correlation coefficient is compared with classical correlation coefficient based on the value of coefficient, average bias and standard error. The outcome of the simulation studies shows that the performance of Qn correlation coefficient is superior compared to the classical and existing robust correlation coefficient.
Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baohua Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (α, δ, γ and ɛ phases have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K and pressure range (0-100 GPa, compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho
2015-01-01
Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...
Holographic Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Lithium Bromide in Aqueous Solution
Hattori, Masaru; Aoki, Kazuo; Yamada, Shuichi; Okubo, Takahiro
About 90 points of diffusion coefficient of lithium bromide (LiBr) in aqueous solution were measured by holographic interferometry in the temperature range of 20∼50°C and the concentration range of 0.4∼55mass%. A correlation among concentration, temperature and diffusion coefficients was done, and an empirical equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient in the concentration and the temperature ranges mentioned above was proposed. Differences between experimental values and correlated expression were almost within±2%. Accuracy of the measured diffusion coefficients was discussed and the measurements are shown to be made within error of ±6.8%.
Non intrusive measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rebay, M.; Mebarki, G.; Padet, J. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Arfaoui, A. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM; Maad, B.R. [Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM
2010-07-01
The efficiency of cooling methods in thermal systems such as radiators and heat exchangers must be improved in order to enhance performance. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients between a solid and a fluid is necessary for the control and the dimensioning of thermal systems. In this study, the pulsed photothermal method was used to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient on a solid-fluid interface, notably between an air flow and a heated slab mounted on a PVC flat plate. This configuration simulated the electronic air-cooling inside enclosures and racks. The influence of the deflector's inclination angle on the enhancement of heat transfer was investigated using 2 newly developed identification models. The first model was based on a constant heat transfer coefficient during the pulsed experiment, while the second, improved model was based on a variable heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient was deduced from the evolution of the transient temperature induced by a sudden deposit of a luminous energy on the front face of the slab. Temperature evolutions were derived by infrared thermography, a camera for cartography and a detector for precise measurement in specific locations. The results show the improvement of measurement accuracies when using a model that considers the temporal evolution of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The deflection of air flow on the upper surface of the heated slab demonstrated better cooling of the slab by the deflection of air flow. 11 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.
Study of transport coefficients of nanodiamond nanofluids
Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzei, D. V.
2017-09-01
Experimental data on the thermal conductivity coefficient and viscosity coefficient of nanodiamond nanofluids are presented. Distilled water and ethylene glycol were used as the base fluid. Dependences of transport coefficients on concentration are obtained. It was shown that the thermal conductivity coefficient increases with increasing nanodiamonds concentration. It was shown that base fluids properties and nanodiamonds concentration affect on the rheology of nanofluids.
Equivalent absorption coefficients generated from frequency probability distributions
Ackerman, T. P.
1983-01-01
A flexible and computationally accurate method of treating aerosol scattering in spectral regions in which gaseous absorption is important is described. In the method, line-by-line absorption coefficients are computed as a function of pressure, temperature, and absorber gas for the spectral region of interest. The coefficients are sorted into a probability distribution which is converted into a cumulative probability distribution, which in turn can be inverted due to its monotonic nature. The inverted distribution is a smooth curve giving the absorption coefficient as a function of an independent variable on the domain. The frequency integration of the radiative transfer equation can then be performed by a quadrature technique with values of the absorption coefficient determined from the inverted distribution curve. The method is illustrated by applying it to the 9.6 micron band of ozone.
Seebeck Coefficient of SOI Layer Induced by Phonon Transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faiz Salleh
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The Seebeck coefficient of a patterned Si wire on P-doped SOI (Si-on-insulator layer with a carrier concentration of 1018 cm-3 was measured near room temperature. The Seebeck coefficient is found to be smaller than that in the SOI layer and to be closer to the calculated Seebeck coefficient including the electronic contribution. The decrease in the Seebeck coefficient of Si wire is likely to occur due to the elimination of the contribution of phonon drag part. From the theoretical calculation of scattering rates by considering the scattering processes in phonon system, it is considered that an increase in phonon-boundary scattering and simultaneously a decrease at the cross section of SOI layer are likely responsible for eliminating the phonon drag effect.
Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients
Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš
2017-10-01
A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.
Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tolos, Laura [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Frankfurt Institute for Advances Studies. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Manuel, Cristina [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarkar, Sreemoyee [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba Road, Mumbai-400005 (India); Tarrus, Jaume [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-01-22
We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.
Recommended coefficients for sorption of iodine, silver, and cesium on graphite dust particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stempniewicz, Marek M., E-mail: stempniewicz@nrg.eu [NRG Arnhem, Utrechtseweg 310, PO Box 9034, 6800 ES Arnhem (Netherlands); Goede, Pieter, E-mail: goedep@gmail.com [PBMR, 1279 Mike Crawford Avenue, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)
2016-09-15
Highlights: • Sorption of fission product vapors on dust particles—important safety aspect of HTRs. • Sorption coefficients represent well the AVR data for cesium, iodine, and silver on dust. • Sorption rates higher at low temperatures and lower at high temperatures. • A set of recommended sorption coefficient for computer code users. - Abstract: This paper describes the work performed to find the sorption coefficients that represent well the available experimental data for cesium, iodine, and silver on dust particles. The purpose of this work is to generate a set of coefficients that may be recommended for computer code users. The following data was correlated: • I-131 on AVR dust. • Ag-110m on AVR dust. • Cs-134 and Cs-137 on AVR dust. The results are summarized as follows: • The available data can be correlated. The data scatter is about 4 orders of magnitude. Therefore the coefficients of the Langmuir isotherms vary by 4 orders of magnitude. • Sorption rates are higher at low temperatures and lower at high temperatures. This tendency has been observed in the data compiled at Oak Ridge. It is therefore surmised that the highest value of the sorption coefficients are appropriate for the low temperatures and the lowest value of the sorption coefficients are appropriate for the high temperatures. The recommended sorption coefficients are presented in this paper. • The present set of coefficients is very rough and should be a subject for future verification against experimental data.
Self-diffusion coefficients of cadmium and indium in liquid
Fefelov, A. S.; Furman, I. E.; Nikitina, E. V.; Ivanov, R. A.; Evdokimova, I. V.
2017-08-01
The self-diffusion coefficients of liquid Cd and In near melting temperatures are calculated by the Helfand-Devis-Palyvos method using a model square-well pair potential in the random phase approximation. Adequate agreement between the calculated and available experimental data is achieved for both metals under study.
Thermally induced lensing determination from the coefficient of defocus aberration
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bell, Teboho
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The effects of a temperature gradient in a laser crystal in an end-pumped configuration in a solid-state laser resonator results in thermally induced aberrations. Of particular interest we measure the thermally induced lens from the coefficient...
Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte exhibits the Arrhenius relationship, which represents the hopping of ions in polymer composites. Cation and anion diffusion coefficients are evaluated using the Trukhan model. The transference number and enhanced conductivity imply that the charge ...
Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail: cconca@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: jorge@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: smaranda@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: vanni@math.tifrbng.res.in [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)
2011-09-15
A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.
Criticality coefficient calculation for a small PWR using Monte Carlo Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trombetta, Debora M.; Su, Jian, E-mail: dtrombetta@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chirayath, Sunil S., E-mail: sunilsc@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, Texas A and M University, TX (United States)
2015-07-01
Computational models of reactors are increasingly used to predict nuclear reactor physics parameters responsible for reactivity changes which could lead to accidents and losses. In this work, preliminary results for criticality coefficient calculation using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX were presented for a small PWR. The computational modeling developed consists of the core with fuel elements, radial reflectors, and control rods inside a pressure vessel. Three different geometries were simulated, a single fuel pin, a fuel assembly and the core, with the aim to compare the criticality coefficients among themselves.The criticality coefficients calculated were: Doppler Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Void Coefficient, Power Coefficient, and Control Rod Worth. The coefficient values calculated by the MCNP code were compared with literature results, showing good agreement with reference data, which validate the computational model developed and allow it to be used to perform more complex studies. Criticality Coefficient values for the three simulations done had little discrepancy for almost all coefficients investigated, the only exception was the Power Coefficient. Preliminary results presented show that simple modelling as a fuel assembly can describe changes at almost all the criticality coefficients, avoiding the need of a complex core simulation. (author)
Recombination coefficients for O ii lines in nebular conditions
Storey, P. J.; Sochi, Taha; Bastin, Robert
2017-09-01
We present the results of a calculation of recombination coefficients for O2++ e- using an intermediate coupling treatment that fully accounts for the dependence of the distribution of population among the ground levels of O2+ on electron density and temperature. The calculation is extended down to low electron temperatures, where dielectronic recombination arising from Rydberg states converging on the O2+ ground levels is an important process. The data that consist of emission coefficients for 8889 recombination lines and recombination coefficients for the ground and metastable states of O+ are in Cases A, B and C, and are organized as a function of the electron temperature and number density, as well as wavelength. An interactive fortran 77 data server is also provided as an accessory for mining the line emission coefficients and obtaining Lagrange interpolated values for any choice of the two variables between the explicitly provided values for any set of wavelengths. Some illustrations of the application of the new data to nebular observations are also provided.
Calculation of diffusion coefficients in airmetal thermal plasmas
2010-01-01
Abstract This paper presents the combined diffusion coefficients of metal vapours (silver, copper and iron) in air thermal plasmas for temperatures ranging from 300 to 30000K. The theory used to calculate these coefficients is remembered and validated by comparison with literature values in several cases such as Ar-He, Ar-Cu and N 2 -O 2 mixtures. The results are discussed showing the influences of the metal concentration, of the vapour nature and of the pressure. The results show rather s...
Young modulus dependence of nanoscopic friction coefficient in hard coatings
Riedo, E.; Brune, H.
2003-01-01
We present an atomic force microscope study of nanoscopic sliding friction on diamond, diamond-like carbon, and on three CrN thin films with varying hardness obtained by different growth temperatures. For the CrN films, we show that the changes in the friction coefficient can be traced back to variations of the Young modulus. More generally, we show for all samples investigated and in wearless regime, that the nanoscopic friction coefficient is directly linked to the Young modulus. (C) 2003 A...
Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients
Menard, Scott
2011-01-01
Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…
M-Bonomial Coefficients and Their Identities
Asiru, Muniru A.
2010-01-01
In this note, we introduce M-bonomial coefficients or (M-bonacci binomial coefficients). These are similar to the binomial and the Fibonomial (or Fibonacci-binomial) coefficients and can be displayed in a triangle similar to Pascal's triangle from which some identities become obvious.
Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis
Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.
2010-01-01
We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…
Energy coefficients for a propeller series
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Anders Smærup
2004-01-01
The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....
Finite frequency Seebeck coefficient of metals: A memory function approach
Bhalla, Pankaj; Kumar, Pradeep; Das, Nabyendu; Singh, Navinder
2017-10-01
We study the dynamical thermoelectric transport in metals subjected to the electron-impurity and the electron-phonon interactions using the memory function formalism. We introduce a generalized Drude form for the Seebeck coefficient in terms of thermoelectric memory function and calculate the latter in various temperature and frequency limits. In the zero frequency and high temperature limit, we find that our results are consistent with the experimental findings and with the traditional Boltzmann equation approach. In the low temperature limit, we find that the Seebeck coefficient is quadratic in temperature. In the finite frequency regime, we report new results: In the electron-phonon interaction case, we find that the Seebeck coefficient shows frequency independent behavior both in the high frequency regime (ω ≫ωD , where ωD is the Debye frequency) and in the low frequency regime (ω ≪ωD), whereas in the intermediate frequencies, it is a monotonically increasing function of frequency. In the case of the electron-impurity interaction, first it decays and then after passing through a minimum it increases with the increase in frequency and saturates at high frequencies.
Enhancement of Seebeck Coefficients by Resonant Tunneling Effect
Daqiq, Reza
2017-10-01
The Seebeck coefficients in an MgO-based double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DBMTJ) with a semiconductor (e.g., Ge) spacer are studied using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism in the linear response regime. The DBMTJ results show a magnitude enhancement compared with a single-barrier MTJ (SBMTJ) at the specific thicknesses of the semiconductor spacer due to the resonant tunneling effect through the DBMTJ structure. With an increase of the average temperature of the junctions, the Seebeck coefficients also increase and they are at a maximum in the anti-parallel configuration of the magnetizations. Therefore, it is possible to achieve large Seebeck coefficients using a DBMTJ compared with a conventional SBMTJ structure.
The viscous slip coefficient for a binary gas mixture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knackfuss, Rosenei F. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas. Dept. de Matematica], e-mail: rfknackfuss@gmail.com
2009-07-01
For a moderately small rarefaction, the Navier-Stokes equations are associated with of the slip boundary condition, i e the velocity of the gas on the surface is different from zero at the surface, but its tangential component, depends on the profile distribution of velocity and temperature near the surface. The slip for the velocity profile near the surface is determined by the viscous slip coefficient. The viscous slip coefficient can be determined solving the equation of the Boltzmann or the kinetic equations which are simplified forms of Boltzmann equation with respect to the operator of collision. For this reason, in this work is presented the derivation of the solution of the viscous-slip problem for the mixtures of two noble gases, based on the McCormack model that is developed in terms of an analytical version of the discrete ordinates method has been applied with excellent results, to derive solutions to several problems in rarefied gas dynamics. To complete the problem, include the gas-surface interaction, based on the model of Cercignani-Lampis, which, unlike the model of Maxwell, has two accommodation coefficients: the coefficient of accommodation of tangential moment and the energy accommodation coefficient kinetics due to normal component of velocity. (author)
Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients.
Nimon, Kim F; Zientek, Linda R; Thompson, Bruce
2015-01-01
The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients.
Reactivity feedback coefficients Pakistan research reactor-1 using PRIDE code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansoor, Ali; Ahmed, Siraj-ul-Islam; Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Inam-ul-Haq [Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics
2017-05-15
Results of the analyses performed for fuel, moderator and void's temperature feedback reactivity coefficients for the first high power core configuration of Pakistan Research Reactor - 1 (PARR-1) are summarized. For this purpose, a validated three dimensional model of PARR-1 core was developed and confirmed against the reference results for reactivity calculations. The ''Program for Reactor In-Core Analysis using Diffusion Equation'' (PRIDE) code was used for development of global (3-dimensional) model in conjunction with WIMSD4 for lattice cell modeling. Values for isothermal fuel, moderator and void's temperature feedback reactivity coefficients have been calculated. Additionally, flux profiles for the five energy groups were also generated.
Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Bravo, Iván; Rodríguez, Diana; Rodríguez, Ana; Moreno, Elena
2008-10-01
The adverse environmental impacts of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the Earth's ozone layer have focused attention on the effort to replace these compounds by nonchlorinated substitutes with environmental acceptability. Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and fluorinated alcohols are currently being introduced in many applications for this purpose. Nevertheless, the presence of a great number of C-F bonds drives to atmospheric long-lived compounds with infrared absorption features. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge about lifetimes and global warming potentials (GWP) for these compounds in order to get a complete evaluation of their environmental impact. Tropospheric degradation is expected to be initiated mainly by OH reactions in the gas phase. Nevertheless, Cl atoms reaction may also be important since rate constants are generally larger than those of OH. In the present work, we report the results obtained in the study of the reactions of Cl radicals with HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) (1) and its isomer CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH (2). Kinetic rate coefficients with Cl atoms have been measured using the discharge flow tube-mass spectrometric technique at 1 Torr of total pressure. The reactions of these chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) substitutes have been studied under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions in excess of the fluorinated compounds over Cl atoms. The temperature ranges were 266-333 and 298-353 K for reactions of HFE-7000 and CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH, respectively. The measured room temperature rate constants were k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) = (1.24 +/- 0.28) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)and k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH) = (8.35 +/- 1.63) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors are 2sigma + 10% to cover systematic errors). The Arrhenius expression for reaction 1 was k (1)(266-333 K) = (6.1 +/- 3.8) x 10(-13)exp[-(445 +/- 186)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k (2)(298-353 K) = (1.9 +/- 0.7) x 10(-12)exp[-(244 +/- 125)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors
A drying coefficient for building materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf
2009-01-01
The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However...... characterisation of building materials on which the attempt is based to standardize the drying experiment as well as to derive a single number material coefficient. The drying itself is briefly reviewed and existing approaches are discussed. On this basis, possible definitions are evaluated. Finally, a drying...... coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived...
An Efficient Statistical Method to Compute Molecular Collisional Rate Coefficients
Loreau, Jérôme; Lique, François; Faure, Alexandre
2018-01-01
Our knowledge about the “cold” universe often relies on molecular spectra. A general property of such spectra is that the energy level populations are rarely at local thermodynamic equilibrium. Solving the radiative transfer thus requires the availability of collisional rate coefficients with the main colliding partners over the temperature range ∼10–1000 K. These rate coefficients are notoriously difficult to measure and expensive to compute. In particular, very few reliable collisional data exist for inelastic collisions involving reactive radicals or ions. In this Letter, we explore the use of a fast quantum statistical method to determine molecular collisional excitation rate coefficients. The method is benchmarked against accurate (but costly) rigid-rotor close-coupling calculations. For collisions proceeding through the formation of a strongly bound complex, the method is found to be highly satisfactory up to room temperature. Its accuracy decreases with decreasing potential well depth and with increasing temperature, as expected. This new method opens the way to the determination of accurate inelastic collisional data involving key reactive species such as {{{H}}}3+, H2O+, and H3O+ for which exact quantum calculations are currently not feasible.
Modulus of Elasticity and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of ITO Film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, Austin D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elhadj, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-06-24
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the modulus of elasticity (E) and thermal expansion coefficient (α) of RF sputtered Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) as a function of temperature (T), and to collect ITO film stress data. In order to accomplish that goal, the Toho FLX-2320-S thin film stress measurement machine was used to collect both single stress and stress-temperature data for ITO coated fused silica and sapphire substrates. The stress measurement function of the FLX-2320-S cannot be used to calculate the elastic modulus of the film because the Stoney formula incorporates the elastic modulus of the substrate, rather than of the film itself.
Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt
2015-01-01
This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....
Estimation of bare soil surface temperature from air temperature and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Soil surface temperature has critical influence on climate, agricultural and hydrological activities since it serves as a good indicator of the energy budget of the earth's surface. Two empirical models for estimating soil surface temperature from air temperature and soil depth temperature were developed. The coefficient of ...
THE IMPACT OF POWER COEFFICIENT OF REACTIVITY ON CANDU 6 REACTORS
D. KASTANYA; S. BOYLE; Hopwood, J; Park, Joo Hwan
2013-01-01
The combined effects of reactivity coefficients, along with other core nuclear characteristics, determine reactor core behavior in normal operation and accident conditions. The Power Coefficient of Reactivity (PCR) is an aggregate indicator representing the change in reactor core reactivity per unit change in reactor power. It is an integral quantity which captures the contributions of the fuel temperature, coolant void, and coolant temperature reactivity feedbacks. All nuclear reactor design...
Numerical modelling of a HgTlI discharge lamp: transport coefficients and thermodynamic properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Troudi, L [ENIM, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Ahmed, R Ben [ENIM, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Aissi, S El [ENIM, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Charrada, K [IPEIM, Route De Kairouan, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Zissis, G [Centre De Physique Des Plasmas Et De Leurs Applications De Toulouse (CPAT), Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 Rte De Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Sassi, M [ENIM, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)
2004-02-21
A LTE chemical model is developed to determine the plasma composition and transport coefficients of a thallium iodide discharge. Collision integrals, diffusion coefficients, thermal and electrical conductivity as well as conductance have been computed as functions of temperature at different atomic ratios using the Chapman Enskog theory. This chemical model is then coupled with a one-dimensional time-dependent fluid model to describe the temperature variation and electrical behaviour of the lamp.
Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik
1998-01-01
Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...
A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser
Lee, C. J.; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.
2013-01-01
We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ
Effective distribution coefficients of admixtures in plutonium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kristofova, D. (Vitkovicke Zelezarny Klementa Gottwalda, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)); Kuchar, L.; Wozniakova, B. (Vysoka Skola Banska, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Nezeleznych Kovu a Jaderne Metalurgie)
1980-01-01
The values of effective distribution coefficients of Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Si in plutonium were determined on the basis of distributing these admixtures during zone refining of plutonium. The results confirm the theoretical assumptions for distributing admixtures in plutonium which were expressed in periodical dependence of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of admixtures in plutonium on the atomic number of admixture.
Resummed coefficient function for the shape function
Aglietti, U.
2001-01-01
We present a leading evaluation of the resummed coefficient function for the shape function. It is also shown that the coefficient function is short-distance-dominated. Our results allow relating the shape function computed on the lattice to the physical QCD distributions.
Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Ferraris
2012-01-01
accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.
Prediction of longitudinal dispersion coefficient using multivariate ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
River water quality; artificial neural network; longitudinal dispersion coefficient; pollution transmission. Abstract. In this paper, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) was developed as a novel soft-computingtechnique for predicting longitudinal dispersion coefficient (DL) in rivers. As mentioned in the literature ...
Determination of the surface drag coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.
2001-01-01
This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable ...
Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...
Efficient Estimation in Heteroscedastic Varying Coefficient Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuanhua Wei
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper considers statistical inference for the heteroscedastic varying coefficient model. We propose an efficient estimator for coefficient functions that is more efficient than the conventional local-linear estimator. We establish asymptotic normality for the proposed estimator and conduct some simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.
Gini coefficient as a life table function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2003-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini
Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.
Shieh, Gwowen
2010-11-01
This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2001-03-01
The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)
Power coefficient of reactivity in CANDU 6 Reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adams, R.; Boyle, S.; Connolly, A.; Kastanya, D.; Khaial, A.; Lau, V. [CANDU Energy Inc., Mississauga (Canada)
2012-03-15
The Power Coefficient of Reactivity (PCR) measures the change in reactor core reactivity per unit change in reactor power and is an integral quantity which captures the contributions of the fuel temperature, coolant void and coolant temperature reactivity feedbacks. All nuclear reactor designs provide a balance between the inherent nuclear characteristics and the engineered reactivity control features, to ensure that changes in reactivity in all operating conditions are maintained within a safe range. The CANDU reactor design takes advantage of the inherent nuclear characteristics of small reactivity coefficient, minimal excess reactivity and very long prompt neutron lifetime to mitigate the magnitude of the demand on the engineered systems for controlling reactivity. In particular, CANDU reactors have always taken advantage of the small value of the PCR associated with its design characteristics, such that the overall design of the reactor does not depend on the sign of the PCR. This is a contrast to other reactor design concepts which are dependent on a PCR which is both large and negative in the design of their engineered systems for controlling reactivity. It will be demonstrated that during a Loss of Regulation Control (LORC) event, the impact of having a positive power coefficient, or of hypothesizing a PCR larger than that estimated for CANDU, has no significant impact on the reactor safety. Since the CANDU 6 PCR is small, its role in the operation or safety of the reactor is not significant.
Rate coefficients for reactions of OH and Cl with esters.
Liang, Peng; Mu, Yujing; Daële, Véronique; Mellouki, Abdelwahid
2010-12-17
Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with n-propyl butyrate (k(1)), n-butyl propionate (k(2)) and n-butyl butyrate (k(3)) are measured by both absolute and relative methods. The kinetics data obtained over the temperature range 273-372 K are used to derive the Arrhenius expressions (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k(1)=(1.92±0.50)×10(-12) exp[(400±80)/T], k(2)=(2.98±1.32)×10(-12) exp[(209±139)/T] and k(3)=(5.35±3.34)×10(-12) exp[(180±194)/T]. In addition, the rate coefficients for reactions of the three esters with Cl atoms are determined by the relative-rate method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The rate coefficients measured are (in units of 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) as follows: n-propyl butyrate (1.4±0.1), n-butyl propionate (1.6±0.1), and n-butyl butyrate (1.7±0.1). The values obtained are presented, compared with previous determinations and discussed. Reactivity trends and atmospheric implications resulting from this work are also presented.
Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude
Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul
Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.
Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faiza Shahid
Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number â3â and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks
Photonic crystal fibres with large nonlinear coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
2004-01-01
We investigate the upper limits on the nonlinear coefficients obtainable in various silica-based photonic crystal fibre designs. For a fixed wavelength, the highest nonlinearities are found to occur when a substantial part of the field energy resides in air. The case of a silica strand in air...... is found to constitute an upper bound on the nonlinear coefficients obtained; however, all the designs investigated allow nonlinear coefficients larger than 50% of this limiting value. On the other hand, the choice of fibre design is found to have a significant influence on the dispersion properties....
Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2010-07-15
We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.
Damping heat coefficient - Theoretical and experimental research on a vibrating beam
Mihalec, Marko; Javh, Jaka; Cianetti, Filippo; Moretti, Michele; Rossi, Gianluca; Slavič, Janko; Boltežar, Miha
2017-07-01
Vibrating systems dissipate their vibrational energy through different mechanisms, commonly referred to as damping. Damping converts the vibrational energy into other forms, such as heat and sound radiation. Heating of the material is often assumed to be one of the biggest drains of energy; however, the measurable temperature increase is at the level of milli Kelvin and hard to measure. This research introduces a damping heat coefficient, the coefficient of total dissipated energy that is converted into heat. Using this coefficient, the expected temperature change of a beam is theoretically related to its damping ratio. In addition, the damping heat coefficient is determined experimentally by measuring the temperature increase of a vibrating beam. Based on modal damping, it is shown that different amounts of energy are dissipated at different parts of the structure. The numerical heat model was experimentally confirmed.
Determination of the heat exchange coefficient of outer shells in residential buildings
Pukhkal, Viktor; Evstratov, Viktor
2017-10-01
The article performs the analysis of normalized values of heat exchange coefficient for internal surfaces of outer shells in residential buildings of the Russian Federation. The author introduces the estimation technique and calculated dependences for the coefficient of heat transfer of the internal surface of external walls, claddings and floors of buildings. The author determined numerical values of the heat exchange coefficients of the inner surface of the enclosing structures and temperature differences between the temperature of the internal air and the temperature of the inner surface of the enclosing structure. It was concluded that there is a need to correct the values of the heat exchange coefficient of the inner surface of the enclosing structures of residential buildings in Russian construction regulations SP 50.13330.2012 “Thermal protection of buildings”.
Horvath, D.; Rappleye, D.; Bagri, P.; Simpson, M. F.
2017-09-01
An electrochemical study of manganese chloride in molten salt mixtures of eutectic LiCl-KCl was carried out using a variety of electrochemical methods in a high temperature cell including cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA), and open circuit potentiometry. Single step reduction from Mn2+ to Mn(0) was observed on both W and Mo working electrodes. Using a combination of these methods, measurements were made of activity coefficient and diffusion coefficient for MnCl2 in LiCl-KCl as a function of concentration (3.54 × 10-4 to 3.60 × 10-3 mol fraction of MnCl2) at 773K. From OCP measurements, values for activity coefficient varied from 0.014 to 0.0071. Diffusion coefficients varied with concentration and differed based on measurement method (CV, CA, or CP). Based on cyclic Mn(II) ranged from 1.1 to 2.8 × 10-5 cm2/s depending on concentration.
The Elusive Coefficients of Thermal Expansion in PBX 9502
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
C.B. Skidmore; T.A. Butler; C.W. Sandoval
2003-05-01
PBX 9502 has been in war reserve service for over two decades. Ninety-five percent of the solid phase of this insensitive high explosive is composed of energetic crystallites designated as TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), held together by the remaining solid fraction--an inert, polymeric binder named Kel-F 800. The unusual combination of extreme insensitivity and adequate performance characteristics is not the only enigmatic feature of such TATB-based materials. In this report, we describe the difficulty and progress to date in reliably determining the coefficients of thermal expansion for consolidated components of PBX 9502. We provide bulk linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values for PBX 9502 consolidated to a density of approximately 1.890 g/cm{sup 3} and offer a simple set of equations for calculating dimensional changes for temperatures from 218 to 347 K (-55 C to 74 C).
Recursive Harmonic Numbers and Binomial Coefficients
Maw, Aung Phone; Kyaw, Aung
2017-01-01
We define recursive harmonic numbers as a generalization of harmonic numbers. The table of recursive harmonic numbers, which is like Pascal's triangle, is constructed. A formula for recursive harmonic numbers containing binomial coefficients is also presented.
Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging
Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando
2013-01-01
Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227
Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.
Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J
2013-01-01
Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).
Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Runoff Coefficient C
2012-08-01
In this study, the Regional Transportation District (RTD)s light rail tracks were modeled to determine the Rational Method : runoff coefficient, C, values corresponding to ballasted tracks. To accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a : rain...
Measuring Resource Inequality: The Gini Coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael T. Catalano
2009-07-01
Full Text Available This paper stems from work done by the authors at the Mathematics for Social Justice Workshop held in June of 2007 at Middlebury College. We provide a description of the Gini coefficient and some discussion of how it can be used to promote quantitative literacy skills in mathematics courses. The Gini Coefficient was introduced in 1921 by Italian statistician Corrado Gini as a measure of inequality. It is defined as twice the area between two curves. One, the Lorenz curve for a given population with respect to a given resource, represents the cumulative percentage of the resource as a function of the cumulative percentage of the population that shares that percentage of the resource. The second curve is the line y = x which is the Lorenz curve for a population which shares the resource equally. The Gini coefficient can be interpreted as the percentage of inequality represented in the population with respect to the given resource. We propose that the Gini coefficient can be used to enhance students’ understanding of calculus concepts and provide practice for students in using both calculus and quantitative literacy skills. Our examples are based mainly on distribution of energy resources using publicly available data from the Energy Information Agency of the United States Government. For energy resources within the United States, we find that by household, the Gini coefficient is 0.346, while using the 51 data points represented by the states and Washington D.C., the Gini coefficient is 0.158. When we consider the countries of the world as a population of 210, the Gini coefficient is 0.670. We close with ideas for questions which can be posed to students and discussion of the experiences two other mathematics instructors have had incorporating the Gini coefficient into pre-calculus-level mathematics classes.
The Automation of Sound Absorption Coefficient Measurement
Hermawanto, Denny; Suwandi, Achmad
2006-01-01
By manual method, the sound absorption coefficient measurement should be done by utilizing many type of equipment such as: measuring amplifier, level recorder, band-pass filter, protactor, etc. However it caused inefficient and need longer time in processing measurement data, therefore the automation system of sound absorption coefficient has been realized. An acoustical real time analyzer type B&K 2144 has been used to record the decay of sound pressure level, thus the processing data is dri...
Heat transfer direction dependence of heat transfer coefficients in annuli
Prinsloo, Francois P. A.; Dirker, Jaco; Meyer, Josua P.
2017-11-01
In this experimental study the heat transfer phenomena in concentric annuli in tube-in-tube heat exchangers at different annular Reynolds numbers, annular diameter ratios, and inlet fluid temperatures using water were considered. Turbulent flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 15,000 to 45,000, based on the average bulk fluid temperature was tested at annular diameter ratios of 0.327, 0.386, 0.409 and 0.483 with hydraulic diameters of 17.00, 22.98, 20.20 and 26.18 mm respectively. Both heated and cooled annuli were investigated by conducting tests at a range of inlet temperatures between 10 °C to 30 °C for heating cases, and 30 °C to 50 °C for cooling cases. Of special interest was the direct measurement of local wall temperatures on the heat transfer surface, which is often difficult to obtain and evasive in data-sets. Continuous verification and re-evaluation of temperatures measurements were performed via in-situ calibration. It is shown that inlet fluid temperature and the heat transfer direction play significant roles on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient. A new adjusted Colburn j-factor definition is presented to describe the heating and cooling cases and is used to correlate the 894 test cases considered in this study.
Debye–Waller coefficient of heavily deformed nanocrystalline iron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scardi, P.; Rebuffi, L.; Abdellatief, M.; Flor, A.; Leonardi, A. (Indiana); (SESAME); (Elettra); (Trento)
2017-02-17
Synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns from an extensively ball-milled iron alloy powder were collected at 100, 200 and 300 K. The results were analysed together with those using extended X-ray absorption fine structure, measured on the same sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) and at room temperature (300 K), to assess the contribution of static disorder to the Debye–Waller coefficient (
Environmental coefficients of the free-field sensitivity of measurement microphones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Torras-Rosell, Antoni
2017-01-01
The sensitivity of measurement microphones, both pressure and free field, is affected by changes in the environmental conditions, mainly temperature and static pressure. Static pressure and temperature coefficients for the pressure sensitivity have been the object of previous studies focused on L...
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Pressed PETN Pellets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, Darla Graff [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); DeLuca, Racci [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-11
The PETN single crystal coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values were measured and reported by Cady in 1972 [1] over the temperature range of -160 to 100°C. Measurements were made in the (001) and (100) crystallographic directions, see Figure 1 (a replicate of Figure 1 from the Cady paper). Cady used his single-crystal data to calculate the linear CTE for a randomly-oriented multi-crystal pressing of PETN, and his values ranged from 76.5 με/°C (at 20°C) to 89.9 5 με/°C (at 90°C).
Fuel Temperature Fluctuations During Storage
Levitin, R. E.; Zemenkov, Yu D.
2016-10-01
When oil and petroleum products are stored, their temperature significantly impacts how their properties change. The paper covers the problem of determining temperature fluctuations of hydrocarbons during storage. It provides results of the authors’ investigations of the stored product temperature variations relative to the ambient temperature. Closeness and correlation coefficients between these values are given. Temperature variations equations for oil and petroleum products stored in tanks are deduced.
Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks.
Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim
2016-01-01
Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.
Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Macía M
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.
Nozzle geometry variations on the discharge coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M.A. Alam
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Numerical works have been conducted to investigate the effect of nozzle geometries on the discharge coefficient. Several contoured converging nozzles with finite radius of curvatures, conically converging nozzles and conical divergent orifices have been employed in this investigation. Each nozzle and orifice has a nominal exit diameter of 12.7×10−3 m. A 3rd order MUSCL finite volume method of ANSYS Fluent 13.0 was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in simulating turbulent flows through various nozzle inlet geometries. The numerical model was validated through comparison between the numerical results and experimental data. The results obtained show that the nozzle geometry has pronounced effect on the sonic lines and discharge coefficients. The coefficient of discharge was found differ from unity due to the non-uniformity of flow parameters at the nozzle exit and the presence of boundary layer as well.
Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ariaei F
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature ("meshed" network to negative curvature ("core concentric" network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.
Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.
The Diffusion Coefficients Of Cu And Zn In amp913- And amp919- Solid Solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adhurim Hoxha
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this work the multiphase diffusion in the infinite couple Cu-Zn was studied experimentally. The diffusion couples were prepared by platting technique. The samples were annealed in three different temperatures which were taken below the melting temperature of Zn. For each temperature there were used six different annealing times ranging from 1h up to 32h. In the micrographs provided by light microscopy it can be seen the formation of only two of the three intermetalic phases present in the Cu-Zn phase diagram namely amp949- and amp947-phase. WDX EPMA analysis was used to obtain the concentration profiles of the diffusion layers.he diffusion coefficients of Cu and Zn in amp945- and amp951-solid solutions are calculated using the solutions of second Ficks law for independent concentration case. Since the diffusion coefficients depends only on the temperature of annealing and not on the time of it they must be the same for a given temperature. Therefore the diffusion coefficients were averaged for each temperature. Knowing the diffusion coefficients for each temperature enables the calculation of the activation energies and the frequency factors as well.
Control in the coefficients with variational crimes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Evgrafov, Anton; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi
2012-01-01
to “volumetric” Lebesgue norm, changes of the coefficients is generally speaking not continuous. We utilize the lifting formulation of the discontinuous Galerkin method to deal with this issue.Our main result is that limit points of sequences of designs verifying discrete versions of stationarity can also......We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations...
Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakore@rediffmail.com; Prajapati, A. V., E-mail: anand0prajapati@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Sonvane, Y. A., E-mail: yas@ashd.svnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)
2015-05-15
Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.
Sensitivity study of control rod depletion coefficients
Blomberg, Joel
2015-01-01
This report investigates the sensitivity of the control rod depletion coefficients, Sg, to different input parameters and how this affects the accumulated 10B depletion, β. Currently the coefficients are generated with PHOENIX4, but the geometries can be more accurately simulated in McScram. McScram is used to calculate Control Rod Worth, which in turn is used to calculate Nuclear End Of Life, and Sg cannot be generated in the current version of McScram. Therefore, it is also analyzed whether...
PRACTICAL METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE DYNAMIC COEFFICIENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minodora PASĂRE
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In practice collision is between two bodies, one which is carried kicking and moving, and another is hit and is at rest. There were obtained by shock request. The number of times the dynamic coefficient are greater effects (stress and strain caused by dynamic loading, as compared with the same load applied to the shock and called static load with the dynamic load equivalent studied. Dynamic coefficient is determined basically by measuring static and dynamic arrows that appear at a requested beam weighing suddenly falls from a height known. Sizes arrows static and dynamic compared to what theoretically obtained by calculations.
Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2012-01-01
The effective stress coefficient, introduced by Biot, is used for predicting effective stress or pore pressure in the subsurface. It is not a constant value. It is different for different types of sediment and it is stress dependent. We used a model, based on contact between the grains to describe...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies....
Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.
2012-01-01
The effective stress coefficient, introduced by Biot, is used for predicting effective stress or pore pressure in the subsurface. It is not a constant value. It is different for different types of sediment and it is stress dependent. We used a model, based on contact between the grains to describe...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....
High temperature measuring device
Tokarz, Richard D.
1983-01-01
A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.
Hatch, Harold W.; Jiao, Sally; Mahynski, Nathan A.; Blanco, Marco A.; Shen, Vincent K.
2017-12-01
Virial coefficients are predicted over a large range of both temperatures and model parameter values (i.e., alchemical transformation) from an individual Mayer-sampling Monte Carlo simulation by statistical mechanical extrapolation with minimal increase in computational cost. With this extrapolation method, a Mayer-sampling Monte Carlo simulation of the SPC/E (extended simple point charge) water model quantitatively predicted the second virial coefficient as a continuous function spanning over four orders of magnitude in value and over three orders of magnitude in temperature with less than a 2% deviation. In addition, the same simulation predicted the second virial coefficient if the site charges were scaled by a constant factor, from an increase of 40% down to zero charge. This method is also shown to perform well for the third virial coefficient and the exponential parameter for a Lennard-Jones fluid.
Molecular dynamics simulation of self-diffusion coefficients for several alkanols
Li, Zhiwei; Lai, Shuhui; Gao, Wei; Chen, Liuping
2017-07-01
The transfer properties and microscopic structures of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and 1-pentanol in the temperature range from 290 to 450 K and pressure range from 0.1 to 200 MPa were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation through the calculation of the self-diffusion coefficients, velocity autocorrelation functions (VACF), and radial distribution function (RDF). The calculated self-diffusion coefficients conform to the experimental values on the whole, and the temperature has greater influence, which weaken with the increase of the carbon chain, on self-diffusion coefficient than pressure. The factors affecting self-diffusion coefficients were also analyzed from micro perspective by calculation of VACF and RDF, which is helpful to understand the relationship between microscopic structures of fluid and its transfer properties. This work not only provides a reliable simulation method for transfer properties of alkanols, but also provides the prediction data for design and development of chemical processes.
Transport coefficients in the Polyakov quark meson coupling model: A relaxation time approximation
Abhishek, Aman; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Ghosh, Sabyasachi
2018-01-01
We compute the transport coefficients, namely, the coefficients of shear and bulk viscosities, as well as thermal conductivity for hot and dense matter. The calculations are performed within the Polyakov quark meson model. The estimation of the transport coefficients is made using the Boltzmann kinetic equation within the relaxation time approximation. The energy-dependent relaxation time is estimated from meson-meson scattering, quark-meson scattering, and quark-quark scattering within the model. In our calculations, the shear viscosity to entropy ratio and the coefficient of thermal conductivity show a minimum at the critical temperature, while the ratio of bulk viscosity to entropy density exhibits a peak at this transition point. The effect of confinement modeled through a Polyakov loop potential plays an important role both below and above the critical temperature.
Dielectronic recombination rate coefficients to excited states of Be-like oxygen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murakami, Izumi; Safronova, Ulyana I.; Kato, Takako
2001-05-01
We have calculated energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates for Be-like oxygen (O{sup 4+}) including ls{sup 2}2lnl' (n=2 - 8, l {<=} n - 1) and 1s{sup 2}3l'nl (n=3 - 6, l {<=} n - l) states by multi-configurational Hartree-Fock method (Cowan code) and perturbation theory Z-expansion method (MZ code). The state selective dielectronic recombination rate coefficients to excited states of Be-like O ions are obtained. Configuration mixing plays an important role for the principal quantum number n distribution of the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for 2snl (n {<=} 5) levels at low electron temperature. The orbital angular momentum quantum number l distribution of the rate coefficients shows a peak at l = 4. The total dielectronic recombination rate coefficient is derived as a function of electron temperature. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Legros, J.C.; Van Vaerenbergh, S.; Dubois, F.; Decroly, Y. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Montel, F. [ELF-Aquitaine Production, 64 - Pau (France); Goodman, S. [C-CORE, New Foundland, (Canada); Bekaert, G. [SABCA, Bruxelles (Belgium); Van Ransbeek, E. [IASB-BIRA, Bruxelles (Belgium)
1996-12-31
Measurements of diffusion coefficients of ternary systems and of thermodiffusion coefficients of multicomponent systems, including crude oils, have been undertaken by MRC and Elf-Aquitaine. The experiments DCCO and SCCO (respectively Diffusion and Soret Coefficients of Crude Oils) will be performed in 1997 and 1998 in GAS containers on the Space Shuttle. The 9 systems of DCCO are analyzed by Mach-Zehnder bicolor interferometry. The samples of the 18 systems of SCCO, among which three at 300 bars and at a mean temperature of 60 deg. C, will be analyzed after recovery on ground by a chromatographic technique. Such measurements performed in microgravity, like the measurements of Soret coefficients of binary solutions performed in the microgravity SCM experiments, are necessary reference measurements. (authors) 12 refs.
Investigation of two-phase heat transfer coefficients of argon-freon cryogenic mixed refrigerants
Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon
2014-11-01
Mixed refrigerant Joule Thomson refrigerators are widely used in various kinds of cryogenic systems these days. Although heat transfer coefficient estimation for a multi-phase and multi-component fluid in the cryogenic temperature range is necessarily required in the heat exchanger design of mixed refrigerant Joule Thomson refrigerators, it has been rarely discussed so far. In this paper, condensation and evaporation heat transfer coefficients of argon-freon mixed refrigerant are measured in a microchannel heat exchanger. A Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) with 340 μm hydraulic diameter has been developed as a compact microchannel heat exchanger and utilized in the experiment. Several two-phase heat transfer coefficient correlations are examined to discuss the experimental measurement results. The result of this paper shows that cryogenic two-phase mixed refrigerant heat transfer coefficients can be estimated by conventional two-phase heat transfer coefficient correlations.
Garcia-Ratés, Miquel; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles; Bonet Avalos, Josep; Nieto-Draghi, Carlos
2012-03-08
Mass diffusion coefficients of CO(2)/brine mixtures under thermodynamic conditions of deep saline aquifers have been investigated by molecular simulation. The objective of this work is to provide estimates of the diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in salty water to compensate the lack of experimental data on this property. We analyzed the influence of temperature, CO(2) concentration,and salinity on the diffusion coefficient, the rotational diffusion, as well as the electrical conductivity. We observe an increase of the mass diffusion coefficient with the temperature, but no clear dependence is identified with the salinity or with the CO(2) mole fraction, if the system is overall dilute. In this case, we notice an important dispersion on the values of the diffusion coefficient which impairs any conclusive statement about the effect of the gas concentration on the mobility of CO(2) molecules. Rotational relaxation times for water and CO(2) increase by decreasing temperature or increasing the salt concentration. We propose a correlation for the self-diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in terms of the rotational relaxation time which can ultimately be used to estimate the mutual diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in brine. The electrical conductivity of the CO(2)-brine mixtures was also calculated under different thermodynamic conditions. Electrical conductivity tends to increase with the temperature and salt concentration. However, we do not observe any influence of this property with the CO(2) concentration at the studied regimes. Our results give a first evaluation of the variation of the CO(2)-brine mass diffusion coefficient, rotational relaxation times, and electrical conductivity under the thermodynamic conditions typically encountered in deep saline aquifers.
Effect of particle size on the diffuse reflection coefficient of titanium dioxide powder
Vlasov, V. A.; Astafyev, A. L.; Zarubin, A. N.
2015-04-01
In the present work a model of light scattering is shown which explains the result about effect of particle size on the diffuse reflection coefficient of initial titanium dioxide powders. The diffuse reflection coefficient depending on particle size for TiO2 pigment varies on the curve with maximum. The experimental results and the model can be used for technology development of manufacturing pigment for light-reflecting temperature-control coatings of spacecraft
Effect of particle size on the diffuse reflection coefficient of titanium dioxide powder
Vlasov, Vitaliy Anatolievich; Astafyev, Alexander Leonidovich; Zarubin, A.N.
2015-01-01
In the present work a model of light scattering is shown which explains the result about effect of particle size on the diffuse reflection coefficient of initial titanium dioxide powders. The diffuse reflection coefficient depending on particle size for TiO2 pigment varies on the curve with maximum. The experimental results and the model can be used for technology development of manufacturing pigment for light-reflecting temperature-control coatings of spacecraft.
The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.
2008-01-01
This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…
UNIPORM WAD COEFFICIENTS FOR BEAMS IN REINFORCED ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
derived coefficients with ela.Jtic analysis of single span beam.s, the total panel loading with the total load the four .tupporting beams carry. Under these three aspects investigation has been made on the recommendation of the new Building Code Standards. {11) which i.t to be launched in the near future. INTRODUCTION.
Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values
A.J. Koning (Alex); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
2003-01-01
textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution,
Calculation of aberration coefficients by ray tracing.
Oral, M; Lencová, B
2009-10-01
In this paper we present an approach for the calculation of aberration coefficients using accurate ray tracing. For a given optical system, intersections of a large number of trajectories with a given plane are computed. In the Gaussian image plane the imaging with the selected optical system can be described by paraxial and aberration coefficients (geometric and chromatic) that can be calculated by least-squares fitting of the analytical model on the computed trajectory positions. An advantage of such a way of computing the aberration coefficients is that, in comparison with the aberration integrals and the differential algebra method, it is relatively easy to use and its complexity stays almost constant with the growing complexity of the optical system. This paper shows a tested procedure for choosing proper initial conditions and computing the coefficients of the fifth-order geometrical and third-order, first-degree chromatic aberrations by ray tracing on an example of a weak electrostatic lens. The results are compared with the values for the same lens from a paper Liu [Ultramicroscopy 106 (2006) 220-232].
Prediction of longitudinal dispersion coefficient using multivariate ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) was developed as a novel soft-computing technique for predicting longitudinal dispersion coefficient (DL) in rivers. As mentioned in the literature, experimental dataset related to DL was collected and used for preparing MARS model. Results of MARS.
Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants
Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...
Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.
2000-01-01
is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...
UNIPORM WAD COEFFICIENTS FOR BEAMS IN REINFORCED ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
problems. It has also been tried to verify some of the results by comparing the recommended side ratio of the slab loadings with the yield line analysis of slabs, the derived coefficients with ela.Jtic analysis of single span beam.s, the total panel loading with the total load the four .tupporting beams carry. Under these three.
Second virial coefficients of dipolar hard spheres
Philipse, A.P.; Kuipers, B.W.M.
2010-01-01
An asymptotic formula is reported for the second virial coefficient B2 of a dipolar hard-sphere (DHS) fluid, in zero external field, for strongly coupled dipolar interactions. This simple formula, together with the one for the weak-coupling B2, provides an accurate prediction of the second virial
Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient
Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.
The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions
Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.
2002-01-01
) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement...
Regularity of the interband light absorption coefficient
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Light absorption coefficient; density of states; random operators. 1. ... The operators H. ± ω may be unbounded. However, the finite volume operators H ,ω are symmetric finite-dimensional matrices when is a finite set, so their ...... [1] Atoyan M S, Kazaryan E M and Sarkisyan H A, Interband light absorption in parabolic.
Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha
Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua
2013-01-01
The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…
(Hordeum Vulgare) Crop Coefficient and Comparative Assessment ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Bheema
evapotranspiration, to estimate barley crop coefficient (kc), and to evaluate the water productivity taking into ... corresponding economic water productivity for tomato and onion were 87 – 89% and 81 – 82% higher than that of ... areas where water scarcity is critical problem and irrigation is a necessity for crop production.
Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin
2013-01-01
The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…
Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS-. P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical ...
Cohomology with coefficients for operadic coalgebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
coefficients, there should be a cohomology theory for the P-coalgebra .... For any positive integer n, n will denote the group of permutations on n elements. For σ ∈ n, ϵ(σ) .... V ⊗ M to M ⊗ V . Think of η (or ητ ) as the left (or right) V -coaction on M.
Infinite matrices, wavelet coefficients and frames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. A. Sheikh
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We study the action of A on f∈L2(ℝ and on its wavelet coefficients, where A=(almjklmjk is a double infinite matrix. We find the frame condition for A-transform of f∈L2(ℝ whose wavelet series expansion is known.
Simultaneous Description of Activity Coefficients and Solubility with eCPA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schlaikjer, Anders; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios
2017-01-01
with salt specific parameters. The focus is on accurate description of the salt solubility, and low deviation correlations are obtained for all salts investigated. The inclusion of the solubility data in the parametrization has, compared to parameters only parametrized to osmotic coefficients and activity...... molality. The model is, furthermore, compared to the activity coefficient model, Extended UNIQUAC. It is shown that the eCPA provides more accurate solubility description at higher temperatures than Extended UNIQUAC but also that Extended UNIQUAC is slightly better at describing the activity coefficients...
Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Sun, Pengxiao; Banerjee, Writam; Liu, Ming
2014-09-01
A unified physical model for Seebeck coefficient was presented based on the multiple-trapping and release theory for amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors. According to the proposed model, the Seebeck coefficient is attributed to the Fermi-Dirac statistics combined with the energy dependent trap density of states and the gate-voltage dependence of the quasi-Fermi level. The simulation results show that the gate voltage, energy disorder, and temperature dependent Seebeck coefficient can be well described. The calculation also shows a good agreement with the experimental data in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor.
Data set for diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys from first-principles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bi-Cheng Zhou
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in Mg are critical for the development of new Mg alloys for lightweight applications. Here we present the data set of the temperature-dependent dilute tracer diffusion coefficients for 47 substitutional alloying elements in hexagonal closed packed (hcp Mg calculated from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT by combining transition state theory and an 8-frequency model. Benchmark for the DFT calculations and systematic comparison with experimental diffusion data are also presented. The data set refers to “Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys: A comprehensive first-principles study” by Zhou et al. [1].
Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco
2009-01-01
The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten
2009-01-01
Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....
Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu
2015-01-01
We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.
Measurement of sliding friction coefficient of micro-line patterned surfaces on ice
Kim, Sangmyeong; Kang, Hosung; Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Young-Ze; Lee, Jinkee
2017-11-01
Although the sliding friction of patterned surfaces on ice has been investigated for over a century, physical analysis still needs to be improved. In this study, we investigate the friction coefficient on ice by changing the experimental conditions of temperature, gap between line patterns (20 μm and 200 μm), and sliding direction. In the temperature region of -17.7 °C friction coefficient for both parallel and perpendicular sliding directions at the same temperatures. Interestingly, a lower friction coefficient is found when the sliding direction is perpendicular to the micro-structure patterns at T friction on ice can be controlled using a micro-structure pattern and moreover suggests a method for finding an optimized micro-structured surface for reducing friction on ice.
Deriving Second Osmotic Virial Coefficients from Equations of State and from Experiment.
Koga, K; Holten, Vincent; Widom, B
2015-10-22
The osmotic virial coefficients, which are measures of the effective interactions between solute molecules in dilute solution, may be obtained from expansions of the osmotic pressure or of the solute activity in powers of the solute concentration. In these expansions, the temperature is held fixed, and one additional constraint is imposed. When the additional constraint is that of fixed chemical potential of the solvent, the coefficient of the second-order term yields directly the second osmotic virial coefficient itself. Alternative constraints, such as fixed pressure, fixed solvent density, or the specification of liquid-vapor equilibrium, yield alternative measures of the solute-solute interaction, different from but related to the osmotic virial coefficient. These relations are summarized and, where new, are derived here. The coefficient in question may be calculated from equations of state in which the parameters have been obtained by fitting to other experimental properties. Alternatively, the coefficients may be calculated from direct experimental measurements of the deviations from Henry's law based on measurements of the activity of the solute in a coexisting gas phase. It is seen for propane in water as a test case that with the latter method, even with what appear to be the best available experimental data, there are still large uncertainties in the resulting second osmotic virial coefficient. With the former method, by contrast, the coefficient may be obtained with high numerical precision but then depends for its accuracy on the quality of the equation of state from which it is derived.
Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Vertical Tube Rising Film Evaporator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Naveed Ul Hasan
2011-10-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient (U in a VRF (Vertical Tube Rising Film Evaporator. The aim is to describe the variation of U against different process parameters. Experiments were carried out for laminar flow conditions. The experimental unit is a floor standing tubular framework for a rising film evaporation system. There are many parameters affecting heat transfer coefficient in evaporators, but it was not possible to consider all of them, so parameters including, Reynolds Number (NRe, Temperature Difference (DT, Feed Temperature (Tf and Re-circulation Ratio (R were investigated while other factors were kept constant. The experimental results obtained showed that heat transfer coefficient increased with the increase in Reynolds number, feed temperature and temperature difference. The increase in re-circulation ratio also increased the heat transfer coefficient but up to the value of 0.85 and after this the heat transfer coefficient started decreasing slowly and then remained almost constant. An experimental correlation has been developed to relate the Nusselt number and the parameters investigated during the research work.
Modified 2CLJDQP model and the second virial coefficients for linear molecules
Zhang, Ying; Wang, Sheng; He, Mao-Gang
2014-12-01
A modified form of 2CLJDQP potential model is proposed to calculate the second virial coefficients of two-center Lennard-Jones molecules. In the presented potential model, the potential parameters σ and ɛ are considered as the temperature-dependent parameters in the form of hyperbolical temperature function based on the theory of temperature-dependent potential parameters. With this modified model, the second virial coefficients of some homonuclear molecules (such as O2, Cl2, CH3CH3, and CF3CF3) and heteronuclear molecules (such as CO, NO, CH3F, CH3Cl, CH3CF3, CH3CHF2, and CF3CH2F) are calculated. Then the Lorentz—Berthelot mixing rule is modified with a temperature-dependent expression, and the second virial coefficients of the heteronuclear molecules (such as CH3F, CH3Cl, and CH3CF3) are calculated. Moreover, CO2 and N2O are also studied with the modified 3CLJDQP model. The calculated results from the modified 2CLJDQP model accord better with the experimental data than those from the original model. It is shown that the presented model improves the positive deviation in low temperature range and negative deviation in high temperature range. So the modified 2CLJDQP potential model with the temperature-dependent parameters can be employed satisfactorily in large temperature range.
Guttmann, Anthony J.
2016-10-01
Given the first 20-100 coefficients of a typical generating function of the type that arises in many problems of statistical mechanics or enumerative combinatorics, we show that the method of differential approximants performs surprisingly well in predicting (approximately) subsequent coefficients. These can then be used by the ratio method to obtain improved estimates of critical parameters. In favourable cases, given only the first 20 coefficients, the next 100 coefficients are predicted with useful accuracy. More surprisingly, this is also the case when the method of differential approximants does not do a useful job in estimating the critical parameters, such as those cases in which one has stretched exponential asymptotic behaviour. Nevertheless, the coefficients are predicted with surprising accuracy. As one consequence, significant computer time can be saved in enumeration problems where several runs would normally be made, modulo different primes, and the coefficients constructed from their values modulo different primes. Another is in the checking of newly calculated coefficients. We believe that this concept of approximate series extension opens up a whole new chapter in the method of series analysis.
Meromorphic univalent function with negative coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Dernek
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Let Mn be the classes of regular functions f(z=z−1+a0+a1z+… defined in the annulus 00, (n∈ℕ0, where I0f(z=f(z, If(z=(z−1−z(z−1−2∗f(z, Inf(z=I(In−1f(z, and ∗ is the Hadamard convolution. We denote by Γn=Mn⋃Γ, where Γ denotes the class of functions of the form f(z=z−1+∑k=1∞|ak|zk. We obtained that relates the modulus of the coefficients to starlikeness for the classes Mn and Γn, and coefficient inequalities for the classes Γn.
Improving the calculation of interdiffusion coefficients
Kapoor, Rakesh R.; Eagar, Thomas W.
1990-12-01
Least-squares spline interpolation techniques are reviewed and presented as a mathematical tool for noise reduction and interpolation of diffusion profiles. Numerically simulated diffusion profiles were interpolated using a sixth-order spline. The spline fit data were successfully used in conjunction with the Boltzmann-Matano treatment to compute the interdiffusion coefficient, demonstrating the usefulness of splines as a numerical tool for such calculations. Simulations conducted on noisy data indicate that the technique can extract the correct diffusivity data given compositional data that contain only three digits of information and are contaminated with a noise level of 0.001. Splines offer a reproducible and reliable alternative to graphical evaluation of the slope of a diffusion profile, which is used in the Boltzmann-Matano treatment. Hence, use of splines reduces the numerical errors associated with calculation of interdiffusion coefficients from raw diffusion profile data.
Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values
Koning, Alex; Franses, Philip Hans
2003-01-01
textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, which amounts to computing the confidence intervals of an alpha, as these intervals automatically account for differences across the numbers of items. We also give appropriate statistics to test for ...
CALCULATION OF IONIZATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ionization. 1. INTRODUCTION. Plusieurs problèmes liés à l'étude des plasmas de laboratoire, d'astrophysique et de fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée nécessitent la connaissance au préalable de la structure atomique comme les énergies et longueurs d'onde des différents niveaux et les sections efficaces et les coefficients ...
Numerical Integral of Resistance Coefficients in Diffusion
Zhang, Q. S.
2017-01-01
The resistance coefficients in the screened Coulomb potential of stellar plasma are evaluated to high accuracy. I have analyzed the possible singularities in the integral of scattering angle. There are possible singularities in the case of an attractive potential. This may result in a problem for the numerical integral. In order to avoid the problem, I have used a proper scheme, e.g., splitting into many subintervals where the width of each subinterval is determined by the variation of the integrand, to calculate the scattering angle. The collision integrals are calculated by using Romberg’s method, therefore the accuracy is high (I.e., ˜10-12). The results of collision integrals and their derivatives for -7 ≤ ψ ≤ 5 are listed. By using Hermite polynomial interpolation from those data, the collision integrals can be obtained with an accuracy of 10-10. For very weakly coupled plasma (ψ ≥ 4.5), analytical fittings for collision integrals are available with an accuracy of 10-11. I have compared the final results of resistance coefficients with other works and found that, for a repulsive potential, the results are basically the same as others’ for an attractive potential, the results in cases of intermediate and strong coupling show significant differences. The resulting resistance coefficients are tested in the solar model. Comparing with the widely used models of Cox et al. and Thoul et al., the resistance coefficients in the screened Coulomb potential lead to a slightly weaker effect in the solar model, which is contrary to the expectation of attempts to solve the solar abundance problem.
Extraction of the coefficient of giant magnetoresistance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idzerda, Y.U. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)); Chen, C. (AT T Bell Laboratories, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Cheng, S. (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 (United States)); Vavra, W.; Prinz, G.A. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)); Meigs, G.; Lin, H. (AT T Bell Laboratories, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Ho, G.H. (Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States))
1994-06-20
Element specific magnetic hysteresis (ESMH) loops have been used in conjunction with measured magnetoresistance curves to extract the coefficient of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), which is the maximum achievable value of the GMR independent of magnetic domain effects and incomplete moment alignment effects, for sputtered Fe/Cu/Co sandwiches on silicon substrates. Using the ESMH loops to calculate GMR curves, comparison with the measured GMR curves shows that the magnetization reversal process is best described by multidomain Ising behavior.
Detailed Investigations of Load Coefficients on Grates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Frigaard, Peter
In this report is presented the results of model tests carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, aalborg University (AAU) on behalf of DONG Energy A/S and Vattenfall A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was to investigate the load coefficient on different grates and a solid plate for designi...... offshore windmill access platforms against run-up generated forces with special attention to the influence of air entrainment and the angle of attack....
Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading
Keller, AA; Chen, X.; Fox, J; Fulda, M; Dorsey, R.; Seapy, B; Glenday, J; E Bray
2014-01-01
Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction t...
Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker
2001-01-01
. Particle sizes in the range 0.05-5 mm were tested, and the effective diffusion coefficients were estimated from measured effectiveness factors using the Thiele modulus. At 1079 K the effective diffusion coefficients were 5.5 X 10(-6) m(2)/s and 6.8 X 10(-6) m(2)/s for N2O and NO, respectively....... The experimental results were compared with theoretical values calculated from the mean pore radius and the cross-linked pore model. The method of mean pore radius underestimated the effective diffusion coefficient more than an order of magnitude. Using the cross-linked pore model, the bimodal pore size....... In the case of strong pore diffusion limitations, the error in the interpretation of experimental results using the mean pore radius could be a factor of 5 on the intrinsic rate constant. For an average coal char reacting with oxygen at 1300 K, this would be the case for particle sizes larger than about 50...
Schwenke, David W.; Jaffe, Richard L.; Chaban, Galina M.
2016-01-01
We have generated accurate global potential energy surfaces for CO+Ar and CO+O that correlate with atom-diatom pairs in their ground electronic states based on extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations and used these potentials in quasi-classical trajectory nuclear dynamics calculations to predict the thermal dissociation rate coefficients over 5000- 35000 K. Our results are not compatible with the 20-45 year old experimental results. For CO + Ar we obtain fairly good agreement with the experimental rate coefficients of Appleton et al. (1970) and Mick and Roth (1993), but our computed rate coefficients exhibit a stronger temperature dependence. For CO + O our dissociation rate coefficient is in close agreement with the value from the Park model, which is an empirical adjustment of older experimental results. However, we find the rate coefficient for CO + O is only 1.5 to 3.3 times larger than CO + Ar over the temperature range of the shock tube experiments (8000-15,000 K). The previously accepted value for this rate coefficient ratio is 15, independent of temperature. We also computed the rate coefficient for the CO + O ex- change reaction which forms C + O2. We find this reaction is much faster than previously believed and is the dominant process in the removal of CO at temperatures up to 16,000 K. As a result, the dissociation of CO is accomplished in two steps (react to form C+O2 and then O2 dissociates) that are endothermic by 6.1 and 5.1 eV, instead of one step that requires 11.2 eV to break the CO bond.
Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akpinar, E. Kavak [Mechanical Engineering Department, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: eakpinar@firat.edu.tr
2005-09-15
In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m{sup 2} C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Rindel, Jens Holger
2005-01-01
The phased beam tracing method (PBTM) is a technique which can calculate the pressure impulse response instead of energy impulse response, by taking the phase information into account. Inclusion of the phase information can extend the application of beam tracing technique to the mid frequency range...... in spite of the fact that the usual assumptions of geometric acoustics still hold. In the calculation of pressure impulse response, it is essential to have the reflection characteristics of the surfaces in the enclosed space. There is a method to obtain the reflection coefficient of the surface using......, whereas Rindel proposed the angle dependent reflection coefficient which can be calculated from absorption coefficient under the several assumptions. In this research, the angle dependent reflection coefficients were adopted in the phased beam tracing method and the results are compared with measurement...
The effect of chalk on the finger-hold friction coefficient in rock climbing.
Amca, Arif Mithat; Vigouroux, Laurent; Aritan, Serdar; Berton, Eric
2012-11-01
The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chalk on the friction coefficient between climber's fingers and two different rock types (sandstone and limestone). The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of humidity and temperature on the friction coefficient and on the influence of chalk. Eleven experienced climbers took part in this study and 42 test sessions were performed. Participants hung from holds which were fixed on a specially designed hang board. The inclination of the hang board was progressively increased until the climber's hand slipped from the holds. The angle of the hang board was simultaneously recorded by using a gyroscopic sensor and the friction coefficient was calculated at the moment of slip. The results showed that there was a significant positive effect of chalk on the coefficient of friction (+18.7% on limestone and +21.6% on sandstone). Moreover sandstone had a higher coefficient of friction than limestone (+15.6% without chalk, +18.4% with chalk). These results confirmed climbers' belief that chalk enhances friction. However, no correlation with humidity/temperature and friction coefficient was noted which suggested that additional parameters should be considered in order to understand the effects of climate on finger friction in rock climbing.
CFD simulation of simultaneous monotonic cooling and surface heat transfer coefficient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mihálka, Peter, E-mail: usarmipe@savba.sk; Matiašovský, Peter, E-mail: usarmat@savba.sk [Institute of Construction and Architecture, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 03 Bratislava (Slovakia)
2016-07-07
The monotonic heating regime method for determination of thermal diffusivity is based on the analysis of an unsteady-state (stabilised) thermal process characterised by an independence of the space-time temperature distribution on initial conditions. At the first kind of the monotonic regime a sample of simple geometry is heated / cooled at constant ambient temperature. The determination of thermal diffusivity requires the determination rate of a temperature change and simultaneous determination of the first eigenvalue. According to a characteristic equation the first eigenvalue is a function of the Biot number defined by a surface heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity of an analysed material. Knowing the surface heat transfer coefficient and the first eigenvalue the thermal conductivity can be determined. The surface heat transport coefficient during the monotonic regime can be determined by the continuous measurement of long-wave radiation heat flow and the photoelectric measurement of the air refractive index gradient in a boundary layer. CFD simulation of the cooling process was carried out to analyse local convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients more in detail. Influence of ambient air flow was analysed. The obtained eigenvalues and corresponding surface heat transfer coefficient values enable to determine thermal conductivity of the analysed specimen together with its thermal diffusivity during a monotonic heating regime.
Dubey, Awadhesh Kumar; Bodrova, Anna; Puri, Sanjay; Brilliantov, Nikolai
2013-06-01
We perform large-scale event-driven molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for granular gases of particles interacting with the impact-velocity-dependent restitution coefficient ε(v(imp)). We use ε(v(imp)) as it follows from the simplest first-principles collision model of viscoelastic spheres. Both cases of force-free and uniformly heated gases are studied. We formulate a simplified model of an effective constant restitution coefficient ε(eff), which depends on a current granular temperature, and we compute ε(eff) using the kinetic theory. We develop a theory of the velocity distribution function for driven gases of viscoelastic particles and analyze the evolution of granular temperature and of the Sonine coefficients, which characterize the form of the velocity distribution function. We observe that for not large dissipation the simulation results are in an excellent agreement with the theory for both the homogeneous cooling state and uniformly heated gases. At the same time, a noticeable discrepancy between the theory and MD results for the Sonine coefficients is detected for large dissipation. We analyze the accuracy of the simplified model based on the effective restitution coefficient ε(eff), and we conclude that this model can accurately describe granular temperature. It provides also an acceptable accuracy for the velocity distribution function for small dissipation, but it fails when dissipation is large.
Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.
Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja
2015-01-01
The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.
Anomalous Seebeck coefficient observed in silicon nanowire micro thermoelectric generator
Hashimoto, S.; Asada, S.; Xu, T.; Oba, S.; Himeda, Y.; Yamato, R.; Matsukawa, T.; Matsuki, T.; Watanabe, T.
2017-07-01
We have found experimentally an anomalous thermoelectric characteristic of an n-type Si nanowire micro thermoelectric generator (μTEG). The μTEG is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer by electron beam lithography and dry etching, and its surface is covered with a thermally grown silicon dioxide film. The observed thermoelectric current is opposite to what is expected from the Seebeck coefficient of n-type Si. The result is understandable by considering a potential barrier in the nanowire. Upon the application of the temperature gradient across the nanowire, the potential barrier impedes the diffusion of thermally activated majority carriers into the nanowire, and it rather stimulates the injection of thermally generated minority carriers. The most plausible origin of the potential barrier is negative charges trapped at the interface between the Si nanowire and the oxide film. We practically confirmed that the normal Seebeck coefficient of the n-type Si nanowire is recovered after the hydrogen forming gas annealing. This implies that the interface traps are diminished by the hydrogen termination of bonding defects. The present results show the importance of the surface inactivation treatment of μTEGs to suppress the potential barrier and unfavorable contribution of minority carriers.
Field-effect-modulated Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors.
Pernstich, K P; Rössner, B; Batlogg, B
2008-04-01
Central to the operation of organic electronic and optoelectronic devices is the transport of charge and energy in the organic semiconductor, and to understand the nature and dynamics of charge carriers is at the focus of intense research efforts. As a basic transport property of solids, the Seebeck coefficient S provides deep insight as it is given by the entropy transported by thermally excited charge carriers and involves in the simplest case only electronic contributions where the transported entropy is determined by details of the band structure and scattering events. We have succeeded for the first time to measure the temperature- and carrier-density-dependent thermopower in single crystals and thin films of two prototypical organic semiconductors by a controlled modulation of the chemical potential in a field-effect geometry. Surprisingly, we find the Seebeck coefficient to be well within the range of the electronic contribution in conventional inorganic semiconductors, highlighting the similarity of transport mechanisms in organic and inorganic semiconductors. Charge and entropy transport is best described as band-like transport of quasiparticles that are subjected to scattering, with exponentially distributed in-gap trap states, and without further contributions to S.
Measurement of Acoustic Attenuation and Absorption Coefficients using Thermometry
Morris, Hugh; Rivens, Ian; Shaw, Adam; ter Haar, Gail
2007-05-01
Accurate knowledge of both the attenuation and the absorption coefficient of tissue are required when planning an optimal high intensity focused ultrasound treatment. A novel technique for simple measurement of this parameters has been developed in which a thin-film thermocouple (TFT) is placed between two layers of tissue of different thicknesses. The sample can be rotated about an axis through the junction of the TFT so that it can be insonated from either side leaving the tissue adjacent to the junction unchanged, but changing the overlying thickness. The attenuation and absorption coefficients can be calculated from the heating curves measured in the two orientations. Experiments have been carried out in both tissue mimicking material (TMM) and in ex vivo liver tissue. Weakly focused transducers, resonant at 1.05 MHz, 2.4 MHz and 3.55 MHz were used at free-field spatial peak intensities of 9-14 W/cm2. The temperature rise was measured as a function of time using a TFT. These thermocouples are not subject to the viscous heating artefact that is common to other thermocouple devices and so are advantageous for this purpose. Alignment was achieved with a 3D automated gantry system, which was controlled with specialised software. Timing and data acquisition were also controlled with this software. All experiments were carried out in degassed water. Results for TMM and degassed excised bovine liver are presented.
Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient delta.
Hankins, Matthew
2007-05-18
Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Ferguson (1949) 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient delta, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect) items. In this paper a general form of the formula, deltaG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of deltaG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12) from 2003-2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761). Coefficients for reliability (alpha) and discrimination (deltaG) are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Both scoring methods were reliable (alpha > 0.88). However, deltaG was substantially lower (0.73) for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (deltaG = 0.96), indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Coefficient deltaG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's delta has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is suggested that the more general
Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient δ
Hankins, Matthew
2007-01-01
Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949) [1] derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect) items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12) from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761). Coefficients for reliability (α) and discrimination (δG) are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88). However, δG was substantially lower (0.73) for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96), indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is suggested that the
Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O
Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.
1999-01-01
Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, sub -0.47 ) x 10(exp 13) e(-15813 +/- 587 K/T)/cubic cm.mol.s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.
New potential energy surface for the HCS(+)-He system and inelastic rate coefficients.
Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Quintas-Sánchez, Ernesto; Tuckey, Philip
2015-07-28
A new high quality potential energy surface is calculated at a coupled-cluster single double triple level with an aug-cc-pV5Z basis set for the HCS(+)-He system. This potential energy surface is used in low energy quantum scattering calculations to provide a set of (de)-excitation cross sections and rate coefficients among the first 20 rotational levels of HCS(+) by He in the range of temperature from 5 K to 100 K. The paper discusses the impact of the new ab initio potential energy surface on the cross sections at low energy and provides a comparison with the HCO(+)-He system. The HCS(+)-He rate coefficients for the strongest transitions differ by factors of up to 2.5 from previous rate coefficients; thus, analysis of astrophysical spectra should be reconsidered with the new rate coefficients.
Kremer, Gilberto M.; Kunova, Olga V.; Kustova, Elena V.; Oblapenko, George P.
2018-01-01
A detailed kinetic-theory model for the vibrationally state-resolved transport coefficients is developed taking into account the dependence of the collision cross section on the size of vibrationally excited molecule. Algorithms for the calculation of shear and bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion and diffusion coefficients for vibrational states are proposed. The transport coefficients are evaluated for single-component diatomic gases N2, O2, NO, H2, Cl2 in the wide range of temperature, and the effects of molecular diameters and the number of accounted states are discussed. The developed model is applied to study wave propagation in diatomic gases. For the case of initial Boltzmann distribution, the influence of vibrational excitation on the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient is found to be weak. We expect more significant effect in the case of initial thermal non-equilibrium, for instance in gases with optically pumped selected vibrational states.
Uncertainty in length conversion due to change of sensitivity coefficients of refractive index
Wei, Dong; Aketagawa, Masato
2015-06-01
A value of length measured in air should be converted to the value in vacuum for the purpose of comparison. The typical values of the sensitivity coefficients for a particular wavelength (e.g. 632.99 nm) under standard environmental conditions are widely available. Because all measurements are not performed under standard environmental conditions and the sensitivity coefficient is affected by atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity, one question arises naturally: how does a measurement change with environmental conditions? This study investigates the uncertainty in length conversion due to the change of sensitivity coefficients of refractive index. We also clarify that there is no significant difference in conversion uncertainties via sensitivity coefficients of phase and group refractive indexes.
Soriano, Allan N.; Adamos, Kristoni G.; Bonifacio, Pauline B.; Adornado, Adonis P.; Bungay, Vergel C.; Vairavan, Rajendaran
2017-11-01
The fate of antibiotics entering the environment raised concerns on the possible effect of antimicrobial resistance bacteria. Prediction of the fate and transport of these particles are needed to be determined, significantly the diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution. A systematic determination of diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution of five different kinds of livestock antibiotics namely: Amtyl, Ciprotyl, Doxylak Forte, Trisullak, and Vetracin Gold in the 293.15 to 313.15 K temperature range are reported through the use of the method involving the electrolytic conductivity measurements. A continuous stirred tank reactor is utilized to measure the electrolytic conductivities of the considered systems. These conductivities are correlated by using the Nernst-Haskell equation to determine the infinite dilution diffusion coefficient. Determined diffusion coefficients are based on the assumption that in dilute solution, these antibiotics behave as strong electrolyte from which H+ cation dissociate from the antibiotic's anion.
Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3+O2+CH3O+O
Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.
1999-01-01
Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, -0.47)) X 10(exp 13) exp(- 15813 +/- 587 K/T)cc/mol s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.
Ferlemann, Paul G.
2000-01-01
A solution methodology has been developed to efficiently model multi-specie, chemically frozen, thermally perfect gas mixtures. The method relies on the ability to generate a single (composite) set of thermodynamic and transport coefficients prior to beginning a CFD solution. While not fundamentally a new concept, many applied CFD users are not aware of this capability nor have a mechanism to easily and confidently generate new coefficients. A database of individual specie property coefficients has been created for 48 species. The seven coefficient form of the thermodynamic functions is currently used rather then the ten coefficient form due to the similarity of the calculated properties, low temperature behavior and reduced CPU requirements. Sutherland laminar viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients were computed in a consistent manner from available reference curves. A computer program has been written to provide CFD users with a convenient method to generate composite specie coefficients for any mixture. Mach 7 forebody/inlet calculations demonstrated nearly equivalent results and significant CPU time savings compared to a multi-specie solution approach. Results from high-speed combustor analysis also illustrate the ability to model inert test gas contaminants without additional computational expense.
Probability based calibration of pressure coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Svend Ole; Pedersen, Marie Louise; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2015-01-01
not depend on the type of variable action. A probability based calibration of pressure coefficients have been carried out using pressure measurements on the standard CAARC building modelled on scale of 1:383. The extreme pressures measured on the CAARC building model in the wind tunnel have been fitted...... to Gumbel distributions, and these fits are found to represent the data measured with good accuracy. The pressure distributions found have been used in a calibration of partial factors, which should achieve a certain theoretical target reliability index. For a target annual reliability index of 4...
Expansion Coefficient on Oxides and Oxide Ceramics.
1986-05-01
Classification) EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS ON OXIDES AND OXIDE CERAMICS 12 PFRSONAL AUTHOR(S) Josephine Covino 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT...drastically alter expansion properties of oxides. It has been found that fine-grained ( tm) anisotropic ceramic materials, such as hafnium oxide, hafnium ...Gokhale. "Thermal Expansion of Zircon ," Jap. J. AppZ. Phys., 7 (1968), p. 1126. 34 -- ’-a.’! nw-W’W L. .WW U. .PV _ 77 NWC TP 6663 81. J. L. Amoros, M
Einstein Coefficients and Equilibrium Formalism for Tachyon Radiation
Tomaschitz, R
2001-01-01
The spectral energy density of an ideal Bose gas of superluminal particles (tachyons) is derived. To this end, we consider atoms in equilibrium with tachyon radiation, study spontaneous and induced transitions effected by tachyons, calculate the Einstein coefficients, all semiclassically, and obtain, by detailed balancing, the equilibrium distribution of the tachyon gas. Tachyons are described by a real Proca field with negative mass square, coupled to a current of subluminal matter. Atomic transitions induced by tachyons are compared to photonic ones, and the tachyonic analog to the photoelectric effect is discussed. The cosmic tachyon background is scrutinized in detail; high- and low-temperature expansions of the internal energy, the entropy, the heat capacities, and the number density are compared with the corresponding quantities of the photon background. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the lo...
Tomato crop coefficient grown under mediterranean climate conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerekovic, Natasa; Todorovic, Mladen; Snyder, Richard L.
2011-01-01
parameters which can contribute in difference of Kc values for this climatic region. The results of investigations on Policoro data confirmed relevant difference in the length of the growing period in respect to the data presented in FAO 56. Therefore, careful consideration of all growing and management...... parameters is needed when crop evapotranspiration has to be estimated under local conditions. This work has shown that peak Kc estimation can be improved by applying the corrections for relative humidity, wind speed and plant height as it suggested in FAO 56. This improvement is particularly important...... techniques, crop management, climatic conditions changes (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) and irrigation technique have a significant impact on the crop development and crop coefficient values....
Molecular dynamics study of the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon
Nejat Pishkenari, Hossein; Mohagheghian, Erfan; Rasouli, Ali
2016-12-01
Due to the growing applications of silicon in nano-scale systems, a molecular dynamics approach is employed to investigate thermal properties of silicon. Since simulation results rely upon interatomic potentials, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and lattice constant of bulk silicon have been obtained using different potentials (SW, Tersoff, MEAM, and EDIP) and results indicate that SW has a better agreement with the experimental observations. To investigate effect of size on TEC of silicon nanowires, further simulations are performed using SW potential. To this end, silicon nanowires of different sizes are examined and their TEC is calculated by averaging in different directions ([100], [110], [111], and [112]) and various temperatures. Results show that as the size increases, due to the decrease of the surface effects, TEC approaches its bulk value.
The effect of the band edges on the Seebeck coefficient.
Sonntag, Joachim
2010-06-16
The classical thermopower formulae generally applied for the calculation of the Seebeck coefficient S are argued to be incomplete. S can be separated into two different contributions, a scattering term, S(0), and a thermodynamic term, ΔS, representing the additional change of the electrochemical potential μ with temperature T caused by 'non-scattering' effects, for instance, the band edge shift with T. On the basis of this separation into S(0) and ΔS, it is shown that shifts of the band edges with T lead to an additional contribution to the classical thermopower formulae. This separation provides the basis for an interpretation of positive thermopowers measured for many metals. Positive thermopower is expected if the energy of the conduction band edge increases with T and if this effect overcompensates for the influence of the energy dependent conductivity, σ(E). Using experimental thermopower data, the band edge shifts are determined for a series of liquid normal metals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. N. Warwick
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We present measurements of the Seebeck coefficient in two high mobility organic small molecules, 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT and 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2′,3′-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10-DNTT. The measurements are performed in a field effect transistor structure with high field effect mobilities of approximately 3 cm2/V s. This allows us to observe both the charge concentration and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. We find a strong logarithmic dependence upon charge concentration and a temperature dependence within the measurement uncertainty. Despite performing the measurements on highly polycrystalline evaporated films, we see an agreement in the Seebeck coefficient with modelled values from Shi et al. [Chem. Mater. 26, 2669 (2014] at high charge concentrations. We attribute deviations from the model at lower charge concentrations to charge trapping.
Modeling diffusion coefficients in binary mixtures of polar and non-polar compounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander
2005-01-01
The theory of transport coefficients in liquids, developed previously, is tested on a description of the diffusion coefficients in binary polar/non-polar mixtures, by applying advanced thermodynamic models. Comparison to a large set of experimental data shows good performance of the model. Only...... components and to only one parameter for mixtures consisting of non-polar components. A possibility of complete prediction of the parameters is discussed....... four temperature-independent parameters are required in order to describe the behavior of diffusion coefficients at different temperatures. The physical meaning of the parameters is analyzed. This makes it possible to reduce further their number to just two parameters for described mixtures with polar...
The Convergence Coefficient across Political Systems
Schofield, Norman
2013-01-01
Formal work on the electoral model often suggests that parties or candidates should locate themselves at the electoral mean. Recent research has found no evidence of such convergence. In order to explain nonconvergence, the stochastic electoral model is extended by including estimates of electoral valence. We introduce the notion of a convergence coefficient, c. It has been shown that high values of c imply that there is a significant centrifugal tendency acting on parties. We used electoral surveys to construct a stochastic valence model of the the elections in various countries. We find that the convergence coefficient varies across elections in a country, across countries with similar regimes, and across political regimes. In some countries, the centripetal tendency leads parties to converge to the electoral mean. In others the centrifugal tendency dominates and some parties locate far from the electoral mean. In particular, for countries with proportional electoral systems, namely, Israel, Turkey, and Poland, the centrifugal tendency is very high. In the majoritarian polities of the United States and Great Britain, the centrifugal tendency is very low. In anocracies, the autocrat imposes limitations on how far from the origin the opposition parties can move. PMID:24385886
The convergence coefficient across political systems.
Gallego, Maria; Schofield, Norman
2013-01-01
Formal work on the electoral model often suggests that parties or candidates should locate themselves at the electoral mean. Recent research has found no evidence of such convergence. In order to explain nonconvergence, the stochastic electoral model is extended by including estimates of electoral valence. We introduce the notion of a convergence coefficient, c. It has been shown that high values of c imply that there is a significant centrifugal tendency acting on parties. We used electoral surveys to construct a stochastic valence model of the the elections in various countries. We find that the convergence coefficient varies across elections in a country, across countries with similar regimes, and across political regimes. In some countries, the centripetal tendency leads parties to converge to the electoral mean. In others the centrifugal tendency dominates and some parties locate far from the electoral mean. In particular, for countries with proportional electoral systems, namely, Israel, Turkey, and Poland, the centrifugal tendency is very high. In the majoritarian polities of the United States and Great Britain, the centrifugal tendency is very low. In anocracies, the autocrat imposes limitations on how far from the origin the opposition parties can move.
On Learning Cluster Coefficient of Private Networks.
Wang, Yue; Wu, Xintao; Zhu, Jun; Xiang, Yang
2012-01-01
Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as clustering coefficient or modularity often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum) on tabular data. In this paper, we treat a graph statistics as a function f and develop a divide and conquer approach to enforce differential privacy. The basic procedure of this approach is to first decompose the target computation f into several less complex unit computations f1, …, fm connected by basic mathematical operations (e.g., addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), then perturb the output of each fi with Laplace noise derived from its own sensitivity value and the distributed privacy threshold ε i , and finally combine those perturbed fi as the perturbed output of computation f. We examine how various operations affect the accuracy of complex computations. When unit computations have large global sensitivity values, we enforce the differential privacy by calibrating noise based on the smooth sensitivity, rather than the global sensitivity. By doing this, we achieve the strict differential privacy guarantee with smaller magnitude noise. We illustrate our approach by using clustering coefficient, which is a popular statistics used in social network analysis. Empirical evaluations on five real social networks and various synthetic graphs generated from three random graph models show the developed divide and conquer approach outperforms the direct approach.
Sidorov, Vladimir P.; Melzitdinova, Anna V.
2017-10-01
This paper represents the definition methods for thermal constants according to the data of the weld width under the normal-circular heat source. The method is based on isoline contouring of “effective power – temperature conductivity coefficient”. The definition of coefficients provides setting requirements to the precision of welding parameters support with the enough accuracy for an engineering practice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.K.Sklifus
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents the calculation of heat transfer coefficient during condensation of steam, the mathematical model of temperature distribution in the gas and liquid phases of the coolant and the model of the formation of the condensate film on the walls of the tubes.
Zedler, S. E.
2009-04-25
The drag coefficient parameterization of wind stress is investigated for tropical storm conditions using model sensitivity studies. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model was run in a regional setting with realistic stratification and forcing fields representing Hurricane Frances, which in early September 2004 passed east of the Caribbean Leeward Island chain. The model was forced with a NOAA-HWIND wind speed product after converting it to wind stress using four different drag coefficient parameterizations. Respective model results were tested against in situ measurements of temperature profiles and velocity, available from an array of 22 surface drifters and 12 subsurface floats. Changing the drag coefficient parameterization from one that saturated at a value of 2.3 × 10 -3 to a constant drag coefficient of 1.2 × 10-3 reduced the standard deviation difference between the simulated minus the measured sea surface temperature change from 0.8°C to 0.3°C. Additionally, the standard deviation in the difference between simulated minus measured high pass filtered 15-m current speed reduced from 15 cm/s to 5 cm/s. The maximum difference in sea surface temperature response when two different turbulent mixing parameterizations were implemented was 0.3°C, i.e., only 11% of the maximum change of sea surface temperature caused by the storm. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.
Zedler, S. E.; Niiler, P. P.; Stammer, D.; Terrill, E.; Morzel, J.
2009-04-01
The drag coefficient parameterization of wind stress is investigated for tropical storm conditions using model sensitivity studies. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model was run in a regional setting with realistic stratification and forcing fields representing Hurricane Frances, which in early September 2004 passed east of the Caribbean Leeward Island chain. The model was forced with a NOAA-HWIND wind speed product after converting it to wind stress using four different drag coefficient parameterizations. Respective model results were tested against in situ measurements of temperature profiles and velocity, available from an array of 22 surface drifters and 12 subsurface floats. Changing the drag coefficient parameterization from one that saturated at a value of 2.3 × 10-3 to a constant drag coefficient of 1.2 × 10-3 reduced the standard deviation difference between the simulated minus the measured sea surface temperature change from 0.8°C to 0.3°C. Additionally, the standard deviation in the difference between simulated minus measured high pass filtered 15-m current speed reduced from 15 cm/s to 5 cm/s. The maximum difference in sea surface temperature response when two different turbulent mixing parameterizations were implemented was 0.3°C, i.e., only 11% of the maximum change of sea surface temperature caused by the storm.
Measurement of the thermal expansion coefficient of AISI 420 stainless steel between 20 and 293 K
Martelli, Valentina; Bianchini, Giovanni; Ventura, Guglielmo
2014-07-01
The accurate measurement of thermal expansion coefficient at low temperatures is fundamental in applications where a high mechanical stability is required over the complete procedure of cooling. Here we report on our measurement of thermal expansion of AISI 420 between 20 and 293 K, measured by an interferometric dilatometer.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Kasper Andersen; Christensen, Mogens; Blichfeld, Anders Bank
2011-01-01
We present here a home built setup for measuring the specific resistivity, hall coefficient, and charge carrier concentration and mobility at elevated temperatures. The system is optimized for measurements of samples ranging between doped semiconductors and high resistivity metals and uses the van...
Rate coefficients of open shell molecules and radicals: R-matrix ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-04-07
Apr 7, 2017 ... study uses the results of ab-initio R-matrix method to low-energy scattering of the open shell molecules in the fixed nuclei approximation to compute rate coeffi- cients. The rate coefficients for elastic and electron- excited processes are studied over a wide electron temperature range. The calculations use ...
Questionnaire discrimination: (re-introducing coefficient δ
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hankins Matthew
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure. Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12 from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761. Coefficients for reliability (α and discrimination (δG are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88. However, δG was substantially lower (0.73 for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96, indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is
Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.
1983-04-01
Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm/sup 2//s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm/sup 2//s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site.
Coefficient of performance of Stirling refrigerators
E Mungan, Carl
2017-09-01
Stirling coolers transfer heat in or out of the working fluid during all four stages of their operation, and their coefficient of performance depends on whether the non-isothermal heat exchanges are performed reversibly or irreversibly. Both of these possibilities can in principle be arranged. Notably, if the working fluid is an ideal gas, the input of energy in the form of heat during one isochoric step is equal in magnitude to the output during the other isochoric step in the cycle. The theoretical performance of the fridge can then attain the reversible Carnot limit if a regenerator is used, which is a high heat capacity material through which the gas flows. Various Stirling refrigerator configurations are analysed in this article at a level of presentation suitable for an introductory undergraduate thermodynamics course.
Clustering stocks using partial correlation coefficients
Jung, Sean S.; Chang, Woojin
2016-11-01
A partial correlation analysis is performed on the Korean stock market (KOSPI). The difference between Pearson correlation and the partial correlation is analyzed and it is found that when conditioned on the market return, Pearson correlation coefficients are generally greater than those of the partial correlation, which implies that the market return tends to drive up the correlation between stock returns. A clustering analysis is then performed to study the market structure given by the partial correlation analysis and the members of the clusters are compared with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS). The initial hypothesis is that the firms in the same GICS sector are clustered together since they are in a similar business and environment. However, the result is inconsistent with the hypothesis and most clusters are a mix of multiple sectors suggesting that the traditional approach of using sectors to determine the proximity between stocks may not be sufficient enough to diversify a portfolio.
Friction Experiments for Dynamical Coefficient Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. J. Arnoux
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An experimental study, including three experimental devices, is presented in order to investigate dry friction phenomena in a wide range of sliding speeds for the steel on steel contact. A ballistic setup, with an air gun launch, allows to estimate the friction coefficient between 20 m/s and 80 m/s. Tests are completed by an adaptation of the sensor on a hydraulic tensile machine (0.01 m/s to 3 m/s and a pin-on-disk tribometer mounted on a CNC lathe (1 to 30 m/s. The interactions at the asperity scale are characterized by a white light interferometer surface analysis.
Manning's roughness coefficient for Illinois streams
Soong, David T.; Prater, Crystal D.; Halfar, Teresa M.; Wobig, Loren A.
2012-01-01
Manning's roughness coefficients for 43 natural and constructed streams in Illinois are reported and displayed on a U.S. Geological Survey Web site. At a majority of the sites, discharge and stage were measured, and corresponding Manning's coefficients—the n-values—were determined at more than one river discharge. The n-values discussed in this report are computed from data representing the stream reach studied and, therefore, are reachwise values. Presentation of the resulting n-values takes a visual-comparison approach similar to the previously published Barnes report (1967), in which photographs of channel conditions, description of the site, and the resulting n-values are organized for each site. The Web site where the data can be accessed and are displayed is at URL http://il.water.usgs.gov/proj/nvalues/.
Experimentally Determined Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments
Bue, Grant; Watts, Carly; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vonau, Walt; Vogel, Matt; Conger, Bruce
2015-01-01
A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flowrate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.
Estimated Drag Coefficients and Wind Structure of Hurricane Frances
Zedler, S. E.; Niiler, P. P.; Stammer, D.; Terrill, E.
2006-12-01
As part of the Coupled Boundary Layers Air Sea Transfer (CBLAST) experiment, an array of drifters and floats was deployed from an aircraft just ahead of Hurricane Frances during it's passage to the northwest side of the Caribbean Island chain in August, 2004. The ocean and surface air conditions prior to, during, and after Hurricane Frances were documented by multiple sensors. Two independent estimates of the surface wind field suggest different storm structures. NOAA H*WINDS, an objectively analyzed product using a combination of data collected at the reconnaissance flight level, GPS profilers (dropwindsondes), satellites, and other data, suggest a 40km radius of maximum wind. A product based on the radial momentum equation balance using \\ital{in-situ} surface pressure data and wind direction measurements from the CBLAST drifter array suggests that the radius of maximum winds was 15km. We used a regional version of the MITGCM model with closed boundaries and realistic temperature and salinity fields which was forced with these wind field products to determine which wind field leads to circulation and SST structures that are most consistent with observed sea surface temperature fields and float profile data. Best estimates of the surface wind structure are then used to estimate the appropriate drag coefficient corresponding to the maximum velocity. Our results are compared with those obtained previously.
Spectral functions and transport coefficients from the functional renormalization group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tripolt, Ralf-Arno
2015-06-03
In this thesis we present a new method to obtain real-time quantities like spectral functions and transport coefficients at finite temperature and density using the Functional Renormalization Group approach. Our non-perturbative method is thermodynamically consistent, symmetry preserving and based on an analytic continuation from imaginary to real time on the level of the flow equations. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by calculating mesonic spectral functions as well as the shear viscosity for the quark-meson model. In particular, results are presented for the pion and sigma spectral function at finite temperature and chemical potential, with a focus on the regime near the critical endpoint in the phase diagram of the quark-meson model. Moreover, the different time-like and space-like processes, which give rise to a complex structure of the spectral functions, are discussed. Finally, based on the momentum dependence of the spectral functions, we calculate the shear viscosity and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio using the corresponding Green-Kubo formula.
(Hordeum vulgare) by path- coefficient analysis
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2009-06-03
Jun 3, 2009 ... assessed using number of days from seeding (Rasmusson et al.,. 1979; Metzger et al., 1984; Akkaya and Akten, 1992) and growing degree-days (GDD) with a base temperature of 0oC (CaO and. Moss, 1989; Dofing, 1992, 1995). Heading date was recorded when c. 50% of spikes had completely emerged ...
Absorption Coefficient of Alkali Halides. Part I.
1979-03-01
transparent region by Hohls [29], Harting [30], Kublitzky [72], and Spangenberg [73], and the infrared region by Randall [74]. Zarzyski and Naudin [75...Index of NaF at Low Temperature," Aspen International Conference on Fourier Spectroscopy (1970), 371-6 (1971). 75. Zarzyski, J. and Naudin , F., "Index
Coefficient of Friction of a Brake Disc-Brake Pad Friction Couple
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orłowicz A.W.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper concerns evaluation of the coefficient of friction characterising a friction couple comprising a commercial brake disc cast of flake graphite grey iron and a typical brake pad for passenger motor car. For the applied interaction conditions, the brake pressure of 0.53 MPa and the linear velocity measured on the pad-disc trace axis equalling 15 km/h, evolution of the friction coefficient μ values were observed. It turned out that after a period of 50 minutes, temperature reached the value 270°C and got stabilised. After this time interval, the friction coefficient value also got stabilised on the level of μ = 0.38. In case of a block in its original state, stabilisation of the friction coefficient value occurred after a stage in the course of which a continuous growth of its value was observed up to the level μ = 0.41 and then a decrease to the value μ = 0.38. It can be assumed that occurrence of this stage was an effect of an initial running-in of the friction couple. In consecutive abrasion tests on the same friction couple, the friction coefficient value stabilisation occurred after the stage of a steady increase of its value. It can be stated that the stage corresponded to a secondary running-in of the friction couple. The observed stages lasted for similar periods of time and ended with reaching the stabile level of temperature of the disc-pad contact surface.
Adler, Jeremy; Parmryd, Ingela
2010-08-01
The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and the Mander's overlap coefficient (MOC) are used to quantify the degree of colocalization between fluorophores. The MOC was introduced to overcome perceived problems with the PCC. The two coefficients are mathematically similar, differing in the use of either the absolute intensities (MOC) or of the deviation from the mean (PCC). A range of correlated datasets, which extend to the limits of the PCC, only evoked a limited response from the MOC. The PCC is unaffected by changes to the offset while the MOC increases when the offset is positive. Both coefficients are independent of gain. The MOC is a confusing hybrid measurement, that combines correlation with a heavily weighted form of co-occurrence, favors high intensity combinations, downplays combinations in which either or both intensities are low and ignores blank pixels. The PCC only measures correlation. A surprising finding was that the addition of a second uncorrelated population can substantially increase the measured correlation, demonstrating the importance of excluding background pixels. Overall, since the MOC is unresponsive to substantial changes in the data and is hard to interpret, it is neither an alternative to nor a useful substitute for the PCC. The MOC is not suitable for making measurements of colocalization either by correlation or co-occurrence.
Meylan, William M; Howard, Philip H
2005-11-01
The octanol-air partition coefficient (K(OA)) is useful for predicting the partitioning behavior of organic compounds between air and environmental matrices such as soil, vegetation, and aerosol particles. At present, experimentally determined K(OA) values are available for only several hundred compounds. Therefore, the ability to estimate K(OA) is necessary for screening level evaluation of most chemicals. Although it is possible to estimate K(OA) from the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) and Henry's law constant (HLC), various concerns have been raised in regard to the usability of this estimation methodology. This work examines the accuracy and usability of K(OW) and HLC in application to a comprehensive database set of K(OA) values for screening level environmental assessment. Results indicate that K(OW) and HLC can be used to accurately predict K(OA) even when estimated K(OW) and HLC values are used. For an experimental dataset of 310log K(OA) values for different compounds, the K(OW)-HLC method was statistically accurate as follows: correlation coefficient (r2): 0.972, standard deviation: 0.526, absolute mean error: 0.358 using predominantly experimental K(OW) and HLC values. When K(OW) and HLC values were estimated (using the KOWWIN and HENRYWIN programs), the statistical accuracy was: correlation coefficient (r2): 0.957, standard deviation: 0.668, absolute mean error: 0.479.
Pearce, Jonathan V.
2016-12-01
Impurities represent in many cases the largest contribution to the uncertainty associated with fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The effect of impurities on the solidification temperature of ITS-90 metals can be characterized by the liquidus slope, the values of which have recently been characterized for a large number of systems. Two other key parameters are the diffusion coefficient, which provides information on how rapidly diffusion, and hence mixing, proceeds, as well as on the validity of the Scheil model of solidification; and the solubility, which provides information on how much impurity is actually dissolved and hence participates in affecting the solidification temperature. In this study, a comprehensive survey is presented of liquidus slopes, together with a survey of 237 diffusion coefficients and 274 values for the solubility of impurities in both liquid and solid aluminum.
Cryogenic Refractive Index and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion for the S-TIH1 Glass
Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Douglas; Content, David
2013-01-01
Using the CHARMS facility at NASA GSFC, we have measured the cryogenic refractive index of the Ohara S-TIH1 glass from 0.40 to 2.53 micrometers and from 120 to 300 K. We have also examined the spectral dispersion and thermo-optic coefficients (dn/dT). We also derived temperature-dependent Sellmeier models from which refractive index may be calculated for any wavelength and temperature within the stated ranges of each model. The S-TIH1 glass we tested exhibited unusual behavior in the thermo-optic coefficient. We found that for delta glass in order to understand its thermal properties. The CTE showed a monotonic change with a decrease in temperature.
The excitation of OH by H2 revisited - I: fine-structure resolved rate coefficients
Kłos, J.; Ma, Q.; Dagdigian, P. J.; Alexander, M. H.; Faure, A.; Lique, F.
2017-11-01
Observations of OH in molecular clouds provide crucial constraints on both the physical conditions and the oxygen and water chemistry in these clouds. Accurate modelling of the OH emission spectra requires the calculation of rate coefficients for excitation of OH by collisions with the most abundant collisional partner in the molecular clouds, namely the H2 molecule. We report here theoretical calculations for the fine-structure excitation of OH by H2 (both para- and ortho-H2) using a recently developed highly accurate potential energy surface. Full quantum close coupling rate coefficients are provided for temperatures ranging from 10 to 150 K. Propensity rules are discussed and the new OH-H2 rate coefficients are compared to the earlier values that are currently used in astrophysical modelling. Significant differences were found: the new rate coefficients are significantly larger. As a first application, we simulate the excitation of OH in typical cold molecular clouds and star-forming regions. The new rate coefficients predict substantially larger line intensities. As a consequence, OH abundances derived from observations will be reduced from the values predicted by the earlier rate coefficients.
Su, Yong-Yang; Marsh, Aleksandra; Haddrell, Allen E.; Li, Zhi-Ming; Reid, Jonathan P.
2017-11-01
In order to quantify the kinetics of mass transfer between the gas and condensed phases in aerosol, physicochemical properties of the gas and condensed phases and kinetic parameters (mass/thermal accommodation coefficients) are crucial for estimating mass fluxes over a wide size range from the free molecule to continuum regimes. In this study, we report measurements of the evaporation kinetics of droplets of 1-butanol, ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and glycerol under well-controlled conditions (gas flow rates and temperature) using the previously developed cylindrical electrode electrodynamic balance technique. Measurements are compared with a model that captures the heat and mass transfer occurring at the evaporating droplet surface. The aim of these measurements is to clarify the discrepancy in the reported values of mass accommodation coefficient (αM, equals to evaporation coefficient based on microscopic reversibility) for 1-butanol, EG, and DEG and improve the accuracy of the value of the diffusion coefficient for glycerol in gaseous nitrogen. The uncertainties in the thermophysical and experimental parameters are carefully assessed, the literature values of the vapor pressures of these components are evaluated, and the plausible ranges of the evaporation coefficients for 1-butanol, EG, and DEG as well as uncertainty in diffusion coefficient for glycerol are reported. Results show that αM should be greater than 0.4, 0.2, and 0.4 for EG, DEG, and 1-butanol, respectively. The refined values are helpful for accurate prediction of the evaporation/condensation rates.
Determination of emissivity coefficient of heat-resistant super alloys and cemented carbide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kieruj Piotr
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of emissivity engineering materials according to temperature. Experiment is concerned on difficult to machine materials, which may be turned with laser assisting. Cylindrical samples made of nickel-based alloys Inconel 625, Inconel 718, Waspaloy and tungsten-carbides based on cobalt matrix were analyzed. The samples’ temperature in contact method was compared to the temperature measured by non-contact pyrometers. Based on this relative, the value of the emissivity coefficient was adjusted to the right indication of pyrometers.
The temperature hydration kinetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mircea Oroian
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydration kinetics of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris in water at different temperatures (25, 32.5, 40, 55, 70 and 80 °C for assessing the adequacy of models for describing the absorption phenomena during soaking. The diffusion coefficient values were calculated using Fick’s model for spherical and hemispherical geometries and the values were in the range of 10−6 m2/s. The experimental data were fitted to Peleg, Sigmoidal, Weibull and Exponential models. The models adequacy was determined using regression coefficients (R2, root mean square error (RMSE and reduced chi-square (χ2. The Peleg model is the suitable one for predicting the experimental data. Temperature had a positive and significant effect on the water absorption capacities and absorption was an endothermic process.
A numerical model for boiling heat transfer coefficient of zeotropic mixtures
Barraza Vicencio, Rodrigo; Caviedes Aedo, Eduardo
2017-12-01
Zeotropic mixtures never have the same liquid and vapor composition in the liquid-vapor equilibrium. Also, the bubble and the dew point are separated; this gap is called glide temperature (Tglide). Those characteristics have made these mixtures suitable for cryogenics Joule-Thomson (JT) refrigeration cycles. Zeotropic mixtures as working fluid in JT cycles improve their performance in an order of magnitude. Optimization of JT cycles have earned substantial importance for cryogenics applications (e.g, gas liquefaction, cryosurgery probes, cooling of infrared sensors, cryopreservation, and biomedical samples). Heat exchangers design on those cycles is a critical point; consequently, heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of two-phase zeotropic mixtures are relevant. In this work, it will be applied a methodology in order to calculate the local convective heat transfer coefficients based on the law of the wall approach for turbulent flows. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of zeotropic mixtures in a heated horizontal tube are investigated numerically. The temperature profile and heat transfer coefficient for zeotropic mixtures of different bulk compositions are analysed. The numerical model has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, constant temperature wall, and two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model taking into account continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Local heat transfer coefficient results are compared with available experimental data published by Barraza et al. (2016), and they have shown good agreement.
Ballistic Coefficient Prediction for Resident Space Objects
Russell, R.; Arora, N.; Vittaldev, V.; Gaylor, D.
2012-09-01
Recent improvements in atmospheric density modeling now provide more confidence in spacecraft ballistic coefficient (BC) estimations, which were previously corrupted by large errors in density. Without attitude knowledge, forecasting the true BC for accurate future state and uncertainty predictions remains elusive. In this paper, our objective is to improve this predictive capability for ballistic coefficients for Resident Space Objects (RSOs), thus improving the existing drag models and associated accuracy of the U.S. Space Object Catalog. To work towards this goal we implement a two-pronged strategy that includes elements of time series analysis and physics based simulations. State-of-the-art empirical time series prediction methods are applied and tested on BC time series in the context of both simulation data and actual data provided by the Air Force. An archive of simulated BC data is generated using custom 6DOF high fidelity simulations for RSOs using plate models for shapes. The simulator includes force and torque perturbations due to the nonspherical Earth, third-body perturbations, SRP, and atmospheric drag. The simulated BC profiles demonstrate significant variation over short time spans (due primarily to varying frontal areas), providing motivation to improve future BC estimation strategies. The 6DOF modeling is intended to provide a physics-based BC data set to complement the BC data set provided by the AF. For the ‘black-box' time series algorithms, a variety of approaches are considered, whereas two prediction models showed the most promising performance: a multi-tone harmonic model and an autoregressive (AR) model. Both the multi-tone harmonic model and the AR model are subjected to multiple levels of optimizations resulting in highly optimized final models that are tuned specifically with the 205 BC time series provided by the AF. Two versions of the AR model are developed based on the model prediction methodology. The second version of the AR
The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue
Trafimow, David
2016-01-01
Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.
Flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of odd and even homologous bimesogens
Atkinson, Katie L.; Morris, Stephen M.; Castles, Flynn; Qasim, Malik M.; Gardiner, Damian J.; Coles, Harry J.
2012-01-01
It is known that bimesogenic liquid crystals exhibit a marked “odd-even” effect in the flexoelastic ratio (the effective flexoelectric coefficient to the average elastic coefficient), with the ratio being higher for the “odd-spaced” bimesogens (those with an odd number of alkyl groups in the spacer chain) than their neighboring even-spaced counterparts. To determine the contribution of each property to the flexoelastic ratio, we present experimental results on the flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of two homologous nonsymmetric bimesogens which possess odd and even alkyl spacers. Our results show that, although there are differences in the flexoelectric coefficients, there are substantially larger differences in the effective elastic coefficient. Specifically, the odd bimesogen is found to have both a low splay elastic coefficient and a very low bend elastic coefficient which, when combined, results in a significantly lower effective elastic coefficient and consequently a higher flexoelastic ratio.
On separation of exchange term from the coefficient of the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6 ... plus two coefficients of the electromechanical and magnetomechanical couplings, form the coefficient of magnetoelectromechanical coupling (CMEMC), a very important characteristic used for analysingmagnetoelectroelastic smart (composite) materials.
Li, Huiping; He, Lianfang; Zhang, Chunzhi; Cui, Hongzhi
2016-04-01
The thermal physical parameters have significant effects on the calculation accuracy of physical fields, and the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water is one of the most important thermal physical parameters in the hot stamping. In order to attain the boundary heat transfer coefficient, the testing devices and test procedures are designed according to the characteristic of heat transfer in the hot stamping die. A method of estimating the temperature-dependent boundary heat transfer coefficient is presented, and an inverse heat conduction software is developed based on finite element method, advance-retreat method and golden section method. The software is used to calculate the boundary heat transfer coefficient according to the temperatures measured by NiCr-NiSi thermocouples in the experiment. The research results show that, the convergence of the method given in the paper is well, the surface temperature of sample has a significant effect on the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water. The boundary heat transfer coefficient increases as the surface temperature of sample reduces, and the variation is nonlinear.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Choi Sung-Jin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Silicon nanowires are patterned down to 30 nm using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS compatible process. The electrical conductivities of n-/p-leg nanowires are extracted with the variation of width. Using this structure, Seebeck coefficients are measured. The obtained maximum Seebeck coefficient values are 122 μV/K for p-leg and −94 μV/K for n-leg. The maximum attainable power factor is 0.74 mW/m K2 at room temperature.
The osmotic second virial coefficient and the Gibbs-McMillan-Mayer framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mollerup, J.M.; Breil, Martin Peter
2009-01-01
. The independent variables of the solvents are temperature, pressure, and chemical potentials. The derivatives in the Gibbs-McMillan-Mayer framework are transformed into derivatives in the Gibbs framework. This offers the possibility for an interpretation and correlation of the osmotic second virial coefficient...... variables associated with the Kirkwood-Buff, the McMillan-Mayer, and the Lewis-Randall solution theories. In this paper we analyse the osmotic second virial coefficient using a Gibbs-McMillan-Mayer framework which is similar to the McMillan-Mayer framework with the exception that pressure rather than volume...
Retrieving complex surface impedances from statistical absorption coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mondet, Boris Jean-Francois; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2017-01-01
In room acoustic simulations the surface materials are commonly represented with energy parameters, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which do not carry phase information. This paper presents a method to transform statistical absorption coefficients into complex surface impedances...... coefficients, prior information about the absorber of interest can be used as constraints, which is shown to help determine the correct impedance from absorption coefficient. Further stability and sensitivity investigations indicate that the method presented constitutes an efficient solution to convert sound...
Dirac-Fock internal conversion coefficients
Band, I M; Nestor, C W; Tikkanen, P O; Raman, S
2002-01-01
Internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) obtained from relativistic self-consistent-field Dirac-Fock (DF) calculations are presented. The exchange terms of DF equations are included exactly, both for the interaction between bound electrons and for the interaction between bound and free electrons. Static and dynamic effects resulting from finite nuclear size are taken into account, the latter using the surface current model. Experimental electron-binding energies are used wherever possible. The hole in the atomic shell from which an electron was emitted is not taken into consideration because there is no compelling experimental evidence to warrant it. ICCs are given here for each Z between Z=10 and Z=126; for K, L sub 1 , L sub 2 , and L sub 3 atomic shells; for nuclear-transition multipolarities E1... E5, M1 ... M5; and for nuclear-transition energies from approx 1 keV above the L sub 1 threshold to 2000 keV. Also given are the total ICCs. Accurate (<=5%) experimental ICCs (K and total) are known for 77 tra...
Sedimentation coefficient distributions of large particles.
Schuck, Peter
2016-07-21
The spatial and temporal evolution of concentration boundaries in sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation reports on the size distribution of particles with high hydrodynamic resolution. For large particles such as large protein complexes, fibrils, viral particles, or nanoparticles, sedimentation conditions usually allow migration from diffusion to be neglected relative to sedimentation. In this case, the shape of the sedimentation boundaries of polydisperse mixtures relates directly to the underlying size-distributions. Integral and derivative methods for calculating sedimentation coefficient distributions g*(s) of large particles from experimental boundary profiles have been developed previously, and are recapitulated here in a common theoretical framework. This leads to a previously unrecognized relationship between g*(s) and the time-derivative of concentration profiles. Of closed analytical form, it is analogous to the well-known Bridgman relationship for the radial derivative. It provides a quantitative description of the effect of substituting the time-derivative by scan differences with finite time intervals, which appears as a skewed box average of the true distribution. This helps to theoretically clarify the differences between results from time-derivative method and the approach of directly fitting the integral definition of g*(s) to the entirety of experimental boundary data.
Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.
Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin
2014-06-17
Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio.
Correlation and path coefficient analysis of some quantitative traits ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Thirty-seven wheat genotypes and three check varieties were studied for correlation and path coefficient analysis of some quantitative traits in wheat at Kisan (P.G), College, Simbhaoli in India. Generally, the estimates of genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients ...
An Investigation of the Sampling Distribution of the Congruence Coefficient.
Broadbooks, Wendy J.; Elmore, Patricia B.
This study developed and investigated an empirical sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient. The effects of sample size, number of variables, and population value of the congruence coefficient on the sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient were examined. Sample data were generated on the basis of the common factor model and…
Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei
2013-02-21
We present a study through extensive simulation that considers the impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data collected from media mimicking breast tissue. We found that while the impact of scattering heterogeneities/targets is modest on photoacoustic recovery of optical absorption coefficients, the impact of scattering contrast caused by adipose tissue, a layer of normal tissue along the boundary of the breast, is dramatic on reconstruction of optical absorption coefficients using photoacoustic data-up to 25.8% relative error in recovering the absorption coefficient is estimated in such cases. To overcome this problem, we propose a new method to enhance photoacoustic recovery of the optical absorption coefficient in heterogeneous media by considering inhomogeneous scattering coefficient distribution provided by diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Results from extensive simulations show that photoacoustic recovery of absorption coefficient maps can be improved considerably with a priori scattering information from DOT.
Lombardo, M P
2012-01-01
I review recent results on QCD at high temperature on a lattice. Steady progress with staggered fermions and Wilson type fermions allow a quantitative description of hot QCD whose accuracy in many cases parallels that of zero temperature studies. Simulations with chiral quarks are coming of age, and togheter with theoretical developments trigger interesting developments in the analysis of the critical region. Issues related with the universality class of the chiral transition and the fate of the axial symmetry are discussed in the light of new numerical and analytical results. Transport coefficients and analysis of bottomonium spectra compare well with results of heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Model field theories, lattice simulations and high temperature systematic expansions help building a coherent picture of the high temperature phase of QCD. The (strongly coupled) Quark Gluon Plasma is heavily investigated, and asserts its role as an inspiring theoretical laboratory.
Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain: their derivation and limitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, Y.C.; Colsher, C.S.; Thompson, S.E.
1979-03-30
Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed.
Abolhasani, Milad; Coley, Connor W; Jensen, Klavs F
2015-11-03
Taking advantage of the difference between the surface energies of aqueous and organic solvents on a Teflon substrate, a fully automated small-scale strategy is developed on the basis of gas-driven oscillatory motion of a biphasic slug for high-throughput in situ measurement and screening of partition coefficients of organic substances between aqueous and organic phases. The developed oscillatory flow strategy enables single partition coefficient data point measurement within 8 min (including the sample preparation time) which is 360 times faster than the conventional "shake-flask" method, while using less than a 30 μL volume of the two phases and 9 nmol of the target organic substance. The developed multiphase strategy is validated using a conventional shake-flask technique. Finally, the developed strategy is extended to include automated screening of partition coefficients at physiological temperature.
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor
2014-01-01
The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zafiryadis, Frederik; Meyer, Knud Erik; Gökhan Ergin, F.
Skin friction drag coefficients are determined for marine antifouling coatings in pristine condition by use of Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) with uni-directionalhot-wires. Mean flow behaviour for varying surface roughness is analysed in zero pressure gradient, flat plate, turbulentboundary...... drag coefficients as well as roughness Reynolds numbers for the various marine coatings across the range of Rex by fitting of the van Driest profile. The results demonstrate sound agreement with the present ITTC method for determining skin friction coefficients for practically smooth surfaces at low...... layers for Reynolds numbers from Rex =1:91x105 to Rex = 9:54x105. The measurements were conducted at the Technical University of Denmark in a closed-loop wind tunnel redesigned for investigations as this. Ensemble averages of the boundary layer velocity profiles allowed for determination of skin friction...
Furmanchuk, Al'ona; Saal, James E; Doak, Jeff W; Olson, Gregory B; Choudhary, Alok; Agrawal, Ankit
2017-09-27
The regression model-based tool is developed for predicting the Seebeck coefficient of crystalline materials in the temperature range from 300 K to 1000 K. The tool accounts for the single crystal versus polycrystalline nature of the compound, the production method, and properties of the constituent elements in the chemical formula. We introduce new descriptive features of crystalline materials relevant for the prediction the Seebeck coefficient. To address off-stoichiometry in materials, the predictive tool is trained on a mix of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric materials. The tool is implemented into a web application (http://info.eecs.northwestern.edu/SeebeckCoefficientPredictor) to assist field scientists in the discovery of novel thermoelectric materials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boping Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available At present, studies on the surface tension of air tunnel terrazzo under wind load and how regularly it is affected by temperature are relatively less, and the measured results of the thermal expansion coefficient of terrazzo have not yet been given. In this paper, based on the top terrazzo surface structure of the inner wall of the wind tunnel, the tensile performance tests of terrazzo surface layer are conducted, while the thermal expansion coefficient of the six terrazzo test blocks were tested. The tests and analysis show that the construction of terrazzo surface, based on the proposed construction process, can effectively guarantee the reliable cement performance for the binding layer between mortar and concrete base layer, terrazzo surface layer and the cement mortar layer. And the thermal expansion coefficient of terrazzo can be valued at 1.06e-5/ºC.
Piezoelectric coefficient of InN films prepared by radio-frequency sputtering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wintrebert-Fouquet, M. [Physics Department, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia)], E-mail: mariew@ics.mq.edu.au; Butcher, K.S.A.; Guy, I.L.; Zheng, Z. [Physics Department, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia)
2008-09-01
An interferometric method has been used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} in indium nitride films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering on borosilicate glass coated with gold. This low temperature growth technique has the advantage of being able to produce samples for piezoelectric measurements where the InN film is grown directly on an Au metal back contact, allowing the accurate measurement of the piezoelectric coefficient of the InN layer without any parasitic series resistance. The InN growth conditions are described, and both crystal and optical characterizations of the film are presented. The measured value of the coefficient was found to be 4.0 {+-} 0.1 pm V{sup -1}.
Changes in Electrokinetic Coupling Coefficients of Granite under Triaxial Deformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Osamu Kuwano
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Electrokinetic phenomena are believed to be the most likely origin of electromagnetic signals preceding or accompanying earthquakes. The intensity of the source current due to the electrokinetic phenomena is determined by the fluid flux and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient called streaming current coefficient; therefore, how the coefficient changes before rupture is essential. Here, we show how the electrokinetic coefficients change during the rock deformation experiment up to failure. The streaming current coefficient did not increase before failure, but continued to decrease up to failure, which is explained in terms of the elastic closure of capillary. On the other hand, the streaming potential coefficient, which is the product of the streaming current coefficient and bulk resistivity of the rock, increased at the onset of dilatancy. It may be due to change in bulk resistivity. Our result indicates that the zeta potential of the newly created surface does not change so much from that of the preexisting fluid rock interface.
Negative coefficient of thermal expansion in (epoxy resin)/(zirconium tungstate) nanocomposites
See, Erich; Kochergin, Vladimir; Neely, Lauren; Zayetnikov, Madrakhim; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Robinson, Hans
2011-10-01
The α-phase of zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) has the remarkable property that its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) takes on a nearly constant negative value throughout its entire range of thermal stability (0 -- 1050 K). Composites of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles and polymer resins have a reduced CTE compared to the pure polymer, but previous work has been restricted to measurements near room temperature. We show that the CTE of such composites can take on increasingly negative values as the temperature is lowered to cryogenic values. We used this phenomenon to fabricate a metal-free all-optical cryogenic temperature sensor by coating a fiber optic Bragg grating with the nanocomposite. This sensor has a sensitivity at 2 K that is at least six time better than any previous fiber-optic temperature sensor at this temperature.
Dielectronic and Trielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients of Be-like Ar14+
Huang, Z. K.; Wen, W. Q.; Xu, X.; Mahmood, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, H. B.; Dou, L. J.; Khan, N.; Badnell, N. R.; Preval, S. P.; Schippers, S.; Xu, T. H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, K.; Xu, W. Q.; Chuai, X. Y.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhao, D. M.; Mao, L. J.; Ma, X. M.; Li, J.; Mao, R. S.; Yuan, Y. J.; Wu, B.; Sheng, L. N.; Yang, J. C.; Xu, H. S.; Zhu, L. F.; Ma, X.
2018-03-01
Electron–ion recombination of Be-like 40Ar14+ has been measured by employing the electron–ion merged-beams method at the cooler storage ring CSRm. The measured absolute recombination rate coefficients for collision energies from 0 to 60 eV are presented, covering all dielectronic recombination (DR) resonances associated with 2s 2 → 2s2p core transitions. In addition, strong trielectronic recombination (TR) resonances associated with 2s 2 → 2p 2 core transitions were observed. Both DR and TR processes lead to series of peaks in the measured recombination spectrum, which have been identified by the Rydberg formula. Theoretical calculations of recombination rate coefficients were performed using the state-of-the-art multi-configuration Breit–Pauli atomic structure code AUTOSTRUCTURE to compare with the experimental results. The plasma rate coefficients for DR+TR of Ar14+ were deduced from the measured electron–ion recombination rate coefficients in the temperature range from 103 to 107 K, and compared with calculated data from the literature. The experimentally derived plasma rate coefficients are 60% larger and 30% lower than the previously recommended atomic data for the temperature ranges of photoionized plasmas and collisionally ionized plasmas, respectively. However, good agreement was found between experimental results and the calculations by Gu and Colgan et al. The plasma rate coefficients deduced from experiment and calculated by the current AUTOSTRUCTURE code show agreement that is better than 30% from 104 to 107 K. The present results constitute a set of benchmark data for use in astrophysical modeling.
THE INFLUENCE OF N-IMPURITIES ON THE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF H AND D IN Nb AND Ta
Qi, Zh.; Völkl, J.; Wipf, H.; Alefeld, G.
1981-01-01
Gorsky-effect measurements of the diffusion coefficient of H and D in Nb and Ta in the presence of N interstitials are reported. The influence of the N interstitials on the diffusion coefficient is correlated with the low-temperature diffusion anomaly of H in the pure metals. For H in pure Nb and pure Ta the activation enthalpy decreases strongly below about 250 K which suggests a change of the microscopic diffusion mechanism. For these two systems the reduction of the diffusion coefficient d...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ipposhi, S.; Imura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Konya, K. [Oji Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, N. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)
1998-04-25
In this study, filtration coefficients of tubular type osmosis membranes made of acetyl cellulose are measured by two methods. Effects of temperature and concentration on physical properties of fluids needed for study on osmotic action are also investigated using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sucrose and polyethylene glycol 600 aqueous solutions as the testing fluids. As a result, a new method for measuring the filtration coefficient is proposed by making use of osmosis and it is clarified that there is no difference between filtration coefficients for osmosis and reverse osmosis processes. In addition, equations for mass diffusivity, permeability, viscosity and density of the above fluids are presented. 11 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurak Grisdanurak
2004-11-01
Full Text Available The UNIQUAC activity coefficient model and fugacity coefficient model of modified Redlich-Kwong predicted vapor-liquid equilibrium between carbon dioxide and water efficiently. The activity coefficient model needed the energy interaction parameters between molecules of carbon dioxide and water. Those parameters can be obtained by non-linear regression method of the experimental data of the vapor-liquid equilibria of carbon dioxide and water (Lide, 1992. The fugacity coefficient model of modified Redlich- Kwong needed only some physical properties of carbon dioxide and water without any interaction parameters. The experimental data had ranges of temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide between 10 to 100ºC and 5 to 1,200 kPa, respectively. The parameters for the activity coefficient model are temperature dependent but are not concentration dependent. The regression results gave good agreements with the experimental data in which the mean absolute error (MAE between experiment and calculated partial pressure of carbon dioxide was 2.72% and the mean absolute standard deviation (MAD of that error was 1.35%. Comparing the effects of activity coefficients and fugacity coefficients, we found that the non-ideality in vapor phase was more influential than the non-ideality in liquid phase.
Temperature Dependent Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Friction
Dias, R. A.; Rapini, M.; Costa, B. V.; Coura, P. Z.
2006-01-01
In this work we present a molecular dynamics simulation of a FFM experiment. The tip-sample interaction is studied by varying the normal force in the tip and the temperature of the surface. The friction force, cA, at zero load and the friction coefficient, $\\mu$, were obtained. Our results strongly support the idea that the effective contact area, A, decreases with increasing temperature and the friction coefficient presents a clear signature of the premelting process of the surface.
Transport coefficients of helium-neon mixtures at low density computed from ab initio potentials.
Sharipov, Felix; Benites, Victor J
2017-12-14
The viscosity, thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor of helium-neon mixtures at low density are calculated for a wide range of temperature and for various molar fractions. The Chapman-Enskog method is employed considering the 10th order of the Sonine polynomial expansion. Ab initio potentials for intermolecular interactions are used to calculate the omega-integrals. The relative numerical error of the present results obtained for the potentials used here is less than 7 × 10-5 for the thermal diffusion factor and 2 × 10-5 for all the other coefficients. Since each employed potential has a different accuracy, the uncertainty related to such accuracies was analyzed, considering the contribution of each potential uncertainty. It was found that the total uncertainty due to the potentials is larger than the numerical error and it varies depending on the temperature and molar fraction. A comparison of the calculated transport coefficients with those available in the open literature shows that the present calculations provide the most accurate values currently available for the transport coefficients of helium-neon binary mixtures at low density.
Large partition coefficients for trace elements in high-silica rhyolites
Mahood, G.; Hildreth, W.
1983-01-01
The partitioning of 25 trace elements between high-silica rhyolitic glass and unzoned phenocrysts of potassic and sodic sanidine, biotite, augite, ferrohedenbergite, hypersthene, fayalite, titanomagnetite, ilmenite, zircon, and allanite has been determined by INAA on suites of samples from the mildly peralkaline lavas and tuff of the Sierra La Primavera, Mexico, and the metaluminous, compo. sitionally zoned, Bishop Tuff, California. The partition coefficients are much larger than published values for less silicic compositions; the range of values among Primavera samples that differ only slightly in temperature or bulk composition approaches that previously reported from basalts to rhyodacites. Intrinsic temperature dependence of the crystal/liquid partitioning is apparently small. The high values of partition coefficients reflect principally the strongly polymerized nature of the alkali-aluminosilicate liquid, whereas the marked variability of values for partition coefficients is attributed to differences in the concentrations of complexing ligands and/or different degrees of melt polymerization. Great variation in the values of partition coefficients that are potentially applicable to early stages in the partial melting of crustal rocks complicates assessment of 1. (1) source regions for granitic melts and 2. (2) contributions by crustal-melt increments to andesites. ?? 1983.
Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices
Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda
2016-10-01
In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient ( R 2), reduced Chi-square ( χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. Maestre-Valero
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This study employs a methodological approach for estimating long-term series of monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo from historical data. To carry it out a regionally calibrated version of the Hargreaves equation was applied at old ordinary weather stations which only provide data of air temperature and precipitation. The proposed approach was based on the analysis of: (1 the Hargreaves coefficient obtained by local calibration from data of 66 modern automatic weather stations; (2 the regional characterization of the spatial variability of that coefficient by means of a “regional function”; and (3 the final application of this function to the old ordinary weather stations. This approach was assessed under the semiarid conditions of the Segura River Basin (south-eastern Spain by comparing ETo estimates against those obtained with the Penman-Monteith method, which was used as reference. Spatial variability of the Hargreaves coefficient was well correlated with the annual and monthly means of daily temperature range, so they were selected as explanatory variables for the regionalization of the Hargreaves coefficient following two approaches: a global regional function and monthly regional functions. The regionally calibrated version of the Hargreaves equation by monthly functions clearly improved the performance of its original parameterization (average relative error decreased from 19.8% to 10.1% although, as expected, estimates were not as good as those obtained with the local calibration (average relative error=7.7%.
Moisture Transfer in Concrete: Numerical Determination of the Capillary Conductivity Coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simo Elie
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We numerically investigated moisture transfer in buildings made of concrete. We considered three types of concrete: normal concrete, pumice concrete and cellular concrete. We present the results of a 1-D liquid water flow in such materials. We evaluated the moisture distribution in building materials using the Runge-Kutta fourth-and-fifth-order method. The DOPRI5 code was used as an integrator. The model calculated the resulting moisture content and other moisture-dependent physical parameters. The moisture curves were plotted. The dampness data obtained was utilized for the numerical computation of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity of moisture. Different profiles of this coefficient are represented. Calculations were performed for four different values of the outdoor temperature: -5°C, 0°C, 5°C and 10°C. We determined that the curves corresponding to small time intervals of wetting are associated with great amplitudes of the capillary conductivity . The amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity decrease as the time interval increases. High outdoor temperatures induce high amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity.
Light absorption coefficient of an ordered array of spherical quantum dot chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.I. Boichuk
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We considered intersubband electron transitions in an array of one-dimensional chains of spherical quantum dots in the GaAs/Al_xGa_{1-x}As semiconductor system. The absorption coefficient caused by these transitions was calculated depending on frequency and polarization of incident light and on Fermi level position, and temperature. We established the existence of two maxima of the absorption coefficient at the edges of the absorption band. It is shown that the absorption coefficient reaches its maximal value at the center of the region between the s-, p-like subbands and slightly varies with temperature. The change of the direction of the linearly polarized light wave incident on the chains from perpendicular to parallel leads to a sharp narrowing of the absorption band. It is obtained that the absorption bandwidth increases with the reduction of the quantum dot radius. We also analyzed the dependence of the absorption coefficient of GaAs/Al_xGa_{1-x}As superlattice on concentration of aluminium in the matrix.
Molecular dynamics study of the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nejat Pishkenari, Hossein, E-mail: nejat@sharif.edu; Mohagheghian, Erfan; Rasouli, Ali
2016-12-16
Due to the growing applications of silicon in nano-scale systems, a molecular dynamics approach is employed to investigate thermal properties of silicon. Since simulation results rely upon interatomic potentials, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and lattice constant of bulk silicon have been obtained using different potentials (SW, Tersoff, MEAM, and EDIP) and results indicate that SW has a better agreement with the experimental observations. To investigate effect of size on TEC of silicon nanowires, further simulations are performed using SW potential. To this end, silicon nanowires of different sizes are examined and their TEC is calculated by averaging in different directions ([100], [110], [111], and [112]) and various temperatures. Results show that as the size increases, due to the decrease of the surface effects, TEC approaches its bulk value. - Highlights: • MD simulations of TEC and lattice constant of bulk silicon. • Effects of four potentials on the results. • Comparison to experimental data. • Investigating size effect on TEC of silicon nanowires.
Determination of the Evaporation Coefficient of D2O
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drisdell, Walter S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.
2008-03-26
The evaporation rate of D{sub 2}O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12-15 {micro}m diameter) injected into vacuum ({approx}10{sup -5} torr). The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient ({gamma}{sub e}) of 0.57 {+-} 0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H{sub 2}O (0.62 {+-} 0.09) using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition state theory (TST) model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.
Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, S.H.; Son, J.E.; Lee, S.D.; Cho, S.I.; Ashtiani-Araghi, A.; Rhee, J.Y.
2016-11-01
If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE), which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE. (Author)
Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seung-Hwan Yang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE, which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mosayeb Dalvand
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this research, drying kinetics and mass transfer coefficients (permeability and diffusion of hornbeam wood (Carpinus betulus from Nooshahar region were investigated. For this purpose, several boards with two nominal thicknesses of 2.5 an 5 cm were prepared from a freshly cut log. The boards were dried inside a laboratory kiln at the dry bulb temperature of 40°C and relative humidity of 50% to the final moisture content of 6%. The pattern of moisture loss, thermal diffusion, final moisture gradient along the board thickness, transverse permeability and diffusion coefficients were then measured. The results showed that by increasing of board thickness, the rate of moisture loss decreased, particularly in the hygroscopic range and the moisture gradient increased, but the thermal diffusion was not affected. The transverse permeability and diffusion coefficient of hornbeam wood was 2.91 × 10 -19 m 2 and 3.29 × 10 -9 m 2s-1, respectively. Overall, it can be concluded that due to low transverse permeability coefficient of hornbeam wood, this species is difficult to be impregnated in common wood preservation process. In contrast, due to low diffusion coefficient, hornbeam wood is recommended for applications where high resistant to water vapor diffusion is required.
The analysis of harmonic generation coefficients in the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Lu, Yan; Fan, Zhengfeng; Lu, Xinpei; Ye, Wenhua; Zou, Changlin; Zhang, Ziyun; Zhang, Wen
2017-10-01
In this research, we use the numerical simulation method to investigate the generation coefficients of the first three harmonics and the zeroth harmonic in the Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability. It is shown that the interface shifts to the low temperature side during the ablation process. In consideration of the third-order perturbation theory, the first three harmonic amplitudes of the weakly nonlinear regime are calculated and then the harmonic generation coefficients are obtained by curve fitting. The simulation results show that the harmonic generation coefficients changed with time and wavelength. Using the higher-order perturbation theory, we find that more and more harmonics are generated in the later weakly nonlinear stage, which is caused by the negative feedback of the later higher harmonics. Furthermore, extending the third-order theory to the fifth-order theory, we find that the second and the third harmonics coefficients linearly depend on the wavelength, while the feedback coefficients are almost constant. Further analysis also shows that when the fifth-order theory is considered, the normalized effective amplitudes of second and third harmonics can reach about 25%-40%, which are only 15%-25% in the frame of the previous third-order theory. Therefore, the third order perturbation theory is needed to be modified by the higher-order theory when ηL reaches about 20% of the perturbation wavelength.
Tailoring of Seebeck coefficient with surface roughness effects in silicon sub-50-nm films.
Kumar, Manoj; Bagga, Anjana; Neeleshwar, S
2012-01-01
The effect of surface roughness on the Seebeck coefficient in the sub-50-nm scale silicon ultra thin films is investigated theoretically using nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. For systematic studies, the surface roughness is modelled by varying thickness periodically with square wave profile characterized by two parameters: amplitude (A 0) and wavelength (λ). Since high Seebeck coefficient is obtained if the temperature difference between the ends of device produces higher currents and higher induced voltages, we investigate how the generated current and induced voltage is affected with increasing A 0 and λ. The theoretical investigations show that pseudoperiodicity of the device structure gives rise to two effects: firstly the threshold energy at which the transmission of current starts is shifted towards higher energy sides and secondly transmission spectra of current possess pseudobands and pseudogaps. The width of the pseudobands and their occupancies determine the total generated current. It is found that current decreases with increasing A 0 but shows a complicated trend with λ. The trends of threshold energy determine the trends of Seebeck voltage with roughness parameters. The increase in threshold energy makes the current flow in higher energy levels. Thus, the Seebeck voltage, i.e. voltage required to nullify this current, increases. Increase in Seebeck voltage results in increase in Seebeck coefficient. We find that threshold energy increases with increasing A 0 and frequency (1/λ). Hence, Seebeck voltage and Seebeck coefficient increase vice versa. It is observed that Seebeck coefficient is tuneable with surface roughness parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stamopoulos D.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The properties of multiferroic and specifically piezoelectric (PE materials are, nowadays, intensively investigated by means of well established, however relatively complicate methods. In this work we present a method for the direct visual demonstration of the underlying electro-mechanical processes occurring in PE materials and the estimation of the respective coefficients dij. The method is based on the utilization of optical microscopy for the local observation of the deformation of a PE specimen upon application of an electric field. The direct comparison of the snapshots obtained before and after application of the electric field and simple algebraic calculations enables the estimation of the dij coefficients. The method was evaluated in unpoled single crystals of 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–0.29PbTiO3, at room temperature. Various locations of each crystal surface were surveyed. Non-homogeneous electro-mechanical response was observed. Accordingly, the estimated dij coefficients depended on the specific location of the crystal surface. Specifically, the dzx coefficient ranged within 500-1000 pm/V over the investigated locations (for electric fields E<1kV/mm. The present method directly unveils non-homogeneous electro-mechanical processes occurring at the surface of PE crystals and clarifies how these observations can be quantified through the respective dij coefficients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Chen
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The handling of iron ore bulk solids maintains an increasing trend due to economic development. Because iron ore particles have hard composites and irregular shapes, the bulk solids handling equipment surface can suffer from severe sliding wear. Prediction of equipment surface wear volume is beneficial to the efficient maintenance of worn areas. Archard’s equation provides a theoretical solution to predict wear volume. To use Archard’s equation, the coefficient of sliding wear must be determined. To our best knowledge, the coefficient of sliding wear for iron ore handling conditions has not yet been determined. In this research, using a pin-on-disk tribometer, the coefficients of sliding wear for both Sishen particles and mild steel are determined with regard to iron ore handling conditions. Both naturally irregular and spherical shapes of particles are used to estimate average values of wear rate. Moreover, the hardness and inner structures of Sishen particles are examined, which adds the evidence of the interpretation of wear results. It is concluded that the coefficients of sliding wear can vary largely for both Sishen particle and mild steel. The wear rate decreases from transient- to steady-state. The average coefficient of sliding wear is capable of predicting wear with respect to long distances at the steady-state. Two types of sliding friction are distinguished. In addition, it is found that the temperature rise of the friction pairs has negligible influence on wear rate.
Hashimoto, Katsumi; Kiyotani, Akihiro; Sasaki, Naoe
The CO2 heat pump water heater ”ECO CUTE” which was commercialized in 2001 has a high potential for energy conservation and greenhouse abatement. The most important element apparatus is always the evaporator in order to develop smaller and higher performance equipment. In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to measure the pure CO2 flow boiling heat transfer coefficient (99.999 % purity, without oil) in a horizontal smooth tube (outer diameter 6 mm, thickness 0.4 mm). The measured mean heat transfer coefficients are compared with calculated value with using previous experimental heat transfer correlation equations. These two values are different from each other. Mean heat transfer coefficients are measured with varying mass velocity, pressure and heat transfer lengths. The tube length is varied to 3.0 m, 4.0 m and 5.0 m, to distinguish the influence of mass velocity and that of heat flux to the heat transfer coefficient. The test conditions were: CO2 mass velocity from about 150 to about 700 kg⁄(m2s) (heat flux from about 10 to about 40 kW⁄m2), quality at inlet of test section is 0.17, CO2 super heat at outlet of test section is 5 K and saturation temperature of CO2 ranges from 0 to 10 °C. As a result, it has been understood that heat flux has a greater influence on the heat transfer coefficient.
Roughness coefficient and its uncertainty in gravel-bed river
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji-Sung Kim
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Manning's roughness coefficient was estimated for a gravel-bed river reach using field measurements of water level and discharge, and the applicability of various methods used for estimation of the roughness coefficient was evaluated. Results show that the roughness coefficient tends to decrease with increasing discharge and water depth, and over a certain range it appears to remain constant. Comparison of roughness coefficients calculated by field measurement data with those estimated by other methods shows that, although the field-measured values provide approximate roughness coefficients for relatively large discharge, there seems to be rather high uncertainty due to the difference in resultant values. For this reason, uncertainty related to the roughness coefficient was analyzed in terms of change in computed variables. On average, a 20% increase of the roughness coefficient causes a 7% increase in the water depth and an 8% decrease in velocity, but there may be about a 15% increase in the water depth and an equivalent decrease in velocity for certain cross-sections in the study reach. Finally, the validity of estimated roughness coefficient based on field measurements was examined. A 10% error in discharge measurement may lead to more than 10% uncertainty in roughness coefficient estimation, but corresponding uncertainty in computed water depth and velocity is reduced to approximately 5%. Conversely, the necessity for roughness coefficient estimation by field measurement is confirmed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard
2014-01-01
as well as the glass/mould inter-face friction coefficient play a key role in deformation behaviour and stress distribution of the mouldedglass lens. Therefore, a proper evaluation of these parameters is the first important step in numericalmodelling of the precision glass moulding process.The current...... paper deals with characterization of the interfacial glass/mould friction coefficient andviscoelastic behaviour of the L-BAL42 glass material above the glass transition temperature. Several glassrings are pressed at three different temperatures to various thicknesses and the experimental force, dis...... of the ring compression test and comparison of the experimental creep with the simulatedone in an iterative procedure, viscoelastic parameters of the glass material are characterized. Finally,interfacial glass/mould friction coefficients at different temperatures are determined through FEM basedfriction...
Shear viscosity and spin-diffusion coefficient of a two-dimensional Fermi gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Georg
2012-01-01
Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components. It is demonstr......Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components....... It is demonstrated that the minimum value of the viscosity decreases with the mass ratio, since Fermi blocking becomes less efficient. We furthermore analyze recent experimental results for the quadrupole mode of a two-dimensional gas in terms of viscous damping, obtaining a qualitative agreement using no fitting...
On the validity of the Arrhenius equation for electron attachment rate coefficients.
Fabrikant, Ilya I; Hotop, Hartmut
2008-03-28
The validity of the Arrhenius equation for dissociative electron attachment rate coefficients is investigated. A general analysis allows us to obtain estimates of the upper temperature bound for the range of validity of the Arrhenius equation in the endothermic case and both lower and upper bounds in the exothermic case with a reaction barrier. The results of the general discussion are illustrated by numerical examples whereby the rate coefficient, as a function of temperature for dissociative electron attachment, is calculated using the resonance R-matrix theory. In the endothermic case, the activation energy in the Arrhenius equation is close to the threshold energy, whereas in the case of exothermic reactions with an intermediate barrier, the activation energy is found to be substantially lower than the barrier height.
An inverse radiation problem of estimating heat-transfer coefficient in participating media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, H.M.; Lee, W.J. [Sogang University, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
2002-06-01
In the radiant cooler, where the hot gas from the pulverized coal gasifier or combustor is cooled to generate steam, the wall heat-transfer coefficient varies due to ash deposition. The authors investigated an inverse radiation problem of estimating the heat-transfer coefficient from temperature measurement in the radiant cooler. The inverse radiation problem is solved through the minimization of a performance function, which is expressed by the sum of square residuals between calculated and observed temperature, utilizing the conjugate gradient method. The gradient of the performance function is evaluated by means of the improved adjoint variable method, which resolves the difficulty associated with the singularity of the adjoint equation through its inherent regularization property. The effects of the number of measurement points and measurement noise on the accuracy of estimation are also investigated.
Temperature optimization of high con
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sabry
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Active cooling is essential for solar cells operating under high optical concentration ratios. A system comprises four solar cells that are in thermal contact on top of a copper tube is proposed. Water is flowing inside the tube in order to reduce solar cells temperature for increasing their performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation of such system has been performed in order to investigate the effect of water flow rate, tube internal diameter, and convective heat transfer coefficient on the temperature of the solar cells. It is found that increasing convective heat transfer coefficient has a significant effect on reducing solar cells temperatures operating at low flow rates and high optical concentration ratios. Also, a further increase of water flow rate has no effect on reducing cells temperatures.
Measurement of diffusion coefficient of liquid metals by using Gradient Heating Furnace in ISS
Masaki, Tadahiko; Itami, Toshio; Watanabe, Yuki; 正木 匡彦; 伊丹 俊夫; 渡辺 勇基
2007-01-01
The experimental techniques for the measurements of diffusion coefficient have been studied in JAXA toward the utilization of microgravity environment in ISS (International Space Station). The experimental cartridge for the gradient heating furnace, GHF (Gradient Heating Furnace), was developed for the application of shear cell which is the advanced technique of diffusion experiments. The temperature profiles of GHF were measured for the diffusion experiments and the isothermal condition can ...
Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites
Wei, Chenyu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae
2002-01-01
Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Brenner potential for intra-nanotube interactions and Van der Waals forces for polymer-nanotube interfaces are used to invetigate the thermal expansion and diffusion characteristics of carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites. Additions of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrix are found to increase the glass transition temperature Tg, and thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients in the composite above Tg. These findings could have implic...
Modified Regression Correlation Coefficient for Poisson Regression Model
Kaengthong, Nattacha; Domthong, Uthumporn
2017-09-01
This study gives attention to indicators in predictive power of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which are widely used; however, often having some restrictions. We are interested in regression correlation coefficient for a Poisson regression model. This is a measure of predictive power, and defined by the relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and the expected value of the dependent variable given the independent variables [E(Y|X)] for the Poisson regression model. The dependent variable is distributed as Poisson. The purpose of this research was modifying regression correlation coefficient for Poisson regression model. We also compare the proposed modified regression correlation coefficient with the traditional regression correlation coefficient in the case of two or more independent variables, and having multicollinearity in independent variables. The result shows that the proposed regression correlation coefficient is better than the traditional regression correlation coefficient based on Bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linjun, Xie, E-mail: linjunx@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)
2016-08-01
Graphical abstract: HDS stress coefficient test apparatus. - Highlights: • This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. • The mathematical relation between the load and the strain is obtained about the HDS, and the mathematical model of the stress coefficient and the friction coefficient is established. So, a set of test apparatuses for obtaining the stress coefficient is designed according to the model scaling criterion and the friction coefficient of the K1000 HDS is calculated to be 0.336 through the obtained stress coefficient. • The relation curve between the theoretical load and the friction coefficient is obtained through analysis and indicates that the change of the friction coefficient f would influence the pretightening load under the condition of designed stress. The necessary pretightening load in the design process is calculated to be 5469 kN according to the obtained friction coefficient. Therefore, the friction coefficient and the pretightening load under the design conditions can provide accurate pretightening data for the analysis and design of the reactor HDS according to the operations. - Abstract: This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. By carrying out tests and researches through a stress testing technique, P–σ curves in loading and unloading processes of the HDS are obtained and the stress coefficient k{sub f} of the HDS is obtained. So, the
Taylor coefficients and coefficient multipliers of Hardy and Bergman-type spaces
Jevtić, Miroljub; Arsenović, Miloš
2016-01-01
This book provides a systematic overview of the theory of Taylor coefficients of functions in some classical spaces of analytic functions and especially of the coefficient multipliers between spaces of Hardy type. Offering a comprehensive reference guide to the subject, it is the first of its kind in this area. After several introductory chapters covering the basic material, a large variety of results obtained over the past 80 years, including the most recent ones, are treated in detail. Several chapters end with discussions of practical applications and related topics that graduate students and experts in other subjects may find useful for their own purposes. Thus, a further aim of the book is to communicate to non-specialists some concrete facts that may be of value in their own work. The book can also be used as a textbook or a supplementary reference for an advanced graduate course. It is primarily intended for specialists in complex and functional analysis, graduate students, and experts in other related...
Temperature changes associated with die profile in axisymmetric ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The die land zone shows increasing temperature rise with increasing friction coefficient, while increasing friction coefficient has no overall effect on the dead metal zone temperature rise. Increasing die land length leads to increasing contact area between the extrudate and the die resulting in increasing frictional power.
Wavelet Correlation Coefficient of 'strongly correlated' financial time series
Ashok Razdan
2003-01-01
In this paper we use wavelet concepts to show that correlation coefficient between two financial data's is not constant but varies with scale from high correlation value to strongly anti-correlation value This studies is important because correlation coefficient is used to quantify degree of independence between two variables. In econophysics correlation coefficient forms important input to evolve hierarchial tree and minimum spanning tree of financial data.
Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation
2016-05-01
ARL-TN-0756 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation...Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation by Clayton M Weiss Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education...materials under stress, which is represented by the material property of stress optical coefficient, can be used to evaluate glass samples of known and
Choice of the Ångström-Prescott coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Xiaoying; Mei, Xurong; Li, Yuzhong
2010-01-01
(fixed) coefficients using data from 20 sites of temperate climate in China. When evaluated by performance indicators of RMSE, RRMSE, MBE, R2 and values of t-statistic, it is demonstrated that time-dependent A–P coefficients are not better than fixed ones in Rs prediction. This indicates...... confidence in predictive accuracy of fixed coefficients and contributes to reducing unnecessary complexity of this model and thus easing their choice, calibration and application....
On separation of exchange term from the coefficient of the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A A Zakharenko coefficient ε, magnetic permeability coefficient μ, and electromagnetic constant α [4–8]. However, the coefficient in expression (1) can be naturally written in another form consisting of three terms. It reads as. K2 em = K2 e + K2 m + K2 ex. (2). The first and the second terms on the right-hand side of expression ...
On the Connection Coefficients of the Chebyshev-Boubaker Polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Barry
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The Chebyshev-Boubaker polynomials are the orthogonal polynomials whose coefficient arrays are defined by ordinary Riordan arrays. Examples include the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind and the Boubaker polynomials. We study the connection coefficients of this class of orthogonal polynomials, indicating how Riordan array techniques can lead to closed-form expressions for these connection coefficients as well as recurrence relations that define them.
On some properties of SU(3 fusion coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Coquereaux
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Three aspects of the SU(3 fusion coefficients are revisited: the generating polynomials of fusion coefficients are written explicitly; some curious identities generalizing the classical Freudenthal–de Vries formula are derived; and the properties of the fusion coefficients under conjugation of one of the factors, previously analyzed in the classical case, are extended to the affine algebra suˆ(3 at finite level.
Usage of attenuation coefficients of some tissue-equivalent materials
TANIR, Ayşe Güneş; KETENCİ, Fatma Serap; BÖLÜKDEMİR, Mustafa Hicabi
2015-01-01
The total attenuation coefficients of 11 biological targets against photon energies were plotted within the energy range 1-10 MeV. From these plots a possible equation describing the relationship between photon energy and the total attenuation coefficient was derived. The suggested equation is mu/ rho = 0.0696/ surd E. To test the validity of the equation and to compare the results of the total attenuation coefficients of 3 tissue-equivalent materials (bolus, rice grains, and boiled rice) th...
Calculation of thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of CO2-O2-Cu mixtures
Guo, Xiaoxue; Li, Xingwen; Murphy, Anthony B.; Zhao, Hu
2017-08-01
The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of CO2-O2-Cu gas mixtures in the temperature range from 300 K to 30 000 K and the pressure range from 0.1 to 0.8 MPa are calculated. Special attention is paid to the influence of different oxygen and copper proportions and different gas pressures on the CO2-O2-Cu mixture properties. It can be concluded that the addition of oxygen has a strong influence on both thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients. A small proportion of Cu does not lead to a significant change to the properties, apart from the electrical conductivity at low temperatures. However, Cu mole fractions above 10% start to affect all properties. Increasing gas pressure can cause an increase in the transport coefficients, especially in the high-temperature range. The calculation results provide the necessary data for the further study of the behaviour of plasmas using magnetohydrodynamics arc models. The results can be also used to optimize the ratio of the component gases for different applications; some examples are presented.
Sound velocity of high-strength polymer with negative thermal expansion coefficient
Nomura, R.; Ueno, M.; Okuda, Y.; Burmistrov, S.; Yamanaka, A.
2003-05-01
Sound velocities of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) were measured along the fiber axis at temperatures between 360 and 77 K. We used two kinds of the high-strength crystalline polymer fibers, polyethylene (Dyneema) and polybenzobisoxazole (Zylon), which have negative thermal expansion coefficients. They also have high thermal conductivities and high resistances for flash over voltage, and are expected as new materials for coil bobbins or spacers at cryogenic temperatures. They have very large sound velocities of about 9000 (m/s) at 77 K, which are 4.5 times larger than that of the ordinary polyethylene fiber.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cao Yongyou
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the research progress of the interfacial heat transfer in high pressure die casting (HPDC is reviewed. Results including determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC, influence of casting thickness, process parameters and casting alloys on the IHTC are summarized and discussed. A thermal boundary condition model was developed based on the two correlations: (a IHTC and casting solid fraction and (b IHTC peak value and initial die surface temperature. The boundary model was then applied during the determination of the temperature field in HPDC and excellent agreement was found.
Evaluation of UV absorption coefficient in laser-modified fused silica
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negres, R A; Burke, M W; Sutton, S B; DeMange, P; Feit, M D; Demos, S G
2006-08-21
Laser-induced damage in transparent dielectrics leads to the formation of laser-modified material as a result of exposure to extreme localized temperatures and pressures. In this work, we used an infrared thermal imaging system in combination with a fluorescence microscope to map the dynamics of the local surface temperature and fluorescence intensity under cw, UV excitation of laser-modified fused silica within a damage site. Based on a thermal diffusion model, we estimate the energy deposited via linear absorption mechanisms and derive the absorption coefficient of the modified material. In addition, irreversible changes in the absorption following extended laser exposure were observed.
Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.
Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J
2017-09-01
Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)
2013-11-15
The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.
Influence of Dynamical Change of Edges on Clustering Coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuhong Ruan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Clustering coefficient is a very important measurement in complex networks, and it describes the average ratio between the actual existent edges and probable existent edges in the neighbor of one vertex in a complex network. Besides, in a complex networks, the dynamic change of edges can trigger directly the evolution of network and further affect the clustering coefficients. As a result, in this paper, we investigate the effects of the dynamic change of edge on the clustering coefficients. It is illustrated that the increase and decrease of the clustering coefficient can be effectively controlled by adding or deleting several edges of the network in the evolution of complex networks.
Generation of Klobuchar Coefficients for Ionospheric Error Simulation
Lee, Chang-Moon; Park, Kwan-Dong; Ha, Jihyun; Lee, Sanguk
2010-06-01
An ionospheric error simulation is needed for creating precise Global Positioning System (GPS) signal using GPS simulator. In this paper we developed Klobuchar coefficients Î±n and Î²n (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) generation algorithms for simulator and verified accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm extract those Klobuchar coefficients from broadcast (BRDC) messages provided by International GNSS Service during three years from 2006 through 2008 and curve-fit them with sinusoidal and linear functions or constant. The generated coefficients from our developed algorithms are referred to as MODL coefficients, while those coefficients from BRDC messages are named as BRDC coefficients. The maximum correlation coefficient between MODL and BRDC coefficients was found for Î±2 and the value was 0.94. On the other hand, the minimum correlation was 0.64 for the case of Î±1. We estimated vertical total electron content using the Klobuchar model with MODL coefficients, and compared the result with those from the BRDC model and global ionosphere maps. As a result, the maximum RMS was 3.92 and 7.90 TECU, respectively.
Generation of Klobuchar Coefficients for Ionospheric Error Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang-Moon Lee
2010-06-01
Full Text Available An ionospheric error simulation is needed for creating precise Global Positioning System (GPS signal using GPS simulator. In this paper we developed Klobuchar coefficients αn and βn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4 generation algorithms for simulator and verified accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm extract those Klobuchar coefficients from broadcast (BRDC messages provided by International GNSS Service during three years from 2006 through 2008 and curve-fit them with sinusoidal and linear functions or constant. The generated coefficients from our developed algorithms are referred to as MODL coefficients, while those coefficients from BRDC messages are named as BRDC coefficients. The maximum correlation coefficient between MODL and BRDC coefficients was found for α 2 and the value was 0.94. On the other hand, the minimum correlation was 0.64 for the case of α1 . We estimated vertical total electron content using the Klobuchar model with MODL coefficients, and compared the result with those from the BRDC model and global ionosphere maps. As a result, the maximum RMS was 3.92 and 7.90 TECU, respectively.
Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miki Aoyagi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coefficient corresponds to a real log canonical threshold of singularities for the Kullback functions (relative entropy in learning theory.
Classification of coefficients of variation in experiments with commercial layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DE Faria Filho
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This study aimed at determining a specific classification of coefficients of variation in experiments with commercial layers. Coefficients of variation were collected from papers published in Brazilian journals between 2000 and 2009 for performance, internal egg quality, and eggshell quality parameters. The coefficients of variation of each parameter were classified as low, intermediate, high, and very high according to the ratio between the median and the pseudo-sigma. It was concluded that the parameters used in experiments with commercial layers have a specific classification of coefficients of variation, and that this must be considered to evaluate experimental accuracy.
Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump
Brantley, Vanston R.; Miller, Donald R.
1984-01-01
A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistance heaters. Temperature sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct temperatures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electronics is required to operate the instrument.
Semiconductor Sensors for a Wide Temperature Range
Nikolay GORBACHUK; Mikhail LARIONOV; Aleksey FIRSOV; Nikolay SHATIL
2014-01-01
Prototype sensors are described that are applicable for pressure, position, temperature, and field measurements in the temperature range of 4.2 to 300 K. The strain gauges utilize the silicon substrate and thin film technology. The tensosensitivity of strain sensors is 40 µV/mln-1 or better depending on metrological characteristics of semiconductor films, orientation, and current. The temperature sensors (thermistors) make use of the germanium powder bulk. The temperature coefficient of resis...
From quantum field theory to hydrodynamics: Transport coefficients and effective kinetic theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeon, S.; Yaffe, L.G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)
1996-05-01
The evaluation of hydrodynamic transport coefficients in relativistic field theory, and the emergence of an effective kinetic theory description, is examined. Even in a weakly coupled scalar field theory, interesting subtleties arise at high temperatures where thermal renormalization effects are important. In this domain, a kinetic theory description in terms of the fundamental particles ceases to be valid, but one may derive an effective kinetic theory describing excitations with temperature dependent properties. While the shear viscosity depends on the elastic scattering of typical excitations whose kinetic energies are comparable to the temperature, the bulk viscosity is sensitive to particle nonconserving processes at small energies. As a result, the shear and the bulk viscosities have very different dependence on the interaction strength and temperature, with the bulk viscosity providing an especially sensitive test of the validity of an effective kinetic theory description. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
2013-01-01
Background If a fixed stress is applied to the three-dimensional z-axis of a solid material, followed by heating, the amount of thermal expansion increases according to a fixed coefficient of thermal expansion. When expansion is plotted against temperature, the transition temperature at which the physical properties of the material change is at the apex of the curve. The composition of a microbial cell depends on the species and condition of the cell; consequently, the rate of thermal expansion and the transition temperature also depend on the species and condition of the cell. We have developed a method for measuring the coefficient of thermal expansion and the transition temperature of cells using a nano thermal analysis system in order to study the physical nature of the cells. Results The tendency was seen that among vegetative cells, the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have higher coefficients of linear expansion and lower transition temperatures than the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. On the other hand, spores, which have low water content, overall showed lower coefficients of linear expansion and higher transition temperatures than vegetative cells. Comparing these trends to non-microbial materials, vegetative cells showed phenomenon similar to plastics and spores showed behaviour similar to metals with regards to the coefficient of liner thermal expansion. Conclusions We show that vegetative cells occur phenomenon of similar to plastics and spores to metals with regard to the coefficient of liner thermal expansion. Cells may be characterized by the coefficient of linear expansion as a physical index; the coefficient of linear expansion may also characterize cells structurally since it relates to volumetric changes, surface area changes, the degree of expansion of water contained within the cell, and the intensity of the internal stress on the cellular membrane. The coefficient of linear expansion holds
TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)
2015-09-15
The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow
Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wan-zheng Ai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.
A Note on the Correlated Random Coefficient Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolodziejczyk, Christophe
In this note we derive the bias of the OLS estimator for a correlated random coefficient model with one random coefficient, but which is correlated with a binary variable. We provide set-identification to the parameters of interest of the model. We also show how to reduce the bias of the estimator...
Riesz frames and approximation of the frame coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Casazza, P.; Christensen, Ole
1998-01-01
A frame is a fmaily {f i } i=1 ∞ of elements in a Hilbert space with the property that every element in can be written as a (infinite) linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes how one can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are called frame coefficients. From...
Discharge coefficient of semi-circular labyrinth side weir in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Labyrinth weirs have a proven hydraulic advantage due to their increased discharge rate at the same head for a given design condition. ... coefficient of the semi-circular labyrinth side weir gives a relatively high discharge coefficient value compared to other types of classic side weir positioned on a straight channel.
Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in variance components models
Demetrashvili, Nino; Wit, Ernst C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.
2016-01-01
Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in agreement studies with continuous outcomes are model-specific and no generic approach exists. This paper provides two generic approaches for intraclass correlation coefficients of the form Sigma q=1 2). The first approach uses
Delimiting coefficient alpha from internal consistency and unidimensionality
Sijtsma, K.
2015-01-01
I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient α to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient α is a lower bound to reliability and
Graphical Solution of the Monic Quadratic Equation with Complex Coefficients
Laine, A. D.
2015-01-01
There are many geometrical approaches to the solution of the quadratic equation with real coefficients. In this article it is shown that the monic quadratic equation with complex coefficients can also be solved graphically, by the intersection of two hyperbolas; one hyperbola being derived from the real part of the quadratic equation and one from…
Visualising the Roots of Quadratic Equations with Complex Coefficients
Bardell, Nicholas S.
2014-01-01
This paper is a natural extension of the root visualisation techniques first presented by Bardell (2012) for quadratic equations with real coefficients. Consideration is now given to the familiar quadratic equation "y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c" in which the coefficients "a," "b," "c" are generally…